WorldWideScience

Sample records for geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

  1. Silicon Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Mazzillo; S. Billotta; G. Bonanno; A. Campisi; L. Cosentino; P. Finocchiaro; F. Musumeci; S.Privitera; S. Tudisco; G. Condorelli; D. Sanfilippo; G. Fallica; E. Sciacca; S. Aurite; S. Lombardo; E. Rlmini; M. Belluso

    2007-01-01

    In this letter we present the results regarding the electrical and optical characterization of Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiodes (GMAP) fabricated by silicon standard planar technology. Low dark count rates, negligible afterpulsing effects,good timing resolution and high quantum detection efficiency in all the visible range have been measured. The very good electro-optical performances of our photodiodes make them attractive for the fabrication of arrays with a large number of GMAP to be used both in the commercial and the scientific fields, as telecommunications and nuclear medical imaging.

  2. Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiodes in Particle Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Vilella, E.; Alonso, O.; Trenado, J.; Vilà, A.; De Vos, M.; Garrido, L.; Diéguez, A.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that avalanche photodiodes operated in the Geiger mode above the breakdown voltage offer a virtually infinite sensitivity and time accuracy in the picosecond range that can be used for single photon detection. However, their performance in particle detection remains still unexplored. In this contribution, we are going to expose the different steps that we have taken in order to prove the efficiency of Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes in the aforementioned field. In particula...

  3. Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiodes in Particle Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Vilella, E; Trenado, J; Vila, A; Vos, M; Garrido, L; Dieguez, A

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that avalanche photodiodes operated in the Geiger mode above the breakdown voltage offer a virtually infinite sensitivity and time accuracy in the picosecond range that can be used for single photon detection. However, their performance in particle detection remains still unexplored. In this contribution, we are going to expose the different steps that we have taken in order to prove the efficiency of Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes in the aforementioned field. In particular, we will present an array of pixels of 1mmx1mm fabricated with a standard CMOS technology for characterization in a test beam.

  4. Photon detection efficiency of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Simonetta; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Meddi, Franco

    2010-01-01

    The photon detection efficiencies of multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes manufactured by different produ cers are estimated. A new fit method of the response spectra to low-intensity light, taking into ac count after-pulse and cross-talk effects is proposed to yield the initial number of photons. The value of photon detection efficiency is calculated using a calibrated photodetector as a reference.

  5. Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for Cherenkov detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renker, D [Paul Scherrer Institue, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail: dieter.renker@psi.ch

    2010-01-15

    Semiconductor photo sensors have in comparison with other detectors used in the ring image Cherenkov (RICH) and in the internally reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC) technique, photomultipier tubes and their derivates, a number of advantages: they have high photon detection efficiency ( {approx} 50%), are insensitive to magnetic fields, operate at low voltages and allow a compact, light and robust design. Specially the relatively new Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (also called silicon photomultiplier) is a promising candidate for a detector of Cherenkov photons. The state of the development and the problems of this device will be described.

  6. Foliage penetration optimization for Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven E.

    2013-05-01

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GMAPD) Lidar systems can be used to image targets that are partially concealed by foliage. This application of GMAPD Lidar is challenging because most APDs operating in Geiger- mode report only one range measurement per transmitted laser pulse. If a GMAPD makes a foliage range measurement, it cannot make a range measurement to a target concealed by the foliage. When too much laser energy is received, the vast majority of range measurements are from the foliage and only a small percentage are from the target. Some GMAPD Lidar systems can report their average detection probability during operation. The average detection probability, which is often called "P-det", is calculated over an array of GMAPDs, over multiple laser pulses, or over both. However, the detection probability does not distinguish between target range measurements, foliage range measurements, and noise events. In this paper, it is shown that when certain collection parameters are known, that the probability of detecting a target obscured by foliage can be maximized by selecting the appropriate "P-det". It is also shown that for a typical foliage penetration scenario where most of the reflected laser energy is from the foliage that operating with a "P-det" between 65% and 80% produces a near-maximum target detection probability.

  7. Development of Fuses for Protection of Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Michael; Bailey, Robert; Mahan, Joe; Ampe, Jim

    2015-11-01

    Current-limiting fuses composed of Ti/Al/Ni were developed for use in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays for each individual pixel in the array. The fuses were designed to burn out at ˜4.5 × 10-3 A and maintain post-burnout leakage currents less than 10-7 A at 70 V sustained for several minutes. Experimental fuse data are presented and successful incorporation of the fuses into a 256 × 64 pixel InP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array is reported.

  8. Look-back-upon tree recurrence method for Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode performance prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhao; Yan, Zhang; Yuming, Hua; Weiping, Qian

    2015-08-15

    This Letter, for the first time, proposes the look-back-upon tree recurrence (LTR) method based on the Poisson statistics for discrete time to predict the performance of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with a short dead time. The results of the proposed method correspond to the results of previous methods for diverse input fluxes. The LTR method possesses very low time and space complexity to allow for the real-time analysis of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes' performance over the entire ranges of dead time and input diversity.

  9. The blocking probability of Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Srinivasan, Meera; Hamkins, Jon

    2005-01-01

    When a photo is detected by a Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diode (GMAPD), the detector is rendered inactive, or blocked, for a certain period of time. In this paper we derive the blocking probability for a GMAPD whose input is either an unmodulated, Benoulli modulated or pulse-position-modulated Poisson process.

  10. Photoionization of Trapped Carriers in Avalanche Photodiodes to Reduce Afterpulsing During Geiger-Mode Photon Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    We reduced the afterpulsing probability by a factor of five in a Geiger-mode photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiode by using sub-band-gap (lambda = 1.95 micron) laser diode illumination, which we believe photoionizes the trapped carriers.

  11. Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Integrated to All-Digital CMOS Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Brian

    2016-04-08

    This article reviews MIT Lincoln Laboratory's work over the past 20 years to develop photon-sensitive image sensors based on arrays of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Integration of these detectors to all-digital CMOS readout circuits enable exquisitely sensitive solid-state imagers for lidar, wavefront sensing, and passive imaging.

  12. Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Integrated to All-Digital CMOS Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Aull

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews MIT Lincoln Laboratory's work over the past 20 years to develop photon-sensitive image sensors based on arrays of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Integration of these detectors to all-digital CMOS readout circuits enable exquisitely sensitive solid-state imagers for lidar, wavefront sensing, and passive imaging.

  13. Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Integrated to All-Digital CMOS Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Aull

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews MIT Lincoln Laboratory's work over the past 20 years to develop photon-sensitive image sensors based on arrays of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Integration of these detectors to all-digital CMOS readout circuits enable exquisitely sensitive solid-state imagers for lidar, wavefront sensing, and passive imaging.

  14. Low noise pixel detectors based on gated geiger mode avalanche photodiodes

    OpenAIRE

    Vilella Figueras, Eva; Comerma Montells, Albert; Alonso Casanovas, Oscar; Diéguez Barrientos, Àngel

    2011-01-01

    The gated operation is proposed as an effective method to reduce the noise in pixel detectors based on Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes. A prototype with the sensor and the front-end electronics monolithically integrated has been fabricated with a conventional HV-CMOS process. Experimental results demonstrate the increase of the dynamic range of the sensor by applying this technique.

  15. Low dark count geiger mode avalanche photodiodes fabricated in conventional CMOS technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Vilella Figueras, Eva; Arbat Casas, Anna; Alonso Casanovas, Oscar; Comerma Montells, Albert; Trenado, J.; Vilà i Arbonès, Anna Maria; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Garrido Beltrán, Lluís; Diéguez Barrientos, Àngel

    2011-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes operated in the Geiger mode present very high intrinsic gain and fast time response, which make the sensor an ideal option for those applications in which detectors with high sensitivity and velocity are required. Moreover, they are compatible with conventional CMOS technologies, allowing sensor and front-end electronics integration within the pixel cell. Despite these excellent qualities, the photodiode suffers from high intrinsic noise, which degrades the performance o...

  16. Commercially available Geiger mode single-photon avalanche photodiode with a very low afterpulsing probability

    CERN Document Server

    Stipčević, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Afterpulsing is one of the main technological flaws present in photon counting detectors based on solid-state semiconductor avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode. Level of afterpulsing depends mainly on type of the semiconductor, doping concentrations and temperature and presents an additional source of noise, along with dark counts. Unlike dark counts which appear randomly in time, aterpulses and are time-correlated with the previous detections. For measurements that rely on timing information afterpulsing can create fake signals and diminish the sensitivity. In this work we test a novel broadband sensitive APD that was designed for sub-Geiger avalanche gain operation. We find that this APD, which has a reach-through geometry typical of single-photon detection photodiodes, can also operate in Geiger mode with usable detection sensitivity and acceptable dark counts level while exhibiting uniquely low afterpulsing. The afterpulsing of tested samples was systematically less than 0.05 percent at 10V exce...

  17. Silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays for photon-starved imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Brian F.

    2015-05-01

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GMAPDs) are capable of detecting single photons. They can be operated to directly trigger all-digital circuits, so that detection events are digitally counted or time stamped in each pixel. An imager based on an array of GMAPDs therefore has zero readout noise, enabling quantum-limited sensitivity for photon-starved imaging applications. In this review, we discuss devices developed for 3D imaging, wavefront sensing, and passive imaging.

  18. Gated Geiger mode avalanche photodiode pixels with integrated readout electronics for low noise photon detection

    OpenAIRE

    Vilella Figueras, Eva; Comerma Montells, Albert; Alonso Casanovas, Oscar; Gascón Fora, David; Diéguez Barrientos, Àngel

    2011-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes operated in the Geiger mode offer a high intrinsic gain as well as an excellent timing accuracy. These qualities make the sensor specially suitable for those applications where detectors with high sensitivity and low timing uncertainty are required. Moreover, they are compatible with standard CMOS technologies, allowing sensor and front-end electronics integration within the pixel cell. However, the sensor suffers from high levels of intrinsic noise, which may lead to er...

  19. Large format geiger-mode avalanche photodiode LADAR camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ping; Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Bai, Xiaogang; Labios, Eduardo; Morris, Bryan; Nicholson, John P.; Stuart, Gary M.; Danny, Harrison

    2013-05-01

    Recently Spectrolab has successfully demonstrated a compact 32x32 Laser Detection and Range (LADAR) camera with single photo-level sensitivity with small size, weight, and power (SWAP) budget for threedimensional (3D) topographic imaging at 1064 nm on various platforms. With 20-kHz frame rate and 500- ps timing uncertainty, this LADAR system provides coverage down to inch-level fidelity and allows for effective wide-area terrain mapping. At a 10 mph forward speed and 1000 feet above ground level (AGL), it covers 0.5 square-mile per hour with a resolution of 25 in2/pixel after data averaging. In order to increase the forward speed to fit for more platforms and survey a large area more effectively, Spectrolab is developing 32x128 Geiger-mode LADAR camera with 43 frame rate. With the increase in both frame rate and array size, the data collection rate is improved by 10 times. With a programmable bin size from 0.3 ps to 0.5 ns and 14-bit timing dynamic range, LADAR developers will have more freedom in system integration for various applications. Most of the special features of Spectrolab 32x32 LADAR camera, such as non-uniform bias correction, variable range gate width, windowing for smaller arrays, and short pixel protection, are implemented in this camera.

  20. Acquisition algorithm for direct-detection ladars with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Adam B; Jiang, Leaf A; Luu, Jane X; Hines, Eric L; Schultz, Kenneth I

    2008-01-10

    An optimal algorithm for detecting a target using a ladar system employing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) is presented. The algorithm applies to any scenario where a ranging direct detection ladar is used to determine the presence of a target against a sky background within a specified range window. A complete statistical model of the detection process for GAPDs is presented, including GAPDs that are inactive for a fixed period of time each time they fire. The model is used to develop a constant false alarm rate detection algorithm that minimizes acquisition time. Numerical performance predictions, simulation results, and experimental results are presented.

  1. A Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, I; Sadygov, Z; Bunk, O; Menzel, A; Pfeiffer, F; Renker, D

    2009-01-01

    X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) provides an opportunity to study the dynamics of systems by measuring the temporal fluctuations in a far-field diffraction pattern. A two-dimensional detector system has been developed to investigate fluctuations in the frequency range of several Hz to kHz. The X-ray detector system consists of a thin 100 microm scintillation crystal coupled to a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array. In this article the elements of the system are detailed and the detector for XPCS measurements is demonstrated.

  2. Signal-to-noise ratio of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode single-photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kimberly

    2014-08-01

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) use the avalanche mechanism of semiconductors to amplify signals in individual pixels. With proper thresholding, a pixel will be either "on" (avalanching) or "off." This discrete detection scheme eliminates read noise, which makes these devices capable of counting single photons. Using these detectors for imaging applications requires a well-developed and comprehensive expression for the expected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper derives the expected SNR of a GM-APD detector in gated operation based on gate length, number of samples, signal flux, dark count rate, photon detection efficiency, and afterpulsing probability. To verify the theoretical results, carrier-level Monte Carlo simulation results are compared to the derived equations and found to be in good agreement.

  3. Gated Geiger mode avalanche photodiode pixels with integrated readout electronics for low noise photon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, E.; Comerma, A.; Alonso, O.; Gascon, D.; Diéguez, A.

    2012-12-01

    Avalanche photodiodes operated in the Geiger mode offer a high intrinsic gain as well as an excellent timing accuracy. These qualities make the sensor specially suitable for those applications where detectors with high sensitivity and low timing uncertainty are required. Moreover, they are compatible with standard CMOS technologies, allowing sensor and front-end electronics integration within the pixel cell. However, the sensor suffers from high levels of intrinsic noise, which may lead to erroneous results and limit the range of detectable signals. They also increase the amount of data that has to be stored. In this work, we present a pixel based on a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode operated in the gated mode to reduce the probability to detect noise counts interfering with photon arrival events. The readout circuit is based on a two grounds scheme to enable low reverse bias overvoltages and consequently lessen the dark count rate. Experimental characterization of the fabricated pixel with the HV-AMS 0.35 μm standard technology is also presented in this article.

  4. Gated Geiger mode avalanche photodiode pixels with integrated readout electronics for low noise photon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilella, E., E-mail: evilella@el.ub.es [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB) Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Comerma, A. [Department of Structure and Constituents of Matter, University of Barcelona (UB) Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Alonso, O. [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB) Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gascon, D. [Department of Structure and Constituents of Matter, University of Barcelona (UB) Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Dieguez, A. [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB) Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-12-11

    Avalanche photodiodes operated in the Geiger mode offer a high intrinsic gain as well as an excellent timing accuracy. These qualities make the sensor specially suitable for those applications where detectors with high sensitivity and low timing uncertainty are required. Moreover, they are compatible with standard CMOS technologies, allowing sensor and front-end electronics integration within the pixel cell. However, the sensor suffers from high levels of intrinsic noise, which may lead to erroneous results and limit the range of detectable signals. They also increase the amount of data that has to be stored. In this work, we present a pixel based on a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode operated in the gated mode to reduce the probability to detect noise counts interfering with photon arrival events. The readout circuit is based on a two grounds scheme to enable low reverse bias overvoltages and consequently lessen the dark count rate. Experimental characterization of the fabricated pixel with the HV-AMS 0.35 {mu}m standard technology is also presented in this article.

  5. Pixelated Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photo-Diode Characterization through Dark Current Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Amaudruz, Pierre-André; Gilhully, Colleen; Goertzen, Andrew; James, Lloyd; Kozlowski, Piotr; Retière, Fabrice; Shams, Ehsan; Sossi, Vesna; Stortz, Greg; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Thompson, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    PIXELATED geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes(PPDs), often called silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are emerging as an excellent replacement for traditional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in a variety of detectors, especially those for subatomic physics experiments, which requires extensive test and operation procedures in order to achieve uniform responses from all the devices. In this paper, we show for two PPD brands, Hamamatsu MPPC and SensL SPM, that the dark noise rate, breakdown voltage and rate of correlated avalanches can be inferred from the sole measure of dark current as a function of operating voltage, hence greatly simplifying the characterization procedure. We introduce a custom electronics system that allows measurement for many devices concurrently, hence allowing rapid testing and monitoring of many devices at low cost. Finally, we show that the dark current of Hamamastu Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) is rather independent of temperature at constant operating voltage, hence the current measure...

  6. The performance of photon counting imaging with a Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hui-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Ji, Zhong-Jie; Chen, Qian

    2013-10-01

    In principle, photon counting imaging can detect a photon. With the development of low-level-light image intensifier techniques and low-level-light detection devices, photon counting imaging can now detect photon images under extremely low illumination. Based on a Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiode single photon counter, an experimental system for photon counting imaging was built through two-dimensional scanning of a SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector. The feasibility of the imaging platform was validated experimentally. Two images with different characteristics, namely, the USAF 1951 resolution test panel and the image of Lena, were chosen to evaluate the imaging performance of the experimental system. The results were compared and analysed. The imaging properties under various illumination and scanning steps were studied. The lowest illumination limit of the SPAD photon counting imaging was determined.

  7. Antimonide-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for SWIR and MWIR photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Erik K.; Manfra, Michael J.; Diagne, Mohamed A.; Bailey, Robert J.; Zayhowski, John J.; Donnelly, Joseph P.; Connors, Michael K.; Grzesik, Michael J.; Turner, George W.

    2010-04-01

    At MIT Lincoln Laboratory, avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have been developed for both 2-μm and 3.4-μm detection using the antimonide material system. These bulk, lattice-matched detectors operate in Geiger mode at temperatures up to 160 K. The 2-μm APDs use a separate-absorber-multiplier design with an InGaAsSb absorber and electron-initiated avalanching in the multiplier. These APDs have exhibited normalized avalanche probability (product of avalanche probability and photo-carrier-injection probability) of 0.4 and dark count rates of ~150 kHz at 77 K for a 30-μm-diameter device. A 1000- element imaging array of the 2-μm detectors has been demonstrated, which operate in a 5 kg dewar with an integrated Stirling-cycle cooler. The APD array is interfaced with a CMOS readout circuit, which provides photon time-of-arrival information for each pixel, allowing the focal plane array to be used in a photon-counting laser radar system. The 3.4-μm APDs use an InAsSb absorber and hole-initiated avalanching and have shown dark count rates of ~500 kHz at 77 K but normalized avalanche probability of < 1%. Research is ongoing to determine the cause of the low avalanche probability and improve the device performance.

  8. Smart three-dimensional imaging LADAR using two Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jo, Sung Eun; Oh, Min Seok

    2011-09-26

    In this paper, we propose a new method that is capable of obtaining a clear 3D image by the reduction of false alarms caused by noise in the stage of acquisition of raw time of flight (TOF) data. This method is implemented by intensity dividing a laser-return pulse into two Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs); an AND gate compares the arrival time of the electrical signals from the GmAPDs. Despite the fact that the energy of a laser-return pulse is decreased by half, the false alarm probability is drastically decreased because the noise distributed randomly in the time domain is filtered out. The experimental measurement is in agreement with the theoretical analysis. As a result, we can obtain a clear 3D image despite the high noise. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Cramer-Rao lower bound on range error for LADARs with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven E

    2010-08-20

    The Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) on range error is calculated for laser detection and ranging (LADAR) systems using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GMAPDs) to detect reflected laser pulses. For the cases considered, the GMAPD range error CRLB is greater than the CRLB for a photon-counting device. It is also shown that the GMAPD range error CRLB is minimized when the mean energy in the received laser pulse is finite. Given typical LADAR system parameters, a Gaussian-envelope received pulse, and a noise detection rate of less than 4 MHz, the GMAPD range error CRLB is minimized when the quantum efficiency times the mean number of received laser pulse photons is between 2.2 and 2.3.

  10. A laser ranging system operating at 1036 nm with Geiger-mode silicon avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Ren, Min; Liang, Yan; Wang, Zhiyuan; Pan, Haifeng; Zeng, Heping

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrated a laser ranging experiment obtained with a Geiger-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (Si GAPD). The Surface-to-surface resolution of 15 cm was achieved with the technique of time-correlated single-photon counting. In the experiment, a mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser at 1036 nm was applied, as the detection efficiency at 1036 nm of Si GAPDs is much higher than that at 1064nm which was widely applied in remote sensing. Due to the single-photon detector, the laser ranging system was able to measure the reflected photon pulses at single-photon level. We realized 32- m laser ranging experiment with a 135-mm diameter Newtonian telescope in daylight. And the system could measure the non-cooperated object longer than 11.3 km far away, which was tested through inserting the optical loss. It presented a potential for hundreds-of-kilometer laser ranging at low-light level.

  11. Multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode and wavelength shifting fibre readout of plastic scintillator counters of the EMMA underground experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Akhrameev, E. V.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Dzaparov, I. M.; Davitashvili, I. Sh.; Enqvist, T.; Fynbo, H.; Guliev, Zh. Sh.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Izmaylov, A. O.; Joutsenvaara, J.; Khabibullin, M. M.; KHOTJANTSEV, A.N; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a development of a scintillator counter with wavelength shifting (WLS) fibre and a multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode readout are presented. The photodiode has a metal-resistor-semiconductor layered structure and operates in the limited Geiger mode. The scintillator counter has been developed for the EMMA underground cosmic ray experiment.

  12. A test beam set-up for the characterization of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode technology for particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Vilella, A; Trenado, J; Vila, A; Casanova, R; Vos, M; Garrido, L; Dieguez, A

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that avalanche photodiodes operated in the Geiger mode above the breakdown voltage offer a virtually infinite gain and time accuracy in the picosecond range that can be used for single photon detection. However, their performance in particle detection still remains unexplored. In this contribution, we are going to expose different steps that we have taken in order to prove the efficiency of the Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes in the aforementioned field. In particular, we will present a setup for the characterization of these sensors in a test beam. The expected results of the test beam at DESY and CERN have been simulated with Geant4 and will also be exposed.

  13. A test beam setup for the characterization of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode technology for particle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, E.; Alonso, O.; Trenado, J.; Vilà, A.; Casanova, R.; Vos, M.; Garrido, L.; Diéguez, A.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that avalanche photodiodes operated in the Geiger mode above the breakdown voltage offer a virtually infinite gain and time accuracy in the picosecond range that can be used for single photon detection. However, their performance in particle detection still remains unexplored. In this contribution, we are going to expose different steps that we have taken in order to prove the efficiency of the Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes in the aforementioned field. In particular, we will present a setup for the characterization of these sensors in a test beam. The expected results of the test beam at DESY and CERN have been simulated with Geant4 and will also be exposed.

  14. A time resolution study with a plastic scintillator read out by a Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykov, A.; Scheuermann, R.; Sedlak, K.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we attempt to establish the best time resolution attainable with a scintillation counter consisting of a plastic scintillator read out by a Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode. The measured time resolution is inversely proportional to the square root of the energy deposited in the scintillator, and scales to σ=18 ps at 1 MeV. This result competes with the best ones reported for photomultiplier tubes.

  15. A time resolution study with a plastic scintillator read out by a Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoykov, A., E-mail: alexey.stoykov@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Scheuermann, R.; Sedlak, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-12-11

    In this work we attempt to establish the best time resolution attainable with a scintillation counter consisting of a plastic scintillator read out by a Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode. The measured time resolution is inversely proportional to the square root of the energy deposited in the scintillator, and scales to {sigma}=18ps at 1 MeV. This result competes with the best ones reported for photomultiplier tubes.

  16. A time-resolution study with a plastic scintillator read out by a Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Stoykov, A; Sedlak, K

    2011-01-01

    In this work we attempt to establish the best time resolution attainable with a scintillation counter consisting of a plastic scintillator read out by a Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode. The measured time resolution is inversely proportional to the square root of the energy deposited in the scintillator, and scales to 18ps (sigma) at 1MeV. This result competes with the best ones reported for photomultiplier tubes.

  17. Radiation tolerance of a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode imaging array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kimberly E.; Figer, Donald F.; Lee, Joong; Hanold, Brandon J.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation testing results for a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD) array-based imager are reviewed. Radiation testing is a crucial step in technology development that assesses the readiness of a specific device or instrument for space-based missions or other missions in high-radiation environments. Pre- and postradiation values for breakdown voltage, dark count rate (DCR), after pulsing probability, photon detection efficiency (PDE), crosstalk probability, and intrapixel sensitivity are presented. Details of the radiation testing setup and experiment are provided. The devices were exposed to a total dose of 50 krad(Si) at the Massachusetts General Hospital's Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, using monoenergetic 60 MeV protons as the radiation source. This radiation dose is equivalent to radiation absorbed over 10 solar cycles at an L2 orbit with 1-cm aluminum shielding. The DCR increased by 2.3 e-/s/pix/krad(Si) at 160 K, the afterpulsing probability increased at all temperatures and settings by a factor of ˜2, and the effective breakdown voltage shifted by +1.5 V. PDE, crosstalk probability, and intrapixel sensitivity were unchanged by radiation damage. The performance of the GM-APD imaging array is compared to the performance of the CCD on board the ASCA satellite with a similar radiation shield and radiation environment.

  18. Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for the readout of scintillating fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Following up on the PAMELA collaboration's detection of trapped antiprotons in low-Earth orbit, the Technische Universitaet Muenchen has founded a student-developed endeavor to measure the yet-unknown low-energy antiproton flux in the Van Allen belt. The satellite-borne experiment will consist of a cube of scintillating fibers, and will discern antiprotons by detecting the pions of their characteristic annihilation. We have built a 128-channel prototype detector to test the ability to measure low-energy particles with scintillating fibers and Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD). After testing several different fiber types and APD-fiber coupling methods, we built the prototype with aluminum-wrapped Kuraray fibers. Additionly we have compared and contrasted KETEK and Hamamatsu G-APDs, studying in particular their dark count rates, cross talk intensities, photo-detection efficiencies, temperature dependences, and gains. I present our findings as well as an introduction to the experiment's aims and schematic structure.

  19. Multihit mode direct-detection laser radar system using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min Seok; Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Hong, Keun Ho; Kim, Byung Wook; Park, Dong Jo

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a direct-detection laser radar system that uses a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) of relatively short dead time (45 ns) is described. A passively Q-switched microchip laser is used as a laser source and a compact peripheral component interconnect system, which includes a time-to-digital converter (TDC), is set up for fast signal processing. With both the GAPD and the TDC functioning multistop acquisition, the system operates in a multihit mode. The software for the three-dimensional visualization and an algorithm for the removal of noise are developed. It is shown that the single-shot precision of the system is approximately 10 cm (sigma) and the precision is improved by increasing the number of laser pulses to be averaged so that the precision of approximately 1 cm (sigma) was acquired with more than 150 laser pulses scattered from the target. The accuracy of the system is measured to be 12 cm when the energy of the emitted laser pulse varies with a factor of 7.

  20. A Low Noise Planar-Type Avalanche Photodiode using a Single-Diffusion Process in Geiger-Mode Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiwon; Lee, Byoungwook; Yoon, Sunwoong; Hong, Jung-ho; Yang, Kyounghoon

    2013-07-01

    We report the performances of a planar-type Geiger-mode InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode (APD) using a single-diffusion process based on a single wet recess-etching technique at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. The recess-etched window region is found to have a smoothly etched sidewall with a large slope width of 0.9 µm. The Geiger-mode characteristics have been measured at 240-280 K for a 20 µm diameter device. The fabricated Geiger-mode APD shows a low dark count probability (DCP) per gate pulse of 2.8×10-3, a high photon detection efficiency (PDE) of 17.4%, and a low noise equivalent power (NEP) of 1.74×10-16 W/Hz1/2 at 240 K. The results are the first demonstration of a planar-type single-diffused Geiger-mode APD using a single wet recess-etching.

  1. Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode ladar receiver performance characteristics and detection statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Philip; Johnson, Steven; Nichols, Terry

    2009-06-10

    The performance of single and multielement Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD) devices are investigated as a function of the detector's reset or dead time. The theoretical results, developed herein, capture the effects of both quantum fluctuations and speckle noise and are shown to agree with Monte Carlo simulation measurements. First, a theory for the mean response or count rate to an arbitrary input flux is developed. The probability that the GM-APD is armed is shown to be the ratio of this mean response to the input flux. This arm probability, P(A), is then utilized to derive the signal photon detection efficiency (SPDE), which is the fraction of signal photons that are detected. The SPDE is a function of the input flux, the arm probability, and the dead time. When the dead time is zero, GM-APDs behave linearly, P(A) is unity, and the SPDE theory is simplified to the detector's effective quantum efficiency. When the dead time is long compared to the acquisition gate time, the theory converges to previously published "infinite" dead-time theories. The SPDE theory is then applied to develop other key ladar performance metrics, e.g., signal-to-noise ratio and detection statistics. The GM-APD detection statistics are shown to converge to that of a linear photon counting device when the combined signal and noise flux is much less than the reset rate. For higher flux levels, the SPDE degrades, due to a decreased arm probability, and the detection probability degrades relative to that of a linear device.

  2. A novel camera type for very high energy gamma-ray astronomy based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Anderhub, H; Biland, A; Boller, A; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Commichau, S; Commichau, V; Dorner, D; Gendotti, A; Grimm, O; von Gunten, H; Hildebrand, D; Horisberger, U; Krähenbühl, T; Kranich, D; Lorenz, E; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Neise, D; Pauss, F; Renker, D; Rhode, W; Rissi, M; Röser, U; Rollke, S; Stark, L S; Stucki, J -P; Viertel, G; Vogler, P; Weitzel, Q

    2009-01-01

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) are promising new sensors for light detection in atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In this paper, the design and commissioning of a 36-pixel G-APD prototype camera is presented. The data acquisition is based on the Domino Ring Sampling (DRS2) chip. A sub-nanosecond time resolution has been achieved. Cosmic-ray induced air showers have been recorded using an imaging mirror setup, in a self-triggered mode. This is the first time that such measurements have been carried out with a complete G-APD camera.

  3. A novel camera type for very high energy gamma-ray astronomy based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderhub, H; Biland, A; Boller, A; Braun, I; Commichau, S; Commichau, V; Dorner, D; Gendotti, A; Grimm, O; Gunten, H von; Hildebrand, D; Horisberger, U; Kraehenbuehl, T; Kranich, D; Lorenz, E; Lustermann, W [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zurich, Schafmattstr. 20, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Backes, M; Neise, D [TU Dortmund University, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Bretz, T; Mannheim, K [University of Wuerzburg Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: qweitzel@phys.ethz.ch (and others)

    2009-10-15

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) are promising new sensors for light detection in atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In this paper, the design and commissioning of a 36-pixel G-APD prototype camera is presented. The data acquisition is based on the Domino Ring Sampling (DRS2) chip. A sub-nanosecond time resolution has been achieved. Cosmic-ray induced air showers have been recorded using an imaging mirror setup, in a self-triggered mode. This is the first time that such measurements have been carried out with a complete G-APD camera.

  4. Radiation damage of multipixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes irradiated with low-energy γ's and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Y.; Yun, Y. B. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, J. M. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. S.; Yoon, Y. S. [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Eun, J. W. [Namseoul University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A few types of multipipixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (also referred to as silicon photomultipliers SiPMs) are irradiated with 1 to 2.5 MeV γ's and electrons. We characterize radiation damage effects appearing in the reverse bias current, the dark current and count rate, the pixel gain, and the photon detection efficiency of the devices. An interesting observation on the dark current and count rate is made and linked to the specific damage caused by the irradiation.

  5. Saturation effects in heterodyne detection with Geiger-mode InGaAs avalanche photodiode detector arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Jane X; Jiang, Leaf A

    2006-06-01

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of heterodyne detection of a glint target using an InGaAs avalanche photodiode detector (APD) array in the Geiger mode. Due to the finite number of pixels, all such photon-counting arrays necessarily suffer from saturation effects. At large photon fluxes, saturation of the APD degrades the Doppler frequency resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We derive analytical expressions for the Doppler resolution and SNR, taking saturation effects into account. The optimal local oscillator power can be obtained numerically from the SNR expression.

  6. Readout electronics for low dark count Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes fabricated in conventional HV-CMOS technologies for future linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilella, E; Arbat, A; Alonso, O; Vila, A; Dieguez, A [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB) MartI i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Comerma, A; Trenado, J; Gascon, D; Garrido, L, E-mail: evilella@el.ub.es [Department of Structure and Constituents of Matter, University of Barcelona (UB) MartI i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This work presents low noise readout circuits for silicon pixel detectors based on Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes. Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes offer a high intrinsic gain as well as an excellent timing accuracy. In addition, they can be compatible with standard CMOS technologies. However, they suffer from a high intrinsic noise, which induces false counts indistinguishable from real events and represents an increase of the readout electronics area to store the false counts. We have developed new front-end electronic circuitry for Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes in a conventional 0.35 {mu}m HV-CMOS technology based on a gated mode of operation that allows low noise operation. The performance of the pixel detector is triggered and synchronized with the particle beam thanks to the gated acquisition. The circuits allow low reverse bias overvoltage operation which also improves the noise figures. Experimental characterization of the fabricated front-end circuit is presented in this work.

  7. A test beam setup for the characterization of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode technology for particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilella, E., E-mail: evilella@el.ub.es [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), C/Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Alonso, O. [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), C/Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Trenado, J. [Department of Structure and Constituents of Matter, University of Barcelona (UB), C/Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Vila, A.; Casanova, R. [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), C/Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Vos, M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), C/Catedratico Jose Beltran 2, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Garrido, L. [Department of Structure and Constituents of Matter, University of Barcelona (UB), C/Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Dieguez, A. [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), C/Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that avalanche photodiodes operated in the Geiger mode above the breakdown voltage offer a virtually infinite gain and time accuracy in the picosecond range that can be used for single photon detection. However, their performance in particle detection still remains unexplored. In this contribution, we are going to expose different steps that we have taken in order to prove the efficiency of the Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes in the aforementioned field. In particular, we will present a setup for the characterization of these sensors in a test beam. The expected results of the test beam at DESY and CERN have been simulated with Geant4 and will also be exposed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Setup for characterization of the GAPD technology in a test beam is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two test beams at DESY (6 GeV) and CERN (120 GeV) are already planned at current time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A GAPD array has been designed and fabricated to fit the test beam requirements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have prepared a test beam setup to minimize the particle multiscattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Expected results at DESY and CERN have been simulated with Geant4.

  8. Exponential time response in analogue and Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Groves, C.; Tan, C H; David, J.P.R.; Rees, G J; Hayat, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mean avalanche current impulse response in an\\ud avalanche photodiode exhibits an initial transient and then grows or decays, above or below breakdown, at exponential rates which depend only on the probability distributions of the electron and hole ionization events. The process continues while the electric field profile remains unchanged by the applied bias or the evolving space\\ud charge. Below breakdown the distribution in the avalanche duration also exhibits an initial transient and t...

  9. Analysis and modeling of optical crosstalk in InP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Quan; Jiang, Xudong; Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Piccione, Brian; Owens, Mark; Slomkowski, Krystyna

    2015-05-01

    Optical crosstalk is a major factor limiting the performance of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GmAPD) focal plane arrays (FPAs). This is especially true for arrays with increased pixel density and broader spectral operation. We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical investigations on the crosstalk effects in InP-based GmAPD FPAs for both 1.06-μm and 1.55-μm applications. Mechanisms responsible for intrinsic dark counts are Poisson processes, and their inter-arrival time distribution is an exponential function. In FPAs, intrinsic dark counts and cross talk events coexist, and the inter-arrival time distribution deviates from purely exponential behavior. From both experimental data and computer simulations, we show the dependence of this deviation on the crosstalk probability. The spatial characteristics of crosstalk are also demonstrated. From the temporal and spatial distribution of crosstalk, an efficient algorithm to identify and quantify crosstalk is introduced.

  10. Improvement of range precision in laser detection and ranging system by using two Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kong, Hong Jin; Jo, Sung Eun; Jeon, Byoung Goo; Oh, Min Seok; Heo, Ayoung; Park, Dong Jo

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the improvement of range precision in a laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system by using two Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) is described. The LADAR system is implemented by using two GmAPDs with a beam splitter and applying comparative process to their ends. Then, the timing circuit receives the electrical signals only if each GmAPDs generates electrical signals simultaneously. Though this system decreases the energy of a laser-return pulse scattered from the target, it is effective in reducing the range precision. The experimental results showed that the average value of standard deviation of time of flights was improved from 61 mm to 37 mm when the pulse energy is 0.6 μJ. When the time bin width is 0.5 ns, the single-shot precision error of the LADAR system was also improved from 280 mm to 67 mm.

  11. Improvement of range precision in laser detection and ranging system by using two Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kong, Hong Jin; Jo, Sung Eun; Jeon, Byoung Goo; Oh, Min Seok; Heo, Ayoung; Park, Dong Jo

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the improvement of range precision in a laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system by using two Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) is described. The LADAR system is implemented by using two GmAPDs with a beam splitter and applying comparative process to their ends. Then, the timing circuit receives the electrical signals only if each GmAPDs generates electrical signals simultaneously. Though this system decreases the energy of a laser-return pulse scattered from the target, it is effective in reducing the range precision. The experimental results showed that the average value of standard deviation of time of flights was improved from 61 mm to 37 mm when the pulse energy is 0.6 μJ. When the time bin width is 0.5 ns, the single-shot precision error of the LADAR system was also improved from 280 mm to 67 mm.

  12. Active quench and reset integrated circuit with novel hold-off time control logic for Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shijie; Morrison, Alan P

    2012-09-15

    This Letter presents an active quench-and-reset circuit for Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs). The integrated circuit was fabricated using a conventional 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor process. Experimental results show that the circuit is capable of linearly setting the hold-off time from several nanoseconds to microseconds with a resolution of 6.5 ns. This allows the selection of the optimal afterpulse-free hold-off time for the GM-APD via external digital inputs or additional signal processing circuitry. Moreover, this circuit resets the APD automatically following the end of the hold-off period, thus simplifying the control for the end user. Results also show that a minimum dead time of 28.4 ns is achieved, demonstrating a saturated photon-counting rate of 35.2 Mcounts/s.

  13. Voltage breakdown follower avoids hard thermal constraints in a Geiger mode avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterbini, M; Nozzoli, S; Poli, M; Adriani, A; Nozzoli, F; Ottaviano, A; Ponzo, S

    1996-09-20

    A novel approach to single-photon detection by means of an avalanche photodiode is described and preliminary results obtained by implementation of a prototype are reported. The electronic circuit (breakdown voltage follower) avoids the use of complex temperature controls typically used with these devices, thus reducing system complexity and cost. Data obtained without any thermoregulation show the same behavior with respect to systems thermoregulated to within a few hundredths of a degree celsius.

  14. Active quenching circuit for single-photon detection with Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipcević, Mario

    2009-03-20

    In this paper a novel construction of an active quenching circuit intended for single-photon detection is presented, along with a few original methods for its evaluation. The circuit has been combined with a standard avalanche photodiode C30902S to form a single-photon detector. This detector has a dead time of 39 ns, maximum random counting frequency of 14 MHz, small afterpulsing probability, an estimated peak detection efficiency of over 20%, and a dark count rate of less than 100 Hz. This simple and robust active quenching circuit can be built from off-the-shelf electronic components and is presented with the detailed schematic diagram.

  15. 3D integration of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes aimed to very high fill-factor pixels for future linear colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, E.; Alonso, O.; Diéguez, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the maximum achievable fill-factor by a pixel detector of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process. The analysis shows that fill-factors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures and a time-gated readout circuit of minimum area. The maximum fill-factor is achieved when the two-layer vertical stack is used to overlap the non-sensitive areas of one layer with the sensitive areas of the other one. Moreover, different sensor areas are used to further increase the fill-factor. A chip containing a pixel detector of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes and aimed to future linear colliders has been designed with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process to increase the fill-factor.

  16. Model of turn-on characteristics of InP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes suitable for circuit simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordy, George; Donnelly, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    A model for the turn-on characteristics of separate-absorber-multiplier InP-based Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) has been developed. Verilog-A was used to implement the model in a manner that can be incorporated into circuit simulations. Rather than using SPICE elements to mimic the voltage and current characteristics of the APD, Verilog-A can represent the first order nonlinear differential equations that govern the avalanche current of the APD. This continuous time representation is fundamentally different than the piecewise linear characteristics of other models. The model is based on a driving term for the differential current, which is given by the voltage overbias minus the voltage drop across the device's space-charge resistance RSC. This drop is primarily due to electrons transiting the separate absorber. RSC starts off high and decreases with time as the initial breakdown filament spreads laterally to fill the APD. With constant bias voltage, the initial current grows exponentially until space charge effects reduce the driving function. With increasing current the driving term eventually goes to zero and the APD current saturates. On the other hand, if the APD is biased with a capacitor, the driving term becomes negative as the capacitor discharges, reducing the current and driving the voltage below breakdown. The model parameters depend on device design and are obtained from fitting the model to Monte-Carlo turn-on simulations that include lateral spreading of the carriers of the relevant structure. The Monte-Carlo simulations also provide information on the probability of avalanche, and jitter due to where the photon is absorbed in the APD.

  17. Maximum detection range limitation of pulse laser radar with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanjun; Xu, Benlian; Xu, Huigang; Chen, Jingbo; Fu, Yadan

    2015-05-01

    When designing and evaluating the performance of laser radar system, maximum detection range achievable is an essential parameter. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model of maximum detection range for simulating the Geiger-mode laser radar's ranging performance. Based on the laser radar equation and the requirement of the minimum acceptable detection probability, and assuming the primary electrons triggered by the echo photons obey Poisson statistics, the maximum range theoretical model is established. By using the system design parameters, the influence of five main factors, namely emitted pulse energy, noise, echo position, atmospheric attenuation coefficient, and target reflectivity on the maximum detection range are investigated. The results show that stronger emitted pulse energy, lower noise level, more front echo position in the range gate, higher atmospheric attenuation coefficient, and higher target reflectivity can result in greater maximum detection range. It is also shown that it's important to select the minimum acceptable detection probability, which is equivalent to the system signal-to-noise ratio for producing greater maximum detection range and lower false-alarm probability.

  18. Optimization of a guard ring structure in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes fabricated at National NanoFab Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K. T.; Kim, H.; Cho, M.; Kim, Y.; Kim, C.; Kim, M.; Lee, D.; Kang, D.; Yoo, H.; Park, K.; Sul, W. S.; Cho, G.

    2016-01-01

    A typical Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (G-APD) contains a guard ring that protects the structure from having an edge breakdown due to the lowering of electric fields at junction curvatures. In this contribution, G-APDs with a virtual guard ring (vGR) merged with n-type diffused guard ring (nGR) in various sizes were studied to find the optimal design for G-APDs fabricated at National NanoFab Center (NNFC) . The sensors were fabricated via a customized CMOS process with a micro-cell size of 65× 65 μm2 on a 200 mm p-type epitaxial layer wafer. I-V characteristic curves for proposed structures were measured on a wafer-level with an auto probing system and plotted together to compare their performance. A vGR width of 1.5 μm and a nGR width of 1.5 μm with an overlapping between vGR and nGR of 1.5 μm showed the lowest leakage current before the breakdown voltage while suppressing the edge breakdown. Furthermore, the current level of the lowest-leakage-current structure was as low as that of only vGR with a width of 2.0 μm, indicating that the structure is also area efficient. Based on these results, the design with vGR, nGR, and OL with width of 1.5 μm is determined to be the optimal structure for G-APDs fabricated at NNFC.

  19. Signal restoration method for restraining the range walk error of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode lidar in acquiring a merged three-dimensional image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Long; Yang, Chenghua; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Zijing; Zhao, Yuan

    2017-04-10

    The fluctuation in the number of signal photoelectrons will cause a range walk error in a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) lidar, which significantly depends on the target intensity. For a nanosecond-pulsed laser, the range walk error of traditional time-of-flight will cause deterioration. A new signal restoration method, based on the Poisson probability response model and the center-of-mass algorithm, is proposed to restrain the range walk error. We obtain a high-precision depth and intensity merged 3D image using this method. The range accuracy is 0.6 cm, and the intensity error is less than 3%.

  20. Restraint of range walk error in a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode lidar to acquire high-precision depth and intensity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Yang, Xu; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    There exists a range walk error in a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) lidar because of the fluctuation in the number of signal photoelectrons. To restrain this range walk error, we propose a new returning-wave signal processing technique based on the Poisson probability response model and the Gaussian functions fitting method. High-precision depth and intensity information of the target at the distance of 5 m is obtained by a Gm-APD lidar using a 6 ns wide pulsed laser. The experiment results show that the range and intensity precisions are 1.2 cm and 0.015 photoelectrons, respectively.

  1. 3D integration of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes aimed to very high fill-factor pixels for future linear colliders 

    CERN Document Server

    Vilella, E; Dieguez, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the maximum achievable fill-factor by a pixel detector of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process. The analysis shows that fillfactors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures and a time-gated readout circuit of minimum area. The maximum fill-factor is achieved when the two-layer vertical stack is used to overlap the non-sensitive areas of one layer with the sensitive areas of the other one. Moreover, different sensor areas are used to further increase the fill-factor. A chip containing a pixel detector of the Geigermode avalanche photodiodes and aimed to future linear colliders has been designed with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process to increase the fill-factor.

  2. 3D integration of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes aimed to very high fill-factor pixels for future linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilella, E., E-mail: evilella@el.ub.edu; Alonso, O.; Diéguez, A.

    2013-12-11

    This paper presents an analysis of the maximum achievable fill-factor by a pixel detector of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process. The analysis shows that fill-factors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures and a time-gated readout circuit of minimum area. The maximum fill-factor is achieved when the two-layer vertical stack is used to overlap the non-sensitive areas of one layer with the sensitive areas of the other one. Moreover, different sensor areas are used to further increase the fill-factor. A chip containing a pixel detector of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes and aimed to future linear colliders has been designed with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process to increase the fill-factor. -- Highlights: •GAPD pixel detectors present a low detection efficiency due to a reduced fill-factor. •3D-ICs are proposed as a solution to increase the fill-factor of GAPD detectors. •The maximum achievable fill-factor by a GAPD detector in a 3D-IC process is analyzed. •Fill-factors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures. •The array is operated in a time-gated mode to reduce the expected sensor noise.

  3. Multi-channel photon counting three-dimensional imaging laser radar system using fiber array coupled Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Rong; Huang, Genghua; Hou, Libing; He, Zhiping; Hu, Yihua

    2012-09-01

    Photon counting laser radar is the most sensitive and efficiency detection method of direct-detection laser radar. With the use of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) or other single photon detectors, every laser photon could be sufficiently used for ranging and three-dimensional imaging. The average energy of received laser signal could be as low as a single photon, or even less than one. This feature of photon counting laser radar enables ranging under conditions of long range, low laser pulse energy, and multi-pixel detection, while receiver size, mass, power, and complexity of laser radar are reduced. In this paper, a latest multi-channel photon counting 3D imaging laser radar system using fiber array coupled Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) is introduced. Detection model based on Poisson statistics of a photon counting laser radar is discussed. A laser radar system, working under daylight condition with ultra-low signal level (less than single photon per pulse), has been designed and analyzed with the detection model and photon counting three-dimensional imaging theory. A passively Q-switched microchip laser is used to transmit short sub-nanosecond laser pulses at 532nm. The output laser is divided into 1×8 laser spots, which correspond to 8 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes coupled by a 1×8-pixel fiber array. A FPGA based time-to-digital converter (TDC), which is designed by delay line interpolation technology, is used for multi-hit signal acquisition. The algorithm of photon counting three-dimensional imaging is developed for signal photon events extraction and noise filter. Three-dimensional images under daylight conditions were acquired and analyzed. The results show that system could operate at strong solar background. The ranging accuracy of the system is 6.3cm (σ) while received laser pulse signal level is only 0.04 photoelectrons on average. The advantages and feasibility of photon counting laser radar working at daylight have been

  4. Autofocus technique for three-dimensional imaging, direct-detection laser radar using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal-plane array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min Seok; Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jo, Sung Eun

    2010-12-15

    An autofocus technique is proposed for a three-dimensional imaging, direct-detection laser radar system that uses a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array (GmAPD-FPA). This technique is implemented by pointing laser pulses on a target of interest and observing its scattered photon distribution on a GmAPD-FPA. Measuring the standard deviation of the photon distribution on a GmAPD-FPA enables the best focus condition to be found. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated experimentally by employing a 1 × 8 pixel GmAPD-FPA. It is shown that the spatial resolution improves when the GmAPD-FPA is located in the best focus position found by the autofocus technique.

  5. Readout electronics for low dark count pixel detectors based on Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes fabricated in conventional CMOS technologies for future linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilella, E., E-mail: evilella@el.ub.es [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Arbat, A. [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Comerma, A.; Trenado, J. [Department of Structure and Constituents of Matter, University of Barcelona (UB), Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Alonso, O. [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gascon, D. [Department of Structure and Constituents of Matter, University of Barcelona (UB), Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Vila, A. [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garrido, L. [Department of Structure and Constituents of Matter, University of Barcelona (UB), Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Dieguez, A. [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-09-11

    High sensitivity and excellent timing accuracy of the Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes make them ideal sensors as pixel detectors for particle tracking in high energy physics experiments to be performed in future linear colliders. Nevertheless, it is well known that these sensors suffer from dark counts and afterpulsing noise, which induce false hits (indistinguishable from event detection) as well as an increase in the necessary area of the readout system. In this work, we present a comparison between APDs fabricated in a high voltage 0.35 {mu}m and a high integration 0.13 {mu}m commercially available CMOS technologies that has been performed to determine which of them best fits the particle collider requirements. In addition, a readout circuit that allows low noise operation is introduced. Experimental characterization of the proposed pixel is also presented in this work.

  6. Study of multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes as a read-out for PET

    CERN Document Server

    Musienko, Yuri; Lecoq, Paul; Reucroft, Stephen; Swain, John; Trummer, Julia

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the performance of two multi-pixel Geiger-mode APDs (recently developed by the Centre of Perspective Technologies and Apparatus (CPTA) in Moscow) with 1×1 mm2 and 3×3 mm2 sensitive area as a readout for LSO and LYSO scintillator crystals. Energy and timing spectra were measured using a 22Na γ-source. The results of this study allow us to conclude that this photodetector is a very promising candidate for PET applications.

  7. Geiger mode theoretical study of a wafer-bonded Ge on Si single-photon avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shaoying; Lin, Shaoming; Wei, Huang; Wang, Jianyuan; cheng, Buwen; Liang, Kun; Li, Cheng; Chen, Songyan

    2017-02-01

    The investigation of the single-photon properties of a wafer-bonded Ge/Si single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) is theoretically conducted. We focus on the effect of the natural GeO2 layer (hydrophilic reaction) at the Ge/Si wafer-bonded interface on dark count characteristics and single-photon response. It is found that the wafer-bonded Ge/Si SPAD exhibits very low dark current at 250 K due to the absence of threading dislocation (TD) in the Ge layer. Owing to the increase of the unit-gain bias applied on the SPAD, the primary dark current (I DM) increases with the increase in GeO2 thickness. Furthermore, the dependence of the linear-mode gain and 3 dB bandwidth (BW) for the dark count on GeO2 thickness is also presented. It is observed that the dark count probability of the Ge/Si SPAD significantly increases with the increase in GeO2 thickness due to the increase of the I DM and the reduction of the 3 dB BW. It is also found that with the increase in GeO2 thickness, the external quantum efficiency, which affects the single-photon detection efficiency (SPDE), drastically decreases because of the blocking effect of the GeO2 layer and the serious recombination at the wafer-bonded Ge/Si interface. The afterpulsing probability (AP) shows an abnormal behavior with GeO2 thickness. This results from the decrease in avalanche charge and increase in effective transit time.

  8. Performance assessment of simulated 3D laser images using Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diode: tests on simple synthetic scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyac, Antoine; Hespel, Laurent; Riviere, Nicolas; Briottet, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    In the past few decades, laser imaging has demonstrated its potential in delivering accurate range images of objects or scenes, even at long range or under bad weather conditions (rain, fog, day and night vision). We note great improvements in the conception and development of single and multi infrared sensors, concerning embedability, circuitry reading capacity, or pixel resolution and sensitivity, allowing a wide diversity of applications (i.e. enhanced vision, long distance target detection and reconnaissance, 3D DSM generation). Unfortunately, it is often difficult to dispose of all the instruments to compare their performance for a given application. Laser imaging simulation has shown to be an interesting alternative to acquire real data, offering a higher flexibility to perform this sensors comparison, plus being time and cost efficient. In this paper, we present a 3D laser imaging end-to-end simulator using a focal plane array with Geiger mode detection, named LANGDOC. This work aims to highlight the interest and capability of this new generation of photo-diodes arrays, especially for airborne mapping and surveillance of high risk areas.

  9. Optical Communications With A Geiger Mode APD Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD, or Geiger mode APD) array for use in optical com- munications systems. I designed and...Newbury, 47 Michael E. O’Brien, Brian E. Player Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with Geiger - mode avalanche photodiode arrays. Lincoln Laboratory...using a Geiger - mode APD array developed by Group 87 at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, consisting of 1024 individual photodiodes arranged in a 32x32 grid.

  10. Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenko, G B; Dolgoshein, B A; Golovin, V; Guschin, E; Ilyin, A; Kaplin, V; Karakas, A I; Klanner, Robert; Pokachalov, V; Popova, E; Smirnov, K V

    2000-01-01

    Recent results on Limited Geiger-mode Microcell Silicon Photodiode (LGP) are described. Two new modifications of LGP have been designed and produced. Each of them consists of 10 sup 4 pixels 10x10 mu m sup 2 size with area of 1 mm sup 2. These pixels operate as an independent photon counters, giving the output signal as a sum of the signals from pixels fired by photons. The effective 'gain' is large (approx 10 sup 5). The efficiency of the visible light photon detection of few percents has been measured. Low-temperature dark rate dependence has been studied. The timing by LGP at the level of 100 ps (FWHM) was found.

  11. Modelization, fabrication and evaluation avalanche photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode for the single photon in astrophysics applications; Modelisation, fabrication et evaluation des photodiodes a avalanche polarisees en mode Geiger pour la detection du photon unique dans les applications Astrophysiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellion, D

    2008-12-15

    The genesis of the work presented in this this is in the field of very high energy astrophysics. One century ago, scientists identified a new type of messenger coming from space: cosmic rays. This radiation consists of particles (photons or other) of very high energy which bombard the Earth permanently. The passage of cosmic radiations in the Earth's atmosphere results in the creation of briefs luminous flashes (5 ns) of very low intensity (1 pW), a Cherenkov flash, and then becomes visible on the ground. In the current state of the art the best detector of light today is the Photomultiplier tube (PMT), thanks to its characteristics of sensitivity and speed. But there are some drawbacks: low quantum efficiency, cost, weight etc. We present in this thesis a new alternative technology: silicon photon counters, made of photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode. This operating mode makes it possible to obtain an effect of multiplication comparable to that of the PMT. A physical and electrical model was developed to reproduce the behaviour of this detector. We then present in this thesis work an original technological process allowing the realization of these devices in the Center of Technology of LAAS-CNRS, with the simulation of each operation of the process. We developed a scheme for the electric characterization of the device, from the static mode to the dynamic mode, in order to check conformity with SILVACO simulations and to the initial model. Results are already excellent, given this is only a first prototype step, and comparable with the results published in the literature. These silicon devices can intervene in all the applications where there is a photomultiplier and replace it. The applications are thus very numerous and the growth of the market of these detectors is very fast. We present a first astrophysical experiment installed at the 'Pic du Midi' site which has detected Cherenkov flashes from cosmic rays with this new semiconductor technology

  12. Direct observation of avalanche scintillations in a THGEM-based two-phase Ar avalanche detector using Geiger-mode APD

    CERN Document Server

    Bondar, A; Grebenuk, A; Sokolov, A; Akimov, D; Alexandrov, I; Breskin, A

    2010-01-01

    A novel concept of optical signal recording in two-phase avalanche detectors, with Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (G-APD) is described. Avalanche-scintillation photons were measured in a thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) in view of potential applications in rare-event experiments. The effective detection of avalanche scintillations in THGEM holes has been demonstrated in two-phase Ar with a bare G-APD without wavelength shifter, i.e. insensitive to VUV emission of Ar. At gas-avalanche gain of 400 and under \\pm 70^\\circ viewing-angle, the G-APD yielded 640 photoelectrons (pe) per 60 keV X-ray converted in liquid Ar; this corresponds to 0.7 pe per initial (prior to multiplication) electron. The avalanche-scintillation light yield measured by the G-APD was about 0.7 pe per avalanche electron, extrapolated to 4pi acceptance. The avalanche scintillations observed occurred presumably in the near infrared (NIR) where G-APDs may have high sensitivity. The measured scintillation yield is similar to that observe...

  13. Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautet, H; Deschamps, P; Dion, B; Macgregor, A D; Macsween, D; McIntyre, R J; Trottier, C; Webb, P P

    1993-07-20

    The properties of avalanche photodiodes and associated electronics required for photon counting in the Geiger and the sub-Geiger modes are reviewed. When the Geiger mode is used, there are significant improvements reported in overall photon detection efficiencies (approaching 70% at 633 nm), and a timing jitter (under 200 ps) is achieved with passive quenching at high overvoltages (20-30 V). The results obtained by using an active-mode fast quench circuit capable of switching overvoltages as high as 15 V (giving photon detection efficiencies in the 50% range) with a dead time of less than 50 ns are reported. Larger diodes (up to 1 mm in diameter) that are usable in the Geiger mode and that have quantum efficiencies over 80% in the 500-800-nm range are also reported.

  14. Random Number Hardware Generator Using Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photo Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Beznosko, D; Duspayev, A; Tailakov, A; Yessenov, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the physical concept and test results of sample data of the high-speed hardware true random number generator design based on typically used for High Energy Physics hardware. Main features of this concept are the high speed of the true random numbers generation (tens of Mbt/s), miniature size and estimated lower production cost. This allows the use of such a device not only in large companies and government offices but for the end-user data cryptography, in classrooms, in scientific Monte-Carlo simulations, computer games and any other place where large number of true random numbers is required. The physics of the operations principle of using a Geiger-mode avalanche photo detector is discussed and the high quality of the data collected is demonstrated.

  15. Spectral method for characterization of avalanche photodiode working as single-photon detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Maria Daniela Santabaia; Mendonça, Fábio Alencar; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2011-09-01

    In this Letter, a new method for avalanche photodiode characterization, based on the spectral analysis of the photocurrent produced during an avalanche, is proposed. The theory is developed, and an experimental characterization of an avalanche photodiode working in the Geiger mode with CW laser is performed.

  16. Large Format Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays and Readout Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    a detector wafer with a transparent substrate; the arrays can therefore be bump bonded to CMOS readouts by the same process used for InP- based... bump bond to a more advanced 3D integration requires heterogeneous integration technique. We have demonstrated wafer bonding of InP detector arrays...digital CMOS readout circuits using bump bonding or 3D integration techniques. Silicon is the material of choice for ultraviolet, visible, and near

  17. On possibilities of application of Miller formula for determination of parameters of Micropixel Avalanche Photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sadygov, Z; Akhmedov, G; Akhmedov, F; Mukhtarov, R; Sadygov, A; Titov, A; Zhezher, V

    2014-01-01

    Miller formula modified to take into account voltage drop on serial resistor of an avalanche photodiode is considered. It is proven by experimental data that modified Miller formula can describe operation of both regular and micropixel avalanche photodiodes with good enough precision. It is shown that operation parameters of the devices can be determined using a linear extrapolation of the voltage-current curve for both regular avalanche photodiode and the one operating in Geiger mode.

  18. On possibilities of application of Miller formula for determination of parameters of Micropixel Avalanche Photodiodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sadygov, Z.; Abdullaev, Kh.; Akhmedov, G.; Akhmedov, F.; Mukhtarov, R.; Sadygov, A.; Titov, A.; Zhezher, V.

    2014-01-01

    Miller formula modified to take into account voltage drop on serial resistor of an avalanche photodiode is considered. It is proven by experimental data that modified Miller formula can describe operation of both regular and micropixel avalanche photodiodes with good enough precision. It is shown that operation parameters of the devices can be determined using a linear extrapolation of the voltage-current curve for both regular avalanche photodiode and the one operating in Geiger mode.

  19. Background and muon counting rates in underground muon measurements with a plastic scintillator counter based on a wavelength shifting fibre and a multi-pixel avalanche photodiode readout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Volchenko, Vladimir I; Akhrameev, Evgeniy V; Bezrukov, Leonid B; Dzaparova, Irina M; Davitashvili, Irakliy Sh; Enqvist, Timo; Fynbo, Hans; Guliev, Zhamal Sh; Inzhechik, Lev V; Izmaylov, Alexander O; Joutsenvaara, Jari; Khabibullin, Marat M; Khotjantsev, Alexey N; Kudenko, Yuri G; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto K; Lubsandorzhiev, Nima B; Mineev, Oleg V; Olanterä, Lauri; Petkov, Valeriy B; Poleshuk, Roman V; Räihä, Tomi; Shaibonov, Bator A. M; Sarkamo, Juho; Shaykhiev, Alexey T; Trzaska, Wladyslaw; Volchenko, Galina V; Yanin, Alexey F; Yershov, Nikolay V

    2010-01-01

    ...×3.0 cm3 size scintillator counter with a wavelength shifting fibre and a multi-pixel Geiger mode avalanche photodiode readout in the Baksan underground laboratory at a depth of 200 metres of water equivalent...

  20. Ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2015-08-01

    The III-Nitride material system is rapidly maturing; having proved itself as a material for LEDs and laser, and now finding use in the area of UV photodetectors. However, many UV applications are still dominated by the use of photomultiplier tubes (PMT). PMTs are capable of obtaining very high sensitivity using internal electron multiplication gain (typically ~106). It is highly desirable to develop a compact semiconductor-based photodetector capable of realizing this level of sensitivity. In principle, this can be obtained in III-Nitrides by taking advantage of avalanche multiplication under high electric fields - typically 2.7 MV/cm, which with proper design can correspond to an external reverse bias of less than 100 volts. In this talk, we review the current state-of-the-art in III-Nitride solar- and visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results on GaN APDs grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing c- and m-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of UV APDs are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities as much as 30% being demonstrated in smaller devices. Geiger-mode operation conditions are optimized for enhanced SPDE.

  1. Characterization and Monte Carlo simulation of single ion Geiger mode avalanche diodes integrated with a quantum dot nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Peter; Abraham, J. B. S.; Ten Eyck, G.; Childs, K. D.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S.

    Detection of single ion implantation within a nanostructure is necessary for the high yield fabrication of implanted donor-based quantum computing architectures. Single ion Geiger mode avalanche (SIGMA) diodes with a laterally integrated nanostructure capable of forming a quantum dot were fabricated and characterized using photon pulses. The detection efficiency of this design was measured as a function of wavelength, lateral position, and for varying delay times between the photon pulse and the overbias detection window. Monte Carlo simulations based only on the random diffusion of photo-generated carriers and the geometrical placement of the avalanche region agrees qualitatively with device characterization. Based on these results, SIGMA detection efficiency appears to be determined solely by the diffusion of photo-generated electron-hole pairs into a buried avalanche region. Device performance is then highly dependent on the uniformity of the underlying silicon substrate and the proximity of photo-generated carriers to the silicon-silicon dioxide interface, which are the most important limiting factors for reaching the single ion detection limit with SIGMA detectors. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Influence of hot-carrier luminescence from avalanche photodiodes on time-correlated photon detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, G; Sergienko, A V; Unlü, M S

    2000-05-15

    We present the results of our time-resolved measurements of hot-carrier luminescence from passively quenched Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. In time-correlated photon-counting (TCPC) experiments, hot-carrier luminescence interferes overwhelmingly with the coincidence spectrum, which results in artifacts. This potential problem should be taken into account in setting up TCPC experiments.

  3. Characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for photon correlation measurements. 3: Sub-Geiger operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R G; Daniels, M

    1989-11-01

    We continue examination of the photon correlation properties of silicon avalanche photodiodes operated in the single-photon counting mode by extending their operation from that of passive [Appl. Opt. 25, 4122-4126 (1986)] and active [Appl. Opt. 26, 2383-2389 (1987)] quenching to the sub-Geiger mode, with potential for high quantum efficiency and very low afterpulsing.

  4. Detection of light pulses using an avalanche-photodiode array with a metal-resistor-semiconductor structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akindinov, AV; Bondarenko, GB; Voloshin, KG; Golovin, VM; Grigoriev, EA; Mal'kevich, DB; Martemiyanov, AN; Smirnitskiy, AV

    2005-01-01

    The results from tests of avalanche-photodiode (APD) arrays with a metal-resistor-semiconductor (MRS) structure are presented. The photodiodes, having a working area of 1 X 1 mm(2), operated in the Geiger mode. MRS APD arrays were tested using light-emitting diodes and as components of scintillation

  5. Detection of light pulses using an avalanche-photodiode array with a metal-resistor-semiconductor structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akindinov, AV; Bondarenko, GB; Voloshin, KG; Golovin, VM; Grigoriev, EA; Mal'kevich, DB; Martemiyanov, AN; Smirnitskiy, AV

    2005-01-01

    The results from tests of avalanche-photodiode (APD) arrays with a metal-resistor-semiconductor (MRS) structure are presented. The photodiodes, having a working area of 1 X 1 mm(2), operated in the Geiger mode. MRS APD arrays were tested using light-emitting diodes and as components of scintillation

  6. Avalanche photodiodes now and possible developments

    CERN Document Server

    Britvitch, I; Ingram, Q; Kuznetsov, A; Musienko, Y; Renker, D; Reucroft, S; Sakhelashvili, T M; Swain, J

    2004-01-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) are now out of their infancy and are used in large numbers in the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS where they have to stand the extremely hostile environment of LHC. This type - with smaller sensitive area and arranged in monolithic arrays - is an excellent candidate for the read out of scintillating crystals in medical imaging and a PET scanner operates already successfully since more than 3 years. We present the properties of the device used in CMS and possible improvements of the structure, which could open the door for new applications. Operating APDs at low temperatures or in Geiger mode will allow single photon counting and in future they could replace photomultiplier tubes.

  7. Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, William E.; Steele, Bradley; Nelson, Graham; Truscott, Antony; Itzler, Mark; Entwistle, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 15 years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and private industry have been developing airborne LiDAR systems based on arrays of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode (GmAPD) detectors capable of detecting a single photon. The extreme sensitivity of GmAPD detectors allows operation of LiDAR sensors at unprecedented altitudes and area collection rates in excess of 1,000 km2/hr. Up until now the primary emphasis of this technology has been limited to defense applications despite the significant benefits of applying this technology to non-military uses such as mapping, monitoring critical infrastructure and disaster relief. This paper briefly describes the operation of GmAPDs, design and operation of a Geiger-mode LiDAR, a comparison of Geiger-mode and traditional linear mode LiDARs, and a description of the first commercial Geiger-mode LiDAR system, the IntelliEarth™ Geospatial Solutions Geiger-mode LiDAR sensor.

  8. Photon-counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautet, Henri; Deschamps, P.; Dion, Bruno; MacGregor, Andrew D.; MacSween, D.; McIntyre, Robert J.; Trottier, C.; Webb, Paul P.

    1993-05-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD) have been used for photon counting for a number of years. This paper reviews their properties and the associated electronics required for photon counting in the Geiger mode. Significant improvements are reported in overall photon detection efficiencies (approaching 75% at 633 nm), and timing jitter (under 200 ps) achieved at high over-voltages (20 - 30 V). Results obtained using an active-mode fast quench circuit capable of switching over-voltages as high as 20 V (giving photon detection efficiencies in the 50% range), are reported with a dead-time of less than 50 ns. Larger diodes (up to 1 mm diameter), usable in the Geiger mode, which have quantum efficiencies over 80% in the 500 - 800 nm range also are reported.

  9. Non-Geiger-Mode Single-Photon Avalanche Detector with Low Excess Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Lo, YuHwa; Farr, William

    2010-01-01

    This design constitutes a self-resetting (gain quenching), room-temperature operational semiconductor single-photon-sensitive detector that is sensitive to telecommunications optical wavelengths and is scalable to large areas (millimeter diameter) with high bandwidth and efficiencies. The device can detect single photons at a 1,550-nm wavelength at a gain of 1 x 10(exp 6). Unlike conventional single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), where gain is an extremely sensitive function to the bias voltage, the multiplication gain of this device is stable at 1 x 10(exp 6) over a wide range of bias from 30.2 to 30.9 V. Here, the multiplication gain is defined as the total number of charge carriers contained in one output pulse that is triggered by the absorption of a single photon. The statistics of magnitude of output signals also shows that the device has a very narrow pulse height distribution, which demonstrates a greatly suppressed gain fluctuation. From the histograms of both pulse height and pulse charge, the equivalent gain variance (excess noise) is between 1.001 and 1.007 at a gain of 1 x 10(exp 6). With these advantages, the device holds promise to function as a PMT-like photon counter at a 1,550- nm wavelength. The epitaxial layer structure of the device allows photons to be absorbed in the InGaAs layer, generating electron/hole (e-h) pairs. Driven by an electrical field in InGaAs, electrons are collected at the anode while holes reach the multiplication region (InAlAs p-i-n structure) and trigger the avalanche process. As a result, a large number of e-h pairs are created, and the holes move toward the cathode. Holes created by the avalanche process gain large kinetic energy through the electric field, and are considered hot. These hot holes are cooled as they travel across a p -InAlAs low field region, and are eventually blocked by energy barriers formed by the InGaAsP/ InAlAs heterojunctions. The composition of the InGaAsP alloy was chosen to have an 80 me

  10. 400-ps time resolution with a passively quenched avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, T P; Wang, L J

    1993-06-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD's) operated in a single-photon-counting Geiger mode are becoming attractive alternatives to photomultiplier tubes for low-light-level detection and signal timing. By paying careful attention to the design and construction of a simple APD passive quenching circuit to reduce stray capacitances, we directly measured a time resolution of 410 ps FWHM for a commercial APD. A more detailed data analysis shows the actual time resolution to be ~ 390 ps FWHM. This is believed to be the most accurate time response for such a simple, inexpensive, and widely available device achieved to date.

  11. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Grieve, James A; Tang, Zhongkan; Ling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-level numerical model for estimating rates of accidental correlations between a pair of passively quenched Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes operating in the saturated regime. By considering the recovery time of both the diodes and the detection circuit we introduce the concept of an "effective duty cycle" and show that it may be estimated by numeric simulation. The impact of effective duty cycle on the observed accidental rate is examined and we demonstrate that the updated model leads to an improved correction factor in actual experiments. This will improve the signal-to-noise ratio in applications depending on correlation measurements.

  12. Pulse-shape discrimination of scintillation from alpha and beta particles with liquid scintillator and Geiger-mode multipixel avalanche diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kreslo, I; Delaquis, S; Ereditato, A; Janos, S; Messina, M; Moser, U; Rossi, B; Zeller, M

    2011-01-01

    A successfull application of Geiger-mode multipixel avalanche diodes (GMAPDs) for pulse-shape discrimination in alpha-beta spectrometry using organic liquid scintillator is described in this paper. Efficient discrimination of alpha and beta components in the emission of radioactive isotopes is achieved for alpha energies above 0.3 MeV. The ultra-compact design of the scintillating detector helps to efficiently suppress cosmic-ray and ambient radiation background. This approach allows construction of hand-held robust devices for monitoring of radioactive contamination in various environmental conditions.

  13. Design and testing of an active quenching circuit for an avalanche photodiode photon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, D.; Schwartz, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The photon-detection capabilities of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating above their theoretical breakdown voltages are described, with particular attention given to the needs and methods of quenching an avalanche once breakdown has occurred. A brief background on the motives of and previous work with this mode of operation is presented. Finally, a description of the design and testing of an active quenching circuit is given. Although the active quenching circuit did not perform as expected, knowledge was gained as to the signal amplitudes necessary for quenching and the need for a better model for the above-breakdown circuit characteristics of the Geiger-mode APD.

  14. Avalanche speed in thin avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, D. S.; Rees, G. J.; David, J. P. R.

    2003-04-01

    The duration of the avalanche multiplication process in thin GaAs avalanche photodiodes is investigated using a full band Monte Carlo (FBMC) model. The results are compared with those of a simple random path length (RPL) model which makes the conventional assumptions of a displaced exponential for the ionization path length probability distribution function and that carriers always travel at their saturated drift velocities. We find that the avalanche duration calculated by the RPL model is almost twice of that predicted by the FBMC model, although the constant drift velocities used in the former model are estimated using the latter. The faster response predicted by FBMC model arises partly from the reduced dead space but mainly from the velocity overshoot of ionizing carriers. While the feedback multiplication processes forced by the effects of dead space extend the avalanche duration in short structures, the effects of velocity overshoot in the realistic model more than compensate, significantly improving multiplication bandwidth.

  15. A method to precisely identify the afterpulses when using the S9717 avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Alexandru, E-mail: alrusu@nipne.ro; Rusu, Lucian [“Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului Street, No. 34, City Măgurele, jud. Ilfov, POB 077125 (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    The detection ratio of an avalanche photodiode (APD) biased in Geiger-mode increases versus the excess voltage; the afterpulsing rate increases too. The last one can be reduced by inserting an artificial dead time and accepting a lower measuring top rate. So, in order to tune a single-photon detector system, it is necessary to exactly identify afterpulses and measure their rate; the experimental results are presented. When using the S9717 APD in Geiger-mode, the cathode to ground voltage waveform reveals the existence of a particular sequence of pulses: a usual one followed, within 1μs, by a least one appearing to have been generated for negative excess voltage values. All these characteristics are the signature of the afterpulsing generation. Based on this observation, we were able to precisely measure the afterpulsing rate.

  16. A method to precisely identify the afterpulses when using the S9717 avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Alexandru; Rusu, Lucian

    2015-12-01

    The detection ratio of an avalanche photodiode (APD) biased in Geiger-mode increases versus the excess voltage; the afterpulsing rate increases too. The last one can be reduced by inserting an artificial dead time and accepting a lower measuring top rate. So, in order to tune a single-photon detector system, it is necessary to exactly identify afterpulses and measure their rate; the experimental results are presented. When using the S9717 APD in Geiger-mode, the cathode to ground voltage waveform reveals the existence of a particular sequence of pulses: a usual one followed, within 1μs, by a least one appearing to have been generated for negative excess voltage values. All these characteristics are the signature of the afterpulsing generation. Based on this observation, we were able to precisely measure the afterpulsing rate.

  17. Passive Quenching Electronics for Geiger Mode 4H-SiC Avalanche Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhou, Dong; Lu, Hai; Chen, Dun-Jun; Ren, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou

    2015-12-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant Nos 2011CB301900 and 2011CB922100, and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

  18. Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Integrated to All-Digital CMOS Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-20

    bump bonds or through-silicon vias used in some wafer stacking processes. The process can be...function as bump bonds, but are much smaller) are patterned on each wafer and planarized along with the bonding oxide. When the wafers are bonded and...pads, the APD array is integrated with a CMOS readout circuit, using either bump bonding or a 3D integration technique. During this process

  19. Detection probabilities for photon-counting avalanche photodiodes applied to a laser radar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Markus

    2005-08-20

    Arrays of photon-counting avalanche photodiodes with time-resolved readout can improve the performance of three-dimensional laser radars. A comparison of the detection and false-alarm probabilities for detectors in linear mode and in Geiger mode is shown. With low background radiation their performance is comparable. It is shown that in both cases it will be necessary to process several laser shots of the same scene to improve detection and reduce the false-alarm rate. Additional calculations show that the linear mode detector is much better at detecting targets behind semitransparent obscurations such as vegetation and camouflage nets.

  20. Integrated avalanche photodiode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Eric S.

    2015-07-07

    The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.

  1. Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, S; Ghioni, M; Lacaita, A; Samori, C; Zappa, F

    1996-04-20

    Avalanche photodiodes, which operate above the breakdown voltage in Geiger mode connected with avalanche-quenching circuits, can be used to detect single photons and are therefore called singlephoton avalanche diodes SPAD's. Circuit configurations suitable for this operation mode are critically analyzed and their relative merits in photon counting and timing applications are assessed. Simple passive-quenching circuits (PQC's), which are useful for SPAD device testing and selection, have fairly limited application. Suitably designed active-quenching circuits (AQC's) make it possible to exploit the best performance of SPAD's. Thick silicon SPAD's that operate at high voltages (250-450 V) have photon detection efficiency higher than 50% from 540- to 850-nm wavelength and still ~3% at 1064 nm. Thin silicon SPAD's that operate at low voltages (10-50 V) have 45% efficiency at 500 nm, declining to 10% at 830 nm and to as little as 0.1% at 1064 nm. The time resolution achieved in photon timing is 20 ps FWHM with thin SPAD's; it ranges from 350 to 150 ps FWHM with thick SPAD's. The achieved minimum counting dead time and maximum counting rate are 40 ns and 10 Mcps with thick silicon SPAD's, 10 ns and 40 Mcps with thin SPAD's. Germanium and III-V compound semiconductor SPAD's extend the range of photon-counting techniques in the near-infrared region to at least 1600-nm wavelength.

  2. Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, S.; Ghioni, M.; Lacaita, A.; Samori, C.; Zappa, F.

    1996-04-01

    Avalanche photodiodes, which operate above the breakdown voltage in Geiger mode connected with avalanche-quenching circuits, can be used to detect single photons and are therefore called single-photon avalanche diodes SPAD's. Circuit configurations suitable for this operation mode are critically analyzed and their relative merits in photon counting and timing applications are assessed. Simple passive-quenching circuits (PQC's), which are useful for SPAD device testing and selection, have fairly limited application. Suitably designed active-quenching circuits (AQC's) make it possible to exploit the best performance of SPAD's. Thick silicon SPAD's that operate at high voltages (250-450 V) have photon detection efficiency higher than 50% from 540-to 850-nm wavelength and still approximately 3% at 1064 nm. Thin silicon SPAD's that operate at low voltages (10-50 V) have 45% efficiency at 500 nm, declining to 10% at 830 nm and to as little as 0.1% at 1064 nm. The time resolution achieved in photon timing is 20 ps FWHM with thin SPAD's; it ranges from 350 to 150 ps FWHM with thick SPAD's. The achieved minimum counting dead time and maximum counting rate are 40 ns and 10 Mcps with thick silicon SPAD's, 10 ns and 40 Mcps with thin SPAD's. Germanium and III-V compound semiconductor SPAD's extend the range of photon-counting techniques in the near-infrared region to at least 1600-nm wavelength.

  3. First Avalanche-photodiode camera test (FACT): A novel camera using G-APDs for the observation of very high-energy {gamma}-rays with Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, I. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Commichau, S.C. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: commichau@phys.ethz.ch; Rissi, M. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Backes, M. [Dortmund University of Technology, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Biland, A. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bretz, T. [University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Britvitch, I.; Commichau, V.; Gunten, H. von; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U.; Kranich, D. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Lorenz, E. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Lustermann, W. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mannheim, K. [University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Neise, D. [Dortmund University of Technology, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Pauss, F. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Pohl, M. [University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Renker, D. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Rhode, W. [Dortmund University of Technology, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)] (and others)

    2009-10-21

    We present a project for a novel camera using Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (G-APDs), to be installed in a small telescope (former HEGRA CT3) on the MAGIC site in La Palma (Canary Island, Spain). This novel type of semiconductor photon detector provides several superior features compared to conventional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The most promising one is a much higher Photon Detection Efficiency.

  4. The controIIing of InGaAs avaIanche photodiode with Geiger mode in Raman distributed temperature sensing system%分布式拉曼测温系统中 APD 盖革模式控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许卫鹏; 韩广源; 杨世强; 李云亭; 张明江

    2015-01-01

    The gain characteristic of avalanche photodiode(APD)in Geiger mode in the distributed Raman optical fiber tempera-ture sensing is analyzed to realize the detection and response of the weak Raman backscattering.We also design a temperature and bias voltage of APD control system,ensuring that it can be operating in Geiger mode steadily in the long term.In the experi-ments,the influence of external temperature,voltage and dark current on the gain of the APD are investigated.It is shown that the amplified light current in the maximum gain can be got by control the converse voltage and the external temperature of APD. A system is designed to control the temperature and the bias voltage of APD using the microcontroller of STM32.The APD can be precisely worked in Geiger-Mode through adjusting the temperature and bias voltage synchronously.%研究分布式拉曼光纤测温系统中雪崩光电二极管(avalanche photo diode,APD)于盖革模式的增益特性,以实现对微弱后向拉曼散射光的探测与响应。设计了 APD 的温度偏压控制系统,确保其可以长期稳定地工作于盖革模式。实验研究了 APD暗电流和偏置电压,以及外界温度对其增益的影响。结果表明,可以通过调节 APD 的偏置电压和工作温度,使其达到最大增益,即工作在盖革模式。利用 STM32单片机,设计了 APD 温度偏压控制系统,通过精密控制温度变化,同步改变 APD 两端偏压的变化,进而可将 APD 准确控制于盖革模式。

  5. Hybrid AlGaN-SiC Avalanche Photodiode for Deep-UV Photon Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Shahid; Herrero, Federico A.; Sigwarth, John; Goldsman, Neil; Akturk, Akin

    2010-01-01

    The proposed device is capable of counting ultraviolet (UV) photons, is compatible for inclusion into space instruments, and has applications as deep- UV detectors for calibration systems, curing systems, and crack detection. The device is based on a Separate Absorption and Charge Multiplication (SACM) structure. It is based on aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) absorber on a silicon carbide APD (avalanche photodiode). The AlGaN layer absorbs incident UV photons and injects photogenerated carriers into an underlying SiC APD that is operated in Geiger mode and provides current multiplication via avalanche breakdown. The solid-state detector is capable of sensing 100-to-365-nanometer wavelength radiation at a flux level as low as 6 photons/pixel/s. Advantages include, visible-light blindness, operation in harsh environments (e.g., high temperatures), deep-UV detection response, high gain, and Geiger mode operation at low voltage. Furthermore, the device can also be designed in array formats, e.g., linear arrays or 2D arrays (micropixels inside a superpixel).

  6. Effect of surface charge on the dark current of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q. Y.; Wang, W. J.; Wen, J.; Huang, L.; Liu, X. H.; Li, N.; Lu, W.

    2014-04-01

    The effects of surface charge on the dark current of the separate-absorption-grading-charge-multiplication InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are discussed using drift-diffusion simulation. The dark current increases exponentially with the increasing of surface charge density, and gets multiplied, thus influencing the performance of the APDs, especially in Geiger mode. The mechanism of the surface charge leakage current is discussed, and a floating guard ring structure is proposed to suppress the influence of surface charge effectively.

  7. A PMT-like high gain avalanche photodiode based on GaN/AlN periodical stacked structure

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Ji-yuan; Yang, Di; Yu, Jia-dong; Meng, Xiao; E, Yan-xiong; Wu, Chao; Hao, Zhi-biao; Sun, Chang-zheng; Xiong, Bing; Luo, Yi; Han, Yan-jian; Wang, Jian; Li, Hong-tao; Brault, Julien; Matta, Samuel; Khalfioui, Mohamed Al; Yan, Jian-chang; Wei, Tong-bo; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Jun-xi

    2016-01-01

    Avalanche photodiode (APD) has been intensively investigated as a promising candidate to replace photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for weak light detection. However, in conventional APDs, a large portion of carrier energy drawn from the electric field is thermalized, and the multiplication efficiencies of electron and hole are low and close. In order to achieve high gain, the device should work under breakdown bias, where carrier multiplication proceeds bi-directionally to form a positive feedback multiplication circle. However, breakdown is hard to control, in practice, APDs should work under Geiger mode as a compromise between sustainable detection and high gain. The complexity of system seriously restricts the application. Here, we demonstrate an avalanche photodiode holding high gain without breakdown, which means no quenching circuit is needed for sustainable detection. The device is based on a GaN/AlN periodically-stacked-structure (PSS), wherein electron holds much higher efficiency than hole to draw energy ...

  8. Development of Gated Pinned Avalanche Photodiode Pixels for High-Speed Low-Light Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Resetar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the benefits of linear-mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs in high-speed CMOS imaging as compared to different approaches present in literature. Analysis of APDs biased below their breakdown voltage employed in single-photon counting mode is also discussed, showing a potentially interesting alternative to existing Geiger-mode APDs. An overview of the recently presented gated pinned avalanche photodiode pixel concept is provided, as well as the first experimental results on a 8 × 16 pixel test array. Full feasibility of the proposed pixel concept is not demonstrated; however, informative data is obtained from the sensor operating under −32 V substrate bias and clearly exhibiting wavelength-dependent gain in frontside illumination. The readout of the chip designed in standard 130 nm CMOS technology shows no dependence on the high-voltage bias. Readout noise level of 15 e - rms, full well capacity of 8000 e - , and the conversion gain of 75 µV / e - are extracted from the photon-transfer measurements. The gain characteristics of the avalanche junction are characterized on separate test diodes showing a multiplication factor of 1.6 for red light in frontside illumination.

  9. Development of Gated Pinned Avalanche Photodiode Pixels for High-Speed Low-Light Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetar, Tomislav; De Munck, Koen; Haspeslagh, Luc; Rosmeulen, Maarten; Süss, Andreas; Puers, Robert; Van Hoof, Chris

    2016-08-15

    This work explores the benefits of linear-mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in high-speed CMOS imaging as compared to different approaches present in literature. Analysis of APDs biased below their breakdown voltage employed in single-photon counting mode is also discussed, showing a potentially interesting alternative to existing Geiger-mode APDs. An overview of the recently presented gated pinned avalanche photodiode pixel concept is provided, as well as the first experimental results on a 8 × 16 pixel test array. Full feasibility of the proposed pixel concept is not demonstrated; however, informative data is obtained from the sensor operating under -32 V substrate bias and clearly exhibiting wavelength-dependent gain in frontside illumination. The readout of the chip designed in standard 130 nm CMOS technology shows no dependence on the high-voltage bias. Readout noise level of 15 e - rms, full well capacity of 8000 e - , and the conversion gain of 75 µV / e - are extracted from the photon-transfer measurements. The gain characteristics of the avalanche junction are characterized on separate test diodes showing a multiplication factor of 1.6 for red light in frontside illumination.

  10. Nano-multiplication region avalanche photodiodes and arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode with a nano-scale reach-through structure comprising n-doped and p-doped regions, formed on a silicon island on an insulator, so that the avalanche photodiode may be electrically isolated from other circuitry on other silicon islands on the same silicon chip as the avalanche photodiode. For some embodiments, multiplied holes generated by an avalanche reduces the electric field in the depletion region of the n-doped and p-doped regions to bring about self-quenching of the avalanche photodiode. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  11. Shot noise suppression in avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Wang, Shuling; Campbell, Joe C

    2005-10-21

    We identify a new shot noise suppression mechanism in a thin (approximately 100 nm) heterostructure avalanche photodiode. In the low-gain regime the shot noise is suppressed due to temporal correlations within amplified current pulses. We demonstrate in a Monte Carlo simulation that the effective excess noise factors can be < 1, and reconcile the apparent conflict between theory and experiments. This shot noise suppression mechanism is independent of known mechanisms such as Coulomb interaction, or reflection at heterojunction interfaces.

  12. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-01-01

    .... As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated...

  13. Demonstration of lasercom and spatial tracking with a silicon Geiger-mode APD array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnall, Timothy M.; Horkley, Benjamin W.; Garg, Ajay S.; Hamilton, Scott A.

    2016-03-01

    We present a demonstration of a high-rate photon counting receiver with the potential to act as a spatial tracker based on a silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array (GM-APD). This array enables sensitive high-rate optical communication in the visible and near infrared regions of the spectrum. The array contains 1024 elements arranged in a 32x32 pixel square. This large number of elements supports high data rates through the mitigation of blocking losses and associated data rate limitations created by the reset time of an individual Geiger-mode detector. Measurement of bit error rates demonstrate that receiver sensitivities of 2.55 dB (detected) photons-per-bit for 78.8 Mb/s on-off-keying and -0.46 dB (detected) photons-per-bit for 19.4 Mb/s 16-ary pulse-position modulation are accessible with strong forward error correction. Additionally, the array can record the spatial coordinates of each detection event. By computing the centroid of the distribution of spatial detections it is possible to determine the angle-of-arrival of the detected photons. These levels of performance imply that Si GM-APD arrays are excellent candidates for a variety of free space lasercom applications ranging from atmospheric communication in the 1 micron or 780 nm spectral windows to underwater communication in the 480 nm to 520 nm spectral window

  14. Characterization on Geiger-mode operation of deep diffused silicon APDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Chen, Xiao J.; McClish, Mickel; Farrell, Richard; Vanderpuye, Kofi; Christian, James

    2015-08-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) manufactured at RMD are fabricated using deep diffusion processes, resulting in a thick reach-through APD with excellent performance characteristics. These include a high quantum efficiency (Geiger behavior were dismissed. The low capacitance is conducive to developing large-area devices, and the large drift region allows for charge steering toward the high breakdown field region. These results provide initial data on the performance characteristics of RMD's APDs when operated in Geiger mode. Due to the thickness of these devices, they provide a high gain-bandwidth product for near IR single photon counting. A small area (~4 mm2) APD was biased beyond the reverse bias breakdown voltage (~1700 V at -50 C), where the device showed typical Geigermode behavior with a low dark count rate (Geiger probability at 5V excess bias was measured as 3%, which is consistent with simulations that suggest an excess bias of ~300 V is required for 100% Geiger probability.

  15. Radiation damage effect on avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Baccaro, S; Cavallari, F; Da Ponte, V; Deiters, K; Denes, P; Diemoz, M; Kirn, Th; Lintern, A L; Longo, E; Montecchi, M; Musienko, Y; Pansart, J P; Renker, D; Reucroft, S; Rosi, G; Rusack, R; Ruuska, D; Stephenson, R; Torbet, M J

    1999-01-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes have been chosen as photon sensors for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the LHC. These sensors should operate in the 4T magnetic field of the experiment. Because of the high neutron radiation in the detector extensive studies have been done by the CMS collaboration on the APD neutron radiation damage. The characteristics of these devices after irradiation have been analized, with particular attention to the quantum efficiency and the dark current. The recovery of the radiation induced dark current has been studied carefully at room temperature and at slightly lower and higher temperatures. The temperature dependence of the defects decay-time has been evaluated.

  16. Photon detection with cooled avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. L.; Metscher, B. D.

    1987-01-01

    Commercial avalanche photodiodes have been operated as single-photon detectors at an optimum operating temperature and bias voltage. These detectors were found to be 1.5-3 times more sensitive than presently available photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Both single-photon detection probability and detector noise increase with bias voltage; detection probabilities greater than twice that of a PMT were obtained with detector noise levels below 100 counts per second. Higher probabilities were measured at higher noise levels. The sources of noise and their dependence on temperature and bias voltage are discussed.

  17. Cooled avalanche photodiode used for photon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Deborah L.; Metscher, Brian D.

    1987-01-01

    Commercial avalanche photodiodes have been operated as single-photon detectors at an optimum operating temperature and bias voltage. These detectors were found to be 1.5 to 3 times more sensitive than presently-available photomultiplier tubes (PPMTs). Both single-photon detection probability and detector noise increase with bias voltage; detection probabilities greater than 25 percent were obtained with detector noise levels comparable to the noise of a PMT; higher probabilities were measured at higher noise levels. The sources of noise and their dependence on temperature and bias voltage are discussed.

  18. Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Optical Communications Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.

    2001-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) array for ground-based optical communications receivers is investigated for the reception of optical signals through the turbulent atmosphere. Kolmogorov phase screen simulations are used to generate realistic spatial distributions of the received optical field. It is shown that use of an APD array for pulse-position modulation detection can improve performance by up to 4 dB over single APD detection in the presence of turbulence, but that photon-counting detector arrays yield even greater gains.

  19. A cooled avalanche photodiode with high photon detection probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. L.; Metscher, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode has been operated as a photon-counting detector with 2 to 3 times the sensitivity of currently-available photomultiplier tubes. APD (avalanche photodiodes) detection probabilities that exceed 27% and approach 50% have been measured at an optimum operating temperature which minimizes noise. The sources of noise and their dependence on operating temperature and bias voltage are discussed.

  20. Single photon detection in a waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicholas J D; Gehl, Michael; Derose, Christopher T; Starbuck, Andrew L; Pomerene, Andrew T; Lentine, Anthony L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S

    2017-07-10

    We examine gated-Geiger mode operation of an integrated waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode (APD) and demonstrate single photon detection at low dark count for this mode of operation. Our integrated waveguide-coupled APD is fabricated using a selective epitaxial Ge-on-Si growth process resulting in a separate absorption and charge multiplication (SACM) design compatible with our silicon photonics platform. Single photon detection efficiency and dark count rate is measured as a function of temperature in order to understand and optimize performance characteristics in this device. We report single photon detection of 5.27% at 1310 nm and a dark count rate of 534 kHz at 80 K for a Ge-on-Si single photon avalanche diode. Dark count rate is the lowest for a Ge-on-Si single photon detector in this range of temperatures while maintaining competitive detection efficiency. A jitter of 105 ps was measured for this device.

  1. Scintillator counters with multi-pixel avalanche photodiode readout for the ND280 detector of the T2K experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, INR RAS, 60th October Revolution Pr. 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: oleg@inr.ru; Afanasjev, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, INR RAS, 60th October Revolution Pr. 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, G.; Golovin, V. [Center of Perspective Technology and Apparatus, 107076 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gushchin, E.; Izmailov, A.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, INR RAS, 60th October Revolution Pr. 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kudenko, Yu. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, INR RAS, 60th October Revolution Pr. 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kurimoto, Y. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kutter, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Lubsandorzhiev, B. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, INR RAS, 60th October Revolution Pr. 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mayatski, V. [AO Uniplast, 600016 Vladimir (Russian Federation); Musienko, Yu. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, INR RAS, 60th October Revolution Pr. 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nakaya, T.; Nobuhara, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Shaibonov, B.A.J.; Shaikhiev, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, INR RAS, 60th October Revolution Pr. 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Taguchi, M. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yershov, N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, INR RAS, 60th October Revolution Pr. 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Yokoyama, M. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2007-07-11

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment is a second generation long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment which aims at a sensitive search for {nu}{sub e} appearance. The main design features of the T2K near neutrino detectors located at 280m from the target are presented, and the scintillator counters are described. The counters are readout via WLS fibers embedded into S-shaped grooves in the scintillator from both ends by multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes operating in a limited Geiger mode. Operating principles and results of tests of photosensors with a sensitive area of 1mm{sup 2} are presented. A time resolution of 1.75ns, a spatial resolution of 9.9-12.4cm, and a detection efficiency for minimum ionizing particles of more than 99% were obtained for scintillator detectors in a beam test.

  2. Non-linear behaviour of large-area avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, L M P; Monteiro, C M B; Santos, J M; Morgado, R E

    2002-01-01

    The characterisation of photodiodes used as photosensors requires a determination of the number of electron-hole pairs produced by scintillation light. One method involves comparing signals produced by X-ray absorptions occurring directly in the avalanche photodiode with the light signals. When the light is derived from light-emitting diodes in the 400-600 nm range, significant non-linear behaviour is reported. In the present work, we extend the study of the linear behaviour to large-area avalanche photodiodes, of Advanced Photonix, used as photosensors of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) scintillation light produced by argon (128 nm) and xenon (173 nm). We observed greater non-linearities in the avalanche photodiodes for the VUV scintillation light than reported previously for visible light, but considerably less than the non-linearities observed in other commercially available avalanche photodiodes.

  3. Characterization of avalanche photodiodes for lidar atmospheric return signal detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, C. W., Jr.; Holloway, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from tests to characterize noise, dark current, overload, and gain versus bias, relationships of ten avalanche photodiodes. The advantages of avalanche photodiodes over photomultiplier tubes for given laser wavelengths and return signal amplitudes are outlined. The relationship between responsivity and temperature and dark current and temperature are examined. Also, measurements of the noise equivalent power, the excess noise factor, and linearity are given. The advantages of using avalanche photodiodes in the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment and the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment are discussed.

  4. Avalanche dynamics in silicon avalanche single- and few-photon sensitive photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazej, J; Prochazka, I, E-mail: blazej@fjfi.cvut.c [Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2009-11-15

    We are presenting the results of the study of the Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) avalanche pulse response rise-time and its dependence on several key parameters. We were investigating the unique properties of K14 type SPAD with its high delay uniformity of 200 {mu}m active area, the character of avalanche, and the correlation between the avalanche build-up time and the photon number involved in the avalanche trigger. The detection chip was operated with bias higher then breakdown voltage, ie. in Geiger mode. The detection chip was operated in a passive quenching circuit with active gating. This set-up enabled us to monitor both the diode reverse current using an electrometer and a fast digitizing oscilloscope. The electrometer reading enabled to estimate the photon number per detection event, the avalanche build up was recorded on the oscilloscope and processed by custom designed waveform analysis package. The correlation of avalanche build up to the photon number, bias above break, photon absorption location, optical pulse length and photon energy was investigated in detail. The experimental results are presented.

  5. SWIR Geiger-mode APD detectors and cameras for 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Krishnamachari, Uppili; Owens, Mark; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir

    2014-06-01

    The operation of avalanche photodiodes in Geiger mode by arming these detectors above their breakdown voltage provides high-performance single photon detection in a robust solid-state device platform. Moreover, these devices are ideally suited for integration into large format focal plane arrays enabling single photon imaging. We describe the design and performance of short-wave infrared 3D imaging cameras with focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on Geigermode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) with single photon sensitivity for laser radar imaging applications. The FPA pixels incorporate InP/InGaAs(P) GmAPDs for the detection of single photons with high efficiency and low dark count rates. We present results and attributes of fully integrated camera sub-systems with 32 × 32 and 128 × 32 formats, which have 100 μm pitch and 50 μm pitch, respectively. We also address the sensitivity of the fundamental GmAPD detectors to radiation exposure, including recent results that correlate detector active region volume to sustainable radiation tolerance levels.

  6. The breakdown flash of Silicon Avalance Photodiodes - backdoor for eavesdropper attacks?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtsiefer, Christian; Zarda, Patrick; Mayer, Sonja; Weinfurter, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes are the most sensitive photodetectors in the visible to near infrared region. However, when they are used for single photon detection in a Geiger mode, they are known to emit light on the controlled breakdown used to detect a photoelectron. This fluorescence light might have serious impacts on experimental applications like quantum cryptography or single-particle spectroscopy. We characterized the fluorescence behaviour of silicon avalanche photodiodes in the exp...

  7. SiC Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aymont Technology, Inc. (Aymont) will demonstrate the feasibility of SiC p-i-n avalanche photodiodes (APD) arrays. Aymont will demonstrate 4 x 4 arrays of 2 mm2 APDs...

  8. Relative degradation of near infrared avalanche photodiodes from proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heidi; Johnston, Allan H.

    2004-01-01

    InGaAs and Ge avalanche photodiodes are compared for the effects of 63-MeV protons on dark current. Differences in displacement damage factors are discussed as they relate to structural differences between devices.

  9. Relative degradation of near infrared avalanche photodiodes from proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heidi; Johnston, Allan H.

    2004-01-01

    InGaAs and Ge avalanche photodiodes are compared for the effects of 63-MeV protons on dark current. Differences in displacement damage factors are discussed as they relate to structural differences between devices.

  10. Radiation and Temperature Hard Multi-Pixel Avalanche Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor); Starikov, David (Inventor); Pillai, Rajeev (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The structure and method of fabricating a radiation and temperature hard avalanche photodiode with integrated radiation and temperature hard readout circuit, comprising a substrate, an avalanche region, an absorption region, and a plurality of Ohmic contacts are presented. The present disclosure provides for tuning of spectral sensitivity and high device efficiency, resulting in photon counting capability with decreased crosstalk and reduced dark current.

  11. III-V alloy heterostructure high speed avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, H. D.; Nakano, K.; Tomasetta, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Heterostructure avalanche photodiodes have been successfully fabricated in several III-V alloy systems: GaAlAs/GaAs, GaAlSb/GaAlSb, and InGaAsP/InP. These diodes cover optical wavelengths from 0.4 to 1.8 micron. Early stages of development show very encouraging results. High speed response of less than 35 ps and high quantum efficiency more than 95 percent have been obtained. The dark currents and the excess avalanche noise are also dicussed. A direct comparison of GaAlSb, GaAlAsSb, and In GaAsP avalanche photodiodes is given.

  12. Asynchronous Geiger-mode APD cameras with free-running InGaAsP pixels (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzler, Mark; Salzano, Gennaro; Entwistle, Mark; Jiang, Xudong; Owens, Mark; Piccione, Brian; Wilton, Sam; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Roszko, Scott C.; Wei, Esther

    2017-05-01

    We describe Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GmAPD) cameras designed with asynchronous free-running operation that supports single-photon direct detection and coherent detection 3D LiDAR imaging as well as free-running applications such as free-space optical communications and target acquisition and tracking. Each free-running pixel in the 32x32 focal plane array performs independent time-of-flight measurements with a selectable reset time between 0.1 and 10 μs. Asynchronous reporting of time-of-flight and pixel location data allows continuous operation for arbitrarily long periods of time at sampling rates exceeding 0.7 Gsample/s. We report results for cameras optimized for operation using either 1.0 or 1.5 μm LiDAR sources.

  13. Automated characterization of single-photon avalanche photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Ghazali, Aina M M; Sauge, Sebastien; Makarov, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    We report an automated characterization of a single-photon detector based on commercial silicon avalanche photodiode (PerkinElmer C30902SH). The photodiode is characterized by I-V curves at different illumination levels (darkness, 10 pW and 10 uW), dark count rate and photon detection efficiency at different bias voltages. The automated characterization routine is implemented in C++ running on a Linux computer.

  14. Wavelength dependence of silicon avalanche photodiode fabricated by CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Napiah, Zul Atfyi Fauzan; Hishiki, Takuya; Iiyama, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    Avalanche photodiodes fabricated by CMOS process (CMOS-APDs) have features of high avalanche gain below 10 V, wide bandwidth over 5 GHz, and easy integration with electronic circuits. In CMOS-APDs, guard ring structure is introduced for high-speed operation by canceling photo-generated carriers in the substrate at the sacrifice of the responsivity. We describe here wavelength dependence of the responsivity and the bandwidth of the CMOS-APDs with shorted and opened guard ring structure.

  15. Performance analysis for laser radars based on Geiger-mode APD%基于Geiger-mode APD的激光雷达性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方照勋; 张华; 李海廷; 路英宾; 高剑波; 陈德章; 卿光弼

    2011-01-01

    针对基于盖革模式雪崩光电二极管(Gm-APD)阵列的激光雷达,提出一种分析其探测性能的方法.以分析单个Gm-APD像元产生的初始光电子和暗计数噪声为基础,对Gm-APD像元的探测概率、虚警概率和漏警概率进行研究,并进一步提出一种多脉冲阚值探测法,并对其探测概率、虚警概率进行了研究和仿真.结果表明,对2~10 km外的目标,采用128×128像元面阵探测器,单脉冲能量小于200 mJ时,探测概率随脉冲能量提高而提高;单脉冲能量大干200 mJ时,探测概率保持不变;当采用多脉冲阈值探测、信号较弱时,探测概率总是随脉冲能量提高而提高,虚警概率总是随脉冲能量提高而降低.%This paper introduces a method for analyzing the performance of laser radar based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode(APD) array. The detection probability, false-alarm probability and miss alarm probability are researched by analyzing the creation of primary photon electronics and dark count rate noise. Further more,the method of threshold detection with multiple-pulses are proposed, of which the detection probability and false probability are researched and simulated. For a target at a distance of 2 km to 10 km and the 128 x 128 Geiger-mode APD array, the detection probability of the ladar system can be improved as the pulse energy increasing, while the pulse energy should less than 200 mJ. When the pulse energy is above 200 mj,the detection probability is constant. For the threshold detection with multiple-pulses,the detection probability of the ladar system can be improved as the pulse energy increasing, and the false-alarm probability can be reduced as the pulse energy increasing.

  16. High quantum efficiency GaP avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Dion; Zhou, Qiugui; Chen, Yaojia; Campbell, Joe C

    2011-09-26

    Gallium Phosphide (GaP) reach-through avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are reported. The APDs exhibited dark current less than a pico-ampere at unity gain. A quantum efficiency of 70% was achieved with a recessed window structure; this is almost two times higher than previous work. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Point Spread Function (PSF) noise filter strategy for geiger mode LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, O'Neil; Stark, Robert; Smith, Philip; St. Romain, Randall; Blask, Steven

    2013-05-01

    LiDAR is an efficient optical remote sensing technology that has application in geography, forestry, and defense. The effectiveness is often limited by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors are able to operate above critical voltage, and a single photoelectron can initiate the current surge, making the device very sensitive. These advantages come at the expense of requiring computationally intensive noise filtering techniques. Noise is a problem which affects the imaging system and reduces the capability. Common noise-reduction algorithms have drawbacks such as over aggressive filtering, or decimating in order to improve quality and performance. In recent years, there has been growing interest on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) for their ability to perform powerful massive parallel processing. In this paper, we leverage this capability to reduce the processing latency. The Point Spread Function (PSF) filter algorithm is a local spatial measure that has been GPGPU accelerated. The idea is to use a kernel density estimation technique for point clustering. We associate a local likelihood measure with every point of the input data capturing the probability that a 3D point is true target-return photons or noise (background photons, dark-current). This process suppresses noise and allows for detection of outliers. We apply this approach to the LiDAR noise filtering problem for which we have recognized a speed-up factor of 30-50 times compared to traditional sequential CPU implementation.

  18. PATRICIA, a powerful Cherenkov telescope camera concept based on Geiger-mode-APD light sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Eckart [MPI fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Wagner, Robert [MPI fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We present a concept for a new powerful camera for the 23-m diameter large-size Cherenkov telescopes for the CTA observatory. It is equally suited for any other imaging Cherenkov telescope. PATRICIA (Powerful Atmospheric Telescope Camera for RecordIng Cherenkov LIght with g-Apds) is based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) as light sensors. The camera is split in a sensor plane and both the readout and trigger electronics of the telescope array located in a central container. Analog signals will be transmitted by optical fibers to a readout container. The thin pizzabox-like camera with a 4.5-degree field of view and 0.1-degree pixels will weigh less than a ton and has a considerably lower wind resistance compared to a conventional PMT camera. The camera requires below 1 kW power and simple cooling by Peltier elements is possible. The key light sensor element will be a multi-element G-APD structure of hexagonal shape and 5 sqcm active area, replacing nearly 1:1 the current PMT design. The sensitivity will be at least 1.5 times superior compared to currently proposed PMTs. Importantly, the camera can work at full moonshine, allowing a gain of at least 30-40% in observation time. About 1-2 years of development time is needed.

  19. Statistical analysis of dark count rate in Geiger-mode APD FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Krishnamachari, Uppili; Chau, Quan; Jiang, Xudong; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Slomkowski, Krystyna

    2014-10-01

    We present a temporal statistical analysis of the array-level dark count behavior of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GmAPD) focal plane arrays that distinguishes between Poissonian intrinsic dark count rate and non-Poissonian crosstalk counts by considering "inter-arrival" times between successive counts from the entire array. For 32 x 32 format sensors with 100 μm pixel pitch, we show the reduction of crosstalk for smaller active area sizes within the pixel. We also compare the inter-arrival time behavior for arrays with narrow band (900 - 1100 nm) and broad band (900 - 1600 nm) spectral response. We then consider a similar analysis of larger format 128 x 32 arrays. As a complement to the temporal analysis, we describe the results of a spatial analysis of crosstalk events. Finally, we propose a simple model for the impact of crosstalk events on the Poissonian statistics of intrinsic dark counts that provides a qualitative explanation for the results of the inter-arrival time analysis for arrays with varying degrees of crosstalk.

  20. Range accuracy of photon heterodyne detection with laser pulse based on Geiger-mode APD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanjun; Yuan, XiuHua; Zeng, Yanan

    2013-08-12

    In this paper, we propose a combined system of heterodyne detection with laser pulse and photon counting based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD) that is designed to achieve the range of remote non-cooperative target. Based on the heterodyne principle and assuming that the creation of primary electrons in GM-APD is Poisson-distributed, the range accuracy model is established. The factors that influence the range accuracy, namely pulse width, echo intensity, local oscillator (LO) intensity, noise, echo position, and beat frequency, are discussed. The results show that these six factors have significant influence on the range accuracy when the echo intensity is extremely weak. In case that the primary electrons of the echo signal are beyond 4, the pulse width and echo intensity are the main influence factors. It is also shown that the stronger echo intensity, narrower pulse width, low noise, large echo position, and small beat frequency produce higher range accuracy in a pulsed photon heterodyne detection system based on GM-APD.

  1. False alarm suppression of multipulsed laser ranging system with Geiger-mode detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanjun; Xu, Huigang; Xu, Benlian; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Fu, Yadan

    2015-06-10

    The false alarm probability is of great concern when designing and evaluating the performance of a multipulsed laser ranging system with a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode. In this paper, based on the statistical distribution difference of the arrival time of the echo photons and noise in the time histogram, a false alarm suppression algorithm is presented. According to the data-processing method of the algorithm, the theoretical model of target detection and false alarm probability with a Poisson statistic and the system working at long dead time is established. With typical system design parameters, the target detection probability under different echo intensity and detection number is analyzed, and the influence of four main factors, namely, detection number, echo intensity, noise, and echo position, on the false alarm probability is investigated. The results show that multipulsed detection can improve the target detection probability, and using this developed algorithm, the false alarm probability can be effectively suppressed, to obtain an appropriate false alarm probability; it is suitable that the detection number is selected as 8; and stronger echo intensity, lower noise level, and a more frontal echo position can result in a lower false alarm probability.

  2. Automated Characterization of Single-Photon Avalanche Photodiode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Mardhiyah M. Ghazali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an automated characterization of a single-photon detector based on commercial silicon avalanche photodiode (PerkinElmer C30902SH. The photodiode is characterized by I-V curves at different illumination levels (darkness, 10 pW and 10 µW, dark count rate and photon detection efficiency at different bias voltages. The automated characterization routine is implemented in C++ running on a Linux computer. ABSTRAK: Kami melaporkan pencirian pengesan foton tunggal secara automatik berdasarkan kepada diod foto runtuhan silikon (silicon avalanche photodiode (PerkinElmer C30902SH komersial. Pencirian  diod foto adalah berdasarkan kepada plot arus-voltan (I-V pada tahap pencahayaan yang berbeza (kelam - tanpa cahaya, 10pW, dan 10µW, kadar bacaan latar belakang, kecekapan pengesanan foton pada voltan picuan yang berbeza. Pengaturcaraan C++ digunakan di dalam rutin pencirian automatik melalui komputer dengan sistem pengendalian LINUX.KEYWORDS: avalanche photodiode (APD; single photon detector; photon counting; experiment automation

  3. Temporal dependence of transient dark counts in an avalanche photodiode: A solution for power-law behavior of afterpulsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, M.; Tsujino, K.

    2016-08-01

    This paper offers a theoretical explanation of the temperature and temporal dependencies of transient dark count rates (DCRs) measured for a linear-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) and the dependencies of afterpulsing that were measured in Geiger-mode Si and InGaAs/InP APDs. The temporal dependencies exhibit power-law behavior, at least to some extent. For the transient DCR, the value of the DCR for a given time period increases with decreases in temperature, while the power-law behavior remains unchanged. The transient DCR is attributed to electron emissions from traps in the multiplication layer of the APD with a high electric field, and its temporal dependence is explained by a continuous change in the electron emission rate as a function of the electric field strength. The electron emission rate is calculated using a quantum model for phonon-assisted tunnel emission. We applied the theory to the temporal dependence of afterpulsing that was measured for Si and InGaAs/InP APDs. The power-law temporal dependence is attributed to the power-law function of the electron emission rate from the traps as a function of their position across the p-n junction of the APD. Deviations from the power-law temporal dependence can be derived from the upper and lower limits of the electric field strength.

  4. Temporal dependence of transient dark counts in an avalanche photodiode: A solution for power-law behavior of afterpulsing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, M., E-mail: akiba@nict.go.jp [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1, Nukuikitamachi, Koganei-City, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Tsujino, K. [Department of Physics, School of Medicine, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1, Kawadacho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)

    2016-08-08

    This paper offers a theoretical explanation of the temperature and temporal dependencies of transient dark count rates (DCRs) measured for a linear-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) and the dependencies of afterpulsing that were measured in Geiger-mode Si and InGaAs/InP APDs. The temporal dependencies exhibit power-law behavior, at least to some extent. For the transient DCR, the value of the DCR for a given time period increases with decreases in temperature, while the power-law behavior remains unchanged. The transient DCR is attributed to electron emissions from traps in the multiplication layer of the APD with a high electric field, and its temporal dependence is explained by a continuous change in the electron emission rate as a function of the electric field strength. The electron emission rate is calculated using a quantum model for phonon-assisted tunnel emission. We applied the theory to the temporal dependence of afterpulsing that was measured for Si and InGaAs/InP APDs. The power-law temporal dependence is attributed to the power-law function of the electron emission rate from the traps as a function of their position across the p–n junction of the APD. Deviations from the power-law temporal dependence can be derived from the upper and lower limits of the electric field strength.

  5. Characterization of A Novel Avalanche Photodiode for Single Photon Detection in VIS-NIR Range

    CERN Document Server

    Stipcevic, M; Gracin, D

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate operation in the Geiger mode of the new single photon avalanche photo diode (SPAD) SAP500 manufactured by Laser Components. This SPAD is sensitive in the range 400-1000nm and has a conventional reach-through structure which ensures good quantum efficiency at the long end of the spectrum. By use of passive and active quenching schemes we investigate detection efficiency, timing jitter, dark counts, afterpulsing, gain and other important parameters and compare them to those of the "standard" low noise SPAD C30902SH from Perkin Elmer. We conclude that SAP500 offers an unmatched combination of low noise, excellent timing and thermal stability.

  6. Characterization of a novel avalanche photodiode for single photon detection in VIS-NIR range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipcević, M; Skenderović, H; Gracin, D

    2010-08-02

    In this work we investigate operation in the Geiger mode of the new single photon avalanche photo diode (SPAD) SAP500 manufactured by Laser Components. This SPAD is sensitive in the range 400-1000 nm and has a conventional reach-through structure which ensures good quantum efficiency at the long end of the spectrum. By use of passive and active quenching schemes we investigate detection efficiency, timing jitter, dark counts, afterpulsing, gain and other important parameters and compare them to the "standard" low noise SPAD C30902SH from Perkin Elmer. We conclude that SAP500 offers better combination of detection efficiency, low noise and timing precision.

  7. Investigation of avalanche photodiodes radiation hardness for baryonic matter studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kushpil, V; Ladygin, V P; Kugler, A; Kushpil, S; Svoboda, O; Tlustý, P

    2015-01-01

    Modern avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with high gain are good device candidates for light readout from detectors applied in relativistic heavy ion collisions experiments. The results of the investigations of the APDs properties from Zecotek, Ketek and Hamamatsu manufacturers after irradiation using secondary neutrons from cyclotron facility U120M at NPI of ASCR in \\v{R}e\\v{z} are presented. The results of the investigations can be used for the design of the detectors for the experiments at NICA and FAIR.

  8. Receiver characteristics of laser altimeters with avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.; Boutsikaris, Leo; Abshire, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The receiver characteristics of a laser altimeter system containing an avalanche photodiode photodetector are analyzed using the Gaussian approximation, the saddle-point approximation, and a nearly exact analysis. The last two methods are shown to yield very similar results except when the background noise is extremely low and the probability of false alarm is high. However, the Gaussian approximation method is shown to cause significant errors even under relatively high levels of background noise and received signal energy.

  9. Single-photon avalanche photodiodes with integrated quenching resistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzillo, M. [STMicroelectronics, IMS R and D Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy)], E-mail: massimo.mazzillo@st.com; Condorelli, G.; Piazza, A.; Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.; Carbone, B.; Fallica, G. [STMicroelectronics, IMS R and D Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); Billotta, S.; Belluso, M.; Bonanno, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pappalardo, A.; Cosentino, L.; Finocchiaro, P. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2008-06-21

    In this paper we present the results of the first electrical and optical characterization performed on STMicroelectronics new photosensor technology based on silicon single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD). On the prospective of the design and the manufacturing of large-area silicon photomultipliers to be used as photodetectors for nuclear medicine imaging applications, we have modified our previous SPAD technology by means of the integration of a high-value quenching resistor to the photodiode. Moreover, an appropriate antireflective coating layer and the reduction of the quasi-neutral region thickness above the thin junction depletion layer have been introduced in the process flow of the device to enhance its spectral response in blue and near ultraviolet wavelength ranges. High gain, low leakage currents, low dark noise, very good quantum detection efficiency in blue-near UV ranges and a good linearity of the photodiode response to the incident luminous flux are the main characterization results.

  10. Model of single-electron performance of micropixel avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sadygov, Z; Akhmedov, G; Akhmedov, F; Khorev, S; Mukhtarov, R; Sadigov, A; Sidelev, A; Titov, A; Zerrouk, F; Zhezher, V

    2014-01-01

    An approximate iterative model of avalanche process in a pixel of micropixel avalanche photodiode initiated by a single photoelectron is presented. The model describes development of the avalanche process in time, taking into account change of electric field within the depleted region caused by internal discharge and external recharge currents. Conclusions obtained as a result of modelling are compared with experimental data. Simulations show that typical durations of the front and rear edges of the discharge current have the same magnitude of less than 50 ps. The front of the external recharge current has the same duration, however duration of the rear edge depends on value of the quenching micro-resistor. It was found that effective capacitance of the pixel calculated as the slope of linear dependence of the pulse charge on bias voltage exceeds its real capacitance by a factor of two.

  11. 10 Gbps silicon waveguide-integrated infrared avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackert, Jason J; Karar, Abdullah S; Paez, Dixon J; Jessop, Paul E; Cartledge, John C; Knights, Andrew P

    2013-08-26

    We have fabricated monolithic silicon avalanche photodiodes capable of 10 Gbps operation at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The photodiodes are entirely CMOS process compatible and comprise a p-i-n junction integrated with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide. Photo-generation is initiated via the presence of deep levels in the silicon bandgap, introduced by ion implantation and modified by subsequent annealing. The devices show a small signal 3 dB bandwidth of 2.0 GHz as well as an open eye pattern at 10 Gbps. A responsivity of 4.7 ± 0.5 A/W is measured for a 600 µm device at a reverse bias of 40 V.

  12. Robust Quantum Random Number Generator Based on Avalanche Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-Xiang; Wang, Chao; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Lv, Fu-Sheng; He, De-Yong; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme to realize a high-efficiency truly quantum random number generator (RNG) at room temperature (RT). Using an effective extractor with simple time bin encoding method, the avalanche pulses of avalanche photodiode (APD) are converted into high-quality random numbers (RNs) that are robust to slow varying noise such as fluctuations of pulse intensity and temperature. A light source is compatible but not necessary in this scheme. Therefor the robustness of the system is effective enhanced. The random bits generation rate of this proof-of-principle system is 0.69 Mbps with double APDs and 0.34 Mbps with single APD. The results indicate that a high-speed RNG chip based on the scheme is potentially available with an integrable APD array.

  13. Silicon avalanche photodiode operation and lifetime analysis for small satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yue Chuan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Cheng, Cliff; Ling, Alexander

    2013-07-15

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are sensitive to operating temperature fluctuations and are also susceptible to radiation flux expected in satellite-based quantum experiments. We introduce a low power voltage adjusting mechanism to overcome the effects of in-orbit temperature fluctuations. We also present data on the performance of Si APDs after irradiation (γ-ray and proton beam). Combined with an analysis of expected orbital irradiation, we propose that a Si APD in a 400 km equatorial orbit may operate beyond the lifetime of the satellite.

  14. Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.

    1989-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.

  15. Silicon avalanche photodiode operation and lifetime analysis for small satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Ling, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are sensitive to operating temperature fluctuations and are also susceptible to radiation flux expected in satellite-based quantum experiments. We introduce a low power voltage adjusting mechanism to overcome the effects of in-orbit temperature fluctuations. We also present data on the performance of Si APDs after irradiation (gamma-ray and proton beam). Combined with an analysis of expected orbital irradiation, we propose that a Si APD in a 400 km equatorial orbit may operate beyond the lifetime of the satellite.

  16. A 1.06 micrometer avalanche photodiode receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a complete solid state 1.06 micron optical receiver which can be used in optical communications at data rates approaching 1.5 Gb/s, or in other applications requiring sensitive, short pulse detection, is reported. This work entailed both the development of a new type of heterojunction III-V semiconductor alloy avalanche photodiode and an extremely charge-sensitive wideband low noise preamp design making use of GaAs Schottky barrier-gate field effect transistors (GAASFET's) operating in in the negative-feedback transimpedance mode. The electrical characteristics of the device are described.

  17. Silicon avalanche photodiodes for direct detection of X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alfred Q R; Kishimoto, Shunji; Morse, John; Rigal, Jean Marie

    2006-03-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are discussed as fast X-ray detectors for synchrotron radiation. The emphasis is on ;direct' detection, where the X-ray is absorbed within the silicon APD itself, and, therefore, on use with medium-energy X-rays, <30 keV. The impact of APD structure on device performance is examined, and representative data from many different commercial devices are presented. Specific areas discussed include signal shapes, high-rate behavior, time resolution and pulse-height response. Data from several APD arrays are also presented, as is a detailed description of an integrated package system. Tables are included comparing commercially available devices, including arrays.

  18. Reliability assessment of multiple quantum well avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilgu; Menkara, Hicham M.; Wang, Yang; Oguzman, Isamil H.; Kolnik, Jan; Brennan, Kevin F.; May, Gray S.; Wagner, Brent K.; Summers, Christopher J.

    1995-01-01

    The reliability of doped-barrier AlGaAs/GsAs multi-quantum well avalanche photodiodes fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated via accelerated life tests. Dark current and breakdown voltage were the parameters monitored. The activation energy of the degradation mechanism and median device lifetime were determined. Device failure probability as a function of time was computed using the lognormal model. Analysis using the electron beam induced current method revealed the degradation to be caused by ionic impurities or contamination in the passivation layer.

  19. Readout of a scintillating-fiber array by avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Okusawa, T; Yamasaki, M; Yoshida, T

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) as photosensors for scintillating-fiber tracking detectors, putting emphasis on their temperature dependence. For this purpose, a scintillating-fiber array has been built with 0.5 mm diameter fibers 55 cm long. The array is so structured that an incident particle traverses two fibers coupled to an APD. As temperature of the APD falls, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio rises exponentially. It even reaches 90 at -30 deg. C. The detection efficiency exceeds 98% when the temperature decreases until the S/N ratio becomes 30.

  20. Double Screening Tests of the CMS ECAL Avalanche Photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Konrad; Renker, Dieter; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Britvitch, Ilia; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Musienko, Yuri; Singovsky, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Specially developed avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) will be used to measure the light from the 61,200 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the reliability over the lifetime of the detector, every APD is screened by irradiation and burn-in before it is accepted for CMS. As part of the establishment of the screening procedure and to determine its effectiveness, a large number of APDs were screened twice. The results of these tests suggest that the required reliability will be achieved.

  1. Evaluation of Geiger-mode APDs for PET block detector designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Armin; Lorenz, Eckart; Judenhofer, Martin S; Renker, Dieter; Lankes, Konrad; Pichler, Bernd J

    2010-04-07

    This paper presents an evaluation of two types of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs) for their potential to be used in a positron emission tomography (PET) detector. While the MPPC G-APD had only 3600 cells, the solid state photomultiplier (SSPM)-type G-APD had 8100 cells. In a single-channel G-APD/LSO setup, the energy resolution (DeltaEpsilon/Epsilon) of the SSPM at 511 keV was 25%, while the (DeltaEpsilon/Epsilon) of the MPPC was 13.5% (FWHM). No influences were observed while the detectors were inside a 7 T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. A time resolution of 2.7 ns (FWHM) was measured for the LSO/SSPM and 0.9 ns for the LSO/MPPC detector setup. Although the linearity was superior for the SSPM in the single detector readout, the inferior energy and time resolution excluded them to be used for the block detector readout. All 12 x 12 LSO crystals of the block could be resolved in a crystal map using a 3 x 3 MPPC G-APD array. The time resolution of the block detector was 950 ps. While the energy spectra for the MPPC-based single-channel setup were nonlinear, they reached linearity better than 5% in the block detector. A high number of G-APD cells provide a linear signal in a single-channel detector setup, but not necessarily a good timing or (DeltaEpsilon/Epsilon) due to a larger inactive surface resulting in lower photon detection efficiency. G-APDs with a low number of cells provide a good timing and (DeltaEpsilon/Epsilon) and linear signals in block detector designs, where the scintillation light is shared over many G-APDs.

  2. Monte Carlo investigation of avalanche multiplication process in thin InP avalanche photodiodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; MA YuXiang

    2009-01-01

    An ensemble Monte Carlo simulation is presented to investigate the avalanche multiplication process in thin InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Analytical band structures are applied to the description of the conduction and valence band, and impact ionization is treated as an additional scattering mecha-nism with the Keldysh formula. Multiplication gain and excess noise factor of InP p~+-i-n~+ APDs aresimulated and obvious excess noise reduction is found in the thinner devices. The effect of dead space on excess noise in thin APD structures is investigated by the distribution of impact ionization events within the multiplication region. It is found that the dead space can suppress the feedback ionization events resulting in a more deterministic avalanche multiplication process and reduce the excess noise in thinner APDs.

  3. Avalanche photodiode based detector for beam emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai, D; Zoletnik, S; Sárközi, J; Field, A R

    2010-10-01

    An avalanche photodiode based (APD) detector for the visible wavelength range was developed for low light level, high frequency beam emission spectroscopy (BES) experiments in fusion plasmas. This solid state detector has higher quantum efficiency than photomultiplier tubes, and unlike normal photodiodes, it has internal gain. This paper describes the developed detector as well as the noise model of the electronic circuit. By understanding the noise sources and the amplification process, the optimal amplifier and APD reverse voltage setting can be determined, where the signal-to-noise ratio is the highest for a given photon flux. The calculations are compared to the absolute calibration results of the implemented circuit. It was found that for a certain photon flux range, relevant for BES measurements (≈10(8)-10(10) photons/s), the new detector is superior to both photomultipliers and photodiodes, although it does not require cryogenic cooling of any component. The position of this photon flux window sensitively depends on the parameters of the actual experimental implementation (desired bandwidth, detector size, etc.) Several detector units based on these developments have been built and installed in various tokamaks. Some illustrative results are presented from the 8-channel trial BES system installed at Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) and the 16-channel BES system installed at the Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR).

  4. Performance degradation of Geiger-mode APDs at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bondar, A; Dolgov, A; Shekhtman, L; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A; Breskin, A; Thers, D

    2014-01-01

    Two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) with THGEM multipliers, optically read out with Geiger-mode APDs (GAPDs), were proposed as potential technique for charge recording in rare-event experiments. In this work we report on the degradation of the GAPD performance at cryogenic temperatures revealed in the course of the study of two-phase CRAD in Ar, with combined THGEM/GAPD-matrix multiplier; the GAPDs recorded secondary scintillation photons from the THGEM holes in the Near Infrared. The degradation effect, namely the loss of the GAPD pulse amplitude, depended on the incident X-ray photon flux. The critical counting rate of photoelectrons produced at the 4.4 mm2 GAPD, degrading its performance at 87 K, was estimated as 10000 per second. This effect was shown to result from the considerable increase of the pixel quenching resistor of this CPTA-made GAPD type. Though not affecting low-rate rare-event experiments, the observed effect may impose some limitations on the performance of CRADs with GAPD-base...

  5. Studies of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDS) as Readout Devices for Scintillating Fibers for High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Stefan; Shera, Suzanne; Shamo, Denis

    1998-01-01

    New gamma ray and charged particle telescope designs based on scintillating fiber arrays could provide low cost, high resolution, lightweight, very large area and multi radiation length instrumentation for planned NASA space exploration. The scintillating fibers low visible light output requires readout sensors with single photon detection sensitivity and low noise. The sensitivity of silicon Avalanche Photodiodes (APDS) matches well the spectral output of the scintillating fibers. Moreover, APDs have demonstrated single photon capability. The global aim of our work is to make available to NASA a novel optical detector concept to be used as scintillating fiber readouts and meeting the requirements of the new generations of space-borne gamma ray telescopes. We proposed to evaluate the feasibility of using RMD's small area APDs ((mu)APD) as scintillating fiber readouts and to study possible alternative (mu)APD array configurations for space borne readout scintillating fiber systems, requiring several hundred thousand to one million channels. The evaluation has been conducted in accordance with the task description and technical specifications detailed in the NASA solicitation "Studies of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD as readout devices for scintillating fibers for High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Telescopes" (#8-W-7-ES-13672NAIS) posted on October 23, 1997. The feasibility study we propose builds on recent developments of silicon APD arrays and light concentrators advances at RMD, Inc. and on more than 5 years of expertise in scintillating fiber detectors. In a previous program we carried out the initial research to develop a high resolution, small pixel, solid-state, silicon APD array which exhibited very high sensitivity in the UV-VIS spectrum. This (mu)APD array is operated in Geiger mode and results in high gain (greater than 10(exp 8)), extremely low noise, single photon detection capability, low quiescent power (less than 10 (mu)W/pixel for 30 micrometers sensitive

  6. Avalanche Photodiodes as Fast X-ray Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, S

    1998-05-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) detector provides a sub-nanosecond time resolution and an output rate of more than 10(8) counts s(-1) of synchrotron X-rays. Moreover, the APD has the advantage of low noise. A review of recent developments of detectors using APD devices designed for X-ray experiments is presented in this paper. One of the detectors has an excellent time response of 100 ps resolution and a narrow width on its response function, 1.4 ns at 10(-5) maximum. The other consists of a stack of four diodes and has a transmission structure. The stacked detector improved the efficiency for X-rays, e.g. 55% at 16.53 keV. The output rates reached more than 10(8) counts s(-1) per device.

  7. Temperature Control of Avalanche Photodiode Using Thermoelectric Cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Luck, William S., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1999-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDS) are quantum optical detectors that are used for visible and near infrared optical detection applications. Although APDs are compact, rugged, and have an internal gain mechanism that is suitable for low light intensity; their responsivity, and therefore their output, is strongly dependent on the device temperature. Thermoelectric coolers (TEC) offers a suitable solution to this problem. A TEC is a solid state cooling device, which can be controlled by changing its current. TECs are compact and rugged, and they can precisely control the temperature to within 0.1 C with more than a 150 C temperature gradient between its surfaces. In this Memorandum, a proportional integral (PI) temperature controller for APDs using a TEC is discussed. The controller is compact and can successfully cool the APD to almost 0 C in an ambient temperature environment of up to 27 C.

  8. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-02-22

    In this paper we present a general method for estimating rates of accidental coincidence between a pair of single photon detectors operated within their saturation regimes. By folding the effects of recovery time of both detectors and the detection circuit into an "effective duty cycle" we are able to accomodate complex recovery behaviour at high event rates. As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated with detector saturation. We show that by post-processing using the updated model, we observe an improvement in polarization correlation visibility from 88.7% to 96.9% in our experimental dataset. This technique will be useful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in applications which depend on coincidence measurements, especially in situations where rapid changes in flux may cause detector saturation.

  9. Systematic afterpulsing-estimation algorithms for gated avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Wiechers, Carlos; Muñiz-Sánchez, Oscar R; Yépiz, Pablo Daniel; Arredondo-Santos, Alejandro; Hirsch, Jorge G; U'Ren, Alfred B

    2016-01-01

    We present a method designed to efficiently extract optical signals from InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operated in gated mode. In particular, our method permits an estimation of the fraction of counts which actually results from the signal being measured, as opposed to being produced by noise mechanisms, specifically by afterpulsing. Our method in principle allows the use of InGaAs APDs at high detection efficiencies, with the full operation bandwidth, either with or without resorting to the application of a dead time. As we show below, our method can be used in configurations where afterpulsing exceeds the genuine signal by orders of magnitude, even near saturation. The algorithms which we have developed are suitable to be used either in real-time processing of raw detection probabilities or in post-processing applications, after a calibration step has been performed. The algorithms which we propose here can complement technologies designed for the reduction of afterpulsing.

  10. Avalanche photodiode based time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Keiichi, E-mail: kogasawara@swri.edu; Livi, Stefano A.; Desai, Mihir I.; Ebert, Robert W.; McComas, David J.; Walther, Brandon C. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    This study reports on the performance of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) as a timing detector for ion Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. We found that the fast signal carrier speed in a reach-through type APD enables an extremely short timescale response with a mass or energy independent <2 ns rise time for <200 keV ions (1−40 AMU) under proper bias voltage operations. When combined with a microchannel plate to detect start electron signals from an ultra-thin carbon foil, the APD comprises a novel TOF system that successfully operates with a <0.8 ns intrinsic timing resolution even using commercial off-the-shelf constant-fraction discriminators. By replacing conventional total-energy detectors in the TOF-Energy system, APDs offer significant power and mass savings or an anti-coincidence background rejection capability in future space instrumentation.

  11. Systematic afterpulsing-estimation algorithms for gated avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechers, Carlos; Ramírez-Alarcón, Roberto; Muñiz-Sánchez, Oscar R; Yépiz, Pablo Daniel; Arredondo-Santos, Alejandro; Hirsch, Jorge G; U'Ren, Alfred B

    2016-09-10

    We present a method designed to efficiently extract optical signals from InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operated in gated mode. In particular, our method permits an estimation of the fraction of counts that actually results from the signal being measured, as opposed to being produced by noise mechanisms, specifically by afterpulsing. Our method in principle allows the use of InGaAs APDs at high detection efficiencies, with the full operation bandwidth, either with or without resorting to the application of a dead-time. As we show below, our method can be used in configurations where afterpulsing exceeds the genuine signal by orders of magnitude, even near saturation. The algorithms that we have developed are suitable to be used either in real-time processing of raw detection probabilities or in post-processing applications, after a calibration step has been performed. The algorithms that we propose here can complement technologies designed for the reduction of afterpulsing.

  12. Cesium hafnium chloride scintillator coupled with an avalanche photodiode photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, S.; Kodama, S.; Yokota, Y.; Horiai, T.; Yamaji, A.; Shoji, Y.; Král, R.; Pejchal, J.; Ohashi, Y.; Kamada, K.; Nikl, M.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2017-02-01

    Optical and scintillation properties of pure Cs2HfCl6 (CHC) single crystals were investigated. In particular, light output and energy resolution were measured using a Si avalanche photodiode (Si-APD), since the Si-APD has sufficient quantum efficiency of around 70 % at emission wavelength region of CHC around 420 nm. This CHC single crystal grown using the vertical Bridgeman method showed light output of 37,000± 2,000 photons/MeV . The FWHM energy resolution was determined to be 3.7± 0.5× (E/662 keV)-0.85± 0.03[%], where E [keV] is the gamma-ray energy. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the light output was stable from -5 to 30 oC, while the light output increased below -10 oC.

  13. Avalanche photodiode based time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Keiichi; Livi, Stefano A; Desai, Mihir I; Ebert, Robert W; McComas, David J; Walther, Brandon C

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on the performance of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) as a timing detector for ion Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. We found that the fast signal carrier speed in a reach-through type APD enables an extremely short timescale response with a mass or energy independent <2 ns rise time for <200 keV ions (1-40 AMU) under proper bias voltage operations. When combined with a microchannel plate to detect start electron signals from an ultra-thin carbon foil, the APD comprises a novel TOF system that successfully operates with a <0.8 ns intrinsic timing resolution even using commercial off-the-shelf constant-fraction discriminators. By replacing conventional total-energy detectors in the TOF-Energy system, APDs offer significant power and mass savings or an anti-coincidence background rejection capability in future space instrumentation.

  14. Weak avalanche discrimination for gated-mode single-photon avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seok-Beom; Kang, Sae-Kyoung

    2011-09-12

    The after-pulsing effect is a common problem that needs to be overcome for high-speed single-photon detection based on gated-mode single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs). This paper presents a simple and practical method for suppression of the after-pulsing probability using an auxiliary signal to discriminate quite weak avalanches. The detection efficiency and after-pulse probability of an InGaAs/InP SPAD are investigated with a 10 MHz gating for conventional and proposed methods, and a sharp decrease of after-pulse probability is demonstrated with the application of the proposed method. At a gating frequency of 100 MHz, a detection efficiency of 10.4% is achieved with an after-pulse probability of 5.6% without dead time.

  15. Characterization of midwave infrared InSb avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abautret, J., E-mail: johan.abautret@ies.univ-montp2.fr; Evirgen, A. [Université Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); SOFRADIR, BP 21, 38113 Veurey-Voroize (France); Perez, J. P.; Christol, P. [Université Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Rothman, J. [CEA-LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cordat, A. [SOFRADIR, BP 21, 38113 Veurey-Voroize (France)

    2015-06-28

    This paper focuses on the InSb material potential for the elaboration of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) for high performance infrared imaging applications, both in passive or active mode. The first InSb electron-APD structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy, processed and electrically characterized. The device performances are at the state of the art for the InSb epi-diode technology, with a dark current density J(−50 mV) = 32 nA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K. Then, a pure electron injection was performed, and an avalanche gain, increasing exponentially, was observed with a gain value near 3 at −4 V at 77 K. The Okuto–Crowell model was used to determine the electron ionization coefficient α(E) in InSb, and the InSb gain behavior is compared with the one of InAs and MCT APDs.

  16. The properties of ITE's silicon avalanche photodiodes within the spectral range used in scintillation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Wegrzecka, I

    1999-01-01

    The design and properties of 3 mm silicon avalanche photodiodes developed at ITE are presented. Their performance parameters within the spectral range applicable in scintillation detection (400-700 nm) are discussed and compared to those for near infrared radiation.

  17. Characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for photon correlation measurements. 2: Active quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R G; Jones, R; Rarity, J G; Ridley, K D

    1987-06-15

    We continue examination of the photon correlation properties of silicon avalanche photodiodes operated in photon-counting mode by extending their operation from that of passive quenching(1) to active quenching, yielding shorter dead time and higher frequency operation.

  18. Single Photon Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector (APD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A linear mode HgCdT electron-initiated avalanche photodiode (EAPD) capable of 1570nm photon detection efficiency (PDE) at >10 MHz will be developed. The Phase I...

  19. GaN-Based, Low-Voltage Avalanche Photodiodes for Robust and Compact UV Imagers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR program is directed toward the development of a novel low-voltage (~10V) AlGaN-based multi-quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiode (APD) on...

  20. Readout of scintillator light with avalanche photodiodes for positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, R; Tavernier, Stefaan; Bruyndonckx, P; Clément, D; Loude, J F; Morel, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The noise properties and other relevant characteristics of avalanche photodiodes have been investigated with the perspective of replacing photomultiplier tubes in positron emission tomography. It is clearly demonstrated that they are a valid alternative to photomultiplier tubes in this application.

  1. Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.

  2. Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.

  3. Advanced active quenching circuits for single-photon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, M.; Christensen, B. G.; Kwiat, P. G.; Gauthier, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    Commercial photon-counting modules, often based on actively quenched solid-state avalanche photodiode sensors, are used in wide variety of applications. Manufacturers characterize their detectors by specifying a small set of parameters, such as detection efficiency, dead time, dark counts rate, afterpulsing probability and single photon arrival time resolution (jitter), however they usually do not specify the conditions under which these parameters are constant or present a sufficient description. In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of the active quenching process and identify intrinsic limitations and engineering challenges. Based on that, we investigate the range of validity of the typical parameters used by two commercial detectors. We identify an additional set of imperfections that must be specified in order to sufficiently characterize the behavior of single-photon counting detectors in realistic applications. The additional imperfections include rate-dependence of the dead time, jitter, detection delay shift, and "twilighting." Also, the temporal distribution of afterpulsing and various artifacts of the electronics are important. We find that these additional non-ideal behaviors can lead to unexpected effects or strong deterioration of the system's performance. Specifically, we discuss implications of these new findings in a few applications in which single-photon detectors play a major role: the security of a quantum cryptographic protocol, the quality of single-photon-based random number generators and a few other applications. Finally, we describe an example of an optimized avalanche quenching circuit for a high-rate quantum key distribution system based on time-bin entangled photons.

  4. Comparison of 32 x 128 and 32 x 32 Geiger-mode APD FPAs for single photon 3D LADAR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir; Zalud, Peter F.; Senko, Tom; Tower, John; Ferraro, Joseph

    2011-05-01

    We present results obtained from 3D imaging focal plane arrays (FPAs) employing planar-geometry InGaAsP/InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) with high-efficiency single photon sensitivity at 1.06 μm. We report results obtained for new 32 x 128 format FPAs with 50 μm pitch and compare these results to those obtained for 32 x 32 format FPAs with 100 μm pitch. We show excellent pixel-level yield-including 100% pixel operability-for both formats. The dark count rate (DCR) and photon detection efficiency (PDE) performance is found to be similar for both types of arrays, including the fundamental DCR vs. PDE tradeoff. The optical crosstalk due to photon emission induced by pixel-level avalanche detection events is found to be qualitatively similar for both formats, with some crosstalk metrics for the 32 x 128 format found to be moderately elevated relative to the 32 x 32 FPA results. Timing jitter measurements are also reported for the 32 x 128 FPAs.

  5. Laser annealing heals radiation damage in avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jin Gyu [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are a practical option for space-based quantum communications requiring single-photon detection. However, radiation damage to APDs significantly increases their dark count rates and thus reduces their useful lifetimes in orbit. We show that high-power laser annealing of irradiated APDs of three different models (Excelitas C30902SH, Excelitas SLiK, and Laser Components SAP500S2) heals the radiation damage and several APDs are restored to typical pre-radiation dark count rates. Of nine samples we test, six APDs were thermally annealed in a previous experiment as another solution to mitigate the radiation damage. Laser annealing reduces the dark count rates further in all samples with the maximum dark count rate reduction factor varying between 5.3 and 758 when operating at -80 C. This indicates that laser annealing is a more effective method than thermal annealing. The illumination power to reach these reduction factors ranges from 0.8 to 1.6 W. Other photon detection characteristics, such as photon detection efficiency, timing jitter, and afterpulsing probability, fluctuate but the overall performance of quantum communications should be largely unaffected by these variations. These results herald a promising method to extend the lifetime of a quantum satellite equipped with APDs. (orig.)

  6. A New Positioning Algorithm for Position-Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Olcott, Peter D; Levin, Craig S

    2007-06-01

    We are using a novel position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) for the construction of a high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) camera. Up to now most researchers working with PSAPDs have been using an Anger-like positioning algorithm involving the four corner readout signals of the PSAPD. This algorithm yields a significant non-linear spatial "pin-cushion" distortion in raw crystal positioning histograms. In this paper, we report an improved positioning algorithm, which combines two diagonal corner signals of the PSAPD followed by a 45° rotation to determine the X or Y position of the interaction. We present flood positioning histogram data generated with the old and new positioning algorithms using a 3 × 4 array of 2 × 2 × 3 mm(3) and a 3 × 8 array of 1 × 1 × 3 mm(3) of LSO crystals coupled to 8 × 8 mm(2) PSAPDs. This new algorithm significantly reduces the pin-cushion distortion in raw flood histogram image.

  7. New gamma detector modules based on micropixel avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadov, F.; Ahmadov, G.; Guliyev, E.; Madatov, R.; Sadigov, A.; Sadygov, Z.; Suleymanov, S.; Akberov, R.; Nuriyev, S.; Zerrouk, F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper presented the results of the ionizing radiation detector modules, which developed on the basis of a new generation of micropixel avalanche photodiode (MAPD) of MAPD-3NK type. The samples were produced in cooperation with the Zecotek Photonics and characterized by the following parameters: sensitive area—3.7 mm × 3.7 mm, density of pixels—10000 pixels/mm2, photon detection efficiency—35-40% (at wavelength of 450-550 nm) and operation voltage—91 V. The beta particle and gamma ray detection performance of MAPD with different single scintillation crystal such as NaI, LFS and p-terphenyl was investigated. The gamma ray detector modules demonstrated a perfect linear behavior of detected signal amplitudes as a function of the gamma ray energy (from 26.3 keV up to 1.33 MeV). Energy resolution for 662 keV gamma rays was 11.2% and the minimum detectable energy was 26.3 keV.

  8. Avalanche photodiode photon counting receivers for space-borne lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

    1991-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; (2) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; and (3) APD's in analog mode when the received optical signal is extremely weak. Non-breakdown APD photon counters were shown experimentally to achieve an effective photon counting quantum efficiency of 5.0 percent at lambda = 820 nm with a dead time of 15 ns and a dark count rate of 7000/s which agreed with the theoretically predicted values. The interarrival times of the counts followed an exponential distribution and the counting statistics appeared to follow a Poisson distribution with no after pulsing. It is predicted that the effective photon counting quantum efficiency can be improved to 18.7 percent at lambda = 820 nm and 1.46 percent at lambda = 1060 nm with a dead time of a few nanoseconds by using more advanced commercially available electronic components.

  9. Interaction of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs Devices With Thermal Irradiation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been examined the high temperature irradiation variations testing in order to be used to determine avalanche photodiode lifetime, even though APD failure mechanisms are more sensitive to increases in current density. As a measured parameter of degradation, the current density is of great significance when searching for failure modes in APD. Raising the current density however, is not really indicative of lifetime since it is more likely a situation to be avoided than one that simulates normal lifetime degradation. The reliability of semiconductor detectors is very dependent on the degradation modes. This paper has investigated deeply some of the degradation performance and capabilities of typical APDs currently used in many communication and sensing systems over wide range of the affecting parameters. APDs are used in systems that require coherent and often single mode light such as high data rate communications and sensing applications. APDs are an attractive receiver choice for photon-starved (low signal applications, because their internal gain mechanism can improve signal to noise ratio. An optical receiver must also be appropriate for the laser wavelength being used. The near infrared is the preferred wavelength regime for deep space optical communications largely due to the wavelengths of available laser technologies that meet the optical power requirements of a deep space optical link

  10. Characterization of Advanced Avalanche Photodiodes for Water Vapor Lidar Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Halama, Gary E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2000-01-01

    Development of advanced differential absorption lidar (DIAL) receivers is very important to increase the accuracy of atmospheric water vapor measurements. A major component of such receivers is the optical detector. In the near-infrared wavelength range avalanche photodiodes (APD's) are the best choice for higher signal-to-noise ratio, where there are many water vapor absorption lines. In this study, characterization experiments were performed to evaluate a group of silicon-based APD's. The APD's have different structures representative of different manufacturers. The experiments include setups to calibrate these devices, as well as characterization of the effects of voltage bias and temperature on the responsivity, surface scans, noise measurements, and frequency response measurements. For each experiment, the setup, procedure, data analysis, and results are given and discussed. This research was done to choose a suitable APD detector for the development of an advanced atmospheric water vapor differential absorption lidar detection system operating either at 720, 820, or 940 nm. The results point out the benefits of using the super low ionization ratio (SLIK) structure APD for its lower noise-equivalent power, which was found to be on the order of 2 to 4 fW/Hz(sup (1/2)), with an appropriate optical system and electronics. The water vapor detection systems signal-to-noise ratio will increase by a factor of 10.

  11. Recent advances in very large area avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillante, Michael R.; Christian, James; Entine, Gerald; Farrell, Richard; Karger, Arieh M.; McClish, Mickel; Myers, Richard; Shah, Kanai S.; Taylor, David; Vanderpuye, Kofi; Waer, Peter; Woodring, Mitchell

    2003-09-01

    The Avalanche Photodiode (APD) is a unique device that combines the advantages of solid state photodetectors with those of high gain devices such as photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). APDs have internal gain that provides a high signal-to-noise ratio. APDs have high quantum efficiency, are fast, compact, and rugged. These properties make them suitable detectors for important applications such as LADAR, detection and identification toxic chemicals and bio-warfare agents, LIDAR fluorescence detection, stand-off laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and nuclear detectors and imagers. Recently there have been significant technical breakthroughs in fabricating very large APDs, APD arrays, and position sensitive APD arrays (PSAPD). Signal gain of over 10,000 has been achieved, single element APDs have been fabricated with active area greater than 40 cm2, monolithic pixelated arrays with up to 28 x 28 elements have been fabricated, and position sensitive APDs have been developed and tested. Additionally, significant progress has been made in improving the fabrication process to provide better uniformity and high yield, permitting cost effective manufacturing of APDs for reduced cost.

  12. Nano-Multiplication-Region Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nano-multiplication-region avalanche photodiodes (NAPDs), and imaging arrays of NAPDs integrated with complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel-sensor integrated circuitry, are being developed for applications in which there are requirements for high-sensitivity (including photoncounting) detection and imaging at wavelengths from about 250 to 950 nm. With respect to sensitivity and to such other characteristics as speed, geometric array format, radiation hardness, power demand of associated circuitry, size, weight, and robustness, NAPDs and arrays thereof are expected to be superior to prior photodetectors and arrays including CMOS active-pixel sensors (APSs), charge-coupled devices (CCDs), traditional APDs, and microchannelplate/ CCD combinations. Figure 1 depicts a conceptual NAPD array, integrated with APS circuitry, fabricated on a thick silicon-on-insulator wafer (SOI). Figure 2 presents selected aspects of the structure of a typical single pixel, which would include a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) integrated with the NAPD. The NAPDs would reside in silicon islands formed on the buried oxide (BOX) layer of the SOI wafer. The silicon islands would be surrounded by oxide-filled insulation trenches, which, together with the BOX layer, would constitute an oxide embedding structure. There would be two kinds of silicon islands: NAPD islands for the NAPDs and MOSFET islands for in-pixel and global CMOS circuits. Typically, the silicon islands would be made between 5 and 10 m thick, but, if necessary, the thickness could be chosen outside this range. The side walls of the silicon islands would be heavily doped with electron-acceptor impurities (p+-doped) to form anodes for the photodiodes and guard layers for the MOSFETs. A nanoscale reach-through structure at the front (top in the figures) central position of each NAPD island would contain the APD multiplication region. Typically, the reach-through structure would be

  13. Signal and noise properties of position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongfeng; Wu, Yibao; Farrell, Richard; Dokhale, Purushottam A; Shah, Kanai S; Cherry, Simon R

    2011-10-07

    After many years of development, position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) are now being incorporated into a range of scintillation detector systems, including those used in high-resolution small-animal PET and PET/MR scanners. In this work, the signal, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), flood histogram and timing resolution were measured for lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator arrays coupled to PSAPDs ranging in size from 10 to 20 mm, and the optimum bias voltage and working temperature were determined. Variations in the SNR performance of PSAPDs with the same dimensions were small, but the SNR decreased significantly with increasing PSAPD size and increasing temperature. Smaller PSAPDs (10 mm and 15 mm in width) produced acceptable flood histograms at 24 °C, and cooling lower than 16 °C produced little improvement. The optimum bias voltage was about 25 V below the break down voltage. The larger 20 mm PSAPDs have lower SNR and require cooling to 0-7 °C for acceptable performance. The optimum bias voltage is also lower (35 V or more below the break down voltage depending on the temperature). Significant changes in the timing resolution were observed as the bias voltage and temperature varied. Higher bias voltages provided better timing resolution. The best timing resolution obtained for individual crystals was 2.8 ns and 3.3 ns for the 10 mm and 15 mm PSAPDs, respectively. The results of this work provide useful guidance for selecting the bias voltage and working temperature for scintillation detectors that incorporate PSAPDs as the photodetector.

  14. Numerical analysis of the temperature field in silicon avalanche photodiode by millisecond laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Jin, Guangyong; Wei, Zhi; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-10-01

    Recent years, millisecond laser become a research hotspot. Avalanche photodiode (APD) based on silicon structure has excellent characteristics such as low noise and high-sensitivity. It is key components in receives for long-haul high-bit-rate optical communication system. The failure mechanism of silicon APD remains quite unknown, although some silicon p-i-n photodiode failure modes have been speculated. The COMSOL Multiphysics finite element analysis software was utilized in this paper. And the 2D model, which based on heat conduction equation, was established to simulate the temperature field of the silicon avalanche photodiode irradiated by millisecond laser. The model presented in the following section is a work which considers only melting of silicon by a millisecond laser pulse. The temperature dependences of material properties are taken into account, which has a great influence on the temperature fields indicated by the numerical results. The pulsed laser-induced transient temperature fields in silicon avalanche photodiode are obtained, which will be useful in the research on the mechanism of interactions between millisecond laser and photodiode. The evolution of temperature at the central point of the top surface, the temperature distribution along the radial direction in the end of laser irradiation and the temperature distribution along the axial direction in the end of laser irradiation were considered. Meanwhile, the fluence threshold value was obtained through the model. The conclusions had a reference value for revealing the mechanism of interactions between millisecond laser and the silicon avalanche photodiode.

  15. High performance waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si linear mode avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicholas J D; Derose, Christopher T; Brock, Reinhard W; Starbuck, Andrew L; Pomerene, Andrew T; Lentine, Anthony L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S

    2016-08-22

    We present experimental results for a selective epitaxially grown Ge-on-Si separate absorption and charge multiplication (SACM) integrated waveguide coupled avalanche photodiode (APD) compatible with our silicon photonics platform. Epitaxially grown Ge-on-Si waveguide-coupled linear mode avalanche photodiodes with varying lateral multiplication regions and different charge implant dimensions are fabricated and their illuminated device characteristics and high-speed performance is measured. We report a record gain-bandwidth product of 432 GHz for our highest performing waveguide-coupled avalanche photodiode operating at 1510nm. Bit error rate measurements show operation with BER-12, in the range from -18.3 dBm to -12 dBm received optical power into a 50 Ω load and open eye diagrams with 13 Gbps pseudo-random data at 1550 nm.

  16. Epitaxially-grown Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes for 1.3 microm light detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y; Zadka, M; Litski, S; Sarid, G; Morse, M; Paniccia, M J; Kuo, Y-H; Bowers, J; Beling, A; Liu, H D; McIntosh, D C; Campbell, J; Pauchard, A

    2008-06-23

    We designed and fabricated Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes grown on silicon substrates. The mesa-type photodiodes exhibit a responsivity at 1310 nm of 0.54 A/W, a breakdown voltage thermal coefficient of 0.05%/ degrees C, a 3 dB-bandwidth of 10 GHz. The gain-bandwidth product was measured as 153 GHz. The effective k value extracted from the excess noise factor was 0.1.

  17. Improved x-ray detection and particle identification with avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepold, Marc; Fernandes, Luis M P; Machado, Jorge; Amaro, Pedro; Abdou-Ahmed, Marwan; Amaro, Fernando D; Antognini, Aldo; Biraben, François; Chen, Tzu-Ling; Covita, Daniel S; Dax, Andreas J; Franke, Beatrice; Galtier, Sandrine; Gouvea, Andrea L; Götzfried, Johannes; Graf, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hildebrandt, Malte; Indelicato, Paul; Julien, Lucile; Kirch, Klaus; Knecht, Andreas; Kottmann, Franz; Krauth, Julian J; Liu, Yi-Wei; Monteiro, Cristina M B; Mulhauser, Françoise; Naar, Boris; Nebel, Tobias; Nez, François; Santos, José Paulo; dos Santos, Joaquim M F; Schuhmann, Karsten; Szabo, Csilla I; Taqqu, David; Veloso, João F C A; Voss, Andreas; Weichelt, Birgit; Pohl, Randolf

    2015-05-01

    Avalanche photodiodes are commonly used as detectors for low energy x-rays. In this work, we report on a fitting technique used to account for different detector responses resulting from photoabsorption in the various avalanche photodiode layers. The use of this technique results in an improvement of the energy resolution at 8.2 keV by up to a factor of 2 and corrects the timing information by up to 25 ns to account for space dependent electron drift time. In addition, this waveform analysis is used for particle identification, e.g., to distinguish between x-rays and MeV electrons in our experiment.

  18. Improved x-ray detection and particle identification with avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diepold, Marc, E-mail: marc.diepold@mpq.mpg.de; Franke, Beatrice; Götzfried, Johannes; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Krauth, Julian J.; Mulhauser, Françoise; Nebel, Tobias; Pohl, Randolf [Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fernandes, Luis M. P.; Amaro, Fernando D.; Gouvea, Andrea L.; Monteiro, Cristina M. B.; Santos, Joaquim M. F. dos [LIBPhys, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Machado, Jorge [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL) e Departamento de Física da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Monte da Caparica, 2892-516 Caparica (Portugal); Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universités, CNRS, ENS-PSL Research University, Collège de France, 4 place Jussieu, case 74, 75005 Paris (France); Amaro, Pedro; Santos, José Paulo [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL) e Departamento de Física da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Monte da Caparica, 2892-516 Caparica (Portugal); and others

    2015-05-15

    Avalanche photodiodes are commonly used as detectors for low energy x-rays. In this work, we report on a fitting technique used to account for different detector responses resulting from photoabsorption in the various avalanche photodiode layers. The use of this technique results in an improvement of the energy resolution at 8.2 keV by up to a factor of 2 and corrects the timing information by up to 25 ns to account for space dependent electron drift time. In addition, this waveform analysis is used for particle identification, e.g., to distinguish between x-rays and MeV electrons in our experiment.

  19. Large-area avalanche photodiodes for the detection of soft x rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullikson, E M; Gramsch, E; Szawlowski, M

    1995-08-01

    The charge-collection efficiency of beveled-edge-type silicon avalanche photodiodes has been determined for soft x rays in the 50-300-eV range. An efficiency of greater than 80% is measured for energies below the Si L absorption edge. The measured efficiency is well described by a model that accounts for absorption in an oxide overlayer and recombination at the front surface of the diode. The avalanche photodiodes are shown to be significantly more sensitive compared with other detectors for pulsed sources such as a laser-produced plasma source. These results are also very encouraging for soft-xray/ extreme-UV applications involving synchrotron radiation.

  20. Ultra-low noise single-photon detector based on Si avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Su; Jeong, Youn-Chang; Sauge, Sebastien; Makarov, Vadim; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2011-09-01

    We report operation and characterization of a lab-assembled single-photon detector based on commercial silicon avalanche photodiodes (PerkinElmer C30902SH, C30921SH). Dark count rate as low as 5 Hz was achieved by cooling the photodiodes down to -80 °C. While afterpulsing increased as the photodiode temperature was decreased, total afterpulse probability did not become significant due to detector's relatively long deadtime in a passively-quenched scheme. We measured photon detection efficiency >50% at 806 nm. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  1. Turn-on and turn-off voltages of an avalanche p—n junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoqing, Zhang; Dejun, Han; Changjun, Zhu; Xuejun, Zhai

    2012-09-01

    Characteristics of the turn-on and turn-off voltage of avalanche p—n junctions were demonstrated and studied. As opposed to existing reports, the differences between the turn-on and turn-off voltage cannot be neglected when the size of the p—n junction is in the order of microns. The difference increases inversely with the area of a junction, exerting significant influences on characterizing some parameters of devices composed of small avalanche junctions. Theoretical analyses show that the mechanism for the difference lies in the increase effect of the threshold multiplication factor at the turn-on voltage of a junction when the area of a junction decreases. Moreover, the “breakdown voltage" in the formula of the avalanche asymptotic current is, in essence, the avalanche turn-off voltage, and consequently, the traditional expression of the avalanche asymptotic current and the gain of a Geiger mode avalanche photodiode were modified.

  2. Photon Detection with Cooled Avalanche Photodiodes: Theory and Preliminary Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. L.; Hays, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) can be operated in a geiger-tube mode so that they can respond to single electron events and thus be used as photon counting detectors. Operational characteristics and theory of APDs while used in this mode are analyzed and assessed. Preliminary experimental investigation of several commercially available APDs has commenced, and initial results for dark count statistics are presented.

  3. Background-Free Optical Sampling System Using Si Avalanche Photodiode as Two-Photon Absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji; Taira; Ryo; Ohta; Yasuyuki; Ozeki; Yutaka; Fukuchi; Kazuhiro; Katoh; Kazuro; Kikuchi

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of a double-chopping scheme eliminates the background level in the optical sampling system, where a Si avalanche photodiode acts as a two-photon absorber. We successfully demonstrate background-free optical sampling of 40-GHz and 160-GHz pulse trains.

  4. Linear LIDAR versus Geiger-mode LIDAR: impact on data properties and data quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, A.; Pfennigbauer, M.

    2016-05-01

    LIDAR has become the inevitable technology to provide accurate 3D data fast and reliably even in adverse measurement situations and harsh environments. It provides highly accurate point clouds with a significant number of additional valuable attributes per point. LIDAR systems based on Geiger-mode avalanche photo diode arrays, also called single photon avalanche photo diode arrays, earlier employed for military applications, now seek to enter the commercial market of 3D data acquisition, advertising higher point acquisition speeds from longer ranges compared to conventional techniques. Publications pointing out the advantages of these new systems refer to the other category of LIDAR as "linear LIDAR", as the prime receiver element for detecting the laser echo pulses - avalanche photo diodes - are used in a linear mode of operation. We analyze the differences between the two LIDAR technologies and the fundamental differences in the data they provide. The limitations imposed by physics on both approaches to LIDAR are also addressed and advantages of linear LIDAR over the photon counting approach are discussed.

  5. Single and few photon avalanche photodiode detection process study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    We are presenting the results of the study of the Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) pulse response risetime and its dependence on several key parameters. We were investigating the unique properties of K14 type SPAD with its high delay uniformity of 200 μm active area and the correlation between the avalanche buildup time and the photon number involved in the avalanche trigger. The detection chip was operated in a passive quenching circuit with active gating. This setup enabled us to monitor the diode reverse current using an electrometer, a fast digitizing oscilloscope, and using a custom design comparator circuit. The electrometer reading enabled to estimate the photon number per detection event, independently on avalanche process. The avalanche build up was recorded on the oscilloscope and processed by custom designed waveform analysis package. The correlation of avalanche build up to the photon number, bias above break, photon absorption location, optical pulse length and photon energy was investigated in detail. The experimental results are presented. The existing solid state photon counting detectors have been dedicated for picosecond resolution and timing stability of single photon events. However, the high timing stability is maintained for individual single photons detection, only. If more than one photon is absorbed within the detector time resolution, the detection delay will be significantly affected. This fact is restricting the application of the solid state photon counters to cases where single photons may be guaranteed, only. For laser ranging purposes it is highly desirable to have a detector, which detects both single photon and multi photon signals with picoseconds stability. The SPAD based photon counter works in a purely digital mode: a uniform output signal is generated once the photon is detected. If the input signal consists of several photons, the first absorbed one triggers the avalanche. Obviously, for multiple photon signals, the

  6. HgCdTe Infrared Avalanche Photodiode Single Photon Detector Arrays for the LIST and Other Decadal Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD)  SWIR/IR linear mode photon counting (LMPC) array detector system in support of the LIST lidar. Provide a new type...

  7. High-Speed Radiation Tolerant Avalanche Photodiodes Based on InGaN for Space Altimeter Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-performance, radiation-tolerant detectors are required for the time-of-flight laser based rangefinders. Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are conventionally chosen...

  8. Probing higher order correlations of the photon field with photon number resolving avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, J F; Yuan, Z L; Sharpe, A W; Thomas, O; Shields, A J

    2011-07-04

    We demonstrate the use of two high speed avalanche photodiodes in exploring higher order photon correlations. By employing the photon number resolving capability of the photodiodes the response to higher order photon coincidences can be measured. As an example we show experimentally the sensitivity to higher order correlations for three types of photon sources with distinct photon statistics. This higher order correlation technique could be used as a low cost and compact tool for quantifying the degree of correlation of photon sources employed in quantum information science.

  9. III-Nitride Visible- and Solar-Blind Avalanche Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Manager: Dr. Donald Silversmith – Air Force Office of Scientific Research Principal Investigator: Professor Manijeh Razeghi Center for...photodiodes K. Minder, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock, P. Kung, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi and D. Silversmith Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 7, p. 073513-1...M. Razeghi, E. Muñoz, and D. Silversmith Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 04, p. 041104 -1-- July 23, 2007 3. Hole-initiated multiplication

  10. Resonant normal-incidence separate-absorption-charge-multiplication Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; Chen, Hui-Wen; Bowers, John E; Kang, Yimin; Morse, Mike; Paniccia, Mario J

    2009-09-14

    In this work the impedance of separate-absorption-charge-multiplication Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes (APD) is characterized over a large range of bias voltage. An equivalent circuit with an inductive element is presented for modeling the Ge/Si APD. All the parameters for the elements included in the equivalent circuit are extracted by fitting the measured S(22) with the genetic algorithm optimization. Due to a resonance in the avalanche region, the frequency response of the APD has a peak enhancement when the bias voltage is relatively high, which is observed in the measurement and agrees with the theoretical calculation shown in this paper.

  11. Multiplication theory for dynamically biased avalanche photodiodes: new limits for gain bandwidth product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Majeed M; Ramirez, David A

    2012-03-26

    Novel theory is developed for the avalanche multiplication process in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) under time-varying reverse-biasing conditions. Integral equations are derived characterizing the statistics of the multiplication factor and the impulse-response function of APDs, as well as their breakdown probability, all under the assumption that the electric field driving the avalanche process is time varying and spatially nonuniform. Numerical calculations generated by the model predict that by using a bit-synchronous sinusoidal biasing scheme to operate the APD in an optical receiver, the pulse-integrated gain-bandwidth product can be improved by a factor of 5 compared to the same APD operating under the conventional static biasing. The bit-synchronized periodic modulation of the electric field in the multiplication region serves to (1) produce large avalanche multiplication factors with suppressed avalanche durations for photons arriving in the early phase of each optical pulse; and (2) generate low avalanche gains and very short avalanche durations for photons arriving in the latter part of each optical pulse. These two factors can work together to reduce intersymbol interference in optical receivers without sacrificing sensitivity.

  12. Design and realization of a facility for the characterization of Silicon Avalanche PhotoDiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Celentano, Andrea; De Vita, Raffaella; Fegan, Stuart; Mini, Giuseppe; Nobili, Gianni; Ottonello, Giacomo; Parodi, Franco; Rizzo, Alessandro; Zonta, Irene

    2015-01-01

    We present the design, construction, and performance of a facility for the characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes in the operating temperature range between -2 $^\\circ$C and 25 $^\\circ$C. The system can simultaneously measure up to 24 photo-detectors, in a completely automatic way, within one day of operations. The measured data for each sensor are: the internal gain as a function of the bias voltage and temperature, the gain variation with respect to the bias voltage, and the dark current as a function of the gain. The systematic uncertainties have been evaluated during the commissioning of the system to be of the order of 1%. This paper describes in detail the facility design and layout, and the procedure employed to characterize the sensors. The results obtained from the measurement of the 380 Avalanche Photodiodes of the CLAS12-Forward Tagger calorimeter detector are then reported, as the first example of the massive usage of the facility.

  13. Modeling of high-precision wavefront sensing with new generation of CMT avalanche photodiode infrared detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousset, Silvère; Petit, Cyril; Michau, Vincent; Fusco, Thierry; Robert, Clelia

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared wavefront sensing allows for the enhancement of sky coverage with adaptive optics. The recently developed HgCdTe avalanche photodiode arrays are promising due to their very low detector noise, but still present an imperfect cosmetic that may directly impact real-time wavefront measurements for adaptive optics and thus degrade performance in astronomical applications. We propose here a model of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront measurement in the presence of residual fixed pattern noise and defective pixels. To adjust our models, a fine characterization of such an HgCdTe array, the RAPID sensor, is proposed. The impact of the cosmetic defects on the Shack-Hartmann measurement is assessed through numerical simulations. This study provides both a new insight on the applicability of cadmium mercury telluride (CMT) avalanche photodiodes detectors for astronomical applications and criteria to specify the cosmetic qualities of future arrays.

  14. Performance of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes as Gated-Mode Photon Counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, G; Gautier, J D; Zbinden, H; Gisin, N

    1998-04-20

    We investigate the performance of separate absorption multiplication InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes as single-photon detectors for 1.3- and 1.55-mum wavelengths. First we study afterpulses and choose experimental conditions to limit this effect. Then we compare the InGaAs/InP detector with a germanium avalanche photodiode; the former shows a lower dark-count rate. The effect of operating temperature is studied for both wavelengths. At 173 K and with a dark-count probability per gate of 10(-4), detection efficiencies of 16% for 1.3 mum and 7% for 1.55 mum are obtained. Finally, a timing resolution of less than200 ps is demonstrated.

  15. X-ray spectrometry with Peltier-cooled large area avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, L.M.P.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos E-mail: jmf@gian.fis.uc.pt; Conde, C.A.N

    2004-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the response of a Peltier-cooled large-area avalanche photodiode are investigated. Detector gain, energy linearity, energy resolution and minimum detectable energy are studied at different operation temperatures. Detector energy resolution and lowest detectable X-ray energy present a strong improvement as the operation temperature is reduced from 25 to 15 deg. C and slower improvements are achieved for temperatures below 10 deg. C.

  16. Recent progress in high gain InAs avalanche photodiodes (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Seth; Maddox, Scott J.; Sun, Wenlu; Nair, Hari P.; Campbell, Joe C.

    2015-08-01

    InAs possesses nearly ideal material properties for the fabrication of near- and mid-infrared avalanche photodiodes (APDs), which result in strong electron-initiated impact ionization and negligible hole-initiated impact ionization [1]. Consequently, InAs multiplication regions exhibit several appealing characteristics, including extremely low excess noise factors and bandwidth independent of gain [2], [3]. These properties make InAs APDs attractive for a number of near- and mid-infrared sensing applications including remote gas sensing, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), and both active and passive imaging. Here, we discuss our recent advances in the growth and fabrication of high gain, low noise InAs APDs. Devices yielded room temperature multiplication gains >300, with much reduced (~10x) lower dark current densities. We will also discuss a likely key contributor to our current performance limitations: silicon diffusion into the intrinsic (multiplication) region from the underlying n-type layer during growth. Future work will focus on increasing the intrinsic region thickness, targeting gains >1000. This work was supported by the Army Research Office (W911NF-10-1-0391). [1] A. R. J. Marshall, C. H. Tan, M. J. Steer, and J. P. R. David, "Electron dominated impact ionization and avalanche gain characteristics in InAs photodiodes," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, p. 111107, 2008. [2] A. R. J. Marshall, A. Krysa, S. Zhang, A. S. Idris, S. Xie, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, "High gain InAs avalanche photodiodes," in 6th EMRS DTC Technical Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2009. [3] S. J. Maddox, W. Sun, Z. Lu, H. P. Nair, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank, "Enhanced low-noise gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes with reduced dark current and background doping," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 101, no. 15, pp. 151124-151124-3, Oct. 2012.

  17. Study of frequency and time responses of a separated absorption and multiplication region avalanche photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Banoushi, A; Setayeshi, S

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the frequency and time responses of a separated absorption and multiplication avalanche photodiode are studied by solving the carrier continuity equations, in the low gain regime. The discrepancy between the carrier velocities in different layers is considered for the first time. It is shown that considerable error occurs, if the device d characteristics are calculated assuming uniformly distributed velocities in the depletion layer, especially when the different layers have almost equal thickness.

  18. Temperature dependence of gain and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Pin Jern; David, John P R; Tan, Chee Hing

    2012-12-31

    Measurement and analysis of the temperature dependence of avalanche gain and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes (eAPDs) at 77 to 250 K are reported. The avalanche gain, initiated by pure electron injection, was found to reduce with decreasing temperature. However no significant change in the excess noise was measured as the temperature was varied. For avalanche gain > 3, the InAs APDs with 3.5 µm i-region show consistently low excess noise factors between 1.45 and 1.6 at temperatures of 77 to 250 K, confirming that the eAPD characteristics are exhibited in the measured range of electric field. As the dark current drops much more rapidly than the avalanche gain and the excess noise remains very low, our results confirmed that improved signal to noise ratio can be obtained in InAs eAPDs by reducing the operating temperature. The lack of hole impact ionization, as confirmed by the very low excess noise and the exponentially rising avalanche gain, suggests that hole impact ionization enhancement due to band "resonance" does not occur in InAs APDs at the reported temperatures.

  19. Plasmonic field confinement for separate absorption-multiplication in InGaAs nanopillar avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Alan C.; Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; El-Howayek, Georges; Rajagopal, Abhejit; Currie, Marc; Hayat, Majeed M.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2015-12-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are essential components in quantum key distribution systems and active imaging systems requiring both ultrafast response time to measure photon time of flight and high gain to detect low photon flux. The internal gain of an APD can improve system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Excess noise is typically kept low through the selection of material with intrinsically low excess noise, using separate-absorption-multiplication (SAM) heterostructures, or taking advantage of the dead-space effect using thin multiplication regions. In this work we demonstrate the first measurement of excess noise and gain-bandwidth product in III-V nanopillars exhibiting substantially lower excess noise factors compared to bulk and gain-bandwidth products greater than 200 GHz. The nanopillar optical antenna avalanche detector (NOAAD) architecture is utilized for spatially separating the absorption region from the avalanche region via the NOA resulting in single carrier injection without the use of a traditional SAM heterostructure.

  20. Plasmonic field confinement for separate absorption-multiplication in InGaAs nanopillar avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Alan C; Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; El-Howayek, Georges; Rajagopal, Abhejit; Currie, Marc; Hayat, Majeed M; Huffaker, Diana L

    2015-12-02

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are essential components in quantum key distribution systems and active imaging systems requiring both ultrafast response time to measure photon time of flight and high gain to detect low photon flux. The internal gain of an APD can improve system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Excess noise is typically kept low through the selection of material with intrinsically low excess noise, using separate-absorption-multiplication (SAM) heterostructures, or taking advantage of the dead-space effect using thin multiplication regions. In this work we demonstrate the first measurement of excess noise and gain-bandwidth product in III-V nanopillars exhibiting substantially lower excess noise factors compared to bulk and gain-bandwidth products greater than 200 GHz. The nanopillar optical antenna avalanche detector (NOAAD) architecture is utilized for spatially separating the absorption region from the avalanche region via the NOA resulting in single carrier injection without the use of a traditional SAM heterostructure.

  1. High temperature and wavelength dependence of avalanche gain of AlAsSb avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandall, Ian C; Xie, Shiyu; Xie, Jingjing; Tan, Chee Hing

    2011-11-01

    The evolution of the dark currents and breakdown at elevated temperatures of up to 450  K are studied using thin AlAsSb avalanche regions. While the dark currents increase rapidly as the temperature is increased, the avalanche gain is shown to only have a weak temperature dependence. Temperature coefficients of breakdown voltage of 0.93 and 1.93  mV/K were obtained from the diodes of 80 and 230  nm avalanche regions (i-regions), respectively. These values are significantly lower than for other available avalanche materials at these temperatures. The wavelength dependence of multiplication characteristics of AlAsSb p-i-n diodes has also been investigated, and it was found that the ionization coefficients for electrons and holes are comparable within the electric field and wavelength ranges measured.

  2. Application of Geiger-mode photosensors in Cherenkov detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal, Ahmed, E-mail: gamal.ahmed@assoc.oeaw.ac.a [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Paul, Buehler; Michael, Cargnelli [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Roland, Hohler [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Johann, Marton [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Herbert, Orth [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Ken, Suzuki [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-05-21

    Silicon-based photosensors (SiPMs) working in the Geiger-mode represent an elegant solution for the readout of particle detectors working at low-light levels like Cherenkov detectors. Especially the insensitivity to magnetic fields makes this kind of sensors suitable for modern detector systems in subatomic physics which are usually employing magnets for momentum resolution. We are characterizing SiPMs of different manufacturers for selecting sensors and finding optimum operating conditions for given applications. Recently we designed and built a light concentrator prototype with 8x8 cells to increase the active photon detection area of an 8x8 SiPM (Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-100P) array. Monte Carlo studies, measurements of the collection efficiency, and tests with the MPPC were carried out. The status of these developments are presented.

  3. Application of Geiger-mode photo sensors in Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Gamal; Cargnelli, Michael; Hohler, Roland; Marton, Johann; Orth, Herbert; Suzuki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Silicon-based photosensors (SiPMs) working in the Geiger-mode represent an elegant solution for the readout of particle detectors working at low-light levels like Cherenkov detectors. Especially the insensitivity to magnetic fields makes this kind of sensors suitable for modern detector systems in subatomic physics which are usually employing magnets for momentum resolution. In our institute we are characterizing SiPMs of different manufacturers for selecting sensors and finding optimum operating conditions for given applications. Recently we designed and built a light concentrator prototype with 8x8 cells to increase the active photon detection area of an 8x8 SiPM (Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-100P) array. Monte Carlo studies, measurements of the collection efficiency, and tests with the MPPC were carried out. The status of these developments are presented.

  4. AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with AlInN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chujun; Ye, Xuanchao; Sun, Rui; Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Jin; Lu, Yanan; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Jintao

    2017-06-01

    AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with AlInN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) operated at lower avalanche breakdown voltage are numerically demonstrated. The p-type AlGaN layer and the multiplicative layer with low Al composition are introduced to construct the polarization-induced electric field, which can significantly reduce the avalanche breakdown voltage of the APDs. Calculated results exhibit that the avalanche breakdown voltage of the designed APDs decrease by 13% compared with the conventional device structure. Simultaneously, an improved solar-blind spectral responsivity is achieved due to the inserted AlInN/AlGaN DBRs.

  5. HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detectors for Airborne and Spaceborne Lidar at Infrared Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.; Beck, Jeffrey D.; Mitra, Pradip; Reiff, Kirk; Yang, Guangning

    2017-01-01

    We report results from characterizing the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD) sensorchip assemblies (SCA) developed for lidar at infrared wavelength using the high density vertically integrated photodiodes (HDVIP) technique. These devices demonstrated high quantum efficiency, typically greater than 90 between 0.8 micrometers and the cut-off wavelength, greater than 600 APD gain, near unity excess noise factor, 6-10 MHz electrical bandwidth and less than 0.5 fW/Hz(exp.1/2) noise equivalent power (NEP). The detectors provide linear analog output with a dynamic range of 2-3 orders of magnitude at a fixed APD gain without averaging, and over 5 orders of magnitude by adjusting the APD and preamplifier gain settings. They have been successfully used in airborne CO2 and CH4 integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar as a precursor for space lidar applications.

  6. Germanium-tin multiple quantum well on silicon avalanche photodiode for photodetection at two micron wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Lee, Shuh Ying; Lei, Dian; Gong, Xiao; Khai Loke, Wan; Yoon, Soon-Fatt; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-09-01

    We report the demonstration of a germanium-tin multiple quantum well (Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW)-on-Si avalanche photodiode (APD) for light detection near the 2 μm wavelength range. The measured spectral response covers wavelengths from 1510 to 2003 nm. An optical responsivity of 0.33 A W-1 is achieved at 2003 nm due to the internal avalanche gain. In addition, a thermal coefficient of breakdown voltage is extracted to be 0.053% K-1 based on the temperature-dependent dark current measurement. As compared to the traditional 2 μm wavelength APDs, the Si-based APD is promising for its small excess noise factor, less stringent demand on temperature stability, and its compatibility with silicon technology.

  7. High speed InAs electron avalanche photodiodes overcome the conventional gain-bandwidth product limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew R J; Ker, Pin Jern; Krysa, Andrey; David, John P R; Tan, Chee Hing

    2011-11-07

    High bandwidth, uncooled, Indium Arsenide (InAs) electron avalanche photodiodes (e-APDs) with unique and highly desirable characteristics are reported. The e-APDs exhibit a 3dB bandwidth of 3.5 GHz which, unlike that of conventional APDs, is shown not to reduce with increasing avalanche gain. Hence these InAs e-APDs demonstrate a characteristic of theoretically ideal electron only APDs, the absence of a gain-bandwidth product limit. This is important because gain-bandwidth products restrict the maximum exploitable gain in all conventional high bandwidth APDs. Non-limiting gain-bandwidth products up to 580 GHz have been measured on these first high bandwidth e-APDs.

  8. Speed optimized linear-mode high-voltage CMOS avalanche photodiodes with high responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enne, R; Steindl, B; Zimmermann, H

    2015-10-01

    Two different speed optimized avalanche photodiodes (APDs) fabricated in a 0.35 μm standard high-voltage (HV) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process with a high unamplified responsivity (avalanche gain M=1) of 0.41 A/W at 670 nm are presented. These APDs differ regarding the effective doping of the deep p well (90% and 75%), using lateral well modulation doping. Compared to the -3  dB bandwidth of the unmodulated APD with 100% doping (850 MHz), this optimization leads to an improved bandwidth of 1.02 and 1.25 GHz for the 75% APD and 90% APD, respectively, both at a gain of M=50.

  9. Gain properties of doped GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well avalanche photodiode structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkara, H. M.; Wagner, B. K.; Summers, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive characterization has been made of the static and dynamical response of conventional and multiple quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Comparison of the gain characteristics at low voltages between the MQW and conventional APDs show a direct experimental confirmation of a structure-induced carrier multiplication due to interband impact ionization. Similar studies of the bias dependence of the excess noise characteristics show that the low-voltage gain is primarily due to electron ionization in the MQW-APDS, and to both electron and hole ionization in the conventional APDS. For the doped MQW APDS, the average gain per stage was calculated by comparing gain data with carrier profile measurements, and was found to vary from 1.03 at low bias to 1.09 near avalanche breakdown.

  10. Practical photon number detection with electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, O; Yuan, Z L; Shields, A J

    2012-01-24

    Low-noise single-photon detection is a prerequisite for quantum information processing using photonic qubits. In particular, detectors that are able to accurately resolve the number of photons in an incident light pulse will find application in functions such as quantum teleportation and linear optics quantum computing. More generally, such a detector will allow the advantages of quantum light detection to be extended to stronger optical signals, permitting optical measurements limited only by fluctuations in the photon number of the source. Here we demonstrate a practical high-speed device, which allows the signals arising from multiple photon-induced avalanches to be precisely discriminated. We use a type of silicon avalanche photodiode in which the lateral electric field profile is strongly modulated in order to realize a spatially multiplexed detector. Clearly discerned multiphoton signals are obtained by applying sub-nanosecond voltage gates in order to restrict the detector current.

  11. Multipixel silicon avalanche photodiode with ultralow dark count rate at liquid nitrogen temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, M; Tsujino, K; Sato, K; Sasaki, M

    2009-09-14

    Multipixel silicon avalanche photodiodes (Si APDs) are novel photodetectors used as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), or multipixel photon counter (MPPC), because they have fast response, photon-number resolution, and a high count rate; one drawback, however, is the high dark count rate. We developed a system for cooling an MPPC to liquid nitrogen temperature and thus reduce the dark count rate. Our system achieved dark count rates of <0.2 cps. Here we present the afterpulse probability, counting capability, timing jitter, and photon-number resolution of our system at 78.5 K and 295 K.

  12. Dark Current Degradation of Near Infrared Avalanche Photodiodes from Proton Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Johnston, Allan H.

    2004-01-01

    InGaAs and Ge avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are examined for the effects of 63-MeV protons on dark current. Dark current increases were large and similar to prior results for silicon APDs, despite the smaller size of InGaAs and Ge devices. Bulk dark current increases from displacement damage in the depletion regions appeared to be the dominant contributor to overall dark current degradation. Differences in displacement damage factors are discussed as they relate to structural and material differences between devices.

  13. Improved X-ray detection and particle identification with avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Diepold, Marc; Machado, Jorge; Amaro, Pedro; Abdou-Ahmed, Marwan; Amaro, Fernando D; Antognini, Aldo; Biraben, François; Chen, Tzu-Ling; Covita, Daniel S; Dax, Andreas J; Franke, Beatrice; Galtier, Sandrine; Gouvea, Andrea L; Götzfried, Johannes; Graf, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hildebrandt, Malte; Indelicato, Paul; Julien, Lucile; Kirch, Klaus; Knecht, Andreas; Kottmann, Franz; Krauth, Julian J; Liu, Yi-Wei; Monteiro, Cristina M B; Mulhauser, Françoise; Naar, Boris; Nebel, Tobias; Nez, François; Santos, José Paulo; Santos, Joaquim M F dos; Schuhmann, Karsten; Szabo, Csilla I; Taqqu, David; Veloso, João F C A; Voss, Andreas; Weichelt, Birgit; Pohl, Randolf

    2015-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes are commonly used as detectors for low energy x-rays. In this work we report on a fitting technique used to account for different detector responses resulting from photo absorption in the various APD layers. The use of this technique results in an improvement of the energy resolution at 8.2 keV by up to a factor of 2, and corrects the timing information by up to 25 ns to account for space dependent electron drift time. In addition, this waveform analysis is used for particle identification, e.g. to distinguish between x-rays and MeV electrons in our experiment.

  14. State-of-the-art performance of GaAlAs/GaAs avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, H. D.; Nakano, K.; Tomasetta, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ga(0.15)Al(0.85)As/GaAs avalanche photodiodes have been successfully fabricated. The performance of these detectors is characterized by a rise time of less than 35 ps, an external quantum efficiency with an antireflection coating of 95% at 0.53 microns, and a microwave optical gain of 42 dB. The dark current density is in the low range (10 to the minus A/sq cm) at one-half the breakdown voltages, and rises to 0.0001 A/sq cm at 42 dB optical gain.

  15. Dark Current Degradation of Near Infrared Avalanche Photodiodes from Proton Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Johnston, Allan H.

    2004-01-01

    InGaAs and Ge avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are examined for the effects of 63-MeV protons on dark current. Dark current increases were large and similar to prior results for silicon APDs, despite the smaller size of InGaAs and Ge devices. Bulk dark current increases from displacement damage in the depletion regions appeared to be the dominant contributor to overall dark current degradation. Differences in displacement damage factors are discussed as they relate to structural and material differences between devices.

  16. Trap-assisted tunneling in AlGaN avalanche photodiodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. Shao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes (APDs that were based on separate absorption and multiplication (SAM structures. It was determined experimentally that the dark current in these APDs is rapidly enhanced when the applied voltage exceeds 52 V. Theoretical analyses demonstrated that the breakdown voltage at 52 V is mainly related to the local trap-assisted tunneling effect. Because the dark current is mainly dependent on the trap states as a result of modification of the lifetimes of the electrons in the trap states, the tunneling processes can be modulated effectively by tuning the trap energy level, the trap density, and the tunnel mass.

  17. Effective amplifier noise for an optical receiver based on linear mode avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-C.

    1989-01-01

    The rms noise charge induced by the amplifier for an optical receiver based on the linear-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) was analyzed. It is shown that for an amplifier with a 1-pF capacitor and a noise temperature of 100 K, the rms noise charge due to the amplifier is about 300. Since the noise charge must be small compared to the signal gain, APD gains on the order of 1000 will be required to operate the receiver in the linear mode.

  18. InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiodes with dark current limited by generation-recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Dongdong; Qin, Long; Tang, Qi; Wu, Rui Hua; Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Youping; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Xiuhua; Liu, Wen

    2011-04-25

    Separate absorption grading charge multiplication avalanche photodiodes (SAGCM APDs) are widely accepted in photon starved optical communication systems due to the presence of large photocurrent gain. In this work, we present a detailed analysis of dark currents of planar-type SAGCM InGaAs-InP APDs with different thicknesses of multiplication layer. The effect of the diffusion process, the generation-recombination process, the tunneling process and the multiplication process on the total leakage current is discussed. A new empirical formula has been established to predict the optimal multiplication layer thickness of SAGCM APDs with dark current limited by generation-recombination at multiplication gain of 8.

  19. Trap-assisted tunneling in AlGaN avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z. G.; Gu, Q. J.; Yang, X. F.; Zhang, J.; Kuang, Y. W.; Zhang, D. B.; Yu, H. L.; Hong, X. K.; Feng, J. F.; Liu, Y. S.

    2017-06-01

    We fabricated AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes (APDs) that were based on separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) structures. It was determined experimentally that the dark current in these APDs is rapidly enhanced when the applied voltage exceeds 52 V. Theoretical analyses demonstrated that the breakdown voltage at 52 V is mainly related to the local trap-assisted tunneling effect. Because the dark current is mainly dependent on the trap states as a result of modification of the lifetimes of the electrons in the trap states, the tunneling processes can be modulated effectively by tuning the trap energy level, the trap density, and the tunnel mass.

  20. The 1.06 micrometer avalanche photodiode detectors with integrated circuit preamplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a complete solid state 1.06 micron optical receiver which can be used in optical communications at data rates approaching 1.5 Gb/s, or in other applications requiring sensitive, short-pulse detection, is reported. This work entailed both the development of a new type of heterojunction 3-5 semiconductor alloy avalanche photodiode and an extremely charge-sensitive wideband low-noise preamp design making use of GaAs Schottky barrier-gate field effect transistors.

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of compact gamma cameras based on avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Philippe; Funk, Tobias; Shah, Kanai S; Hasegawa, Bruce H

    2007-06-07

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and in particular position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs), are an attractive alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for reading out scintillators for PET and SPECT. These solid-state devices offer high gain and quantum efficiency, and can potentially lead to more compact and robust imaging systems with improved spatial and energy resolution. In order to evaluate this performance improvement, we have conducted Monte Carlo simulations of gamma cameras based on avalanche photodiodes. Specifically, we investigated the relative merit of discrete and PSAPDs in a simple continuous crystal gamma camera. The simulated camera was composed of either a 4 x 4 array of four channels 8 x 8 mm2 PSAPDs or an 8 x 8 array of 4 x 4 mm2 discrete APDs. These configurations, requiring 64 channels readout each, were used to read the scintillation light from a 6 mm thick continuous CsI:Tl crystal covering the entire 3.6 x 3.6 cm2 photodiode array. The simulations, conducted with GEANT4, accounted for the optical properties of the materials, the noise characteristics of the photodiodes and the nonlinear charge division in PSAPDs. The performance of the simulated camera was evaluated in terms of spatial resolution, energy resolution and spatial uniformity at 99mTc (140 keV) and 125I ( approximately 30 keV) energies. Intrinsic spatial resolutions of 1.0 and 0.9 mm were obtained for the APD- and PSAPD-based cameras respectively for 99mTc, and corresponding values of 1.2 and 1.3 mm FWHM for 125I. The simulations yielded maximal energy resolutions of 7% and 23% for 99mTc and 125I, respectively. PSAPDs also provided better spatial uniformity than APDs in the simple system studied. These results suggest that APDs constitute an attractive technology especially suitable to build compact, small field of view gamma cameras dedicated, for example, to small animal or organ imaging.

  2. Breaking the buildup-time limit of sensitivity in avalanche photodiodes by dynamic biasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Majeed M; Zarkesh-Ha, Payman; El-Howayek, Georges; Efroymson, Robert; Campbell, Joe C

    2015-09-07

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are the preferred photodetectors for direct-detection, high data-rate long-haul optical telecommunications. APDs can detect low-level optical signals due to their internal amplification of the photon-generated electrical current, which is attributable to the avalanche of electron and hole impact ionizations. Despite recent advances in APDs aimed at reducing the average avalanche-buildup time, which causes intersymbol interference and compromises receiver sensitivity at high data rates, operable speeds of commercially available APDs have been limited to 10Gbps. We report the first demonstration of a dynamically biased APD that breaks the traditional sensitivity-versus-speed limit by employing a data-synchronous sinusoidal reverse-bias that drastically suppresses the average avalanche-buildup time. Compared with traditional DC biasing, the sensitivity of germanium APDs at 3Gbps is improved by 4.3 dB, which is equivalent to a 3,500-fold reduction in the bit-error rate. The method is APD-type agnostic and it promises to enable operation at rates of 25Gbps and beyond.

  3. Gaussian pulse gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode for single photon detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixin; Zhang, Xuping; Wang, Shun

    2013-03-01

    The capacitive response noise has been problematic for high-speed single photon detection based on gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes. Traditionally, the noise must be suppressed by complex electronic circuit if low afterpulse probability is desired. In this Letter, we propose a compact and flexible method for noise cancellation, which gates the photodiode with a Gaussian pulse. Because of the differential effect of junction capacitor, the shape of the capacitive response output in our method is the first-order derivative of the Gaussian function that can be matched by the rising edge of a delayed and attenuated version of the gating pulse itself. With matching signal, the avalanche pulse is raised onto a flat platform that can be easily discriminated from the background. For 1550 nm optical signal, the detection efficiency could reach 10.2% with 9.7×10(-6) per gate dark count probability and 3.4% afterpulse probability at 80 MHz gating frequency. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method can decrease the afterpulse probability sharply while maintaining the detection efficiency and dark count performance.

  4. Interplanetary Space Weather Effects on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Avalanche Photodiode Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, E. B.; Carlton, A. K.; Joyce, C. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Spence, H. E.; Sun, X.; Cahoy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Space weather is a major concern for radiation-sensitive space systems, particularly for interplanetary missions, which operate outside of the protection of Earth's magnetic field. We examine and quantify the effects of space weather on silicon avalanche photodiodes (SiAPDs), which are used for interplanetary laser altimeters and communications systems and can be sensitive to even low levels of radiation (less than 50 cGy). While ground-based radiation testing has been performed on avalanche photodiode (APDs) for space missions, in-space measurements of SiAPD response to interplanetary space weather have not been previously reported. We compare noise data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) SiAPDs with radiation measurements from the onboard Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) instrument. We did not find any evidence to support radiation as the cause of changes in detector threshold voltage during radiation storms, both for transient detector noise and long-term average detector noise, suggesting that the approximately 1.3 cm thick shielding (a combination of titanium and beryllium) of the LOLA detectors is sufficient for SiAPDs on interplanetary missions with radiation environments similar to what the LRO experienced (559 cGy of radiation over 4 years).

  5. High-speed imaging and wavefront sensing with an infrared avalanche photodiode array

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Hall, Donald; Jacobson, Shane; Law, Nicholas M; Chun, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Infrared avalanche photodiode arrays represent a panacea for many branches of astronomy by enabling extremely low-noise, high-speed and even photon-counting measurements at near-infrared wavelengths. We recently demonstrated the use of an early engineering-grade infrared avalanche photodiode array that achieves a correlated double sampling read noise of 0.73 e- in the lab, and a total noise of 2.52 e- on sky, and supports simultaneous high-speed imaging and tip-tilt wavefront sensing with the Robo-AO visible-light laser adaptive optics system at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope. We report here on the improved image quality achieved simultaneously at visible and infrared wavelengths by using the array as part of an image stabilization control-loop with adaptive-optics sharpened guide stars. We also discuss a newly enabled survey of nearby late M-dwarf multiplicity as well as future uses of this technology in other adaptive optics and high-contrast imaging applications.

  6. Interplanetary Space Weather Effects on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Avalanche Photodiode Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, E. B.; Carlton, A. K.; Joyce, C. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Spence, H. E.; Sun, X.; Cahoy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Space weather is a major concern for radiation-sensitive space systems, particularly for interplanetary missions, which operate outside of the protection of Earth's magnetic field. We examine and quantify the effects of space weather on silicon avalanche photodiodes (SiAPDs), which are used for interplanetary laser altimeters and communications systems and can be sensitive to even low levels of radiation (less than 50 cGy). While ground-based radiation testing has been performed on avalanche photodiode (APDs) for space missions, in-space measurements of SiAPD response to interplanetary space weather have not been previously reported. We compare noise data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) SiAPDs with radiation measurements from the onboard Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) instrument. We did not find any evidence to support radiation as the cause of changes in detector threshold voltage during radiation storms, both for transient detector noise and long-term average detector noise, suggesting that the approximately 1.3 cm thick shielding (a combination of titanium and beryllium) of the LOLA detectors is sufficient for SiAPDs on interplanetary missions with radiation environments similar to what the LRO experienced (559 cGy of radiation over 4 years).

  7. Noise Temperature Characteristics and Gain-control of Avalanche Photodiodes for Laser Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xi-ping; SHANG Hong-Bo; BAI Ji-yuan; YANG Shuang; WANG Li-na

    2008-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes(APDs) are promising light sensors with high quantum efficiency and low noise. It has been extensively used in radiation detection, laser radar and other weak signal detection fields. Unlike other photodiodes, APD is a very sensitive light detector with very high internal gain. The basic theory shows that the gain of APD is related to the temperature. The internal gain fluctuates with the variation of temperature. Investigated was the influence of the variation of the gain induced by the fluctuation of temperature on the output from APD for a very weak laser pulse input in laser radar. An active reverse-biased voltage compensation method is used to stabilize the gain of APD. An APD model is setup to simulate the detection of light pulse signal. The avalanche process, various noises and temperature's effect are all included in the model. Our results show that for the detection of weak light signal such as in laser radar, even a very small fluctuation of temperature could cause a great effect on APD's gain. The results show that the signal-to-noise ratio of the APD's output could be improved effectively with the active gain-control system.

  8. A theoretical study of improved front-illuminated avalanche drift detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, K.; Yuan, J.; Li, H. R.; Yang, R.; Han, D. J.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, two avalanche drift detector (ADD) concepts were theoretically examined. One was an improved detector with an avalanche photodiode (APD) collecting and double pn-junction drift configuration, and the other was a combination of an APD collecting and metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) drift structure. The feasibility of the devices was theoretically investigated by the ISE-TCAD program. ADD can be operated in either Geiger mode or linear mode. In the former case, the detector was found to be appropriate for a single photon avalanche detector with a large collection area. In the latter case, the detector was observed to be well suited to be coupled to a scintillator for gamma-ray detection. The improved ADDs are considered to have good performances in the short wavelength optical detection and in matching common scintillation crystals with more flexibility.

  9. Single-Photon-Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to develop single-photon-sensitive short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) and mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) avalanche photodiode (APD) receivers based on linear-mode HgCdTe APDs, for application by NASA in light detection and ranging (lidar) sensors. Linear-mode photon-counting APDs are desired for lidar because they have a shorter pixel dead time than Geiger APDs, and can detect sequential pulse returns from multiple objects that are closely spaced in range. Linear-mode APDs can also measure photon number, which Geiger APDs cannot, adding an extra dimension to lidar scene data for multi-photon returns. High-gain APDs with low multiplication noise are required for efficient linear-mode detection of single photons because of APD gain statistics -- a low-excess-noise APD will generate detectible current pulses from single photon input at a much higher rate of occurrence than will a noisy APD operated at the same average gain. MWIR and LWIR electron-avalanche HgCdTe APDs have been shown to operate in linear mode at high average avalanche gain (M > 1000) without excess multiplication noise (F = 1), and are therefore very good candidates for linear-mode photon counting. However, detectors fashioned from these narrow-bandgap alloys require aggressive cooling to control thermal dark current. Wider-bandgap SWIR HgCdTe APDs were investigated in this program as a strategy to reduce detector cooling requirements.

  10. 一种基于雪崩二极管电容特性提取通讯波段单光子信号的方法%A Feasible Method for Detecting 1.5 μm Single Photon Based on Capacitance Nature of Avalanche Photodiode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐兰; 杨磊; 郭学石; 李小英

    2013-01-01

    InGaAs/InP雪崩二极管(APD)可用于探测光通讯波段的单光子.APD工作于门模盖革模式时,单个光子引起的雪崩电流信号通常淹没在电容瞬时充放电脉冲中,光电流信号提取困难.本文通过调整实验参数和APD的寄生电容,使雪崩信号与放电脉冲在时域上有效叠加,并由高速比较器将光电流信号直接甄别出来.本文设计的基于InGaAs/InP APD的单光子探测系统,运行稳定,方法简单可靠,说明这种利用APD的电容特性提取单光子信号是一种有效的方法.%InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode(APD) working in gated Geiger mode can be used to measure single photons in the 1550 nm telecom-band.However,it is difficult to extract the photon induced avalanche current,which is usually buried in the charge and discharge pulses due to junction capacitance.When the avalanche signal and discharge pulse are properly overlaped in the time domain,the avalanche photocurrent is directly discriminated by high-speed comparator.The single photon detection system is simple and stable,which proves that it is efficient to extract the photon with this feature.

  11. A Monte Carlo simulator for noise analysis of avalanche photodiode pixels in low-light image sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetar, Tomislav; Süss, Andreas; Vermandere, Elke; Karpiak, Bogdan; Puers, Robert; Van Hoof, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Noise performance of avalanche photodiodes in light detection is typically described by the excessive noise factor, taking into account only the increase of the variance of the output electron count distribution with respect to the input. This approach is attractive since the excessive noise factor, together with the avalanche gain, can easily be included into the signal-to-noise ratio expression of the complete detection chain. For low-light applications down to single-photon counting, that description is typically not sufficient since one is also interested in the higher moments of the output distribution. Analytical derivation of the output electron count distributions of avalanche photodiodes is typically possible only for very simple electric field profile approximations, which is often not a sufficient description of reality. This work presents a Monte Carlo simulator for numerical prediction of the output distribution that can be applied to any arbitrary electric field profile as well as any light absorption profile and therefore serve as a useful tool for device design and optimization. Comparison with the standard McIntyre theory is provided for a constant field profile showing good agreement. Furthermore, the presented method is used to predict the avalanche noise performance of the recently presented pinned avalanche photodiode pixel (PAPD) with the electric field profile extracted from a finite-element simulation. The pixel is aiming for improvements in high-speed and low-light level image detection in minimally-modified CMOS image sensor technology.

  12. InAs/InAsSb Avalanche Photodiode (APD) for applicaions in long-wavelength infrared region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.K.Maurya; H.Agarwal; A.Singh; P.Chakrabarti

    2008-01-01

    A generic numerical model of a long-wavelength Avalanche Photodiode (APD) based on narrow bandgap semiconductor InAsSb on lnAs substrate is reported for the first time. This model has been applied for theoretical characterization of a proposed N+ InAS/P-InAsSb avalanche photodiode structure for possible application in 2-5 μm wavelength region. The parameters such as gain, excess noise factor and their trade-offwith variation of doping concentration and bias voltage have been estimated for the APD taking into account history-dependent theory of avalanche multiplication process. The LWIR APD is expected to find application in optical gas sensor and in future generation of optical communication system.

  13. A cooled avalanche photodiode detector for X-ray magnetic diffraction experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kishimoto, S; Ito, M

    2001-01-01

    A cooled avalanche photodiode (APD) detector was developed for X-ray magnetic diffraction experiments. A stack of four silicon APDs was cooled down to 243 K by a thermoelectric cooler. The energy widths of 0.89 and 1.55 keV (FWHM) were obtained for 8.05 keV X-rays at 1x10 sup 6 s sup - sup 1 and for 16.53 keV X-rays at 2x10 sup 6 s sup - sup 1 , respectively. Test measurements of X-ray magnetic diffraction were executed using a terbium single crystal and white synchrotron radiation. A peak width of (1 0 3) reflection (5.4 keV) was roughly three times wider than that with a high-purity germanium detector.

  14. Reducing the Spikes of Avalanche Photodiode Measurements at the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Z. E.; Foley, E. L.

    2011-10-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) used at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) make important measurements for the Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic. However, they are very sensitive, and if radiation consistently reaches these detectors they are damaged over time. Furthermore, they also display spikes in their readings, which greatly complicates the data analysis for MSE. Due to our Collisionally-Induced Fluorescence Motional Stark Effect diagnostic observing significant radiation despite being shielded by a 3 foot concrete wall, we must devise a plan for shielding our new Laser-Induced Fluorescence Motional Stark Effect diagnostic, as well as determining the best possible location for them. In order to reduce the amount of spikes seen in our readings and to preserve our detectors, I investigated the type of radiation responsible, the locations most affected, and tested various materials for shielding. Results will be presented.

  15. Measurement-based characterization of multipixel avalanche photodiodes for scintillating detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dziewiecki, M

    2012-01-01

    Multipixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD) are recently gaining popularity in high energy physics experiments as an attractive replacement for photomultiplier tubes, which have been extensively used for many years as a part of various scintillating detectors. Their low price, small dimensions and another features facilitating their use (like mechanical shock resistance, magnetic field immunity or moderate supply voltage) make the MAPDs a good choice for commercial use as well, what is reflected in growing number of producers as well as MAPD models available on the market. This dissertation presents Author’s experience with MAPD measurements and modelling, gained during his work on the T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) long-baseline neutrino experiment, carried out by an international collaboration in Japan. First, operation principle of the MAPD, definitions of various parameters and measurement methods are discussed. Then, a device for large-scale MAPD measurements and related data processing methods are described. Fina...

  16. Frequency response and design consideration of GaN SAM avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Yang, Guofeng; Zhou, Dong; Lu, Hai; Wang, Guosheng

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a method is developed for estimating the frequency response characteristics of GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with separated absorption and multiplication regions (SAM). The method calculates the total diode current with varying frequency by solving transport equations analytically and uses a commercial device simulator as a supplement for determining the exact electrical field profile within the device. Due to the high carrier saturation velocity of GaN, a high-gain-bandwidth product over THz is found achievable for GaN SAM-APDs. The potential performances of GaN SAM-APDs with different structural designs are further compared through numerical studies. It is found that a close-to-reach-through design is attractive for simultaneously achieving both relatively low operation voltage and high working frequency. In addition, transit-time limit and RC-delay limit for the frequency response of GaN SAM-APDs are also discussed.

  17. Temporal and spatial multiplexed infrared single-photon counter based on high-speed avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuliang; Ding, Chengjie; Pan, Haifeng; Huang, Kun; Laurat, Julien; Wu, Guang; Wu, E.

    2017-03-01

    We report on a high-speed temporal and spatial multiplexed single-photon counter with photon-number-resolving capability up to four photons. The infrared detector combines a fiber loop to split, delay and recombine optical pulses and a 200 MHz dual-channel single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. To fully characterize the photon-number-resolving capability, we perform quantum detector tomography and then reconstruct its positive-operator-valued measure and the associated Wigner functions. The result shows that, despite of the afterpulsing noise and limited system detection efficiency, this temporal and spatial multiplexed single-photon counter can already find applications for large repetition rate quantum information schemes.

  18. Optimization of InGaAs/InAlAs Avalanche Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhengyu; Zhu, Min; Xu, Jintong; Li, Xiangyang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report a two-dimensional (2D) simulation for InGaAs/InAlAs separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes (SAGCM APDs) and study the effect of the charge layer and multiplication layer on the operating voltage ranges of APD. We find that with the increase of the thicknesses as well as the doping concentrations of the charge layer and the multiplication layer, the punchthrough voltage increases; with the increase of the doping concentrations of two layers and the thickness of the charge layer, the breakdown voltage decreases; with the increase of the thickness of the multiplication layer, the breakdown voltage first rapidly declines and then slightly rises.

  19. On the analytical formulation of excess noise in avalanche photodiodes with dead space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Erum; Cheong, Jeng S; David, J P R; Hayat, Majeed M

    2016-09-19

    Simple, approximate formulas are developed to calculate the mean gain and excess noise factor for avalanche photodiodes using the dead-space multiplication theory in the regime of small multiplication width and high applied electric field. The accuracy of the approximation is investigated by comparing it to the exact numerical method using recursive coupled integral equations and it is found that it works for dead spaces up to 15% of the multiplication width, which is substantial. The approximation is also tested for real materials such as GaAs, InP and Si for various multiplication widths, and the results found are accurate within ∼ 15% of the actual noise, which is a significant improvement over the local-theory noise formula. The results obtained for the mean gain also confirm the recently reported relationship between experimentally determined local ionization coefficients and the enabled non-local ionization coefficients.

  20. Linear Mode HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Counting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William, III; Beck, Jeffrey; Scritchfield, Richard; Skokan, Mark; Mitra, Pradip; Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James; Carpenter, Darren; Lane, Barry

    2015-01-01

    An overview of recent improvements in the understanding and maturity of linear mode photon counting with HgCdTe electron-initiated avalanche photodiodes is presented. The first HgCdTe LMPC 2x8 format array fabricated in 2011 with 64 micron pitch was a remarkable success in terms of demonstrating a high single photon signal to noise ratio of 13.7 with an excess noise factor of 1.3-1.4, a 7 ns minimum time between events, and a broad spectral response extending from 0.4 micron to 4.2 micron. The main limitations were a greater than 10x higher false event rate than expected of greater than 1 MHz, a 5-7x lower than expected APD gain, and a photon detection efficiency of only 50% when greater than 60% was expected. This paper discusses the reasons behind these limitations and the implementation of their mitigations with new results.

  1. Performance of a Large Area Avalanche Photodiode in a Liquid Xenon Ionization and Scintillation Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, K; Day, D; Giboni, K L; Lopes, J A M; Majewski, P; Yamashita, M

    2005-01-01

    Scintillation light produced in liquid xenon (LXe) by alpha particles, electrons and gamma-rays was detected with a large area avalanche photodiode (LAAPD) immersed in the liquid. The alpha scintillation yield was measured as a function of applied electric field. We estimate the quantum efficiency of the LAAPD to be 45%. The best energy resolution from the light measurement at zero electric field is 7.5%(sigma) for 976 keV internal conversion electrons from Bi-207 and 2.6%(sigma) for 5.5 MeV alpha particles from Am-241. The detector used for these measurements was also operated as a gridded ionization chamber to measure the charge yield. We confirm that using a LAAPD in LXe does not introduce impurities which inhibit the drifting of free electrons.

  2. Temporal and spatial multiplexed infrared single-photon counter based on high-speed avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuliang; Ding, Chengjie; Pan, Haifeng; Huang, Kun; Laurat, Julien; Wu, Guang; Wu, E

    2017-01-01

    We report on a high-speed temporal and spatial multiplexed single-photon counter with photon-number-resolving capability up to four photons. The infrared detector combines a fiber loop to split, delay and recombine optical pulses and a 200 MHz dual-channel single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. To fully characterize the photon-number-resolving capability, we perform quantum detector tomography and then reconstruct its positive-operator-valued measure and the associated Wigner functions. The result shows that, despite of the afterpulsing noise and limited system detection efficiency, this temporal and spatial multiplexed single-photon counter can already find applications for large repetition rate quantum information schemes. PMID:28294155

  3. Application of PN and avalanche silicon photodiodes to low-level optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G.; Schaefer, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    New approaches to the discovery of other planetary systems require very sensitive and stable detection techniques in order to succeed. Two methods in particular, the astrometric and the photometric methods, require this. To begin understanding the problems and limitations of solid state detectors regarding this application, preliminary experiments were performed at the National Bureau of Standards and a low light level detector characterization facility was built. This facility is briefly described, and the results of tests conducted in it are outlined. A breadboard photometer that was used to obtain stellar brightness ratio precision data is described. The design principles of PN and avalanche silicon photodiodes based on low light level measuring circuits are discussed.

  4. Numerical Examination of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes Operated in Charge Storage Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joseph W., Jr.; Brennan, Kevin F.

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of silicon-based avalanche photodiodes (APD's) operated in the charge storage mode is examined. In the charge storage mode, the diodes are periodically biased to a sub-breakdown voltage and then open-circuited. During this integration period, photo-excited and thermally generated carriers are accumulated within the structure. The dynamics of this accumulation and its effects upon the avalanching of the diode warrants a detailed, fully numerical analysis. The salient features of this investigation include device sensitivity to the input photo-current including the self-quenching effect of the diode and its limitations in sensing low light levels, the dependence of the response on the bulk lifetime and hence on the generation current within the device, the initial gain, transient response, dependence of the device uniformity upon performance, and the quantity of storable charge within the device. To achieve these tasks our device simulator, STEBS-2D, was utilized. A modified current-controlled boundary condition is employed which allows for the simulation of the isolated diode after the initial reset bias has been applied. With this boundary condition, it is possible to establish a steady-state voltage on the ohmic contact and then effectively remove the device from the external circuit while still including effects from surface recombination, trapped surface charge, and leakage current from the read-out electronics.

  5. Nanoscale avalanche photodiodes for highly sensitive and spatially resolved photon detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Oliver; Agarwal, Ritesh; Lieber, Charles M

    2006-05-01

    Integrating nanophotonics with electronics could enhance and/or enable opportunities in areas ranging from communications and computing to novel diagnostics. Light sources and detectors are important elements for integration, and key progress has been made using semiconducting nanowires and carbon nanotubes to yield electrically driven sources and photoconductor detectors. Detection with photoconductors has relatively poor sensitivity at the nanometre scale, and thus large amplification is required to detect low light levels and ultimately single photons with reasonable response time. Here, we report avalanche multiplication of the photocurrent in nanoscale p-n diodes consisting of crossed silicon-cadmium sulphide nanowires. Electrical transport and optical measurements demonstrate that the nanowire avalanche photodiodes (nanoAPDs) have ultrahigh sensitivity with detection limits of less than 100 photons, and subwavelength spatial resolution of at least 250 nm. Crossed nanowire arrays also show that nanoAPDs are reproducible and can be addressed independently without cross-talk. NanoAPDs and arrays could open new opportunities for ultradense integrated systems, sensing and imaging applications.

  6. Dark-current characteristics of GaN-based UV avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jintong; Chang, Chao; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-04-01

    For UV detecting, it needs high ratio of signal to noise, which means high responsibility and low noise. GaN-based avalanche photodiodes can provide a high internal photocurrent gain. In this paper, we report the testing and characterization of GaN based thin film materials, optimization design of device structure, the device etching and passivation technology, and the photoelectric characteristics of the devices. Also, uniformity of the device was obtained. The relationship between dark current and material quality or device processes was the focus of this study. GaN based material with high aluminum components have high density defects. Scanning electron microscope, cathodoluminescence spectra, X-ray double crystal diffraction and transmission spectroscopy testing were employed to evaluate the quality of GaN-based material. It shows that patterned sapphire substrate or thick AlN buffer layer is more effective to get high quality materials. GaN-based materials have larger hole ionization coefficient, so back incident structure were adopted to maximize the hole-derived multiplication course and it was helped to get a smaller multiplication noise. The device with separate absorption and multiplication regions is also prospective to reduce the avalanche noise. According to AlGaN based material characteristics and actual device fabrication, device structure was optimized further. Low physical damage inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching method was used to etch mesa and wet etching method was employed to treat mesa damage. Silica is passivation material of device mesa. For solar-blind ultraviolet device, it is necessary to adopt a wider bandgap material than AlGaN material. The current-voltage characteristics under reverse bias were measured in darkness and under UV illumination. The distribution of dark current and response of different devices was obtained. In short, for GaN-based UV avalanche photodiode, dark current was related to high density dislocation of

  7. A new method to improve multiplication factor in micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes with high pixel density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadygov, Z. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ahmadov, F. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Khorev, S. [Zecotek Photonics Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Sadigov, A., E-mail: saazik@yandex.ru [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Suleymanov, S. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Madatov, R.; Mehdiyeva, R. [Institute of Radiation Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Zerrouk, F. [Zecotek Photonics Inc., Vancouver (Canada)

    2016-07-11

    Presented is a new model describing development of the avalanche process in time, taking into account the dynamics of electric field within the depleted region of the diode and the effect of parasitic capacitance shunting individual quenching micro-resistors on device parameters. Simulations show that the effective capacitance of a single pixel, which defines the multiplication factor, is the sum of the pixel capacitance and a parasitic capacitance shunting its quenching micro-resistor. Conclusions obtained as a result of modeling open possibilities of improving the pixel gain in micropixel avalanche photodiodes with high pixel density (or low pixel capacitance).

  8. Multigate single-photon detection and timing discrimination with an InGaAs/lnP avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyuan; Wu, Guang; Zeng, Heping

    2006-03-10

    Multigate detection of single photons at 1550 nm is achieved by using capacitor-balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes, with which we experimentally demonstrate the efficient discrimination of single-photon timing by counting single-photon clicks and the corresponding afterpulses within the multiple gates. Results show that the technique of multigate detection is a practical method for the single-photon timing information process.

  9. Development of novel technologies to enhance performance and reliability of III-Nitride avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Puneet Harischandra

    Solar-blind ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes are an enabling technology for applications in the fields of astronomy, communication, missile warning systems, biological agent detection and particle physics research. Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are capable of detecting low-intensity light with high quantum efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio without the need for external amplification. The properties of III-N materials (GaN and AlGaN) are promising for UV photodetectors that are highly efficient, radiation-hard and capable of visible-blind or solar-blind operation without the need for external filters. However, the realization of reliable and high performance III-N APDs and imaging arrays has several technological challenges. The high price and lack of availability of bulk III-N substrates necessitates the growth of III-Ns on lattice mismatched substrates leading to a high density of dislocations in the material that can cause high leakage currents, noise and premature breakdown in APDs. The etched sidewalls of III-N APDs and high electric fields at contact edges are also detrimental to APD performance and reliability. In this work, novel technologies have been developed and implemented that address the issues of performance and reliability in III-Nitride based APDs. To address the issue of extended defects in the bulk of the material, a novel pulsed MOCVD process was developed for the growth of AlGaN. This process enables growth of high crystal quality AlxGa1-xN with excellent control over composition, doping and thickness. The process has also been adapted for the growth of high quality III-N materials on silicon substrate for devices such as high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). A novel post-growth defect isolation technique is also discussed that can isolate the impact of conductive defects from devices. A new sidewall passivation technique using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of dielectric materials was developed for III-N APDs that is effective in

  10. Radiation hardness investigation of avalanche photodiodes for the Projectile Spectator Detector readout at the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushpil, Vasilij [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež (Czech Republic); Mikhaylov, Vasily, E-mail: mikhaylov@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic); Kushpil, Svetlana; Tlustý, Pavel; Svoboda, Ondrej; Kugler, Andrej [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss results of avalanche photodiodes radiation tests for Projectile Spectator Detector at future Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment. The tests were carried out in Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR in Řež using the cyclotron facility. Secondary neutron beam was used for irradiation because the main radiation damage in the Projectile Spectator Detector is caused by neutrons. Two types of the avalanche photodiodes from Zecotek and Ketek manufacturers were investigated. Special attention was given to the noise investigation and self-annealing after the irradiation. We have irradiated two Ketek PM3375 diodes with equivalent dose for 1 MeV neutrons equal to 2.5±0.2×10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}, and single Zecotek MAPD-3N diode with equivalent dose for 1 MeV neutrons equal to 3.4±0.2×10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}. All the types of the diodes have shown an increasing level of the noise after the irradiation. From that we can conclude that those avalanche photodiodes are not able to detect single photons anymore due to high noise levels.

  11. Radiation Detection Measurements with a New 'Buried Junction' Silicon Avalanche Photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, R; Rouleau, D; Dautet, H; McIntyre, R J; McSween, D; Webb, P

    1999-01-01

    An improved version of a recently developed 'Buried Junction' avalanche photodiode (APD), designed for use with scintillators, is described and characterized. This device, also called the 'Reverse APD', is designed to have a wide depletion layer and thus low capacitance, but to have high gain only for e-h pairs generated within the first few microns of the depletion layer. Thus it has high gain for light from scintillators emitting in the 400-600 nm range, with relatively low dark current noise and it is relatively insensitive to minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). An additional feature is that the metallurgical junction is at the back of the wafer, leaving the front surface free to be coupled to a scintillator without fear of junction contamination. The modifications made in this device, as compared with the earlier diode, have resulted in a lower excess noise factor, lower dark current, and much-reduced trapping. The electrical and optical characteristics of this device are described and measurements of ener...

  12. Response of large area avalanche photodiodes to low energy x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, T. R. [Stop 8461, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Bales, M. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 (United States); Arp, U. [Stop 8410, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Dong, B. [Sotera Defense Solutions, Inc., Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Farrell, R. [RMD Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts 02472 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    For an experiment to study neutron radiative beta-decay, we operated large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) near liquid nitrogen temperature to detect x rays with energies between 0.2 keV and 20 keV. Whereas there are numerous reports of x ray spectrometry using APDs at energies above 1 keV, operation near liquid nitrogen temperature allowed us to reach a nominal threshold of 0.1 keV. However, due to the short penetration depth of x rays below 1 keV, the pulse height spectrum of the APD become complex. We studied the response using monochromatic x ray beams and employed phenomenological fits of the pulse height spectrum to model the measurement of a continuum spectrum from a synchrotron. In addition, the measured pulse height spectrum was modelled using a profile for the variation in efficiency of collection of photoelectrons with depth into the APD. The best results are obtained with the collection efficiency model.

  13. Optimization of eyesafe avalanche photodiode lidar for automobile safety and autonomous navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George M.

    2017-03-01

    Newly emerging accident-reducing, driver-assistance, and autonomous-navigation technology for automobiles is based on real-time three-dimensional mapping and object detection, tracking, and classification using lidar sensors. Yet, the lack of lidar sensors suitable for meeting application requirements appreciably limits practical widespread use of lidar in trucking, public livery, consumer cars, and fleet automobiles. To address this need, a system-engineering perspective to eyesafe lidar-system design for high-level advanced driver-assistance sensor systems and a design trade study including 1.5-μm spot-scanned, line-scanned, and flash-lidar systems are presented. A cost-effective lidar instrument design is then proposed based on high-repetition-rate diode-pumped solid-state lasers and high-gain, low-excess-noise InGaAs avalanche photodiode receivers and focal plane arrays. Using probabilistic receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, derived from measured component performance, a compact lidar system is proposed that is capable of 220 m ranging with 5-cm accuracy, which can be readily scaled to a 360-deg field of regard.

  14. Planar avalanche photodiodes with edge breakdown suppression using a novel selective area growth based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, O. J.; Hisko, M.; Benyon, W.; Bonneville, G.; Storey, C.; SpringThorpe, A. J.

    2017-07-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel process to fabricate planar avalanche photodiodes using selective area growth (SAG) followed by a single Zn diffusion through the SAG material using the same dielectric mask. The tapered surface profile of the SAG epitaxy due to the enhancement of the growth rate in the vicinity of the mask edge modifies the diffusion profile, resulting in a gradual reduction of the diffusion depth towards the outer edge of the active area. The associated reduction of the electric field counteracts the edge curvature effect sufficiently to suppress edge breakdown. For undoped InP SAG epitaxy, small areas of higher electric field occur where the mask edge is along the [1 0 0] or [0 1 0] directions, associated with the formation of enhanced ridges in the SAG material in these locations. Similar ridges are observed for Si-doped InP and InP/InGaAs/InP SAG structures, but the enhancement of the electric field in these locations is significantly lower.

  15. Response of large area avalanche photodiodes to low energy x rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T R; Bales, M; Arp, U; Dong, B; Farrell, R

    2012-05-01

    For an experiment to study neutron radiative beta-decay, we operated large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) near liquid nitrogen temperature to detect x rays with energies between 0.2 keV and 20 keV. Whereas there are numerous reports of x ray spectrometry using APDs at energies above 1 keV, operation near liquid nitrogen temperature allowed us to reach a nominal threshold of 0.1 keV. However, due to the short penetration depth of x rays below 1 keV, the pulse height spectrum of the APD become complex. We studied the response using monochromatic x ray beams and employed phenomenological fits of the pulse height spectrum to model the measurement of a continuum spectrum from a synchrotron. In addition, the measured pulse height spectrum was modelled using a profile for the variation in efficiency of collection of photoelectrons with depth into the APD. The best results are obtained with the collection efficiency model.

  16. Update on Linear Mode Photon Counting with the HgCdTe Linear Mode Avalanche Photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey D.; Kinch, Mike; Sun, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the gain-voltage characteristic of the mid-wavelength infrared cutoff HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is discussed both experimentally and theoretically as a function of the width of the multiplication region. Data are shown that demonstrate a strong dependence of the gain at a given bias voltage on the width of the n- gain region. Geometrical and fundamental theoretical models are examined to explain this behavior. The geometrical model takes into account the gain-dependent optical fill factor of the cylindrical APD. The theoretical model is based on the ballistic ionization model being developed for the HgCdTe APD. It is concluded that the fundamental theoretical explanation is the dominant effect. A model is developed that combines both the geometrical and fundamental effects. The model also takes into account the effect of the varying multiplication width in the low bias region of the gain-voltage curve. It is concluded that the lower than expected gain seen in the first 2 × 8 HgCdTe linear mode photon counting APD arrays, and higher excess noise factor, was very likely due to the larger than typical multiplication region length in the photon counting APD pixel design. The implications of these effects on device photon counting performance are discussed.

  17. Xenon GPSC high-pressure operation with large-area avalanche photodiode readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L. C. C.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Covita, D. S.; Conceição, A. S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2007-06-01

    The performance of a xenon high-pressure gas proportional scintillation counter (GPSC) instrumented with a large area avalanche photodiode (LAAPD) as the VUV-photosensor has been investigated for filling pressures from 1 up to 10 bar, for 22- and 60-keV photons. The LAAPD photosensor is placed directly within the xenon envelope, as a substitute for the photomultiplier tube, avoiding the constraints of the use of a quartz scintillation window for GPSC-photosensor coupling, which absorbs a significant amount of scintillation and is a drawback for applications where large detection areas and high filling pressures are needed. The lowest energy resolutions are achieved for pressures around 5 bar (4.5% and 3.0% full width at half-maximum (FWHM), for 22- and 60-keV photons, respectively). Increasing the pressure to the 8 bar range, competitive energy resolutions of 5.0% and 3.6% are still achieved for 22- and 60-keV photons, respectively. This detector could be a compelling alternative in applications where compactness, large detection area, insensitivity to strong magnetic fields, room temperature operation, large signal-to-noise ratio and good energy resolution are important requirements .

  18. Xenon GPSC high-pressure operation with large-area avalanche photodiode readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, L.C.C. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, J.A.M. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal) and Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: fcjam@gian.fis.uc.pt; Covita, D.S. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Conceicao, A.S. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, J.M.F. dos [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2007-06-01

    The performance of a xenon high-pressure gas proportional scintillation counter (GPSC) instrumented with a large area avalanche photodiode (LAAPD) as the VUV-photosensor has been investigated for filling pressures from 1 up to 10 bar, for 22- and 60-keV photons. The LAAPD photosensor is placed directly within the xenon envelope, as a substitute for the photomultiplier tube, avoiding the constraints of the use of a quartz scintillation window for GPSC-photosensor coupling, which absorbs a significant amount of scintillation and is a drawback for applications where large detection areas and high filling pressures are needed. The lowest energy resolutions are achieved for pressures around 5 bar (4.5% and 3.0% full width at half-maximum (FWHM), for 22- and 60-keV photons, respectively). Increasing the pressure to the 8 bar range, competitive energy resolutions of 5.0% and 3.6% are still achieved for 22- and 60-keV photons, respectively. This detector could be a compelling alternative in applications where compactness, large detection area, insensitivity to strong magnetic fields, room temperature operation, large signal-to-noise ratio and good energy resolution are important requirements.

  19. Radiation detection measurements with a new ``Buried Junction'' silicon avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, R.; Pepin, C.; Rouleau, D.; Dautet, H.; McIntyre, R. J.; McSween, D.; Webb, P.

    1999-02-01

    An improved version of a recently developed "Buried Junction" avalanche photodiode (APD), designed for use with scintillators, is described and characterized. This device, also called the "Reverse APD", is designed to have a wide depletion layer and thus low capacitance, but to have high gain only for e-h pairs generated within the first few microns of the depletion layer. Thus it has high gain for light from scintillators emitting in the 400-600 nm range, with relatively low dark current noise and it is relatively insensitive to minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). An additional feature is that the metallurgical junction is at the back of the wafer, leaving the front surface free to be coupled to a scintillator without fear of junction contamination. The modifications made in this device, as compared with the earlier diode, have resulted in a lower excess noise factor, lower dark current, and much-reduced trapping. The electrical and optical characteristics of this device are described and measurements of energy and timing resolution of this device with several scintillators (BGO, LSO and GSO) of potential interest in high-energy physics and PET imaging systems are presented.

  20. Update on Linear Mode Photon Counting with the HgCdTe Linear Mode Avalanche Photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey D.; Kinch, Mike; Sun, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the gain-voltage characteristic of the mid-wavelength infrared cutoff HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is discussed both experimentally and theoretically as a function of the width of the multiplication region. Data are shown that demonstrate a strong dependence of the gain at a given bias voltage on the width of the n- gain region. Geometrical and fundamental theoretical models are examined to explain this behavior. The geometrical model takes into account the gain-dependent optical fill factor of the cylindrical APD. The theoretical model is based on the ballistic ionization model being developed for the HgCdTe APD. It is concluded that the fundamental theoretical explanation is the dominant effect. A model is developed that combines both the geometrical and fundamental effects. The model also takes into account the effect of the varying multiplication width in the low bias region of the gain-voltage curve. It is concluded that the lower than expected gain seen in the first 2 × 8 HgCdTe linear mode photon counting APD arrays, and higher excess noise factor, was very likely due to the larger than typical multiplication region length in the photon counting APD pixel design. The implications of these effects on device photon counting performance are discussed.

  1. Depth of interaction resolution measurements for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongfeng; Dokhale, Purushottam A; Silverman, Robert W; Shah, Kanai S; McClish, Mickel A; Farrell, Richard; Entine, Gerald; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-05-07

    We explore dual-ended read out of LSO arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) as a high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications. Flood histograms, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for unpolished LSO arrays with individual crystal sizes of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 mm, and for a polished LSO array with 1.3 mm pixels. The thickness of the crystal arrays was 20 mm. Good flood histograms were obtained for all four arrays, and crystals in all four arrays can be clearly resolved. Although the amplitude of each PSAPD signal decreases as the interaction depth moves further from the PSAPD, the sum of the two PSAPD signals is essentially constant with irradiation depth for all four arrays. The energy resolutions were similar for all four arrays, ranging from 14.7% to 15.4%. A DOI resolution of 3-4 mm (including the width of the irradiation band which is approximately 2 mm) was obtained for all the unpolished arrays. The best DOI resolution was achieved with the unpolished 1 mm array (average 3.5 mm). The DOI resolution for the 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm unpolished arrays was 3.7 and 4.0 mm respectively. For the polished array, the DOI resolution was only 16.5 mm. Summing the DOI profiles across all crystals for the 1 mm array only degraded the DOI resolution from 3.5 mm to 3.9 mm, indicating that it may not be necessary to calibrate the DOI response separately for each crystal within an array. The DOI response of individual crystals in the array confirms this finding. These results provide a detailed characterization of the DOI response of these PSAPD-based PET detectors which will be important in the design and calibration of a PET scanner making use of this detector approach.

  2. Linear terrestrial laser scanning using array avalanche photodiodes as detectors for rapid three-dimensional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yinqiao; Tong, Xiaohua; Tong, Peng; Bu, Hongyi; Shu, Rong

    2010-12-01

    As an active remote sensor technology, the terrestrial laser scanner is widely used for direct generation of a three-dimensional (3D) image of an object in the fields of geodesy, surveying, and photogrammetry. In this article, a new laser scanner using array avalanche photodiodes, as designed by the Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is introduced for rapid collection of 3D data. The system structure of the new laser scanner is first presented, and a mathematical model is further derived to transform the original data to the 3D coordinates of the object in a user-defined coordinate system. The performance of the new laser scanner is tested through a comprehensive experiment. The result shows that the new laser scanner can scan a scene with a field view of 30° × 30° in 0.2 s and that, with respect to the point clouds obtained on the wall and ground floor surfaces, the root mean square errors for fitting the two planes are 0.21 and 0.01 cm, respectively. The primary advantages of the developed laser scanner include: (i) with a line scanning mode, the new scanner achieves simultaneously the 3D coordinates of 24 points per single laser pulse, which enables it to scan faster than traditional scanners with a point scanning mode and (ii) the new scanner makes use of two galvanometric mirrors to deflect the laser beam in both the horizontal and the vertical directions. This capability makes the instrument smaller and lighter, which is more acceptable for users.

  3. A study of the timing properties of position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yibao; Ng, Thomas S C; Yang, Yongfeng; Shah, Kanai; Farrell, Richard; Cherry, Simon R

    2009-09-07

    In this paper, we study position-dependent timing shifts and timing resolution in position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) and their effects on the coincidence window used in positron emission tomography (PET) systems using these devices. There is a delay in PSAPD signals that increases as the excitation position moves from the corner to the center of the device and the timing resolution concurrently worsens. The difference in timing between the center and the corner can be up to 30.7 ns for a 14 x 14 mm(2) area PSAPD. This means that a PSAPD-based PET system could require a very wide coincidence timing window (>60 ns) if this effect is not corrected, although the individual crystal pairs still have full-width half-maximum (FWHM) timing resolutions better than 7.4 ns. In addition to characterizing the timing properties of PSAPDs, two correction methods were developed and applied to data from a pair of PSAPD detectors. These two timing offset corrections reduced the timing shift of a crystal pair from 52.4 ns to 9.7 ns or 1.3 ns, improved the FWHM timing resolution of the detector pair from 24.6 ns to 9.5 ns or 6.0 ns and reduced the timing window (sufficient to cover at least twice the FWHM for all crystal pairs) from 65.1 ns to 22.0 ns or 15.2 ns, respectively. A two-step timing alignment method is proposed for a PET system consisting of multiple PSAPDs. Lastly, the effect of PSAPD size on the timing performance was also evaluated.

  4. Impact-ionization-engineered avalanche photodiode arrays for free-space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Mike S.; Rabinovich, William S.; Clark, William R.; Waters, William D.; Campbell, Joe C.; Mahon, Rita; Vaccaro, Kenneth; Krejca, Brian D.; D'Ambrosio, Philip

    2016-11-01

    High-sensitivity photodetectors serve two purposes in free-space optical communication: data reception and position sensing for pointing, tracking, and stabilization. Two separate detectors are traditionally utilized to perform these tasks, but recent advances in the fabrication and development of large area, low-noise avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays have enabled these devices to be used both as position-sensitive detectors and communications receivers because of the conflicting performance criteria. Combining these functionalities allows for more flexibility and simplicity in optical assembly design without sacrificing the sensitivity and bandwidth performance of smaller, single-element data receivers. Beyond eliminating the need to separate the return beam into two separate paths, these devices enable implementation of adaptive approaches to compensate for focal plane beam wander and breakup, which is often seen in highly scintillated terrestrial and maritime optical links. While the Naval Research Laboratory and Optogration, Inc. have recently demonstrated the performance of single period, InAlAs/InGaAs APD arrays as combined data reception and tracking sensors, an impact-ionization-engineered epilayer design achieves even lower carrier ionization ratios by incorporating multiple multiplication periods engineered to suppress lower ionization rate carriers while enhancing the higher ionization rate carriers of interest. This work presents a three-period I2E concentric, five-element APD array rated for bandwidths beyond 1 GHz with measured carrier ionization ratios of 0.05 to 0.1 at moderate APD gains. The epilayer design of the device will be discussed along with initial device characterization and high-speed performance measurements.

  5. Measurement and modeling of the nonlinearity of photovoltaic and Geiger-mode photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kauten, Thomas; Kaufmann, Thomas; Weihs, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    While in most cases the absolute accuracy, resolution, and noise floor are the only relevant specifications for the dynamic range of a photodetector, there are experiments for which the linearity plays a more important role than the former three properties. In these experiments nonlinearity can lead to systematic errors. In our work we present a modern implementation of the well-known superposition method and apply it to two different types of photodetectors.

  6. Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaoui, Wissem Sfar; Chen, Hui-Wen; Bowers, John E; Kang, Yimin; Morse, Mike; Paniccia, Mario J; Pauchard, Alexandre; Campbell, Joe C

    2009-07-20

    In this work we report a separate-absorption-charge-multiplication Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with an enhanced gain-bandwidth-product of 845 GHz at a wavelength of 1310 nm. The corresponding gain value is 65 and the electrical bandwidth is 13 GHz at an optical input power of -30 dBm. The unconventional high gain-bandwidth-product is investigated using device physical simulation and optical pulse response measurement. The analysis of the electric field distribution, electron and hole concentration and drift velocities in the device shows that the enhanced gain-bandwidth-product at high bias voltages is due to a decrease of the transit time and avalanche build-up time limitation at high fields.

  7. Evaluation of a fast single-photon avalanche photodiode for measurement of early transmitted photons through diffusive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ying; Valim, Niksa; Niedre, Mark

    2013-06-15

    We tested the performance of a fast single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) in measurement of early transmitted photons through diffusive media. In combination with a femtosecond titanium:sapphire laser, the overall instrument temporal response time was 59 ps. Using two experimental models, we showed that the SPAD allowed measurement of photon-density sensitivity functions that were approximately 65% narrower than the ungated continuous wave case at very early times. This exceeds the performance that we have previously achieved with photomultiplier-tube-based systems and approaches the theoretical maximum predicted by time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Readout of a LaCl sub 3 (Ce sup 3 sup +) scintillation crystal with a large area avalanche photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Allier, C P; Dorenbos, P; Hollander, R W; Eijk, C W E; Kraemer, K W; Güdel, H U

    2002-01-01

    A high-resolution gamma-ray detector consisting of an 8 mm diameter and 5 mm thick LaCl sub 3 (Ce sup 3 sup +) scintillation crystal coupled to a 16 mm diameter APD from Advanced Photonix Inc is presented. The energy resolution R obtained at 662 keV is about 3.7% (full-width at half maximum). The low intrinsic resolution of about 2%, the high light yield of the crystal (46 000+-5000 photons per MeV) and the high quantum efficiency of the avalanche photodiode make this gamma-ray detector an excellent choice for applications were a high energy resolution is required.

  9. Linear arrays of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 1.0-1.7 micron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, D. E.; Hladky, J.; Lange, M. J.; Mason, S.; Erickson, G.; Olsen, G. H.; Ban, V. S.; Forrest, S. R.; Staller, C.

    1990-01-01

    Separate absorption and multiplication InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (SAM-APDs) with a floating guard ring structure that is well-suited to array applications have been successfully demonstrated. Individual APDs have breakdown voltages greater than 80 V, multiplications over 40 at 100 nA dark current, and uniform spatial gain profiles. Uniform I-V characteristics and gains have been measured over linear dimensions as large as 1.2 cm. Gains over 10 at low multiplied dark currents were measured on 21 consecutive devices at the wafer level.

  10. GaAs-based nanoneedle light emitting diode and avalanche photodiode monolithically integrated on a silicon substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Linus C; Sedgwick, Forrest G; Chen, Roger; Ko, Wai Son; Moewe, Michael; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2011-02-09

    Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductor devices with silicon CMOS integrated circuits has been hindered by large lattice mismatches and incompatible processing due to high III-V epitaxy temperatures. We report the first GaAs-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and light emitting diodes, directly grown on silicon at a very low, CMOS-compatible temperature and fabricated using conventional microfabrication techniques. The APDs exhibit an extraordinarily large multiplication factor at low voltage resulting from the unique needle shape and growth mode.

  11. Low-SWaP coincidence processing for Geiger-mode LIDAR video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Steven E.; Cervino, Noel P.; Kurtz, Zachary D.; Brown, Myron Z.

    2015-05-01

    Photon-counting Geiger-mode lidar detector arrays provide a promising approach for producing three-dimensional (3D) video at full motion video (FMV) data rates, resolution, and image size from long ranges. However, coincidence processing required to filter raw photon counts is computationally expensive, generally requiring significant size, weight, and power (SWaP) and also time. In this paper, we describe a laboratory test-bed developed to assess the feasibility of low-SWaP, real-time processing for 3D FMV based on Geiger-mode lidar. First, we examine a design based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and demonstrate proof-of-concept results. Then we examine a design based on a first-of-its-kind embedded graphical processing unit (GPU) and compare performance with the FPGA. Results indicate feasibility of real-time Geiger-mode lidar processing for 3D FMV and also suggest utility for real-time onboard processing for mapping lidar systems.

  12. Turn-on and turn-off voltages of an avalanche p-n junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoqing; Han Dejun; Zhu Changjun; Zhai Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of the turn-on and turn-off voltage of avalanche p-n junctions were demonstrated and studied.As opposed to existing reports,the differences between the turn-on and turn-off voltage cannot be neglected when the size of the p-n junction is in the order of microns.The difference increases inversely with the area of a junction,exerting significant influences on characterizing some parameters of devices composed of small avalanche junctions.Theoretical analyses show that the mechanism for the difference lies in the increase effect of the threshold multiplication factor at the turn-on voltage of a junction when the area of a junction decreases.Moreover,the "breakdown voltage" in the formula of the avalanche asymptotic current is,in essence,the avalanche turn-off voltage,and consequently,the traditional expression of the avalanche asymptotic current and the gain of a Geiger mode avalanche photodiode were modified.

  13. Progress in low light-level InAs detectors- towards Geiger-mode detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Hing; Ng, Jo Shien; Zhou, Xinxin; David, John; Zhang, Shiyong; Krysa, Andrey

    2017-05-01

    InAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) can be designed such that only electrons are allowed to initiate impact ionization, leading to the lowest possible excess noise factor. Optimization of wet chemical etching and surface passivation produced mesa APDs with bulk dominated dark current and responsivity that are comparable and higher, respectively, than a commercial InAs detector. Our InAs electron-APDs also show high stability with fluctuation of 0.1% when operated at a gain of 11.2 over 60 s. These InAs APDs can detect very weak signal down to 35 photons per pulse. Fabrication of planar InAs by Be implantation produced planar APDs with bulk dominated dark current. Annealing at 550 °C was necessary to remove implantation damage and to activate Be dopants. Due to minimal diffusion of Be, thick depletion of 8 μm was achieved. Since the avalanche gain increases exponentially with the thickness of avalanche region, our planar APD achieved high gain > 300 at 200 K. Our work suggest that both mesa and planar InAs APDs can exhibit high gain. When combined with a suitable preamplifier, single photon detection using InAs electron-APDs could be achieved.

  14. Enhanced red and near infrared detection in flow cytometry using avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, William G; Varadi, Gyula; Entine, Gerald; Podniesinski, Edward; Wallace, Paul K

    2008-08-01

    Polychromatic flow cytometry enables detailed identification of cell phenotype using multiple fluorescent parameters. The photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used to detect fluorescence in current instruments limit the sensitivity in the long wavelength spectral range. We demonstrate the flow cytometric applications of silicon avalanche photodiodes (APDs), which have improved red sensitivity and a working fluorescence detection range beyond 1,000 nm. A comparison of the wavelength-dependent performance of the APD and PMT was carried out using pulsed light-emitting diode sources, calibrated test beads, and biological samples. A breadboard flow cytometer test bench was constructed to compare the performance of PMTs and APD detectors. The APD used an additional amplifier stage to match the internal gain of the PMT. The resolution of the APD and PMT was compared for flow cytometry applications using a pulsed light-emitting diode source over the 500-1060 nm spectral range. These measurements showed the relative changes in the signal-to-noise performance of the APD and PMT over a broad spectral range. Both the APD and PMTs were used to measure the signal-to-noise response for a set of six peak calibration beads over the 530-800 nm wavelength range. CD4-positive cells labeled with antibody-conjugated phycoerythrin or 800 nm quantum dots were identified by simultaneous detection using the APD and the PMT. The ratios of the intensities of the CD4- and CD4+ populations were found to be similar for both detectors in the visible wavelengths, but only the APD was able to separate these populations at wavelengths above 800 nm. These measurements illustrate the differences in APD and PMT performance at different wavelengths and signal intensity levels. While the APD and PMT show similar signal-to-noise performance in the visible spectral range, the dark noise of the APD detector reduces the sensitivity at low signal levels. At wavelengths longer than 650 nm, the high quantum efficiency

  15. Conception d'un circuit d'etouffement pour photodiodes a avalanche en mode geiger pour integration heterogene 3d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Alexandre

    Le Groupe de Recherche en Appareillage Medical de Sherbrooke (GRAMS) travaille actuellement sur un programme de recherche portant sur des photodiodes a avalanche mono-photoniques (PAMP) operees en mode Geiger en vue d'une application a la tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP). Pour operer dans ce mode; la PAMP, ou SPAD selon l'acronyme anglais (Single Photon Avalanche Diode), requiert un circuit d'etouffement (CE) pour, d'une part, arreter l'avalanche pouvant causer sa destruction et, d'autre part. la reinitialiser en mode d'attente d'un nouveau photon. Le role de ce CE comprend egalement une electronique de communication vers les etages de traitement avance de signaux. La performance temporelle optimale du CE est realisee lorsqu'il est juxtapose a la PAMP. Cependant, cela entraine une reduction de la surface photosensible ; un element crucial en imagerie. L'integration 3D, a base d'interconnexions verticales, offre une solution elegante et performante a cette problematique par l'empilement de circuits integres possedant differentes fonctions (PAMP, CE et traitement avance de signaux). Dans l'approche proposee, des circuits d'etouffement de 50 pm x 50 pm realises sur une technologie CMOS 130 mn 3D Tezzaron, contenant chacun 112 transistors, sont matrices afin de correspondre a une matrice de PAMP localisee sur une couche electronique superieure. Chaque circuit d'etouffement possede une gigue temporelle de 7,47 ps RMS selon des simulations faites avec le logiciel Cadence. Le CE a la flexibilite d'ajuster les temps d'etouffement et de recharge pour la PAMP tout en presentant une faible consommation de puissance (~ 0,33 mW a 33 Mcps). La conception du PAMP necessite de supporter des tensions superieures aux 3,3 V de la technologie. Pour repondre a ce probleme, des transistors a drain etendu (DEMOS) ont ete realises. En raison de retards de production par Ies fabricants, les circuits n'ont pu etre testes physiquement par des mesures. Les resultats de ce memoire

  16. Temperature Dependence Study of Mesa-Type InGaAs/InAlAs Avalanche Photodiode Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Jia-Sheng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Avalanche photodiodes (APDs are key optical receivers due to their performance advantages of high speed, high sensitivity, and low noise. The most critical device parameters of APD include the avalanche breakdown voltage and dark current. In this work, we study the temperature dependence of the breakdown voltage and dark current of the mesa-type APD over a wide temperature range of 20–145°C. We institute an empirical model based on impact ionization processes to account for the experimental data. It is shown that highly stable breakdown characteristics of mesa-type APD can be attained with the optimization of the multiplication layer design. We have achieved excellent stability of avalanche breakdown voltage with a temperature coefficient of 0.017 V/°C. The temperature dependence of dark current is attributed to generation-recombination mechanism. The bandgap energy is estimated to be about 0.71 eV based on the temperature variation of dark current, in good agreement with the value for InGaAs.

  17. 25-Gbit/s burst-mode optical receiver using high-speed avalanche photodiode for 100-Gbit/s optical packet switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Masahiro; Nakamura, Makoto; Matsuzaki, Hideaki

    2014-01-13

    25-Gbit/s error-free operation of an optical receiver is successfully demonstrated against burst-mode optical input signals without preambles. The receiver, with a high-sensitivity avalanche photodiode and burst-mode transimpedance amplifier, exhibits sufficient receiver sensitivity and an extremely quick response suitable for burst-mode operation in 100-Gbit/s optical packet switching.

  18. Simultaneous data communication and position sensing with an impact ionization engineered avalanche photodiode array for free space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Mike S.; Mahon, Rita; Rabinovich, William S.; Murphy, James L.; Dexter, James L.; Clark, William R.; Waters, William D.; Vaccaro, Kenneth; Krejca, Brian D.

    2017-02-01

    Photodetectors in free space optical communication systems perform two functions: reception of data communication signals and position sensing for pointing, tracking, and stabilization. Traditionally, the optical receive path in an FSO system is split into separate paths for data detection and position sensing. The need for separate paths is a consequence of conflicting performance criteria between position sensitive detectors (PSD) and data detectors. Combining the functionality of both detector types requires that the combinational sensor not only have the bandwidth to support high data rate communication but the active area and spatial discrimination to accommodate position sensing. In this paper we present a large area, concentric five element impact ionization engineered avalanche photodiode array rated for bandwidths beyond 1GHz with a measured carrier ionization ratio of less than 0.1 at moderate APD gains. The integration of this array as a combinational sensor in an FSO system is discussed along with the development of a pointing and stabilization algorithm.

  19. Design of resonant cavity structure for efficient high-temperature operation of single-photon avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavvari, Mahdi; Abedi, Kambiz; Karimi, Mohammad

    2014-05-20

    A novel design of a single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) is proposed based on resonant cavity (RC) structure, and its performance is studied. In the proposed structure, InAlAs/InGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are employed as top and bottom mirrors and the quantum efficiency (QE) of the absorption region is calculated considering the effect of the RC. Results show that using 12 periods of DBRs as a bottom reflector without incorporation of a top mirror can enhance the QE to about 90% at room temperature. For this RC-enhanced SPAD, a single-photon quantum efficiency (SPQE) is obtained of about 0.35 at T=300  K. For temperatures lower than T=260  K, SPQE is about 1. Results show that although the RC doesn't affect the dark current, for a given SPQE the dark count rate is lower for the RC-SPAD.

  20. Linearity improvement of high-speed avalanche photodiodes using thin depleted absorber operating with higher order modulation format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Masahiro; Hoshi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; Matsuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-10-19

    We present an avalanche photodiode (APD) with high-speed, high-responsivity and high-linearity operation to cope with higher order modulation format, such as pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). A hybrid absorber configuration with thin depleted region which we newly employed successfully eliminates the space charge effect in the APD while maintaining high responsivity and operating speed. The fabricated APD shows an improved optical-input-electrical-output linearity for an optical input power over -8 dBm, and an optical receiver with this APD achieves both an error-free operation with a KP4 FEC and a high sensitivity of -17 dBm against a 28-Gbaud PAM4 signal.

  1. First-principle theory of high field carrier transport in semiconductors with application to the study of avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Michele

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this thesis work is twofold: to present a theoretical framework to study high-field carrier transport in semiconductor materials and to provide a deep understanding of the transport properties of GaN and HgCdTe. The validation of this model is performed by applying it to the study of Avalanche Photodiodes. The model we developed is based on Monte Carlo techniques and it includes the full details of the band structure, derived from the empirical pseudopotential method (EPM), and a numerically calculated impact ionization transition rate based on a wave-vector dependent dielectric function. The nonpolar carrier-phonon interaction is treated within the framework of the rigid pseudoion (RPI) approximation using ab initio techniques to determine the phonon dispersion relation. The calculated phonon scattering rates are consistent with the electronic structure and the phonon dispersion relation thus removing adjustable parameters such as deformation potential coefficients. Band-to-band carrier tunneling has been treated by solving the time-dependent multiband Schroedinger equation. The multiband description predicts a considerable increase of the impact ionization coefficients compared with simulations not considering tunneling. Specifically, the present model has been applied to the study of two distinct semiconductor materials: GaN and HgCdTe. The former is a wide bandgap while the second is a narrow bandgap semiconductor. In spite of their constantly increasing technological reliability both materials lack theoretical understanding of high-field carrier transport. Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) offer an ideal environment to test and validate the model developed in this thesis work because of the large electric field involved in these devices. APDs based on both GaN and HgCdTe are investigated, consistently with the physics-based models described above. Key quantities such as gain, breakdown voltage, bandwidth and noise characteristics are estimated. The

  2. Simulation of a Geiger-Mode Imaging LADAR System for Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Joon Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As LADAR systems applications gradually become more diverse, new types of systems are being developed. When developing new systems, simulation studies are an essential prerequisite. A simulator enables performance predictions and optimal system parameters at the design level, as well as providing sample data for developing and validating application algorithms. The purpose of the study is to propose a method for simulating a Geiger-mode imaging LADAR system. We develop simulation software to assess system performance and generate sample data for the applications. The simulation is based on three aspects of modeling—the geometry, radiometry and detection. The geometric model computes the ranges to the reflection points of the laser pulses. The radiometric model generates the return signals, including the noises. The detection model determines the flight times of the laser pulses based on the nature of the Geiger-mode detector. We generated sample data using the simulator with the system parameters and analyzed the detection performance by comparing the simulated points to the reference points. The proportion of the outliers in the simulated points reached 25.53%, indicating the need for efficient outlier elimination algorithms. In addition, the false alarm rate and dropout rate of the designed system were computed as 1.76% and 1.06%, respectively.

  3. CMOS integrated avalanche photodiodes and frequency-mixing optical sensor front end for portable NIR spectroscopy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ruida; Sthalekar, Chirag; Joyner, Valencia M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and measurement results of two avalanche photodiode structures (APDs) and a novel frequency-mixing transimpedance amplifier (TIA), which are key building blocks towards a monolithically integrated optical sensor front end for near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy applications. Two different APD structures are fabricated in an unmodified 0.18 \\im CMOS process, one with a shallow trench isolation (STI) guard ring and the other with a P-well guard ring. The APDs are characterized in linear mode. The STI bounded APD demonstrates better performance and exhibits 3.78 A/W responsivity at a wavelength of 690 nm and bias voltage of 10.55 V. The frequency-mixing TIA (FM-TIA) employs a T-feedback network incorporating gate-controlled transistors for resistance modulation, enabling the simultaneous down-conversion and amplification of the high frequency modulated photodiode (PD) current. The TIA achieves 92 dS Ω conversion gain with 0.5 V modulating voltage. The measured IIP(3) is 10.6/M. The amplifier together with the 50 Ω output buffer draws 23 mA from a1.8 V power supply.

  4. A PMT-like high gain avalanche photodiode based on GaN/AlN periodically stacked structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiyuan; Wang, Lai; Wu, Xingzhao; Hao, Zhibiao; Sun, Changzheng; Xiong, Bing; Luo, Yi; Han, Yanjun; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongtao; Brault, Julien; Matta, Samuel; Khalfioui, Mohamed Al; Yan, Jianchang; Wei, Tongbo; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Junxi

    2016-12-01

    Avalanche photodiode (APD) has been intensively investigated as a promising candidate to replace the bulky and fragile photomultiplier tube (PMT) for weak light detection. However, the performance of most available APDs is barely satisfactory compared to that of the PMTs because of inter-valley scattering. Here, we demonstrate a PMT-like APD based on GaN/AlN periodically stacked-structure (PSS), in which the electrons encounter a much less inter-valley scattering during transport than holes. Uni-directional avalanche takes place with a high efficiency. According to our simulations based on a PSS with GaN (10 nm)/AlN (10 nm) in each period, the probability for electrons to trigger ionization in each cycle can reach as high as 80%, while that for holes is only 4%. A record high and stable gain (104) with a low ionization coefficient ratio of 0.05 is demonstrated under a constant bias in a prototype device.

  5. Silicon avalanche photodiodes on the base of metal-resistor-semiconductor (MRS) structures

    CERN Document Server

    Saveliev, V

    2000-01-01

    The development of a high quantum efficiency, fast photodetector, with internal gain amplification for the wavelength range 450-600 nm is one of the critical issues for experimental physics - registration of low-intensity light photons flux. The new structure of Silicon Avalanche Detectors with high internal amplification (10 sup 5 -10 sup 6) has been designed, manufactured and tested for registration of visible light photons and charge particles. The main features of Metal-Resistor-Semiconductor (MRS) structures are the high charge multiplication in nonuniform electric field near the 'needle' pn-junction and negative feedback for stabilization of avalanche process due to resistive layer.

  6. Silicon avalanche photodiodes on the base of metal-resistor-semiconductor (MRS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saveliev, V. E-mail: saveliev@mail.desy.de; Golovin, V

    2000-03-11

    The development of a high quantum efficiency, fast photodetector, with internal gain amplification for the wavelength range 450-600 nm is one of the critical issues for experimental physics - registration of low-intensity light photons flux. The new structure of Silicon Avalanche Detectors with high internal amplification (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}) has been designed, manufactured and tested for registration of visible light photons and charge particles. The main features of Metal-Resistor-Semiconductor (MRS) structures are the high charge multiplication in nonuniform electric field near the 'needle' pn-junction and negative feedback for stabilization of avalanche process due to resistive layer.

  7. Energy resolution and light yield non-proportionality of ZnSe Te scintillator studied by large area avalanche photodiodes and photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Balcerzyk, M; Moszynski, M; Kapusta, M; Szawlowski, M

    2002-01-01

    The ZnSe : Te scintillator has been studied by means of a photomultiplier with an extended bialkali photocathode, a large area avalanche photodiode (LAAPD) and a PIN photodiode. The light output was determined to be 28 300+-1700 photons/MeV. Results indicate good proportionality for light output versus gamma-ray energy. Measurements of the 662 keV gamma-ray energy spectrum recorded using a LAAPD resulted in an energy resolution of 5.4+-0.3%. Based on these results, an intrinsic energy resolution of 3.3+-0.7% has been calculated.

  8. MIT Lincoln Laboratory Annual Report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths to nonlinearly up-convert the THz signal to an optical signal, which is then detected using Geiger - mode avalanche photodiode detector...performance computing, imaging, and RF applications. • Lincoln Laboratory’s silicon and indium phosphide Geiger - mode avalanche photodiode (APD...ongoing and emerging work at the Laboratory. The topics of these talks included an overview of the Laboratory, Geiger - mode avalanche photodiode array

  9. Evaluation of single photon and Geiger mode Lidar for the 3D Elevation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.; Abdullah, Qassim; Nayegandhi, Amar; Winehouse, Jayna

    2016-01-01

    Data acquired by Harris Corporation’s (Melbourne, FL, USA) Geiger-mode IntelliEarth™ sensor and Sigma Space Corporation’s (Lanham-Seabrook, MD, USA) Single Photon HRQLS sensor were evaluated and compared to accepted 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) data and survey ground control to assess the suitability of these new technologies for the 3DEP. While not able to collect data currently to meet USGS lidar base specification, this is partially due to the fact that the specification was written for linear-mode systems specifically. With little effort on part of the manufacturers of the new lidar systems and the USGS Lidar specifications team, data from these systems could soon serve the 3DEP program and its users. Many of the shortcomings noted in this study have been reported to have been corrected or improved upon in the next generation sensors.

  10. Single-photon counting for the 1300-1600-nm range by use of peltier-cooled and passively quenched InGaAs avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarity, J G; Wall, T E; Ridley, K D; Owens, P C; Tapster, P R

    2000-12-20

    We evaluate the performance of various commercially available InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting in the infrared at temperatures that can be reached by Peltier cooling. We find that dark count rates are high, and this can partially saturate devices before optimum performance is achieved. At low temperatures the dark count rate rises because of a strong contribution from correlated afterpulses. We discuss ways of suppressing these afterpulses for different photon-counting applications.

  11. Thick detection zone single-photon avalanche diode fabricated in 0.35 μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindl, Bernhard; Enne, Reinhard; Zimmermann, Horst

    2015-05-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) fabricated in 0.35 μm high-voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, which was originally optimized for linear mode applications, is characterized in Geiger mode operation. This work shows that the used design concept is also suitable for single-photon detection applications and achieves a photon detection efficiency of 22.1% at 785 nm due to a thick detection zone and 3.5 V excess bias. At this operation point, the single-photon APD achieves good results regarding afterpulsing probability (3.4%) and dark count rate (46 kHz) with respect to the large active diameter of 86 μm.

  12. The 1.06 optical receiver. [avalanche photodiodes for laser range finders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetta, L. R.; Law, H. D.; Nakano, K.; Scholl, F. W.; Harris, J. S., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    High performance 1.06 micron m avalanche photodetectors (APDs), fabricated in the GaAlSb system, have high quantum efficiency (90 percent), high speed (risetime less than 60 ps) and low leakage currents (less than 50 na). The dark current represents more than an order of magnitude reduction compared to previously reported results. The high speed avalanche gain of these devices is between 20 and 50. The area uniformity is better than + or - 10 percent. GaAlAs APDs at 0.53 micron m have even faster speed, lower dark currents, and high speed gains of 100 to 200. Optical rangefinders based on measured APD performance parameters have far superior performance when compared to even ideal photomultiplier tubes in either a one color or two color rangefinder system. For a one color system, f factor of two lower time jitter can be achieved with identical transmitted power. The superiority of the APD based two color receiver is significant and exists in the entire range of desired time jitters (less than 100 ps) and received power levels.

  13. Pulse oximeter using a gain-modulated avalanche photodiode operated in a pseudo lock-in light detection mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Tetsuo; Araki, Tsutomu

    2006-01-01

    We propose a reflection-type pulse oximeter, which employs two pairs of a light-emitting diode (LED) and a gated avalanche photodiode (APD). One LED is a red one with an emission wavelength λ = 635 nm and the other is a near-infrared one with that λ = 945 nm, which are both driven with a pulse mode at a frequency f (=10 kHz). Superposition of a transistor-transistor-logic (TTL) gate pulse on a direct-current (dc) bias, which is set so as not exceeding the breakdown voltage of each APD, makes the APD work in a gain-enhanced operation mode. Each APD is gated at a frequency 2f (=20 kHz) and its output signal is fed into a laboratory-made lock-in amplifier that works in synchronous with the pulse modulation signal of each LED at a frequency f (=10 kHz). A combination of the gated APD and the lock-in like signal detection scheme is useful for the reflection-type pulse oximeter thanks to the capability of detecting a weak signal against a large background (BG) light.

  14. Performance Dependences of Multiplication Layer Thickness for InP/InGaAs Avalanche Photodiodes Based on Time Domain Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yegao; Bhat, Ishwara; Abedin, M. Nurul

    2005-01-01

    InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are being widely utilized in optical receivers for modern long haul and high bit-rate optical fiber communication systems. The separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication (SAGCM) structure is an important design consideration for APDs with high performance characteristics. Time domain modeling techniques have been previously developed to provide better understanding and optimize design issues by saving time and cost for the APD research and development. In this work, performance dependences on multiplication layer thickness have been investigated by time domain modeling. These performance characteristics include breakdown field and breakdown voltage, multiplication gain, excess noise factor, frequency response and bandwidth etc. The simulations are performed versus various multiplication layer thicknesses with certain fixed values for the areal charge sheet density whereas the values for the other structure and material parameters are kept unchanged. The frequency response is obtained from the impulse response by fast Fourier transformation. The modeling results are presented and discussed, and design considerations, especially for high speed operation at 10 Gbit/s, are further analyzed.

  15. Single-step metal-organic vapor-phase diffusion for low-dark-current planar-type avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Dong-Hwan; Jeong, Hae Yong; Kim, Youngjo; Shin, Chan-Soo; Park, Kyung Ho; Park, Won-Kyu; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Sangin; Han, Sang Wook; Moon, Sung

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a p-type diffusion process based literally on single-step metal-organic vapor-phase diffusion (MOVPD) employing diethyl zinc as the diffusion source in combination with the recessetching technique is developed to improve the dark-current characteristics of planar-type avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The developed single-step MOVPD process exhibits on excellent linear relationship between the diffusion depth and the square root of the diffusion time, which mainly results from maintaining constant source diffusion. The single-step MOVPD process without any additional thermal activation process achieves a surface doping concentration of 1.9 × 1018 cm -3, which is sufficient to form ohmic contact. The measured diffusion profiles of the APDs clearly reveal the presence of a two-dimensional diffusion front formed by the recess-etched and guard-ring regions. The impact of this p-type diffusion process on the performance of the APD devices has also been demonstrated by exhibiting improved dark-current characteristics for the fabricated APDs.

  16. Word timing recovery in direct detection optical PPM communication systems with avalanche photodiodes using a phase lock loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for word timing recovery in a direct-detection optical PPM communication system is described. It tracks on back-to-back pulse pairs in the received random PPM data sequences with the use of a phase locked loop. The experimental system consisted of an 833-nm AlGaAs laser diode transmitter and a silicon avalanche photodiode photodetector, and it used Q = 4 PPM signaling at source data rate 25 Mb/s. The mathematical model developed to describe system performance is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Use of this recovered PPM word clock with a slot clock recovery system caused no measurable penalty in receiver sensitivity. The completely self-synchronized receiver was capable of acquiring and maintaining both slot and word synchronizations for input optical signal levels as low as 20 average detected photons per information bit. The receiver achieved a bit error probability of 10 to the -6th at less than 60 average detected photons per information bit.

  17. Response of avalanche photo-diodes of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter to neutrons from an Americium-Beryllium source.

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Konrad; Renker, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The response of avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) used in the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter to low energy neutrons from an Americium-Beryllium source is reported. Signals due to recoil protons from neutron interactions with the hydrogen nuclei in the protective epoxy layer, mainly close to the silicon surface of the APD, have been identified. These signals increase in size with the applied bias voltage more slowly than the nominal gain of the APDs, and appear to have a substantially lower effective gain at the operating voltage. The signals originating from interactions in the epoxy are mostly equivalent to signals of a few GeV in CMS, but range up to a few tens of GeV equivalent. There are also signals not attributed to reactions in the epoxy extending up to the end of the range of these measurements, a few hundreds of GeV equivalent. Signals from the x-rays from the source can also be in the GeV equivalent scale in CMS. Simulations used to describe events due to particle interactions in the APDs need to take ...

  18. Detection efficiency calibration of single-photon silicon avalanche photodiodes traceable using double attenuator technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Marco; Hofer, Helmuth; Kück, Stefan

    2015-12-08

    A highly accurate method for the determination of the detection efficiency of a silicon single-photon avalanche diode (Si-SPAD) is presented. This method is based on the comparison of the detected count rate of the Si-SPAD compared to the photon rate determined from a calibrated silicon diode using a modified attenuator technique, in which the total attenuation is measured in two attenuation steps. Furthermore, a validation of this two-step method is performed using attenuators of higher transmittance. The setup is a tabletop one, laser-based, and fully automated. The measurement uncertainty components are determined and analyzed in detail. The obtained standard measurement uncertainty is < 0.5%. Main contributions are the transmission of the neutral density filters used as attenuators and the spectral responsivity of the calibrated analog silicon diode. Furthermore, the dependence of the detection efficiency of the Si-SPAD on the mean photon number of the impinging laser radiation with Poissonian statistics is investigated.

  19. Participation to the study of the electromagnetic calorimeter calibration for the CMS experiment and to the study of avalanche photodiodes; Participation a l'etude de la calibration du calorimetre electromagnetique de l'experience CMS et a l'etude de photodiodes a avalanche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Ponte Puill, V

    1999-12-13

    The electromagnetic calorimeter CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) has been chosen to study the Higgs boson production. This calorimeter will be constituted of more than 80000 lead tungstate scintillating crystals radiation resistant. Photodiodes have been especially optimized to detect the scintillating light of these crystals: avalanche photodiodes (APD). This thesis includes two separate parts. A first part deals with the APD submitted to high rate of radiations and tested in the Ulysse reactor of the Cea. The second part deals with the calorimeter calibration. (A.L.B.)

  20. Optimization and application of cooled avalanche photodiodes for spectroscopic fluctuation measurements with ultra-fast charge exchange recombination spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, D. D.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.

    2016-11-01

    The Ultra-Fast Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (UF-CHERS) diagnostic is a highly specialized spectroscopic instrument with 2 spatial channels consisting of 8 spectral channels each and a resolution of ˜0.25 nm deployed at DIII-D to measure turbulent ion temperature fluctuations. Charge exchange emissions are obtained between 528 and 530 nm with 1 μs time resolution to study plasma instabilities. A primary challenge of extracting fluctuation measurements from raw UF-CHERS signals is photon and electronic noise. In order to reduce dark current, the Avalanche Photodiode (APD) detectors are thermo-electrically cooled. State-of-the-art components are used for the signal amplifiers and conditioners to minimize electronic noise. Due to the low incident photon power (≤1 nW), APDs with a gain of up to 300 are used to optimize the signal to noise ratio. Maximizing the APDs' gain while minimizing the excess noise factor (ENF) is essential since the total noise of the diagnostic sets a floor for the minimum level of detectable broadband fluctuations. The APDs' gain should be high enough that photon noise dominates electronic noise, but not excessive so that the ENF overwhelms plasma fluctuations. A new generation of cooled APDs and optimized preamplifiers exhibits significantly enhanced signal-to-noise compared to a previous generation. Experiments at DIII-D have allowed for characterization and optimization of the ENF vs. gain. A gain of ˜100 at 1700 V is found to be near optimal for most plasma conditions. Ion temperature and toroidal velocity fluctuations due to the edge harmonic oscillation in quiescent H-mode plasmas are presented to demonstrate UF-CHERS' capabilities.

  1. Performance measurements of a depth-encoding PET detector module based on position-sensitive avalanche photodiode read-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokhale, P A; Silverman, R W; Shah, K S; Grazioso, R; Farrell, R; Glodo, J; McClish, M A; Entine, G; Tran, V H; Cherry, S R

    2004-09-21

    We are developing a high-resolution, high-efficiency positron emission tomography (PET) detector module with depth of interaction (DOI) capability based on a lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator array coupled at both ends to position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). In this paper we present the DOI resolution, energy resolution and timing resolution results for complete detector modules. The detector module consists of a 7 x 7 matrix of LSO scintillator crystals (1 x 1 x 20 mm3 in dimension) coupled to 8 x 8 mm2 PSAPDs at both ends. Flood histograms were acquired and used to generate crystal look-up tables. The DOI resolution was measured for individual crystals within the array by using the ratio of the signal amplitudes from the two PSAPDs on an event-by-event basis. A measure of the total scintillation light produced was obtained by summing the signal amplitudes from the two PSAPDs. This summed signal was used to measure the energy resolution. The DOI resolution was measured to be 3-4 mm FWHM irrespective of the position of the crystal within the array, or the interaction location along the length of the crystal. The total light signal and energy resolution was almost independent of the depth of interaction. The measured energy resolution averaged 14% FWHM. The coincidence timing resolution measured using a pair of identical detector modules was 4.5 ns FWHM. These results are consistent with the design goals and the performance required of a compact, high-resolution and high-efficiency PET detector module for small animal and breast imaging applications.

  2. Spatial distortion correction and crystal identification for MRI-compatible position-sensitive avalanche photodiode-based PET scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Abhijit J; Joshi, Anand A; Wu, Yibao; Leahy, Richard M; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D

    2009-06-01

    Position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) are gaining widespread acceptance in modern PET scanner designs, and owing to their relative insensitivity to magnetic fields, especially in those that are MRI-compatible. Flood histograms in PET scanners are used to determine the crystal of annihilation photon interaction and hence, for detector characterization and routine quality control. For PET detectors that use PSAPDs, flood histograms show a characteristic pincushion distortion when Anger logic is used for event positioning. A small rotation in the flood histogram is also observed when the detectors are placed in a magnetic field. We first present a general purpose automatic method for spatial distortion correction for flood histograms of PSAPD-based PET detectors when placed both inside and outside a MRI scanner. Analytical formulae derived for this scheme are based on a hybrid approach that combines desirable properties from two existing event positioning schemes. The rotation of the flood histogram due to the magnetic field is determined iteratively and is accounted for in the scheme. We then provide implementation details of a method for crystal identification we have previously proposed and evaluate it for cases when the PET detectors are both outside and in a magnetic field. In this scheme, Fourier analysis is used to generate a lower-order spatial approximation of the distortion-corrected PSAPD flood histogram, which we call the 'template'. The template is then registered to the flood histogram using a diffeomorphic iterative intensity-based warping scheme. The calculated deformation field is then applied to the segmentation of the template to obtain a segmentation of the flood histogram. A manual correction tool is also developed for exceptional cases. We present a quantitative assessment of the proposed distortion correction scheme and crystal identification method against conventional methods. Our results indicate that our proposed methods lead to

  3. Nine orders of magnitude dynamic range: picomolar to millimolar concentration measurement in capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection employing cascaded avalanche photodiode photon counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Essaka, David C; Hindsgaul, Ole; Palcic, Monica M; Prendergast, Jillian; Schnaar, Ronald L; Dovichi, Norman J

    2011-04-01

    The dynamic range of capillary electrophoresis analysis is ultimately limited by molecular shot noise at low concentrations and by concentration-induced band broadening at high concentrations. We report a system that approaches these fundamental limits. A laser-induced fluorescence detector is reported that employs a cascade of four fiber-optic beam splitters connected in series to generate a primary signal and four attenuated signals, each monitored by a single-photon counting avalanche photodiode. Appropriate scaling of the signals from the five photodiodes produces a linear optical calibration curve for 5-carboxyl-tetramethylrhodamine from the concentration detection limit of 1 pM to the upper limit of 1 mM. Mass detection limits are 120 yoctomoles (70 molecules) injected into the instrument. The very-wide dynamic range instrument was used to study the metabolic products of the fluorescently labeled glycosphingolipid tetramethylrhodamine labeled GM1 (GM1-TMR) produced by single cells isolated from the rat cerebellum.

  4. 1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekata, Naoto; Adachi, Shunsuke; Inoue, Shuichiro

    2009-04-13

    We report a telecom-band single-photon detector for gigahertz clocked quantum key distribution systems. The single-photon detector is based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. The gate repetition frequency of the single-photon detector reached 1.5 GHz. A quantum efficiency of 10.8 % at 1550 nm was obtained with a dark count probability per gate of 6.3 x 10(-7) and an afterpulsing probability of 2.8 %. Moreover, the maximum detection rate of the detector is 20 MHz.

  5. Range imaging pulsed laser sensor with two-dimensional scanning of transmitted beam and scanless receiver using high-aspect avalanche photodiode array for eye-safe wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hidenobu; Imaki, Masaharu; Kotake, Nobuki; Hirai, Akihito; Nakaji, Masaharu; Kameyama, Shumpei

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a range imaging pulsed laser sensor with two-dimensional scanning of a transmitted beam and a scanless receiver using a high-aspect avalanche photodiode (APD) array for the eye-safe wavelength. The system achieves a high frame rate and long-range imaging with a relatively simple sensor configuration. We developed a high-aspect APD array for the wavelength of 1.5 μm, a receiver integrated circuit, and a range and intensity detector. By combining these devices, we realized 160×120 pixels range imaging with a frame rate of 8 Hz at a distance of about 50 m.

  6. Multi-point strain and displacement sensor based on intensity-modulated light and two-photon absorption process in Si-avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Hiromasa; Nemoto, Masaya; Yamada, Yoshiki; Tanaka, Yosuke; Kurokawa, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We propose a system for precise measurement of multi-point displacement and strain using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors along with intensity-modulated light and two-photon absorption process in a Si-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD). This method sweeps both the optical wavelength and the phase difference between the two modulation signals. The FBGs' reflection spectra and their change due to strain are successfully observed at the same time with the precision measurement of the FBG's displacement, where the relative measurement uncertainty is 10-4. This fiber sensing system is especially suitable for structural health monitoring.

  7. Measured Temperature Dependence of Scintillation Camera Signals Read Out by Geiger–Müller Mode Avalanche Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William C. J.; Miyaoka, Robert S.; MacDonald, L. R.; Lewellen, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a prototype monolithic scintillation camera with optical sensors on the entrance surface (SES) for use with statistically-estimated depth-of-interaction in a continuous scintillator. We opt to use Geiger-Müller mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) for the SES camera since they possess many desirable properties; for the intended application (SES and PET/MR imaging), they offer a thin attenuation profile and an operational insensitivity to large magnetic fields. However, one issue that must be addressed in using GM-APDs in an RF environment (as in MR scanners) is the thermal dissipation that can occur in this semiconductor material. Signals of GM-APDs are strongly dependent on junction temperature. Consequently, we are developing a temperature-controlled GM-APD-based PET camera whose monitored temperature can be used to dynamically account for the temperature dependence of the output signals. Presently, we aim to characterize the output-signal dependence on temperature and bias for a GM-APD-based scintillation camera. We've examined two GM-APDs, a Zecotek prototype MAPD-3N, and a SensL commercial SPMArray2. The dominant effect of temperature on gain that we observe results from a linear dependence of breakdown voltage on temperature (0.071 V/°C and 0.024 V/°C, respectively); at 2.3 V excess bias (voltage above breakdown) the resulting change in gain with temperature (without adjusting bias voltage) is −8.5% per °C for the MAPD-3N and −1.5 % per °C for the SPMArray2. For fixed excess bias, change in dark current with temperature varied widely, decreasing by 25% to 40% as temperature was changed from 20 °C to 10 °C and again by 20% to 35% going from 10 °C to 0 °C. Finally, using two MAPD-3N to read out a pair of 3.5-by-3.5-by-20 mm3 Zecotek LFS-3 scintillators in coincidence, we observe a decrease from 1.7 nsec to 1.5 nsec in coincidence-time resolution as we lowered temperature from 23 °C to 10 °C. PMID:20625461

  8. Effect of variations in the doping profiles on the properties of doped multiple quantum well avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkara, H. M.; Wagner, B. K.; Summers, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use both theoretical and experimental evidence to determine the impact of doping imbalance and symmetry on the physical and electrical characteristics of doped multiple quantum well avalanche photodiodes (APD). Theoretical models have been developed to calculate the electric field valence and conduction bands, capacitance-voltage (CV), and carrier concentration versus depletion depth profiles. The models showed a strong correlation between the p- and n-doping balance inside the GaAs wells and the number of depleted stages and breakdown voltage of the APD. A periodic doping imbalance in the wells has been shown to result in a gradual increase (or decrease) in the electric field profile throughout the device which gave rise to partially depleted devices at low bias. The MQW APD structures that we modeled consisted of a 1 micron top p(+)-doped (3 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3)) GaAs layer followed by a 1 micron region of alternating layers of GaAs (500 A) and Al(0.42)Ga(0.58)As (500 A), and a 1 micron n(+) back layer (3 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3)). The GaAs wells were doped with p-i-n layers placed at the center of each well. The simulation results showed that in an APD with nine doped wells, and where the 50 A p-doped layer is off by 10% (p = 1.65 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3), n = 1.5 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3)), almost half of the MQW stages were shown to be undepleted at low bias which was a result of a reduction in the electric field near the p(+) cap layer by over 50% from its value in the balanced structure. Experimental CV and IV data on similar MBE grown MQW structures have shown very similar depletion and breakdown characteristics. The models have enabled us to better interpret our experimental data and to determine both the extent of the doping imbalances in the devices as well as the overall p- or n-type doping characteristics of the structures.

  9. Measured Temperature Dependence of Scintillation Camera Signals Read Out by Geiger-Müller Mode Avalanche Photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William C J; Miyaoka, Robert S; Macdonald, L R; Lewellen, Thomas K

    2009-10-24

    We are developing a prototype monolithic scintillation camera with optical sensors on the entrance surface (SES) for use with statistically-estimated depth-of-interaction in a continuous scintillator. We opt to use Geiger-Müller mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) for the SES camera since they possess many desirable properties; for the intended application (SES and PET/MR imaging), they offer a thin attenuation profile and an operational insensitivity to large magnetic fields. However, one issue that must be addressed in using GM-APDs in an RF environment (as in MR scanners) is the thermal dissipation that can occur in this semiconductor material.Signals of GM-APDs are strongly dependent on junction temperature. Consequently, we are developing a temperature-controlled GM-APD-based PET camera whose monitored temperature can be used to dynamically account for the temperature dependence of the output signals. Presently, we aim to characterize the output-signal dependence on temperature and bias for a GM-APD-based scintillation camera.We've examined two GM-APDs, a Zecotek prototype MAPD-3N, and a SensL commercial SPMArray2. The dominant effect of temperature on gain that we observe results from a linear dependence of breakdown voltage on temperature (0.071 V/°C and 0.024 V/°C, respectively); at 2.3 V excess bias (voltage above breakdown) the resulting change in gain with temperature (without adjusting bias voltage) is -8.5% per °C for the MAPD-3N and -1.5 % per °C for the SPMArray2. For fixed excess bias, change in dark current with temperature varied widely, decreasing by 25% to 40% as temperature was changed from 20 °C to 10 °C and again by 20% to 35% going from 10 °C to 0 °C. Finally, using two MAPD-3N to read out a pair of 3.5-by-3.5-by-20 mm(3) Zecotek LFS-3 scintillators in coincidence, we observe a decrease from 1.7 nsec to 1.5 nsec in coincidence-time resolution as we lowered temperature from 23 °C to 10 °C.

  10. Peltier-Cooled and Actively Quenched Operation of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes as Photon Counters at a 1.55-mum Wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, I

    2001-11-20

    The performance of commercially available InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes as single-photon detectors at a 1.55-mum wavelength has been investigated. A new active quenching and gating circuit, tailored for operation of these diodes at temperatures in the range from room temperature to -60 degrees C and achievable by means of thermoelectrical cooling, has been developed. Careful tuning of the diodes' operating conditions resulted in a significant reduction of afterpulsing effects; it permitted operation of the detectors with high repetition rates. A noise-equivalent power of 7 x 10(-16) W/Hz(1/2) was obtained at a 1.55-mum wavelength.

  11. Ultra-fast time-correlated single photon counting avalanche photodiodes for time-domain non-contact fluorescence diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Vincent; Lapointe, Éric; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves

    2007-06-01

    Recent advances in the design and fabrication of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and quenching circuits for timecorrelated single photon counting (TCSPC) have made available detectors with timing resolutions comparable to microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMTs). The latter, were until recently the best TCSPC detectors in terms of temporal resolution (standard electronics fabrication processes in a near future. This will contribute to further decrease their price and ease their integration in complex multi-channel detection systems, as required in diuse optical imaging (DOI) and tomography (DOT). We present, to our knowledge for the first time, results which demonstrate that, despite their small sensitive area, TCSPC APDs can be used in time-domain (TD) DOT and more generally in TD DOI. With appropriate optical design of the detection channel, our experiments show that it is possible to obtain comparable measurements with APDs as with PMTs.

  12. Precision distance measurement using a two-photon absorption process in a silicon avalanche photodiode with saw-tooth phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yosuke; Tominaka, Seiji; Kurokawa, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    We present a novel configuration of a precision laser distance measurement based on the two-photon absorption (TPA) photocurrent from a silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD). The proposed system uses saw-tooth phase modulation, known as serrodyne modulation, in order to shift the frequency of the reference light from that of the probe light. It suppresses the coherent interference noise between the probe and the reference. The serrodyne modulation also enables lock-in detection of the TPA photocurrent. Furthermore, it contributes to the reduction of the system components. The precision measurement is experimentally demonstrated by measuring a fiber length difference of 2.6 m with a standard deviation of 27 μm under constant temperature. The high-precision displacement measurement is also demonstrated by measuring the temperature-induced change in the optical path length difference of a fiber interferometer.

  13. Count rate studies of a box-shaped PET breast imaging system comprised of position sensitive avalanche photodiodes utilizing monte carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudray, Angela M K; Habte, Frezghi; Chinn, Garry; Zhang, Jin; Levin, Craig S

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating a high-sensitivity, high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system for clinical use in the detection, diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. Using conventional figures of merit, design parameters were evaluated for count rate performance, module dead time, and construction complexity. The detector system modeled comprises extremely thin position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes coupled to lutetium oxy-orthosilicate scintillation crystals. Previous investigations of detector geometries with Monte Carlo indicated that one of the largest impacts on sensitivity is local scintillation crystal density when considering systems having the same average scintillation crystal densities (same crystal packing fraction and system solid-angle coverage). Our results show the system has very good scatter and randoms rejection at clinical activity ranges ( approximately 200 muCi).

  14. High-performance AlGaN-based solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with dual-periodic III-nitride distributed Bragg reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chujun; Ye, Xuanchao; Sun, Rui; Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Jin; Lu, Yanan; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Jintao; Gao, Shumei

    2017-03-01

    Separate absorption and multiplication AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with dual-periodic III-nitride distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are numerically demonstrated. The designed devices exhibit an improved solar-blind characteristic with a maximum spectral responsivity of 0.184 A/W at λ = 284 nm owing to the optimized optical properties of the dual-periodic III-nitride DBRs. Compared with their conventional counterparts, an increased multiplication gain and a reduced breakdown voltage are achieved by using p-type Al0.15Ga0.85N layers with a lower Al content and multiplication layers. These improvements are attributed to the high p-doping efficiency and large hole ionization coefficient.

  15. High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekata, N; Takesue, H; Honjo, T; Tokura, Y; Inoue, S

    2011-05-23

    We have demonstrated quantum key distribution (QKD) over 100 km using single-photon detectors based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs). We implemented the differential phase shift QKD (DPS-QKD) protocol with electrically cooled and 2-GHz sinusoidally gated APDs. The single-photon detector has a dark count probability of 2.8 × 10(-8) (55 counts per second) with a detection efficiency of 6 %, which enabled us to achieve 24 kbit/s secure key rate over 100 km of optical fiber. The DPS-QKD system offers better performances in a practical way than those achieved using superconducting single-photon detectors. Moreover, the distance that secure keys against the general individual attacks can be distributed has been extended to 160 km.

  16. Single-photon property characterization of 1.3 μm emissions from InAs/GaAs quantum dots using silicon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, P. Y.; Dou, X. M.; Wu, X. F.; Ding, K.; Li, M. F.; Ni, H. Q.; Niu, Z. C.; Jiang, D. S.; Sun, B. Q.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a new approach to test the single-photon emissions of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in the optical communication band. A diamond-anvil cell pressure device was used for blue-shifting the 1.3 μm emissions of InAs/GaAs QDs to 0.9 μm for detection by silicon avalanche photodiodes. The obtained g(2)(0) values from the second-order autocorrelation function measurements of several QD emissions at 6.58 GPa were less than 0.3, indicating that this approach provides a convenient and efficient method of characterizing 1.3 μm single-photon source based on semiconductor materials. PMID:24407193

  17. Single-photon property characterization of 1.3 μm emissions from InAs/GaAs quantum dots using silicon avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, P Y; Dou, X M; Wu, X F; Ding, K; Li, M F; Ni, H Q; Niu, Z C; Jiang, D S; Sun, B Q

    2014-01-10

    We developed a new approach to test the single-photon emissions of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in the optical communication band. A diamond-anvil cell pressure device was used for blue-shifting the 1.3 μm emissions of InAs/GaAs QDs to 0.9 μm for detection by silicon avalanche photodiodes. The obtained g((2))(0) values from the second-order autocorrelation function measurements of several QD emissions at 6.58 GPa were less than 0.3, indicating that this approach provides a convenient and efficient method of characterizing 1.3 μm single-photon source based on semiconductor materials.

  18. Negative feedback avalanche diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzler, Mark Allen (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A single-photon avalanche detector is disclosed that is operable at wavelengths greater than 1000 nm and at operating speeds greater than 10 MHz. The single-photon avalanche detector comprises a thin-film resistor and avalanche photodiode that are monolithically integrated such that little or no additional capacitance is associated with the addition of the resistor.

  19. Design, fabrication and characterisation of InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Warburton, R E; Tan, L; Ng, J S; Krysa, A; Groom, K; David, J P R; Cova, S; Buller, G S; Warburton, Ryan E.; Pellegrini, Sara; Tan, Lionel; Ng, Jo Shien; Krysa, Andrey; Groom, Kris; David, John P.R.; Cova, Sergio; Buller, Gerald S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the performance of planar geometry InGaAs/InP avalanche diodes, specifically designed and fabricated for Geiger-mode operation at wavelengths around 1550nm, in terms of dark count rate, single-photon detection efficiency, afterpulsing and photon-timing jitter.

  20. Studies of the LHC detection systems: scintillating fibers projective electromagnetic calorimeter prototype and light reading by avalanche photodiodes; Etudes de systemes de detection pour LHC: prototype d`un calorimetre electromagnetique projectif a fibres scintillantes et lecture de la lumiere par des photodiodes a avalanches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhemaid, N.

    1995-09-22

    In this thesis a study concerning the hardware detection system of ATLAS experiment in preparation for L.H.C. is presented. The study is divided in two parts. After a general introduction of the L.H.C. and the ATLAS detector, the first part concerning the electromagnetic calorimeter, and the second part concerning the readout with avalanche photodiodes, are discussed. For both subjects the basic principles are presented before various test results are described. Within the RD1 program three different electromagnetic calorimeter prototypes, which all use the lead scintillating fibres technique, have been built. The first is a non-projective, compensating calorimeter called ``500{mu}m``, the second is a pseudo projective, non-compensating, called ``1 mm``, and the third is fully projective, called ``Radial``. The last prototype is discussed in more detail. Avalanches photodiodes which are used as readout of the ``1 mm`` calorimeter, have been exposed to both, a dedicated test bench in the laboratory as well as to test beams. The results of these tests are also presented. (author). 35 refs., 96 figs., 30 tabs.

  1. A micropixel avalanche phototransistor for time of flight measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigov, A.; Suleymanov, S.; Ahmadov, F.; Ahmadov, G.; Abdullayev, K.; Akberov, R.; Heydarov, N.; Madatov, R.; Mukhtarov, R.; Nazarov, M.; Valiyev, R.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents results of studies of the silicon based new micropixel avalanche phototransistor (MAPT). MAPT is a modification of well-known silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and differs since each photosensitive pixel of the MAPT operates in Geiger mode and comprises an individual micro-transistor operating in binary mode. This provides a high amplitude single photoelectron signal with significantly shorter rise time. The obtained results are compared with appropriate parameters of known SiPMs.

  2. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing; Li, Fenfang

    2016-03-01

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ∼15 cm and range accuracy is ∼4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ∼40 m.

  3. Time-resolved non-contact fluorescence diffuse optical tomography measurements with ultra-fast time-correlated single photon counting avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Robichaud, Vincent; Lapointe, Éric

    2007-07-01

    The design and fabrication of time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and associated quenching circuits have made significant progresses in recent years. APDs with temporal resolutions comparable to microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMTs) are now available. MCP-PMTs were until these progresses the best TCSPC detectors with timing resolutions down to 30ps. APDs can now achieve these resolutions at a fraction of the cost. Work is under way to make the manufacturing of TCSPC APDs compatible with standard electronics fabrication practices. This should allow to further reduce their cost and render them easier to integrate in complex multi-channel TCSPC electronics, as needed in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) systems. Even if their sensitive area is much smaller than that of the ubiquitous PMT used in TCSPC, we show that with appropriate selection of optical components, TCSPC APDs can be used in time-domain DOT. To support this, we present experimental data and calculations clearly demonstrating that comparable measurements can be obtained with APDs and PMTs. We are, to our knowledge, the first group using APDs in TD DOT, in particular in non-contact TD fluorescence DOT.

  4. Fast scintillation timing detector using proportional-mode avalanche photodiode for nuclear resonant scattering experiments in high-energy synchrotron X-ray region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Keisuke; Kishimoto, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    To obtain both a high count rate of >107 s-1 and a detection efficiency sufficient for high-energy X-rays of >30 keV, we propose a scintillation timing detector using a proportional-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) for synchrotron radiation nuclear resonant scattering. We here present results obtained with a prototype detector using a lead-loaded plastic scintillator (EJ-256) mounted on a proportional-mode Si-APD (active area size: 3 mm in diameter). The detector was operated at ‒35 °C for a better signal-to-noise ratio. Using synchrotron X-rays of 67.41 keV, which is the same energy as the first excited level of 61Ni, we successfully measured pulse-height and time spectra of the scintillation light. A good time resolution of 0.50±0.06 ns (full width at half-maximum) was obtained for 67.41 keV X-rays with a scintillator 3 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick.

  5. Performance of Ce-doped (La, Gd){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} scintillator with an avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Shunsuke, E-mail: kurosawa@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Shishido, Toetsu; Suzuki, Akira [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Pejchal, Jan [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 53 Prague (Czech Republic); Yokota, Yuui [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); C and A Corporation, 6-6-40 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-04-21

    Scintillation properties of Ce-doped (La, Gd){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ce:La-GPS) crystal were measured with Si avalanche photodiode (APD, Hamamatsu S8664-55). Since Ce:La-GPS is a novel scintillator, its scintillation properties have been evaluated using the APD for the first time. This crystal grown by floating zone method had a good light output of 41,000±1000 photons/MeV and FWHM energy resolution at 662 keV was 4.4±0.1% at 23.0±0.2 °C. The photon non-proportional response (PNR) of Ce:La-GPS was approximately 65% at 32 keV, where light output at 662 keV was normalized to 100%. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the light outputs was determined to be approximately 0.15%/°C from −10 to 30 °C.

  6. InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiode for Single Photon Detection with Zinc Diffusion Process Using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Joon; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Min Su; Jun, Dong-Hwan; Jeong, Hae Yong; Kim, Sangin; Han, Sang-wook; Moon, Sung

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a design, simulation, and fabrication of an InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD), which requires a much higher gain, compared to APD's for conventional optical communications. To achieve a higher gain, an efficient multiplication width control is essential because it significantly affects the overall performance including not only gain but also noise characteristics. Normally, the multiplication layer width is controlled by the Zinc diffusion process. For the reliable and controllable diffusion process, we used metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The controllability of the proposed diffusion process is proved by the diffusion depth measurement of the fabricated devices which show the proportional dependence on the square root of the diffusion time. As a result, we successfully implemented the SPAD that exhibits a high gain enough to detect single photons and a very low dark current level of about 0.1 nA with 0.95 breakdown voltage. The single photon detection efficiency of 15% was measured at the 100 kHz gate pulse rate and the temperature of 230 K.

  7. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing, E-mail: yqwang@nju.edu.cn; Li, Fenfang [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ∼15 cm and range accuracy is ∼4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ∼40 m.

  8. Initial performance studies of a wearable brain positron emission tomography camera based on autonomous thin-film digital Geiger avalanche photodiode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtlein, Charles R; Turner, James N; Thompson, Michael O; Mandal, Krishna C; Häggström, Ida; Zhang, Jiahan; Humm, John L; Feiglin, David H; Krol, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Using analytical and Monte Carlo modeling, we explored performance of a lightweight wearable helmet-shaped brain positron emission tomography (PET), or BET camera, based on thin-film digital Geiger avalanche photodiode arrays with Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) or [Formula: see text] scintillators for imaging in vivo human brain function of freely moving and acting subjects. We investigated a spherical cap BET and cylindrical brain PET (CYL) geometries with 250-mm diameter. We also considered a clinical whole-body (WB) LYSO PET/CT scanner. The simulated energy resolutions were 10.8% (LYSO) and 3.3% ([Formula: see text]), and the coincidence window was set at 2 ns. The brain was simulated as a water sphere of uniform F-18 activity with a radius of 100 mm. We found that BET achieved [Formula: see text] better noise equivalent count (NEC) performance relative to the CYL and [Formula: see text] than WB. For 10-mm-thick [Formula: see text] equivalent mass systems, LYSO (7-mm thick) had [Formula: see text] higher NEC than [Formula: see text]. We found that [Formula: see text] scintillator crystals achieved [Formula: see text] full-width-half-maximum spatial resolution without parallax errors. Additionally, our simulations showed that LYSO generally outperformed [Formula: see text] for NEC unless the timing resolution for [Formula: see text] was considerably smaller than that presently used for LYSO, i.e., well below 300 ps.

  9. Bias-dependent timing jitter of 1-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ge; Zheng, Fu; Wang, Chao; Sun, Zhibin; Zhai, Guangjie; Zhao, Qing

    2016-11-01

    We characterized the dependence of the timing jitter of an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode on the excess bias voltage (V ex) when operated in 1-GHz sinusoidally gated mode. The single-photon avalanche diode was cooled to -30 degrees Celsius. When the V ex is too low (0.2 V-0.8 V) or too high (3 V-4.2 V), the timing jitter is increased with the V ex, particularly at high V ex. While at middle V ex (1 V-2.8 V), the timing jitter is reduced. Measurements of the timing jitter of the same avalanche diode with pulsed gating show that this effect is likely related to the increase of both the amplitude of the V ex and the width of the gate-on time. For the 1-GHz sinusoidally gated detector, the best jitter of 93 ps is achieved with a photon detection efficiency of 21.4% and a dark count rate of ˜2.08×10-5 per gate at the V ex of 2.8 V. To evaluate the whole performance of the detector, we calculated the noise equivalent power (NEP) and the afterpulse probability (P ap). It is found that both NEP and P ap increase quickly when the V ex is above 2.8 V. At 2.8-V V ex, the NEP and P ap are ˜2.06×10-16 W/Hz1/2 and 7.11%, respectively. Therefore, the detector should be operated with V ex of 2.8 V to exploit the fast time response, low NEP and low P ap. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275024, 61274024, and 61474123), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, China (Grant No. 2013105), and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant Nos. 2013YQ030595-3 and 2011AA120101).

  10. Modeling and measurement of a whole-cell bioluminescent biosensor based on a single photon avalanche diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ramiz; Almog, Ronen; Ron, Amit; Belkin, Shimshon; Diamand, Yosi Shacahm

    2008-12-01

    Whole-cell biosensors are potential candidates for on-line and in situ environmental monitoring. In this work we present a new design of a whole-cell bioluminescence biosensor for water toxicity detection, based on genetically engineered Escherichia coli bacteria, carrying a recA::luxCDABE promoter-reporter fusion. Sensitive optical detection is achieved using a single photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) working in the Geiger mode. The present work describes a simple mathematical model for the kinetic process of the bioluminescence based SOS toxin response of E. coli bacteria. We find that initially the bioluminescence signal depends on the time square and we show that the spectral intensity of the bioluminescence signal is inverse proportional to the frequency. We get excellent agreement between the theoretical model and the measured light signal. Furthermore, we present experimental results of the bioluminescent signal measurement using a SPAD and a photomultiplier, and demonstrate improvement of the measurement by applying a matched digital filter. Low intensity bioluminescence signals were measured after the whole-cell sensors were exposed to various toxicant concentrations (5, 15 and 20ppm).

  11. Development of high performance Avalanche Photodiodes and dedicated analog systems for HXI/SGD detectors onboard the Astro-H mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T.; Nakamori, T.; Yoshino, M.; Mizoma, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawakami, K.; Yatsu, Y.; Ohno, M.; Goto, K.; Hanabata, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Fukazawa, Y.; Sasano, M.; Torii, S.; Uchiyama, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Makishima, K.; Watanabe, S.; Kokubun, M.; Takahashi, T.; Mori, K.; Tajima, H.; Astro-H HXI/SGD Team

    2013-01-01

    Hard X-ray Imager and Soft Gamma-ray Detector are being developed as onboard instruments for the Astro-H mission, which is scheduled for launch in 2014. In both detectors, BGO scintillators play key roles in achieving high sensitivity in low Earth orbit (LEO), by generating active veto signals to reject cosmic-ray events and gamma-ray backgrounds from radio-activated detector materials. In order to maximize background rejection power, it is also important to minimize the energy threshold of this shield. As a readout sensor of weak scintillation light from a number of BGO crystals in a complicated detector system, high performance, reverse-type Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs), with an effective area of 10×10 mm2 are being employed, instead of bulky photomultiplier tubes (PMTs).Another advantage of using APDs is their low power consumption, although the relatively low gain of APDs (compared to conventional PMTs) requires dedicated analog circuits for noise suppression. In this paper, we report on the development and performance of APD detectors specifically designed for the Astro-H mission. In addition to APD performance, various environmental tests, including radiation hardness and qualification thermal cycling, will be described in detail. Moreover, a dedicated charge sensitive amplifier and analog filters are newly developed and tested here to optimize the performance of APDs to activate fast veto signals within a few μs from the BGO trigger. We will also report on overall performance testing of a prototype BGO detector system that mimics the data acquisition system onboard Astro-H.

  12. The Effect of Electron versus Hole Photocurrent on Optoelectric Properties of p+-p-n-n+ Wz-GaN Reach-Through Avalanche Photodiodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made an attempt to investigate the effect of electron versus hole photocurrent on the optoelectric properties of p+-p-n-n+ structured Wurtzite-GaN (Wz-GaN reach-through avalanche photodiodes (RAPDs. The photo responsivity and optical gain of the devices are obtained within the wavelength range of 300 to 450 nm using a novel modeling and simulation technique developed by the authors. Two optical illumination configurations of the device such as Top Mounted (TM and Flip Chip (FC are considered for the present study to investigate the optoelectric performance of the device separately due to electron dominated and hole dominated photocurrents, respectively, in the visible-blind ultraviolet (UV spectrum. The results show that the peak unity gain responsivity and corresponding optical gain of the device are 555.78 mA W−1 and 9.4144×103, respectively, due to hole dominated photocurrent (i.e., in FC structure; while those are 480.56 mA W−1 and 7.8800×103, respectively, due to electron dominated photocurrent (i.e., in TM structure at the wavelength of 365 nm and for applied reverse bias of 85 V. Thus, better optoelectric performance of Wz-GaN RAPDs can be achieved when the photocurrent is made hole dominated by allowing the UV light to be shined on the n+-layer instead of p+-layer of the device.

  13. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of InGaAs/ InP multiple-quantum-well structures at 1.3-µm wavelengths by use of germanium single-photon avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, G S; Fancey, S J; Massa, J S; Walker, A C; Cova, S; Lacaita, A

    1996-02-20

    A commercially available germanium avalanche photodiode operating in the single-photon-counting mode has been used to perform time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on InGaAs/lnP multiple-quantum-well structures. Photoluminescence in the spectral region of 1.3-1.48 µm was detected with picosecond timing accuracy by use of the time-correlated single-photon counting technique. The carrier dynamics were monitored for excess photogenerated carrier densities in the range 10(18)-10(15) cm(-3). The recombination time is compared for similar InGaAs-based quantum-well structures grown by use of different epitaxial processes.

  14. The 10 Tesla muSR instrument: detector solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Stoykov, A; Sedlak, K; Rodriguez, J; Greuter, U; Amato, A

    2012-01-01

    Solutions to the detector system of the High-Field muSR instrument at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland are presented. The strict technical requirements are fulfilled through the application of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes.

  15. Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) in CMOS 0.35 µm technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellion, D.; Jradi, K.; Brochard, N. [Le2i – CNRS/Univ. de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Prêle, D. [APC – CNRS/Univ. Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Ginhac, D. [Le2i – CNRS/Univ. de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)

    2015-07-01

    Some decades ago single photon detection used to be the terrain of photomultiplier tube (PMT), thanks to its characteristics of sensitivity and speed. However, PMT has several disadvantages such as low quantum efficiency, overall dimensions, and cost, making them unsuitable for compact design of integrated systems. So, the past decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in new integrated single-photon detectors called Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) or Geiger-mode APD. SPAD are working in avalanche mode above the breakdown level. When an incident photon is captured, a very fast avalanche is triggered, generating an easily detectable current pulse. This paper discusses SPAD detectors fabricated in a standard CMOS technology featuring both single-photon sensitivity, and excellent timing resolution, while guaranteeing a high integration. In this work, we investigate the design of SPAD detectors using the AMS 0.35 µm CMOS Opto technology. Indeed, such standard CMOS technology allows producing large surface (few mm{sup 2}) of single photon sensitive detectors. Moreover, SPAD in CMOS technologies could be associated to electronic readout such as active quenching, digital to analog converter, memories and any specific processing required to build efficient calorimeters (Silicon PhotoMultiplier – SiPM) or high resolution imagers (SPAD imager). The present work investigates SPAD geometry. MOS transistor has been used instead of resistor to adjust the quenching resistance and find optimum value. From this first set of results, a detailed study of the dark count rate (DCR) has been conducted. Our results show a dark count rate increase with the size of the photodiodes and the temperature (at T=22.5 °C, the DCR of a 10 µm-photodiode is 2020 count s{sup −1} while it is 270 count s{sup −1} at T=−40 °C for a overvoltage of 800 mV). A small pixel size is desirable, because the DCR per unit area decreases with the pixel size. We also found that the adjustment

  16. Foliage penetration obscuration probability density function analysis from overhead canopy photos for gimbaled linear-mode and Geiger-mode airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Robin R.

    2010-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) systems designed for foliage penetration can produce good bare-earth products in medium to medium-heavy obscuration environments, but product creation becomes increasingly more difficult as the obscuration level increases. A prior knowledge of the obscuration environment over large areas is hard to obtain. The competing factors of area coverage rate and product quality are difficult to balance. Ground-based estimates of obscuration levels are labor intensive and only capture a small portion of the area of interest. Estimates of obscuration levels derived from airborne data require that the area of interest has been collected previously. Recently, there has been a focus on lacunarity (scale dependent measure of translational invariance) to quantify the gap structure of canopies. While this approach is useful, it needs to be evaluated relative to the size of the instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) of the system under consideration. In this paper, the author reports on initial results to generate not just average obscuration values from overhead canopy photographs, but to generate obscuration probability density functions (PDFs) for both gimbaled linear-mode and geiger-mode airborne LIDAR. In general, gimbaled linear-mode (LM) LIDAR collects data with higher signal-to-noise (SNR), but is limited to smaller areas and cannot collect at higher altitudes. Conversely, geiger-mode (GM) LIDAR has a much lower SNR, but is capable of higher area rates and collecting data at higher altitudes. To date, geiger-mode LIDAR obscurant penetration theory has relied on a single obscuration value, but recent work has extended it to use PDFs1. Whether or not the inclusion of PDFs significantly changes predicted results and more closely matches actual results awaits the generation of PDFs over specific ground truth targets and comparison to actual collections of those ground truth targets. Ideally, examination of individual PDFs

  17. Performance of OOK and low-order PPM modulations in optical communications when using APD-based receivers. [Off-On Keying and Pulse Position Modulation using Avalanche PhotoDiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The paper computes direct detection laser communications receiver performance when using avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors. The performances are compared in terms of bit error probability vs average signal required per bit when the transmitter uses either on-off keying (OOK) or low-order PPM formats. It is shown that QPPM requires 3 dB less signal than OOK, while BPPM requires the same or slightly more than OOK for the same performance. Optimum APD gain values range from 200 to 400. When using QPPM, k(eff) = 0.006, and optimum gain, 60 signal counts/bit are required at 500 Mbits/s for a 0.000001 bit error probability. It is concluded that QPPM may be an attractive signaling format for some fiber or free space laser communication applications.

  18. An Acoustic Charge Transport Imager for High Definition Television Applications: Reliability Modeling and Parametric Yield Prediction of GaAs Multiple Quantum Well Avalanche Photodiodes. Degree awarded Oct. 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, W. D.; Brennan, K. F.; Summers, C. J.; Yun, Ilgu

    1994-01-01

    Reliability modeling and parametric yield prediction of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiodes (APDs), which are of interest as an ultra-low noise image capture mechanism for high definition systems, have been investigated. First, the effect of various doping methods on the reliability of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiode (APD) structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated. Reliability is examined by accelerated life tests by monitoring dark current and breakdown voltage. Median device lifetime and the activation energy of the degradation mechanism are computed for undoped, doped-barrier, and doped-well APD structures. Lifetimes for each device structure are examined via a statistically designed experiment. Analysis of variance shows that dark-current is affected primarily by device diameter, temperature and stressing time, and breakdown voltage depends on the diameter, stressing time and APD type. It is concluded that the undoped APD has the highest reliability, followed by the doped well and doped barrier devices, respectively. To determine the source of the degradation mechanism for each device structure, failure analysis using the electron-beam induced current method is performed. This analysis reveals some degree of device degradation caused by ionic impurities in the passivation layer, and energy-dispersive spectrometry subsequently verified the presence of ionic sodium as the primary contaminant. However, since all device structures are similarly passivated, sodium contamination alone does not account for the observed variation between the differently doped APDs. This effect is explained by the dopant migration during stressing, which is verified by free carrier concentration measurements using the capacitance-voltage technique.

  19. Determination of breakdown voltage of In 0.53Ga 0.47As/InP single photon avalanche diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhou; Changjun Liao; Zhengjun Wei; Chunfei Li; Shuqiong Yuan

    2011-01-01

    @@ We examine the saturation of relative current gain of In0.53Ga0.47 As/InP single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) operated in Geiger mode. The punch-through voltage and breakdown voltage of the SPADs can be measured using a simple and accurate method. The analysis method is temperature-independent and can be applied to most SPADs.%We examine the saturation of relative current gain of In0.53Ga0.47As/InP single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) operated in Geiger mode. The punch-through voltage and breakdown voltage of the SPADs can be measured using a simple and accurate method. The analysis method is temperature-independent and can be applied to most SPADs.

  20. A 1.5k x 1.5k class photon counting HgCdTe linear avalanche photo-diode array for low background space astronomy in the 1-5micron infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Donald

    Under a current award, NASA NNX 13AC13G "EXTENDING THE ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATION OF PHOTON COUNTING HgCdTe LINEAR AVALANCHE PHOTODIODE ARRAYS TO LOW BACKGROUND SPACE OBSERVATIONS" UH has used Selex SAPHIRA 320 x 256 MOVPE L-APD HgCdTe arrays developed for Adaptive Optics (AO) wavefront (WF) sensing to investigate the potential of this technology for low background space astronomy applications. After suppressing readout integrated circuit (ROIC) glow, we have placed upper limits on gain normalized dark current of 0.01 e-/sec at up to 8 volts avalanche bias, corresponding to avalanche gain of 5, and have operated with avalanche gains of up to several hundred at higher bias. We have also demonstrated detection of individual photon events. The proposed investigation would scale the format to 1536 x 1536 at 12um (the largest achievable in a standard reticule without requiring stitching) while incorporating reference pixels required at these low dark current levels. The primary objective is to develop, produce and characterize a 1.5k x 1.5k at 12um pitch MOVPE HgCdTe L-APD array, with nearly 30 times the pixel count of the 320 x 256 SAPHIRA, optimized for low background space astronomy. This will involve: 1) Selex design of a 1.5k x 1.5k at 12um pitch ROIC optimized for low background operation, silicon wafer fabrication at the German XFab foundry in 0.35 um 3V3 process and dicing/test at Selex, 2) provision by GL Scientific of a 3-side close-buttable carrier building from the heritage of the HAWAII xRG family, 3) Selex development and fabrication of 1.5k x 1.5k at 12 um pitch MOVPE HgCdTe L-APD detector arrays optimized for low background applications, 4) hybridization, packaging into a sensor chip assembly (SCA) with initial characterization by Selex and, 5) comprehensive characterization of low background performance, both in the laboratory and at ground based telescopes, by UH. The ultimate goal is to produce and eventually market a large format array, the L

  1. Radiation Response of Emerging High Gain, Low Noise Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Farr, William H; Zhu, David Q.

    2007-01-01

    Data illustrating the radiation response of emerging high gain, low noise detectors are presented. Ionizing dose testing of silicon internal discrete avalanche photodiodes, and 51-MeV proton testing of InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode are discussed.

  2. Characterization of a commercially available large area, high detection efficiency single-photon avalanche diode

    CERN Document Server

    Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    We characterize a new commercial, back-illuminated reach-through silicon single-photon avalanche photo diode (SPAD) SAP500 (Laser Components. Inc.), operated in Geiger-mode for purpose of photon counting. We show that for this sensor a significant interplay exists between dark counts, detection efficiency, afterpulsing, excess voltage and operating temperature, sometimes requiring a careful optimization tailored for a specific application. We find that a large flat plateau of sensitive area of about 0.5 mm in diameter, a peak quantum efficiency of 73% at 560 nm and timing precision down to 150 ps FWHM are the main distinguishing characteristics of this SPAD.

  3. MBE growth HgCdTe avalanche photodiode based on PIN structure%MBE生长的PIN结构碲镉汞红外雪崩光电二极管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾仁杰; 沈川; 王伟强; 付祥良; 郭余英; 陈路

    2013-01-01

    对中波红外碲镉汞雪崩光电二极管(APD)特性进行理论计算,获得材料的能量散射因子及电离阈值能级与材料特性的相互关系,从而计算器件的理论雪崩增益与击穿电压.通过对材料特性(组分,外延厚度,掺杂浓度等)的优化,设计并生长了适合制备PIN结构红外雪崩光电二极管的碲镉汞材料,并进行了器件验证.结果显示,在10V反偏电压下,该器件电流增益可达335.%Hg1-xCdxTe (x=0. 3) avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with a PIN structure was investigated theoretically. The energy dispersion factor and the threshold energy are acquired according to the parameters of material. The gain as well as the breakdown voltage of the device was obtained. The composition, thickness, doping level were optimized theoretically for the APD device. A high performance APD device with a gain of 335 at the bias voltage of-lOV was fabricated, which consisted of a PIN structure mad of HgCdTe grown by MBE.

  4. Effect of atmospheric turbulence on the bit error probability of a space to ground near infrared laser communications link using binary pulse position modulation and an avalanche photodiode detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, H. G.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric turbulence on the bit error rate of a space-to-ground near infrared laser communications link is investigated, for a link using binary pulse position modulation and an avalanche photodiode detector. Formulas are presented for the mean and variance of the bit error rate as a function of signal strength. Because these formulas require numerical integration, they are of limited practical use. Approximate formulas are derived which are easy to compute and sufficiently accurate for system feasibility studies, as shown by numerical comparison with the exact formulas. A very simple formula is derived for the bit error rate as a function of signal strength, which requires only the evaluation of an error function. It is shown by numerical calculations that, for realistic values of the system parameters, the increase in the bit error rate due to turbulence does not exceed about thirty percent for signal strengths of four hundred photons per bit or less. The increase in signal strength required to maintain an error rate of one in 10 million is about one or two tenths of a db.

  5. Range Precision of LADAR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Radars with Geiger - Mode Avalanche Photodiode Ar- rays,” Lincoln Laboratory Journal , 13 (2):351–370 (2002). 3. Andrews L. and Phillips R. Laser Beam...5 APD Avalanche Photodiode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 MLE Maximum Likelihood Estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 CRLB Cramer...Typical detectors are photomultiplier tubes (PMT)s, p-i-n diodes, and avalanche photodiodes (APD)s. There is noise in the received signal. One source of

  6. Channel Modelling and Performance of Non-Line-of-Sight Ultraviolet Scattering Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Liu, H., Campbell, J.C.: ‘Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger - mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes ’, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 2007, 19... Avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors are also rapidly being developed [6, 7]. These device advances have inspired recent research in LED-based short...22), pp. 1822–1824 7 Shen, S.C., Zhang, Y., Yoo, D., et al.: ‘Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD’, IEEE

  7. Standoff Polarimetric Aerosol Detection (SPADE) for Biodefense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    conventionally achieved by the use of optical heterodyne lidar techniques-meaning coherent laser and, more recently, Geiger - mode avalanche photodiode detector...efficient avalanche photodiode detectors [BW and CA]. 5.3 SIGNAL-TO-NOISE BACKSCATTER-ANGLE PROFILES The standoff application for polarimetric measurements... avalanche photodiode . The average number of detected signal photons per pulse is just Eq (10E) divided by hv, i.e., nq =Es/hv = XEs/hc photons. The average

  8. Comprehensive understanding of dark count mechanisms of single-photon avalanche diodes fabricated in deep sub-micron CMOS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yux; Xiang, Ping; Xie, Xiaopeng

    2017-03-01

    The dark count noise mechanisms of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in deep sub-micron (DSM) CMOS technologies are investigated in depth. An electric field dependence of tunneling model combined with carrier thermal generation is established for dark count rate (DCR) prediction. Applying the crucial parameters provided by Geiger mode TCAD simulation such as avalanche triggering probability and electric field distribution in the SPAD avalanche region, the individual contribution of each noise source to DCR is calculated for several SPADs in DSM CMOS technologies. The model calculation results reveal that the trap-assisted tunneling is the main DCR generation source for these DSM CMOS SPADs. With the increase of doping levels in the device avalanche region, the band-to-band tunneling will be the dominant factor that could lead to the higher DCR in scaled DSM CMOS technologies.

  9. First demonstration of THGEM/GAPD-matrix optical readout in two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector in Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Bondar, A; Dolgov, A; Grebenuk, A; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A; Breskin, A; Thers, D

    2013-01-01

    The multi-channel optical readout of a THGEM multiplier coupled to a matrix of 3x3 Geiger-mode APDs (GAPDs) was demonstrated in a two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector (CRAD) in Ar. The GAPDs recorded THGEM-hole avalanches in the Near Infrared (NIR). At an avalanche charge gain of 160, the yield of the combined THGEM/GAPD-matrix multiplier amounted at ~80 photoelectrons per 20 keV X-ray absorbed in the liquid phase. A spatial resolution of 2.5 mm (FWHM) has been measured for the impinging X-rays. This technique has potential applications in coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and dark matter search experiments.

  10. First demonstration of THGEM/GAPD-matrix optical readout in a two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector in Ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov Street 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Buzulutskov, A., E-mail: a.f.buzulutskov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov Street 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Dolgov, A. [Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov Street 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Grebenuk, A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Shemyakina, E.; Sokolov, A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov Street 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Breskin, A. [Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Thers, D. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/In2p3, Université de Nantes, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2013-12-21

    The multi-channel optical readout of a THGEM multiplier coupled to a matrix of 3×3 Geiger-mode APDs (GAPDs) was demonstrated in a two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector (CRAD) in Ar. The GAPDs recorded THGEM-hole avalanches in the Near Infrared (NIR) spectral range. At an avalanche charge gain of 160, the yield of the combined THGEM/GAPD-matrix multiplier amounted to ∼80 photoelectrons per 20 keV X-ray absorbed in the liquid phase. A spatial resolution of 2.5 mm (FWHM) has been measured for the impinging X-rays. This technique has potential applications in coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and in dark matter search experiments.

  11. A New Method to Investigate InGaAsP Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes Using a Digital Sampling Oscilloscope%基于数字采样示波器的InGaAsP单光子雪崩二极管的特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 杨富华; 吴孟

    2006-01-01

    介绍了由带尾纤的InGaAs/InP雪崩光电二极管建立的近红外单光子探测系统.使用带宽50GHz的数字采样示波器,首次直观地展现了门模式(即盖革模式)工作状态下,单光子探测的模式和过程.并且在波长分别为1310和1550nm的情况下进行了定量研究.在1550nm,工作温度203K条件下,该探测器达到了暗计数概率2.4×10-3每门,量子效率52%,50kHZ的门信号重复频率;在工作温度为238K时,相应参数分别为8.5×10-3,43%和200kHz.%A near-infrared single-photon detection system is established by using pigtailed InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes. With a 50GHz digital sampling oscilloscope, the function and process of gated-mode (Geiger-mode)single-photon detection are intuitionally demonstrated for the first time. The performance of the detector as a gated-mode single-photon counter at wavelengths of 1310 and 1550nm is investigated. At the operation temperature of 203K,a quantum efficiency of 52% with a dark count probability per gate of 2.4 × 10-3 ,and a gate pulse repetition rate of 50kHz are obtained at 1550nm. The corresponding parameters are 43%, 8.5 × 10-3, and 200kHz at 238K.

  12. A new modeling and simulation method for important statistical performance prediction of single photon avalanche diode detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Xiang, Ping; Xie, Xiaopeng; Huang, Yang

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new modeling and simulation method to predict the important statistical performance of single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors, including photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark count rate (DCR) and afterpulsing probability (AP). Three local electric field models are derived for the PDE, DCR and AP calculations, which show analytical dependence of key parameters such as avalanche triggering probability, impact ionization rate and electric field distributions that can be directly obtained from Geiger mode Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation. The model calculation results are proven to be in good agreement with the reported experimental data in the open literature, suggesting that the proposed modeling and simulation method is very suitable for the prediction of SPAD statistical performance.

  13. Scintillation Has Minimal Impact On Far Field Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    provides spatial- mode discrimination against background light . APD: single-photon ( Geiger mode ) avalanche photodiode . governed by conditionally...employ identical singlc- photon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) , each of quantum efficiency 7) [7]. For a single photon arriving at Bob’s receiver...normal- mode decomposition for line-of-sight optical propagation through atmospheric turbulence [2] to obtain upper and lower bounds on t he sift and

  14. The avalanche-mode superjunction LED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Satadal; Steeneken, Peter G.; Agarwal, Vishal Vishal; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Annema, Anne J.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2017-01-01

    Avalanche-mode light-emitting diodes (AMLEDs) in silicon (Si) are potential light sources to enable monolithic optical links in standard CMOS technology, due to the large overlap of their electroluminescent (EL) spectra with the responsivity of Si photodiodes. These EL spectra depend on the reverse

  15. An accurate simulation model for single-photon avalanche diodes including important statistical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiuyang, He; Yue, Xu; Feifei, Zhao

    2013-10-01

    An accurate and complete circuit simulation model for single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) is presented. The derived model is not only able to simulate the static DC and dynamic AC behaviors of an SPAD operating in Geiger-mode, but also can emulate the second breakdown and the forward bias behaviors. In particular, it considers important statistical effects, such as dark-counting and after-pulsing phenomena. The developed model is implemented using the Verilog-A description language and can be directly performed in commercial simulators such as Cadence Spectre. The Spectre simulation results give a very good agreement with the experimental results reported in the open literature. This model shows a high simulation accuracy and very fast simulation rate.

  16. Synchronization and Detection of Binary Data in Free-Space Optical Communication Systems using Haar Wavelet Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    atory in Washington, D.C. since 1998. His current research inter- sts are free-space laser communications, satellite laser ranging, nd Geiger mode ... avalanche photodiode detectors. harles Conner received his PhD in electrical engineering from the atholic University of America in 1998. His specialties

  17. Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Stefan; van Dam, Herman T.; Huizenga, Jan; Vinke, Ruud; Dendooven, Peter; Loehner, Herbert; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2009-01-01

    In a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), also referred to as multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), many Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) are connected in parallel so as to combine the photon counting capabilities of each of these so-called microcells into a proportional light sensor. The

  18. Simulation of silicon photomultiplier signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, S.; Van Dam, H.T.; Huizenga, J.; Vinke, R.; Dendooven, P.; Löhner, H.; Schaart, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    In a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), also referred to as multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), many Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) are connected in parallel so as to combine the photon counting capabilities of each of these so-called microcells into a proportional light sensor. The

  19. SPADs in CMOS: When Physics Meets Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbon, E.

    2011-01-01

    Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are a class of photodiodes biased above breakdown; in this mode of operation, known as Geiger mode, the devices are capable of detecting one or more photons with high timing accuracy. SPADs are useful in a variety of applications where picosecond timing

  20. SPADs in CMOS: When Physics Meets Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbon, E.

    2011-01-01

    Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are a class of photodiodes biased above breakdown; in this mode of operation, known as Geiger mode, the devices are capable of detecting one or more photons with high timing accuracy. SPADs are useful in a variety of applications where picosecond timing accurac

  1. Integrated array of 2-mum antimonide-based single-photon counting devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diagne, M.A.; Greszik, M.; Duerr, E.K.; Zayhowski, J.J.; Manfra, M.J.; Bailey, R.J.; Donnelly, J.P.; Turner, G.W.

    2011-01-01

    A 32x32 Sb-based Geiger-mode (GM) avalanche photodiode array, operating at 2 mum with three-dimensional imaging capability, is presented. The array is interfaced with a ROIC (readout integrated circuit) in which each pixel can detect a photon and record the arrival time. The hybridized unit for the

  2. Absolute measurement of detector quantum efficiency using parametric downconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarity, J G; Ridley, K D; Tapster, P R

    1987-11-01

    We show that a parametric downconversion crystal emitting angle resolved coincident photon pairs can be used to measure the absolute quantum efficiency of a photon counting detection system. We have measured the quantum efficiency of a silicon avalanche photodiode, operated in Geiger mode, as a function of operating voltage and compare this to results obtained using a conventional method.

  3. Hole-Initiated-Avalanche, Linear-Mode, Single-Photon-Sensitive Avalanche Photodetector with Reduced Excess Noise and Low Dark Count Rate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A radiation hard, single photon sensitive InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver technology will be demonstrated useful for long range space based optical...

  4. Very high-gain and low-excess noise near-infrared single-photon avalanche detector: an NIR solid state photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linga, Krishna; Yevtukhov, Yuriy; Liang, Bing

    2009-05-01

    A new family of photodetectors with a Discrete Amplification (DA) mechanism allows the realization of very high gain and low excess noise factor in the visible and near infrared spectral regions and offers an alternative to conventional photomultiplier tubes and Geiger mode avalanche photodetectors. These photodetectors can operate in linear detection mode with gain-bandwidth product in excess of 4X1014 and in photon counting mode with count rates up to 108 counts/sec. Potential benefits of this technology over conventional avalanche photodetectors include ultra low excess noise factor, very high gain, and lower reset time (photodetectors in the near infrared wavelength range. The measured devices have the following performance characteristics: gain > 2X105, excess noise factor Lidar, quantum cryptography, night vision and other military, defence and aerospace applications.

  5. Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) in CMOS 0.35 μm technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellion, D.; Jradi, K.; Brochard, N.; Prêle, D.; Ginhac, D.

    2015-07-01

    Some decades ago single photon detection used to be the terrain of photomultiplier tube (PMT), thanks to its characteristics of sensitivity and speed. However, PMT has several disadvantages such as low quantum efficiency, overall dimensions, and cost, making them unsuitable for compact design of integrated systems. So, the past decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in new integrated single-photon detectors called Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) or Geiger-mode APD. SPAD are working in avalanche mode above the breakdown level. When an incident photon is captured, a very fast avalanche is triggered, generating an easily detectable current pulse. This paper discusses SPAD detectors fabricated in a standard CMOS technology featuring both single-photon sensitivity, and excellent timing resolution, while guaranteeing a high integration. In this work, we investigate the design of SPAD detectors using the AMS 0.35 μm CMOS Opto technology. Indeed, such standard CMOS technology allows producing large surface (few mm2) of single photon sensitive detectors. Moreover, SPAD in CMOS technologies could be associated to electronic readout such as active quenching, digital to analog converter, memories and any specific processing required to build efficient calorimeters1

  6. Aging Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Paczuski, Maya

    1997-03-01

    We have shown that in an analytically solvable model of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC)(S. Boettcher & M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 348 (1996). the evolving avalanche is governed by an equation of motion with a memory term that ranges over all past events.(S. Boettcher & M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 54), 1082 (1996). The solution for the propagator shows sub-diffusive behavior with a broad exponential tail. Numerical studies of the temporal correlations during avalanches in a variety of SOC systems indicate that history dependence and hierarchical structures are generic features which emerge dynamically from simple local update rules. In particular, we find(S. Boettcher & M. Paczuski, ``Off-Equilibrium Behavior and Aging in Self-Organized Criticality'', (in preparation).) ``aging'' similar to the slow relaxation behavior in disordered systems that move through ``rugged landscapes'' in phase space, such as spin glasses.

  7. [Avalanche accidents and treatment of avalanche victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaiaa, Sven Christjar; Thomassen, Øyvind

    2016-03-15

    Avalanches may be provoked spontaneously or as a result of human activity, and they trigger the need for considerable rescue resources. Avalanche search and rescue operations are complex and characterised by physical and mental stress. The guidelines for resuscitation of avalanche victims may be perceived as complex and abstruse, which can lead to suboptimal treatment and an increased strain on rescue teams. The purpose of this article is to summarise the principles for medical treatment of avalanche victims.

  8. MPPC versus MRS APD in two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bondar, A; Dolgov, A; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A

    2015-01-01

    Two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) with combined THGEM/GAPD multiplier have become an emerging potential technique for dark matter search and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments. In such a multiplier the THGEM hole avalanches are optically recorded in the Near Infrared (NIR) using a matrix of Geiger-mode APDs (GAPDs). To select the proper sensor, the performances of six GAPD types manufactured by different companies, namely by Hamamatsu (MPPCs), CPTA (MRS APDs) and SensL (SiPMs), have been comparatively studied at cryogenic temperatures when operated in two-phase CRADs in Ar at 87 K. While the GAPDs with ceramic packages failed to operate properly at cryogenic temperatures, those with plastic packages, namely MPPC S10931-100P and MRS APD 149-35, showed satisfactory performances at 87 K. In addition, MPPC S10931-100P turned out to be superior in terms of the higher detection efficiency, lower nose rate, lower pixel quenching resistor and better characteristics reproducibility.

  9. First prototypes of two-tier avalanche pixel sensors for particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheri, L.; Brogi, P.; Collazuol, G.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Ficorella, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Morsani, F.; Ratti, L.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present the implementation and preliminary evaluation of a new type of silicon sensor for charged particle detection operated in Geiger-mode. The proposed device, formed by two vertically-aligned pixel arrays, exploits the coincidence between two simultaneous avalanche events to discriminate between particle-triggered detections and dark counts. A proof-of-concept two-layer sensor with per-pixel coincidence circuits was designed and fabricated in a 150 nm CMOS process and vertically integrated through bump bonding. The sensor includes a 48×16 pixel array with 50 μ m × 75 μ m pixels. This work describes the sensor architecture and reports a selection of results from the characterization of the avalanche detectors in the two layers. Detectors with an active area of 43 × 45 μ m2 have a median dark count rate of 3 kHz at 3.3 V excess bias and a breakdown voltage non-uniformity lower than 20 mV.

  10. Single photon avalanche detectors: prospects of new quenching and gain mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall David

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While silicon single-photon avalanche diodes (SPAD have reached very high detection efficiency and timing resolution, their use in fibre-optic communications, optical free space communications, and infrared sensing and imaging remains limited. III-V compounds including InGaAs and InP are the prevalent materials for 1550 nm light detection. However, even the most sensitive 1550 nm photoreceivers in optical communication have a sensitivity limit of a few hundred photons. Today, the only viable approach to achieve single-photon sensitivity at 1550 nm wavelength from semiconductor devices is to operate the avalanche detectors in Geiger mode, essentially trading dynamic range and speed for sensitivity. As material properties limit the performance of Ge and III-V detectors, new conceptual insight with regard to novel quenching and gain mechanisms could potentially address the performance limitations of III-V SPADs. Novel designs that utilise internal self-quenching and negative feedback can be used to harness the sensitivity of single-photon detectors,while drastically reducing the device complexity and increasing the level of integration. Incorporation of multiple gain mechanisms, together with self-quenching and built-in negative feedback, into a single device also hold promise for a new type of detector with single-photon sensitivity and large dynamic range.

  11. SiC Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase 2 SBIR program submitted to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in response to Topic S1.05 (Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray,...

  12. Radiation hardness test of the Philips Digital Photon Counter with proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Frach, T.; Kononov, S. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Prisekin, V. G.

    2016-07-01

    The Philips Digital Photon Counter (DPC) is a silicon photomultiplier combining Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) and dedicated readout electronics in the same chip. The DPC is a promising photon sensor for future RICH detectors. A known issue of G-APD is its sensitivity to radiation damage. Two DPC sensors were tested using 800 MeV/c protons. An increase of dark counting rate with proton fluence up to 4 ·1011cm-2 has been measured.

  13. Status and perspectives of solid state photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpar, Samo, E-mail: Samo.Korpar@ijs.s [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-05-21

    Recent years have seen a considerable progress in the development of solid state photon detectors. In particular it is the Geiger mode avalanche photodiode, also known as the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), which is much investigated for its single photon sensitivity as well as its other appealing properties. In the present paper we discuss the recent advances of such photon detectors as well as possibilities for their application, mainly in ring imaging Cherenkov detectors.

  14. Hybrid photodetector for single-molecule spectroscopy and microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalet, X; Cheng, Adrian; Antelman, Joshua; Suyama, Motohiro; Arisaka, Katsushi; Weiss, Shimon

    2008-02-15

    We report benchmark tests of a new single-photon counting detector based on a GaAsP photocathode and an electron-bombarded avalanche photodiode developed by Hamamatsu Photonics. We compare its performance with those of standard Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. We show its advantages for FCS due to the absence of after-pulsing and for fluorescence lifetime measurements due to its excellent time resolution. Its large sensitive area also greatly simplifies setup alignment. Its spectral sensitivity being similar to that of recently introduced CMOS SPADs, this new detector could become a valuable tool for single-molecule fluorescence measurements, as well as for many other applications.

  15. FACT - The first G-APD Cherenkov telescope (first results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, T.; Dorner, D.; Backes, M.; Biland, A.; Buß, J.; Commichau, V.; Djambazov, L.; Eisenacher, D.; Grimm, O.; von Gunten, H.; Hildebrand, D.; Krähenbühl, T.; Lustermann, W.; Lyard, E.; Mannheim, K.; Neise, D.; Overkemping, A.-K.; Paravac, A.; Pauss, F.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Röser, U.; Stucki, J.-P.; Temme, F.; Thaele, J.; Tobler, S.; Vogler, P.; Walter, R.; Weitzel, Q.; Zänglein, M.

    2012-12-01

    In October 2011, the first air-Cherenkov telescope utilizing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes commenced operations. The silicon-based devices display several advantages compared to classical photomultiplier tubes allowing for a more compact camera design of higher reliability, lower power consumption and bias voltage, and better prospects for improving the photon detection efficiency. Here, the first physics results are presented from a few months of data taking. Although still preliminary, the results already show a superb fidelity of the data, demonstrating the potential of avalanche photodiodes for ground-based gamma ray astronomy. The stability and high sensitivity are ideal for remote monitoring observations of variable gamma-ray sources.

  16. BGO Readout with Photodiodes as a Soft gamma-Ray Detector at -30C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, T.

    2005-01-21

    BGO is expected to be plausible devices for soft gamma-ray detectors, because of a high detection efficiency for soft gamma-rays. Here we report on the good performance of BGO readout with PIN-photodiode or avalanche photodiode as a soft gamma-ray detector. We confirmed that the signal output of BGO becomes comparable to that of GSO when it is readout with photodiodes due to better matching between emission wavelength of BGO and quantum efficiency of photodiode. The energy resolution of 6.2% and 3.4% for 662 keV and 1836 keV, respectively, gamma-rays at -30 C is obtained with the combination of the 5 x 5 x 5 mm{sup 3} cube BGO and the Hamamatsu avalanche photodiode (APD) S8664-55. In this combination, the lowest detectable energy is found to be {approx}10 keV. These performances are better than that obtained with Photomultiplier tube (PMT), and our results increase many possible applications of BGO readout with photodiodes as soft gamma-ray detectors.

  17. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Isamu; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Soga, Mineki; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Ogawa, Masaru; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2016-03-30

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with enhanced near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE) without compromising the fill factor (FF) and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR) measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps) SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25-132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50-180 cm.

  18. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Isamu; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Soga, Mineki; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Ogawa, Masaru; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with enhanced near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE) without compromising the fill factor (FF) and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR) measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps) SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25–132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50–180 cm. PMID:27043569

  19. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Takai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD with enhanced near-infrared (NIR sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE without compromising the fill factor (FF and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25–132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50–180 cm.

  20. Rock avalanches on glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Shugar, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines relations between rock avalanches and the glaciers on which they are deposited. I have attempted to understand a geophysical phenomenon from two viewpoints: sedimentology and glaciology. The contributions are both methodological, and practical. I have used a GIS to quantify debris sheet geomorphology. A thorough characterization of rock avalanche debris is a necessary step in understanding the flow mechanics of large landslide. I have also developed a technique for solvin...

  1. Non-Markovian property of afterpulsing effect in single-photon avalanche detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fang-Xiang; Li, Ya-Ping; He, De-Yong; Wang, Chao; Han, Yun-Guang; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The single-photon avalanche photodiode(SPAD) has been widely used in research on quantum optics. The afterpulsing effect, which is an intrinsic character of SPAD, affects the system performance in most experiments and needs to be carefully handled. For a long time, afterpulsing has been presumed to be determined by the pre-ignition avalanche. We studied the afterpulsing effect of a commercial InGaAs/InP SPAD (The avalanche photodiode model is: Princeton Lightwave PGA-300) and demonstrated that its afterpulsing is non-Markovian, with a memory effect in the avalanching history. Theoretical analysis and experimental results clearly indicate that the embodiment of this memory effect is the afterpulsing probability, which increases as the number of ignition-avalanche pulses increase. This conclusion makes the principle of the afterpulsing effect clearer and is instructive to the manufacturing processes and afterpulsing evaluation of high-count-rate SPADs. It can also be regarded as a fundamental premise to handle ...

  2. Saturated logistic avalanche model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Liberti, B.; Paoloni, A.; Santonico, R.

    2003-08-01

    The search for an adequate avalanche RPC working model evidenced that the simple exponential growth can describe the electron multiplication phenomena in the gas with acceptable accuracy until the external electric field is not perturbed by the growing avalanche. We present here a model in which the saturated growth induced by the space charge effects is explained in a natural way by a constant coefficient non-linear differential equation, the Logistic equation, which was originally introduced to describe the evolution of a biological population in a limited resources environment. The RPCs, due to the uniform and intense field, proved to be an ideal device to test experimentally the presented model.

  3. Dune Avalanche Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    05 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large, low albedo (dark) sand dunes in Kaiser Crater near 47.2oS, 340.4oW. The dunes are--ever so slowly--moving east to west (right to left) as sand avalanches down the steeper, slip face slopes of each. Avalanching sand in the Kaiser dune field has left deep scars on these slopes, suggesting that the sand is not loose but is instead weakly cemented. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  4. Abelian avalanches and Tutte polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielov, Andrei

    1993-04-01

    We introduce a class of deterministic lattice models of failure, Abelian avalanche (AA) models, with continuous phase variables, similar to discrete Abelian sandpile (ASP) models. We investigate analytically the structure of the phase space and statistical properties of avalanches in these models. We show that the distributions of avalanches in AA and ASP models with the same redistribution matrix and loading rate are identical. For an AA model on a graph, statistics of avalanches is linked to Tutte polynomials associated with this graph and its subgraphs. In the general case, statistics of avalanches is linked to an analog of a Tutte polynomial defined for any symmetric matrix.

  5. Reuyl Crater Dust Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 May 2002) The Science The rugged, arcuate rim of the 90 km crater Reuyl dominates this THEMIS image. Reuyl crater is at the southern edge of a region known to be blanketed in thick dust based on its high albedo (brightness) and low thermal inertia values. This thick mantle of dust creates the appearance of snow covered mountains in the image. Like snow accumulation on Earth, Martian dust can become so thick that it eventually slides down the face of steep slopes, creating runaway avalanches of dust. In the center of this image about 1/3 of the way down is evidence of this phenomenon. A few dozen dark streaks can be seen on the bright, sunlit slopes of the crater rim. The narrow streaks extend downslope following the local topography in a manner very similar to snow avalanches on Earth. But unlike their terrestrial counterparts, no accumulation occurs at the bottom. The dust particles are so small that they are easily launched into the thin atmosphere where they remain suspended and ultimately blow away. The apparent darkness of the avalanche scars is due to the presence of relatively dark underlying material that becomes exposed following the passage of the avalanche. Over time, new dust deposition occurs, brightening the scars until they fade into the background. Although dark slope streaks had been observed in Viking mission images, a clear understanding of this dynamic phenomenon wasn't possible until the much higher resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed the details. MOC images also showed that new avalanches have occurred during the time MGS has been in orbit. THEMIS images will allow additional mapping of their distribution and frequency, contributing new insights about Martian dust avalanches. The Story The stiff peaks in this image might remind you of the Alps here on Earth, but they really outline the choppy edge of a large Martian crater over 50 miles wide (seen in the context image at right). While these aren

  6. High sensitivity InAs photodiodes for mid-infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jo Shien; Zhou, Xinxin; Auckloo, Akeel; White, Benjamin; Zhang, Shiyong; Krysa, Andrey; David, John P. R.; Tan, Chee Hing

    2016-10-01

    Sensitive detection of mid-infrared light (2 to 5 μm wavelengths) is crucial to a wide range of applications. Many of the applications require high-sensitivity photodiodes, or even avalanche photodiodes (APDs), with the latter generally accepted as more desirable to provide higher sensitivity when the optical signal is very weak. Using the semiconductor InAs, whose bandgap is 0.35 eV at room temperature (corresponding to a cut-off wavelength of 3.5 μm), Sheffield has developed high-sensitivity APDs for mid-infrared detection for one such application, satellite-based greenhouse gases monitoring at 2.0 μm wavelength. With responsivity of 1.36 A/W at unity gain at 2.0 μm wavelength (84 % quantum efficiency), increasing to 13.6 A/W (avalanche gain of 10) at -10V, our InAs APDs meet most of the key requirements from the greenhouse gas monitoring application, when cooled to 180 K. In the past few years, efforts were also made to develop planar InAs APDs, which are expected to offer greater robustness and manufacturability than mesa APDs previously employed. Planar InAs photodiodes are reported with reasonable responsivity (0.45 A/W for 1550 nm wavelength) and planar InAs APDs exhibited avalanche gain as high as 330 at 200 K. These developments indicate that InAs photodiodes and APDs are maturing, gradually realising their potential indicated by early demonstrations which were first reported nearly a decade ago.

  7. Experimental study of photo counting imaging based on APD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huiming; Li, Yuan-yuan; Cao, Dan; Zheng, Qi; Ji, Zhong-Jie; Chen, Qian

    2012-10-01

    Photo counting imaging is a promising imaging method for very low-level-light condition and super high-speed imaging. An experimental setup with Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiode single-photon counter was established in this study. This experimental setup achieved photon counting imaging through serial two-dimensional scanning mode of single APD. It extracts the extremely weak signal from the noise by scanning image, and then reconstructs the photon distribution image. The feasibility of the experiment platform was verified with many experiments. The resolution bar was scanned and imaged in different lighting condition. A Lena image was also scanned and imaged among several illumination conditions. The resolution ability and imaging quality are evaluated in different illumination surroundings. The imaging limited condition was concluded based on existing APD sensor. The experimental result indicates that the imaging based Geiger mode APD is an excellent candidate for very low level light imaging.

  8. Statistical theory of hierarchical avalanche ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Olemskoi, Alexander I.

    1999-01-01

    The statistical ensemble of avalanche intensities is considered to investigate diffusion in ultrametric space of hierarchically subordinated avalanches. The stationary intensity distribution and the steady-state current are obtained. The critical avalanche intensity needed to initiate the global avalanche formation is calculated depending on noise intensity. The large time asymptotic for the probability of the global avalanche appearance is derived.

  9. AVALANCHES - EXTREME WINTER EVENTS. MONITORING AND AVALANCHE RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NARCISA MILIAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the avalanches monitored by the National Meteorological Administration within the nivo-meteorological program since february 2004. Daily observations and weekly snow measurements are made at the weather stations from Bucegi Mountains - Vârful Omu (2504 m, Sinaia (1500 m şi Predeal (1100m and Făgăraş Mountains – Bâlea-Lac (2055m, to provide data for avalanche risk estimation using the european avalanche danger scale. Increasing winter sport activities had led to several avalanche accidents, some of them fatal.

  10. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  11. Characteristics of avalanche accidents and a overview of avalanche equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Biela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Avalanches are one of the most spectacular phenomena which may occur in the mountains. Unfortunately they are often caused by humans and pose for him a big danger. In the Polish Tatras alone they represent 18% of all causes of death among 1996-2013. One fourth of the people caught by an avalanche dies, and their chances of survival depends on the depth of burial, burial time, the presence of an air pocket and the degree of injuries. The most common cause of death is asphyxiation, the next is injuries and hypothermia is the rarest cause of death. The fate of the buried people depends on their equipment such as avalanche transceiver, ABS backpack and AvaLung, and also from the equipment of the people who are seeking (avalanche probes, avalanche transceiver and shovels, which has been proven in practice and research.

  12. Avalanches in UGe 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotel, E.; Paulsen, C.; Huxley, A. D.

    2004-05-01

    In UGe 2 ferromagnetism and superconductivity co-exist for pressures in the range 1.0- 1.6 GPa. The magnetic state, however, has several unusual properties. Here we report measurements of hysteresis loops for fields parallel to the easy-axis at low temperature and ambient pressure, measured for two separate UGe 2 single crystals. Steps in the magnetization as the field is changed at low temperature are observed for both crystals. The general phenomenology associated with the steps strongly suggests that they correspond to avalanches of domain-wall motion.

  13. Symmetric two-coordinate photodiode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolskiy Yu. G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-coordinate photodiode is developed and explored on the longitudinal photoeffect, which allows to get the coordinate descriptions symmetric on the steepness and longitudinal resistance great exactness. It was shown, that the best type of the coordinate description is observed in the case of scanning by the optical probe on the central part of the photosensitive element. The ways of improvement of steepness and linear of its coordinate description were analyzed.

  14. Photodiode circuits for retinal prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, J D; Cogan, S F; Mathieson, K; Sher, A; Palanker, D V

    2011-10-01

    Photodiode circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution retinal prostheses. While several of these systems have been constructed and some even implanted in humans, existing descriptions of the complex optoelectronic interaction between light, photodiode, and the electrode/electrolyte load are limited. This study examines this interaction in depth with theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Actively biased photoconductive and passive photovoltaic circuits are investigated, with the photovoltaic circuits consisting of one or more diodes connected in series, and the photoconductive circuits consisting of a single diode in series with a pulsed bias voltage. Circuit behavior and charge injection levels were markedly different for platinum and sputtered iridium-oxide film (SIROF) electrodes. Photovoltaic circuits were able to deliver 0.038 mC/cm(2) (0.75 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50- μm platinum electrodes, and 0.54-mC/cm(2) (11 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50-μ m SIROF electrodes driven with 0.5-ms pulses of light at 25 Hz. The same pulses applied to photoconductive circuits with the same electrodes were able to deliver charge injections as high as 0.38 and 7.6 mC/cm(2) (7.5 and 150 nC/phase), respectively. We demonstrate photovoltaic stimulation of rabbit retina in-vitro, with 0.5-ms pulses of 905-nm light using peak irradiance of 1 mW/mm(2). Based on the experimental data, we derive electrochemical and optical safety limits for pixel density and charge injection in various circuits. While photoconductive circuits offer smaller pixels, photovoltaic systems do not require an external bias voltage. Both classes of circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prostheses.

  15. Study of micro pixel photon counters for a high granularity scintillator-based hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ascenzo, N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany)]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Eggemann, A.; Garutti, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    A new Geiger mode avalanche photodiode, the Micro Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC), was recently released by Hamamatsu. It has a high photo-detection efficiency in the 420 nm spectral region. This product can represent an elegant candidate for the design of a high granularity scintillator based hadron calorimeter for the International Linear Collider. In fact, the direct readout of the blue scintillation photons with a MPPC is a feasible techological solution. The readout of a plastic scintillator by a MPPC, both mediated by the traditional wavelength shifting fiber, and directly coupled, has been systematically studied. (orig.)

  16. Extensive studies of MRS APDs for plastic scintillator muon veto detectors of cryogenic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, R., E-mail: falkenst@pit.physik.uni-tuebingen.de [Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Bezrukov, L.B. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Freund, K. [Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Golovin, A.V.; Golovin, V.M. [Centre for Perspective Technology and Apparatus, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grabmayr, P.; Jochum, J. [Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Lubsandorzhiev, B.K. [Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lubsandorzhiev, N.B.; Poleshuk, R.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Polyansky, I.N. [Centre for Perspective Technology and Apparatus, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ritter, F.; Sailer, C. [Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Shaibonov, B.A.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-11

    Low background experiments need active muon veto detectors to shield them from cosmic muons. Plastic scintillator panels with WLS fiber and multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes readout are widely used in such experiments due to their compactness and robustness. In this paper, results from the study of the basic MRS APD parameters, such as breakdown voltages, quenching resistors, internal gain and dark count rates are presented, as well as temperature dependencies of some of these parameters. In a small fraction of the MRS APDs, some strange dips in the I-V curves just preceding the breakdown voltage point have been observed.

  17. Single photon timing resolution and detection efficiency of the IRST silicon photo-multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collazuol, G. [Scuola Normale Superiore, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: gianmaria.collazuol@pi.infn.it; Ambrosi, G. [INFN Sezione di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler - IRST, Divisione Microsistemi, 38050 Trento (Italy); Corsi, F. [DEE-Politecnico di Bari and INFN Sezione di Bari, 70125 Bari (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.F. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dinu, N. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy); Galimberti, M. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, IPCF-CNR, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Giulietti, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, IPCF-CNR, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Gizzi, L.A.; Labate, L. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, IPCF-CNR, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Llosa, G.; Marcatili, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Morsani, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler - IRST, Divisione Microsistemi, 38050 Trento (Italy); Zaccarelli, L. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler - IRST, Divisione Microsistemi, 38050 Trento (Italy)

    2007-10-21

    Silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) consist in matrices of tiny, passive quenched avalanche photo-diode cells connected in parallel via integrated resistors and operated in Geiger mode. Novel types of SiPM are being developed at FBK-IRST (Trento, Italy). Despite their classical shallow junction n-on-p structure the devices are unique in their enhanced photo-detection efficiency (PDE) for short-wavelengths and in their low level of dark rate and excess noise factor. After a summary of the extensive SiPM characterization we will focus on the study of PDE and the single photon timing resolution.

  18. A G-APD based Camera for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderhub, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Backes, M. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Braun, I. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bretz, T. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Commichau, S.; Commichau, V.; Dorner, D.; Gendotti, A. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Grimm, O., E-mail: oliver.grimm@phys.ethz.c [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gunten, H. von; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Koehne, J.-H. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Kraehenbuehl, T.; Kranich, D.; Lorenz, E.; Lustermann, W. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mannheim, K. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) for Gamma-ray astronomy are presently using photomultiplier tubes as photo sensors. Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) promise an improvement in sensitivity and, important for this application, ease of construction, operation and ruggedness. G-APDs have proven many of their features in the laboratory, but a qualified assessment of their performance in an IACT camera is best undertaken with a prototype. This paper describes the design and construction of a full-scale camera based on G-APDs realized within the FACT project (First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope).

  19. Optimal pseudorandom pulse position modulation ladar waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluckiger, David U; Boland, Brian F; Marcus, Eran

    2015-03-20

    An algorithm for generating optimal pseudorandom pulse position modulation (PRPPM) waveforms for ladar ranging is presented. Bistatic ladar systems using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes require detection of several pulses in order to generate sufficient target statistics to satisfy some detection decision rule. For targets with large initial range uncertainty, it becomes convenient to transmit a pulse train with large ambiguity range. One solution is to employ a PRPPM waveform. An optimal PRPPM waveform will have minimal sidelobes: equivalent to 1 or 0 counts after the pulse correlation filter (compression). This can be accomplished by generating PRPPM pulse trains with optimal or minimal sidelobe autocorrelation.

  20. Single photon counting for space based quantum experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekara, R.; Tang, Z. K.; Tan, Y. C.; Cheng, C.; Wildfeuer, C.; Ling, A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a software based control system for Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) that enables constant photon detection efficiency irrespective of the diode's junction temperature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this control system enables passively quenched GM-APDs to double the rate of photon detection events before saturation compared to the standard control method that fixes the junction temperature and applied bias voltage. We present data demonstrating the robustness of the GM-APD control system when tested in near-space conditions using a correlated photon pair source carried by a weather balloon to an altitude of 35.5 km.

  1. Strategies for using GAPDs as tracker detectors in future linear colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, Eva; Alonso, Oscar; Vilà, Anna; Diéguez, Angel

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the development of a Geiger-mode Avalanche PhotoDiode pixel detector in standard CMOS technologies aimed at the vertex and tracker regions of future linear colliders, i.e. the International Linear Collider and the Compact LInear Collider. In spite of all the advantages that characterize this technology, GAPD detectors suffer from noise pulses that cannot be distinguished from real events and low fill-factors that reduce the detection efficiency. To comply with the specifications imposed by the next generation of particle colliders, solutions to minimize the intrinsic noise pulses and increase the fill-factor have been thoroughly investigated.

  2. Extensive studies of MRS APDs for plastic scintillator muon veto detectors of cryogenic experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenstein, R.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Freund, K.; Golovin, A. V.; Golovin, V. M.; Grabmayr, P.; Jochum, J.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lubsandorzhiev, N. B.; Poleshuk, R. V.; Polyansky, I. N.; Ritter, F.; Sailer, C.; Shaibonov, B. A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Low background experiments need active muon veto detectors to shield them from cosmic muons. Plastic scintillator panels with WLS fiber and multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes readout are widely used in such experiments due to their compactness and robustness. In this paper, results from the study of the basic MRS APD parameters, such as breakdown voltages, quenching resistors, internal gain and dark count rates are presented, as well as temperature dependencies of some of these parameters. In a small fraction of the MRS APDs, some strange dips in the I-V curves just preceding the breakdown voltage point have been observed.

  3. Measuring atmospheric dispersion with WLRS in multiple wavelength mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Haufe, K. H.; Dassing, Reiner

    1993-01-01

    The WLRS (Wettzell Laser Ranging System) allows the simultaneous tracking of satellites on two different wavelengths. These are the fundamental frequency of Nd:YAG at 1.064 microns and the second harmonic at 532 nm. Range measurements to the satellite LAGEOS were carried out with different experimental set-ups, after developing a detector unit based on a silicon avalanche photodiode in Geiger mode, which is sufficiently sensitive in the infrared domain. An approach towards a quantitative interpretation of the data is suggested and discussed briefly.

  4. T2L2 on JASON-2: First Evaluation of the Flying Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    detection unit is composed of two avalanche photo-detectors. One is working in a special “ Geiger ” mode for precise chronometry; the other one is in...pulses by photodiode in Geiger mode ,” Applied Optics, 37, 502- 506. [5] I. Procazka and K. Hamal, 1995, “Recent achievements in solid state detector...common view mode are driven by the noise of both the ground and the onboard timers, whereas the performances in a non-common view configuration are

  5. Evaluation of GM-APD array devices for low-light-level imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kimberly; Hanold, Brandon; Lee, Joong; Figer, Donald F.

    2014-05-01

    The ability to count single photons is necessary to achieve many important science objectives in the near future. This paper presents the lab-tested performance of a photon-counting array-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GMAPD) device in the context of low-light-level imaging. Testing results include dark count rate, afterpulsing probability, intra-pixel sensitivity, and photon detection efficiency, and the effects of radiation damage on detector performance. The GM-APD detector is compared to the state-of-the-art performance of other established detectors using Signal-to-noise ratio as the overall evaluation metric.

  6. Integrated array of 2-μm antimonide-based single-photon counting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, M A; Greszik, M; Duerr, E K; Zayhowski, J J; Manfra, M J; Bailey, R J; Donnelly, J P; Turner, G W

    2011-02-28

    A 32x32 Sb-based Geiger-mode (GM) avalanche photodiode array, operating at 2 μm with three-dimensional imaging capability, is presented. The array is interfaced with a ROIC (readout integrated circuit) in which each pixel can detect a photon and record the arrival time. The hybridized unit for the 1000-element focal plane array, when operated at 77K with 1 V overbias range, shows an average dark count rate of 1.5 kHz. Three-dimensional range images of objects were acquired.

  7. Multiple-return single-photon counting of light in flight and sensing of non-line-of-sight objects at shortwave infrared wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Klein, Jonathan; Bacher, Emmanuel; Metzger, Nicolas

    2015-10-15

    Time-of-flight sensing with single-photon sensitivity enables new approaches for the localization of objects outside a sensor's field of view by analyzing backscattered photons. In this Letter, the authors have studied the application of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays and eye-safe infrared lasers, and provide experimental data of the direct visualization of backscattering light in flight, and direct vision and indirect vision of targets in line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight configurations at shortwave infrared wavelengths.

  8. Optical detection of terahertz using nonlinear parametric upconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Jalal; Chen, Jerry C; Kaushik, Sumanth

    2008-12-01

    We extend our work to perform sensitive, room-temperature optical detection of terahertz (THz) by using nonlinear parametric upconversion. THz radiation at 700 GHz is mixed with pump light at 1,550 nm in a bulk GaAs crystal to generate an idler wave at 1,555.6 nm. The idler is separated, coupled into optical fiber, and detected using a gated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode. The resulting THz detector has a power sensitivity of 4.5 pW/Hz and a timing resolution of 1 ns.

  9. A new Design for an High Gain Vacuum Photomultiplier: The Silicon PMT Used as Amplification Stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbarino, Giancarlo [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Scienze fisiche, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); Asmundis, Riccardo de; De Rosa, Gianfranca [Istituto Nazionale di fisica Nucleare, sezione di Napoli, Complesso di Monte S. Angelo Ed. 6, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); Fiorillo, Giuliana; Russo, Stefano [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Scienze fisiche, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Photons detection will continue to be a channel of great interest in the High Energy Physics and Astroparticle Physics fields for medium and big scale experiments in the next future. Thus, new solutions for photon detectors, that overcome the current limits of classical photomultipliers, are welcomed. We propose an innovative design for a hybrid, modern, high gain Vacuum Silicon Photomultiplier Tube (VSiPMT) which is boosted by the recent Geiger-mode avalanche silicon photodiode (G-APD) for which a massive production is today available.

  10. Large-aperture germanium detector package for picosecond photon counting in the 0.5-1.6-microm range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, I; Hamal, K; Greene, B; Kunimori, H

    1996-09-01

    We report the design, construction, and parameters of a detector package based on a germanium avalanche photodiode operated in the Geiger mode cooled to 77 K. The new design of the active quenching circuit, proper diode structure, and cryogenic cooling setup permitted us to increase the detector's active area to 0.1-mm diameter while maintaining an acceptable dark-count rate, timing resolution, and photon-counting sensitivity at 1.54 microm. The active-area size and the compact design of the detector package permitted its application in satellite laser ranging at 0.532- and 1.543-microm wavelengths, yielding subcentimeter ranging precision.

  11. Technological advances in avalanche survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Martin I; Grissom, Colin K

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade, a proliferation of interest has emerged in the area of avalanche survival, yielding both an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of death after avalanche burial and technological advances in the development of survival equipment. The dismal survival statistics born out of the modern era of winter recreation unmistakably reveal that elapsed time and depth of burial are the most critical variables of survival and the focus of newer survival devices on the market. Although blunt trauma may kill up to one third of avalanche victims, early asphyxiation is the predominant mechanism of death, and hypothermia is rare. A survival plateau or delay in asphyxiation may be seen in those buried in respiratory communication with an air pocket until a critical accumulation of CO2 or an ice lens develops. The newest survival devices available for adjunctive protection, along with a transceiver and shovel, are the artificial air pocket device (AvaLung), the avalanche air bag system (ABS), and the Avalanche Ball. The artificial air pocket prolongs adequate respiration during snow burial and may improve survival by delaying asphyxiation. The ABS, which forces the wearer to the surface of the avalanche debris by inverse segregation to help prevent burial, has been in use in Europe for the last 10 years with an impressive track record. Finally, the Avalanche Ball is a visual locator device in the form of a spring-loaded ball attached to a tether, which is released from a fanny pack by a rip cord. Despite the excitement surrounding these novel technologies, avalanche avoidance through knowledge and conservative judgment will always be the mainstay of avalanche survival, never to be replaced by any device.

  12. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  13. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  14. Nanopillar Optical Antenna Avalanche Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-30

    68 , (11), 10. 51. Adachi, S., Properties of aluminium gallium ...bandwidth products > 100 GHz. 2 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Los Angeles Nanopillar Optical Antenna Avalanche Detectors A dissertation... products > 100 GHz. 6 iii The dissertation of Pradeep

  15. Recent progress in thin film organic photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inganäs, Olle; Roman, Lucimara S.; Zhang, Fengling; Johansson, D.M.; Andersson, M.R.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    We review current developments in organic photodiodes, with special reference to multilayer thin film optics, and modeling of organic donor-acceptor photodiodes. We indicate possibilities to enhance light absorption in devices by nanopatterning as well as by blending, and also discuss materials

  16. Recent progress in thin film organic photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inganäs, Olle; Roman, Lucimara S.; Zhang, Fengling; Johansson, D.M.; Andersson, M.R.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    We review current developments in organic photodiodes, with special reference to multilayer thin film optics, and modeling of organic donor-acceptor photodiodes. We indicate possibilities to enhance light absorption in devices by nanopatterning as well as by blending, and also discuss materials scie

  17. An improved design for AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with enhanced avalanche ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yin; Cai, Qing; Yang, Lian-Hong; Dong, Ke-Xiu; Chen, Dun-Jun; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou

    2017-03-01

    Not Available Project supported by the State Key Project of Research and Development Plan, China (Grant No. 2016YFB0400903), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61634002, 61274075, and 61474060), the Key Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BE2016174), the Anhui University Natural Science Research Project, China (Grant No. KJ2015A153), the Open Fund (KFS) of State Key Lab of Optical Technologieson Nanofabrication and Microengineering, Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Science.

  18. Avalanche effects near nanojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandigana, Vishal V. R.; Aluru, N. R.

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we perform a computational investigation of a nanopore connected to external fluidic reservoirs of asymmetric geometries. The asymmetry between the reservoirs is achieved by changing the cross-sectional areas, and the reservoirs are designated as the micropore reservoir and macropore reservoir. When an electric field is applied, which is directed from the macropore towards the micropore reservoir, we observe local nonequilibrium chaotic current oscillations. The current oscillations originate at the micropore-nanopore interface owing to the local cascade of ions; we refer to this phenomenon as the "avalanche effects." We mathematically quantify chaos in terms of the maximum Lyapunov exponent. The maximum Lyapunov exponent exhibits a monotonic increase with the applied voltage and the macropore reservoir diameter. The temporal power spectra maps of the chaotic currents depict a low-frequency "1 /f "-type dynamics for the voltage chaos and "1 /f2 "-type dynamics for the macropore reservoir chaos. The results presented here offer avenues to manipulate ionic diodes and fluidic pumps.

  19. Photodiodes based on fullerene semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voz, C. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Departament Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, c/ Jordi Girona 1-3 Campus Nord C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: cvoz@eel.upc.edu; Puigdollers, J. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Departament Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, c/ Jordi Girona 1-3 Campus Nord C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain); Cheylan, S. [ICFO- Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Av. del Canal Olimpic s/n, 08860-Castelldefels (Spain); Fonrodona, M.; Stella, M.; Andreu, J. [Solar Energy Group, Departament Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona (Spain); Alcubilla, R. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Departament Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, c/ Jordi Girona 1-3 Campus Nord C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-16

    Fullerene thin films have been deposited by thermal evaporation on glass substrates at room temperature. A comprehensive optical characterization was performed, including low-level optical absorption measured by photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The optical absorption spectrum reveals a direct bandgap of 2.3 eV and absorption bands at 2.8 and 3.6 eV, which are related to the creation of charge-transfer excitons. Various photodiodes on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates were also fabricated, using different metallic contacts in order to compare their respective electrical characteristics. The influence of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) buffer layer between the indium-tin-oxide electrode and the fullerene semiconductor is also demonstrated. These results are discussed in terms of the workfunction for each electrode. Finally, the behaviour of the external quantum efficiency is analyzed for the whole wavelength spectrum.

  20. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  1. Characterization of room temperature AlGaAs soft X-ray mesa photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, A.M., E-mail: a.barnett@sussex.ac.uk [Sensor Technology Research Centre, Department of Engineering and Design, School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom); Lioliou, G. [Sensor Technology Research Centre, Department of Engineering and Design, School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom); Ng, J.S. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Frederick Mappin Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-21

    Results characterising a set of nine prototype Al{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}As p{sup +}–i–n{sup +} mesa photodiodes (400 µm diameter, 1.7 µm i layer) are presented. The results show the performance of the devices as room temperature spectroscopic photon counting soft X-ray detectors. The responses of the photodiodes to illumination with an {sup 55}Fe radioisotope X-ray source were measured using a low noise charge sensitive preamplifier; the energy resolutions measured with the devices were consistent with each other and had a mean FWHM at 5.9 keV of 1.27 keV. The devices are the thickest (highest detection efficiency) AlGaAs X-ray spectroscopic mesa photodiodes reported in the literature to date. They also have better energy resolution than all previously reported non-avalanche AlGaAs X-ray detectors of the same area.

  2. Observations and modelling of snow avalanche entrainment

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    In this paper full scale avalanche dynamics measurements from the Italian Pizzac and Swiss Vallée de la Sionne test sites are used to develop a snowcover entrainment model. A detailed analysis of three avalanche events shows that snowcover entrainment at the avalanche front appears to dominate over bed erosion at the basal sliding surface. Furthermore, the distribution of mass within the avalanche body is primarily a function of basal fric...

  3. Correlations in avalanche critical points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Benedetta; Vives, Eduard

    2009-07-01

    Avalanche dynamics and related power-law statistics are ubiquitous in nature, arising in phenomena such as earthquakes, forest fires, and solar flares. Very interestingly, an analogous behavior is associated with many condensed-matter systems, such as ferromagnets and martensites. Bearing it in mind, we study the prototypical random-field Ising model at T=0 . We find a finite correlation between waiting intervals and the previous avalanche size. This correlation is not found in other models for avalanches but it is experimentally found in earthquakes and in forest fires. Our study suggests that this effect occurs in critical points that are at the end of a first-order discontinuity separating two regimes: one with high activity from another with low activity.

  4. Non-Markov property of afterpulsing effect in single-photon avalanche detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fang-Xiang; Li, Ya-Ping; He, De-Yong; Wang, Chao; Han, Yun-Guang; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon avalanche photodiode(SPAD) has been widely used in researching of quantum optics. Afterpulsing effect, which is an intrinsic character of SPAD, affects the system performance in most of the experiments and needs to be carefully handled. For a long time, afterpulsing has been presumed to be determined by the pre-ignition avalanche. We studied the afterpulsing effect of a commercial InGaAs/InP SPAD (APD: Princeton Lightwave PGA-300) and demonstrated that its afterpulsing is non-Markov, which has memory effect of the avalanching history. Theoretical analysis and the experimental results clearly indicate that the embodiment of this memory effect is the afterpulsing probability, which increases as the number of ignition-avalanche pulses increase. The conclusion makes the principle of afterpulsing effect clearer and is instructive to the manufacturing processes and afterpulsing evaluation of high-count-rate SPADs. It can also be regarded as an fundamental premise to handle the afterpulsing signals in ...

  5. Test of DEP hybrid photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbaugh, A.; Binkley, M.; Elias, J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The goal of the measurement was to study some parameters of DEP HYBRID PHOTODIODES (HPD), and the check its performance for CMS calorimetry at LHC. The principal of the HPD operation is described. The schematic view of the HPD. The HPD is vacuum photo device composed of photocathode (PC) and a silicon PIN diode (Si) as multiplication system in a very close proximity geometry. The distance between PC and Si is of the order of several mm and has an electric field < 10 kV. The photoelectron emited by the photocathode multiply by a factor of several thousand in the silicon and the charge is collected on the HPD`s anode. Several types of HPD`s were tested. There was a single channel HPD, called {open_quotes}E-type{close_quotes} with p-side of the silicon facing the HPD`s photocathode and two multipixel HPD (DEP) namely a 25 pixel HPD and a 7 pixel HPD. Both were of {open_quotes}T-type{close_quotes} structure with n-side of silicon facing the photocathode.

  6. Lumped transmission line avalanche pulser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Rex

    1995-01-01

    A lumped linear avalanche transistor pulse generator utilizes stacked transistors in parallel within a stage and couples a plurality of said stages, in series with increasing zener diode limited voltages per stage and decreasing balanced capacitance load per stage to yield a high voltage, high and constant current, very short pulse.

  7. Avalanche dynamics on a rough inclined plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Halsey, Thomas C; Ecke, Robert E

    2008-07-01

    The avalanche behavior of gravitationally forced granular layers on a rough inclined plane is investigated experimentally for different materials and for a variety of grain shapes ranging from spherical beads to highly anisotropic particles with dendritic shape. We measure the front velocity, area, and height of many avalanches and correlate the motion with the area and height. We also measure the avalanche profiles for several example cases. As the shape irregularity of the grains is increased, there is a dramatic qualitative change in avalanche properties. For rough nonspherical grains, avalanches are faster, bigger, and overturning in the sense that individual particles have down-slope speeds u p that exceed the front speed uf as compared with avalanches of spherical glass beads that are quantitatively slower and smaller and where particles always travel slower than the front speed. There is a linear increase of three quantities: (i) dimensionless avalanche height, (ii) ratio of particle to front speed, and (iii) the growth rate of avalanche speed with increasing avalanche size with increasing tan theta r where theta r is the bulk angle of repose, or with increasing beta P, the slope of the depth averaged flow rule, where both theta r and beta P reflect the grain shape irregularity. These relations provide a tool for predicting important dynamical properties of avalanches as a function of grain shape irregularity. A relatively simple depth-averaged theoretical description captures some important elements of the avalanche motion, notably the existence of two regimes of this motion.

  8. STUDY ON SIMULATION METHOD OF AVALANCHE : FLOW ANALYSIS OF AVALANCHE USING PARTICLE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, modeling for the simulation of the avalanche by a particle method is discussed. There are two kinds of the snow avalanches, one is the surface avalanche which shows a smoke-like flow, and another is the total-layer avalanche which shows a flow like Bingham fluid. In the simulation of the surface avalanche, the particle method in consideration of a rotation resistance model is used. The particle method by Bingham fluid is used in the simulation of the total-layer avalanche. At t...

  9. High-Performance, Radiation-Hard, 2-D, Near-Infrared, Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this STTR project we will address the radiation hardness issues using radiation hard (RH) materials. We will based on the RH material to develop our photon...

  10. High Sensitivity Indium Phosphide Based Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — nLight has demonstrated highly-uniform APD arrays based on the highly sensitive InGaAs/InP material system. These results provide great promise for achieving the...

  11. High Sensitivity Indium Phosphide Based Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build a monolithically integrated FPA of densely packed APDs (70-um pitch) operating at or around 1500 nm wavelength that is suitable for the solicited...

  12. High-Performance, Radiation-Hard, 2-D, Near-Infrared, Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AdTech Photonics, in collaboration with the Center for Advanced Studies in Photonics Research (CASPR) at UMBC, is pleased to submit this Phase II proposal entitled...

  13. FMCW laser range-finder with an avalanche photodiode working as an optoelectronic mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, David; Lescure, Marc; Tap-Beteille, Helene

    2002-01-01

    A Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (FMCW) laser range- finder has been designed for distances from 1 m to 20 m with cooperative or diffusing targets. This range-finder is compared to a phase shift laser range-finder. A heterodyne photoreception method is studied. In order to reduce noise, the nonlinear current-voltage characteristic of the APD is used to obtain an optoelectronic mixer. The photocurrent gain is modulated by the VCO signal working as a local oscillator (LO). The optical and electrical LO injection methods are studied. The theoretical analysis using the Miller model and thermal effects are compared with the first experimental results. The electrical LO injection gives a better ratio-to-noise than the optical LO injection. For electrical injection, it is shown that the heterodyne conversion gain can reach the maximal theoretical value 0.5.

  14. High Performance Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Counting at 1064 nm Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for higher performance fiber optic telecommunications receivers has provided the impetus for substantial progress during the last decade in the...

  15. High Performance Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Counting at 1064 nm Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for higher performance fiber optic telecommunications receivers has provided the impetus for substantial progress during the last decade in the...

  16. Single Photon Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector (APD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging Phase I SBIR successes, in Phase II, a single photon sensitive LIDAR receiver will be fabricated and delivered to NASA. In Phase I, high-gain,...

  17. Investigation of silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for use in scintillating fiber trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Bähr, J; Kantserov, V A; Kell, G; Nahnhauer, R

    2000-01-01

    The readout of scintillating fibers using Silicon APDs and Metal-Resistive-Semiconductor (MRS) devices was investigated in a large temperature range down to -150 deg. C in the laboratory and at an electron beam. In comparison to conventional PMs with bialkali cathodes an improved efficiency was found for low light signals from blue and green scintillating fibers of 0.5 mm diameter.

  18. Low-cost, High Performance Avalanche Photodiodes for Enabling High Sensitivity Bio-fluorescence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    224–231. 9. Muth, J. F.; Brown, J. D.; Johnson , M.A.L.; Yu, Shonghai; Kolbas, R. M.; Cook , Jr. J. W.; Schetzina, J. F. Absorption Coefficient and...using a titanium (Ti)/Al/nickel (Ni)/gold (Au) ohmic metal ring contact on the top n-GaN layer and a Ni/Ti/Al/Ni ohmic contact to the p-SiC layer

  19. The SAPHIRA Near-Infrared Avalanche Photodiode Array: Telescope Deployments and Future Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dani Eleanor; Hall, Donald; Baranec, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present our recent achievements of the Selex SAPHIRA APD arrays, which this year have seen deployment at three different telescopes, most notably demonstrating tip-tilt wavefront sensing in conjunction with the Palomar 1.5-m Telescope's Robo-AO system. A cooperative effort to provide enhanced speckle nulling capability to the SCExAO instrument on the Subaru telescope is also underway. We present the progress and development timeframe for the SAPHIRA and expected future applications, including targets and observational parameter space we expect the detectors to open to the astronomical community.

  20. Post-processing Free Quantum Random Number Generator Based on Avalanche Photodiode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Sheng-Kai, Liao; Fu-Tian, Liang; Qi, Shen; Hao, Liang; Cheng-Zhi, Peng

    2016-03-01

    Not Available Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, Shanghai Branch, University of Science and Technology of China, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 11405172.

  1. Response of cooled PWO scintillators readout with avalanche photodiodes to low-energy gamma-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnychuk, D.; Czarnacki, W.; Kalicy, G.; Keşik, G.; Korman, A.; Kozlowski, T.; Mykulyak, A.; Novotny, R. W.; Wojtkowska, J.; Zwieglinski, B.

    2009-08-01

    Identification of π0 and η mesons by detecting both γ-rays from their decay is a prerequisite for suppressing undesired background in studies of photon transitions between the states of charmonium in the physics program of PANDA. To achieve this goal the detection threshold of the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) should be as low as possible. An experimental setup intended for measurements of the response of cooled PWO scintillators in the energy range 4.4-20 MeV has been designed and constructed. The setup uses γ-rays emitted in reactions induced by protons with light nuclei. Events with full-energy expended in PWO are selected by enclosing the studied 20×20×200 mm PWO-II scintillator in a cylinder of EJ-200 plastic scintillator, whose two halves are read out independently. A comparison of the relative Gaussian dispersions, σ/E, obtained by us for the three energies in the above energy range, indicates that a smooth dependence established at MAMI, for a matrix of 3×3 PWO-II scintillators between 40.9 and 674.5 MeV, also gives a valid extrapolation into the range of these very low energies.

  2. Avalanche hazard and control in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Blagoveshchensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Kazakhstan, area of 124 thousand km2 is prone to the avalanche hazard. Avalanches are released down in mountain regions situated along the eastern boundary of Kazakhstan. Systematic studies of avalanches here were started in 1958 by explorer I.S. Sosedov; later on, I.V. Seversky continued these investigations in Institute of Geography of the Kazakh Soviet Republic. Actually, he founded the Kazakh school of the avalanche studies. In 1970–1980s, five snow-avalanche stations operated in Kazakhstan: two in Il’ Alatau, two in Zhetysu Alatau, and one in the Altai. At the present time, only two stations and two snow-avalanche posts operate, and all of them are located in Il’ Alatau.Since 1951 to 2013, 75 avalanches took place in Kazakhstan, releases of them caused significant damages. For this period 172 people happened to be under avalanches, among them 86 perished. Large avalanche catastrophes causing human victims and destructions took place in Altai in 1977 and in Karatau in 1990. In spring of 1966, only in Il’ Alatau avalanches destroyed more 600 ha of mature fir (coniferous forest, and the total area of forest destroyed here by avalanches amounts to 2677 ha or 7% of the total forest area.For 48 years of the avalanche observations, there were 15 winters with increased avalanche activity in the river Almatinka basin when total volume of released snow exceeded annual mean value of 147 thousand m3. During this period, number of days with winter avalanches changed from three (in season of 1973/1974 to 28 (1986/1987, the average for a year is 16 days for a season. Winter with the total volume of snow 1300 thousand m3 occur once in 150 years. Individual avalanches with maximal volume of 350 thousand m3 happen once in 80 years.Preventive avalanche releases aimed at protection of roads and settlements are used in Kazakhstan since 1974. These precautions are taken in Il’ Alatau, Altai, and on Kalbinsky Range. Avalanches are released with the

  3. Vertical Isolation for Photodiodes in CMOS Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement in complementary metal oxide/semi conduct - or (CMOS) image detectors, two additional implants in each pixel would effect vertical isolation between the metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and the photodiode of the pixel. This improvement is expected to enable separate optimization of the designs of the photodiode and the MOSFETs so as to optimize their performances independently of each other. The purpose to be served by enabling this separate optimization is to eliminate or vastly reduce diffusion cross-talk, thereby increasing sensitivity, effective spatial resolution, and color fidelity while reducing noise.

  4. The prehospital management of avalanche victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhall, Daniel K; Martens-Nielsen, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Avalanche accidents are frequently lethal events with an overall mortality of 23%. Mortality increases dramatically to 50% in instances of complete burial. With modern day dense networks of ambulance services and rescue helicopters, health workers often become involved during the early stages of avalanche rescue. Historically, some of the most devastating avalanche accidents have involved military personnel. Armed forces are frequently deployed to mountain regions in order to train for mountain warfare or as part of ongoing conflicts. Furthermore, military units are frequently called to assist civilian organised rescue in avalanche rescue operations. It is therefore important that clinicians associated with units operating in mountain regions have an understanding of, the medical management of avalanche victims, and of the preceding rescue phase. The ensuing review of the available literature aims to describe the pathophysiology particular to avalanche victims and to outline a structured approach to the search, rescue and prehospital medical management.

  5. Avalanche ecology and large magnitude avalanche events: Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.

    2010-01-01

    Large magnitude snow avalanches play an important role ecologically in terms of wildlife habitat, vegetation diversity, and sediment transport within a watershed. Ecological effects from these infrequent avalanches can last for decades. Understanding the frequency of such large magnitude avalanches is also critical to avalanche forecasting for the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR). In January 2009, a large magnitude avalanche cycle occurred in and around Glacier National Park, Montana. The study site is the Little Granite avalanche path located along the GTSR. The study is designed to quantify change in vegetative cover immediately after a large magnitude event and document ecological response over a multi-year period. GPS field mapping was completed to determine the redefined perimeter of the avalanche path. Vegetation was inventoried using modified U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots, cross sections were taken from over 100 dead trees throughout the avalanche path, and an avalanche chronology was developed. Initial results indicate that the perimeter of this path was expanded by 30%. The avalanche travelled approximately 1200 vertical meters and 3 linear kilometers. Stands of large conifers as old as 150 years were decimated by the avalanche, causing a shift in dominant vegetation types in many parts of the avalanche path. Woody debris is a major ground cover up to 3 m in depth on lower portions of the avalanche path and will likely affect tree regrowth. Monitoring and measuring the post-avalanche vegetation recovery of this particular avalanche path provides a unique dataset for determining the ecological role of avalanches in mountain landscapes.

  6. Note: Galvanic isolated voltage source using a single photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoican, O S

    2010-04-01

    A galvanic isolated voltage source able to provide several volts by using a single photodiode is described. A pulse-modulated laser beam is sent to a photodiode. By using a step-up transformer the amplitude of the variable voltage generated by the photodiode is increased. Adding a rectifier cell the variable voltage is converted back into a dc voltage.

  7. [Avalanche emergencies. Review of the current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paal, P; Beikircher, W; Brugger, H

    2006-03-01

    In North America and Europe around 140 persons die every year due to avalanches, approximately 35 in North America, 100 in the European Alps, and 5 in other parts of Europe. Most of the victims are skiers and snowboarders. This article outlines the specific pathophysiology of avalanche burials, such as hypoxia, hypercapnia, and hypothermia and also other factors which influence survival. Strategies to minimize the mortality due to avalanches and the on-site treatment of buried persons are discussed. Finally, possibilities to reduce the number of avalanche deaths are pointed out.

  8. Remote detection of artificially triggered avalanches below a fixed avalanche control installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herwijnen, Alec; Simioni, Stephan; Schweizer, Juerg

    2014-05-01

    Avalanche control by explosives is widely used as a temporary preventive measure to reduce avalanche hazard. The goal is to artificially trigger smaller less destructive avalanches, by detonating charges either above or on the snow surface. Hand charges are most often used, whereby the explosives are deployed by manually hand tossing or lowering onto the snow slope. Given the inherent dangers and limitations of this type of avalanche control, fixed avalanche control installations are increasingly used. These consist of strategically placed remote controlled installations that generate an explosion above the snow pack in an avalanche starting zone. While fixed installations can be used at any time and minimize the risk to avalanche control personnel, visual confirmation is still required to verify if an avalanche released. In order to remotely detect artificially triggered avalanches, we therefore developed a low-cost seismic monitoring system. We deployed the monitoring system in a ski area above the town of Davos , in the eastern Swiss Alps, below a Gazex installation, a remote controlled installation that generates an air blast by detonating a fuel-air explosive above the snow pack. The monitoring system consists of three vertical component geophones inserted in the ground at approximately 14, 27 and 46 meters from the Gazex installation. Our results show that, despite the relatively low precision of the monitoring equipment, both the detonation and the resulting avalanches can clearly be identified in the seismic data. Specifically, detonations are characterized by short, high amplitude broadband signals, while avalanches generate much longer, low frequency signals. Furthermore, information on the size of the artificially triggered avalanches is also obtained as it directly relates to the duration of the generated seismic signal. The overall goal is to assess the effectiveness of the fixed avalanche control installation with regards to yield (i.e. number of

  9. On the temporal organization of neuronal avalanches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Fabrizio; Herrmann, Hans J; Plenz, Dietmar; De Arcangelis, Lucilla

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous activity of cortex in vitro and in vivo has been shown to organize as neuronal avalanches. Avalanches are cascades of neuronal activity that exhibit a power law in their size and duration distribution, typical features of balanced systems in a critical state. Recently it has been shown that the distribution of quiet times between consecutive avalanches in rat cortex slice cultures displays a non-monotonic behavior with a power law decay at short time scales. This behavior has been attributed to the slow alternation between up and down-states. Here we further characterize the avalanche process and investigate how the functional behavior of the quiet time distribution depends on the fine structure of avalanche sequences. By systematically removing smaller avalanches from the experimental time series we show that size and quiet times are correlated and highlight that avalanche occurrence exhibits the characteristic periodicity of θ and β/γ oscillations, which jointly emerge in most of the analyzed samples. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that smaller avalanches tend to be associated with faster β/γ oscillations, whereas larger ones are associated with slower θ and 1-2 Hz oscillations. In particular, large avalanches corresponding to θ cycles trigger cascades of smaller ones, which occur at β/γ frequency. This temporal structure follows closely the one of nested θ - β/γ oscillations. Finally we demonstrate that, because of the multiple time scales characterizing avalanche dynamics, the distributions of quiet times between avalanches larger than a certain size do not collapse onto a unique function when rescaled by the average occurrence rate. However, when considered separately in the up-state and in the down-state, these distributions are solely controlled by the respective average rate and two different unique function can be identified.

  10. Triaging multiple victims in an avalanche setting: the Avalanche Survival Optimizing Rescue Triage algorithmic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Lee B; Boyd, Jeff J; McLaughlin, Kyle A

    2010-03-01

    As winter backcountry activity increases, so does exposure to avalanche danger. A complicated situation arises when multiple victims are caught in an avalanche and where medical and other rescue demands overwhelm resources in the field. These mass casualty incidents carry a high risk of morbidity and mortality, and there is no recommended approach to patient care specific to this setting other than basic first aid principles. The literature is limited with regard to triaging systems applicable to avalanche incidents. In conjunction with the development of an electronic avalanche rescue training module by the Canadian Avalanche Association, we have designed the Avalanche Survival Optimizing Rescue Triage algorithm to address the triaging of multiple avalanche victims to optimize survival and disposition decisions.

  11. Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Shayne

    2005-01-01

    Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…

  12. Upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter for an upgraded LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jacob; CMS Hcal Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CMS barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (Hcal) upgrading the current photo-sensors are hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) to meet the demands of the upgraded luminosity of the LHC. A key aspect of the Hcal upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at L1 trigger. The increased segmentation can be achieved by replacing the HPD's with multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. The upgraded electronics are required to operate in a harsh environment and are constrained by the existing infrastructure. The proposed solutions span from chip level to system level. They include the development of a new ADC ASIC, the design and testing of higher speed transmitters to handle the increased data volume, the evaluation and use of circuits from other developments, evaluation of commercial FPGAs, better thermal design and improvements in the overall architecture.

  13. Observations and modelling of snow avalanche entrainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sovilla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper full scale avalanche dynamics measurements from the Italian Pizzac and Swiss Vallée de la Sionne test sites are used to develop a snowcover entrainment model. A detailed analysis of three avalanche events shows that snowcover entrainment at the avalanche front appears to dominate over bed erosion at the basal sliding surface. Furthermore, the distribution of mass within the avalanche body is primarily a function of basal friction. We show that the mass distribution in the avalanche changes the flow dynamics significantly. Two different dynamical models, the Swiss Voellmy-fluid model and the Norwegian NIS model, are used to back calculate the events. Various entrainment methods are investigated and compared to measurements. We demon-strate that the Norwegian NIS model is clearly better able to simulate the events once snow entrainment has been included in the simulations.

  14. Measuring the photon distribution by ON/OFF photodectors

    CERN Document Server

    Genovèse, M; Bondani, M; Brida, G; Gramegna, M; Paris, M G A; Rossi, A R; Zambra, G

    2006-01-01

    Reconstruction of photon statistics of optical states provide fundamental information on the nature of any optical field and find various relevant applications. Nevertheless, no detector that can reliably discriminate the number of incident photons is available. On the other hand the alternative of reconstructing density matrix by quantum tomography leads to various technical difficulties that are particular severe in the pulsed regime (where mode matching between signal an local oscillator is very challenging). Even if on/off detectors, as usual avalanche PhotoDiodes operating in Geiger mode, seem useless as photocounters, recently it was shown how reconstruction of photon statistics is possible by considering a variable quantum efficiency. Here we present experimental reconstructions of photon number distributions of both continuous-wave and pulsed light beams in a scheme based on on/off avalanche photodetection assisted by maximum-likelihood estimation. Reconstructions of the distribution for both semiclas...

  15. Free-running InGaAs/InP single photon detector with feedback quenching IC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Fu; Wang, Feilong [Key Laboratory of Electronics and Information Technology for Space Systems, Center for Space Sciences and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Nanertiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Electronics and Information Technology for Space Systems, Center for Space Sciences and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Nanertiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, No. 5 Nandajie, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Sun, Zhibin [Key Laboratory of Electronics and Information Technology for Space Systems, Center for Space Sciences and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Nanertiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhai, Guangjie, E-mail: gjzhai@nssc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Electronics and Information Technology for Space Systems, Center for Space Sciences and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Nanertiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-11-01

    InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APD) are usually employed as Geiger-mode single photon detector at near-infrared wavelength between 1.0 μm and 1.7 μm. In order to work in the free-running regime rather than gated regime, we demonstrate a feedback quenching integrated circuit to rapidly quench the avalanche and reset the APD. Because this IC is close to the APD, parasitic capacitance is largely reduced, thus reducing the quench-time, reset-time and also the afterpulsing probability. We investigated the free-running single photon detector's afterpulsing effect, de-trapping time, dark count rate and detection efficiency and also compared with gated regime operation. After corrected for deadtime and afterpulse, we found the free-running detector performance is comparable with gated regime.

  16. Free-running InGaAs/InP single photon detector with feedback quenching IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fu; Wang, Feilong; Wang, Chao; Sun, Zhibin; Zhai, Guangjie

    2015-11-01

    InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APD) are usually employed as Geiger-mode single photon detector at near-infrared wavelength between 1.0 μm and 1.7 μm. In order to work in the free-running regime rather than gated regime, we demonstrate a feedback quenching integrated circuit to rapidly quench the avalanche and reset the APD. Because this IC is close to the APD, parasitic capacitance is largely reduced, thus reducing the quench-time, reset-time and also the afterpulsing probability. We investigated the free-running single photon detector's afterpulsing effect, de-trapping time, dark count rate and detection efficiency and also compared with gated regime operation. After corrected for deadtime and afterpulse, we found the free-running detector performance is comparable with gated regime.

  17. Thermal energy in dry snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkogler, W.; Sovilla, B.; Lehning, M.

    2015-09-01

    Avalanches can exhibit many different flow regimes from powder clouds to slush flows. Flow regimes are largely controlled by the properties of the snow released and entrained along the path. Recent investigations showed the temperature of the moving snow to be one of the most important factors controlling the mobility of the flow. The temperature of an avalanche is determined by the temperature of the released and entrained snow but also increases by frictional processes with time. For three artificially released avalanches, we conducted snow profiles along the avalanche track and in the deposition area, which allowed quantifying the temperature of the eroded snow layers. This data set allowed to calculate the thermal balance, from release to deposition, and to discuss the magnitudes of different sources of thermal energy of the avalanches. For the investigated dry avalanches, the thermal energy increase due to friction was mainly depending on the effective elevation drop of the mass of the avalanche with a warming of approximately 0.3 °C per 100 vertical metres. Contrarily, the temperature change due to entrainment varied for the individual avalanches, from -0.08 to 0.3 °C, and depended on the temperature of the snow along the path and the erosion depth. Infrared radiation thermography (IRT) was used to assess the surface temperature before, during and just after the avalanche with high spatial resolution. This data set allowed to identify the warmest temperatures to be located in the deposits of the dense core. Future research directions, especially for the application of IRT, in the field of thermal investigations in avalanche dynamics are discussed.

  18. Thermal energy in dry snow avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Steinkogler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Avalanches can exhibit many different flow regimes from powder clouds to slush flows. Flow regimes are largely controlled by the properties of the snow released and entrained along the path. Recent investigations showed the temperature of the moving snow to be one of the most important factors controlling the mobility of the flow. The temperature of an avalanche is determined by the temperature of the released and entrained snow but also increases by frictional and collisional processes with time. For three artificially released avalanches, we conducted snow profiles along the avalanche track and in the deposition area, which allowed quantifying the temperature of the eroded snow layers. Infrared radiation thermography (IRT was used to assess the surface temperature before, during and just after the avalanche with high spatial resolution. This data set allowed to calculate the thermal balance, from release to deposition, and to discuss the magnitudes of different sources of thermal energy of the avalanches. We could confirm that, for the investigated dry avalanches, the thermal energy increase due to friction was mainly depending on the elevation drop of the avalanche with a warming of approximately 0.5 °C per 100 height meters. Contrary, warming due to entrainment was very specific to the individual avalanche and depended on the temperature of the snow along the path and the erosion depth ranging from nearly no warming to a maximum observed warming of 1 °C. Furthermore, we could observe the warmest temperatures are located in the deposits of the dense core. Future research directions, especially for the application of IRT, in the field of thermal investigations in avalanche dynamics are discussed.

  19. Equilibrium avalanches in spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doussal, Pierre; Müller, Markus; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2012-06-01

    We study the distribution of equilibrium avalanches (shocks) in Ising spin glasses which occur at zero temperature upon small changes in the magnetic field. For the infinite-range Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, we present a detailed derivation of the density ρ(ΔM) of the magnetization jumps ΔM. It is obtained by introducing a multicomponent generalization of the Parisi-Duplantier equation, which allows us to compute all cumulants of the magnetization. We find that ρ(ΔM)˜ΔM-τ with an avalanche exponent τ=1 for the SK model, originating from the marginal stability (criticality) of the model. It holds for jumps of size 1≪ΔMmodel. For finite-range models, using droplet arguments, we obtain the prediction τ=(df+θ)/dm where df,dm, and θ are the fractal dimension, magnetization exponent, and energy exponent of a droplet, respectively. This formula is expected to apply to other glassy disordered systems, such as the random-field model and pinned interfaces. We make suggestions for further numerical investigations, as well as experimental studies of the Barkhausen noise in spin glasses.

  20. On the low-temperature performances of THGEM and THGEM/G-APD multipliers in gaseous and two-phase Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Bondar, A; Grebenuk, A; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A; Akimov, D; Alexandrov, I; Breskin, A

    2011-01-01

    The performances of THGEM multipliers in two-phase Xe avalanche mode are presented for the first time. Additional results on THGEM operation in gaseous Xe at cryogenic temperatures are provided. Stable operation of a double-THGEM multiplier was demonstrated in two-phase Xe with gains reaching 600. These are compared to existing data, summarized here for two-phase Ar, Kr and Xe avalanche detectors incorporating GEM and THGEM multipliers. The optical readout of THGEMs with Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (G-APDs) has been investigated in gaseous Xe at cryogenic temperature; avalanche scintillations were recorded in the Near Infrared (NIR) at wavelengths of up to 950 nm. At avalanche charge gain of 350, the double-THGEM/G-APD multiplier yielded 0.07 photoelectrons per initial ionization electron, corresponding to an avalanche scintillation yield of 0.7 NIR photons per avalanche electron over 4pi. The results are compared with those of two-phase Ar avalanche detectors. The advantages, limitations and possible a...

  1. On the low-temperature performances of THGEM and THGEM/G-APD multipliers in gaseous and two-phase Xe{sup 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, A; Buzulutskov, A; Grebenuk, A; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentiev avenue 11, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Akimov, D; Alexandrov, I [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Breskin, A, E-mail: A.F.Buzulutskov@inp.nsk.su [Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    The performances of THGEM multipliers in two-phase Xe avalanche mode are presented for the first time. Additional results on THGEM operation in gaseous Xe at cryogenic temperatures are provided. Stable operation of a double-THGEM multiplier was demonstrated in two-phase Xe with gains reaching 600. These are compared to existing data, summarized here for two-phase Ar, Kr and Xe avalanche detectors incorporating GEM and THGEM multipliers. The optical readout of THGEMs with Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (G-APDs) has been investigated in gaseous Xe at cryogenic temperature; avalanche scintillations were recorded in the Near Infrared (NIR) at wavelengths of up to 950 nm. At avalanche charge gain of 350, the double-THGEM/G-APD multiplier yielded 0.07 photoelectrons per initial ionization electron, corresponding to an avalanche scintillation yield of 0.7 NIR photons per avalanche electron over 4{pi}. The results are compared with those of two-phase Ar avalanche detectors. The advantages, limitations and possible applications are discussed.

  2. Hummock alignment in Japanese volcanic debris avalanches controlled by pre-avalanche slope of depositional area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hidetsugu

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the relationship of hummock orientation to the flow dynamics of volcanic debris avalanches. There are opposing views on whether hummocks are systematically aligned along debris avalanche paths, or not. To investigate this geomorphologically fundamental question, I investigated hummock orientation for six Japanese debris avalanches of two simple styles: four "freely spreading" debris avalanches, and two "valley-filling" debris avalanches. Quantitative GIS-based data analysis revealed that hummock orientation along the avalanche flow path alternated between dominantly parallel to and dominantly perpendicular to the flow direction. These changes of alignment reflect dynamic changes of the local stress field within the avalanche, alternating between extensional and compressional in response to changes of the slope of the pre-avalanche ground surface. Changes of hummock alignment from perpendicular to parallel indicate that the local stress regime has changed from compressional to extensional. Conversely, changes of hummock alignment from parallel to perpendicular indicate that the local stress regime has changed from extensional to compressional. Thus, this research demonstrated a clear relationship between hummock orientation and dynamic changes of stress regime within avalanches that are related to changes of the slope of the pre-avalanche ground surface.

  3. Reduction of Photodiode Nonlinearities by Adaptive Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Meredith N. hutchiNsoN Nicholas J. Frigo Photonics Technology Branch Optical Sciences...behavior assumes that its behavior can be modeled as a memoryless transfer function relating the output photocurrent to the input light intensity [1...enhanced tremendously. That is, rather than accepting the “passive” estimation3 of a system’s SFDR, one could use a detailed knowledge of the photodiode

  4. Temporal correlations in neuronal avalanche occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, F.; Herrmann, H. J.; Plenz, D.; de Arcangelis, L.

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing cortical activity consists of sequences of synchronized bursts, named neuronal avalanches, whose size and duration are power law distributed. These features have been observed in a variety of systems and conditions, at all spatial scales, supporting scale invariance, universality and therefore criticality. However, the mechanisms leading to burst triggering, as well as the relationship between bursts and quiescence, are still unclear. The analysis of temporal correlations constitutes a major step towards a deeper understanding of burst dynamics. Here, we investigate the relation between avalanche sizes and quiet times, as well as between sizes of consecutive avalanches recorded in cortex slice cultures. We show that quiet times depend on the size of preceding avalanches and, at the same time, influence the size of the following one. Moreover we evidence that sizes of consecutive avalanches are correlated. In particular, we show that an avalanche tends to be larger or smaller than the following one for short or long time separation, respectively. Our analysis represents the first attempt to provide a quantitative estimate of correlations between activity and quiescence in the framework of neuronal avalanches and will help to enlighten the mechanisms underlying spontaneous activity.

  5. Temporal correlations in neuronal avalanche occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, F; Herrmann, H J; Plenz, D; de Arcangelis, L

    2016-04-20

    Ongoing cortical activity consists of sequences of synchronized bursts, named neuronal avalanches, whose size and duration are power law distributed. These features have been observed in a variety of systems and conditions, at all spatial scales, supporting scale invariance, universality and therefore criticality. However, the mechanisms leading to burst triggering, as well as the relationship between bursts and quiescence, are still unclear. The analysis of temporal correlations constitutes a major step towards a deeper understanding of burst dynamics. Here, we investigate the relation between avalanche sizes and quiet times, as well as between sizes of consecutive avalanches recorded in cortex slice cultures. We show that quiet times depend on the size of preceding avalanches and, at the same time, influence the size of the following one. Moreover we evidence that sizes of consecutive avalanches are correlated. In particular, we show that an avalanche tends to be larger or smaller than the following one for short or long time separation, respectively. Our analysis represents the first attempt to provide a quantitative estimate of correlations between activity and quiescence in the framework of neuronal avalanches and will help to enlighten the mechanisms underlying spontaneous activity.

  6. Avalanche Initiaition Mechanism - A Finite-element Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senthil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas, the longest chain of mountains in the world, experiences extensive snowfall and avalanche activity during winter. Some of these areas are densely populated, and death and destruction on large scale due to avalanche activity has been reported in these areas. One of the ways of reducing the loss of life and material due to avalanches is through prediction of avalanches. An understanding of weather forecasting, terrain, and avalanche initiation mechanism is a prerequisite for avalanche prediction. In the present paper mathematical modelling of avalanche initiation mechanism has been discussed.

  7. Differences of silicon photodiode spectral reflectance among the same batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L.Mu(n)oz Zurita; J.Campos Acosta; A.Pons Aglio; A.Shcherbakov

    2008-01-01

    Photodiode's reflectance plays an important role regarding the relation between responsivity and the incident flux. In this work we analyze how the spectral reflectance changes among photodiodes from the same manufacturer and batch and how the reflectance of three standard photodiodes has drifted during six years. The results show that the reflectance changes from diode to diode within the same batch and also show th.at the reflectance ofphotodiodes changes on time. This ageing is spectrally dependent.

  8. Silicon photodiodes with high photoconductive gain at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Carey, J E; Sickler, J W; Pralle, M U; Palsule, C; Vineis, C J

    2012-02-27

    Silicon photodiodes with high photoconductive gain are demonstrated. The photodiodes are fabricated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible process. The typical room temperature responsivity at 940 nm is >20 A/W and the dark current density is ≈ 100 nA/cm2 at 5 V reverse bias, yielding a detectivity of ≈ 10(14) Jones. These photodiodes are good candidates for applications that require high detection sensitivity and low bias operation.

  9. Monitoring and modelling snow avalanches in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humlum, O.; Christiansen, H.; Neumann, U.; Eckerstorfer, M.; Sjöblom, A.; Stalsberg, K.; Rubensdotter, L.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring and modelling snow avalanches in Svalbard Ole Humlum 1,3, Hanne H. Christiansen 1, Ulrich Neumann 1, Markus Eckerstorfer 1, Anna Sjöblom 1, Knut Stalsberg 2 and Lena Rubensdotter 2. 1: The University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS). 2: Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) 3: University of Oslo Ground based transportation in Svalbard landscape all takes place across mountainous terrain affected by different geomorphological slope processes. Traffic in and around the Svalbard settlements is increasing, and at the same time global climate models project substantial increases in temperature and precipitation in northern high latitudes for coming century. Therefore improved knowledge on the effect of climatic changes on slope processes in such high arctic landscapes is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by this, the CRYOSLOPE Svalbard research project since 2007 has carried out field observations on snow avalanche frequency and associated meteorological conditions. Snow avalanches are important geomorphic agents of erosion and deposition, and have long been a source of natural disasters in many mid-latitude mountain areas. Avalanches as a natural hazard has thereby been familiar to inhabitants of the Alps and Scandinavia for centuries, while it is a more recent experience in high arctic Svalbard. In addition, overall climate, topography and especially high winter wind speeds makes it difficult to apply snow avalanche models (numerical or empirical) developed for use at lower latitudes, e.g. in central Europe. In the presentation we examplify results from the ongoing (since winter 2006-07) monitoring of snow avalanches in Svalbard along a 70 km long observational route in the mountains. In addition, we present observations on the geomorphological impact of avalanches, with special reference to the formation of rock glaciers. Finally, we also present some initial results from numerical attempts of snow avalanche risk modelling within the study area.

  10. Statistics of Electron Avalanches and Streamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ficker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the severe systematic deviations of populations of electron avalanches from the Furry distribution, which has been held to be the statistical law corresponding to them, and a possible explanation has been sought. A  new theoretical concept based on fractal avalanche multiplication has been proposed and is shown to be a convenient candidate for explaining these deviations from Furry statistics. 

  11. Catastrophic avalanches and methods of their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Volodicheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of such phenomenon as “catastrophic avalanche” is presented in this arti-cle. Several situations with releases of catastrophic avalanches in mountains of Caucasus, Alps, and Central Asia are investigated. Materials of snow-avalanche ob-servations performed since 1960s at the Elbrus station of the Lomonosov Moscow State University (Central Caucasus were used for this work. Complex-valued measures of engineering protection demonstrating different efficiencies are consid-ered.

  12. High-performance fused indium gallium arsenide/silicon photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yimin

    Modern long haul, high bit rate fiber-optic communication systems demand photodetectors with high sensitivity. Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) exhibit superior sensitivity performance than other types of photodetectors by virtual of its internal gain mechanism. This dissertation work further advances the APD performance by applying a novel materials integration technique. It is the first successful demonstration of wafer fused InGaAs/Si APDs with low dark current and low noise. APDs generally adopt separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) structure, which allows independent optimization of materials properties in two distinct regions. While the absorption material needs to have high absorption coefficient in the target wavelength range to achieve high quantum efficiency, it is desirable for the multiplication material to have large discrepancy between its electron and hole ionization coefficients to reduce noise. According to these criteria, InGaAs and Si are the ideal materials combination. Wafer fusion is the enabling technique that makes this theoretical ideal an experimental possibility. APDs fabricated on the fused InGaAs/Si wafer with mesa structure exhibit low dark current and low noise. Special device fabrication techniques and high quality wafer fusion reduce dark current to nano ampere level at unity gain, comparable to state-of-the-art commercial III/V APDs. The small excess noise is attributed to the large difference in ionization coefficients between electrons and holes in silicon. Detailed layer structure designs are developed specifically for fused InGaAs/Si APDs based on principles similar to those used in traditional InGaAs/InP APDs. An accurate yet straightforward technique for device structural parameters extraction is also proposed. The extracted results from the fabricated APDs agree with device design parameters. This agreement also confirms that the fusion interface has negligible effect on electric field distributions for devices fabricated

  13. Evolution of the average avalanche shape with the universality class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Lasse; Illa, Xavier; Santucci, Stéphane; Tore Tallakstad, Ken; Måløy, Knut Jørgen; Alava, Mikko J

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of systems ranging from the Barkhausen effect in ferromagnetic materials to plastic deformation and earthquakes respond to slow external driving by exhibiting intermittent, scale-free avalanche dynamics or crackling noise. The avalanches are power-law distributed in size, and have a typical average shape: these are the two most important signatures of avalanching systems. Here we show how the average avalanche shape evolves with the universality class of the avalanche dynamics by employing a combination of scaling theory, extensive numerical simulations and data from crack propagation experiments. It follows a simple scaling form parameterized by two numbers, the scaling exponent relating the average avalanche size to its duration and a parameter characterizing the temporal asymmetry of the avalanches. The latter reflects a broken time-reversal symmetry in the avalanche dynamics, emerging from the local nature of the interaction kernel mediating the avalanche dynamics.

  14. Small Signal Circuit Model of Double Photodiodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jian-zhong; Ni Guo-qiang; MAO Lu-hong

    2004-01-01

    The transmission delay of photogenerated carriers in a CMOS-process-compatible double photodiode (DPD) is analyzed by using device simulation. The DPD small signal equivalent circuit model which includes transmission delay of photogenerated carriers is given. From analysis on the frequency domain of the circuit model the device has two poles. One has the relationship with junction capacitance and the DPD's load,the other with the depth and the doping concentration of the N-well in the DPD. Different depth of the Nwell and different area of the DPDs with bandwidth were compared. The analysis results are important to design the high speed DPDs.

  15. High Efficiency UV Photodiodes fabricated on p-type Substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandra Rao, P.; Milosavljevic, S.; Kroth, U.; Laubis, C.; Nihtianov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Newly developed “pure-boron” photodiodes, with high sensitivity and stability in the whole ultraviolet range (UV), are described. The main purpose of this work is to create and characterize a large-area UV photodiode, representing a structure of a pixel in a backside illuminated CMOS image sensor, f

  16. Radon measurements with a PIN photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Martin, A. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain) and Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain)]. E-mail: alonsomm@libra.uva.es; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.L. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Munoz, J.M. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, M. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Adamiec, G. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Iniguez, M.P. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Silicon photodiodes are well suited to detect alphas coming from different sources as neutron reactions or radon daughters. In this work a radon in air detecting device, using an 18x18 mm silicon PIN photodiode is studied. The ionized airborne decay products formed during radon diffusion were focused by an accelerating high voltage to the PIN surface. Several conducting rings were disposed inside a cylindrical PVC vessel in such a way that they reproduced the electric field created by a punctual charge located behind PIN position. Alpha spectra coming from the neutral and ionized species deposited on the PIN surface, dominated by {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po progeny peaks, were recorded for varying conditions. Those include radon concentration from a Pylon source, high voltage (thousands of volts) and PIN inverse bias voltage. Different parameters such as temperature and humidity were also registered during data acquisition. The increase in the particle collection efficiency with respect to zero electric field was compared with the corresponding to a parallel plates configuration. A discussion is made in terms of the most appropriate voltages for different radon concentrations.

  17. Development of analog solid-state photo-detectors for Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina, E-mail: giuseppina.bisogni@pi.infn.it; Morrocchi, Matteo

    2016-02-11

    Solid-state photo-detectors are one of the main innovations of past century in the field of sensors. First produced in the early forties with the invention of the p–n junction in silicon and the study of its optical properties, photo-detectors received a major boost in the sixties when the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode was developed and successfully used in several applications. The development of devices with internal gain, avalanche photodiodes (APD) first and then Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, named single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), leads to a substantial improvement in sensitivity and allowed single photon detection. Later on, thousands of SPADs have been assembled in arrays of few millimeters squared (named SiPM, silicon photo-multiplier) with single photon resolution. The high internal gain of SiPMs, together with other features peculiar of the silicon technology like compactness, speed and compatibility with magnetic fields, promoted SiPMs as the principal photo-detector competitor of photomultipliers in many applications from radiation detection to medical imaging. This paper provides a review of the properties of analog solid-state photo-detectors. Particular emphasis is given to latest advances on Positron Emission Tomography instrumentation boosted by the adoption of the silicon photo-detectors as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Special attention is dedicated to the SiPMs, which are playing a key role in the development of innovative scanners.

  18. Development of analog solid-state photo-detectors for Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Morrocchi, Matteo

    2016-02-01

    Solid-state photo-detectors are one of the main innovations of past century in the field of sensors. First produced in the early forties with the invention of the p-n junction in silicon and the study of its optical properties, photo-detectors received a major boost in the sixties when the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode was developed and successfully used in several applications. The development of devices with internal gain, avalanche photodiodes (APD) first and then Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, named single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), leads to a substantial improvement in sensitivity and allowed single photon detection. Later on, thousands of SPADs have been assembled in arrays of few millimeters squared (named SiPM, silicon photo-multiplier) with single photon resolution. The high internal gain of SiPMs, together with other features peculiar of the silicon technology like compactness, speed and compatibility with magnetic fields, promoted SiPMs as the principal photo-detector competitor of photomultipliers in many applications from radiation detection to medical imaging. This paper provides a review of the properties of analog solid-state photo-detectors. Particular emphasis is given to latest advances on Positron Emission Tomography instrumentation boosted by the adoption of the silicon photo-detectors as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Special attention is dedicated to the SiPMs, which are playing a key role in the development of innovative scanners.

  19. Single photon detector design features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Sergey V.; Kurochkin, Vladimir L.; Kurochkin, Yury V.

    2016-12-01

    In the report are discussed the laboratory test results of SPAD detectors with InGaAs / InP avalanche photodiodes, operating in Geiger mode. Device operating in synchronous mode with the dead timer setting for proper working conditions of photodiodes. The report materials will showing the functional block diagram of the detector, real operating signals in the receiver path and clock circuits and main results of measurements. The input signal of the synchronous detector is the clock, which determines the time positions of expected photons arrival. Increasing the clock speed 1-300 MHz or getting more time positions of the time grid, we provide increased capacity for time position code of signals, when QKD information transmitted over the nets. At the same time, the maximum attainable speed of photon reception is limited by diode dead time. Diode quantum noise are minimized by inclusion of a special time interval - dead time 0.1-10 usec, after each received and registered a photon. The lowest attainable value of the dead time is determined as a compromise between transients in electrical circuits, passive avalanche «quenching» circuit and thermal transients cooling crystal diode, after each avalanche pass though photodiode. Achievable time and speed parameters are discussed with specific examples of detectors.

  20. Rock avalanches: significance and progress (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    1. The probability distribution of landslide volumes follows a power-law indicating that large rock avalanches dominate the terrestrial sediment supply from mountains, and that their source area morphologies dominate mountain topography. 2. Large rock slope failures (~ 106 m3 or greater) often mobilise into rock avalanches, which can travel extraordinarily long distances with devastating effect. This hypermobility has been the subject of many investigations; we have demonstrated that it can be explained quantitatively and accurately by considering the energetics of the intense rock fragmentation that always occurs during motion of a large rock mass. 3. Study of rock avalanche debris psd shows that the energy used in creating new rock surface area during fragmentation is not lost to surface energy, but is recycled generating a high-frequency elastic energy field that reduces the frictional resistance to motion during runout. 4. Rock avalanches that deposit on glaciers can eventually form large terminal moraines that have no connection with any climatic event; unless these are identified as rock-avalanche-influenced they can confuse palaeoclimatic inferences drawn from moraine ages. Rock-avalanche-derived fines, however, can be identified in moraine debris up to ten thousand years old by the characteristic micron-scale agglomerates that form during intense fragmentation, and which are absent from purely climatically-induced moraines; there is thus a strong case for re-examining existing palaeoclimatic databases to eliminate potentially rock-avalanche-influenced moraine ages. 5. Rock avalanches (especially coseismic ones) are a serious hazard, being very destructive in their own right; they also block river valleys, forming landslide dams and potentially devastating dambreak floods, and subsequent severe decade-scale aggradation of downstream fans and floodplains. Rock avalanches falling into lakes or fiords can cause catastrophic tsunami that pose a serious risk to