WorldWideScience

Sample records for gehalte polychlorierter dibenzodioxine

  1. Methode - ontwikkeling voor het bepalen van het gehalte aan cacaoboterequivalente vetten in chocoladeprodukten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, van der H.J.; Muuse, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    De Europese Commissie (EC) bestudeert de mogelijkheden om cacaoboteralternatieve vetten (CDA) toe te staan in chocolade tot een gehalte van 5% van de waar zonder declaratleverplichting. Voorwaarde is de controleerbaarheid met een betrouwbare analysemethode. De CAODISCO ontwikkelde een

  2. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B. [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  3. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  4. Auswahl und Verarbeitung von Früchten zur Steigerung der Gehalte an phenolischen Antioxidantien in Fruchtsäften

    OpenAIRE

    Thielen, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Da Polyphenole als gesund angesehen werden, ist es Ziel dieser Arbeit, ihre Gehalte in Fruchtsäften zu erhöhen. Dies beinhaltet zum einen das Auffinden polyphenolreicher Apfel- und Beerenobstsorten als geeignete Rohware. Gleichzeitig entsteht dabei ein Datensatz über sortenreine Apfel- und Beerenobstsäfte, der die RSK-Werte ergänzt. Zum anderen sind Wege zur Minimierung von Verarbeitungsverlusten durch gezielte Studien zur Qualitätssteigerung des Endproduktes Fruchtsaft wichtig. Die im Screen...

  5. Automobile exhausts as a source for the environmental pollution by polychloro-dibenzodioxins and -dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballschmiter, K.; Bacher, R.; Riehle, U.; Swerev, M.

    1990-01-01

    This research project was focussed on the analysis of polyhalogenated dibenzodioxins (''dioxins'') and dibenzofurans (''furans'') emitted through automobile exhausts (halogen = chlorine or bromine). High-resolution selective capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass-selective detection was used. The two compound groups show basic differences in pattern and concentrations for traffic-related samples. In the ''dioxin''-series the higher-chlorinated dibenzodioxins (increasing from Cl 4 to Cl 8 ) are preferentially found, in contrast to the ''furane'', present in higher amounts, for which the lower-halogenated dibenzofurans are more important (decreasing from Cl 1 to Cl 6 and from Br 1 to Br 4 ). The distribution of the dioxin- and furan isomers produced corresponds closely to the so-called ''2,6-type'' pattern which is due to a retarded oxidation and/or a stabilization of phenoxy-intermediates containing the 2,6- or 2,4,6-substitution pattern. To what extent a particular dioxin/furan immission is due to automobile-related emissions can, in the light of the present results, be estimated only by taking several factors into account; source remoteness, the predominance of brominated or partly brominated dibenzofurans over the chlorinated congeners, the presence of other, also halogenated, polycyclic aromatics related to the automobile combustion engine. Areas close to traffic are primarily or completely influenced by the ''dioxin''-emissions of automobiles. For the calculation of the toxic equivalents (TE) for traffic-related emissions, the most important of the ''2,3,7,8''-substituted congeners are the furans 2,3,7,8-Cl 4 DF (F 83) and 2,3,4,7,8-Cl 5 DF (F 114) as well as the dioxins 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Cl 7 DD (D 73) and octachlorodibenzodioxin (D-75). (orig.) [de

  6. Oriënterend onderzoek naar de mogelijkheid om met behulp van NIRS het gehalte aan olie en y-linoleenzuur in teunisbloemzaad te bepalen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsteren, van A.J.; Frankhuizen, R.; Veen, van der N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Nagaan of met behulp van NIRS het gehalte aan olie en y-linoleenzuur in teunisbloemzaad voldoende nauwkeurig te bepalen is. Van 21 monsters teunisbloemzaad zijn met behulp van verschillende rekenmethoden correlatieberekeningen uitgevoerd tussen de chemisch bepaalde gehalten aan olie en

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins, -furans, and -biphenyls in three species of Antarctic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Schiamone, Alessandra; Focardi, Silvano

    2007-09-01

    Fish-eating seabirds are recognized to be at risk of accumulating toxic contaminants due to their high position in the trophic web and to their low ability to metabolize xenobiotic compounds. Penguins are widely distributed in Antarctica and represent an important fraction of the Antarctic biomass. They feed mainly on krill and, depending on krill availability, also on fish. It has been reported that predators may be a sink for volatile and toxic chemicals and this may pose a serious environmental problem. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs), and -biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p,p'-DDE, were quantified in three species of Antarctic Pygoscelids in order to evaluate their accumulation patterns. The potential toxicity of twenty-two dioxin-like congeners was assessed and expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQs). Differences between males and females were investigated. Blood samples of the Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae, Chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica and Gentoo penguin Pygoscelis papua were collected at Admiralty Bay, King George Is (62 degrees 10'39" S, 58 degrees 26'46" W) in February 2004. Halogenated hydrocarbons were identified and quantified using gas chromatography coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results are expressed on a wet weight basis. HCB, p,p'-DDE and sigmaPCBs were higher in Adélie penguins (6.7 +/- 6.1, 8.2 +/- 3.3 and 9.8 +/- 3.8 ng/g, respectively) than in Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins, both of which showed values in the same order of magnitude, but approximately 40% lower than Adélie penguins. Hexa-CBs ranged 35-45% of the residue. Low-chlorinated PCBs (nos. 70+76+95+ 56+60+101) accounted for 40-60% in the three species. PCB101 made up 15% of the residue in Adélie penguins. PBDEs were 291 +/- 477, 107 +/- 104 and 116 +/- 108 pg/g in Adélie, Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins, respectively; the

  8. Rheological online determination of the organic dry substance concentration of sewage sludge; Rheologische online Bestimmung des oTS-Gehalts von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, P.; Boehm, A.; Fessler, J.; Liebelt, U. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany); Traegner, U. [Fachhochschule fuer Technik, Mannheim (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In order to adjust the filter cake to a certain calorific value and to enhance the dehydratability of sludge, ash, carbon and flocculation agents are added to the latter prior to filtration. Dosage of the additives depends on the sludge's content of organic solids, determined in the form of the so-called organic dry substance concentration. In bench-scale and technical-scale experiments on the rheological properties of sewage sludge, a correlation between organic dry substance concentration and rheological properties, especially the liquid limit of sewage sludge, was established. This knowledge was used to develop a measuring technique for online determination of organic dry substance concentration by means of rheology. (orig.) [German] Zur Einstellung eines bestimmten Heizwertes des Filterkuchens und zur Verbesserung der Entwaesserbarkeit werden dem Schlamm vor der Filtration Asche, Kohle und Flockungsmittel zugegeben. Die Dosierung der Zuschlagsstoffe erfolgt in Abhaengigkeit vom Gehalt des Schlamms an organischem Feststoff, bestimmt in Form der sog. oTS-Konzentration. In Labor- und Betriebsversuchen zum rheologischen Verhalten von Klaerschlamm konnte eine Korrelation zwischen der oTS-Konzentration und den Fliesseigenschaften, insbesondere der Fliessgrenze von Klaerschlamm ermittelt werden. Diese Erkenntnis wurde in ein Messverfahren zur online-Bestimmung der oTS-Konzentration mittels Rheologie umgesetzt. (orig.)

  9. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dibenzodioxin, and furan concentrations in common snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) in Akwesasne, Mohawk Territory, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, S R; Bishop, C A; Lickers, H; Jock, K

    2001-04-01

    Subsamples of eight clutches of common snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) were collected from four sites from the territory of the Mohawk Nation, Akwesasne, on the shore of the St. Lawrence River. Egg contents were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins, and furans. The sites were 2 to 13 km downstream from PCB-contaminated landfill sites. Maximum concentrations of total PCBs in snapping turtle clutches were extremely high, and ranged from 2 378.2 ng/g to 737 683 ng/g (wet weight) and are among the highest recorded in any tissue of a free-ranging animal. Similarly, in a pooled sample of eggs from all four sites, the summed concentrations of non-ortho PCBs (n = 6 congeners) was also very high at 54.54 ng/g and the summed dioxin and furan concentrations (n = 11 congeners) was 85.8 ng/g. Sum organochlorine pesticide levels varied from 28 to 2,264 ng/g among the four sites. The levels of PCBs found in turtle eggs exceed concentrations associated with developmental problems and reduced hatching success in snapping turtles and other species and also exceed the Canadian tissue residue guidelines for toxic equivalency concentrations. The extremely high levels of organochlorine contaminants demonstrate the high degree of contamination in the environment in the Akwesasne area.

  10. Influence of temperature, mixing and time of residue on the degradation of organic trace materials during thermal treatment of waste wood; Einfluss von Temperatur, Durchmischung und Verweilzeit auf den Abbau organischer Spurenstoffe bei der thermischen Behandlung von Abfallholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M [Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Griebel, H [Fels-Werke GmbH, Goslar (Germany); Scholz, R [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik

    1998-09-01

    Waste wood, e.g. window frames or sleepers treated with coal tar pitch, are usually incinerated after crushing and removal of foreign materials (glass, metal etc.). Organic trace elements, e.g. PAH, PCB, chlorobenzenes, PCDD and PCDF must be removed after combustion. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Abfallhoelzer, wie z.B. Fensterrahmen oder mit Steinkohlenteerpech behandelte Eisenbahnschwellen, werden nach Zerkleinerung und Abtrennung von Wert- und Stoerstoffen (Glas, Metalle usw.) haeufig in Rostsystemen thermisch behandelt. Bei der Diskussion der Prozessbedingungen liegt ein besonderer Schwerpunkt in der Fragestellung nach geeigneten Abbaubedingungen fuer organische Spurenstoffe wie polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK), polychlorierte Biphenyle (PCB), Chlorbenzole, polychlorierte Dibenzodioxine (PCDD) und polychlorierte Dibenzofurane (PCDF) im Nachverbrennungsprozess. (orig./SR)

  11. Effecten van de voorbewerking op het gehalte aan inhoudsstoffen paprika

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanholt, van L.; Elderen, van C.

    1998-01-01

    Het chemisch laboratorium werkte het afgelopen jaar een analysemethode uit voor het bepalen van vitamine-C in paprikavruchten (Aanholt, 1997). Met de wetenschap voor ogen dat vitamine-C zeer snel op verschillende manieren afgebroken kan worden, werd besloten tot een enigermate afwijkende methode van

  12. Quantitative Structure Retention Relationships of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    be a projection onto the X-Y plane. The algorithm for this calculation can be found in Stouch and Jurs (22), but was further refined by Rohrbaugh and...throughspace distances. WPSA2 (c) Weighted positive charged surface area. MOMH2 (c) Second major moment of inertia with hydrogens attached. CSTR 3 (d) Sum...of the models. The robust regression analysis method calculates a regression model using a least median squares algorithm which is not as susceptible

  13. Analytical characterization of technical animal fat from a rendering plant; Chemisch-analytische Charakterisierung technischen tierischen Fettes aus einer Tierkoerperbeseitigungsanstalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadir, M.; Jopke, P.; Matthies, B.; Schmidt-Naedler, C.; Wichmann, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik; Bock, R.; Dettmer, T.; Hesselbach, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik; Falk, O.; Meyer-Pittroff, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik der Lebensmittelindustrie

    2004-07-01

    Aims and Scope. German rendering plants produce 300,000 tons of animal fat per year. Until recently, these raw products have been in wide use as nutritional additive for cattle and other animals fodder but now they have been banned due to their assumed role in BSE infection. Therefore, alternative fields of usage are required. In this context the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU) is sponsoring a joint research project which deals with the production and testing of cooling lubricants based on animal fat esters. Methods. In a first step, characteristics and quality of the animal fat were analyzed and monitored for a whole year in order to identify e.g. seasonal variations. The investigations covered the following fat specific and trace analytical parameters: total contamination, sulfates ash, water content, peroxide number, iodine value, kinematical viscosity, neutralisation number (free fatty acids), fatty acid spectra, elements / heavy metals (Al, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sn, V, W and Zn), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Results. Valuable hints on the design of the technical process of fatty acid methylesters production were gained by regarding the fat specific parameters. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund und Ziel. Von den deutschen Tierkoerperbeseitigungsanstalten werden z.Z. rund 300.000 t/a technisches tierisches Fett produziert. Ausgeloest durch die BSE-Krise wird dieser Rohstoff nicht mehr als Tierfutterergaenzungsmittel eingesetzt. Nun wird nach neuen Verwertungswegen fuer diese Fette gesucht. In diesem Zusammenhang wird von der DBU ein Verbundprojekt finanziert, in dessen Rahmen durch Umesterung der Fette Grundoele fuer Kuehlschmierstoffe (KSS) hergestellt und die KSS-Produkte in der spanenden Bearbeitung von Metallen in der industriellen Praxis getestet werden sollen. Methoden. Als erster Schritt sollten durch chemisch

  14. Het bepalen van het gehalte aan polychloorbifenylen in vetbiopten afkomstig uit menselijk weefsel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.M.; Traag, W.A.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.

    1982-01-01

    Inventariserend onderzoek naar het voorkomen, zowel kwalitatief als kwantitatief, van polychloorbifenylen in vetbiopten. De vetbiopten zijn genomen bij studenten van de vakgroep voeding van de Landbouwhogeschool te Wageningen. In het kader van een samenwerkingsverband tussen het RIKILT en de LH te

  15. Die modererende invloed van loopbaanontplooiing op loopbaanpassing en gehalte van werklewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. G. Schreuder

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The moderating influence of career progression on career fit and the quality of work life. The subject under investigation was the moderating influence of career progression on career fit and the quality of worklife of 258 employees at non- management and management level in various types of organisations [private, semistate and state]. A significant degree of fit was found among the management group, after which the differences in the quality of worklife between the fit and non-fit groups were tested. A significant difference [p

  16. De invloed der bemesting op het carotine- en vitamine C-gehalte van de plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJdo, J.B.H.

    1936-01-01

    For practical reasons Spinacia oleracea was chosen for these pot experiments in a greenhouse. For the quantitative estimation of carotene, a short method was developed. The vitamin C content of leaves decreased rapidly at room temperature and even at ice-box temperature, so analysis had to be rapid

  17. Misbruik van de geschiedenis? Het historisch gehalte van de nieuwe media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Ed

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn films en op radio en televisie wordt volop aandacht besteed aan geschiedenis. Historische beelden hebben dankzij de moderne media een grotere verspreidingsgraad en de interesse ervoor neemt navenant toe. Wie denkt dat dat louter tot grote tevredenheid heeft geleid bij historici, heeft

  18. Dibenzodioxines polychlorées et dibenzofurannes polychlorés

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boddington, Martin John

    1990-01-01

    ... et de diffuser une liste des substances d'interet prioritaire qui enumere les substances - y compris les produits chimiques, les groupes de produits chimiques, les effluents et les residus - susceptibles d'etre...

  19. Potential soil contaminant levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at industrial facilities employing heat transfer operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.

  20. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizi, Barbara; Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D’Amato, Francesco; Foggi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Database reporting FT-IR spectra for 13 of the 17 toxic PCDDs and PCDFs congeners. • Use of FT-IR database for quantification of toxic PCDD/Fs in complex matrix. • Monitoring of dioxin emissions from waste incinerators. - Abstract: The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds

  1. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrizi, Barbara, E-mail: patrizi@lens.unifi.it [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D’Amato, Francesco [CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Foggi, Paolo [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Database reporting FT-IR spectra for 13 of the 17 toxic PCDDs and PCDFs congeners. • Use of FT-IR database for quantification of toxic PCDD/Fs in complex matrix. • Monitoring of dioxin emissions from waste incinerators. - Abstract: The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds.

  2. Het EDTA-gehalte van 20 monsters gesteriliseerde peulvruchten, in september 1984 gekocht te Karlsruhe en Emmerich

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerling, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    In tegenstelling tot Nederland is in Duitsland de toevoeging van EDTA (ethyleendiaminetetra-azijnzuur) aan geconserveerde peulvruchten niet toegestaan. Bij export van deze produkten naar Duitsland dient de nederlandse producent hier rekening mee te houden. In verband hiermee is een onderzoek

  3. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  4. Investigations of atmospheric input of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into pasture. Pt. 1. Texts. Final report; Untersuchungen des atmosphaerischen Eintrags polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane in Futterpflanzen. T. 1. Textband. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, M.S.; Welsch-Pausch, K.; Koemp, P.

    1998-07-01

    Introduction of PCDD/Fs into the agricultural food chain `atmosphere - fodder - cattle - cows` milk/beef - human` plays a major role in human exposure. The aim of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between PCDD/Fs immissions and fodder concentrations. The identification of the most important atmospheric pathway of PCDD/F into greenland cultures was conducted under near natural conditions in a combined field/glasshouse experiment. It was found that for the Cl{sub 4-6}DD/Fs dry gaseous and for the Cl{sub 7/8}DD/Fs dry particle-bound deposition was the primary mechanism of uptake. A further greenhouse experiment showed that there is an isomere-unspecific photodegradation of PCDD/Fs on plant surfaces. Dry gaseous deposition, which is the major pathway of atmospheric deposition for the less chlorinated toxicological relevant PCDD/Fs, can be understood as a partitioning process between the gas phase of the atmosphere and the vegetation. Experiments investigating this topic were conducted in the laboratory using PCBs as model substances for the PCDD/Fs. Important knowledge was gained with regard to plant/air partitioning, their dependence on temperature and plant species, the kinetics and reversibility of the process. No partitioning equilibrium between the vegetation and the gas phase of the atmosphere was approached for the PCDD/Fs. The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in agricultural greenland was therefore controlled by a gaseous deposition velocity. In two typical German agricultural regions representative gaseous and particle-bound deposition velocities were determined, which were all in all quite constant and independent of the different exposure conditions. All results from this study were incorporated into a mathematical model of the accumulation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in greenland. Based on air concentration, plant species composition and growth, temperature and physical-chemical properties of the chemical the model is able to predict the concentration of a chemical in the plants as a function of time. A validation of this model for the less chlorinated PCBs showed, that the measured plant/air-partitioning and the corresponding components of the model can be extrapolated to environmental conditions. This model summarizes the results of this study and provides a valuable tool in understanding the enrichment of semivolatile lipophilic organic compounds in agricultural plants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Exposition des Menschen gegenueber PCDD/F spielt die landwirtschaftliche Nahrungskette `Atmosphaere - Futterpflanze - Kuh - Milch/Rindfleisch - Mensch` die entscheidende Rolle. Das uebergreifende Ziel dieses Vorhabens war die Erstellung einer quantitativen Beziehung zwischen der Immissionsbelastung mit PCDDF/F und Futtermittelkonzentrationen. Die Identifizierung der wichtigsten atmosphaerischen Eintragswege von PCDD/F in Gruenlandpflanzen wurde unter naturnahen Bedingungen im Rahmen eines kombinierten Gewaechshaus-Freilandversuches durchgefuehrt. Es wurde deutlich, dass fuer die Cl{sub 4-6}DD/F die trockene gasfoermige und fuer die Cl{sub 7/8}DD/F die trockene partikelgebundene Deposition der Hauptaufnahmepfad ist. Aus einem weiteren Gewaechshausversuch ergaben sich deutliche Hinweise auf einen isomerenunspezifischen Photoabbau von PCDD/F auf Pflanzenoberflaechen. Die trockene gasfoermige Deposition, die den Haupteintragsweg fuer die niederchlorierten toxikologisch relevanten PCDD/F darstellt, kann als Verteilung einer Verbindung zwischen der Gasphase der Atmosphaere und der Vegetation angesehen werden. Es wurde eine Reihe von Laborversuchen mit PCT, die als Modellverbindungen fuer die PCDD/F dienten, durchgefuehrt. Es konnten wichtige Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich der Pflanzen/Luft-Verteilung, ihrer Abhaengigkeit von Temperatur und Pflanzenart, ihrer Kinetik und Reversibilitaet gewonnen werden. Fuer die PCDD/F konnte keine Gleichgewichtseinstellung zwischen Pflanze und Atmosphaere beobachtet werden. Die Anreicherung von PCDD/F in Futtermitteln wird folglich durch eine gasfoermige Depositionsgeschwindigkeit bestimmt. An zwei fuer Deutschland typischen landwirtschaftlichen Standorten wurden repraesentative gasfoermige und, analog dazu, partikelgebundene Depositionsgeschwindigkeiten gemessen, die insgesamt unabhaengig von den Standortbedingungen eine relativ geringe Variationsbreite aufwiesen. Die zahlreichen Teilergebnisse dieses Forschungsvorhabens wurden in ein mathematisches Modell der Anreicherung von PCDD/F und PCB in Gruenland integriert. Auf der Basis von Luftbelastung, Artenzusammensetzung und Wachstum des Bestandes, Temperatur und Substanzeigenschaften berechnet dieses Modell die Konzentration einer Verbindung im Gruenlandaufwuchs als Funktion der Zeit. Eine Modellvalidierung konnte fuer die niederchlorierten PCB die gute Uebertragbarkeit der Laborversuche zur Pflanzen/Luft/Verteilung und der entsprechenden Modellkomponenten zeigen. Durch dieses Modell konnten die Teilergebnisse dieses Vorhabens zu einer sinnvollen Einheit zusammengefasst und somit ein wertvolles Werkzeug zum Verstaendnis der Anreicherung von mittelfluechtigen lipophilen organischen Verbindungen in landwirtschaftlichen Nutzpflanzen geschaffen werden. (orig.)

  5. Investigations of atmospheric input of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into pasture. Pt. 2. Appendix. Final report; Untersuchungen des atmosphaerischen Eintrags polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane in Futterpflanzen. T. 2. Anhang. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, M S; Welsch-Pausch, K; Koemp, P

    1998-07-01

    Introduction of PCDD/Fs into the agricultural food chain `atmosphere - fodder - cattle - cows` milk/beef - human` plays a major role in human exposure. The aim of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between PCDD/Fs immissions and fodder concentrations. The identification of the most important atmospheric pathway of PCDD/F into greenland cultures was conducted under near natural conditions in a combined field/glasshouse experiment. It was found that for the Cl{sub 4-6}DD/Fs dry gaseous and for the Cl{sub 7/8}DD/Fs dry particle-bound deposition was the primary mechanism of uptake. A further greenhouse experiment showed that there is an isomere-unspecific photodegradation of PCDD/Fs on plant surfaces. Dry gaseous deposition, which is the major pathway of atmospheric deposition for the less chlorinated toxicological relevant PCDD/Fs, can be understood as a partitioning process between the gas phase of the atmosphere and the vegetation. Experiments investigating this topic were conducted in the laboratory using PCBs as model substances for the PCDD/Fs. Important knowledge was gained with regard to plant/air partitioning, their dependence on temperature and plant species, the kinetics and reversibility of the process. No partitioning equilibrium between the vegetation and the gas phase of the atmosphere was approached for the PCDD/Fs. The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in agricultural greenland was therefore controlled by a gaseous deposition velocity. In two typical German agricultural regions representative gaseous and particle-bound deposition velocities were determined, which were all in all quite constant and independent of the different exposure conditions. All results from this study were incorporated into a mathematical model of the accumulation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in greenland. Based on air concentration, plant species composition and growth, temperature and physical-chemical properties of the chemical the model is able to predict the concentration of a chemical in the plants as a function of time. A validation of this model for the less chlorinated PCBs showed, that the measured plant/air-partitioning and the corresponding components of the model can be extrapolated to environmental conditions. This model summarizes the results of this study and provides a valuable tool in understanding the enrichment of semivolatile lipophilic organic compounds in agricultural plants. (orig.)

  6. Transport and concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) in deciduous and coniferous trees. Transport und Gehalt von Abscisinsaeure (ABA) und Auxin (IAA) in Laub- und Nadelblaettern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, W.

    1988-09-01

    Abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid were chosen to examine whether intact deciduous and coniferous tissues from spruce, hemlock fir, spinage, barley and sorrel or isolated mesophyll protoplasts from barley and closing cell preparations from Valerianella locusta are affected by sulphur dioxide in terms of changes in the concentration, transportation and distribution of such plant hormones. The distribution of phytohormones like ABA and IAA over the individual cell compartments is determined by the different pH gradients of the latter. Owing to their acidity these hormones are accumulated in alkaline cell inclusion bodies like chloroplasts and cytosol. Potentially acid air pollutants like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} lead to acidification of previously alkaline cell compartments, due to which fact the cellular pH gradients are reduced. This, in turn, gives rise to a redistribution of phytohormones to the effect that certain target cells such as closing cells of leaves or meristem cells come under the influence of altered hormone concentrations and compositions. This is bound to affect the processes controlling the development, growth and stress behaviour of plants. (orig.) With 55 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  7. Bestuursoriëntasie en die gehalte van werklewe van polisiebeamptes in die Noordwes Provinsie / Daniël Jacobus Le Grange

    OpenAIRE

    Le Grange, Daniël Jacobus

    1998-01-01

    Organisations are managed and operated by people, and therefore, the effectiveness of any organisation, depend on how successfLlly its managers and employees perform their respective tasks. As a result of the high crime rates in South Atiica, the ability of the South &can Police Service to combat crime effectively, is being questioned. Various task orientated efforts are being made to combat crime, but with limited success. Recent internal climate studies of the South Afi-ic...

  8. Toetsing van het gehalte duurzame veiligheid met Safer Transportation Network Planning : integratie van de ‘DV-gehaltemeter’ in het ontwerpprogramma ‘Safer-TNP’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    Testing the sustainable-safety contents with Safer Transportation Network Planning. In the publication entitled “Developing a sustainable-safety meter (DV-meter) for measuring the sustainable-safety contents” (Van der Kooi & Dijkstra, 2000), the development of and a pilot measurement with a

  9. Vergelijkend onderzoek van een laag gehalte aan chloride in dieetkaas volgens de potentiometrische titratiemethode NEN 3762 en de gravimetrische methode NEN 3773

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werdmuller, G.A.; Labrijn, J.; Oortwijn, H.

    1982-01-01

    Doel van dit onderzoek is: het gebruik van de potentiometrische titratiemethode bij de chloridebepaling in dieetkaas te toetsen door deze te vergelijken met de gravimetrische methode zoals voorgeschreven in NEN 3773. In 1981 hebben 3 laboratoria in 10 verschillende maanden van 10 monsters dieetkaas

  10. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in food and feed using a bioassay. Result of a validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizzi, G.; Holst, C. von; Anklam, E. [Commission of the European Communities, Geel (Belgium). Joint Research Centre, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurement, Food Safety and Quality Unit; Hoogenboom, R. [RIKILT-Intitute of Food Safety, Wageningen (Netherlands); Rose, M. [Defra Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    It is estimated that more than 90% of dioxins consumed by humans come from foods derived from animals. The European Commission through a Council Regulation (No 2375/2001) and a Directive (2001/102/EC), both revised by the Commission Recommendation (2002/201/EC), has set maximum levels for dioxins in food and feedstuffs. To implement the regulation, dioxin-monitoring programs of food and feedstuffs will be undertaken by the Member States requiring the analysis of large amounts of samples. Food and feed companies will have to control their products before putting them into the market. The monitoring for the presence of dioxins in food and feeds needs fast and cheap screening methods in order to select samples with potentially high levels of dioxins to be then analysed by a confirmatory method like HRGC/HRMS. Bioassays like the DR CALUX {sup registered} - assay have claimed to provide a suitable alternative for the screening of large number of samples, reducing costs and the required time of analysis. These methods have to comply with the specific characteristics considered into two Commission Directives (2002/69/EC; 2002/70/EC), establishing the requirements for the determination of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs for the official control of food and feedstuffs. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre is pursuing validation of alternative techniques in food and feed materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the DR CALUX {sup registered} technique as screening method in compliance with the Commission Directives, a validation study was organised in collaboration with CSL and RIKILT. The aim of validating an analytical method is first to determine its performance characteristics (e.g. variability, bias, rate of false positive and false negative results), and secondly to evaluate if the method is fit for the purpose. Two approaches are commonly used: an in-house validation is preferentially performed first in order to establish whether the method is mature enough for being tested in a collaborative trial. A number of reports have described the in-house validation of the DR CALUX {sup registered} -assay, thus allowing proceeding to the second step, an interlaboratory trial. In this step a set of chicken feeds and fish oil samples at four different levels of contamination were analysed by both experienced and newly trained laboratories.

  11. Synthesis of fluorinated poly(arylene ether)s with dibenzodioxin and spirobisindane units from new bis(pentafluorophenyl)- and bis(nonafluorobiphenyl)-containing monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tkachenko, Ihor M.; Belov, Nikolay A.; Kobzar, Yaroslav L.

    2017-01-01

    (nonafluorophenyl)-containing monomers have higher average molecular masses (Mw) in the range 47,000–88,300 and are able to form robust, solvent-cast films. Good thermal stabilities in air (up to 350 °C) were observed in all fluorinated polymers. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area and the pore size of polymers can...... be controlled by varying the type of the initial fluorinated monomers. It was shown that introduction of perfluorobiphenyl units is an effective tool for increasing the surface area up to 156.8 m2 g−1....

  12. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Noninvasive MRI-based liver iron quantification. Methodic approaches, practical applicability and significance; Nicht invasive MRT-basierte Bestimmung des Leber-Eisen-Gehalts. Methodische Ansaetze, Anwendbarkeit in der Praxis und Aussagekraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, A.P. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Section for Experimental Radiology; Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Cario, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Dept. of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine; Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Beer, M.; Schmidt, S.A. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2016-11-15

    Due to the dependence of transverse relaxation times T{sub 2} and T{sub 2}* on tissue iron content, MRI offers different options for the determination of iron concentration. These are the time-consuming spin-echo sequence as well as the gradient-echo sequence. For the latter, several data analysis approaches have been proposed, with different requirements for acquisition and post-processing: the mathematically challenging R{sub 2}* analysis and the signal-intensity ratio method with its high demand on the signal homogeneity of MR images. Furthermore, special procedures currently under evaluation are presented as future prospects: quantitative susceptibility imaging, as a third approach for analyzing gradient echo data, and multi-contrast spin-echo using repeated refocusing pulses. MR theory, as far as needed for understanding the methods, is briefly depicted.

  14. Heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils. Concentrations - sorption and solubility - effects on micro-organisms; Schwermetalle und organische Schadstoffe in Boeden. Gehalte - Sorption und Loeslichkeit - Wirkung auf Mikroorganismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welp, G.

    2000-07-01

    The thesis comprises six manuscripts published in different journals. Soil protection being the main theme the articles deal with different aspects that represent a necessary scientific basis of a risk assessment for polluted soils. The first step is to look at the total contents of different soil contaminants and to decide whether a pollution is given or not. In chapter II the contents of 18 elements in 335 soil samples of North Rhine-Westphalia are analysed, in order to determine groups of soil samples that are characterized by a certain range of element contents in connection with other common features (e.g., parent material, sampling region, specific source of pollution). The study bases on a detailed inspection of frequency distributions which are evaluated with a parametric method (assuming several single lognormal distributions) and with a nonparametric approach (Kemel density estimation). The latter method proved to be a useful tool to derive background concentrations for toxic elements in soils. It is necessary to differentiate between soluble (mobile, available) and insoluble (immobile, strongly adsorbed, precipitated) fractions of pollutants in soil. The sorption and solubility of pollutants in soils, therefore, is a second important parameter for an appropriate risk assessment. Four papers (chapter III-VI) deal with this aspect. In chapter III sorption and solubility of ten metals in four soil samples is studied. The quantity-intensity relations of eight metals [except Cr(III) and Fe(III)] are governed by sorption and complexation procecces and can be fitted by Freundlich isotherms. In three further papers sorption and solubility experiments with inorganic and organic toxicants are combined with microbial tests in order to detect effects on microorganisms in relation to soil properties. The large data set of about 500 dose-response curves was also used to examine the general reaction patterns of heterogeneous microbial populations under chemical stress (chapter VII). The results presented in chapters III-VII are a contribution to the principle understanding of the causal relations between sorption, solubility and microbial toxicity of pollutants in soils. The data clearly demonstrate that there are strong and complex interactions between pollutants and soil constituents. The measurement of sorption and solubility is an essential first step in calculating potential mobility and availability. Additional parameters that do influence the biocidal effects of pollutants in soil (e.g., speciation, nutrient status etc.) require to include bioassays. Thus, at the present state of knowledge, a combination of biological and chemical tests seems to be an appropriate tool in order to assess the ecotoxicological risk of a soil contamination. (orig.)

  15. Development of an online emission measuring system for quasi-continuous measurement of organic halgen compounds in off-gases of thermal processes. The example of polychlorinated dibeno-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in pure gas of incinerators for domestic waste; Entwicklung einer on-line Emissionsmesstechnik zur quasi-kontinuierlichen Bestimmung von Organohalogen-Verbindungen in Abgasen thermischer Prozesse. Ausgefuehrt am Beispiel polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane im Reingas von Hausmuellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, K.

    2000-07-01

    Industrial processes are connected with the emission of xenobiotic substances that represent a burden on the environment. Standardised methods currently available for the quantitative determination of these substances are time consuming, require a lot of work and are therefore expensive. Consequently they are not suited to perform extensive screening or monitoring programs. The aim of this work was therefore to develop a reliable quasi-continuous time and cost effective measuring method that can be used as a screening tool for the determination of such substances. The method has been developed according to stack emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). (orig.)

  16. Comparison of measured NH4 level and NO emission to declared tar and nicotine values of hundred cigarette brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt TM; Verlaan APJ; Cleven RFMJ; Rambali B; Vleeming W; LEO; LAC; LPI

    2003-01-01

    De algemene hypothese bestaat dat NH4 gehalte in sigaretten en NO concentratie in sigarettenrook de nicotine beschikbaarheid in de longen beinvloedt en daardoor ook een factor speelt bij de tabaksverslaving. Een correlatie tussen het NH4 gehalte, de NO emissie en de gedeclareerde nicotine waarde

  17. Bepaling van vrij- en totaal-cyanide in grond en water met een doorstroomanalysesysteem: evaluatie van ontwerp NEN-6655

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staden JJ van; Moayeri-Mirck MWG; Cleven RFMJ; Wiel HJ van de; LAC; LBA

    1994-01-01

    De ontwerp-methode voor de fotometrische bepaling van het totale gehalte aan cyanide (totaal-cyanide) en het gehalte aan vrij-cyanide in water en bodem met een doorstroomanalysesysteem (Ontwerp NEN 6655) is onderzocht en zonodig gewijzigd. De ontwerp-methode is gemodificeerd om de

  18. 77 FR 22847 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... abbreviations are used in this document. CAA Clean Air Act CDD/CDF chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans CDX... chloride and chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (CDD/CDF)) and hydrogen chloride (HCl). We did not... chloride leak action level because if either of these pollutants is detected in the cooling water or in the...

  19. Berekening inname residuen en contaminan ten. Conversietabel primaire agrarische produc ten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooren-Flipsen, van M.M.H.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Boeijen, I.; Donkersgoed, van G.

    1996-01-01

    De conversietabel geeft een eenduidige koppeling tussen primaire agrarische produkten en consumeerbare voedingsmiddelen, zodat m.b.v. informatiesytemen over voedselconsumptie en gehaltes aan residuen en contaminanten de inname van negatieve bestanddelen via de voeding kan worden berekend

  20. Onderzoek naar het voorkomen van vijf sulfonamiden en Dapson in nieren van Nederlandse slachtvarkens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen HAMG; Kamp CG van de

    1987-01-01

    Onderzocht zijn 208 monsters varkensnier op voorkomen (HPTLC) en gehalte (HPLC) van sulfanilamide, sulfadimidine, sulfadoxine, sulfadiazine, sulfaquinoxaline en Dapson. De monsters waren afkomstig van slachthuizen gelegen in de zes veterinaire Inspectiegebieden. Uit het HPTLC onderzoek op

  1. Onderzoek naar het voorkomen van vijf sulfonamiden in nieren van Nederlandse slachtvarkens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen HAMG; Kamp CG van de

    1987-01-01

    Onderzocht op voorkomen en gehalte aan sulfanilamide, sulfadimidine, sulfadoxine, sulfadiazine en sulfaquinoxaline werden 102 nieren van Nederlandse slachtvarkens. Bemonsteringsperiode: oktober tot half november 1986. Alle monsters die bij dunnelaagchromatografisch onderzoek (HPTLC) positief

  2. Preparation and stability study of ampouled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen; H.A.M.G.; Kamp; C.G. van de; Jekel; A.A.

    1986-01-01

    De stabiliteit van geampulleerde acetonitril- en tolueenoplossingen van zeven polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen (PAK) werd bestudeerd gedurende een jaar. Beide oplossingen waren qua PAK- samenstelling en gehalte identiek en bereid uit een moederoplossing. Voor en vlak na het ampulleren

  3. The quality of critical care service management in South African hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Muller

    1999-11-01

    Die doel met hierdie studie is om die gehalte van die bestuur van kritiekesorgdienste in Suid-Afrikaanse hospitale te bepaal. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  4. Production pattern, chemical composition and digestibility of forage maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Verslag van een onderzoek naar de invloed van rassenkeuze en de zaaidatum op de opbrengst, voedingswaarde en verteerbaarheid van voedermais. Verschillen bleken vooral veroorzaakt te worden door verschillen in koolhydraat-gehalte en de verteerbaarheid van de celwand

  5. DNA-Methylierung nach abiotischen und biotischen Einflüssen und Expressionsanalyse pathogeninduzierter Gene in Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Ruediger

    2006-01-01

    Basierend auf Beobachtungen über phänotypische Änderungen in Vollgeschwisterfamilien der Fichte,Picea abies, aus unterschiedlichen Kreuzungsumwelten wurde nach der geneti-schen Untersuchung mit EST-Markern eine kapillarelektrophoretische Untersuchung der DNA durchgeführt. Dabei wurden signifikante Unterschiede im Methylcytosin(mC)-Gehalt festgestellt. Messungen der mC-Gehalte nach Hitzeschock zeigten, den Einfluss der Um-weltbedingungen auf die Methylierung der DNA. Untersuchungen zur Dynamik...

  6. Emissions from Prescribed Burning of Agricultural Fields in the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PM2.5, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and continuous...

  7. Development of a potential lignocellulolytic resource for rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... Key words: Rice straw, lignocellulose, microbial degradation, Bacillus pumilis. ... chlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated ..... enzymatic activities of wheat soil in response to phosphorus enriched organic and ...

  8. PCDD/F, PCB, HXCBZ, PAH, AND PM EMISSION FACTORS FOR FIREPLACE AND WOODSTOVE COMBUSTION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from residential fireplace and woodstove appliances burning fuels available from the San Francisco Bay area were sampled for polychlornated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), particulatematter (P...

  9. PCDD/F and Aromatic Emissions from Simulated Forest and Grassland Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from simulated grassland and forest fires were quantitatively sampled to derive emission factors in support of PCDD/F inventory development. Grasses from Kentucky and Minnesota; forest shrubs fro...

  10. Carbon 13 and carbon 14 in trees and the atmospheric CO2 increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tans, Petrus Paulus

    1978-01-01

    Bij het verbruik van fossiele brandstoffen (kolen, olie, aardgas) ten behoeve van de wereld energievoorziening komen zeer grote hoeveelheden koolzuurgas (CO2) vrij. hierdoor wordt het CO2 gehalte van de atmosfeer verhoogd. Het CO2 gas dat uit de verbranding ontstaat neemt deel in de natuurlijke

  11. Het aantonen en bepalen van vanille in botervet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weseman, J.M.; Ruig, de W.G.

    1980-01-01

    Doel van dit onderzoek was: Het verbeteren van de bestaande analysemethode. Bij de bestaande methode werd vanille met methanol uit het monster geëxtraheerd. Na filtratie werd het gehalte dan U.V. spectrofotometrisch bepaald. Meegeëxtraheerd vet veroorzaakte een te hoge extinctie. Bij de nieuwe

  12. Kwantificatie van PCB-componenten in krachtvoeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazijk, van R.J.; Munsteren, van A.J.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.

    1981-01-01

    Met behulp van individuele chloorbifenylstandaarden is het PCB-gehalte van een aantal krachtvoeders bepaald, waarbij voor de onbekende componenten een geschatte waarde is gebruikt. Uit deze gehalten is met behulp van omrekeningsfactoren de theoretische DCB-opbrengst bij perchloreren berekend. Dit

  13. Contractiemechanisme en elektrolythuishouding van het geïsoleerde, overlevende rattehart, mede in verband met de werking van insuline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Offerijns, F.G.J.; Willebrands, A.F.; Groen, J.

    1959-01-01

    Het waarnemen van een effect van insuline op de contracties van het geïsoleerde, overlevende rattenhart was aanleiding om de fysische verrichtingen in samenhang van het gehalte aan water en elektrolyten van dit orgaan tot onderwerp van studie te maken. Daarbij werd een zo goed mogelijk aan de

  14. Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied. Resultaten over 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lembrechts J; Glastra P; Nissan LA; Overwater RMW; LSO

    2002-01-01

    Van 25 havenspeciemonsters is het Ra-226-gehalte bepaald. De monsters zijn in 2001 verzameld in de Rotterdamse havens en in de Nieuwe Waterweg. Zoals ook in eerdere meetcampagnes is vastgesteld, worden hoge radiumgehaltes gevonden in de omgeving van de voormalige lozingspunten van de

  15. Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard H; Overwater RMW; Glastra P; Nissan LA; LSO

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 zijn wederom havenspeciemonsters verzameld in de Rotterdamse havens en in de Nieuwe Waterweg. Van 25 monsters is het 226Ra-gehalte bepaald. Zoals ook in eerdere meetcampagnes is vastgesteld, worden hoge radiumgehalten gevonden in de omgeving van de voormalige lozingspunten van de

  16. ʼn Kritiese evaluering van wetgewing wat die gesondheid van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    gereguleer wat "basiese watervoorsiening" omskryf as "die voorgeskrewe minimum standaard van watervoorsieningsdienste wat nodig is vir die betroubare voorsiening van ʼn toereikende hoeveelheid en gehalte water aan huishoudings, met inbegrip van informele huishoudings, om lewe en persoonlike higiëne te steun".

  17. Dagelijkse opneming van nitraat, nitriet en vluchtige N-nitrosaminen, bepaald via analyse van duplicaat 24-uurs voedingen, bemonsterd in 1984/1985

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen G; Egmond E; Sahertian ET

    1988-01-01

    Duplicaten van 24-uurs voedingen van 110 personen, bemonsterd in oktober 1984/maart 1985 werden geanalyseerd op gehalte aan nitraat, nitriet en vluchtige N-nitrosaminen. De gemeten gemiddelde nitraatopneming bedroeg 52 mg NO-3/etmaal, bereik 2-500 mg/etmaal. Nitriet was aantoonbaar, d.w.z.

  18. Vluchtige N-nitrosaminen en nitriet in vleeswaren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen; G.; Egmond; E.; Sahertian; E.T.

    1984-01-01

    In totaal 140 monsters vleeswaar, te onderscheiden in 29 verschillende soorten werden onderzocht op hun gehalte aan vluchtige N-nitrosaminen (NA) en nitriet. Het merendeel der monsters (65,7%) bevatte minder dan 10 mg NaNo2/kg. In 46 van de 140 monsters (32,9%) waren geen vluchtige NA

  19. Werken aan inclusie : Lessen uit zeven proeftuinen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeroen Knevel; Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken

    2016-01-01

    Inclusie is een begrip met een hoog ideëel gehalte, waaraan verschillende interpretaties gegeven worden. Een van de meest concrete omschrijvingen vinden we bij Schuurman en Nass (2015) die onder inclusie verstaan: ‘De situatie waarin iemand geen obstakels ervaart om mee te kunnen doen aan de

  20. Enkele polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen (PAH) en stikstofhoudende analoga (N-PAH) in levensmiddelen en ander biologisch materiaal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen; H.A.M.G.; Wilbers; A.A.M.M.; Jekel; A.A..nf

    1986-01-01

    Beschreven worden de resultaten van het onderzoek van margarine en halvarine (N=28), rundernieren (N=6), maiskiemen (N=1), "vet" uit overstortputjes (N=1), spinazie (N=5), boerenkool (N=8), mosselen (N=10), brood (N=4) en duplicaten van 24-uurs voeding (N=6) op gehalte aan

  1. Economische consequenties invoering CTT-norm zoute baggerspecie voor Nederlandse havens: evaluatie CTT norm 2004-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linderhof, V.G.M.; Hess, S.; Kruseman, G.; Hattum, van B.; Bruinsma, F.; Jonkeren, O.; Ubbels, E.

    2006-01-01

    In juni 2004 werd een nieuw toetsingskader, de Chemie-Toxiciteit-Toets (CTT), voor zoute baggerspecie geïntroduceerd. De CTT vervangt de Uniforme Gehalte Toets (UGT). De belangrijkste wijzigingen zijn de expliciete norm voor Tributyltin (TBT) en signaleringswaarden voor een drietal bio-assays. Op

  2. i,tt r

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Suid-Afrika sowel as in Afrika kom daar jaar- liks groot hoeveelhede laegraadse ruvoer beskikbaar in die vorm van strooie van die gmanbedryf. begasse van die suikerbedryf en swak gehalte grashooie vanwed on- gunstige weersomstandighede tydens die hooiseisoen. Hoewel hierdie laegraadse nrvoere dieselfde ...

  3. Der Heilige Geist und die Realisierung des Glaubens in der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    29. Juli 2016 ... der Sprache bis hin zu den kulturellen und religiösen. Zeichensystemen, muss von dem Einzelnen empfangen und angeeignet werden. Kommunikation, auch die religiöse, verwirklicht sich ausschließlich in der Spannung von geschichtlicher Abhängigkeit und Transformation der überlieferten Gehalte im ...

  4. Environmental monitoring of mercury in waters. Reagent-free and rapid determination of mercury at trace levels.; Umweltmonitoring von Quecksilber in Gewaessern. Reagenzienfreie und schnelle Bestimmung von Hg im Spurenbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Jessica; Leopold, Kerstin [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Analytische und Bioanalytische Chemie

    2013-05-15

    With the help of nano gold collectors for the enrichment of the total mercury content of water samples can be analyzed fully automatically using atomic fluorescence spectrometry without extensive sample preparation. [German] Mit Hilfe von Nanogoldkollektoren zur Anreicherung kann der Gesamtquecksilber-Gehalt von Gewaesserproben vollautomatisiert mittels Atomfluoreszenzspektrometrie ohne aufwendige Probenvorbereitung analysiert werden.

  5. Stikstofdeling bij snijmais : verslag van onderzoek op ROC's De Waag, Heino, Cranendonck en De Vlierd tussen 1985 en 1988 (project 96-2-19)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, J.

    1990-01-01

    Tussen 1985 en 1988 is in een negental veldproeven nagegaan welke invloed gedeelde N-giften hebben op de opbrengst van snijmais en op de N-huishouding van bodem en gewas. Hierbij is ook nagegaan of bepalingen van het N-gehalte in de bodem of gewas een handvat bieden bij bemestingsbeslissingen

  6. Die Britse owerheid en die onderwys op Heidelberg gedurende die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of Christian National Education (CNE) Schools stimulated the concept of mother tongue education. Oor die klaskamerpraktyk en die werklike gehalte van onderrig tydens die kampskooltydperk is daar min bekend. Heidelberg wat na 1902 in 'n belangrike onderwyssentrum in Transvaal ontwikkel het, het ...

  7. Onderzoek naar de chemische en microbiologische kwaliteit van zachte kaas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van H.J.; Bakker, R.; Boeyen, P.; Coors, R.; Hakemulder, W.; Labrijn, J.; Herstel, H.

    1993-01-01

    Voor Konsumenten Kontakt zijn in augustus en september 1992 zevenenveertig monsters zachte kaas (Brie en Camembert) chemisch en microbiologisch onderzocht. Het chemisch onderzoek bestond uit het bepalen van de gehaltes aan vocht en vet. Het microbiologische gedeelte bestond uit een onderzoek naar de

  8. Laboratory experiments and analytical investigations on the transfer of organic substances from lignite into ground water and residue lakes during flooding of opencast lignite mines. Final report; Laborexperimente und analytische Untersuchungen ueber den Eintrag braunkohlebuertiger organischer Stoffe in Grundwaesser und Restseegewaesser bei der Flutung von Braunkohletagebauen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzschuh, R.; Frauendorf, H.; Herrmann, D.; Pietzsch, K.

    2000-05-01

    Lignite samples of diffrent lithotypes and composition from opencast mines of Lusatia and the region near Leipzig were submitted to weathering processes in laboratory scale experiments and the transfer of organic matter from lignite into the hydrosphere has been observed. By means of high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry used in combination with data from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry numerous lignite-derived aromatic and heteroaromatic (poly-)carboxylic acids as well as aliphatic dicarboxylic acids could be characterized in the aqueous extracts. Investigations on water samples from lignite mining residue lakes cofirm these results. Furthermore, formation of chlororganic compounds like polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxine and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), benzenes (PCBz) and phenols (PCPh) has been investigated on different lignite samples under natural weathering conditions and thermal treatment. (orig.) [German] Braunkohlen verschiedener Lithotypen und Zusammensetzung aus Tagebauen der Lausitz und der Region um Leipzig wurden in Laborexperimenten Verwitterungsprozessen unterzogen und der Uebergang organischer Materie aus der Braunkohle in die Hydrosphaere beobachtet. Mit Hilfe der HPLC-Elektrospray-MS-Untersuchungen in Kombination mit Daten aus GC-MS-Messungen konnten zahlreiche aus der Braunkohle stammende aromatische und heteroaromatische (Poly-)Carbonsaeuren sowie aliphatische Dicarbonsaeuren in den waessrigen Extrakten charakterisiert werden. Untersuchungen an Wasserproben aus bereits gefluteten Tagebaurestseen bestaetigen diese Ergebnisse. Weiterhin wurde die Bildung chlororganischer Verbindungen, wie polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und -furane (PCDD/F) sowie polychlorierter Biphenyle (PCB), Benzole (PCBz) und Phenole (PCPh) an unterschiedlichen Braunkohleproben unter natuerlichen Bedingungen und nach thermsicher Behandlung untersucht. (orig.)

  9. Lewenswetenskappe-onderwys in die een-en-twintigste eeu: ’n Paradigmaskuif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Louise Botha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die ontwikkeling van ’n gehalte onderwyskorps is ’n ‘primêre voorwaarde vir opvoedkundige transformasie’ (Nasionale Onderwysbeleidondersoek [NEPI] 1993:235. Die gehalte van leer word beduidend beïnvloed deur die gehalte van onderwysers en hulle onderrig (McGrath 2008. Die gehalte van leer kan dus gekoppel word aan uitnemendheid in onderrig wat deur nuwe, kreatiewe denke bereik kan word. Dit kan moontlik realiseer met die implementering van vernuwende vaardighede en tegnieke wat voldoen aan die kreatiewe en vernuwende beplanning van die kurrikulum (Departement van Basiese Onderwys [DBO] 2011:8. Daar word van opvoeders (lektore of onderwysers verwag om ’n stimulerende en ondersteunende leer- en onderrigomgewing te skep. In die ontwikkelende wêreld van opvoeding het die fokus duidelik van ’n onderwysergesentreerde klaskamerpraktyk geskuif na ’n meer leerdergesentreerde benadering soos in die kurrikulum vir Lewenswetenskappe (Departement van Onderwys 2003 weerspieël word. Die uitdaging is gevolglik dat opvoeders gekonfronteer word om Lewenswetenskappe sodanig te onderrig dat dit op sowel ’n kognitiewe as ’n affektiewe vlak by alle leerders in die een-en-twintigste eeu aanklank vind. Nuwe kurrikuluminisiatiewe verg dus aanpassings en veranderings in die praktyk van die opvoeder. Hierdie teoretiese studie het ten doel om verslag te lewer oor die herbesinning van Lewenswetenskappe-onderwys in die een-en-twintigste eeu in Suid-Afrika. Dit is noodsaaklik dat kennis geneem word van die behoeftes en uitdagings in kreatiewe Lewenswetenskappeonderwys en -opvoeding vir die een-en-twintigste eeu. Hoë gehalte navorsing in Biologieonderrig word as noodsaaklik beskou ten einde die beroep van ’n Lewenswetenskappeonderwyser te vorm en te verbeter.

  10. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter; Bakker, Wouter; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the

  11. Onderzoek naar het voorkomen van vijf sulfonamiden en Dapson in nieren van Nederlandse slachtvarkens

    OpenAIRE

    Vaessen HAMG; Kamp CG van de

    1987-01-01

    Onderzocht zijn 208 monsters varkensnier op voorkomen (HPTLC) en gehalte (HPLC) van sulfanilamide, sulfadimidine, sulfadoxine, sulfadiazine, sulfaquinoxaline en Dapson. De monsters waren afkomstig van slachthuizen gelegen in de zes veterinaire Inspectiegebieden. Uit het HPTLC onderzoek op voorkomen kwamen 8 monsters die kwantitatief werden onderzocht m.b.v. HPLC. Drie monsters bleken < 0,02 mg/kg sulfadimidine te bevatten, het sulfadimidinegehalte van de vijf andere monsters varieerde van ...

  12. Werken aan inclusie: Lessen uit zeven proeftuinen

    OpenAIRE

    Knevel, Jeroen; Wilken, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Inclusie is een begrip met een hoog ideëel gehalte, waaraan verschillende interpretaties gegeven worden. Een van de meest concrete omschrijvingen vinden we bij Schuurman en Nass (2015) die onder inclusie verstaan: ‘De situatie waarin iemand geen obstakels ervaart om mee te kunnen doen aan de samenleving en specifieke maatregelen voor mensen met een beperking vrijwel niet nodig zijn. Het betekent dat iedereen ongeacht zijn achtergrond of huidige situatie er als vanzelfsprekend bij hoort, ervaa...

  13. Kunnen biologische herkauwers zonder synthetische vitaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Smolders, E.A.A.; Kan, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Uit berekeningen blijkt dat er voor koeien in de stalperiode soms een tekort dreigt aan vitamine D en E. Voor vitamine A geldt dat alleen in rantsoenen met uitsluitende hooi. Gehalten van vitamine A in voordroogkuilen van gras/klaver op Bioveembedrijven komen redelijk overeen met literatuurgegevens. Die van vitamine E waren de helft van wat verwacht werd en het gehalte aan vitamine D was in de Nederlandse kuilen veel hoger dan wat elders gevonden is.

  14. Analytik von Minorlipiden: Ferulasäureester von Phytosterolen (gamma-Oryzanol) in Reis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Ferulasäureestern von Phytosterolen (γ-Oryzanol) werden antioxidative und cholesterinsenkende Eigenschaften zugeschrieben. Bisher beschriebene Methoden zur Analytik von γ-Oryzanol in Reis erforderten eine aufwendige Aufreinigung des Probenextrakts. In dieser Arbeit wurde basierend auf der on-line LC-GC eine Methode entwickelt, die die simultane Bestimmung von γ-Oryzanol-Gehalt und Sterylferulat-Verteilung ohne Aufreinigung des Probenextrakts erlaubt. Mit Hilfe der Technik wurden die natürlich...

  15. Factors influencing the quality of patient data captured by nurses for the tuberculosis control programme in Oshakati District, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda V. Kagasi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective tuberculosis control relies heavily upon the general health system of the country, particularly on well-functioning primary healthcare services. This study investigated factors influencing the quality of data for the tuberculosis control programme in Oshakati district in Namibia. A quantitative, contextual, cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted using 50 nursing personnel of different cadres who were sampled from five departments in Oshakati State Hospital. Data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Most participants reported that tuberculosis-related training improved correct recording and reporting amongst nursing personnel, which is a requirement for a quality tuberculosis control programme. The number of documents to be completed for each patient influences the quality of data recording and completeness. Factors such as the lack of resources and of adequate training as well as knowledge of tuberculosis control guidelines, in particular the use of records to capture the core tuberculosis indicators, influence the quality of data in the tuberculosis control programme. Knowledge, attitudes and practice are the main factors influencing the quality of data in the tuberculosis control programme in Oshakati district. Die effektiewe beheer van tuberkulose steun grootliks op die algemene gesondheidstelsel van ’n land, veral op die goeie werkende primêre gesondheidsorgdienste. Die studie het faktore wat die gehalte van data vir die teringbeheerprogram in die Oshakati Distrik in Namibië ondersoek.’n Kwantitatiewe, kontekstuele, kruisseksionele, beskrywende opname was onderneem met ’n steekproef van 50 verpleegpersoneel van verskillende kadres uit vyf departemente in Oshakati Staatshospitaal. Data was deur middel van ’n selftoegediende vraelys ingewin. Die meeste deelnemers het genoem dat teringverwante opleiding die korrekte afneem en rapportering onder verpleegpersoneel verbeter het, wat

  16. The Measurement of Quality of Working life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Orpen

    1983-11-01

    Die bruikbaarheid van vraelyste om inligting te voorsien op grond waarvan die gehalte van 'n werklewe nagevors kan word, word bevraagteken. Daar is weinig ooreenstemming oor wat sodanige vraelyste meet. Die probleem word onderstreep deur die feit dat navorsing waarin sodanige meetinstrumente gebruik word deurgaans 'n hoë mate van werkstevredenheid toon terwyl werknemerfrustrasie en vervreemding aan die orde van die dag is. 'n Nuwe benadering tot die bepaling van werkstevredenheid word bepleit waarin die werknemer deelneem aan die ontwikkeling van die meetinstrumente wat gebruik word.

  17. Graded thermal insulation layer systems; Gradierte Waermedaemmschichtsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leushake, U.; Krell, T. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoff-Forschung

    1996-12-31

    Graded thermal insulation systems reduce local stresses between two layers. Grading usually involves a concentration variation in a second phase but may also involve variations of the microstructure or chemical composition. The contribution discusses the application of this technique for thermal protection of turbine blades in aircraft propulsion systems. [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe gradierter Waermeschichtsysteme ist es moeglich die lokalen Spannungen zwischen zwei Schichten zu verringern. Die Gradierung umfasst meistens eine Variation des Gehaltes einer zweiten Phase, kann aber auch die Variation der Mikrostruktur oder der chemischen Zusammensetzung beinhalten. In diesem Beitrag wird auf die Anwendung als thermischer Schutz von Turbinenschaufeln fuer Flugtriebwerke eingegangen.

  18. Contribution of tobacco smoking to dioxin accumulation: opposite effects according to gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierens, S.; Bernard, A. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Eppe, G.; Focant, J.F.; Pauw, E. De [Univ. of Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Tobacco smoke contains a variety of polycyclic hydrocarbons including dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans). It has been estimated that smoking 20 cigarettes per day should lead to a dioxin intake almost equivalent to that from food (1 to 3 pg TEQ/kg bw/day), the major source of human exposure. However, studies that have measured dioxins in smokers have found no increased levels, some of them even reporting significantly lower values than in non-smokers. We show here that dioxins concentrations are affected by a gender-smoking interaction that could exert a confounding effect.

  19. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  20. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M. (Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie)

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  1. Influence of Z-phase on Long-term Creep Stability of Martensitic 9 to 12 % Cr Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Hald, John

    2009-01-01

    Die langfristige Kriechstabilität der neuesten Generation martensitischer 9 bis 12 % kriechfester Stähle basiert auf dem bekannten Grade 91, d. h. auf der Stärkung durch die feinen MNNitride (V und Nb). Langzeit-Hochtemperaturtests zeigen den Ersatz der MN-Nitride durch die thermodynamisch...... stabileren Z-Phasen (Cr(V,Nb)N) mit einem Verlust an Kriechfestigkeit. Cr-Gehalte >10,5 % beschleunigen die Ausscheidung der Z-Phasen. Dies beschränkte Bemühungen, einen martensitischen, kriechfesten Stahl mit hohem Cr-Gehalt zum Schutz vor Oxidation zu entwickeln. 9-%-Cr-Stähle werden offensichtlich nicht...... durch die Z-Phase negativ beeinflusst. Die Untersuchung der Z-Phasen-Ausscheidung hat zur Entwicklung eines 12-%-Cr-martensitischen Versuchsstahls geführt, dessen Kriechfestigkeit durch die Z-Phase gewährleistet wird. Derartige Stähle erlauben die ombination hoher Festigkeit bei gleichzeitig guter...

  2. Behavior of selected organic pollutants in municipal waste during the mechanical-biological progress of composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahosch, W.

    1998-06-01

    Municipal waste was investigated during the mechanical-biological process of composting. Waste from Burgenland is treated mechanically and biologically to reduce organic matter in the material and to keep gas building potential low before deposition. Samples were taken and analyzed during a period of 80 days. The parameters: temperature, dry-weight, glow loss, ammonium, nitrate and phenolic substances were measured to follow the composting process. It was found that the process was almost finished after a period of 40 days in which the material was breathed intensively. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated phenols decreased slightly. It was not clear whether this was due to microbiological activity or blowing-out effects. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found to be stable during composting. The concentrations were considered as high. Hepta- and octachlorinated dibenzodioxines were formed during the first 10 days. The increase of octachlorinated dibenzodioxin was threefold. Other dioxines and furanes remained unchanged. Finally it was found out that mechanical-biological waste treatment is insufficient in order to reduce organic pollutants effectively. (author)

  3. Hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking of high alloyed austenitic materials; Wasserstoffversproedung und wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion hochlegierter austenitischer Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mummert, K; Uhlemann, M; Engelmann, H J [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    zunehmendem Ni-Gehalt der Legierung zu und fuehrt zu eindeutiger Abnahme der Duktilitaet in der Ni-Basislegierung. Obwohl es im Falle der Spannungsrisskorrosion eine lokale Wasserstoffquelle im Werkstoff durch den kathodischen Teilprozess der Korrosion gibt, wird Risswachstum nur beobachtet, wenn die Wasserstoffkonzentration in einer kleinen `Prozesszone` vor der Rissspitze einen auf den Spannungszustand bezogenen kritischen Wert erreicht. Mit zunehmendem Ni-Gehalt der Legierung nimmt die Wahrscheinlichkeit hierfuer infolge zunehmender Diffusionsgeschwindigkeit des Wasserstoffs im austenitischen Gitter ab. Demzufolge zeigen insbesondere austenitische Staehle mit geringem Ni-Gehalt Empfindlichkeit gegen transkristalline SpRK. In diesem Falle ist das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten an der Rissspitze auch durch analoge Prozesse bestimmt, wie es an wasserstoffbeladenen Proben beobachtet wird. (orig.)

  4. QUANTIFYING SUPPLIERS’ PRODUCT QUALITY: AN EXPLORATORY PRODUCT AUDIT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Avakh Darestani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The quality of the raw material and supplied product from suppliers plays a critical role in the quality of the final product. It has become the norm that vehicle manufacturers require their suppliers to measure product quality and service with a product audit method. Measuring quality of product is emphasised by QS9000 VDA6.5 and ISO/TS16949. From a competitive standpoint, and also to see continuous improvement in business, companies need to monitor their suppliers’ performance. Quality and delivery are two very important indicators of supplier performance. This paper presents a statistical method for measuring the quality of supplied product. This method allocates different weights to variables and attributes characteristics. Moreover, following normal distribution, the tolerance zone is divided to three regions with different scores. Therefore, the quality of suppliers’ products can be monitored based on the Product Quality Audit Score (PQAS. However, this method may be employed for organisations to monitor their raw material, work-in-process parts, and final product. It can be an indicator to monitor supplier quality behaviour.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gehalte van grondstowwe en produkte/komponente wat deur leweransiers verskaf word, speel ‘n kritiese rol in die gehalte van die finale produk. Dit het die norm geword in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf dat daar van leweransiers verwag word om hulle produkkwaliteit en –diens te meet by wyse van ‘n produkouditmetode. Die meting van produkkwaliteit word benadruk deur QS9000 VDA6.5 en ISO/TS16949. Uit ‘n mededingingshoek en ook om kontinue verbetering te monitor, is dit noodsaaklik dat leweransiers se verrigting gemeet word. Gehalte en aflewering is twee van die belangrikste indikatore van leweransiersverrigting. In hierdie artikel word ‘n statistiese model voorgehou vir die meting van die kwaliteit van die gelewerde produk. Die metode ken verskillende

  5. THE DISCRETE TIME, COST AND QUALITY TRADE-OFF PROBLEM IN PROJECT SCHEDULING: AN EFFICIENT SOLUTION METHOD BASED ON CELLDE ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Assadipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The trade-off between time, cost, and quality is one of the important problems of project management. This problem assumes that all project activities can be executed in different modes of cost, time, and quality. Thus a manager should select each activity’s mode such that the project can meet the deadline with the minimum possible cost and the maximum achievable quality. As the problem is NP-hard and the objectives are in conflict with each other, a multi-objective meta-heuristic called CellDE, which is a hybrid cellular genetic algorithm, is implemented as the optimisation method. The proposed algorithm provides project managers with a set of non-dominated or Pareto-optimal solutions, and enables them to choose the best one according to their preferences. A set of problems of different sizes is generated and solved using the proposed algorithm. Three metrics are employed for evaluating the performance of the algorithm, appraising the diversity and convergence of the achieved Pareto fronts. Finally a comparison is made between CellDE and another meta-heuristic available in the literature. The results show the superiority of CellDE.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Balans tussen tyd, koste en gehalte is een van die belangrike probleme van projekbestuur. Die vraagstuk maak gewoonlik die aanname dat alle projekaktiwiteite uitgevoer kan word op uiteenlopende wyses wat verband hou met koste, tyd en gehalte. ‘n Projekbestuurder selekteer gewoonlik die uitvoeringsmetodes sodanig per aktiwiteit dat gehoor gegegee word aan minimum koste en maksimum gehalte teen die voorwaarde van voltooiingsdatum wat bereik moet word.

    Aangesien die beskrewe problem NP-hard is, word dit behandel ten opsigte van konflikterende doelwitte met ‘n multidoelwit metaheuristiese metode (CellDE. Die metode is ‘n hibride-sellulêre genetiese algoritme. Die algoritme lewer aan die besluitvormer ‘n versameling van ongedomineerde of Pareto

  6. Man trägt jetzt Gesundheit Fashion and Images of Gender in the Weimar Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fleig

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Dissertation untersucht die Wechselwirkungen von emanzipatorischen Einstellungen und modischem Erscheinungsbild der „Neuen Frau“ in der Weimarer Republik. Sie zeigt, inwiefern die Bilder dieses neuen Frauentyps dem historischen Konzept einer „Neuen Frau“ zum Durchbruch verhelfen. Deutlich wird aber auch, dass die rasche Popularität dieses Frauenbildes seinen ursprünglich auf gesellschaftliche Veränderung zielenden Gehalt veräußerlicht.Kessemeier’s dissertation deals with the complicated relations between early feminist ideas and images of the “new woman” in the German twenties. Kesselmeier shows the role which visual images played in making the historical concept of a “new woman” popular. She documents that the immediate popularity of this image was related to contemporary societal changes but that the final product, the “new woman,” focused on form (physical appearance rather than content.

  7. Pharmakobotanische Untersuchungen von Lavendelsorten auf dem Plattensee- Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth, Frida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Auf dem Hof Dörgicsei Levendula Major GmbH wurden 9 Lavendelsorten (6 Sorten von Lavandula angustifolia und 3 Sorten von Lavandula x intermedia untersucht. Neben den morphologischen und Wachstumseigenschaften wurden auch Frisch- und Trockengewichte bewertet. Quantitative und qualitative Untersuchungen von den Blüten- und Ätherischöldrogen wurden auch durchgeführt. Die statistische Analyse zeigte signifikant höhere Erträge bei den Sorten L. angustifolia ’Essence Purple’ und L. x intermedia ’Edelweiss’. Gehalt und Zusammensetzung von ätherischem Öl war eindeutig bei der Sorte L. angustifolia ’Ellagance Purple’ am günstigsten.

  8. ›All for nothing?‹. Die symbolische Darstellungs- und Erkenntnisform als philosophische und literaturtheoretische Herausforderung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Bornmüller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Literaturwissenschaft und Philosophie sehen sich gleichermaßen mit der Frage konfrontiert, wie mit dem Erkenntnismedium Literatur umgegangen und wie es in das eigene Erkenntnisinteresse integriert werden kann. Dabei ist das epistemologische Verhältnis von Literatur und Philosophie nicht etwa als ein streng dichotomisches zu verstehen, das sich auf die Formel propositional vs. nicht-propositional reduzieren lässt. Vielmehr ist ein erkenntnistheoretischer Gehalt von Literatur anzunehmen, dem eine binäre Betrachtungsweise nicht gerecht wird. Anhand zentraler Stellen in Shakespeares »Hamlet« und Goethes »Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre« wird die »symbolische Darstellungs- und Erkenntnisform« der Literatur als ein Akt der Erkenntnis, als ein nachvollziehendes Verstehen herausgearbeitet.

  9. The Empirical content of theories in judgment and decision making: Shortcomings and remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glockner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Karl Popper, we can tell good theories from poor ones by assessing their empirical content (empirischer Gehalt, which basically reflects how much information they convey concerning the world. ``The empirical content of a statement increases with its degree of falsifiability: the more a statement forbids, the more it says about the world of experience.'' Two criteria to evaluate the empirical content of a theory are their level of universality (Allgemeinheit and their degree of precision (Bestimmtheit. The former specifies how many situations it can be applied to. The latter refers to the specificity in prediction, that is, how many subclasses of realizations it allows. We conduct an analysis of the empirical content of theories in Judgment and Decision Making (JDM and identify the challenges in theory formulation for different classes of models. Elaborating on classic Popperian ideas, we suggest some guidelines for publication of theoretical work.

  10. Dewatering of sludge using the hydrosoft high-pressure process; Entwaessern von Schlaemmen mit dem Hydrosoft-Hochdruckverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, C.; Eder, G. [Christian Eder Technology GbR, Neunkirchen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The hydrosoft process permits to dewater sludge, especially also sludge from municipal sewage treatment plant, until it contains a high proportion of dry substance. For existing dewatering systems equipped with the long-lived chamber filter presses, too, the dry matter content of the filter cake can be substantially increased using the hydrosoft process; only the pump system must be retrofitted. As a preliminary measure, tests with mobile pilot plants should be carried out. (orig.) [German] Mit dem Hydrosoft-Verfahren besteht die Moeglichkeit Schlaemme, insbesondere auch Schlaemme aus kommunalen Klaeranlagen, auf hohe Trockensubstanz-Gehalte zu entwaessern. Auch bei bestehenden Entwaesserungsanlagen, die mit den langlebigen Kammerfilterpressen ausgeruestet sind, koennen die Trockensubstanzgehalte der Filterkuchen mit dem Hydrosoft-Verfahren, fuer das dann nur noch das Pumpsystem nachgeruestet werden muss, wesentlich angehoben werden. Vorausgehen sollten jeweils Vorversuche mit mobilen Versuchsanlagen. (orig.)

  11. Riots ‒ Anmerkungen zu Begriff und Konzept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Rucht

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ausgehend von sozialwissenschaftlichen Befunden werden zunächst ältere massenpsychologische Deutungen von riots zurückgewiesen. Die überwiegende Mehrzahl der im riot Aufbegehrenden entspricht nicht dem Typus entfremdeter und verängstigter Einzeltäter_innen. Zweitens benennt der Beitrag eine Reihe von Bedingungen für das Zustandekommen von riots. Drittens wird der Begriff ‚riot‘ in formaler Hinsicht näher bestimmt und einerseits von moderateren Formen des Protests, andererseits von geplanter und organisierter Gewalt (z. B. Terrorismus abgegrenzt. Abschließend wird die Frage des politischen Gehalts von riots und deren normativen Grundlagen erörtert.

  12. Industriële ontwikkeling in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. van Eck

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available Dit is vir my ’n baie groot eer en ’n voorreg om u vandag by hierdie belangrike geleentheid toe te spreek. Eerstens wil ek die Potchefstroomse Universiteit gelukwens met wat hy reeds presteer het en die hoop uitspreek dat hy nog verder sal groei en bloei in diens van ons volk. Met ’n studentetal van slegs 52 in 1921, het die syfer gestyg na oor die 2,600 in 1966 of ongeveer 50 maal soveel as in 1921. Verlede jaar was die studentetal oor die 2,900 en vanjaar sal dit ongeveer 3,300 beloop. Dit is ook belangrik dat die nagraadse studente oor die afgelope jare ongeveer een derde van bogenoemde totale uitmaak. Dit getuig van u ernstige strewe na diepte en hoë gehalte in u navorsing.

  13. Herbesin oor die opleiding van natuurwetenskaponderwysers in Suid-Afrika: Lesse uit Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef de Beer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Finland word dikwels gesien as die ‘goudstandaard‘ in natuurwetenskaponderwys, danksy die land se uitmuntende prestasie in internasionale toetse soos die program vir internasionale studentassessering (PISA en tendense in internasionale wiskunde- en natuurwetenskapstudie (TIMSS. Daarteenoor laat Suid-Afrika se prestasie in TIMSS veel te wense oor. Volgens die Wêreld-Ekonomiese Forum (WEF se wêreldwye mededingendheidsverslag (2010–2011, is Suid-Afrika 137ste op die ranglys van 139 lande wat betref die gehalte van wiskunde- en natuurwetenskaponderwys. Die skrywers van hierdie artikel beskou die gehalte van natuurwetenskaponderwysers as die sleutel om hierdie probleem die hoof te bied. Ons dink na oor Finland as die ‘superoutoriteit’ in natuurwetenskaponderwys en oor lesse wat Suid-Afrika kan leer omtrent die verskaffing van beter voordiensopleiding vir studente wat hulle as natuurwetenskaponderwysers wil bekwaam. In hierdie artikel verbind ons ontluikende temas wat uit kwalitatiewe navorsingsdata na vore gekom het met aanbevelings oor hoe voordiensopleiding vir voornemende onderwysers verbeter kan word, gebaseer op die beste gebruike in Finland. Ons gebruik onderhoude met Finse onderwysers en onderwysdosente, skoolwaarneming in beide lande, artefakte soos die refleksies van Suid-Afrikaanse onderwysstudente oor hulle ondervindings in skole, en onderwysers se reaksies op die Sienings van die Aard van Natuurwetenskappe (Views of the Nature of Science-vraelys. Die derdegenerasie–kultuurhistoriese aktiwiteitsteorie (KHAT word gebruik as ’n navorsingslens om ‘spanning/onderstrominge’ in natuurwetenskaponderwys in Suid-Afrika te beklemtoon, en ons dui aan hoe hierdie aspekte by die opleiding van onderwysers verreken kan word.

  14. Outpatients’ experiences of quality service delivery at a teaching hospital in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebin J Arries

    2008-11-01

    of service commitments, unethical context, and inter-personal relationship difficulties that render them powerless and dehumanised. Recommendations are made to improve the quality of service delivery at outpatient departments. Opsomming Gehalte dienslewering aan die verbruiker van gesondheidsorg is ‘n wetlike realiteit wat in die Witskrif op die Transformasie van die Openbare Dienste (South Africa, 1997 beklemtoon word. Die rigtinggewende filosofie wat in hierdie raamwerk aangeneem word is die van Batho Pele, wat beteken dat die verbruiker van gesondheidsorg op die voorgrond geplaas word. Vanuit ‘n gehalte perspektief word daar toenemend aandag aan hospitaalprosesse gegee. Analogies, kan ‘n buite-pasiëntdepartement gesien word as ‘n industriële area waar die tegnologiese kennis aan pasiënte oorgedra word deur dienslewering, wat ‘n hoeksteen van die besigheid van ‘n hospitaal is. Buitepasiënte as verbruikers van gesondheidsorg maak gevolgtrekkings oor gehaltedienslewering op die basis van hulle belewenisse van sodanige dienste. In dié opsig, is ‘n pasiënt se belewenis van ‘n bepaalde diens ‘n aanwysing van sy/haar vlak van tevredenheid met die gehalte van daardie diens. Geen Suid-Afrikaanse studie oor buite-pasiënte se belewenisse van gehaltedienslewering kon in die literatuur gevind word nie. Die doelstelling van die studie is om buite-pasiënte se belewenisse van die gehalte van dienslewering by ‘n opleidingshospitaal te verken en te beskryf. ‘n Kwalitatiewe, verkennende, beskrywende studie wat binne ‘n spesifieke konteks plaasvind, is uitgevoer. Fokusgroeponderhoude is gevoer met buite-pasiënte wat aan die seleksie-kriteria voldoen het. Oop-kodering is gebruik om die inhoud van die verbatim getranskribeerde transkripsies en veldnotas te analiseer. Strategieë vir vertrouenswaardigheid, naamlik mede-kodering, verlengde betrokkenheid, kruisvalidasie en voldoende verwysing is toegepas om die geloofwaardigheid van die studie en

  15. Investigations to single and combined effects of organic pollutants (PAH, PCB) and heavy metals (Cd, Cu) on biomass production and soil-plant transfer by cultivation of raw and energy plants. Final report; Bodenoekologische Untersuchungen zur Wirkung und Verteilung von organischen Stoffgruppen (PAK, PCB) in ballungsraumtypischen Oekosystemen. Untersuchungen zu Einzel- und Kombinationswirkungen von organischen Schadstoffen (PAK, PCB) und Schwermetallen (Cd, Cu) auf Biomasseertrag und Boden-Pflanze-Transfer beim Anbau von Rohstoff- und Energiepflanzen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, R.; Dorn, J.; Sauer, W.

    1997-05-01

    Together with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals other elements and compounds as well as nutrients are present in typical contaminated areas like sewage fields. They are found as mixed undisturbed contamination and the transfer of these pollutants into food or forage plants is dangerous for people. So far investigations of ecological effects of these substances are focused mainly on single agents or on some agents of the same chemical group. But in most cases the mixture of different chemical compounds in extremely contaminated fields cause synergistic effects resulting in yield reduction and decrease of microbiological activity. Therefore the aim of the present report is to show combined effects of selected organic pollutants (benzo-a-pyren, 2,2`, 5,5` tetrachlorbiphenyl) and heavy metals (cadmium, copper) on parameters of soil biology, biomass production and pollutant uptake by plants. Resulting changes of cellulose decomposition, CO{sub 2}-release from soil and N-mineralization after separated and combined enrichment of weakly polluted sewage field soil with said pollutants up to concentrations of extremely polluted sewage field soils are presented in this paper. Data of yields and pollutant contents of plants (rye, maize and potatoes) cultivated on experimental soils are summarised and ecotoxicological risks resulting form pollutants and their interactions discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Polycyclische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, Polychlorierte Biphenyle und Schwermetalle sind zusammen mit anderen Elementen und Verbindungen u.a. auch mit Naehrstoffen als gemischte gewachsene Kontamination in ballungsraumtypischen Belastungsflaechen (z.B. Rieselfelder) vorhanden und stellen bei einem Transfer in Nahrungs- und Futterpflanzen eine besondere Gefaehrdung fuer den Menschen dar. Bei Untersuchungen hinsichtlich oekosystemarer Konsequenzen dieser Substanzen wurden bisher vor allem Einzelstoffbetrachtungen angestellt bzw. mehrere

  16. Biomagnification of bioassay derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.D.; Ankley, G.T.; Best, D. A.; Crawford, R.; DeGalan, N.; Giesy, J.P.; Kubiak, T.J.; Ludwig, J. P.; Newsted, J.L.; Tillitt, D. E.; Verbrugge, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years contamination of the Great Lakes ecosystem with planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) has attracted considerable concern due to their known reproductive and teratogenic effects. The H4IIE bioassay has been standardized as a means of measuring the biological potency of a PCH mixture as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Using this bioassay we have investigated the biomagnification of TCDD-EQ in a semi-closed ecosystem. The biomagnification of TCDD-EQ is demonstrated and results indicate that the food chain is the major pathway for TCDD-EQ through this ecosystem. The H4IIE assay system is demonstrated to be a viable integrative measure of the total concentration of TCDD-EQ in different trophic levels.

  17. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  18. Dioxin formation mechanisms: Implications for combustion technologies. Report for October 1997--March 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullett, B.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses current mechanistic theories relating to the formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and how these theories relate to coal combustion, diesel vehicles, and open burning practices that may be of interest for the Asia-Pacific region. Co-firing coal with waste combustion has been shown to significantly decrease PCDD/F formation, likely by affecting the catalytic activity of the fly ash. On-road sampling results for diesel trucks have shown that modern, electronically controlled vehicles are likely a minor source of PCDD/F, although older vehicles remain a virtually uncharacterized and potentially significant source. Recent results from open burning of municipal waste have shown that PCDD/F emission factors are at least 14 orders of magnitude higher than modern waste combustors

  19. Air pollution control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Baumann, K.; Droescher, F.; Gross, H.; Steisslinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO 2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs [de

  20. Henry's Constants of Persistent Organic Pollutants by a Group-Contribution Method Based on Scaled-Particle Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Neil K; Koshy, David M; Prausnitz, John M

    2017-11-07

    A group-contribution method based on scaled-particle theory was developed to predict Henry's constants for six families of persistent organic pollutants: polychlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. The group-contribution model uses limited experimental data to obtain group-interaction parameters for an easy-to-use method to predict Henry's constants for systems where reliable experimental data are scarce. By using group-interaction parameters obtained from data reduction, scaled-particle theory gives the partial molar Gibbs energy of dissolution, Δg̅ 2 , allowing calculation of Henry's constant, H 2 , for more than 700 organic pollutants. The average deviation between predicted values of log H 2 and experiment is 4%. Application of an approximate van't Hoff equation gives the temperature dependence of Henry's constants for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environmentally relevant range 0-40 °C.

  1. Depletion of selected polychlorodibenzodioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans in farmed trout exposed to contaminated feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, G.; Dellatte, E.; Fochi, I.; Iacovella, N.; Domenico, A. di [Dept. Food Safety and Animal Health, Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)]|[Dept. Environment and Primary Health Care, Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Farmed fish can bioaccumulate persistent toxic substances when fed on animal-based fat feeds. This fact has recently prompted a re-evaluation of the overall toxicological risk associated with contamination levels recorded in farmed vs. wild salmons. The bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in farmed trout has recently been described nevertheless, poor information is available about their depletion under controlled conditions. In this paper, the results of a 90-day depletion study in groups of trout exposed to three different levels of feed contamination for 30 days are reported. As a follow-up of a PCB depletion study the present paper aims at giving indications for risk management in fish farming practices, to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the produce intended for human consumption.

  2. Dioxin Levels in Mainstream Smoke from Cigarettes with Different TPM Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dioxin-like compounds, such as chlorinated dibenzodioxins, chlorinated dibenzofurans and chlorinated biphenyls, in mainstream cigarette smoke has been investigated for seven cigarette brands covering a range of ‘tar’ deliveries from 1 mg to 14 mg. Adjusted per milligram of total particulate matter (TPM, ultra-light cigarettes had the highest concentrations of toxic equivalents (TEQ of 10 fg/mg TPM. As the ‘tar’ delivery increased, lower concentration values were found in lights and full-flavor cigarettes. Calculated on the basis of a pack of twenty cigarettes, mainstream smoke from the ultra-lights and lights products produced values around 200 fg TEQ, and the full-flavor brand produced 575 fg TEQ per pack. Levels of TEQ from dioxin-like compounds in the tobacco section of four cigarette brands did not show significant differences and were similar to previous literature findings.

  3. Report on the operation of incineration plant of the Coalite Chemical Works, Bolsover, Derbyshire, from commissioning to closure and the subsequent prosecution of the last operator Coalite Products Ltd by H M Inspectorate of Pollution under Section 5 of the Health and Safety at Work Etc. Act 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    In June 1991 elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were reported in cows` milk on farms in the Bolsover area in Derbyshire, UK. Monitoring by the HMIP showed that PCDDs and PCDFs were present in flue gases emitted from a chemical waste incinerator at the Coalite Chemical Works and to a lesser extent from the Coalite smokeless fuel works nearby. A soil survey and further sampling of vegetation showed the Coalite Chemical Works to be the major source of PCDDs and PCDFs. Coalite Products Ltd., pleaded guilty to operating the incinerator in breach of the Health and Safety Act in a case brought against then by HMIP on 20 February 1996. This report describes the investigation undertaken to establish the conditions of operation of the incinerator from its commissioning in 1978 to closure in November 1991. 12 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs., 3 apps.

  4. Global assesment of PCDD/F emissions from the Spanish cement sector. Effect of conventional/alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrellas, B.; Larrazabal, D.; Martinez, M.A.; Sanz, P.; Ruiz, M.L. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Abad, E.; Rivera, J. [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the survey on polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions to the air in cement manufacture sector carried out in Spain over the period 2000-2003. It includes 89 samples from 41 furnaces, which represents 69.5% of coverage. It constitutes the subsequent stage of the monitoring program presented previously, enlarging number of facilities assessed as well as considering plants operating with both conventional and waste-derived fuels. The purpose of this survey was to quantify the total emission of dioxins from cement manufacture sector, to study the effect of using waste-derived materials as alternative fuels on total PCDD/F emission and to calculate experimental emission factors. Finally, specific emission profiles were obtained for installations using both conventional fossil and residue-derived fuels and compared in order to establish the influence of fuel composition on PCDD/F releases.

  5. The impact of municipal waste combustion in small heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantúch, Martin; Kaduchová, Katarína; Lenhard, Richard

    2016-06-01

    At present there is a tendency to make greater use for heating houses for burning solid fuel, such as pieces of wood, coal, coke, local sources of heat to burn natural gas. This tendency is given both the high price of natural gas as well as the availability of cheaper solid fuel. In many cases, in the context saving heating costs, respectively in the context of the disposal of waste is co-incinerated with municipal solid fuels and wastes of different composition. This co entails increased production emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nitrogen oxides), particulate matter (particulate matter), PM10, HCl (hydrogen chloride), PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and others. The experiment was focused on the emission factors from the combustion of fossil fuels in combination with municipal waste in conventional boilers designed to burn solid fuel.

  6. Investigations of environmental concentrations of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and organic tin compounds in representative samples: methodological developments and actual as well as retrospective monitoring. Final report; Verfolgung von Umweltbelastungen durch Alkylphenole, Bisphenol A und organische Zinnverbindungen repraesentativen Umweltproben: Methodische Entwicklungen und aktuelles sowie retrospektives Monitoring. Bd. 1: Organische Zinnverbindungen. Bd. 2: Alkylphenole, Bisphenol A. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedel, H.; Lepper, P.; Sohn, H.; Steinhanses, J.; Boehmer, W.; Bruckert, H.J.; Wenzel, A.

    1999-11-01

    were approx. 2.5 {mu}g/kg. Tin-organic compounds: TBT and TPhT were detected as major contaminants (max. 385 and 86 {mu}g Sn/kg of matrix, respectively). The maximum values for DBT and MBT were 14 and 9 {mu} Sn/kg, respectively. The highest values detected for DPhT were 13 {mu}g Sn/kg. The most highly loaded samples were bream muscles and zebra mussels from the river Elbe. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Forschungsvorhabens wurden analytische Methoden zur quantitativen Bestimmung von Alkylphenolen (4-Nonylphenol, 4NP; 4-tert.-Octylphenol, 4tOP) und Alkylphenolethoxylaten (4-Nonylphenolmonoethoxylat, 4NP1EO; 4-tert.-Octylphenolmonoethoxylat, 4tOP1EO), Bisphenol A (BPhA) sowie organischen Zinnverbindungen (Tributylzinn, TBT; Dibutylzinn, DBT, Monobutylzinn, MBT; Triphenylzinn, TPhT) in verschiedenen biologischen Matrices adaptiert und weiterentwickelt. Die Methoden wurden in Form von Standardarbeitsanweisungen (SOP) dokumentiert. Mit diesen Methoden wurden Proben aus der Umweltprobenbank des Bundes analysiert. Aus marinen Oekosystemen der Nord- und Ostsee wurden Blasentang, Miesmuschel, Aalmuttermuskulatur, Silbermoewenei und aus limnischen Oekosystemen (Elbe, Mulde, Saale, Rhein, Saar, Bornhoeveder Seengebiet) Dreikantmuschel und Brassenmuskulatur verschiedener Jahrgaenge analysiert. Alkylphenole: In der Regel lagen die Gehalte an 4NP und 4NP1EO sowohl in den marinen, als auch in den limnischen Oekosystemen oberhalb der Gehalte von 4tOP und 4tOP1EO. In den marinen Proben war die Miesmuschel hoeher belastet als die anderen Matrices. Die Gehalte in den Proben aus limnischen Oekosystemen lagen deutlich hoeher als die der Proben aus den marinen Oekosystemen. Die hoechste Konzentration wurde mit 324 {mu}g/kg Frischgewicht fuer 4NP1EO in Brassenmuskulatur in der Saar bei Guedingen gemessen. Bisphenol A: Der Gehalt an BPhA in den untersuchten Proben war durchweg gering. Die Analysen ergaben in Dreikantmuschel Konzentrationen von 1-2,5 {mu}g BPhA/kg; nur am Standort Rehlingen

  7. Organic tin compounds, alkylphenols and bisphenol A in marine and limnetic specimen from the German federal environmental specimen bank. Methodological developments as well as actual and retrospective monitoring; Organische Zinnverbindungen, Alkylphenole und Bisphenol A in marinen und limnischen Biota der Umweltprobenbank. Methodische Entwicklungen sowie aktuelles und retrospektives Monitoring. Teilberichte 1 - 3: Organische Zinnverbindungen. Alkylphenole und Alkylphenolethoxylate. Biosphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedel, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umweltchemie und Oekotoxikologie, Schmallenberg (Germany); Lepper, P.; Sohn, H.; Steinhanses, J.; Boehmer, W.; Wenzel, A.; Bruckert, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    a higher value of approx. 5 {mu}g/kg was detected. The BPhA concentration in bream muscles was always below the limit of determination (LOD). The lowest content of BPhA in marine samples was found for mussels (concentrationGehalte an 4NP und 4NP1EO sowohl in den marinen, als auch in den limnischen Oekosystemen oberhalb der Gehalte von 4tOP und 4tOP1EO. In den marinen Proben war die Miesmuschel hoeher belastet als die anderen Matrices. Die Gehalte in den Proben aus limnischen Oekosystemen lagen deutlich hoeher als die der Proben aus den marinen Oekosystemen. Die hoechste

  8. Dosisabhängiger Anstieg von Knochenformatinsmarkern in Serum und Knochen unter Zink-Supplementation - eine Untersuchung an der erwachsenen weiblichen Maus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimai H-P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Zink (Zn ist eine essentielles Spurenelement. Es spielt eine wichtige Rolle in zahlreichen metabolischen Prozessen und wird auch für das normale Knochenwachstum benötigt. Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, den Effekt von Zn auf a die Aktivität der alkalischen Phosphatase (ALP in Serum und Knochen, b das Serum-Osteocalcin, c die Tartrat-resistente saure Phosphatase (TRAP im Knochen, sowie d den Protein-Gehalt des Knochens darzustellen. Erwachsene weibliche Swiss-Webster-Mäuse erhielten entweder eine Zn-freie Diät, oder eine Diät, welche einen normalen, oder einen 2-, 3-, 4-, oder 5-fach höheren Zn-Gehalt als die Normal-Diät hatte. Die Diät wurde für 2, 4, oder 6 Wochen verabreicht. Es zeigte sich eine positive Korrelation zwischen der Menge des mit der Nahrung aufgenommenen Zn und der Serum-ALP (4 und 6 Wochen, p 0,001, der tibialen ALP (2, 4 und 6 Wochen, p  0,03, sowie dem tibialen Protein (2,4 und 6 Wochen p 0.001; weiters zeigte sich eine negative Korrelation zwischen Zn und tibialer TRAP (2, 4 und 6 Wochen, p 0,001. Kovarianzanalysen zeigten überdies, daß die Aktivität der Serum-ALP, der tibialen ALP und der tibialen TRAP, sowie die Menge des tibialen Proteins sowohl durch die Zn-Dosis (p 0,005, als auch die Dauer der Therapie (p 0,03 beeinflußbar sind. Zn zeigte auch einen signifikanten Einfluß auf den Serum-Osteocalcin-Spiegel (p 0,03 bei 3 x höher Zn-Menge als in der Normaldiät. In einer ergänzenden Studie zeigte sich auch, daß Zn zu einem dosisabhängigen Anstieg der ALP und des Proteins, und zu einem signifikanten Abfall der TRAP in murinen osteoblastenähnlichen MC3T3-E1 Zellen führt. Insgesamt kann aus den Ergebnissen der vorliegenden Studie geschlossen werden, daß eine schrittweise Erhöhung des Zn-Gehaltes der Nahrung zu einem entsprechenden Anstieg der ALP-Aktivität von Serum und Knochen führt. Da in dieser Studie klar gezeigt werden konnte, daß Zn auch zu einem Abfall der TRAP-Aktivität in

  9. Environmental survey. Vol. 1. Description of the study and biological monitoring in humans. Description of the trace element content in blood, urine and hair of the population in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86; Umwelt-Survey. Bd. 1. Studienbeschreibung und humanbiologisches Monitoring. Deskription der Spurenelementgehalte in Blut, Urin und Haar der Bevoelkerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Chutsch, M.; Henke, M.; Huber, M.; Kliem, C.; Schulz, C.; Schwarz, E.

    1989-09-01

    This volume contains a description of studies under the research project entitled `Environment and Health - Measurement and Analysis of Environmental Exposure Factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86` (Environmental Survey), as well as a description of concentrations of a number of elements and some compounds in blood, urine and hair. This description represents the first of five parts of the analysis of the entire data base. The aim of this analysis was to give, as far as possible, a precise assessment of the corporal exposure to pollutants of the general population in Germany. The estimated distribution of the concentrations calculated for the study population, as well as for subpopulations classified by age, sex, community size, land, smoking habits and the consumption of fish. The descriptive part is divided by the 3 types of sample material such as blood, (morning) urine and hair. Within these groups, all analyzed elements and compounds (Al, As, Ba, Pb, B, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, P, Hg, Sr, Zn, creatinine, cotinine and PCP) are reported separately. A short characterization is followed by thetables giving the estimated statistical parameters such as percentile values (10, 50, 90, 95 and 98), maximum value, geometric (GM) and arithmetic (AM) mean, the standard error of AM and the sample standard deviation. Additionally, the measurements are represented in the form of histograms and scatterdiagrams. (orig./MG) With 66 figs., 167 tabs., 11 attachments. [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Berichtsband enthaelt zum einen die Studienbeschreibung des Forschungsvorhabens `Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86 - Umwelt und Gesundheit` (Umwelt-Survey) und zum anderen die Deskription der Gehalte zahlreicher Elemente und einiger Verbindungen in Blut, Urin und Haar. Die vorliegende Deskription stellt den ersten von insgesamt fuenf Auswertungsteilen des gesamten Datensatzes dar. Funktion und Zielsetzung dieses ersten

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AUTOMATION STRATEGIES AT VOLKSWAGEN IN GERMANY AND SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wessel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The final car assembly lines at Volkswagen’s production sites in Germany and South Africa are analysed to determine the best automation level based on cost, productivity, quality, and flexibility for a plant location. The methodology used is proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The final assembly processes are analysed and classified according to the automation level. The operations are evaluated at every level of automation based on information from existing factories. If the best levels of automation for all the parameters correspond, the optimal level of automation for a plant is reached. Otherwise, improvements and/or additional considerations are required to optimise the automation level. The result of the analysis indicates that the highest automation level is not necessarily the best in terms of cost and quality, and some de-automation is required. The analysis also shows that a low automation level can result in poor product quality and low productivity. The best automation strategy should be based on the analysis of all the aspects of the process in the local context.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die finale monteerlyne by Volkswagen se aanlegte in Duitsland en Suid-Afrika is ontleed om die beste outomatisasievlak te bepaal gebaseer op koste, produktiwiteit, gehalte en aanpasbaarheid gegee die ligging. Die metodologie wat gevolg is, word voorgestel deur die Fraunhofer Instituut. Die finale monteerprosesse is ontleed volgens outomatisasievlak. Die aktiwiteite is ontleed teen elke vlak van outomatisasie gebaseer op inligting van bestaande vervaardigingsaanlegte. Indien die beste outomatisasievlakke vir alle parameters ooreenstem, dan is die optimale vlak van outomatisasie bereik. Indien nie, is verbeterings en/of addisionele oorwegings nodig om die outomatisasievlak te optimiseer. Die resultaat van die ontleding toon dat die grootste mate van outomatisasie nie noodwendig die beste is in terme van koste en gehalte nie

  11. Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and others - have been measured in 11 pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers in Ireland. Additionally, the study has measured levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD\\/Fs), mixed halogenated dioxins (PXCC\\/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in these samples. The mean sum of 19 PBDEs including BDE-209 was 4.85 ng g(-1) fat, which is comparable with that found in other European countries. BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-209, BDE-99 and BDE-100 were found at the highest concentrations. The only PBBs detected consistently were BB-77, BB-126 and BB-153, with highest concentrations being found for BB-153 (mean = 0.13 ng g(-1) fat). The mean sum of HBCD enantiomers was 3.52 ng g(-1) fat, with α-HBCD representing over 70% of the total. Of the other brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane) (BTBPE) - examined, only TBBP-A was detected above the limit of detection (LOD), in two of the 11 pools analysed. All measured PBDF congeners were observed (at 0.02-0.91 pg g(-1) fat), but 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzodioxin (TeBDD) was the only PBDD detected, with a mean concentration of 0.09 pg g(-1) fat. The occurrence of the mixed chlorinated\\/brominated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls, 2-B-3,7,8-CDD, 2,3-B-7,8-CDF, 4-B-2,3,7,8-CDF, PXB 105, PXB 118, PXB 126 and PCB 156 in breast milk in the current study may indicate that levels of these contaminants are increasing in the environment. Polychlorinated naphthalenes were detected in all samples, but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFAS. The pattern of occurrence of these brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Irish breast milk shows a general

  12. Consumption patterns and risk assessment of crab consumers from the Newark Bay Complex, New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugh, Kerry Kirk; Stern, Alan H; Nesposudny, Laura; Lurig, Lynette; Ruppel, Bruce; Buchanan, Gary A

    2011-10-01

    The Newark Bay Complex (NBC) is a significant historical repository of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dioxin-like compounds. Detection of high levels of 2,3,7,8 tetrachloro-dibenzodioxins (TCDD) and its toxicological equivalents in blue crabs in the early 1990's led to a ban on the taking and distribution of crabs from the NBC. Despite this ban and ongoing communication outreach, surveys of crabbers in 1995, 2002 and 2005 by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) showed that crabbing for recreational purposes and for significant dietary supplementation was continuing. At the time they were surveyed, the crabbers had been consuming these crabs for an average of 37% of their lives. Thus, exposure can be considered chronic. The surveys provided data on the duration, frequency and amount of NBC crab consumption. In 2004, the NJDEP sampled blue crabs in the NBC and analyzed the edible portions for 2,3,7,8 TCDD toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentration. We have combined the survey-based exposure data and the 2,3,7,8 TCDD TEQ concentration data to produce an estimate of the lifetime cancer risk to NBC crabbers from dioxin-like compounds. We employed a point-estimate approach using discrete lower, central tendency and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) estimates of exposure factors and a probabilistic approach to exposure factors. Both approaches show central tendency lifetime cancer risk of greater than one-in-a-thousand (10(-3)) and an upper percentile/RME risk of approximately one-in-a-hundred (10(-2)). Little extrapolation is involved in applying the 2,3,7,8-TCDD TEQ concentration data in crabs to risk estimates in the population consuming those crabs. The ongoing and frequent nature of the crab collection minimizes the uncertainty often inherent in food recall surveys. These estimates point to the continued risk posed to NBC crab consumers and to the continuing importance of this resource which, with proper remediation, could provide

  13. Electroleaching for a decontamination of mercury polluted soils and residues. Development of a hydrometallurgical cyclic process; Elektrolaugung zur Dekontamination quecksilberbelasteter Boeden und Reststoffe. Entwicklung eines hydrometallurgischen Kreislaufprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeming, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Technikum

    1998-12-31

    In this thesis, the possibilities and limitations of a hydrometallurgical clean-up technique are shown for treating mercury contaminated solids. The principles of the technique were described by models that derived from theoretical considerations. These models were experimentally examined, tested with realcontaminated solids and used to design a new process, the electroleaching. Two variants of this cyclic process were developed. They differ in the combination of a chloridic oxidative leaching step, a cathodic mercury deposition and an anodic leachate regeneration. All steps were analysed thermodynamically and kinetically. Treating highly contaminated soils residual concentrations of mercury below 1 mg kg{sup -1} were achieved. It was also possible to separate simultaneously traces of gold from mercury containing gold mining residues and to lower contents of chlorinated hydrocarbons a well. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit werden die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer hydrometallurgischen Reinigungstechnik fuer Feststoffe aufgezeigt, die mit Quecksilber kontaminiert sind. Dazu wurden aus theoretischen Ueberlegungen heraus entwickelte Modellierungen experimentell abgeprueft, verfahrenstechnisch umgesetzt und an realkontaminierten Feststoffen erprobt. So wurde ein neues Kreislaufverfahren entwickelt, die Elektrolaugung. Die zwei vorgestellten Prozessvarianten unterscheiden sich durch die jeweilige Kombination von chloridisch-oxidierender Laugung, kathodischer Quecksilberabscheidung und anodischer Laugungsmittel-Regenerierung. Alle Teilprozesse wurden sowohl thermodynamisch als auch kinetisch analysiert. Bei Behandlung industrieller Altlasten konnten Quecksilber-Restgehalte unter 1 mg kg{sup -1} erreicht werden. Ebenso konnten Goldspuren aus quecksilberhaltigen Abgaengen brasilianischer Goldgewinnung abgetrennt sowie Gehalte an chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen verringert werden. (orig.)

  14. Clay stones of the deep Namur as potental sources of nitrogen of Northwest-German natural gases - first indications from the pyrolisis tests; Tonsteine des tiefen Namur als potentielle Stickstoffquellen nordwestdeutscher Erdgase - erste Indizien aus Pyrolyseuntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krooss, B.M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und organische Geochemie; Karg, H. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The content of molecular nitrogen in the natural gas deposits of the Northwest-German basin can show values of up to 100 volume percent (nitrogen province) and therefore carry a high exploration risk. Analysis of the generation of the gas from carboniferous clay stone by means of open pyrolysis shows that the nitrogen generation potential is relatively high when compared to coal (according to TOC standards). This analysis enabled the determination of generation graphs for nitrogen, partly also for methane, from Namur clay stones of a maturity between 2.81 and 3.86 volume percent. (orig.). [Deutsch] Die Gehalte an molekularem Stickstoff (N{sub 2}) in Erdgaslagerstaetten des Nordwestdeutschen Beckens koennen Werte von nahezu 100 Vol.-% (Stickstoffprovinz) erreichen und stellen somit ein hohes Explorationsrisiko dar. Die Untersuchung der Gasgenese aus karbonischen Tonsteinen mit der Methode der offenen Pyrolyse zeigt ein im Vergleich zu Kohlen hohes Stickstoff-Genesepotential (TOC-normiert). Mit Hilfe der verwendeten Analysenmethode konnten Genesekurven fuer Stickstoff, sowie teilweise fuer Methan, aus Namur Tonsteinen in einem Reifebereich von 2.81 bis 3.86% VR{sub r} bestimmt werden. (orig.)

  15. Semi-industrial experiments for assessing the future groundwater quality in lignite overburden dumps with and without additions of alkaline substances; Technikumsversuche zur Bestimmung der zukuenftigen Grundwasserqualitaet in Braunkohleabraumkippen mit und ohne Zusatz von alkalisch wirkenden Zuschlagstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisotzky, F. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geologie

    2000-07-01

    Experiments were made in sealed containers on a semi-industrial scale. Each container was filled with about 13 t of overburden sediment and about 2.7 cubic metres of water. Experiments were made with additions of lime, a mixture of lime and power plant fly ash, and in an untreated reference container. The overburden sediments are typical of the Garzweiler I/II open-cast mines in terms of their content of oxydized pyrite sulphur, which was concentrated to this level by mixing pre-oxydized pyritic overburden with non-pyritic overburden. [German] Zur Kontrolle der sich nach spaeterem Grundwasseranstieg einstellenden Chemie des Kippengrundwassers der unbehandelten und behandelten Abraumkippe wurden mehrere geschlossene Containerversuche im Technikumsmassstab mit jeweils ca. 13 t Abraumsedimentfuellung und ca. 2,7 m{sup 3} Wasserinhalt durchgefuehrt. Vorgestellt werden Ergebnisse der Wasserchemie der Container mit den Zuschlagstoffen Kalk, einer Mischung aus Kalk und Kraftwerksflugasche sowie des unbehandelten Referenzcontainers. Die in den Containern eingebrachten Abraumsedimente enthalten dabei den fuer den Tagebau Garzweiler I/II typischen Gehalt an oxidiertem Pyritschwefel, der aufwendig durch eine Mischung von voroxidiertem pyrithaltigen Abraum mit pyritfreiem Abraum eingestellt wurde. (orig.)

  16. More attention for health due to air quality of particulates; Meer aandacht voor gezondheid door luchtkwaliteit van fijn stof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuken, M.; Voogt, M. [TNO, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Van den Elshout, S. [DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond, Rotterdam (Netherlands); De Jonge, D. [GGD amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    This article demonstrates that elementary carbon (EC) is a reliable indicator for soot concentrations in outdoor air and a better indicator for traffic emissions of particulate matter than PM10 and PM2.5. In Rotterdam, PM content remains at the same level, whereas concentrations of elementary carbon decrease steadily. The article recommends further study into which part of health effects ascribed to PM should actually be attributed to EC or for example to abrasion emissions, road dust blowing up and ultra fine particles. [mk]. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt aangetoond dat elementair koolstof (EC) een goede indicator is voor roetconcentraties in de buitenlucht en een betere indicator voor verkeersuitstoot van fijn stof dan PM10 of PM2,5. In Rotterdam blijven PM-gehaltes op hetzelfde niveau, terwijl concentraties van elementair koolstof gestaag dalen. Het wordt aanbevolen te onderzoeken welk deel van de aan PM toegeschreven gezondheidseffecten in werkelijkheid aan EC is toe te schrijven of aan bijvoorbeeld slijtage-emissies, opwervelend wegenstof en ultrafijne deeltjes.

  17. Needle pollutant concentrations in Austrian long-term observation sites (spruce), 1968-1987 - (a contribution to the discussion of increased pollutant deposition and washout effects); Nadelnaehrstoffgehalte auf oesterreichischen Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen (Fichte) von 1968 bis 1987 - (ein Beitrag zur Diskussion erhoehter Schadstoffeintraege bzw. Auswaschungseffekten)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, K.

    1992-12-31

    In order to obtain information on the nutrient supply prior to the establishment of the Austrian biological indicator grid in 1983, needle data of long-term observation areas were analyzed in order to find out whether, and from when on, changes occurred in the course of 20 years, and whether the nutrient supply (in particular of N and Mg) differs since 1983 as compared to former years. According to the results of the long-term experimental areas, one may assume the following: an increase of the N-concentrations has taken place only locally and with different onset; indeed, the magnesium concentrations have been increasing again scince the establishment of the biological indicator grid. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um Anhaltspunkte ueber die Naehrelementversorgung vor Bearbeitung des oesterreichischen Bioindikatornetzes ab 1983 zu erhalten, wurden die nadelanalytischen Daten von Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen dahingehend ausgewertet, ob und ab wann Veraenderungen im Verlauf von 20 Jahren eingetreten sind und ob sich die Naehrelementversorgung (insbesondere von N und Mg) seit 1983 gegenueber frueheren Jahren unterscheidet. Nach den Ergebnissen der Dauerversuchsflaechen darf angenommen werden, dass eine Anhebung der N-Gehalte nur lokal und mit zeitlich unterschiedlichem Beginn vorhanden ist und die Magnesiumgehalte seit der Bearbeitung des Bioindikatornetzes eher wieder anstiegen. (orig.)

  18. AN OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR A COAL MINING PRODUCTION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The coal mining industry faces increased pressure for higher quality coal at lower cost and increased volumes. To satisfy these requirements the industry needs technically skilled first line supervisors with operational management skills. Most first line supervisors possess the necessary technical, but not the required operational management skills. Various operational management philosophies, describing world-class operational management practices exist; however, it is not possible to implement these philosophies as-is in a mining environment due to the various differences between manufacturing and mining. The solution is to provide an operational management model, adapted from these philosophies, to first line supervisors in the coal mining industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die steenkoolmynbedryf ervaar groeiende druk van die mark vir hoër gehalte steenkool, laer koste en verhoogde volumes. Om hierdie behoefte te bevredig benodig die myn tegniesgeskoolde eerstelyntoesighouers met bedryfsbestuursvaardighede. Ongelukkig beskik die meeste toesighouers wel oor die nodige tegniese kennis, maar nie die nodige bedryfsbestuursvaardighede nie. Daar bestaan verskeie bedryfsbestuursfilosofieë wat wêreldklas bedryfsbestuurspraktyke omskryf. Dit is egter nie moontlik om die filisofieë net so in die mynbedryf te implimenteer nie a.g.v. die verskille tussen vervaardiging en mynbou. Die oplossing is om ‘n bedryfsbestuurmodel wat op hierdie filosofieë geskoei is, aan eerstelyntoesighouers in die steenkoolbedryf te verskaf.

  19. Konjunkturen gesellschaftstheoretischer Perspektiven auf große Städte: Zur Aktualität der „Thesen zur Soziologie der Stadt“ von Häußermann und Siebel (1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Wehrheim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wissenschaftliche Publikationen nach vielen Jahren neu oder erstmals zu lesen, lohnt sich in zweierlei Hinsicht: wegen ihres möglichen grundlegenden Gehalts und weil sie historische Dokumente sind, die im Vergleich interessieren. Die verwendete Sprache ist dabei auch ein Indikator für Konjunkturen der Akzeptanz wissenschaftlicher Erklärungsmodelle. Der von Häußermann/Siebel 1978 formulierte Vorwurf an Teile der (damaligen Stadtsoziologie, sie sei theorielos und entpolitisiert erweist sich aus heutiger Perspektive als zeitlos und er macht auch die Qualität des Aufsatzes aus. Um diesen Vorwurf heute einzuordnen und um Veränderungen und Kontinuitäten der Stadtsoziologie in den Blick zu nehmen, erscheinen mindestens sechs Aspekte bedenkenswert: zunächst ganz basal Veränderungen und Kontinuitäten im Untersuchungsgegenstand Stadt und Gesellschaft. Hinzu kommen Veränderungen und Kontinuitäten bei den Modi der Steuerung gesellschaftlicher Entwicklungen, bei den Bedingungen institutionalisierter Forschung und Lehre, in der personellen Zusammensetzung der Protagonist_innen der Stadtsoziologie und schließlich Veränderungen und Kontinuitäten in Bezug auf soziale Bewegungen.

  20. Theoretical and experimental investigations of on-board control of combustion air and/or fuel for emission reduction in internal combustion engines. Final report; Durchfuehrung theoretischer und experimenteller Untersuchungen zu den Moeglichkeiten der On-Board-Beeinflussung der Verbrennungsluftzusammensetzung und/oder des Kraftstoffs fuer Verbrennungsmotoren mit dem Ziel der Emissionsminderung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velji, A.; Hofmann, U.

    2001-11-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations were made in order to find the optimal composition of combustion air for simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emissions. The effect was found to be in the same order of magnitude as with exhaust recirculation. 'Optimized' air should have an oxygen content of more than 20 percent and a CO2 content of more than 10 percent, with nitrogen more or less accounting for the rest. [German] Ausgehend von der Abgasrueckfuehrung wurde in theoretischen und experimentellen Untersuchungen die optimale Zusammensetzung der Verbrennungsluft zur gleichzeitigen Reduktion der NO{sub x}- und Partikelemission ermittelt. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass es mit dieser Verbrennungsluft moeglich ist, eine aehnlich hohe NO{sub x}-Reduktion wie bei der Abgasrueckfuehrung zu erzielen, ohne dass die Partikelemission drastisch ansteigt. Die 'optimale' Verbrennungsluft muss einen Sauerstoffgehalt groesser als 20% und einen CO{sub 2}-Gehalt groesser als 10% aufweisen. Der Rest besteht im Wesentlichen aus Stickstoff. (orig.)

  1. CORRECTIVE ACTION IN CAR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rohne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper the important .issues involved in successfully implementing corrective action systems in quality management are discussed. The work is based on experience in implementing and operating such a system in an automotive manufacturing enterprise in South Africa. The core of a corrective action system is good documentation, supported by a computerised information system. Secondly, a systematic problem solving methodology is essential to resolve the quality related problems identified by the system. In the following paragraphs the general corrective action process is discussed and the elements of a corrective action system are identified, followed by a more detailed discussion of each element. Finally specific results from the application are discussed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Belangrike oorwegings by die suksesvolle implementering van korrektiewe aksie stelsels in gehaltebestuur word in hierdie artikel bespreek. Die werk is gebaseer op ondervinding in die implementering en bedryf van so 'n stelsel by 'n motorvervaardiger in Suid Afrika. Die kern van 'n korrektiewe aksie stelsel is goeie dokumentering, gesteun deur 'n gerekenariseerde inligtingstelsel. Tweedens is 'n sistematiese probleemoplossings rnetodologie nodig om die gehalte verwante probleme wat die stelsel identifiseer aan te spreek. In die volgende paragrawe word die algemene korrektiewe aksie proses bespreek en die elemente van die korrektiewe aksie stelsel geidentifiseer. Elke element word dan in meer besonderhede bespreek. Ten slotte word spesifieke resultate van die toepassing kortliks behandel.

  2. Die identifisering van maatstawwe vir die navorsingsprestasie van akademici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Labuschagne

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of criteria for academic research performance. At South African universities, the achievement of objectives is usually measured in terms of so-called "process criteria" (e.g. pass rates, instead of performance criteria which reflect the quality of academic personnel. Stimulated by the need to identify valid indices of research performance, as a component of academic performance, this study investigated the dimensionality of several criteria, identified from empirical and literature studies. It was found that various valid criteria could be represented by six constructs, viz.: the stature of the researcher as scientist; scientific contributions; enhancement of own profession; community development; participation in research projects; and giving advice to persons or institutions outside the university. Opsomming By Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite word doelwitbereiking gewoonlik aan die hand van sogenaamde "prosesmaat-stawwe" (bv. slaagsyfers in plaas van prestasiemaatstawwe wat die gehalte van akademiese personeel weerspieel, gemeet. Na aanleiding van 'n behoefte aan die identifisering van geldige rigtingwysers vir navorsingsprestasie as 'n komponent van akademiese prestasie, is daar ondersoek ingestel na die dimensionaliteit van verskillende maatstawwe wat vooraf deur middel van empiriese- en literatuurstudies geidentifiseer is. Daar is gevind dat verskeie geldige maatstawwe deur ses konstrukte verteenwoordig word, te wete: die statuur van die navorser as wetenskaplike, wetenskaplike bydraes, uitbouing van eie professie, gemeenskapsontwikkeling, deelname aan navorsingsprojekte en advieslewering aan persone of instellings buite die Universiteit.

  3. Strain-induced cracking corrosion in pipelines of conventional power plants; Dehnungsinduzierte Risskorrosion in Rohrsystemen von konventionellen Kraftwerksanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsky, F.J.; Kempkes, B. [PreussenElektra Engineering GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Ernst, J. [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Since the mid-sixties, stress corrosion cracking has been reported in highly loaded components of conventional power plants. Damage investigations were followed by extensive fundamental studies on crack initiation and propagation mechanisms, with particular regard to the water quality. The contribution presents causes, patterns, preferred sites and operating conditions of strain-induced corrosion. [German] Seit Anfang der 60er-Jahre wird ueber Risskorrosionsschaeden im wasserberuehrten Teil konventioneller Kraftwerksanlagen berichtet, die stets an hochbeanspruchten Bereichen festzustellen sind - vorwiegend in unrunden Rohrbogen oder Fallrohrbohrungen von Kesseltrommeln. Den Schadensuntersuchungen schlossen sich umfangreiche Grundsatzuntersuchungen an, um den Mechanismus von Rissbildung und Rissfortschritt kennenzulernen und daraus dann Abhilfemassnahmen abzuleiten. Bei schadhaften Rohrboegen stellte man in den Rissbereichen meist hoehere Unrundheiten fest und bei Kesseltrommeln Spannungsspitzen an den Lochraendern. Der Wasserqualitaet, vornehmlich dem O{sub 2}-Gehalt, der Art der Konservierung bei Stillstaenden und insbesondere haeufigeren Anfahrten bei kleineren und aelteren Anlagen wurde besondere Bedeutung beigemessen. Im Beitrag werden Ursachen, Erscheinungsformen, bevorzugte Bereiche und Betriebszustaende der dehnungsinduzierten Korrosion dargestellt. (orig.)

  4. Managing the bank service encounter: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Govender

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In financial services marketing, especially among banks, there are a limited number of chances to impress the customer, since the services are becoming more automated. Since personal interactions with customers are becoming less numerous, customers are expecting higher quality contacts and more individual treatment. This paper proposes a service encounter management model which may impact on the customers service experience. By matching service employees with customers, the effects of certain human resources strategies may be ascertained through the customers perception of the employee service quality and the overall service quality. Opsomming Daar is 'n beperkte geleenthede om die finansiele dienste klient, veral die in banke, te beindruk, aangesien dienste al meer ge-outomatiseer raak. Seinde persoonlike kontak met kliente al minder word, verwag kliente hoer gehalte kontak en meer individuele behandeling. Hierdie artikel stel 'n bestuursmodel vir diensontmoetings voor wat 'n impak op kliente se dienservarings mag he. Deur dienswerknemers met kliente te verbind kan bepaalde menslike hulpbronstrategie-effekte vasgestel word, deur middel van kliente se persepsie van werknemer-diensgehalte en algemene diensgehalte.

  5. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Voigt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

  6. Präferenzen, Wohlergehen und Rationalität – Zu den begrifflichen Grundlagen des libertären Paternalismus und ihren Konsequenzen für seine Legitimierbarkeit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klonschinski Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Der libertäre Paternalismus (LP genießt in Politik, Wissenschaft und Öffentlichkeit eine große Popularität, die er insbesondere zwei Merkmalen verdankt: Erstens stützt sich der LP auf verhaltensökonomische Ergebnisse, die zeigen, dass individuelle Entscheidungen oft nicht der neoklassischen Rationalitätskonzeption entsprechen, sodass Individuen durch sogenanntes Nudging zu besseren, ihren wahren Präferenzen entsprechenden Entscheidungen verholfen werden könne. Zweites ist damit der Anspruch verbunden, das Wohlergehen der Individuen, wie sie selbst es verstehen, zu erhöhen. Dieser Beitrag zeigt anhand einer dogmengeschichtlichen Analyse der zentralen, dem LP zugrunde liegenden Begriffe Präferenz, Nutzen, Rationalität und Wohlergehen, dass der LP diesen Anspruch nicht einlösen kann. Eine detaillierte begriffliche Analyse ist deshalb geboten, weil diese Konzepte in der Ökonomik immer wieder für Missverständnisse sorgen. Eine theoriegeschichtlich informierte Untersuchung wiederum ist notwendig, da diese Konfusion insbesondere auf der Tatsache beruht, dass der Gehalt dieser Begriffe sich im Laufe der Zeit gravierend verändert hat und sich die verschiedenen Bedeutungen heute z. T. wechselseitig überlagern.

  7. PAH analysis in Leipzig allotment soils; Untersuchungen zum Gefaehrdungspotential polycyclischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) in Leipziger Kleingartenboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittrich, R.; Butze, B.; Mueller, S.; Prawalsky, R.; Stoye, H. [Umwelt-Consult e.V., Leipzig (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    Soils in 29 allotments were analyzed systematically with a view to the following aspects: Concentration ratios of the 16 components analyzed. Occurrence and classification of so-called PAH patterns. Interdependences between PAH patterns and soil features. PAH concentrations and soil-immanent buffer characteristics (humus concentration, pH, clay concentration, sesquioxide concentrations, exchange capacity). [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit konzentriert sich auf die Untersuchung der PAK-Belastung kleingaertnerisch genutzter Boeden. Die hier vorgestellten Ergebnisse resultieren aus Probjekten von Umwelt-Consult e.V. aus den Jahren 1995 bis 1997 im Auftrag der Stadt Leipzig und dem unter fachlicher Begleitung des Referates Geochemie der Abt. Boden/Geochemie vom LfUG gefoerderten Forschungsvorhaben 'Untersuchungen zum Gefaehrdungspotential polycyclischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) in Boeden der Stadt Leipzig'. Hierbei wurden systematisch Boeden in 29 Kleingartenanlagen untersucht. Folgende Fragestellungen sollten beantwortet werden: Stehen die PAK-Konzentrationen der 16 analysierten Einzelkomponenten in bestimmten Groessenverhaeltnissen zueinander? Sind sogenannte PAK-Muster zu erkennen und lassen sich diese klassifizieren? Welche Beziehungen gibt es zwischen PAK-Mustern und Bodenmerkmalen? Korrespondieren die PAK-Konzentrationen (Gesamt-PAK, Einzelkomponenten) im Boden und deren bodenhorizont-bezogene Abfolge mit der Auspraegung bodenimmanenter Puffermerkmale (Humusgehalt, pH-Wert, Tongehalt, Gehalt an Sesquioxiden, Austauschkapazitaet)? (orig.)

  8. Elemental concentrations of sewage sludge ashes from 1972 to 1994. Trends in environmental pollution and purification technology; Elementgehalte von Klaerschlammaschen 1972-1994. Trends bei Umwelteintraegen und Klaertechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, E. [Fachhochschule Trier (Germany). Umweltcampus; Wippler, K. [Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Stuttgart (Germany). Chemisches Inst.

    1999-06-01

    An archive of sewage sludge ashes back to the year 1972 has been analysed for the concentrations of 28 elements exhibiting innovations in the purification technology as well as variations in environmental pollution up to the present. Addition of Al- and Fe-containing precipitating agents also affected signatures of Na, Mo, Ti and Mn. Temporal trends of Mg, K, Li, Sr and Ca are influenced by the mechanism of phosphate reduction. Continuous decrease in the concentrations of Ag, Cr, Ni, Sn, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn have been traced back to several local as well as general reasons. The decrease of elemental concentrations is discussed with respect to the disposal of sewage sludge on agri- or horticulturally used areas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aus der Untersuchung archivierter Klaerschlammaschen wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Gehalte von 28 Elementen und ihre zeitliche Entwicklung ueber 23 Jahre vorgelegt. Die dabei gewonnenen Zeitreihen (1972-1994) reflektieren Innovationen und Aenderungen im Klaerverfahren sowie im Eintrag von Elementen und Metallen waehrend dieses Zeitraums. Der Zusatz von Al- und Fe-haltigen Faellmitteln beeinflusste auch die Signaturen der Elemente Na, Mo, Ti und Mn. Die Trendverlaeufe von Mg, K, Li, Sr und Ca weisen auf mechanistische Zusammenhaenge bei der Phosphatelimination hin. Der kontinuierliche Rueckgang der Metalle Ag, Cr, Ni, Sn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn konnte mit einer Reihe von lokalen und ueberregionalen Quellen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden. Die Entwicklung der Elementgehalte wird im Hinblick auf eine moegliche landwirtschaftliche Entsorgung diskutiert. (orig.)

  9. Investigation for a chemical and physical description of different types of biomass; Untersuchung zur chemischen und physikalischen Beschreibung verschiedener Biomassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuelpnagel, R [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule), Witzenhausen (Germany). Inst. fuer Nutzpflanzenkunde

    1998-09-01

    If the same type of biomass is harvested at different times, preserved by different technques and then processed into fuel, the physical and chemical characteristics of the fuel will differ. After describing biomass fuel of the `wet line`, the author carried out investigations of lumpiness, bulk density and materials density of chopped materials in order to obtain a preliminary physical characterisation. Two samples of wood chips were characterized as well. The chemical description started with an analysis of nutrient content, acidity and concentrations of fermentation acids in the `wet line` biomass. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wird die gleiche Biomasse zu unterschiedlichen Zeitpunkten geerntet, auf verschiedenen Wegen konserviert und beim Feuchtgut mechanisch zu Brennstoff aufbereitet, so wird dies Einfluss auf die physikalischen und chemischen Charakteristika eines Brennstoffes nehmen. Nach einer ersten Beschreibung des Brennstoffes Biomasse aus der `Feuchtgutlinie` sollten durch Untersuchungen zur Stueckigkeit, Schuettdichte und Materialdichte von Haeckselgut aus beiden Verfahren eine erste physikalische Charakterisierung durchgefuehrt werden, in die auch zwei Proben von Holzhackschnitzeln einbezogen wurde. Mit der Analyse der Naehrstoffgehalte sowie der Aciditaet und der Gehalte an Gaersaeuren in den Biomassen aus der Feuchtgutlinie sollte die chemische Beschreibung begonnen werden. (orig.)

  10. An Attempt at the Etymological Analysis of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Barsova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the “inner form”, developed by the Russian scientist A. Potebnja from the theory of W. Humboldts, includes a procedure that is useful for etymological analysis. The musicologically relevant aspects of this teachings are: 1. the search for the deeper “linguistic sense” present in a work of art; 2. an analogy between the work of art and the world – both of which include the “total sense”; 3. the threesubstances of words and artworks – (spiritual content (Gehalt, inner form (innere Form and outer form (äussere Form – as opposed to two: form and content. “Inner form” can emerge through different “etyma”, such as the scale, the rhetorical figure, the motive and performed pitch, the quotation, the genre and ritual. In comparison to a holistic or structural analysis, or to other kinds of music analysis, the etymological analysis of music can create a sense of the historical dynamic of a musical language.

  11. Inventory of U.S. 2012 dioxin emissions to atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Henri; Themelis, Nickolas J

    2015-12-01

    In 2006, the U.S. EPA published an inventory of dioxin emissions for the U.S. covering the period from 1987-2000. This paper is an updated inventory of all U.S. dioxin emissions to the atmosphere in the year 2012. The sources of emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), collectively referred to in this paper as "dioxins", were separated into two classes: controlled industrial and open burning sources. Controlled source emissions decreased 95.5% from 14.0 kg TEQ in 1987 to 0.6 kg in 2012. Open burning source emissions increased from 2.3 kg TEQ in 1987 to 2.9 kg in 2012. The 2012 dioxin emissions from 53 U.S. waste-to-energy (WTE) power plants were compiled on the basis of detailed data obtained from the two major U.S. WTE companies, representing 84% of the total MSW combusted (27.4 million metric tons). The dioxin emissions of all U.S. WTE plants in 2012 were 3.4 g TEQ and represented 0.54% of the controlled industrial dioxin emissions, and 0.09% of all dioxin emissions from controlled and open burning sources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Assessment of the PCDD/F fate from MSWI residue used in road construction in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreddine, R; François, D

    2009-01-01

    MSWI fly ash is susceptible to contain high amount of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans. However, the use of MSWI residue for road construction started in France at a period when MSWI Bottom Ash and MSWI fly ash were not separated. From four old road sites, MSWI residue, road soils, reference soils and geo-textiles were sampled and their PCDD/F contents were analyzed. MSWI residue show a great heterogeneity but also high amounts of PCDD/F (14-2960 ng I-TEQ kg(-1)dm). Soils underlying the road show less heterogeneity and PCDD/F contents between 0.57 and 7.23 ng I-TEQ kg(-1)dm, lower than ordinary soils. Moreover, the specific analysis of the 17 toxic PCDD/F congeners (notably the 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) indicates the very low harmfulness of road soils. The study also allows to assert the relation between the MSWI residue particle size and the PCDD/F content.

  13. Multiresidue analysis of persistent organic pollutants in contaminated soil using GC-LRMS, GC-HRMS and isotope dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu; Lundstedt, Staffan; Liljelind, Per; Tysklind, Mats

    2009-01-01

    In this study we evaluated a multiresidue analytical protocol for selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in soil, that later can be used in adsorption and leaching studies. The method used was based on Soxhlet extraction and open column chromatographic fractionation and clean-up, as well as liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation for phenolic compounds. Target analytes, i.e. polychlorinated phenols (PCPhs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) PAHs, were detected and quantified using Gas Chromatography-Low Resolution Mass Spectrometry (GC-LRMS) and Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and isotope dilution methodology. Generally, the results show a good recovery and a low standard deviation for those isomers that have also a 13 C labeled compound present in the sample: 4-mono, 2,4 di, 2,4,5 tri, 2,3,4,5 and penta chlorinated phenols. Our results clearly demonstrate that it is possible to analyse a wide range of compounds in complex soil matrixes. (authors(

  14. The joint EC/EPA mid-Connecticut test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgroe, J.D.; Brna, T.G.

    1991-01-01

    In early 1989, Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a comprehensive test program on a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) unit of the Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartford. The program, conducted in cooperation with the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA), the facility's operator, included characterization and performance test phases. The results of the characterization tests were used in defining both the combustion and flue gas cleaning system operating conditions for the performance tests. The results of the performance tests are emphasized in this paper and are summarized in three parts. First, the combustion tests results will be addressed and related to good combustion practice for RDF combustors. Then, the performance of the lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter system in controlling acid gas (hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide), trace organic [polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF)], trace metal [arsenic (as), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)], and particulate matter (PM) emissions will be discussed. Finally, the results of ash/residue analyses will be presented

  15. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, semi-volatile organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans), filter-based metals, and volatile organics were sampled for determination of emission factors. The effect on emissions from covering or not covering piles with polyethylene sheets to prevent fuel wetting was determined. Results showed that the uncovered (“wet”) piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emissions of volatile organic compounds. Results for other pollutants will also be discussed. This work determined the emissions from open burning of forest slash wood, with and without plastic sheeting. The foresters advocate the use of plastic to keep the slash wood dry and aid in the controlled combustion of the slash to reduce fuel loading. Concerns about the emissions from the burning plastic prompted this work which conducted an extensive characterization of dry, wet, and dry with plastic slash pile emissions.

  16. Estimating enthalpy of vaporization from vapor pressure using Trouton's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2007-04-15

    The enthalpy of vaporization of liquids and subcooled liquids at 298 K (delta H(VAP)) is an important parameter in environmental fate assessments that consider spatial and temporal variability in environmental conditions. It has been shown that delta H(VAP)P for non-hydrogen-bonding substances can be estimated from vapor pressure at 298 K (P(L)) using an empirically derived linear relationship. Here, we demonstrate that the relationship between delta H(VAP)and PL is consistent with Trouton's rule and the ClausiusClapeyron equation under the assumption that delta H(VAP) is linearly dependent on temperature between 298 K and the boiling point temperature. Our interpretation based on Trouton's rule substantiates the empirical relationship between delta H(VAP) degree and P(L) degrees for non-hydrogen-bonding chemicals with subcooled liquid vapor pressures ranging over 15 orders of magnitude. We apply the relationship between delta H(VAP) degrees and P(L) degrees to evaluate data reported in literature reviews for several important classes of semivolatile environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans and illustrate the temperature dependence of results from a multimedia model presented as a partitioning map. The uncertainty associated with estimating delta H(VAP)degrees from P(L) degrees using this relationship is acceptable for most environmental fate modeling of non-hydrogen-bonding semivolatile organic chemicals.

  17. Diet survey of two cultural groups in a coastal British Columbia community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, A; Teschke, K; Marion, S A

    1998-01-01

    As part of a larger study of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) pollution, to describe and compare Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal residents' recalled diets. We surveyed a stratified random sample aged 25 to 64 years: forest products mill employees (n = 84), Aboriginal reserve residents (n = 78), and other residents (n = 80). We administered a questionnaire on intake of fish/seafood, wild game and plants, domesticated animal meat and eggs, dairy products, vegetable oils and cereals; age, gender, childbearing, lactation, residence and smoking. We measured height and weight. Reserve residents ate less seafood, but more fish roe, eulachon grease, smoked salmon, clams and sea urchins, more deer organs, hamburger meat, pork, fried chicken, and hot-dogs, but less rabbit, beef steaks/roasts, high-fibre cereals, potato chips, bread, cheese and milk. We cannot yet quantify PCDD and PCDF intakes. The wild food consumption data are unique and may be useful for risk assessments in the target population and similar communities.

  18. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2011 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU-27 as a whole, and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  19. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2010 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU.27 as a whole, and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  20. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2009 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU.27 as a whole (2), and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  1. PCB and PAH release from power stations and waste incineration processes in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyke, Patrick H. [PD Consulting, Magdalen, Brobury, HR3 6DX (United Kingdom); Foan, Colin [The Environment Agency, National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, Kings Meadow House, Kings Meadow Road, Reading, (United Kingdom); Fiedler, Heidelore [United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, 11-13, chemin des Anemones, CH-1219, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from incineration and power generation processes. Increased concern over human exposure to both classes of compounds has meant that environmental regulators need to assess the contribution made by emissions from regulated processes to human exposure. In the first part of an assessment in the UK we reviewed literature data on emissions of PCB, focusing on the dioxin-like PCB assigned toxic equivalency factors by the World Health Organization, and PAH. The literature study was supplemented by a series of plant tests to gather initial real plant data. Literature data were limited and the lack of standard protocols for measurement and reporting of both PCB and PAH meant that few data sets were comparable. Levels of dioxin-like PCB reported in the literature and measured in UK plant tests showed that well-controlled modern combustion plants with comprehensive pollution controls gave low emissions, typically about 5-10% of the toxic equivalent of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at the same plants and below the widely used standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/N m{sup 3}. (Author)

  2. Dioxins contamination of food in Italy: an overview of the situation 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scortichini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Istituto Zooprofilattico dell’Abruzzo e Molise ‘G. Caporale’ (IZS A&M has been monitoring contamination of food by the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDF as part of the National Surveillance Plan (NSP in Italy since 1999, on license from the Italian Ministry of Health. Between 1999 and 2000, 238 samples (including meat, fish, eggs, milk, fat, feedstuffs were analysed. The results of the tests were expressed in terms of international toxic equivalents (I-TEQs from NATO/CCMS, 1988 and World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs. These results showed contamination levels comparable to those detected in similar studies conducted in other European countries for products such as milk (mean: 0.81 pg I-TEQ/g fat, meat (mean: 0.73 pg I-TEQ/g fat and fat (mean: 0.51 pg I-TEQ/g fat. The highest dioxin content was found in fish (mean: 5.28 pg I-TEQ/g fat and fish feeds (mean 6.60 pg ITEQ/ g fat. These two matrices also showed complete duplication of contamination profiles. Other edible matrices (milk, meat, eggs revealed the presence of HpCDD and OCDD. This could be due to the introduction into Italy of the animal feed additive choline chloride contaminated by these congenerse.

  3. Dioxin-like PCB in indoor air contaminated with different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzow, B.G.J.; Mohr, S.; Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer Gesundheit und Arbeitssicherheit des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Kerst, M.; Koerner, W. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been used in public building constructions for various purposes in the 1960s and 1970s, mainly as an additive to concrete, caulking, grout, paints, as a major constitutent of permanent elastic Thiokol rubber sealants and flame retardant coatings of acoustic ceiling tiles. Offgazing of semivolatile PCB from building materials can nowadays still result in considerable house-dust contamination and in indoor air concentrations exceeding 10,000 ng/m{sup 3}. In Germany, PCB levels in indoor air in non-occupational settings have been regulated with a tolerable total PCB concentration of 300 ng /m{sup 3} and an intervention level of 3000 ng/m{sup 3}. Lower re-entry criteria have been proposed by Michaud et al. Technical mixtures of PCB contain dioxin-like non- and mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners and are contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and mainly dibenzofurans (PCDF), sharing overlapping toxic effects and physicochemical properties. We report here on levels of dioxinlike PCB measured in buildings with various PCB sources and correlations among PCDD/PCDF and dioxin-like PCB and di-ortho PCB.

  4. Radioimmunoassay for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albro, P.W.; Chae, K.; Luster, M.I.; Mckinney, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention provides a double-antibody radioimmunoassay method for the determination of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, particularly, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, in environmental samples including animal tissues such as monkey liver and adipose tissues. The limit of detection is approximately 25 picograms for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Assuming an appropriate cleanup procedure is used, chlorinated dibenzofurans are the only likely interferences, and these can be distinguished through the use of two antisers of different dibenzo-furan/dibenzodioxin selectivities. The invention includes the preparation of a reproducible antigen, an appropriate radiolabeled hapten, and effective sample extracts. A feature of the assay method is the use of a nonionic detergent (e.g., ''cutscum'' or ''triton x-305'') to solubilize the extremely hydrophobic dibenzo-p-dioxins in a manner permitting their binding by antibodies. The immunoassay is applicable to screening samples in order to minimize the demand for mass spectrometric screening, and to routine monitoring for exposure to known chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in potentially contaminated environments

  5. Measurement and analysis of environmental exposure factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86. 1. environmental survey. Vol. 3c. Indoor situation in homes: Indoor air. Description of VOC in the indoor air of the Federal Republic of Germany; Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86. 1. Umwelt-Survey. Bd. 3c. Wohn-Innenraum: Raumluft. Deskription fluechtiger organischer Verbindungen in der Raumluft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Chutsch, M.; Henke, M.; Huber, M.; Kliem, C.; Leiske, M.; Mailahn, M.; Schulz, C.; Schwarz, E.; Seifert, B.; Ullrich, D.

    1992-05-01

    Gemeindegroessenklasse repraesentative Stichprobe von n=2731 Faellen zugrunde liegt. Er ist Teil C des dritten Berichtsbands und enthaelt die Deskription der Gehalte zahlreicher fluechtiger organischer Verbindungen in der Raumluft der Haushalte der Allgemeinbevoelkerung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Unterstichprobe). Funktion und Zielsetzung dieses dritten Auswertungsteils bestehen in der moeglichst praezisen Schaetzung der tatsaechlichen Schadstoffbelastungen der Haushalte der Allgemeinbevoelkerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland waehrend der Jahre 1985/86. Damit soll Interessierten die Moeglichkeit einer Orientierung und uebersichtsmaessigen Einordnung zu bewertender Untersuchungsergebnisse gegeben werden. Im Sinne dieser Vergleichsfunktion werden die geschaetzten Verteilungen der gemessenen Gehalte in der Gesamtpopulation und in nachstehend genannten Teilpopulationen wiedergegeben: Ausstentemperaturklasse, Gemeindegroessenklasse, Regionstyp, Industriebeschaeftigtenzahl im Kreis, Bebauungsart, Baujahr des Hauses, Wohnflaeche, Heizungsart, Brennstoff/Energietraeger, Anzahl der Personen im Haushalt, Raucher im Haushalt, Kinder (unter 14 Jahren) im Haushalt, Altersklasse des Bodenbelages, Altersklasse des Wandbelages, Altersklasse der Moebel, Renovierung/Neumoeblierung waehrend der letzten Monate, Vorhandensein von Spanplatten an Wand, Fussboden, Vorhandensein von Moeblen aus gepresster Spanplatte (nur im Fall von Formaldehyd), Anwendung von Insektiziden bzw. Geruchsverbesserern/Toilettensteinen bzw. von Sanitaerreinigern/Desinfektionsmitteln. Gesicherte kausale Aussagen lassen sich aus rein deskriptiven Analysen nicht herleiten. (orig.)

  6. Degradation of organic pollutants in sewage sludge by aerobic-thermophilic sludge treatment. Final report; Abbau organischer Schadstoffe im Klaerschlamm durch aerob-thermophile Schlammbehandlung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, S.

    1999-07-01

    Klaerschlamm. Im organischen Anteil des Klaerschlammfeststoffes sind bis heute ueber 300 verschiedene organische Spurenstoffe nachgewiesen worden. Neben den in der Klaerschlammverordnung erfassten Stoffgruppen (Dioxine/Furane und PCB) sind weitere Stoffgruppen als relevant eingestuft worden. Um die in diesem Bereich z.T. noch unzureichende Datenlage zu erweitern wurde im Forschungsvorhaben die Moeglichkeit untersucht, durch eine aerob-thermophile Schlammbehandlung (ATS) eine Verbesserung der Klaerschlammqualitaet, bei der Stoffgruppe der Phthalate (Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalat), den polyzklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) und beim 4-Nonylphenol (Abbauprodukt von nichtionischen Tensiden), zu erreichen. Zur Beurteilung der Abbaueffektivitaet aus der komplexen Matrix Klaerschlamm bildete die Schadstoffanalytik mittels HPLC und GC/MS einen Schwerpunkt des Vorhabens. Der Gehalt an Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalat (DEHP) und 4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) konnte in Laborversuchen mit dotierten Schlaemmen um 70% bzw. 50% und in undotierten Schlaemmen um 61% bzw. 53% reduziert werden. Bei halbtechnischen Versuchen lag die Reduktion fuer DEHP bei 14% und fuer 4-NP bei 68%. Fuer Pyren liess sich in Laborversuchen ein Abbau bis zu 57% erreichen, im Vergleich zu halbtechnischen Untersuchungen mit 22% Abbau. Die Ergebnisse erster grundlegender Untersuchungen zu einer Verfahrenskombination aus verkuerzter Faulstufe und ATS-Folgestufe zeigten fuer DEHP eine Reduktion von ca. 60%. Der Gehalt an einzelnen PAK konnten bis Anthracen reduziert werden. Fuer hoeherkondensierte PAK (Grundbelastung im ppb-Bereich) ergab sich keine einheitliche Aussage. Ein Abbau von 4-NP wurde bei den Versuchen zur Verfahrenskombination durch die Neubildung von 4-NP aus Alkylphenolethoxylaten unter anaeroben und aeroben Bedingungen ueberdeckt. Die erhaltenen Untersuchungsergebnisse bestaetigen die Korrelation zwischen einer Hygienisierung des Klaerschlamms und der entsprechenden Verweilzeit im Reaktorsystem. Sowohl in der

  7. Communication of job-related information and work family conflict in dual-career couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedelia Theunissen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that work-family conflict is a determinant of marital dissatisfaction. The goal of this study was to determine whether inadequate communication regarding the sharing of job-related information between dual-career spouses contributes to marital dissatisfaction. The Work Perception Questionnaire (WPQ was designed and administered to obtain information on dimensions that 80 dual-career couples (married or in co-habitation perceived to contribute to marital conflict and that have an impact on the quality of their relationships. The main findings indicated that male partners experienced more marital conflict than their female partners if they did not have adequate job-related information about their partner’s work. However, the findings for the female partners were nonsignificant. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Dit is algemeen bekend dat werk- en gesinskonflik ‘n oorsaak van huweliksontevredenheid is. Die doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal of ontoereikende kommunikasie oor werksverwante inligting tussen gades in dubbelloopbaanverhoudings ‘n bydraende faktor tot huweliksontevredenheid is. Die Werk Persepsie Vraelys (WPV is ontwerp en toegepas ten einde inligting te versamel rakende sekere dimensies wat volgens die persepsies van 80 dubbelloopbaanpare (wat getroud is of saamwoon aanleiding gee tot huwelikskonflik en wat moontlik ‘n impak op die gehalte van hul verhouding mag hê. Die belangrikste bevinding was dat manlike gades meer huwelikskonflik ervaar indien hul gades nie werksverwante inligting met hulle deel nie. Die resultate vir vroulike gades was egter nie beduidend nie. Die implikasies van die resultate word bespreek.

  8. Die genetiese verbetering van wyndruifkultivars en wyngisrasse vir ’n markgerigte wynbedryf: Nuwe benaderings tot die oeroue kuns van wynbereiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Pretorius

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Die groeiende gaping tussen wynproduksie en wynverbruik, die verskuiwing van verbruikersvoorkeure vanaf basiese kommoditeitswyn na topgehaltewyn en die uitmergelende mededinging wat ekonomiese globalisering meebring, vereis ’n totale omwenteling in die magiese wonderwêreld van wyn. In die proses om die wynbedryf van ’n produksiegedrewe bedryf na ’n markgerigte onderneming te transformeer, word daar, onder andere, toenemend op biotegnologiese innovasie gereken om die wynbedryf met ’n kwantumsprong oor die formidabele markuitdagings van die 21ste eeu te lanseer. Markgerigte ontwerpersdruifkultivars en -wyngisrasse word tans met chirurgiese presisie geneties geprogrammeer vir die kostemededingende produksie van hoë gehalte druiwe en wyn met relatief minimale insette en ’n lae omgewingsimpak. Ten opsigte van wingerdbiotegnologie behels dit die daarstelling van strestolerante en siekteweer-standbiedende Vitis vinifera-variëteite met verhoogde produktiwiteit, doeltreffendheid, volhoubaarheid en omgewingsvriendelikheid, veral betreffende plaag- en siektebeheer, waterverbruiksdoeltreffendheid en druifgehalte. Met betrekking tot wyngisbiotegnologie val die klem op die ontwikkeling van Saccharomyces cerevisiae-rasse met verbeterde gistings-, prosesserings- en biopreserveringsvermoëns, en kapasiteite vir die verhoging van die heilsaamheid en sensoriese kwaliteit van wyn. Die suksesvolle kommersialisering van transgeniese druifkultivars en wyngiste hang van ’n menigte wetenskaplike, tegniese, veiligheids-, etiese, wetlike, ekonomiese  en bemarkingsfaktore af, en daarom sal dit dwaas wees om oor die kort termyn hoë verwagtings te koester. In die lig van die fenomenale potensiële voordele van pasgemaakte druifvariëteite en gisrasse, sal dit oor die lang termyn ewe selfvernietigend wees indien hierdie strategies belangrike “lewensversekeringspolis” nie deur die wynbedryf uitgeneem word nie. Hierdie oorsig lig die belangrikste voorbeelde

  9. DETERMINING TACTICAL OPERATIONAL PLANNING POLICIES FOR AN AUTO CARRIER – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Du Plessis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study was done to assist a local auto carrier company with tactical operational planning. The objective of the planning process is to maximise the number of vehicles delivered while being on time and adhering to staff and maintenance schedule constraints.

    We investigated the feasibility of allowing part of the fleet to roam the closed spatial network, as opposed to the traditional assignment of the complete fleet to fixed routes. We developed decision-making rules for roaming and fixed-to-route auto carriers, and evaluated the quality of these proposed rules, in combination with different fleet compositions, using discrete event simulation and four performance measures.

    We found that the auto carrier company should adopt a tactical operations policy where at least 50% of the fleet is allowed to roam, while roaming auto carriers pick vehicles to transport according to specific rules.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie is gedoen om ’n plaaslike motorvervoer-onderneming te help met taktiese bedryfsbeplanning. Die doelwit van die beplanningsproses is om die aantal voertuie wat betyds afgelewer word te maksimeer met inagneming van personeel- en instandhoudingbeperkings. Ons het die moontlikheid dat ’n deel van die vragmotorvloot swerwend in die geslote ruimtelike roete-network moet opereer, ondersoek. Dit is in teenstelling met die tradisionele vaste toedeling van vragmotors aan roetes. Besluitnemingreëls vir swerwende en vaste-roete vragmotors is ontwikkel, en die gehalte van die reëls is met diskrete simulasie en vier prestasiemaatstawwe evalueer.

    Ons het bevind dat die vervoeronderneming ’n bedryfsbeleid behoort te aanvaar wat toelaat dat ten minste 50% van die vloot swerf, terwyl hierdie swerwende vragmotors voertuie volgens spesifieke reëls by oplaaipunte moet kies.

  10. Claudia Bruns: Politik des Eros. Der Männerbund in Wissenschaft, Politik und Jugendkultur (1880–1934. Köln u.a.: Böhlau Verlag 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Müller

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Quer zur Standardrezeption analysiert Claudia Bruns in ihrer Dissertation Blühers Konzeption von Mann, Männlichkeit und mann-männlicher Beziehung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung damit einhergehender Ausschlüsse. Zentral legt sie das Konzept des Männerbundes zugrunde, das den Dreh- und Angelpunkt der vorliegenden Untersuchung bildet, und zieht die Theorien Blühers als paradigmatisches Beispiel dafür heran. Dieses Vorgehen ist aus verschiedenen Gründen klug gewählt und vorteilhaft. Bislang ist kaum der ideologisch vielschichtige Gehalt von Diskussionen, wie sie Blüher führte und führen konnte, in die Geschichts- und Gesellschaftswissenschaften eingegangen. Zudem gab es bislang kein Gesamtverzeichnis der Schriften Blühers, wodurch die Rezeption erschwert wurde, und das sich nun im Anhang der Arbeit dankenswerterweise findet.In her dissertation, Claudia Bruns analyses Blüher’s concept of man, masculinity, and male-male-relationships with specific attention to that which is excluded, thus going against its standard reception. She places the concept of the male society central to the examination and it becomes the pivot around which the study is created. She does so by consulting the theories of Blüher as a paradigmatic example. This is a very astute and advantageous choice for many reasons. To date the ideologically multilayered content of Blüher’s actual and possible discussions has barely been inserted into discourse in history and the social sciences. Additionally, a comprehensive catalogue of Blüher’s writings has yet to be produced, which impedes its reception. This has now thankfully been rectified in the form of an appendix to this study.

  11. {sup 137}CS-determination in game meat from some hunting areas in lower Austria; {sup 137}Cs-Bestimmungen im Wildfleisch aus einigen niederoesterreichischen Jagdrevieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayromlou, S. [Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie der Univ. Wien (Austria); Tataruch, F. [Forschungsinstitut fuer Wildtierkunde und Oekologie der Veterinaermedizinischen Univ., Wien (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    In 1986, the contamination of some regions in Austria by {sup 137}Cs, due to the Chernobyl accident was relatively high. Among other {sup 137}Cs is taken up by people by the consumption of game. In an area of Lower Austria which is relatively heavily contaminated by Chernobyl fallout since 1986 the {sup 137}Cs-contamination of meat of game-animals was measured every year. Clear differences arose in the load of the single game species whose causes just like the temporal changes are discussed. The highest {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was with 5243 Bq/kg measured on a wild boar. With this activity concentration an annual effective dose of only 0,06 mSv can be estimated for an annual average consumption of one kilogram meat of wild boar. (orig.) [German] Druch den Reaktor-Unfall in Tschernobyl wurde Oesterreich gebietsweise relativ stark mit {sup 137}Cs kontaminiert. Unter anderem gelangt {sup 137}Cs durch den Verzehr von Wildfleisch in den Koerper der Menschen. Daher wurden in einem niederoesterreichischen Gebiet, das 1986 durch Fallout verhaeltnismaessig stark kontaminiert worden war seither jaehrlich erlegte Wildtiere auf den {sup 137}Cs-Gehalt ihres Fleisches hin untersucht. Dabei ergaben sich deutliche Unterschiede in der Belastung der einzelnen Wildarten, deren Ursachen ebenso wie die zeitlichen Veraenderungen diskutiert werden. Die hoechste {sup 137}Cs-Aktivitaetskonzentration wurde mit 5243 Bq/kg bei einem Wildschwein gemessen. Mit einen durchschnittlichen Verzehr von 1 kg Wildschweinfleisch pro Jahr kann daraus eine maximale Effektivdosis von nur 0,06 mSv/Jahr abgeschaetzt werden. (orig.)

  12. Future of the gas industry. Energy carriers instead of power source?; Zukunft der Gaswirtschaft. Energietraeger statt Energiequelle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, David; Janssen, Matthias; Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics, Koeln (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    For a long time, natural gas was considered as an ideal bridge technology for the energy transition because of the relatively low CO{sub 2} content. With increasing decarbonisation of electricity generation by renewable energies and the associated political vision of a far-reaching electrification of energy applications, in particular in the heat sector, the gas sector is, however, threatened to be overtaken by the renewables. This creates increasing uncertainty for business models and investments in the natural gas sector itself, but also potentially high macroeconomic costs of the energy transition. It can be shown that such a development is not unavoidable if the gas sector succeeds in using the existing possibilities cleverly. Thereby the continued use of existing gas infrastructure plays a central role. For use of the opportunities, however, a paradigm shift in politics, regulation and natural gas sector is necessary, whose key points are developed in this article. [German] Lange wurde Gas aufgrund des relativ geringen C0{sub 2}-Gehalts als ideale Brueckentechnologie fuer die Energiewende gehandelt. Mit zunehmender Dekarbonisierung der Stromerzeugung durch erneuerbare Energien und der damit verbundenen politischen Vision einer weitreichenden Elektrifizierung von Energieanwendungen insbesondere im Waermesektor droht die Gaswirtschaft allerdings von den Erneuerbaren ueberholt zu werden. Das schafft zunehmende Unsicherheit fuer Geschaeftsmodelle und Investitionen im Gassektor selbst, aber auch potenziell hohe gesamtwirtschaftliche Kosten der Energiewende. Es laesst sich zeigen, dass eine solche Entwicklung nicht unabwendbar ist, wenn es der Gaswirtschaft gelingt, die vorhandenen Moeglichkeiten clever zu nutzen. Dabei spielt der fortgesetzte Gebrauch der bereits vorhandenen Gasinfrastruktur die zentrale Rolle. Zur Nutzung der Chancen ist aber ein Paradigmenwechsel in Politik, Regulierung und Gaswirtschaft notwendig, dessen Eckpunkte in diesem Artikel entwickelt

  13. Water pollution potential of mineral oils with high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extracts); Untersuchungen zur Wassergefaehrdung durch Mineraloele mit hohen Gehalten an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (Heizoel Schwer und Extrakte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, G. [Mobil Schmierstoff GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    A data base on highly aromatic mineral oils has been compiled to classify mineral oil products according to their water-pollution potential (water hazard class or Wassergefaehrdungsklasse, WGK). This activity has been undertaken through the Commission for Water Hazardous Materials (Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe, KBwS). In this special case, highly aromatic mineral oils containing a high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, PAK) were evaluated. A test method for measuring the elution potential of PAK into water was developed on petroleum products with high viscosity and high freeze point. This method was applied to determine the solubility of 23 PAK (including 16 PAK according to EPA 610 and 6 PAK according to the German drinking water regulation (Trinkwasserverordnung, TVO)) from heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extract in the aqueous phase. For the 6 PAK, according to TVO, a sum limit of 0,2 {mu}g/l in drinking water is permitted by German legislation. This limit was not exceeded in any of the water phases examined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Einstufung von Mineraloelprodukten in die Wassergefaehrdungsklassen (WGK) durch die Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe ist es notwendig, Basisdaten zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Im speziellen Fall handelt es sich um die Bewertung von Mineraloelen, die sich durch einen hohen Gehalt an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) auszeichnen. Zur Eluierbarkeit von PAK`s aus Produkten mit hoher Viskosiaet bzw. mit hohem Stockpunkt wurde eine Pruefmethode entwickelt. Diese Methode wurde zur Bestimmung der Loeslichkeit von 23 PAK`s (16 PAK`s nach EPA-Liste incl. 6 PAK`s der TVO) aus den Mineraloelen Heizoel Schwer und Neutralextrakt in der Wasserphase eingesetzt. Fuer die PAK der TVO ist in der TVO ein Summengrenzwert von 0,2 {mu}g/l Trinkwasser angegeben. Dieser Grenzwert wurde in keiner der untersuchten Wasserphasen ueberschritten. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of surface defects in high strength galvannealed steels; Charakterisierung der Oberflaechendefekte in hochfesten, nach dem Verzinken waermebehandelten Staehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, M.H. [Automotive Steels Research Center, Technical Research Labs., POSCO, Gwangyang (Korea)

    2004-03-01

    Hot-dip galvannealed steel sheets, in which Fe of the substrate steel diffused into upper coating layer so as to be alloyed with Zn through a galvannealing above 450 C followed by hot-dip galvanizing process, generally show superior corrosion resistance, weldability and paintability. They have been widely used in automobile, construction, appliance industries and others. In particular, many researches have been carrying out to produce defect-free coating for an exposed automotive body panel. In the present study, high strength interstitial-free steel sheets containing Mn and P were galvannealed in an industrial continuous galvanizing line and defects on the coating surface were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is clear that the quality of the substrate strongly affects galvannealed coating and it is essential to keep clean surface just before immediately dipping into molten Zn pot. (orig.) [German] Feuerverzinkte und danach waermebehandelte Stahlbleche, wo Fe aus dem Substratstahl in die obere Beschichtungsschicht diffundiert wie bei Legieren mit Zn und einer Waermebehandlung von ueber 450 C, gefolgt von einem Feuerverzinkverfahren, zeigen im Allgemeinen hervorragende Korrosionsbestaendigkeit, Schweissbarkeit und Anstreichbarkeit. Sie finden ein breites Einsatzgebiet bei Automobilen, im Bauwesen, in Werkzeugindustrien und anderen. Insbesondere wurde von vielen Forschern versucht, eine fehlerfreie Beschichtung fuer ein ungeschuetztes Karosserieteil herzustellen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden hochfeste porenfreie Stahlbleche mit Mn- und P-Gehalt nach dem Verzinken in einer industriellen Endlos-Verzinkungslinie (CGL) waermebehandelt, wobei die Defekte auf der Schichtoberflaeche lichtmikroskopisch, rasterund transmissionselektronenmikroskopisch untersucht wurden. Klar ist, dass die Qualitaet des Substrats die nach dem Verzinken waermebehandelten Schichten beeinflusst und es ist von grosser

  15. Determination of the streaming potential and the corresponding total charge in aqueous asphalthene containing suspensions; Bestimmung der Stroemungspotentiale und der korrespondierenden Gesamtladungen in waessrigen, asphaltenhaltigen Suspensionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Rosenplaenter, A. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Rahimian, I. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    The choice of demulgators for separating crude oil emulsions is still done empirically. The knowledge of the charge of crude oil compounds is essential for the amount of needed demulsifiers. By using the Particle Charge Detector of the Muetek Company the surface charges of these compounds could be determined. The suspension will be titrated with demulsifier. Surface active compounds ar enriched within the colloids of crude oil, i.e. the resins and the asphaltenes. The asphaltenes could be divided into the easy, medium and difficult soluble asphaltenes. The streaming potential of the colloids and their corresponding total charge could be determined successfully. With increasing quantity of asphaltenes the charge consumption increase almost linearly. The heavy soluble asphaltenes are needing the highest share of demulsifiers followed by the middle and the light soluble asphaltenes. The resins only show very small charge consumption. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Auswahl von Spaltern zur Trennung von Rohoelemulsionen erfolgt zumeist empirisch. Bei Kenntnis der Ladung der rohoeleigenen Emulgatoren ist eine gezieltere Auswahl der Splater moeglich. Mit Hilfe eines Partikelladungsdetektors sollten die Oberflaechenladungen der rohoeleigenen Emulgatoren bestimmt werden. Dazu wurden Suspensionen der Rohoelkolloide mit Tensid titriert. Grenzflaechenaktive Stoffe sind in den Rohoelkolloiden, also den Erdoelharzen und den Asphaltenen, angereichert. Die Asphaltene lassen sich in leicht-, mittel- und schwerloesliche Komponenten einteilen. Es konnte das Stroemungspotential der Rohoelkolloide und die korrespondierende Gesamtladung erfolgreich bestimmt werden. Mit konstant steigendem Gehalt an Kolloiden steigt auch der Ladungsverbrauch annaehernd linear. Bei den Asphaltenfraktionen verbrauchen die schwerloeslichen Asphaltene mit Abstand den groessten Anteil der Ladung, gefolgt von den mittel- und den leichtloeslichen. Die Erdoelharze zeigen einen sehr geringen Ladungsverbrauch. (orig.)

  16. Nitrogen emissions during pyrolysis and combustion; Einfluesse auf die Stickstofffreisetzung bei der Pyrolyse und Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepsel, R F; Friebel, J; Halang, S [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. IEC

    1998-09-01

    Reduction of nitric oxide emissions during brown coal combustion is an important contribution to clean utilisation of this very important domestic primary energy source. In modern processes, the nitrogen contained in the fuels is the main source of oxides. The distribution of this nitrogen in the products can be influenced by modifying the degassing parameters especially in the first phase of combustion, i.e. pyrolysis. The heat-up rate, pressure, as well as the genesis and mineral content of the coal were found to be the main influencing paramters. Depending on the fuel characteristics (degree of coalification, concentration of volatile matter, ash composition), the nitrogen released during pyrolysis and the nitrogen retained in the solid residue contribute to the total emissions of nitric oxides in different degrees. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verminderung der Stickoxidemission bei der Verbrennung von Braunkohle stellt einen wichtigen Beitrag zur sauberen Verwertung dieses bedeutendsten einheimischen Primaerenergietraegers dar. In modernen Prozessen bildet dabei der im Brennstoff gebundene Stickstoff die Hauptquelle der Oxide. Insbesondere durch Einflussnahme auf die Entgasungsbedingungen waehrend der ersten Phase der Verbrennung - der Pyrolyse - kann die Verteilung dieses Stickstoffes auf die Produkte beeinflusst werden. Als wesentliche Einflussgroessen auf die Einbindung in den verbleibenden Koks und die Freisetzung fluechtiger N-haltiger Gase (HCN, NH{sub 3}) wurden die Aufheizgeschwindigkeit, der Druck und die Mineralsubstanz der Kohle gefunden. Eine wesentliche Einflussgroesse stellt daneben auch die Herkunft der Kohlen dar. In Abhaengigkeit von den Brennstoffeigenschaften (Inkohlungsgrad, Gehalt an fluechtigen Bestandteilen, Aschezusammensetzung) tragen der waehrend der Pyrolyse freigesetzte und der im festen Rueckstand verbleibende Stickstoff in unterschiedlichem Masse zur Gesamtemission an Stickoxiden bei. (orig.)

  17. The experiences of private somatology therapists on their self-management in a private practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Richter

    2013-07-01

    Somatologie terapeute het ‘n veeleisende werk hetsy fisies en emosioneel. Lang werksure, gekoppel met die hantering van kliënte op ‘n daaglikse basis, asook die stremming om te alle tye ‘n hoë gehalte kliëntesorg te verseker, is als faktore wat spanning op die terapeut plaas. Die gebrek aan selfbestuur van ’n terapeut – in die agtergrond van die bogenoemde bydraende faktore − kan tot ’n swak oordeelsvermoë en dienooreenkomstige substandaard optrede in die werkplek lei. Die doel van hierdie studie was onder andere om die ervarings van privaat somatologie-terapeute te ondersoek en te omskryf, waarvolgens aanbevelings vir verbeterde selfbestuur in privaat somatologie-praktyke beskryf was. Vir die doeleindes van hierdie study, word selfbestuur gedefinieër as ‘n metode om nie alleenik die interaksies met die kliënte en die werkstressors te bestuur nie, maar ook om die gevoelens van die terapeute te bestuur, deur middel van die uitoefening van ‘n verskeidenheid tegnieke, onder andere, self-dissipline. ’n Beskrywende, ondersoekende en kontekstuele kwalitatiewe ontwerp is gevolg. Die toeganklike populasie het uit terapeute (n = 15 in ses private somatologie-praktyke in die Pretoria-Noordstreek bestaan. ’n Doelgerigte steekproef is gevolglik geneem. Tien individuele ongestruktureerde onderhoude, asook ‘n loodstudie is uitgevoer en veldnotas is geneem. Oop kodering het vier temas met subtemas geïdentifiseer. Die model van Lincolin en Guba is gebruik om betroubaarheid te verseker en etiese oorwegings is tydens die navorsingsproses gevolg. Ingeligte toestemming is deur die privaat kliniekpraktyke en deelnemers verleen. Een tema het inderdaad aangedui dat selfbestuurstrategieë gedemonstreer behoort te word om sodoende ’n gevoel van beheer te bekom. Hierdie studie het geidentifiseer dat daar ‘n definitiewe behoefte is om die terapeut binne die veeleisende werksomgewing te koester wat ons die somatologiepraktyk noem.

  18. Lab-scale pyrolysis of the Automotive Shredder Residue light fraction and characterization of tar and solid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Manuela; Collina, Elena; Piccinelli, Elsa; Lasagni, Marina

    2017-06-01

    The general aim of this study is the recovery of Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR). The ASR light fraction, or car fluff, that was collected at an Italian shredding plant was pyrolysed at various temperatures (500-800°C) in a lab-scale reactor. The condensable gases (tar) and solid residue yields increased with decreasing temperature, and these products were characterized to suggest a potential use to reclaim them. The higher heating value (HHV) of tar was 34-37MJ/kg, which is comparable with those of fossil fuels. Furthermore, the ash content was low (0.06-4.98%). Thus, tar can be used as an alternative fuel. With this prospect, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in tar were determined. The toxicity of tar changes with temperature (1-5ng I-TEQ/g), and the PCDFs significantly contribute to tar toxicity, which was 75-100% with a maximum of 99.6% at 700°C. Regarding the characterization of the solid residue, the low HHV (2.4-3.3MJ/kg) does not make it suitable for energy recovery. Regarding material recovery, we considered its use as a filler in construction materials or a secondary source for metals. It shows a high metal concentration (280,000-395,000mg/kg), which is similar at different pyrolysis temperatures. At 500°C, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were not detected in the solid residue, whereas the maximum total PAH concentration (19.41ng/g, 700°C) was lower than that in fly ash from MSWI. In conclusion, 500°C is a suitable pyrolysis temperature to obtain valuable tar and solid residue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. River sediment (S-37)--a new analytical quality control material ensuring comparability of chlorinated hydrocarbon analysis during an international environmental study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, B M; Martens, D; Henkelmann, B; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A; Muntau, H

    2000-06-01

    A sediment reference material (S-37) was prepared as analytical quality control material to be used within an international project on polychlorinated hydrocarbon analysis in two Chinese rivers. The raw material was sampled during a cruise on Yangtse River and transported afterwards to the JRC Ispra for further processing. The material was treated according to the general principles applicable for candidate reference material production. After a thorough homogeneity study of the bulk the material was bottled. A total of 1,080 bottles each containing 50 g of dry sediment powder was obtained. Final homogeneity and stability testing proved the material to be fit for the purpose. Isotope dilution GC/MS was used to establish target values for pentachlorobenzene (1.17 +/- 0.08 ng/g), hexachlorobenzene (3.60 +/- 0.17 ng/g), octachlorostyrene (0.19 +/- 0.01 ng/g), pentachloroanisole (0.52 +/- 0.02 ng/g), alpha-HCH (0.70 +/- 0.05 ng/g), beta-HCH (1.38 +/- 0.18 ng/g), gamma-HCH (0.83 +/- 038 ng/g), 2,4'-DDT (0.36 +/- 0.04 ng/g), 2,4'-DDE (0.29 +/- 0.02 ng/g), 2,4'-DDD (0.49 +/- 0.02), 4,4'-DDT (3.42 +/- 0.47 ng/g), 4,4'-DDD (1.29 +/- 0.17 ng/g), PCB 28 (0.11 +/- 0.01 ng/g), PCB 52 (0.09 +/- 0.003 ng/g), PCB 101 (0.07 +/- 0.003 ng/g), PCB 138 (0.06 +/- 0.003 ng/g) and PCB 153 (0.06 +/- 0.003 ng/g). Furthermore, indicative values for major and minor constituents as well as for polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and -furanes were measured.

  20. PCDDs/PCDFs, dl-PCBs and HCB in the flue gas from coal fired CFB boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowalski, Adam; Konieczyński, Jan

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the project was to measure the actual emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from four selected power plants in Poland in order to update the national inventory of PCDDs/PCDFs emission. Relatively low PCDDs/PCDFs as well as dl-PCBs concentrations in flue gas obtained in measurements in this study for four different circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boilers indicate practical absence of any hazards caused by PCDDs/PCDFs emission from these units. The results of PCDDs/PCDFs determination obtained in this study indicate that hard coal combustion in large CFB in the four central heating plants (CHP) is not a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emission to the environment even if operated by co-firing of waste coal. PCDDs/PCDFs concentration in flue gases as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 0.012-0.060 ng I-TEQ/m(n)(3) and 7.51-46.4 microg I-TEQ/TJ, respectively. Dl-PCBs concentration was practically below the LOQ=0.006 ng WHO-PCB TEQ/m(n)(3) in all experiments. HCB concentration as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 11.5-42.0 ng/m(n)(3) and 6.19-26.7 mg/TJ, respectively, where the highest value was obtained for co-firing of waste coal, however. Obtained in this work emission factors will be used for national emission inventory purposes instead of the factors proposed by Toolkit or taken from previous measurements. However, consideration should be given to the fact that the measurements in most cases are related to single installations. Therefore, the need for further development of national factors for the power generation industry in Poland is desired.

  1. Towards more ecological relevance in sediment toxicity testing with fish: Evaluation of multiple bioassays with embryos of the benthic weatherfish (Misgurnus fossilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Benjamin; Fischer, Jonas; Schiwy, Sabrina; Hollert, Henner; Schulz, Ralf

    2018-04-01

    The effects of sediment contamination on fish are of high significance for the protection of ecosystems, human health and economy. However, standardized sediment bioassays with benthic fish species, that mimic bioavailability of potentially toxic compounds and comply with the requirements of alternative test methods, are still scarce. In order to address this issue, embryos of the benthic European weatherfish (Misgurnus fossilis) were exposed to freeze-dried sediment (via sediment contact assays (SCA)) and sediment extracts (via acute fish embryo toxicity tests) varying in contamination level. The extracts were gained by accelerated solvent extraction with (i) acetone and (ii) pressurized hot water (PHWE) and subsequently analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Furthermore, embryos of the predominately used zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to extracts from the two most contaminated sediments. Results indicated sufficient robustness of weatherfish embryos towards varying test conditions and sensitivity towards relevant sediment-bound compounds. Furthermore, a compliance of effect concentrations derived from weatherfish embryos exposed to sediment extracts (96h-LC 50 ) with both measured gradient of sediment contamination and previously published results was observed. In comparison to zebrafish, weatherfish embryos showed higher sensitivity to the bioavailability-mimicking extracts from PHWE but lower sensitivity to extracts gained with acetone. SCAs conducted with weatherfish embryos revealed practical difficulties that prevented an implementation with three of four sediments tested. In summary, an application of weatherfish embryos, using bioassays with sediment extracts from PHWE might increase the ecological relevance of sediment toxicity testing: it allows investigations using benthic and temperate fish species considering both bioavailable contaminants and animal welfare

  2. Characterization of pyrolytic oil obtained from pyrolysis of TDF (Tire Derived Fuel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banar, Müfide; Akyıldız, Vildan; Özkan, Aysun; Çokaygil, Zerrin; Onay, Özlem

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We pyrolyzed Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at different heating rates and temperatures. ► We determine convenient pyrolysis temperature for pyrolytic oil. ► The product can be used as fuel for combustion system in industry. ► TDF pyrolysis is advisable recycling system because of low hazardous constituents. - Abstract: In recent years, waste utilization before disposing to the land is the most important point about waste management. Due to the increasing emphasis on recycling, related to the two European Commission Directives (EC End of Life Vehicle Directive, EC Waste Landfill Directive) affecting the management of waste tires, there is interest in the development of alternative technologies for recycling waste tires. One of them is pyrolysis. For this purpose, a fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolysis of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at the temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C with the heating rates of 5 and 35 °C/min. The maximum pyrolytic oil yield (38.8 wt.%) was obtained at 400 °C with 5 °C/min heating rate. The yield of pyrolytic oil decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures whereas the yield of gases increased. The fuel properties of the pyrolytic oil including higher heating value (HHV), elemental composition, flash point, viscosity, distillation and density were determined. Pyrolytic oil was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) techniques and also, the amount of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and congener distribution characteristics were studied for determination of environmental effects. It was seen that the pyrolytic oils have similar fuel properties with the diesel. It was also found that pyrolytic oil contained 0.00118 I-TEQs/g at very low level. Finally, the pyrolytic oil can be evaluated for energy recovery according to Regulation

  3. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent toxicity testing. A representative crude oil (Bayou Sweet) was burned in ocean-salinity seawater and emissions were collected from the plume by means of a crane-suspended emission sampling platform. A comprehensive array of emissions was characterized, accounting for over 92% by mass of the combustion products even without accounting for H2O. The particulate matter emissions were 70 g/kg (±8.3) of oil consumed, composed of 81% (±8) elemental carbon, and 80% were 1 µm in diameter or less. The particulate matter emissions were strongly light absorbing and had a single scattering albedo of 0.4 (±0.01) at 532 nm. Emissions of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were approximately 1 g/kg of oil consumed. While the oil burn particles were highly PAH-enriched, less than 30% of the PAHs were particle-bound, the rest being in the gas phase. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/DF) was observed at 1.2 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg of oil consumed. Analysis of the particles showed the major elements to be Na, S, Cl and Si with no other elements, including metals, exceeding 5 mg/kg oil consumed. The unburned oil mass was 29% of the original crude oil mas

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  5. Perinatal dioxin exposure and the neurodevelopment of Vietnamese toddlers at 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tai The; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Hoang, Luong Van; Tran, Anh Hai; Nguyen, Trung Viet; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-12-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in both the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. This may potentially have adverse health effects, particularly on infant neurodevelopment. We followed 214 infants whose mothers resided in a dioxin-contaminated area in Da Nang, Vietnam, from birth until 1 year of age. Perinatal exposure to dioxins was estimated from toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) concentrations in breast milk. In infants, daily dioxin intake (DDI) was used as an index of postnatal exposure through breastfeeding. Neurodevelopment of toddlers was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). No significant differences in neurodevelopmental scores were exhibited for cognitive, language or motor functions between four exposure groups of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ or 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD. However, social-emotional scores were decreased in the high PCDDs/Fs-TEQ group and the high 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD group compared with those with mild exposure, after adjusting for confounding factors. Cognitive scores in the mild, moderate, and high DDI groups were significantly higher than those in low DDI group, but there were no differences in cognitive scores among the three higher DDI groups. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to dioxins may affect social-emotional development of 1-year-old toddlers, without diminishing global neurodevelopmental function. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous flue gas bioremediation and reduction of microalgal biomass production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douskova, I.; Doucha, J.; Livansky, K.; Umysova, D.; Zachleder, V.; Vitova, M. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Cell Cycles of Algae; Machat, J. [Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic). Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Novak, P. [Termizo Inc., Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2009-02-15

    A flue gas originating from a municipal waste incinerator was used as a source of CO{sub 2} for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, in order to decrease the biomass production costs and to bioremediate CO{sub 2} simultaneously. The utilization of the flue gas containing 10-13% ({nu}/{nu}) CO2 and 8-10% ({nu}/{nu}) O{sub 2} for the photobioreactor agitation and CO{sub 2} supply was proven to be convenient. The growth rate of algal cultures on the flue gas was even higher when compared with the control culture supplied by a mixture of pure CO{sub 2} and air (11% ({nu}/{nu}) CO{sub 2}). Correspondingly, the CO{sub 2} fixation rate was also higher when using the flue gas (4.4 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}) than using the control gas (3.0 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}). The toxicological analysis of the biomass produced using untreated flue gas showed only a slight excess of mercury while all the other compounds (other heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls) were below the limits required by the European Union foodstuff legislation. Fortunately, extending the flue gas treatment prior to the cultivation unit by a simple granulated activated carbon column led to an efficient absorption of gaseous mercury and to the algal biomass composition compliant with all the foodstuff legislation requirements. (orig.)

  7. PCDD/Fs atmospheric deposition fluxes and soil contamination close to a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassura, Ivano; Passarini, Fabrizio; Ferroni, Laura; Bernardi, Elena; Morselli, Luciano

    2011-05-01

    Bulk depositions and surface soil were collected in a suburban area, near the Adriatic Sea, in order to assess the contribution of a municipal solid waste incinerator to the area's total contamination with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Samples were collected at two sites, situated in the area most affected by plant emissions (according to the results of the Calpuff air dispersion model), and at an external site, considered as a reference. Results show that the studied area is subject to low contamination, as far as these compounds are concerned. Deposition fluxes range from 14.3 pg m(-2)d(-1) to 89.9 pg m(-2)d(-1) (0.75 pg-TEQ m(-2)d(-1) to 3.73 pg-TEQ m(-2)d(-1)) and no significant flow differences are observed among the three monitored sites. Total soil concentration amounts to 93.8 ng kg(-1) d.w. and 1.35 ng-TEQ kg(-1)d.w, on average, and confirms a strong homogeneity in the studied area. Furthermore, from 2006 to 2009, no PCDD/Fs enrichment in the soil was noticed. Comparing the relative congener distributions in environmental samples with those found in stack emissions from the incineration plant, significant differences are observed in the PCDD:PCDF ratio and in the contribution of the most chlorinated congeners. From this study we can conclude that the incineration plant is not the main source of PCDD/Fs in the studied area, which is apparently characterized by a homogeneous and widespread contamination situation, typical of an urban area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Applying acoustic telemetry to understand contaminant exposure and bioaccumulation patterns in mobile fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew D; van der Meulen, Dylan E; Brodie, Stephanie; Cadiou, Gwenaël; Knott, Nathan A

    2018-06-01

    Contamination in urbanised estuaries presents a risk to human health, and to the viability of populations of exploited species. Assessing animal movements in relation to contaminated areas may help to explain patterns in bioaccumulation, and assist in the effective management of health risks associated with consumption of exploited species. Using polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) contamination in Sydney Harbour estuary as a case study, we present a study that links movement patterns resolved using acoustic telemetry to the accumulation of contaminants in mobile fish on a multi-species basis. Fifty-four individuals across six exploited species (Sea Mullet Mugil cephalus; Luderick Girella tricuspidata; Yellowfin Bream Acanthopagrus australis; Silver Trevally Pseudocaranx georgianus; Mulloway Argyrosomus japonicus; Yellowtail Kingfish Seriola lalandi) were tagged with acoustic transmitters, and their movements tracked for up to 3years. There was substantial inter-specific variation in fish distribution along the estuary. The proportion of distribution that overlapped with contaminated areas explained 84-98% of the inter-specific variation in lipid-standardised biota PCDD/F concentration. There was some seasonal variation in distribution along the estuary, but movement patterns indicated that Sea Mullet, Yellowfin Bream, Silver Trevally, and Mulloway were likely to be exposed to contaminated areas during the period of gonadal maturation. Acoustic telemetry allows examination of spatial and temporal patterns in exposure to contamination. When used alongside biota sampling and testing, this offers a powerful approach to assess exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential risks faced by different species, as well as human health risks associated with their consumption. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The US federal framework for research on endocrine disrupters and an analysis of research programs supported during fiscal year 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, L.W.; DeRosa, C.; Kavlock, R.J.; Lucier, G.; Mac, M.J.; Melillo, J.; Melnick, R.L.; Sinks, T.; Walton, B.T.

    1998-01-01

    The potential health and ecological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals has become a high visibility environmental issue. The 1990s have witnessed a growing concern, both on the part of the scientific community and the public, that environmental chemicals may be causing widespread effects in humans and in a variety of fish and wildlife species. This growing concern led the Committee on the Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) of the National Science and Technology Council to identify the endocrine disrupter issue as a major research initiative in early 1995 and subsequently establish an ad hoc Working Group on Endocrine Disrupters. The objectives of the working group are to 1) develop a planning framework for federal research related to human and ecological health effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals; 2) conduct an inventory of ongoing federal research programs; and 3) identify research gaps and develop a coordinated interagency plan to address priority research needs. This communication summarizes the activities of the federal government in defining a common framework for planning an endocrine disrupter research program and in assessing the status of the current effort. After developing the research framework and compiling an inventory of active research projects supported by the federal government in fiscal year 1996, the CENR working group evaluated the current federal effort by comparing the ongoing activities with the research needs identified in the framework. The analysis showed that the federal government supports considerable research on human health effects, ecological effects, and exposure assessment, with a predominance of activity occurring under human health effects. The analysis also indicates that studies on reproductive development and carcinogenesis are more prevalent than studies on neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity, that mammals (mostly laboratory animals) are the main species under study, and that chlorinated dibenzodioxins and

  10. PCDD/F and WHO-PCB contamination in an industrialized area in Brazil. First results of atmospheric monitoring and the use of Tillandsia usneoides (L) as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M. de S. [Dept. de Geoquimica, Univ. Federal Fluminense. Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Waller, U.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Koerner, W. [Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency, Augsburg (Germany); Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Inst. de Biofisica, CCS-UFRJ. Ilha do Fundao, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    A major issue of concern in developing countries like Brazil is to conciliate increasing industrialization rates to secure health and environmental standards already required to promote the free market among countries. This was pointed out during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Agenda 21). There it became clear that Brazil needs to develop better methods and techniques for environmental monitoring in order to control pollution sources and promote sustainable development. Among dozens of different kinds of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are a matter of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicological properties. PCDD and PCDF are unwanted by-products from the combustion of organic material containing trace amounts of chlorine set free in both stationary thermal sources and diffuse fuel burning. They can also be present as unwanted by-products of various industrial and metallurgical processes and metal recycling and smelters. PCB are ubiquitous contaminants of the environment and can be produced during thermal processes. In spite of their high environmental persistence and relevance in human health concerns, legal aspects regarding maximum emission limits and control of these contaminants are absent in Brazil at present. Moreover, the absence of adequately equipped laboratories and human resources together with the high costs associated hampers the research and monitoring of these contaminants in Brazil. The present work is a first report of the monitoring of total deposition rates of PCDD/PCDF and PCB in Volta Redonda City, a highly industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro State. Simultaneously, the use of an endemic Bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides (L), an epiphytic bromeliad, as a possible bio-monitor for persistent organochlorine compounds was investigated.

  11. The role of chlorine and additives of PVC-plastic in combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, H.

    1991-01-01

    The PVC differs from other common plastics due to the chlorine content. As the PVC is combusted, the chlorine is released mainly as hydrogen chloride. The content of chlorinated hydrocarbons is small, but these can also contain polychlorinated dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxines, which are extremely poisonous. The aim of this study was to find out, what is the portion of PVC combustion in total emission of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Additionally, the amounts chlorine coming into combustion process with ordinary fuels have been estimated, and they are compared with the amounts of PVC. The chloride content of municipal wastes vary in between 0.4-0.9 %. The portion of plastics is about 30 % of the total, and the rest being from paper, food , wood and garden wastes an textiles. Both organic and inorganic chlorine form gaseous hydrogen chlorid in combustion processes. HCl can then react with oxygen and produce caseous chlorine. This can react with unreacted carbon of the smoke and produce different kinds of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The portion of PVC of the chlorine going into combustion in Finland has been estimated to be about 1-2 %. Combustion tests were made using coal and bark and plastic waste as additional fuel. It was noticed that addition of plastic decreased the amount of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the smoke. Chlorinated dioxins and furans occurred a little less in the gases of combustion of plastic mixtures not containing PVC than in reference tests, but they increased when PVC containing plastic mixture was combusted, but more chlorinated dioxins and furans were absorbed into fly ash, so the emissions remained almost the same

  12. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 'Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States', the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD 50 < 10 μg/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants

  13. Fetal exposure markers of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Erik; Eguchi, Akifumi; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato

    2018-04-01

    Fetal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. Although the placenta acts as a barrier between the mother and the fetus, these contaminants transfer through the placenta exposing the fetus. Several studies have investigated placental transfer, but few have assessed the co-variation among these contaminants. Maternal blood, cord blood, and cord tissue were collected from 41 Japanese mother-infant pairs and analyzed for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Hierarchical cluster analysis followed by principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation. Two stable clusters of dioxin-like PCBs were found in maternal and cord blood. One cluster of low/medium chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs was present in all three matrices with 2,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#118) and 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#126) explaining the majority of the clusters' variances. Medium/high chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs clustered in maternal blood and cord blood but not in cord tissue. 2,3,4,4',5-PeCB(#114) and 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-HpCB(#189) explained the majority of the clusters' variances. There was a substantial correlation between the sum of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCDD/F in all three matrices. The sum of the four suggested PCBs plus 3,3',4,4'-TeCB(#77) correlated well with total PCDD/F in all three matrices. Apart from the dioxin-like PCBs, little co-variation existed among the studied contaminants. The five PCBs can be used as fetal exposure markers for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in maternal and cord blood respectively. In cord tissue, more higher chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs need to be measured as well.

  14. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis of Salicylate and Dibenzofuran Metabolism in Sphingomonas wittichii RW1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eCoronado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium isolated for its ability to degrade the xenobiotic compounds dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (DBF. A number of genes involved in DBF degradation have been previously characterized, such as the dxn cluster, dbfB, and the electron transfer components fdx1, fdx3 and redA2. Here we use a combination of whole genome transcriptome analysis and transposon library screening to characterize RW1 catabolic and other genes implicated in the reaction to or degradation of DBF. To detect differentially expressed genes upon exposure to DBF, we applied three different growth exposure experiments, using either short DBF exposures to actively growing cells or growing them with DBF as sole carbon and energy source. Genome-wide gene expression was examined using a custom-made microarray. In addition, proportional abundance determination of transposon insertions in RW1 libraries grown on salicylate or DBF by ultra-high throughput sequencing was used to infer genes whose interruption caused a fitness loss for growth on DBF. Expression patterns showed that batch and chemostat growth conditions, and short or long exposure of cells to DBF produced very different responses. Numerous other uncharacterized catabolic gene clusters putatively involved in aromatic compound metabolism increased expression in response to DBF. In addition, only very few transposon insertions completely abolished growth on DBF. Some of those (e.g., in dxnA1 were expected, whereas others (in a gene cluster for phenylacetate degradation were not. Both transcriptomic data and transposon screening suggest operation of multiple redundant and parallel aromatic pathways, depending on DBF exposure. In addition, increased expression of other non-catabolic genes suggests that during initial exposure, S. wittichii RW1 perceives DBF as a stressor, whereas after longer exposure, the compound is recognized as a carbon source and metabolized using several pathways in

  16. Exposure to atmospheric pms, pahs, pcdd/fs and metals near an open air waste burning site in Beirut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Baalbaki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Baalbaki, R., El Hage, R., Nassar, J., Gerard, J., Saliba, N.B., Zaarour, R., Abboud, M., Wehbeh, F., Khalaf, L.K., Shihadeh, A.L., Saliba, N.A. 2016. Exposure to atmospheric PMS, PAHS, PCDD/FS and metals near an open air waste burning site in Beirut. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(2: 91-103. Since July 2015, Lebanon has experienced the worst solid waste management crisis in its history. Consequently, open-air waste burning in the vicinity of highly populated areas in Beirut has become a common practice. This study evaluates the effects of open-air dumping and burning on local air quality and public health. The levels of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, gaseous and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, and particle-bound metals at a residence close to waste burning are reported. Concentrations, determined between October 2 and December 2, 2015, were compared either to previous measurements or to measurements taken away from a nearby burning incident, and after it had rained. Subsequently, the cancer risk due to exposure to these chemicals was assessed. Results showed alarming increases in pollutant concentrations which was translated into an increase in short-term cancer risk from about 1 to 20 people per million on the days when waste was being burned. Findings were shared with the public to warn the community against the dangers of waste mismanagement, and underline the obvious need for solid waste management at the governmental and municipal levels.

  17. Kirkeby's English?Swahili Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Mdee

    2011-10-01

    woordeboekkritiek. Die kriteria gesteldeur McMillan (1949 sal as gids dien vir hierdie resensieartikel: (1 die hoeveelheid inligting in diewoordeboek; (2 die gehalte van die inligting aangebied; en (3 die doeltreffendheid van die aanbiedingvan die inligting. Vrae wat in die loop van hierdie artikel gestel sal word, sluit in: Gee diewoordeboek die inligting wat deur die gebruiker verlang word? Is die inligting deursigtig beskikbaar?Hoe word die inligting aangebied?

    Sleutelwoorde: WOORDEBOEKBEOORDELING, GEBRUIKERSVRIENDELIK, WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIKSVAARDIGHEDE,LEKSIKOGRAFIESE INSKRYWINGS, GRAMMATIKALEKATEGORIEË, SUBGRAMMATIKALE KATEGORIEË, WOORDVERBINDINGS, KOLLOKASIES,VERTAALEKWIVALENTE

  18. Characterization of particle-induced Clara cell hyperplasia in rat lungs; Charakterisierung der Partikel-induzierten Clarazell-Hyperplasie in der Rattenlunge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, C.; Adolf, B.; Weishaupt, C.; Hoehr, D.; Zeittraeger, I.; Borm, P.J.A. [Heinrich-Heine Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany). Medizinisches Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene; Friemann, J. [Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine Clara cells after particle exposure by in situ hybridization as well as to characterize cell proliferation and function in xenobiotic metabolism. Female Wistar rats were intratracheally instilled with coal dust samples of variable quartz content, quartz (DQ12), Titanium dioxide, or saline solution containing 0.5% Tween 80. After 126-129 weeks, all particle-exposed animals developed Clara cell hyperplasia i.e. up to 0.48% of the total lung area which was significantly increased compared to Titanium dioxide and control animals. Our data also showed proliferation and hyperplasia of bronchiolar Clara cells by coal dusts independent of their quartz content. The lack of proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining in most of the hyperplastic Clara cells suggests that following damage of alveolar epithelial cells, Clara cells migrate in and remodulate the alveolar epithelium. After the migration they keep their function in the xenobiotic metabolism as shown by expansion of CYP2E1 active Clara cells. The minor development of Clara cell hyperplasia in Titanium dioxide treated rats indicates that this is not a general particle effect, and possibly due to its lower toxicity to epithelial cells. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war die Untersuchung der Clarazellen nach Partikelexposition mittels in situ Hybridisierung sowie die Charakterisierung hinsichtlich Zellproliferation und Funktion im xenobiotischen Stoffwechsel. Weibliche Wistar-Ratten wurden intratracheal mit Kohlenstaeuben unterschiedlichen Quarzgehaltes, Quarz DQ12, Titandioxide oder physiologischer Kochsalzloesung mit einem Gehalt von 0,5% Tween 80 instilliert. Die 126-129 Wochen nach der intratrachealen Instillation mit schwerloeslichen Partikeln obduzierten Tiere wiesen alle eine Clarazellhyperplasie in bis zu 0,48% des gesamten Lungengewebes auf, die gegenueber den Titandioxid-behandelten und den Kontrolltieren statistisch signifikant war. Die Clarazellproliferation und

  19. Analytic studies on pollutant deposition through domestic coal combustion - influence of the current structural change on pollution in an urban region. Final report; Analytische Untersuchungen zum Schadstoffeintrag durch den Hausbrand - Auswirkungen des gegenwaertigen Strukturwandels auf die urbane Belastungssituation. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engewald, W.; Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.

    1996-12-31

    In the present paper the author reports on the continuation of an OEKOR part project in which he had undertaken a chemical characterisation of emissions from domestic brown coal combustion. On the basis of a partitioning by land use of the Greater Leipzig region he initiated long-term observations of local pollution levels for the various structural types of land. The aim of the work was to facilitate a comprehensive analysis of local air quality in terms of VOC levels. The current concern about VOCs results from the toxicological risk they have been proven to pose to the human organism and from their relevance to the chemistry of the atmosphere (e.g., as precursors of ground-level ozone and other oxidising agents). The task to be accomplished was broken down into the following main steps: Development and trial of a sampling and analysis method for determining an as wide a spectrum of environmental VOCs as possible; elaboration of a measuring strategy for obtaining results of high representativeness and power; installation and operation of pollution monitoring sites in selected structural types of area characteristic of Leipzig; execution of measuring campaigns of several weeks each at selected sites during both winter and summer periods. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] In Fortsetzung eines vom Berichterstatter bearbeiteten OeKOR-Teilprojekts zur chemischen Charakterisierung von Emissionen aus dem Hausbrand von Braunkohle galt es, auf der Basis einer an der Flaechennutzung ausgerichteten Untergliederung der Stadtregion Leipzig in unterschiedliche Strukturtypen langfristige Immissionsbeobachtungen zu beginnen mit dem Ziel, eine Zustandsanalyse des Umweltmediums Luft bezueglich des Gehalts an fluechtigen organischen Verbindungen (VOC) in ihrer gesamten Breite zu ermoeglichen. Das verstaerkte Interesse an diesen Verbindungen resultiert aus dem fuer eine Reihe von VOC belegten toxikologischen Gefahrenpotential fuer den menschlichen Organismus sowie ihrer atmosphaerenchemischen

  20. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ALL PARTICIPANTS DURING IT SERVICE AND SUPPORT ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Since the early days of computing, IT professionals have been struggling with their end users (customers to such an extent that end users became sceptic about the quality of service and support IT professionals can offer. As such, relationships between IT professionals and end users were in many cases very poor, which impacts negatively on the efforts to use information technology to the advantage of organizations or communities as a whole. This paper briefly describes the historical reasons therefor and gives a theoretical foundation for the establishment of IT-end user relationships. The paper describes IT-end user relationships as intriguing and complex and proposes a conceptual framework that explains all the important elements involved during the establishment and maintenance of sound relationships as well as for managing change. This paper is based on a research study conducted into the working relationship between IT departments and its end users. The research was done by means of a qualitative approach in which thought experiments were used to inductively refine the results of the research study.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Sedert die ontstaan van die rekenaarwese en die gepaardgaande dienslewering via inligtingstegnologie bestaan die neiging by eindpuntgebruikers om skepties te staan teenoor die gehalte van diens wat deur inligtingstegnoloë gebied kan word. Dit het daartoe gelei dat die verhoudinge tussen eindpuntgebruikers en die inligtingstegnoloë vertroebel is. Voordelige gebruik van inligtingstegnologie deur ondernemings en die gemeenskap is gevolglik daardeur benadeel. Hierdie stuk behandel kortliks die historiese oorsake vir die toedrag van sake. Dit beskryf ook die teoretiese grondslae vir die skepping van wedersydse verhoudings vir die probleemsituasie. Die stuk ondersoek die aandagwekkende en komplekse verhoudingsmilieu. Dit beskryf vervolgens ’n voorgestelde konsepraamwerk waarmee die belangrik elemente

  1. Investigations performed on the compost worm Eisenia fetida and selected species of earthworms concerning the intake of HCB and pyrene with the goal of deriving a bioaccumulation test; Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme von HCB und Pyren durch den Kompostwurm Eisenia fetida und ausgewaehlte Regenwurmwildarten. Ableitung eines Bioakkumulationstests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vespermann, A.; Riepert, F.; Pflugmacher, J. [Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Inst. fuer Oekotoxikologie im Pflanzenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    . Die Expositionszeit der Regenwuermer betrug 4 Wochen bei woechentlicher Bestimmung der Konzentrationen der Testsubstanzen in den Wuermern und Boeden. Die fuer E. fetida sowie die Wildarten errechneten Anreicherungsfaktoren (AF) beliefen sich bei HCB in Abhaengigkeit des verwendeten Bodens auf Werte zwischen 10 und 17 und bei Pyren auf Werte zwischen 0,9 und 1,7. Durch Umrechnung der Bodenkonzentrationen auf Gehalte in der Wasserphase und Ableitung der entsprechenden Anreicherungsfaktoren kann ein Vergleich mit BCF-Werten, die aus QSAR'S anderer Regenwurmarten und Fischen berechnet wurden, hergestellt werden. Die Ergebnisse lassen den Schluss zu, dass der Regenwurmtest mit E. fetida (OECD 1984, ISO 1998) fuer die Untersuchung der Bioakkumulation geeignet ist. (orig.)

  2. Charakterisierung der Birnenaromatik von Österreichischem Weißburgunder (Pinot blanc hinsichtlich Typizität und Qualität

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Christian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Österreich ist mit einer Anbaufläche von 1.914 ha das drittgrößte Weißburgunder-produzierende Land der Welt. Diese Fläche entspricht 4,3% der österreichischen Weinbaufläche und 12,3% der Weltanbaufläche von Weißburgunder (15.493 ha. Nur in Deutschland (4.794 ha, 30,9% und in Italien (3.086 ha; 19,9% wird mehr Pinot blanc angebaut. Das Aroma von trockenem Weißburgunder ist in der Regel diskret, mit vorherrschenden Birnen- und Apfelaromen, diese kommen oft mit einem Nussaroma und einem Hauch von Blüten (Akazienblüten und Kräutern zusammen. Der Geschmack ist zart und vollmundig. Gereifte Weine zeigen oft Honig- und Mandelnoten. Ethyl-trans2-cis4-decadienoat ist bekannt als Leitaroma in frischen und verarbeiteten Birnenprodukten. Diese Verbindung wurde bis jetzt nicht in Wein beschrieben. Im Rahmen dieser Studie wurde der Gehalt an Ethyl-trans2-cis4-Decadienoat und anderen Ethyl- und Methylester der cis-trans-Isomere der Decadiensäure sowie andere mit Birne assoziierten Aromen (Isoamylacetat, Methyl-trans-Geranoat, Ethylhexanoat, Ethyloctanoat, Ethyldecanoat und Ethyldodecanoat in österreichischen Weißburgunderproben direkt in Wein mit HS-SPME-SIM-MS analysiert. Bei den Analysen konnten relevante Quantitäten an Ethyl-trans-2-cis-4-decadienoat gefunden werden. Die Konzentrationen der untersuchten Weine lagen zwischen >0,036 und 4,04 μg/L. Ein vorangegangener Test zur Feststellung des Wahrnehmungsschwellenwertes nach dem BET-3-Alternative-Forced-Choice-Verfahren ergab bei dieser Verbindung einen Wert von 2 μg/L. Somit ist der Aromastoff teilweise relevant für den Charakter der untersuchten Weine. Die Aromen wurden nach einer Konsumentenstudie ausgesucht und die sogenannte “birnenspezifische Odour Activity Value” nach zwei Verfahren berechnet. Im Zuge der sensorischen und analytischen Studien konnte festgestellt werden, dass ein Zusammenspiel einiger analysierten Aromen für den Charakter, die Qualität und die Typizit

  3. Facilitating nurses’ knowledge of the utilisation of reflexology in adults with chronic diseases to enable informed health education during comprehensive nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Steenkamp

    2012-05-01

    bepaalde insluitingskriteria was toegepas tydens die selekteringsproses. Die studie gehalte is nagegaan en beoordeel met toepaslike instrumente van die Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP en die American Dietetic Association (ADA se Evidence analysis manual (n = 21. Bewys uitreksel, analisering en sintese van studies (n = 18 was gedoen deur die bewysklas gradering en vlak van bewysterkte soos beskryf in die handleidings van ADA en CASP. Bevindings dui op ‘n statisitese beduidenisvolle verlaging in die frekwensie van konvulsies by pasiënte met epilepsie, ‘n verbetering van sensoriese en urinêre simptome ge-assosieer met veelvuldige sklerose en ‘n kliniese beduidenisvolle afname in angstigheid en pyn by pasiënte met kanker en fibromialgiese sindroom. Hierdie bevindings kan deur verpleegkundiges gebruik word om pasiente met hierdie kroniese siektes in te lig omtrent alternatiewe maniere van behandeling.

  4. Irradiation behavior of a submerged arc welding material with different copper content; Bestrahlungsverhalten einer UP-Versuchsschweissnaht mit unterschiedlichen Kupfergehalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, R [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Bartsch, R [Kernkraftwerk Obrigheim GmbH (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Che report presents results of an irradiation program on specimens of submerged arc weldings with copper contents of 0.14% up to 0.42% and a fluence up to 2.2E19 cm{sup -2} (E>1MeV). Unirradiated and irradiated tensile- Charpy-, K{sub lc}- and Pellini-specimens were tested of material with a copper content of 0.22%. On the other materials Charpy tests and tensile tests were performed. The irradiation of the specimens took place in the KWO - ``RPV, a PWR with low flux and in the VAK - RPV, a small BWR with high flux. - The irradiation induced embrittlemnt shows a copper dependence up to about 30%. The specimens with a copper content higher than 0.30% show no further embrittlement. Irradiation in different reactors with different flux (factor > 33) shows the same state of embrittlement. Determination of a K{sub lc}, T-curve with irradiated specimens is possible. The conservative of the RT{sub NDT} - concept could be confirmed by the results of Charpy-V, drop weight- and K{sub lc}-test results. [Deutsch] Zur zusaetzlichen Absicherung des KWO-RDB wurde Ende 1979 eine UP-Versuchsschweissnaht mit vergleichbarer chemischer Zusammensetzung und vergleibaren mechanisch-technologischen Werkstoffen im unbestrahlten Ausgangszustand wie die RDB Core-Rundnaht hergestellt. Teile der Naht wurden durch Verkupfern der Schweissdraehte auf unterschiedliche Gehalte von Cu=0,14% bis 0,42% eingestellt. Aus dieser Schweissverbindung wurden Proben im VAK und KWO-RDB bestrahlt. Im Rahmen der Aktivitaeten zur Absicherung des KWO-RDBs erfolgte 1995 die Pruefung der bestrahlten Proben. Die mechanisch technologischen Werkstoffwerte vor und nach Bestrahlung werden gegenuebergestellt und praesentiert. Mit dem Ergebnis wurde ein weiterer Nachweis fuer die Konservativitaet des RT{sub NDT}-Konzeptes erbracht. Es wurde nachgewiesen, dass fuer den untersuchten Bereich kein Dose-Rate Effekt bzw. Bestrahlungszeiteinfluss existiert. Fuer UP-Schweissungen mit den vorliegenden Fertigungsparametern und bei

  5. Studies of volatile secondary molasses constituents with inhibitory effect on yeast fermentation. Pt. 1. Determination of molasses and yeast components by GC and HPLC; Untersuchungen ueber fluechtige Nebenbestandteile der Melasse mit inhibitorischer Wirkung auf die Hefegaerung. T. 1. Bestimmung von Melasse- und Hefeinhaltsstoffen mittels GC und HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattohi, N.

    1994-07-20

    Hefegaerung wurden ermittelt. Dabei zeigte sich, dass im Fall der Inhibitorwirkung auf die Gaerung die MHK-Werte sehr hoch liegen; sie werden praktisch von den einzelnen Carbonsaeure- und Alkanolgehalten der Problemmelassen nicht erreicht. Jedoch weisen diese Saeuren und Alkohole deutliche Synergieeffekte auf, was durch Ermittlung der MHK-Werte von Gemischen belegt wurde. Vor allem die Gehalte der Problemmelassen an Buttersaeure + Kaprylsaeure + Hexanol und Heptanol sind fuer die Hemmwirkung bei der Hefegaerung verantwortlich. (orig.)

  6. International Odra project (IOP) 'Interdisciplinary German Polish studies on the behaviour of pollutants in the Oder system'. Sub project 4: the state of suspended particulate matter in the Odra River system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K.H.; Damke, H.; Kasbohm, J.; Puff, T.; Breitenbach, E.; Theel, O.; Kiessling, A.

    2001-05-20

    anhand ausgewaehlter biogener Bestandteile angestrebt. Durch die Charakterisierung der rezenten fluviatilen Feststoffe (Schwebstoffe und schwebstoffbuertige Sedimente) und die Ermittlung ihres Mengenanteiles werden Aussagen zur Belastungsentwicklung der Aestuargewaesser und der Ostsee durch die Oder moeglich. Aus dieser Zielstellung ergibt sich folgende Untersuchungsstrategie. Die stoffliche, strukturelle und biogene Charakteristik der Schwebstoffe umfasst die Ermittlung - der Schwebstoffkonzentration - der granulometrischen Zusammensetzung - des Kohlenstoff- und Schwefelgehaltes - des Gehaltes an biogenem Opal - des Mineral- und Phasenbestandes - des Metallgehaltes - der Struktur der Schwebstoffflocken - der Diatomeen-Assoziationen in den Schwebstoffflocken und am Periphyton. (orig.)

  7. Transport of the reactive substances eosin, uranium and lithium in a heterogeneous aquifer; Transport der reaktiven Stoffe Eosin, Uranin und Lithium in einem heterogenen Grundwasserleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, U.

    1997-02-01

    Juelich untersucht. Das grossraeumige Transportverhalten der geloesten Substanzen wurde hierbei im Rahmen von Tracerversuchen beobachtet. In-Situ- und Laborversuche dienten der Charakterisierung der raeumlichen Heterogenitaet des Grundwasserleiters. Als In-Situ-Untersuchungen wurden ca. 1500 Flowmeter-Messungen durchgefuehrt sowie 90 Messungen der Fliessgeschwindigkeit mittels der Einbohrloch-Methode. Die raeumliche Variabilitaet von hydraulischen und physiko-chemischen Eigenschaften wurde weiterhin an 400 Sedimentproben bestimmt. Folgende Sedimentparameter wurden untersucht: Die Korngroessenverteilung, hieraus berechnete hydraulische Leitfaehigkeiten und die Ungleichfoermigkeit; als physiko-chemische Parameter der Gehalt an organischem Kohlenstoff, die spezifische Oberflaeche und die Kationenaustauschkapazitaet. Weiterhin wurden an 75 Sedimentproben die Sorptionsparameter von Uranium und Lithium bestimmt. Die statistische Auswertung der Daten zeigte, dass die Heterogenitaet der hydraulischen Parameter groesser ist, aber in der gleichen Groessenordnung liegt wie die Heterogenitaet der physiko-chemischen Parameter. Zwischen hydraulischen und physiko-chemischen Parametern besteht eine leicht negative Korrelation. (orig./SR)

  8. The 1996 thaw as a {sup 18}O tracer experiment at the lysimeter plant in Wagna; Die Schneeschmelze 1996 als {sup 18}O-Tracerversuch an der Lysimeteranlage in Wagna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fank, J.; Zojer, H. [Forschungsgesellschaft Joanneum, Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Geothermie und Hydrogeologie; Stichler, W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie

    1999-02-01

    tieferverlagert. Diese Verlagerung ist in den Verlaeufen der {sup 18}O-Konzentration im Sickerwasser in den unterschiedlichen Messtiefen nachvollziehbar. Die Verlagerung ist an Neubildungsereignisse gekoppelt, wobei Schneeschmelzvorgaenge eher einen dispersiven Fluss, Niederschlagsereignisse einen `piston flow` Effekt ausloesen. Die Winterniederschlaege erreichen Mitte April eine Tiefe von 60 bis 70 cm. Die Daempfung des {sup 18}O-Gehaltes zeigt bevorzugte Fliesscharakteristika in den unterschiedlichen Kompartimenten der ungesaettigten Zone (feinklastischer Boden, Kiese und Sande). (orig.)

  9. Strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in industrial effluents: IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reemtsma, T.; Klinkow, N.

    2001-08-01

    The assessment of amounts and effects of hazardous substances in industrial effluents necessitates a combination of chemical and biological investigations. Therefore in this study a strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in wastewater discharges was developed which connects the parameters persistence, bioaccumulation, and aquatic toxicity. The strategy IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment) was elaborated based on the evaluation of existing investigation strategies and the available test systems. The strategy has a modular structure to assure a flexible investigation with regard to the particularities of a given wastewater. After the determination of acute and chronic toxicity and genotoxicity a microbial degradation test is carried out to obtain the persistent wastewater fraction. The bioaccumulating substances are determined from this fraction by solid-phase extraction. Within the strategy differences between direct and indirect discharges are taken into account and particulate matter is considered as well. By the modular linking it can be determined if a wastewater contains toxic and persistent and bioaccumulating substances, which present an important potential of hazard for the aquatic environment. The first application of the strategy on three wastewater samples of the chemical and the metal processing industry showed that the strategy can be used as planned. (orig.) [German] Die Erfassung der Gehalte und Wirkungen gefaehrlicher Stoffe in Abwassereinleitungen der Industrie erfordert eine Kombination chemischer und biologischer Untersuchungen, die ueber das bisher in der AbwV festgelegte Mass hinausgeht. In dieser Studie wurde deshalb eine Untersuchungsstrategie fuer gefaehrliche Stoffe in Abwasserleitungen entwickelt, die die Parameter Persistenz, Bioakkumulierbarkeit und Toxizitaet auch experimentell verknuepft. Die Ausarbeitung erfolgte nach Auswertung der international bestehenden Untersuchungsstrategien sowie der zur Verfuegung stehenden

  10. The occupational effects of unconventional (custom-made hearing protection for platinum mine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Steenkamp

    2003-10-01

    gehoorbeskermers oorweeg moet word. Die resultate toon sekere positiewe aspekte ten opsigte van gehalte gehoorkonservering en het bevestig dat doelgemaakte gehoorbeskermers (met hul unieke eienskappe nie slegs gehoor beskerm nie, maar verskeie ander beroepsverwante voordele inhou.

  11. STUDY OF TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dastkhan

    2012-01-01

    . Volgens die vooruitskatting wat gedoen is met behulp van 'n tydreeksanalise, blyk dit dat die gunstelingterreine vir navorsing in die toekoms op die gebiede van inligtingstegnologie, intelligente sisteme, optimisering, gehalte en voorsienings-kettingbestuur sal wees.

  12. Development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide applying high throughput methods; Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren zur Spaltung von Methanol in Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid mittels Hochdurchsatz-Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Torsten

    2008-07-11

    The topic of this thesis has been the development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. As an important constraint here, the content of noble metals of the catalysts should be as low as possible. High-throughput-methods were applied in some of the syntheses and experiments to accelerate the development, as, for example, the use of liquid based sol-gel syntheses and the examination of catalyst libraries by spatial resolution gas chromatography. This screening technique allowed to test up to 207 different substances during one single experiment. Then, different combinatorial strategies were applied. First, these methods led to a highly active and stable catalyst in the ternary system of Cu-Ni-Zn, which showed high conversion and selectivity comparable to an industrial reference catalyst. Its activity during an 18 hour long term run was constant in contrast to the reference. Second, an additional approach starting from a broader variety of elements led to a Ce- Ru- and to a Cr-Ru-catalyst. Both of them were highly active in short term experiments, but lost their outstanding performances during long term runs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasste sich mit der Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren fuer die Spaltung von Methanol zu Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid, die einen moeglichst geringen Gehalt an Edelmetallen aufweisen sollten. Um diesen Prozess zu beschleunigen, wurden in einem Teil der Synthesen und Experimente Hochdurchsatzmethoden verwendet. Neben der Roboter gestuetzten Sol-Gel-Synthese umfasste dies die Untersuchung von Katalysatorbibliotheken mittels ortsaufgeloester Gaschromatographie, die es ermoeglichte, in einem Experiment bis zu 207 verschiedene Substanzen auf ihre katalytische Aktivitaet zu testen. Unter Anwendung verschiedener kombinatorischer Strategien wurde zunaechst ein sehr aktiver und stabiler Katalysator im ternaeren Cu-Ni-Zn-System entdeckt. Neben Umsaetzen und

  13. Analysis of self-organized In(Ga)As quantum structures with the scanning transmission electron microscope; Analyse selbstorganisierter In(Ga)As-Quantenstrukturen mit dem Raster-Transmissionselektronenmikroskop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwald, Andres

    2008-05-27

    '-Strukturen (DWell) und von vertikal korrelierten Quantum Dots (QDs) analysiert werden. Zur Optimierung von DWell-Strukturen wurden Proben untersucht, deren nominelle InAs-QD-Wachstumsposition innerhalb des einbettenden InGaAs-Quantum Wells (QWs) gezielt variiert wurde. Das RTEM bietet in Verbindung mit der EELS-Methode grosses Potential zur chemischen Analyse von Quantenstrukturen. Untersucht wurde eine Probenreihe selbstorganisierter InGaAs/GaAs-Strukturen auf GaAs-Substrat, deren Verspannung durch Variieren des Ga-Gehalts des InGaAs-Materials zwischen 2.4 % und 4.3 % veraendert worden ist. (orig.)

  14. MTBE experts' discussion: Environmental pollution from MTBE fuel additives. Proceedings; MTBE-Fachgespraech: Umweltbelastungen durch die Nutzung von MTBE (Methyl-tertiaer-butylether) als Kraftstoffzusatz. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    MTBE is a volatile, water-soluble, oxygen-containing liquid with a high octane rating. It hardly absorbs to the soil matrix, is hardly degradable by biological means, and moves in groundwater at practically the same speed as the groundwater itself. This makes it an important groundwater hazard. The main problem is the low taste and smell threshold concentration of MTBE, because of which contaminated water is unfit for drinking. MTBE has been used as a fuel additive in the USA since the seventies and in Germany since the eighties for a better antiknock rating. MTBE concentrations depend on the fuel quality, ranging from 0.3 percent in normal gasoline and 1.6 percent in super gasoline to 6-12 percent by volume in SuperPlus and Optimax fuels. At this conference, which comprised nine lectures and a round of detailed discussions, measured concentrations of MTBE in air, precipitations, surface water and groundwater were presented, and the possibilities of modelling were discussed. The attendants of the meeting agreed that in view of the available data and at the present state of knowledge concerning the sources and fate of MTBE in environmental media, MTBE cannot be excluded as a groundwater pollutant. (orig.) [German] MTBE ist eine leichtfluechtige, gut wasserloesliche, sauerstoffhaltige Fluessigkeit mit hoher Oktanzahl. Es sorbiert fast nicht an die Bodenmatrix, ist sehr schlecht biologisch abbaubar und bewegt sich im Grundwasser praktisch mit der gleichen Geschwindigkeit wie das Grundwasser selbst. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften stellt MTBE eine Gefahr fuer das Grundwasser dar. Problematisch aus Sicht der Wasserversorgung ist die niedrige Geruchs- und Geschmacksschwelle von MTBE, weshalb kontaminiertes Wasser nicht mehr als Trinkwasser brauchbar ist. MTBE wird seit Mitte der 70er Jahre in den USA und seit Anfang der 80er Jahre in Deutschland dem Benzin zugesetzt, um die Klopffestigkeit zu verbessern. Der MTBE-Gehalt haengt von der Benzin-Qualitaet ab: Waehrend

  15. Comment réduire le taux de contaminants environnementaux dans les huiles de poisson sans en affecter les caractéristiques nutritionnelles ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude fish oil is an important ingredient in fish feed for fish farming; it can be used as functional food or neutraceutical (cod liver oil, EPA/DHA concentrates or incorporated in healthy foods after refining. Major components of fish oil have positive nutritional properties. Polyunsaturated fatty acids can go up to 40% with variable proportions of EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22-6 [ω-3 fatty acids]. Content of fat soluble vitamins is usually high. Unfortunately, fish oil is also sensitive to degradation products (polymeric and oxidized fat, increased polar content, off-flavor problems…. The beneficial nutritional properties of fish oil are in great contrast with the presence of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs such as polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/PCDFs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, mainly originating from the environment. Usual steps for fish oil refining are neutralization, bleaching, winterization (optional and deodorization. Processing difficulties consist in finding the best operating conditions for an effective removal of unwanted contaminants and a maximal preservation of the nutritional qualities (processing duality. In this work, different adsorbents (filter aid, silica powder, bleaching earth and active carbon were tested for the best removal of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs; it was shown that filter aid, silica and bleaching earth have no significant effect on decontamination while removal of majority non ortho PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs was possible with active carbon. Mono-ortho PCBs were significantly less absorbed by active carbon. Deodorization was further investigated. Processing temperature had a very pronounced effect on the reduction of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs. Already at 210 °C, all of them were removed efficiently to a level below the limit set by European Legislation. But temperature increase was limited by the risk of degradation of EPA/DHA (ω-3. Combination of active carbon treatment and

  16. Reproduction Symposium: does grazing on biosolids-treated pasture pose a pathophysiological risk associated with increased exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N P; Bellingham, M; Sharpe, R M; Cotinot, C; Rhind, S M; Kyle, C; Erhard, H; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Lind, P M; Fowler, P A

    2014-08-01

    Biosolids (processed human sewage sludge), which contain low individual concentrations of an array of contaminants including heavy metals and organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans known to cause physiological disturbances, are increasingly being used as an agricultural fertilizer. This could pose a health threat to both humans and domestic and wild animal species. This review summarizes results of a unique model, used to determine the effects of exposure to mixtures of environmentally relevant concentrations of pollutants, in sheep grazed on biosolids-treated pastures. Pasture treatment results in nonsignificant increases in environmental chemical (EC) concentrations in soil. Whereas EC concentrations were increased in some tissues of both ewes and their fetuses, concentrations were low and variable and deemed to pose little risk to consumer health. Investigation of the effects of gestational EC exposure on fetal development has highlighted a number of issues. The results indicate that gestational EC exposure can adversely affect gonadal development (males and females) and that these effects can impact testicular morphology, ovarian follicle numbers and health, and the transcriptome and proteome in adult animals. In addition, EC exposure can be associated with altered expression of GnRH, GnRH receptors, galanin receptors, and kisspeptin mRNA within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, gonadotroph populations within the pituitary gland, and regional aberrations in thyroid morphology. In most cases, these anatomical and functional differences do not result in altered peripheral hormone concentrations or reproductive function (e.g., lambing rate), indicating physiological compensation under the conditions tested. Physiological compensation is also suggested from studies that indicate that EC effects may be greater when exposure occurs either

  17. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jiuyong; Guo Jie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-09-15

    The major economic driving force for recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs) of PCBs. The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up almost 70 wt% of waste PCBs, were treated by combustion or land filling in the past. However, combustion of the NMFs will cause the formation of highly toxic polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) while land filling of the NMFs will lead to secondary pollution caused by heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leaching to the groundwater. Therefore, recycling of the NMFs from waste PCBs is drawing more and more attention from the public and the governments. Currently, how to recycle the NMFs environmental soundly has become a significant topic in recycling of waste PCBs. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the NMFs, the compositions and characteristics of the NMFs, methods and outcomes of recycling the NMFs from waste PCBs and analysis and treatment for the hazardous substances contained in the NMFs were reviewed in this paper. Thermosetting resin matrix composites, thermoplastic matrix composites, concrete and viscoelastic materials are main applications for physical recycling of the NMFs. Chemical recycling methods consisting of pyrolysis, gasification, supercritical fluids depolymerization and hydrogenolytic degradation can be used to convert the NMFs to chemical feedstocks and fuels. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) can be used to determine the toxicity characteristic (TC) of the NMFs and to evaluate the environmental safety of products made from the recycled NMFs. It is believed that physical recycling of the NMFs has been a promising recycling method. Much more work should be done to develop comprehensive and industrialized usage of the NMFs recycled by physical methods. Chemical recycling methods have the advantages in eliminating hazardous substances

  18. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jiuyong; Guo Jie; Xu Zhenming

    2009-01-01

    The major economic driving force for recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs) of PCBs. The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up almost 70 wt% of waste PCBs, were treated by combustion or land filling in the past. However, combustion of the NMFs will cause the formation of highly toxic polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) while land filling of the NMFs will lead to secondary pollution caused by heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leaching to the groundwater. Therefore, recycling of the NMFs from waste PCBs is drawing more and more attention from the public and the governments. Currently, how to recycle the NMFs environmental soundly has become a significant topic in recycling of waste PCBs. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the NMFs, the compositions and characteristics of the NMFs, methods and outcomes of recycling the NMFs from waste PCBs and analysis and treatment for the hazardous substances contained in the NMFs were reviewed in this paper. Thermosetting resin matrix composites, thermoplastic matrix composites, concrete and viscoelastic materials are main applications for physical recycling of the NMFs. Chemical recycling methods consisting of pyrolysis, gasification, supercritical fluids depolymerization and hydrogenolytic degradation can be used to convert the NMFs to chemical feedstocks and fuels. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) can be used to determine the toxicity characteristic (TC) of the NMFs and to evaluate the environmental safety of products made from the recycled NMFs. It is believed that physical recycling of the NMFs has been a promising recycling method. Much more work should be done to develop comprehensive and industrialized usage of the NMFs recycled by physical methods. Chemical recycling methods have the advantages in eliminating hazardous substances

  19. Human exposure, biomarkers, and fate of organotins in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Hussein K; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Adekola, Folahan A; Ximba, Bhekumusa J; Snyman, Reinette G; Opeolu, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Organotin compounds result from the addition of organic moieties to inorganic tin.Thus, one or more tin-carbon bonds exist in each organotin molecule. The organo-tin compounds are ubiquitous in the environment. Organotin compounds have many uses, including those as fungicides and stabilizers in plastics, among others in industry. The widespread use of organotins as antifouling agents in boat paints has resulted in pollution of freshwater and marine ecosystems. The presence of organotin compounds in freshwater and marine ecosystems is now understood to be a threat, because of the amounts found in water and the toxicity of some organotin compounds to aquatic organisms, and perhaps to humans as well. Organotin com-pounds are regarded by many to be global pollutants of a stature similar to biphenyl,mercury, and the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. This stature results from the high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and endocrine disruptive features of even very low levels of selected organotin compounds.Efforts by selected governmental agencies and others have been undertaken to find a global solution to organotin pollution. France was the first country to ban the use of the organotins in 1980. This occurred before the international maritime organization (IMO) called for a global treaty to ban the application of tributyltin (TBT)-based paints. In this chapter, we review the organotin compounds with emphasis on the human exposure, fate, and distribution of them in the environment. The widespread use of the organotins and their high stability have led to contamination of some aquatic ecosystems. As a result, residues of the organotins may reach humans via food consumption. Notwithstanding the risk of human exposure, only limited data are available on the levels at which the organotins exist in foodstuffs consumed by humans. Moreover, the response of marine species to the organotins, such as TBT, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, more data on the

  20. Persistent Organohalogens in Paired Fish Fillet and Eggs: Implications for Fish Consumption Advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2016-04-13

    Fish consumption is associated with both health benefits from high-quality proteins, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids and risks from contaminants in fish. Fish consumption advisories are issued by many government agencies to keep exposure to contaminants at a safe level. Such advisories are typically based on fillets and neglect consumption of other fish parts such as eggs by certain subpopulations. To evaluate potential for dietary exposure to toxic organic chemicals via fish eggs, we analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in paired fillet and eggs of fish from a tributary to Lake Ontario, one of the North American Great Lakes. All wet weight based concentrations in fish eggs were statistically higher than in the paired fillet samples. In fish eggs, concentrations of Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 41-118, 0.3-1.7, and 30-128 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and total (dlPCB+ PCDD/Fs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 4-22 and 9-54 pg/g ww, respectively. In fillet samples, Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 4-116, 0.05-0.66, and 6-85 ng/g, respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and TEQs were 2-10 and 3.4-31 pg/g ww, respectively. In contrast, the fillets had higher lipid normalized concentrations than the paired egg samples, suggesting that these chemicals did not reach equilibrium between the fillets and eggs. Accordingly, measured concentrations in eggs or empirical relationship with fillet rather than prediction from equilibrium partitioning model should be used to evaluate contaminant exposure via consumption of fish eggs. For fatty fish from the lower Great Lakes area, we suggest one fillet meal be reduced from the advised fish consumption frequency for consumptions of 207 ± 37, 39 ± 2, 105 ± 51, and 119 ± 9 g fish eggs of brown trout, Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, and rainbow trout, respectively.

  1. Transcriptional profiling of rat white adipose tissue response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-ρ-dioxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlahan, Kathleen E.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Sun, Ren X. [Informatics and Bio-Computing Program, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Moffat, Ivy D. [Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Lindén, Jere [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Lensu, Sanna [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä (Finland); Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Okey, Allan B. [Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Pohjanvirta, Raimo, E-mail: raimo.pohjanvirta@helsinki.fi [Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boutros, Paul C., E-mail: Paul.Boutros@oicr.on.ca [Informatics and Bio-Computing Program, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins are environmental contaminants commonly produced as a by-product of industrial processes. The most potent of these, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-ρ-dioxin (TCDD), is highly lipophilic, leading to bioaccumulation. White adipose tissue (WAT) is a major site for energy storage, and is one of the organs in which TCDD accumulates. In laboratory animals, exposure to TCDD causes numerous metabolic abnormalities, including a wasting syndrome. We therefore investigated the molecular effects of TCDD exposure on WAT by profiling the transcriptomic response of WAT to 100 μg/kg of TCDD at 1 or 4 days in TCDD-sensitive Long-Evans (Turku/AB; L-E) rats. A comparative analysis was conducted simultaneously in identically treated TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W) rats one day after exposure to the same dose. We sought to identify transcriptomic changes coinciding with the onset of toxicity, while gaining additional insight into later responses. More transcriptional responses to TCDD were observed at 4 days than at 1 day post-exposure, suggesting WAT shows mostly secondary responses. Two classic AHR-regulated genes, Cyp1a1 and Nqo1, were significantly induced by TCDD in both strains, while several genes involved in the immune response, including Ms4a7 and F13a1 were altered in L-E rats alone. We compared genes affected by TCDD in rat WAT and human adipose cells, and observed little overlap. Interestingly, very few genes involved in lipid metabolism exhibited altered expression levels despite the pronounced lipid mobilization from peripheral fat pads by TCDD in L-E rats. Of these genes, the lipolysis-associated Lpin1 was induced slightly over 2-fold in L-E rat WAT on day 4. - Highlights: • Exposure to TCDD causes wasting syndrome in L-E rats but not in H/W rats. • We examined the transcriptome of TCDD-treated L-E and H/W rat white adipose tissue. • L-E WAT demonstrated altered abundance of several genes involved in immune response. • Few

  2. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in human lymphocytes as biomarker of exposure: effect of dioxin exposure and polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duursen, M. van; Sanderson, T.; Berg, M. van den [Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    There are several known genetic polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes. A polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the CYP1A1 gene (CYP1A1 MspI or CYP1A1 m1) is often studied in relation with breast or lung cancer, but little is known about the functional effect of this polymorphism. An amino acid substitution in codon 432 (Val to Leu) of the CYP1B1 gene is associated with a lower catalytic activity of the enzyme. However, the involvement of these polymorphisms on the inducibility of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression is unclear. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression levels can be determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This makes them potential candidates for use as biomarker of exposure to environmental compounds. Interindividual variations in mRNA expression patterns, catalytic activity and polymorphisms are very important factors when CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression patterns are used as biomarker of exposure, but little is known about it. Spencer et al. showed a concentration-dependent increase of CYP1B1 mRNA in lymphocytes upon exposure in vitro to 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD), the most potent dioxin. Yet, only a few studies describe the in vivo correlation between polymorphisms, mRNA expression level and exposure to environmental factors. In this study, we wanted to obtain a better insight in the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression and enzyme activity in human lymphocytes. We determined the constitutive CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression in lymphocytes of ten healthy volunteers and the variability in sensitivity toward enzyme induction by TCDD. Further, the CYP1A1 m1 and CYP1B1 Val432Leu polymorphisms were determined.

  3. Alexander von Humboldt brachte Guano nach Europa - mit ungeahnten globalen Folgen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Rott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Die vorliegende Abhandlung beschäftigt sich mit einem bisher wenig beachteten Aspekt von Humboldts Amerikanischer Reise (1799─1804. Während seine Studien der Pflanzen- und Tierwelt bis heute große Aufmerksamkeit genießen, wird Humboldts Beitrag zu der Entwicklung der modernen Landwirtschaft wenig beachtet. Während seines Aufenthalts in Lima erhielt er Proben von Guano, Vogelmist von den Chincha-Inseln vor der peruanischen Küste. Einige Proben, die er von dieser Reise zurückbrachte, wurden von Wissenschaftlern in Frankreich und Deutschland untersucht. Die Analysenergebnisse zeigten außerordentlich hohe Gehalte an Pflanzennährstoffen, insbesondere Stickstoff und Phosphor. In den folgenden Jahrzehnten wurde Guano zu einem bedeutsamen Düngemittel und Auslöser eines Booms in Europa und Peru. Die Auswirkungen dieser Entwicklung sind bis heute sichtbar und werden hier unter besonderer Beachtung von Phosphor beschrieben. Abstract One aspect of Humboldt’s travel to South America (1799─1804 received little attention. The fascination of his studies of the South American flora and fauna is unbroken to the present day. Yet Humboldt’s contribution to modern agriculture remains almost unnoticed. During his stay in Lima Humboldt received samples of guano, a mixture of bird droppings from the Chincha Islands off the Peruvian coast, which he took to Europe and had analyzed by the most famous chemists in France and Germany. The results showed outstanding fertilizing effects, in particular due to the high content of nitrogen and phosphorus. The ensuing boom starting from the 1840s influenced agriculture in Europe and the economy of Peru seriously. Some aspects of this historical development may give an idea of the ensuing change not only in agriculture. Résumé Il y a un aspect du voyage de Alexander von Humboldt en Amérique du Sud (1799─1804 qui jusqu’à présent a été peu considéré. Ses études de la flore at le da

  4. Corrosion resistance and microstructure of alloy 625 weld overlay on ASTM A516 grade 70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Mohammad J. [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Ketabchi, Mostafa [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Dept.

    2016-02-01

    Nickel-based alloys are a crucial class of materials because of their excellent corrosion resistance. In the present study, single layer and two layers alloy 625 weld overlays were deposited by GTAW process on A516 grade 70 carbon steel. The dilution in terms of Fe, Ni, Mo and Nb content was calculated in 30 points of weld overlay. Microstructure observations showed that alloy 625 had austenitic structure with two types of Laves and NbC secondary phases. The uniform and pitting corrosion resistance of alloy 625 weld overlay as casted and as forged were evaluated in accordance with ASTM G48-2011 standard at different temperatures to determine the weight loss and critical pitting temperature. For achieving a better comparison, samples from alloy 625 as casted and as forged were tested under the same conditions. The results point out that single layer alloy 625 weld overlay is not suitable for chloride containing environments, two layers alloy 625 weld overlay and alloy 625 as casted have acceptable corrosion resistance and almost the same critical pitting temperature. Alloy 625 as forged has the best corrosion resistance and the highest critical pitting temperature among all test specimens. Also, the corrosion behavior was evaluated in accordance with ASTM G28 standard. The corrosion rate of single layer weld overlay was unacceptable. The average corrosion rate of two layers weld overlay and in casted condition were 35.82 and 33.01 mpy, respectively. [German] Nickellegierungen sind aufgrund ihres exzellenten Korrosionswiderstandes eine bedeutende Werkstoffklasse. In der diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurden mittels WIG-Schweissens ein- und zweilagige Schweissplattierungen auf den Kohlenstoffstahl A516 (Grade 70) aufgebracht. Die Vermischung in Form des Fe-, Ni-, Mo- und Nb-Gehaltes wurde an 30 Punkten der Schweissplattierungen berechnet. Die mikrostrukturellen Untersuchungen ergaben, dass die Legierung 625 eine austenitische Struktur mit zwei Arten von

  5. Thoughts and Views on the Compilation of Monolingual Dictionaries in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C.P Golele

    2011-10-01

    woordeboeksamestelling betref, is bekendheid met die heel nuutste ontwikkelinge in die teorie en praktyk van die leksikografie noodsaaklik. Die fokus van die Afrikatale moet op die samestelling van eentalige woordeboeke gerig wees. Dit is belangrik dat hierdie eentalige woordeboeke reg van die begin af op 'n deurlopende basis bruikbaar moet wees. Voortdurende aandag moet aan die uitbreiding van die korpusse en die werklike raadpleging van hierdie korpusse op makro- en mikrostrukturele vlak gegee word. Die eindprodukte moet van 'n ho? leksikografiese gehalte wees, goed gebalanseerd betreffende lemmakeuse, lengte van artikels, maksimum gebruik van beskikbare woordeboekruimte, e.s.m. Hulle moet ook op so 'n manier beplan en saamgestel word dat die oorgang van papierwoordeboeke na elektroniese woordeboeke maklik en natuurlik bewerkstellig kan word. Gevorderde en voortdurende opleiding in die samestelling van eentalige woordeboeke moet aangebied word. Sleutelwoorde: EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEKE, AMPTELIKE TALE, WOORDEBOEKSAMESTELLING, KORPUSSE, NASIONALE LEKSIKOGRAFIE-EENHEDE, TEIKENGEBRUIKERS, WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIK, WOORDEBOEKKULTUUR, KERNTERME

  6. Value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in community nursing science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Beukes

    2010-11-01

    ervaar word,wat kliniese leer op sy beurt in gemeenskapsverpleegkunde negatief beïnvloed. Die doel van die studie was om die belewenis van studente met betrekking tot waardesensitiewe kliniese begeleiding in gemeenskapsverpleegkunde te verken en te beskryf. ’n Verkennende, beskrywende en kontekstuele ontwerp is gebruik. Die interaksie wat tussen die gemeenskapsverpleegkundiges en studente tydens kliniese begeleiding plaasgevind het, is vir waardesensitiwiteit deur middel van video opnames, deelnemerobservasie en fokusgroeponderhoude verken. Die data wat deur middel van video-opnames en deelnemerobservasie ingesamel is, is deur die navorser en ’n eksterne kodeerder ontleed en gekodeer.’n Induktiewe beskrywende metode is gebruik om belangrike segmente van die gereeldheid van gedrag te identifiseer en beskryf. Fokusgroeponderhoude is deur die navorsers en ’n eksterne kodeerder getranskribeer, ontleed en gekodeer deur gebruik te maak van Tesch se stappe van analise (Creswell 1994:155–156. Lincoln en Guba (1985:290 se kriteria vir geloofwaardigheid is in die studie gebruik. Die algemene bevindinge dui daarop dat kliniese begeleiding in gemeenskapsverpleegkunde nie waarde-sensitief is nie. Gevolglik moet riglyne vir waarde-sensitiewe kliniese begeleiding vir voorgraadse studente in gemeenskapsverpleegkunde ontwikkel word. Die volgende waardes(waardes waarvoor riglyne ontwikkel moet word is geïdentifiseer, naamlik respek tydens kliniese begeleiding, waarde-sensitiewe kommunikasie en sensitiwiteit vir gehalte van kliniese begeleiding.

  7. Hauptschülers’ Conceptions of Work – An Exclusion from the Subjective Dissolution of Boundaries?/Hauptschüler und ihre Vorstellung von Arbeit – eine Ausgrenzung von der subjektivierten Entgrenzung?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Kölzer

    2011-10-01

    sich die Erfahrungen, die Hauptschüler mit Arbeit sammeln, einseitig auf atypische, unsichere Beschäftigungsverhältnisse mit hohem Prekaritätsrisiko konzentrieren sowie auf Normalarbeitsverhältnisse, beschränkt auf Berufe mit niedrigem Status, schlechter Bezahlung und hohen Gesundheitsrisiken. Privilegierte Tätigkeiten mit hohem Subjektivierungsgrad bleiben ihnen meist vorenthalten. Diese institutionell und sozial erzeugte eher einseitige Erfahrungskonzentration verursacht daher im Prozess der emotionalen Konditionierung einen eher engen Arbeitsbegriff. Gleichzeitig stellt Subjektivierung zusammen mit ihren Entgrenzungsphänomenenzunehmend eine „generelle Anforderungsstruktur an alle Beschäftigten“ (Lohr, Nickel 2005, 217 dar. Um sich auf „Arbeitsanforderungen mit höherem Gehalt an subjektiven Flexibilitäts- und Selbstgestaltungspotenzialen einzustellen“ (ebd., 221, – so meine These – bedarf es allerdings vorab einer differenzierteren Vorstellung von Arbeit, insbesondere ein Bewusstsein für die Subjektivierung von Erwerbsarbeit mit ihren Entgrenzungsphänomenen. Doch treten die befragten Hauptschüler mit einer eher einseitigen, negativen und vorwiegend fordistisch geprägten Perspektive auf Arbeit in den Lernprozess und später wahrscheinlich auch in den Arbeitsmarkt ein, wenn es Schule und Unterricht nicht gelingt, diese Vorstellungen zu erweitern und zu differenzieren. Insofern kann von einer Ausgrenzung von subjektiver Entgrenzung aufgrund eines unzureichenden Arbeitsbegriffes und einer mit aktuellen Anforderungen wenig kompatiblen Arbeitseinstellung gesprochen werden.

  8. The Ndebele Language Corpus: A Review of Some Factors Influencing the Content of the Corpus*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samukele Hadebe

    2011-10-01

    ALLEX Project (tans ALRI by die Universiteit van Zimbabwe. Dit is bedoel om soveel moontlik te weerspie?l van die Ndebeletaal soos in Zimbabwe gepraat. Die Ndebeletaalkorpus is opgebou om veelbenodigde materiaal te verskaf vir die studie van die Ndebeletaal, met spesiale fokus op woordeboeksamestelling en navorsing. Soos die meeste korpora, kan die Ndebeletaalkorpus in die toekoms gebruik word vir ander doeleindes waaraan nie by tye van sy ontstaan gedink is nie. Dit is ontwerp om aan algemeen aanvaarde standaarde te voldoen sodat dit aanpasbaar kan wees vir verskillende moontlike gebruike deur verskillende navorsers. Die artikel wil die bouproses van die Ndebeletaalkorpus skets met spesiale klem op die uitdagings wat die samestellers ondervind het, en moontlike oplossings. Dit word aanvaar dat sommige van hierdie uitdagings nie eie aan Ndebele alleen mag wees nie, maar ook verwante Afrikatale in 'n min of meer soortgelyke situasie mag raak. Die hooffokus van die bespreking sal op die samestelling van die Ndebeletaalkorpus wees, d.w.s. die soort tekste wat die korpus uitmaak. Die korpus is saamgestel uit gepubliseerde tekste, ongepubliseerde tekste en mondelinge materiaal versamel in Ndebelesprekende distrikte van Zimbabwe. Daar sal geredeneer word dat die gebruik van die korpus en sy betroubaarheid vir navorsing op onder andere sy inhoud berus. Daar sal ook getoon word dat die inhoud van die korpus op 'n aantal faktore berus, sommige waarvan sosiolinguistiese, politieke en ekonomiese oorwegings insluit. Hierdie oorwegings het implikasies vir beide die inhoud en gehalte van gepubliseerde en mondelinge tekste wat die Ndebeletaalkorpus uitmaak.

    Sleutelwoorde: KORPUS, MONDELINGE MATERIAAL, KODEVERMENGING, KODEOMSKAKELING, MOEDERTAAL, NDEBELE

  9. Optimisation of the process of fuel gas production for fuel cells in motor vehicles; Verfahrenstechnische Optimierung der Brenngaserzeugung fuer Brennstoffzellen in Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colsman, G

    1995-10-01

    System der Methanol-Dampfreformierung mit Bezug auf die wesentlichen Kriterien Leistungsdichte und Gasqualitaet verfahrenstechnisch optimiert. Dadurch wird die spezifische Wasserstoffproduktion auf 10 Nm{sup 3} H{sub 2} pro Stunde und Liter Katalysator bei 99.5% Methanolumsatzgrad und 280 C Wandtemperatur des Reformers gesteigert. Der beim Einsatz einer PEMFC mit reiner Platin als Katalysator einzuhaltende CO-Gehalt des Brenngases von 10 ppm wird dabei jedoch um 3 Groessenordnungen ueberschritten, so dass eine separate Gasreinigung erforderlich ist. Hierzu werden verschiedene chemische und physikalische Verfahren theoretisch und experimentell untersucht und diskutiert. Mittels porenfreier Metallmembranen ist eine Wasserstoffabtrennung aus dem Reformergas mit einer Reinheit >99.9999 Vol.-% unter Erfuellung der durch den Betrieb im Kraftfahrzeug vorgegebenen technischen Kriterien moeglich. Die durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen werden durch mathematische Modellierungen des optimierten Methanolreformers und der Gastrennung durch Membranen ergaenzt. Durch den Beitrag dieser Arbeit ist die Optimierung der Brenngaserzeugung aus Methanol so weit fortgeschritten, dass das Gaserzeugungssystem mit der im Fahrzeug erforderten Leistung gebaut und getestet werden kann. Baugroesse und -gewicht liegen bereits heute in einer Groessenordnung, die den Einbau in Kraftfahrzeuge ohne Einschraenkungen ermoeglicht. (orig.)

  10. Challenges to Issues of Balance and Representativeness in African Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapelo Joseph Otlogetswe

    2011-10-01

    rekenaarprogrammatuur het die herwinning van sulkeinligting toenemend redelik maklik geword. Die gehalte van herwonne inligting vir leksikografiesedoeleindes steun egter op die inligtingsinset by die korpusboufase. Indien korpusse nie verteenwoordigendis van die verskillende taalgebruike van 'n spraakgemeenskap nie, mag hulle blyk onbetroubare bronne van leksikografiese inligting te wees. Daar is egter kwessies in Afrikatale watbaie Afrikakorpusse problematies maak. Hierdie kwessies sluit in die tekort aan tekste van verskillendegenres, die niebeskikbaarheid van gebalanseerde en verteenwoordigende geskrewe tekste,die volkome afwesigheid van gesproke tekste asook geletterdheidsprobleme in Afrikagemeenskappe.Hierdie artikel ondersoek derhalwe die verskillende uitdagings betreffende die bou vanbetroubare Afrikataalkorpusse. Dit voer aan dat Afrikatale teenoor besondere uitdagings staan enkorpusnavorsing 'n verskillende behandeling mag vereis in vergelyking met Europese en Amerikaansekorpusnavorsing. Ten slotte kom dit tot die gevolgtrekking dat kwessies van balans enverteenwoordigendheid teoreties onmoontlik lyk wanneer gekyk word na die resultate van sosiolinguistiesenavorsing oor die verskillende bestaande taalvariëteite wat moeilik is om presies in 'nkorpus te verteenwoordig.

    Sleutelwoorde: AFRIKATALE, BALANS, BANK OF ENGLISH, BRITISH NATIONALCORPUS, COBUILD, DIALEK, FREKWENSIE, KODEWISSELING, KORPUSSE, ONTLENING,REKENAARS, SETSWANA, SOSIOLINGUISTIEK, SPRAAK, TAALVERSKEIDENHEID, TEKS,VERTEENWOORDIGENDHEID, WOORDEBOEKE

  11. Rapid method to predict the storage stability of middle distillates; Schnelltest zur Vorhersage der Lagerstabilitaet von Mitteldestillaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depta, H.; Wehn, R. [RWE - Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Entwicklung mbH, Wesseling (Germany); Kohlmeyer, U. [Deutsche Shell AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    und zwar: - die colorimetrische/spektralphotometrische Methode nach R.K. Solly und S.J. Marshman, - die Quantifizierung der SMORS nach M.A. Wechter und D.R. Hardy und - die Bestimmung von Phenalen und Phenalenon sowie von nichtbasischen stickstoffhaltigen Aromaten. Als Referenztest diente die ASTM D 4625-92 (Lagerung bei 43 C ueber einen Zeitraum von 12 Wochen mit Luftkontakt). Nach den vorliegenden Ergebnissen ist keine dieser Methoden als zuverlaessiger Schnelltest geeignet, da die Regressionsanalyse keine akzeptable Korrelation zwischen den Messwerten und den Unloeslichen aus dem Referenztest ausweist. Die Hypothese des Alterungsmechanismus von Pedley et al. konnte nicht bestaetigt werden. Die besten Resultate liefert die spektralphotometrische Methode, mit der unter Einbeziehung des Gesamtstickstoffgehaltes eine Vorhersagegenauigkeit der Testergebnisse nach ASTM von etwa 75% erzielt werden kann. Der zusaetzlich durchgefuehrte Rancimat-Test korreliert ueberhaupt nicht mit den Unloeslichen nach ASTM D 4625-92. Ebensowenig korrelieren die Unloeslichen nach ASTM D 4625 mit dem Gehalt an Sedimenten, die sich nach einem Jahr natuerlicher Lagerung gebildet haben und mittels DIN 51419 bestimmt wurden. Der ergaenzend durchgefuehrte `Shell Fenstertest` hingegen ermoeglicht eine Sicherheit in der Vorhersage der Langzeitstabilitaet von 78%, die sich nach einer Ueberarbeitung des Verfahrens im Hinblick auf reproduzierbare Testbedingungen vermutlich noch verbessern liesse. (orig.)

  12. Drinking water pollution with nickel from water boilers; Nickel-Eintrag aus Wasserkochern ins Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, E. [Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Stuttgart (Germany). Chemisches Inst.

    1998-07-01

    , dass Geraete mit offener Heizspirale beim Aufkochen Nickel in relevanten Mengen ins Trinkwasser abgeben. Die Untersuchung von 8 gebrauchten Wasserkochern mit offener Heizspirale ergab in einem Fall einen Gehalt ueber dem geltenden Grenzwert von 50 {mu}gNi/l, in zwei Faellen einen Nickelgehalt ueber dem vogeschlagenen neuen Grenzwert (20 {mu}g/l) und bei weiteren drei Geraeten einen Nickelgehalt knapp darunter (>10 {mu}g/l). Durch Entkalken stieg die Nickelkonzentration des aufgekochten Wassers um bis zum 50-fachen auf max. 640 {mu}g/l an. Der systematische Test eines Neugeraets bestaetigte diese Befunde: Zwar fiel der Nickelgehalt des Kochwassers bei normaler Benutzung unter die Nachweisgrenze von 5 {mu}g/l (120 Kochvorgaenge), jedoch waren nach dem Entkalken jeweils fuenf Kochvorgaenge erforderlich, um durch Bildung einer neuen Kalkschicht auf der Heizspirale den Nickelgehalt wieder unter 20 {mu}g/l zu senken. Die Verwendung von deionisiertem Wasser hatte dauerhaft Nickelgehalte zwischen 94 und 190 {mu}g/l zur Folge. Eine gesundheitliche Abschaetzung ergab, dass die mit der Verwendung von Wasserkochern mit offenen Heizspiralen verbundenen Nickelmengen zwar relevant sind, jedoch hinsichtlich der Nickelfracht der Gesamtnahrung nicht aus dem Rahmen fallen. Angesichts der weit verbreiteten Nickelallergie scheint eine Begrenzung der oralen Nickelaufnahme aus dieser Quelle aber dennoch geboten. (orig.)

  13. Development of a method for influencing the nutrient content ofs stabilised sewage sludge by further treatment. Final report; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Beeinflussung der Naehrstoffgehalte bei der weitergehenden Behandlung von stabilisierten Klaerschlaemmen. Verfahren der Aerob-Anoxischen Nachbehandlung - AAN-Verfahren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigtlaender, G.; Lopp, M.

    2002-11-01

    Depending on the sludge age (recommended age: 7 - 10 d) and on the concentration of available organic C, a nitrogen reduction of 50-70 percent was to be achieved in non-dehydrated, anaerobically stabilised sewage sludge. After dehydration, N recirculation is reduced by about 70 percent, while the N freight in dehydrated sewage sludge is reduced by about 45 percent. The dry matter in sewage sludge is reduced by 20-25 percent by further decomposition of organic compounds. This corresponds to an equivalent volume reduction of the dehydrated sewage sludge. The dehydration properties of the sludge are improved significantly. Especially the improved separation efficiency and improved sludge water quality result in cost savings for chemical additives, e.g. polyelectrolyte. Practical tests have proved the improved dehydration properties. Shorter digestion times (about 15 d) will bring about further potential savings. A combination with sewage sludge desintegration is recommended especially for very short digestion times (about 10 d). Tests with simultaneously aerobically stabilised sludges resulted in a nitrogen reduction of only up to 15 percent, i.e. below expectations. In all, it can be stated that the project was successful. The results were very positive with respect to the goals envisaged, and the cost estimate was kept. The reduction of nitrogen concentrations will increase the acceptance of sewage sludge as a fertiliser. Especially the combination of the described effects will make the process interesting for practical application. [German] In Anlehnung an die Hauptzielrichtungen des Projektes lassen sich die Forschungsergebnisse wie folgt beschreiben: In Abhaengigkeit von Schlammalter (empfohlen: 7... 10 d) und vom Gehalt an verfuegbarem org. C sind Stickstoffreduzierungen im nicht entwaesserten und zuvor anaerob stabilisierten Klaerschlamm von 50...70% zu erzielen. Nach der Entwaesserung sind gegenueber der einfachen Faulung die Schlammwasser

  14. The Concept of "Simultaneous Feedback": Towards a New Methodology for Compiling Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Good lexicographers are constantly striving to enhance the quality of their dictionaries. Since dictionaries are ultimately judged by their target users, there is an urgency to provide for the target users' needs. In order to determine such needs more accurately, it has become common practice to submit users of a dictionary to a series of tests to monitor their success in information rehieval. In most cases such feedback unfortunately comes too late so that it can at best be considered for. implementation in the next or revised edition of the dictionary. In this article it is argued that feedback from the target users should be obtained while the compilation of the dictionary is still in progress, a process referred to as "simultaneous feedback". This concept, which offers a new methodology for compiling dictionaries, overcomes the major problem 'of creating and publishing entire dictionaries before feedback from target users can be obtained. By this new methodology, the release of several small-scale parallel dictionaries triggers feedback that is immediately channelled to the compilation process of a main dictionary. As such, the target users constantly guide the compilers during the entire compilation process. After a theoretical presentation of the new concept, the feasibility of simultaneous feedback is illustrated with reference to the creation of a bilingual CiIuba-Dutch leamer's dictionary. It is shown how this main project has been successfully complemented by three parallel projects.

    Keywords: SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK, NEW METHOOOLOGY, MAIN DICTIONARY, PARALLEL DICTIONARIES, TARGET USERS' DESIRES, QUESTIONNAIRES, ELECTRONIC CORPORA, WORD-FREQUENCY STUDIES, CONCORDANCES, AFRICAN LANGUAGES, CILUBÀ

    Opsomming: Die konsep van "gelyktydige terugvoering": Onderweg na Innuwe metodologie vir die samestelling van. woordeboeke. Goeie leksikograwestreef voortdurend daama om die gehalte van hul woordeboeke te verbeter

  15. Chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes for investigation of individual radiosensitivity; Chromosomenaberrationen in peripheren Lymphozyten zur Untersuchung der individuellen Strahlenempfindlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzelsberger, H. [LMU Muenchen (Germany). Strahlenbiologisches Inst.; Bauchinger, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie

    2000-07-01

    und Insertionen zuverlaessig erfassen. Aufgrund ihrer zeitlichen Persistenz bieten sie gute Voraussetzungen fuer eine retrospektive Dosisrekonstruktion von Strahlenexpositionen (biologische Dosimetrie). Ein Nachteil ist dabei, dass in der routinemaessigen Anwendung immer nur Teilgenom Analysen, meist in Verwendung von Dreierkombinationen bestimmter Chromosomen als DNA Sonden, vorgenommen werden koennen. Grundsaetzlich ist zwar aus diesen Teilgenom Daten eine Hochrechnung auf gesamtgenomische Aberrationsraten moeglich, dies setzt jedoch voraus, dass Doppelstrangbrueche, die zu Translokationen fuehren, zufaellig im Genom verteilt sind und dass es keine bevorzugte Wechselwirkung zwischen bestimmten Chromosomenpaaren gibt. Dies bedeutet, dass die Wahrscheinlichkeit der Beteiligung eines Chromosoms an einem solchen Strukturaustausch proportional zu seinem DNA Gehalt ist. Da experimentelle Daten jedoch zeigen, dass dies keineswegs immer der Fall ist, koennte dies ein Hinweis auf eine unterschiedliche Strahlensensibilitaet bestimmter Chromosomen sein. Translokationsanalysen bei verschiedenen gesunden Spendern nach in vitro Bestrahlung von Blutproben mit gleichen Dosen, ergaben offensichtliche interindividuelle Unterschiede der Strahlenempfindlichkeit. Aehnliche Befunde sind von Tumorpatienten nach strahlentherapeutischen Massnahmen bekannt. Konsequenzen aus diesen Beobachtungen koennten sich fuer die biologische Dosimetrie ergeben. Um eine zuverlaessige individuelle Dosisrekonstruktion lange zurueckliegender Strahlenexpositionen zu gewaehrleisten, ist es notwendig, Ausmass, Verteilung und Dosisabhaengigkeit dieser Variabilitaet an groesseren Personenkollektiven und Kalibrierdatensaetzen zu untersuchen. (orig.)

  16. Assimilation of carbon and transport of assimilates in coniferous trees under the influence of airborne pollutants. Photosynthesis rate and assimilate distribution in young fir trees (Picea abies [L.]Karst.) under controlled exposure to ozone. Final report; Assimilation von Kohlenstoff und der Assimilattransport in Coniferen unter dem Einfluss von Luftschadstoffen. Photosyntheseleistung und Assimilatverteilung in jungen Fichten (Picea abies [L.]Karst.) unter kontrollierter Ozon-Exposition. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willenbrink, J.; Schatten, T.

    1992-12-31

    sinkt nach O{sub 3}-Einwirkung offenbar in Schueben. Teilweise scheint die verminderte Netto-Photosynthese Folge einer erhoehten Atmung zu sein. Nach 6-woechiger Ozonbegasung erschienen die stomataere Leitfaehigkeit und die Transpiration leicht abgesenkt, die mesophyllinterne CO{sub 2}-Konzentration und die `Water-Use-Efficiency` aber kaum veraendert. 2.) Unter Ozon-Exposition wird zum Herbst hin die prozentuale Verschiebung in der {sup 14}C-Markierung {beta}-Carotin zur Xanthophyll-Fraktion schwaecher. 3.) Der unter Ozon erwartete `Assimilatstau` in den Nadeln ist im August und im Oktober gut erkennbar, wobei im Herbst ein erhoehter Verlust and {sup 14}C gemessen wird. 4.) In den Fraktionen der lipophilen Substanzen, der organischen Saeuren und Aminosaeuren lassen sich keine ozonbedingten Unterschiede erkennen. Die Markierung der sogenannten Rueckstands-Fraktion in den `Sink`-Geweben und Organen Rinde, Holz und Wurzel erscheint in ozonexponierten Pflanzen dagegen deutlich reduziert. 5.) Staerke- und Zuckergehalt unterliegen in Rinde, `Kambial`-Bereich, Holz und Wurzel jahreszeitlichen Aenderungen. Unter Ozonwirkung bleiben in Rinde, `Kambial`-Zone und Wurzel die Gehalte deutlich geringer. Dagegen kommt es in den Nadeln zu einem Anstieg an ({sup 14}C-)Staerke. 6.) Die Ozon-Exposition wirkt sich offensichtlich auf die Allokation von Assimilaten aus. Die Moeglichkeit einer Sekundaerschaedigung der Chloroplasten ist nicht auszuschliessen. (orig./UWA)

  17. Preparation of a Bimetal Using Mechanical Alloying for Environmental or Industrial Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Geiger, Cherie; Clausen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Following the 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act ban on their manufacture, PCBs remain an environmental threat. PCBs are known to bio-accumulate and concentrate in fatty tissues. Further complications arise from the potential for contamination of commercial mixtures with other more toxic chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Until recently, only one option was available for the treatment of PCB-contaminated materials: incineration. This may prove to be more detrimental to the environment than the PCBs themselves due to the potential for formation of PCDDs. Metals have been used for the past ten years for the remediation of halogenated solvents and other contaminants in the environment; however, zero-valent metals alone do not possess the activity required to dehalogenate PCBs. Palladium has been shown to act as an excellent catalyst for the dechlorination of PCBs with active metals. This invention is a method for the production of a palladium/magnesium bimetal capable of dechlorinating PCBs using mechanical milling/mechanical alloying. Other base metals and catalysts may also be alloyed together (e.g., nickel or zinc) to create a similarly functioning catalyst system. Several bimetal catalyst systems currently can be used for processes such as hydrogen peroxide synthesis, oxidation of ethane, selective oxidation, hydrogenation, and production of syngas for further conversion to clean fuels. The processes for making these bimetal catalysts often involve vapor deposition. This technology provides an alternative to vapor deposition that may provide equally active catalysts. A hydrogenation catalyst including a base material coated with a catalytic metal is made using mechanical milling techniques. The hydrogenation catalysts are used as an excellent catalyst for the dehalogenation of contaminated compounds and the remediation of other industrial compounds. The mechanical milling technique is

  18. Climate change and the Lower Weser region: Direct and indirect consequences of a climate change for the ecological situation in the Weser, the forelands and in the diked marshes. Final report; Klimaaenderung und Unterweserregion (KLIMU) 'Fallstudie Weseraestuar'. Direkte und indirekte Auswirkungen eines Klimawandels auf die oekologischen Verhaeltnisse in Weser, Vorland und Binnendeichsmarschen. Teilprojekt Oekologischer Komplex. T. A: Binnenland. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, D.; Schirmer, M.

    2001-03-01

    Temperatur die Invasion thermophiler Arten; erhoehte Temperatur und CO{sub 2}-Gehalte der Atmosphaere erlauben eine Produktivitaetssteigerung um 25% und nuetzen der Landwirtschaft. Die Biotoptypen des Feuchtgruenlandes bleiben nutzungsbedingt, deichnahe Flaechen bis zu 2 km werden tendenziell feuchter, deichferne werden z.T. im Sommer unter deutlicher Trockenheit leiden. Die Reaktionsvarianten des Kuestenschutzes fuehren zum Verbrauch z.T. hochwertiger Flaechen (Sperrwerk, Deichverstaerkung) bzw. zu Nutzungseinschraenkung in Sturmflutentlastungspoldern. Die in 'Zukunftsbildern' betrachteten moeglichen Entwicklungen der Landwirtschaft wuerden im Falle ihrer Intensivierung der klimabedingten Landschaftsentwicklung zuwiderlaufen und konfliktsteigernd wirken, waehrend eine Extensivierung dieser Entwicklung entspraeche und konfliktmindernd wirkt. (orig.)

  19. Catalytically supported reduction of emissions from small-scale biomass furnace systems; Katalytisch unterstuetzte Minderung von Emissionen aus Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Ingo; Lenz, Volker; Schenker, Marian; Thiel, Christian [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kraus, Markus; Matthes, Mirjam; Roland, Ulf [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Bindig, Rene; Einicke, Wolf-Dietrich [Leipzig Univ. (Germany)

    2011-06-29

    speziellen Pruefverfahren in einer groesseren Messreihe durchzufuehren. Die groessere Stichprobe ist dann auf Basis von GC/MS-Verfahren hinsichtlich der PAK und PCDD/F-Gehalte zu analysieren. Aufbauend auf den Erkenntnissen aus dem im Dezember 2010 abgeschlossenen Forschungsvorhaben zur katalytisch unterstuetzten Emissionsminderung aus Kleinfeuerungsanlagen sind weitere Untersuchungen zur Abgasreinigung geplant. Das DBFZ erhaelt zusammen mit mehreren Industriepartnern und weiteren Forschungseinrichtungen vom BMU eine Foerderung fuer das Nachfolgeprojekt ''Emissionsminderung durch integrierte Massnahmen in Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen'' (FKZ: 03KB051). Sowohl an Stueckholzfeuerungen als auch vollautomatischen Multifuelkesseln sollen katalytische Verfahren der Abgasreinigung entwickelt und praxisnah in den Bau von Prototypen einfliessen.

  20. Measures on fireside emission reduction during wood combustion in industrial furnaces; Massnahmen zur feuerungsseitigen Emissionsminderung bei der Holzverbrennung in gewerblichen Feuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuberbuehler, U.

    2002-07-01

    dahingehend umgestaltet, dass die notwendigen Bedingungen zur feuerungsseitigen NO{sub x}-Minderung erfuellt wurden. Beim Test des entwickelten Feuerungskonzeptes wurde im kontinuierlichen Lastbetrieb mit beschichteten Spanplatten (N-Gehalt 4,3%) eine mittlere NO{sub x}-Konzentration von ca. 450 mg/m{sup 3} gemessen, was gegenueber einer konventionellen Unterschubfeuerung eine NO{sub x}-Minderung um ca. 40% darstellt. Die mittlere CO-Konzentration betrug 30 mg/m{sup 3} und die Partikelkonzentrationen lagen ohne nachgeschalteten Staubabscheider deutlich unter 50 mg/m{sup 3}. Grundsaetzlich koennen durch feuerungsseitige Massnahmen die Emissionen bei der Verbrennung, besonders bei schwierigen Brennstoffen, gegenueber konventioneller Technik deutlich vermindert werden. Die Wirksamkeit feuerungsseitiger Massnahmen haengt entscheidend von den dafuer notwendigen Bedingungen im Feuerraum ab, (orig.) (abstract truncated)

  1. Nonvolatile organic pollutants in domestic dust samples from the urban Hamburg area; Schwerfluechtige organische Umweltchemikalien in Hamburger Hausstaeuben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Hausstaeube beitragen, sind die Belastungen durch Organozinn-Verbindungen als eher gering einzuschaetzen. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalat (DEHP) kommt unter den 58 schwerfluechtige Umweltchemikalien besondere Bedeutung zu. DEHP war in fast allen Hausstaeuben die Hauptkomponente. Die Stoffgruppe der Phthalate wies insgesamt die hoechsten Gehalte auf. Neben den Phthalaten trugen hauptsaechlich die Chlorparaffine und das Biozid Permethrin zur Belastung bei. Es folgten Organophosphate, weitere Biozide, Organozinn-Verbindungen und Benzo(a)pyren. Eine Bewertung der Einzelstoffe erfolgte an Hand von 95% Percentilen, die aus den jeweiligen Haeufigkeitsverteilungen erhalten wurden. Ein 95% Percentil besagt, dass 95% der Hausstaeube einen geringeren oder hoechstens gleich hohen Stoffgehalt aufweisen als es dem 95% Percentil entspricht. Ueblicherweise dienen 95% Percentile als umwelthygienische Referenzwerte. (orig.)[abstract truncated

  2. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on bone cells in primary culture: immunohistochemical and electronmicroscopical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, I.; Prochnow, N.; Mueller, K.M. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Wiemann, M.; Schirrmacher, K.; Bingmann, D. [Essen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologie; Sebald, W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologische Chemie II

    2001-02-01

    was not changed after a 3 days lasting stimulation with BMP-2. (orig.) [German] Bone-morphogenetisches Protein 2 (BMP-2) foerdert Differenzierung und Wachstum in fast allen Geweben. Am bekanntesten ist seine stimulatorische Wirkung auf die Knochenneubildung. Daher ist es naheliegend, BMP-2 auch fuer eine beschleunigte Osteointegration von Implantaten einzusetzen. Zahlreiche Untersuchungen in vivo und an Zelllinien haben die Wirksamkeit von BMP-2 auf die Zellproliferation ergeben. Effekte von BMP-2 sind aber kaum in Primaerkulturen von Knochenzellen untersucht worden, in denen die Differenzierung von unterschiedlichen Zelltypen eher als in Zelllinien ueberprueft werden kann. Da solche Information aber eine Voraussetzung fuer das Verstaendnis und die Kontrolle von Zellreaktionen auf der Implantatoberflaeche sind, wurde in den vorliegenden Untersuchungen die Wirkung von BMP-2 (50 nM) auf Primaerkulturen geprueft, die aus Kalvarienbruchstuecken neugeborener Ratten gezuechtet wurden. Dabei wurden die Zellen fuer 3 oder 6 Tage mit BMP-2 stimuliert, das dem Naehrmedium zugesetzt war. Licht- und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen zeigten, dass BMP-behandelte Zellen in der Aussprossungszone groesser und haeufiger spindelfoermig waren. Darueber hinaus hatten stimulierte Zellen mehr Nukleoli als die Kontrollzellen und ihr endoplasmatisches Retikulum war geweitet. Dennoch behielten die stimulierten Zellen Eigenschaften von Knochenzellen. Eine immunhistochemische Analyse zeigte, dass BMP-2 stimulierte Zellen die Aktivitaet ihrer alkalischen Phosphatase steigerten und weiterhin Kollagen Typ I sowie zu einem geringen Teil Kollagen Typ III sezernierten. Der Gehalt an Actin, Desmin und Vimentin war in BMP-stimulierten Kulturen kaum veraendert. Fibronektin-positive Strukturen erschienen weniger vernetzt. Die Osteocalcin-Verteilung bzw Faerbeintensitaet aendert sich nach BMP-Einwirkungen nicht ekennbar. Nach der Stimulation loesten sich vermehrt Zellen von den Deckglaeschen ab

  3. Catalytically supported reduction of emissions from small-scale biomass furnace systems; Katalytisch unterstuetzte Minderung von Emissionen aus Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Ingo; Lenz, Volker; Schenker, Marian; Thiel, Christian [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kraus, Markus; Matthes, Mirjam; Roland, Ulf [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Bindig, Rene; Einicke, Wolf-Dietrich [Leipzig Univ. (Germany)

    2011-06-29

    speziellen Pruefverfahren in einer groesseren Messreihe durchzufuehren. Die groessere Stichprobe ist dann auf Basis von GC/MS-Verfahren hinsichtlich der PAK und PCDD/F-Gehalte zu analysieren. Aufbauend auf den Erkenntnissen aus dem im Dezember 2010 abgeschlossenen Forschungsvorhaben zur katalytisch unterstuetzten Emissionsminderung aus Kleinfeuerungsanlagen sind weitere Untersuchungen zur Abgasreinigung geplant. Das DBFZ erhaelt zusammen mit mehreren Industriepartnern und weiteren Forschungseinrichtungen vom BMU eine Foerderung fuer das Nachfolgeprojekt ''Emissionsminderung durch integrierte Massnahmen in Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen'' (FKZ: 03KB051). Sowohl an Stueckholzfeuerungen als auch vollautomatischen Multifuelkesseln sollen katalytische Verfahren der Abgasreinigung entwickelt und praxisnah in den Bau von Prototypen einfliessen.

  4. Behaviour of metals during the thermal conversion of Chinese reed; Verhalten von Metallen bei der thermischen Nutzung von Schilfgras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klensch, S.; Reimert, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institut Bereich 1 - Gas, Erdoel und Kohle

    1998-12-31

    . Ein Vergleich der gemessenen Flugaschekonzentrationen mit den existierenden Grenz- bzw. Richtwerten zeigt, dass eine Ausbringung der Flugasche auf Waldboeden generell moeglich ist, und nur aufgrund des erhoehten Zn-Gehaltes von 1100 mg/kg TS eine Rueckfuehrung auf Agrarflaechen nicht erlaubt ist. (orig.)

  5. Seaweeds in closed systems; Zeewieren in gesloten systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, P. ' t [Koers en Vaart, Barendrecht (Netherlands); Schipper, J. [Hortimare, Heerhugowaard (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    eigenschappen, in diervoeders en voor de teelt van schelpdieren (zeeoor). Daarnaast worden extracten uit zeewier gebruikt voor de cosmetica-industrie en farmaceutische producten, en vormen ze een mogelijke bron van biologische brandstoffen. Zeewier kan wellicht ook dienen als eiwitplatform voor de steeds groeiende vraag naar viseiwitten en soja-eiwit. Hoewel Nederland op het terrein van offshore en waterbouw en ook op het gebied van zaaien, telen en zaadveredeling een goede naam heeft, is de kennis van het telen en oogsten van zeewier hier zeer beperkt. Met de komst van windmolenparken in de Noordzee en de exploitatie van het continentale plat, komt ook de teelt van zeewieren in beeld. Hierbij wordt gedacht in extensieve en intensieve teeltsystemen equivalent met wat we in de land- en tuinbouw kennen. Voor bepaalde toepassingen van zeewier zijn beter gecontroleerde teeltomstandigheden nodig, bijvoorbeeld als het gaat om specifieke inhoudsstoffen, kwaliteitseisen met betrekking tot voeding of bij de vermeerdering van het zeewier voor de toekomstige grootschalige zeewierteelt. Daar waar de waarde van het geteelde zeewier toeneemt, en daarmee de wens tot oogstzekerheid en risicobeheersing, zijn gesloten systemen waarschijnlijk de beste benadering. Doordat de teeltcondities bij gesloten systemen beter beheersbaar zijn, zijn opbrengsten naar verwachting hoger, zijn de gehaltes aan inhoudsstoffen constanter en is de algehele kwaliteit beter. Bovendien kunnen eventuele plagen eenvoudiger bestreden of voorkomen worden. In tegenstelling tot op land gebaseerde zeewierteelt kunnen gesloten systemen beschikken over veel, schoon en relatief mineraalarm zeewater. Dit opent ook mogelijkheden voor temperatuurregulering met behulp van zeewater. Het concept van zeewieren in gesloten systemen is in zekere zin vergelijkbaar met de glastuinbouw. Op basis van de gehanteerde prijzen voor zeewier blijkt de kweek van volwassen planten voor industriële toepassingen in gesloten systemen niet haalbaar