Sample records for gehalte polychlorierter dibenzodioxine

  1. Bepaling van het gehalte aan soja in vleesprodukten m.b.v. ELISA-methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Meijer, M.A.; Buizer, F.G.


    Het gehalte soja-eiwit is bepaald in 3 monsters vleesprodukt met bekende hoeveelheid soja en vervolgens in 7 monsters vleesprodukt met onbekende hoeveelheid soja. De bepaling geschiedde met behulp van een ELISA methode.

  2. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B. [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)


    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  3. Die modererende invloed van loopbaanontplooiing op loopbaanpassing en gehalte van werklewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. G. Schreuder


    Full Text Available The moderating influence of career progression on career fit and the quality of work life. The subject under investigation was the moderating influence of career progression on career fit and the quality of worklife of 258 employees at non- management and management level in various types of organisations [private, semistate and state]. A significant degree of fit was found among the management group, after which the differences in the quality of worklife between the fit and non-fit groups were tested. A significant difference [p Opsomming Die modererende invloed van loopbaanontplooiing op loopbaanpassing en gehalte van werklewe van 258 werknemers op nie-bestuur- en bestuursvlak in verskillende organisasietipes (privaat, semi-staat en staat is onder- soek. 'n Betekenisvolle passing is by die bestuursgroep gevind, waarna vir verskille in gehalte van werklewe tussen die passings- en nie-passingsgroep getoets is. Dit is slegs by die bestuursgroep dat 'n betekenisvolle verskil [p < 0,01] gevind is, met die passingsgroep wat 'n betekenisvolle hoer telling behaal het. Die implikasies van die bevindings ten opsigte van loopbaanbeplanning vir die individu en onderneming word bespreek.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY


    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs and furans (PCDFs, by product of chlorinated chemical compounds production and chemical processes including combustion, are virtually ubiquitous in the environment. Because of this, PCDDs and PCDFs occur potantial risk for human health. PCDDs and PCDFs are known to exist at higher levels in fatty foods such as full-fat milk and dairy products, meat and eggs. They can accumulate in the fatty tissues of animals and humans. In this review, structure, contamination sources, toxic effects of PCDDs and PCDFs, milk, dairy products and mother's milk as contamination source and preventive measures against PCDDs and PCDFs were discussed.

  5. Reduction of Chlorinated Dibenzodioxin and Dibenzofuran Formation in the Beilstein Test (United States)

    Goldfarb, Theodore D.; Fontana, Sabine G.


    We have confirmed that significant amounts of the highly toxic polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) may be formed under the conditions by which the Beilstein test for halogenated organic compounds is commonly employed in undergraduate laboratories. In this paper we describe the results of studies designed to increase the safety of the Beilstein test by minimizing the production of these toxins. Simple adjustments in Bunsen burner temperature and the length of time the copper test loop is exposed to the flame were found to be ineffective. Diluting test compounds (which should not be direct precursors of dioxins or furans) to concentrations as low as 5g/L in solvents like methanol or acetone was found to reduce PCDD/F formation by a factor of approximately 103, while still producing definitive test results. Triethanolamine was found to be an effective inhibitor. The addition of 0.5 mL of this compound to 10-mg test samples lowered the toxicity of the gaseous effluent by more than two orders of magnitude.

  6. Biofuel-Promoted Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxin/furan Formation in an Iron-Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filter. (United States)

    Heeb, Norbert V; Rey, Maria Dolores; Zennegg, Markus; Haag, Regula; Wichser, Adrian; Schmid, Peter; Seiler, Cornelia; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Mohn, Joachim; Bürki, Samuel; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas


    Iron-catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) are widely used for particle abatement. Active catalyst particles, so-called fuel-borne catalysts (FBCs), are formed in situ, in the engine, when combusting precursors, which were premixed with the fuel. The obtained iron oxide particles catalyze soot oxidation in filters. Iron-catalyzed DPFs are considered as safe with respect to their potential to form polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). We reported that a bimetallic potassium/iron FBC supported an intense PCDD/F formation in a DPF. Here, we discuss the impact of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biofuel on PCDD/F emissions. The iron-catalyzed DPF indeed supported a PCDD/F formation with biofuel but remained inactive with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. PCDD/F emissions (I-TEQ) increased 23-fold when comparing biofuel and diesel data. Emissions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener [toxicity equivalence factor (TEF) = 1.0], increased 90-fold, and those of 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TEF = 0.1) increased 170-fold. Congener patterns also changed, indicating a preferential formation of tetra- and penta-chlorodibenzofurans. Thus, an inactive iron-catalyzed DPF becomes active, supporting a PCDD/F formation, when operated with biofuel containing impurities of potassium. Alkali metals are inherent constituents of biofuels. According to the current European Union (EU) legislation, levels of 5 μg/g are accepted. We conclude that risks for a secondary PCDD/F formation in iron-catalyzed DPFs increase when combusting potassium-containing biofuels.

  7. Contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Hamburg`s upper soil; Gehalte an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) in Hamburger Oberboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gras, B.; Jaeger, C.; Sievers, S.


    In 1993/95, a programme of investigations covering the area of Hamburg was carried out to determine the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the upper soil. This programme of measurements was intended to give an overview of the general loading situation in an inhabited area and to show main points of loading. One also intended to consider how great the effect of the type of use of an area is on the PAH contents and whether information on the sources can be derived from the PAH patterns. Soil mixture samples were taken from depths of 0-10 cm and in worked areas from depths of 0-30 cm at 108 sites distributed over the city area of Hamburg, and these were examined for 19 individual PAH materials (PAH (EPA) plus 1 and 2 methyl naphthalene and Benzopyrene). Differently exposed and used sites were included in this programme. Industrial, traffic, residential areas, small gardens, agriculture, flood meadows, woods/parks, nature protection and other green areas (fallow land, meadows). (orig.) [Deutsch] 1993/95 wurde in Hamburg ein flaechendeckendes Untersuchungsprogramm zur Ermittlung der Gehalte an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) in Oberboeden durchgefuehrt. Dieses Messprogramm sollte einen Ueberblick ueber die generelle Belastungssituation in einem Ballungsraum geben und ggfs. Belastungsschwerpunkte aufzeigen. Es sollte ausserdem betrachtet werden, wie gross der Einfluss der jeweiligen Nutzungsart einer Flaeche auf die PAK-Gehalte ist und ob sich aus den PAK-Mustern in Oberboeden Hinweise auf Quellen ableiten lassen. An 108 Standorten verteilt ueber das Hamburger Stadtgebiet wurden aus 0-10 cm und bei bearbeiteten Flaechen aus 0-30 cm Tiefe Bodenmischproben entnommen und auf 19 PAK-Einzelstoffe untersucht (PAK(EPA) zzgl. 1- und 2-Methylnaphthalin sowie Benzo(e)pyren). In das Programm wurden unterschiedlich exponierte und genutzte Standorte einbezogen: Industrie, Verkehr, Wohngebiete, Kleingaerten, Landwirtschaft

  8. Health risk analysis of human exposures to soil amended with sewage sludge contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. (United States)

    Eschenroeder, A; Jaeger, R J; Ospital, J J; Doyle, C P


    The risk of cancer to humans exposed to soil treated with wastewater/sewage treatment plant sludge, known to be contaminated with small amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs), was evaluated. The particulate-bound PCDDs and PCDFs are found in trace amounts in the effluent from ground water pumping (dewatering) at an abandoned wood preservation facility. The water, which was sent to a water recovery plant, underwent primary and secondary treatment prior to discharge. The residual sludge was added to agricultural soil as a conditioner. The present analysis treats the extreme case of sludge applied near the home of a target individual, a lifetime resident, who is also a farm worker in the area of the application. The successive stages of infancy, childhood and adulthood are treated separately to assess the contributions of typical age-specific indoor and outdoor activities on exposure rates. Five toxicity rating schemes using so-called TCDD equivalents, and two unit risk slopes are applied to the chemical profile in sludge to determine the cancer potency of the soil contaminants. These risk estimates range from 1 X 10-8 to 3 X 10-7.

  9. Rheological online determination of the organic dry substance concentration of sewage sludge; Rheologische online Bestimmung des oTS-Gehalts von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, P.; Boehm, A.; Fessler, J.; Liebelt, U. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany); Traegner, U. [Fachhochschule fuer Technik, Mannheim (Germany)


    In order to adjust the filter cake to a certain calorific value and to enhance the dehydratability of sludge, ash, carbon and flocculation agents are added to the latter prior to filtration. Dosage of the additives depends on the sludge's content of organic solids, determined in the form of the so-called organic dry substance concentration. In bench-scale and technical-scale experiments on the rheological properties of sewage sludge, a correlation between organic dry substance concentration and rheological properties, especially the liquid limit of sewage sludge, was established. This knowledge was used to develop a measuring technique for online determination of organic dry substance concentration by means of rheology. (orig.) [German] Zur Einstellung eines bestimmten Heizwertes des Filterkuchens und zur Verbesserung der Entwaesserbarkeit werden dem Schlamm vor der Filtration Asche, Kohle und Flockungsmittel zugegeben. Die Dosierung der Zuschlagsstoffe erfolgt in Abhaengigkeit vom Gehalt des Schlamms an organischem Feststoff, bestimmt in Form der sog. oTS-Konzentration. In Labor- und Betriebsversuchen zum rheologischen Verhalten von Klaerschlamm konnte eine Korrelation zwischen der oTS-Konzentration und den Fliesseigenschaften, insbesondere der Fliessgrenze von Klaerschlamm ermittelt werden. Diese Erkenntnis wurde in ein Messverfahren zur online-Bestimmung der oTS-Konzentration mittels Rheologie umgesetzt. (orig.)

  10. Influence of temperature, mixing and time of residue on the degradation of organic trace materials during thermal treatment of waste wood; Einfluss von Temperatur, Durchmischung und Verweilzeit auf den Abbau organischer Spurenstoffe bei der thermischen Behandlung von Abfallholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M. [Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Griebel, H. [Fels-Werke GmbH, Goslar (Germany); Scholz, R. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik


    Waste wood, e.g. window frames or sleepers treated with coal tar pitch, are usually incinerated after crushing and removal of foreign materials (glass, metal etc.). Organic trace elements, e.g. PAH, PCB, chlorobenzenes, PCDD and PCDF must be removed after combustion. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Abfallhoelzer, wie z.B. Fensterrahmen oder mit Steinkohlenteerpech behandelte Eisenbahnschwellen, werden nach Zerkleinerung und Abtrennung von Wert- und Stoerstoffen (Glas, Metalle usw.) haeufig in Rostsystemen thermisch behandelt. Bei der Diskussion der Prozessbedingungen liegt ein besonderer Schwerpunkt in der Fragestellung nach geeigneten Abbaubedingungen fuer organische Spurenstoffe wie polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK), polychlorierte Biphenyle (PCB), Chlorbenzole, polychlorierte Dibenzodioxine (PCDD) und polychlorierte Dibenzofurane (PCDF) im Nachverbrennungsprozess. (orig./SR)

  11. Docking-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) predicts binding affinities to aryl hydrocarbon receptor for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls. (United States)

    Yuan, Jintao; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong


    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) cause toxic effects after binding to an intracellular cytosolic receptor called the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Thymic atrophy, weight loss, immunotoxicity, acute lethality, and induction of cytochrome P4501A1 have all been correlated with the binding affinity to AhR. To study the key molecular features for determining binding affinity to AhR, a homology model of AhR ligand-binding domains was developed, a molecular docking approach was employed to obtain docking-based conformations of all molecules in the whole set, and 3-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) methodology, namely, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), was applied. A partial least square analysis was performed, and QSAR models were generated for a training set of 59 compounds. The generated QSAR model showed good internal and external statistical reliability, and in a comparison with other reported CoMFA models using different alignment methods, the docking-based CoMFA model showed some advantages. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  12. Spuren- und Mengenelement-Gehalte in Laubfutter


    Rahmann, PD Dr. Gerold


    Leaves are an important resource of feed stuff for many ruminants (e.g. browsing in extensive grazing systems with access of animals to shrubs and trees). The contents of minerals and trace elements of leaves from trees and shrubs are not known. In 2002, leaves of about 30 northern German (Schleswig-Holstein) shrubs and trees were analysed for minerals and trace elements. The results show that the leaves of the different shrubs have different values. Leaves can be an important source of miner...

  13. Enquête roest in asperge : organische stof gehalte van invloed op roest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenhuis, A.; Wilms, J.A.M.


    Roest op asperge is een kwaliteitsprobleem. In 2004 had een aantal telers opnieuw bovenmatig last van roest op de asperges. Toch waren er grote verschillen in het optreden van fysiologische roest bij de verschillende telers en zelfs over verschillende percelen bij dezelfde telers. Bij oppervlakkige

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities; Polychlorierte Biphenyle (PCB) beim Rueckbau von kerntechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenbart, Lars; Held, Christian; Reichert, Alexander [WAK-Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)


    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  15. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrizi, Barbara, E-mail: [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D’Amato, Francesco [CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Foggi, Paolo [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy)


    Highlights: • Database reporting FT-IR spectra for 13 of the 17 toxic PCDDs and PCDFs congeners. • Use of FT-IR database for quantification of toxic PCDD/Fs in complex matrix. • Monitoring of dioxin emissions from waste incinerators. - Abstract: The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds.

  16. Potential soil contaminant levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at industrial facilities employing heat transfer operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.


    Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.

  17. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)


    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  18. Toetsing van het gehalte duurzame veiligheid met Safer Transportation Network Planning : integratie van de ‘DV-gehaltemeter’ in het ontwerpprogramma ‘Safer-TNP’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.


    Testing the sustainable-safety contents with Safer Transportation Network Planning. In the publication entitled “Developing a sustainable-safety meter (DV-meter) for measuring the sustainable-safety contents” (Van der Kooi & Dijkstra, 2000), the development of and a pilot measurement with a

  19. Investigations of atmospheric input of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into pasture. Pt. 2. Appendix. Final report; Untersuchungen des atmosphaerischen Eintrags polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane in Futterpflanzen. T. 2. Anhang. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, M.S.; Welsch-Pausch, K.; Koemp, P.


    Introduction of PCDD/Fs into the agricultural food chain `atmosphere - fodder - cattle - cows` milk/beef - human` plays a major role in human exposure. The aim of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between PCDD/Fs immissions and fodder concentrations. The identification of the most important atmospheric pathway of PCDD/F into greenland cultures was conducted under near natural conditions in a combined field/glasshouse experiment. It was found that for the Cl{sub 4-6}DD/Fs dry gaseous and for the Cl{sub 7/8}DD/Fs dry particle-bound deposition was the primary mechanism of uptake. A further greenhouse experiment showed that there is an isomere-unspecific photodegradation of PCDD/Fs on plant surfaces. Dry gaseous deposition, which is the major pathway of atmospheric deposition for the less chlorinated toxicological relevant PCDD/Fs, can be understood as a partitioning process between the gas phase of the atmosphere and the vegetation. Experiments investigating this topic were conducted in the laboratory using PCBs as model substances for the PCDD/Fs. Important knowledge was gained with regard to plant/air partitioning, their dependence on temperature and plant species, the kinetics and reversibility of the process. No partitioning equilibrium between the vegetation and the gas phase of the atmosphere was approached for the PCDD/Fs. The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in agricultural greenland was therefore controlled by a gaseous deposition velocity. In two typical German agricultural regions representative gaseous and particle-bound deposition velocities were determined, which were all in all quite constant and independent of the different exposure conditions. All results from this study were incorporated into a mathematical model of the accumulation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in greenland. Based on air concentration, plant species composition and growth, temperature and physical-chemical properties of the chemical the model is able to predict the concentration of a chemical in the plants as a function of time. A validation of this model for the less chlorinated PCBs showed, that the measured plant/air-partitioning and the corresponding components of the model can be extrapolated to environmental conditions. This model summarizes the results of this study and provides a valuable tool in understanding the enrichment of semivolatile lipophilic organic compounds in agricultural plants. (orig.)

  20. Investigations of atmospheric input of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into pasture. Pt. 1. Texts. Final report; Untersuchungen des atmosphaerischen Eintrags polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane in Futterpflanzen. T. 1. Textband. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, M.S.; Welsch-Pausch, K.; Koemp, P.


    Introduction of PCDD/Fs into the agricultural food chain `atmosphere - fodder - cattle - cows` milk/beef - human` plays a major role in human exposure. The aim of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between PCDD/Fs immissions and fodder concentrations. The identification of the most important atmospheric pathway of PCDD/F into greenland cultures was conducted under near natural conditions in a combined field/glasshouse experiment. It was found that for the Cl{sub 4-6}DD/Fs dry gaseous and for the Cl{sub 7/8}DD/Fs dry particle-bound deposition was the primary mechanism of uptake. A further greenhouse experiment showed that there is an isomere-unspecific photodegradation of PCDD/Fs on plant surfaces. Dry gaseous deposition, which is the major pathway of atmospheric deposition for the less chlorinated toxicological relevant PCDD/Fs, can be understood as a partitioning process between the gas phase of the atmosphere and the vegetation. Experiments investigating this topic were conducted in the laboratory using PCBs as model substances for the PCDD/Fs. Important knowledge was gained with regard to plant/air partitioning, their dependence on temperature and plant species, the kinetics and reversibility of the process. No partitioning equilibrium between the vegetation and the gas phase of the atmosphere was approached for the PCDD/Fs. The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in agricultural greenland was therefore controlled by a gaseous deposition velocity. In two typical German agricultural regions representative gaseous and particle-bound deposition velocities were determined, which were all in all quite constant and independent of the different exposure conditions. All results from this study were incorporated into a mathematical model of the accumulation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in greenland. Based on air concentration, plant species composition and growth, temperature and physical-chemical properties of the chemical the model is able to predict the concentration of a chemical in the plants as a function of time. A validation of this model for the less chlorinated PCBs showed, that the measured plant/air-partitioning and the corresponding components of the model can be extrapolated to environmental conditions. This model summarizes the results of this study and provides a valuable tool in understanding the enrichment of semivolatile lipophilic organic compounds in agricultural plants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Exposition des Menschen gegenueber PCDD/F spielt die landwirtschaftliche Nahrungskette `Atmosphaere - Futterpflanze - Kuh - Milch/Rindfleisch - Mensch` die entscheidende Rolle. Das uebergreifende Ziel dieses Vorhabens war die Erstellung einer quantitativen Beziehung zwischen der Immissionsbelastung mit PCDDF/F und Futtermittelkonzentrationen. Die Identifizierung der wichtigsten atmosphaerischen Eintragswege von PCDD/F in Gruenlandpflanzen wurde unter naturnahen Bedingungen im Rahmen eines kombinierten Gewaechshaus-Freilandversuches durchgefuehrt. Es wurde deutlich, dass fuer die Cl{sub 4-6}DD/F die trockene gasfoermige und fuer die Cl{sub 7/8}DD/F die trockene partikelgebundene Deposition der Hauptaufnahmepfad ist. Aus einem weiteren Gewaechshausversuch ergaben sich deutliche Hinweise auf einen isomerenunspezifischen Photoabbau von PCDD/F auf Pflanzenoberflaechen. Die trockene gasfoermige Deposition, die den Haupteintragsweg fuer die niederchlorierten toxikologisch relevanten PCDD/F darstellt, kann als Verteilung einer Verbindung zwischen der Gasphase der Atmosphaere und der Vegetation angesehen werden. Es wurde eine Reihe von Laborversuchen mit PCT, die als Modellverbindungen fuer die PCDD/F dienten, durchgefuehrt. Es konnten wichtige Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich der Pflanzen/Luft-Verteilung, ihrer Abhaengigkeit von Temperatur und Pflanzenart, ihrer Kinetik und Reversibilitaet gewonnen werden. Fuer die PCDD/F konnte keine Gleichgewichtseinstellung zwischen Pflanze und Atmosphaere beobachtet werden. Die Anreicherung von PCDD/F in Futtermitteln wird folglich durch eine gasfoermige Depositionsgeschwindigkeit bestimmt. An zwei fuer Deutschland typischen landwirtschaftlichen Standorten wurden repraesentative gasfoermige und, analog dazu, partikelgebundene Depositionsgeschwindigkeiten gemessen, die insgesamt unabhaengig von den Standortbedingungen eine relativ geringe Variationsbreite aufwiesen. Die zahlreichen Teilergebnisse dieses Forschungsvorhabens wurden in ein mathematisches Modell der Anreicherung von PCDD/F und PCB in Gruenland integriert. Auf der Basis von Luftbelastung, Artenzusammensetzung und Wachstum des Bestandes, Temperatur und Substanzeigenschaften berechnet dieses Modell die Konzentration einer Verbindung im Gruenlandaufwuchs als Funktion der Zeit. Eine Modellvalidierung konnte fuer die niederchlorierten PCB die gute Uebertragbarkeit der Laborversuche zur Pflanzen/Luft/Verteilung und der entsprechenden Modellkomponenten zeigen. Durch dieses Modell konnten die Teilergebnisse dieses Vorhabens zu einer sinnvollen Einheit zusammengefasst und somit ein wertvolles Werkzeug zum Verstaendnis der Anreicherung von mittelfluechtigen lipophilen organischen Verbindungen in landwirtschaftlichen Nutzpflanzen geschaffen werden. (orig.)

  1. Synthesis of fluorinated poly(arylene ether)s with dibenzodioxin and spirobisindane units from new bis(pentafluorophenyl)- and bis(nonafluorobiphenyl)-containing monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tkachenko, Ihor M.; Belov, Nikolay A.; Kobzar, Yaroslav L.


    ,1′-spirobisindane. The chemical structures of the prepared monomers and polymers were determined using 1H, 13C, 19F NMR and FTIR spectroscopy techniques. All the obtained polymers were completely soluble in chloroform, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylformamide, and dimethyl sulfoxide. Polymers derived from 4,4′-bis......(nonafluorophenyl)-containing monomers have higher average molecular masses (Mw) in the range 47,000–88,300 and are able to form robust, solvent-cast films. Good thermal stabilities in air (up to 350 °C) were observed in all fluorinated polymers. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area and the pore size of polymers can...... be controlled by varying the type of the initial fluorinated monomers. It was shown that introduction of perfluorobiphenyl units is an effective tool for increasing the surface area up to 156.8 m2 g−1....

  2. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal. (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M


    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils. Concentrations - sorption and solubility - effects on micro-organisms; Schwermetalle und organische Schadstoffe in Boeden. Gehalte - Sorption und Loeslichkeit - Wirkung auf Mikroorganismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welp, G.


    The thesis comprises six manuscripts published in different journals. Soil protection being the main theme the articles deal with different aspects that represent a necessary scientific basis of a risk assessment for polluted soils. The first step is to look at the total contents of different soil contaminants and to decide whether a pollution is given or not. In chapter II the contents of 18 elements in 335 soil samples of North Rhine-Westphalia are analysed, in order to determine groups of soil samples that are characterized by a certain range of element contents in connection with other common features (e.g., parent material, sampling region, specific source of pollution). The study bases on a detailed inspection of frequency distributions which are evaluated with a parametric method (assuming several single lognormal distributions) and with a nonparametric approach (Kemel density estimation). The latter method proved to be a useful tool to derive background concentrations for toxic elements in soils. It is necessary to differentiate between soluble (mobile, available) and insoluble (immobile, strongly adsorbed, precipitated) fractions of pollutants in soil. The sorption and solubility of pollutants in soils, therefore, is a second important parameter for an appropriate risk assessment. Four papers (chapter III-VI) deal with this aspect. In chapter III sorption and solubility of ten metals in four soil samples is studied. The quantity-intensity relations of eight metals [except Cr(III) and Fe(III)] are governed by sorption and complexation procecces and can be fitted by Freundlich isotherms. In three further papers sorption and solubility experiments with inorganic and organic toxicants are combined with microbial tests in order to detect effects on microorganisms in relation to soil properties. The large data set of about 500 dose-response curves was also used to examine the general reaction patterns of heterogeneous microbial populations under chemical stress (chapter VII). The results presented in chapters III-VII are a contribution to the principle understanding of the causal relations between sorption, solubility and microbial toxicity of pollutants in soils. The data clearly demonstrate that there are strong and complex interactions between pollutants and soil constituents. The measurement of sorption and solubility is an essential first step in calculating potential mobility and availability. Additional parameters that do influence the biocidal effects of pollutants in soil (e.g., speciation, nutrient status etc.) require to include bioassays. Thus, at the present state of knowledge, a combination of biological and chemical tests seems to be an appropriate tool in order to assess the ecotoxicological risk of a soil contamination. (orig.)

  4. Experimental methods used to determine the amount of H{sub 2}O in the CO{sub 2} refrigeration cycle; Experimentelle Methoden zur Bestimmung des H{sub 2}O-Gehaltes im CO{sub 2}-Kaeltekreislauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petereit, Anna Katharina; Eggers, Rudolf [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Waerme- und Stofftransport


    Water can be added to CO{sub 2} refrigeration circuits in the course of pressure testing of the system, in the course of the filling operation and also in the operation excess of the residual moisture content of the compressor oil. This water can be solved in CO{sub 2} as well as accumulate in certain parts of the system. This results in a deterioration of the operating performance. There are two forms of water separation to be differentiated: The separation as a liquid or as a solid phase (hydrate). In order to investigate the impact of water on the refrigeration process using CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and on the refrigerating machine oils used in the process, it is therefore important to determine the water content in the process exactly. Therefore, various measuring devices for detecting the content of water dissolved in CO{sub 2} and the content of the discharged water are installed in a CO{sub 2} pilot plant. The determination of the water content in CO{sub 2} is performed by means of a fiber-optic moisture sensor which is integrated in the system between the gas cooler and the throttle. The total water content is determined via a lot of bypass piping systems at different positions in the circuit. Due to this structure, representative sample volumes can be withdrawn while the system is still running. These probe volumes can be analyzed by means of the Karl-Fischer method. The hydrate formation is investigated by means of two optical cells which are installed behind the throttle. Based on these measurement devices, an analysis of the changed operating behavior of the CO{sub 2} refrigeration plant and a localization of possible water sinks in the circuit are performed.

  5. Noninvasive MRI-based liver iron quantification. Methodic approaches, practical applicability and significance; Nicht invasive MRT-basierte Bestimmung des Leber-Eisen-Gehalts. Methodische Ansaetze, Anwendbarkeit in der Praxis und Aussagekraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, A.P. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Section for Experimental Radiology; Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Cario, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Dept. of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine; Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Beer, M.; Schmidt, S.A. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology


    Due to the dependence of transverse relaxation times T{sub 2} and T{sub 2}* on tissue iron content, MRI offers different options for the determination of iron concentration. These are the time-consuming spin-echo sequence as well as the gradient-echo sequence. For the latter, several data analysis approaches have been proposed, with different requirements for acquisition and post-processing: the mathematically challenging R{sub 2}* analysis and the signal-intensity ratio method with its high demand on the signal homogeneity of MR images. Furthermore, special procedures currently under evaluation are presented as future prospects: quantitative susceptibility imaging, as a third approach for analyzing gradient echo data, and multi-contrast spin-echo using repeated refocusing pulses. MR theory, as far as needed for understanding the methods, is briefly depicted.

  6. Natrium, kalium, calcium, magnesium en keukenzout in noten, specerijen en kruiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen; H.A.M.G.; Kamp; C.G.van de


    Resultaten worden beschreven van het onderzoek van 26 monsters noten en 41 monsters specerijen en kruiden op gehalte aan natrium, kalium, calcium en magnesium. Gemeten werden deze elementen met vlam-AAS na ontsluiten van de waar in een drukvat. Het gehalte aan natrium in ongepelde noten,

  7. Development of an online emission measuring system for quasi-continuous measurement of organic halgen compounds in off-gases of thermal processes. The example of polychlorinated dibeno-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in pure gas of incinerators for domestic waste; Entwicklung einer on-line Emissionsmesstechnik zur quasi-kontinuierlichen Bestimmung von Organohalogen-Verbindungen in Abgasen thermischer Prozesse. Ausgefuehrt am Beispiel polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane im Reingas von Hausmuellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, K.


    Industrial processes are connected with the emission of xenobiotic substances that represent a burden on the environment. Standardised methods currently available for the quantitative determination of these substances are time consuming, require a lot of work and are therefore expensive. Consequently they are not suited to perform extensive screening or monitoring programs. The aim of this work was therefore to develop a reliable quasi-continuous time and cost effective measuring method that can be used as a screening tool for the determination of such substances. The method has been developed according to stack emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). (orig.)

  8. Prestatiekenmerken van de bepaling van formaldehyde en 8-hydroxychinolinesulfaat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleven RFMJ; Graaf M de; LAC


    Een aantal prestatiekenmerken voor de bepaling van een tweetal componenten waarvan de gehaltes regelmatig worden bepaald in voornamelijk sera en vaccins, is nader vastgelegd. Het betreft juistheid, precisie en nauwkeurigheid, de lineariteit van de kalibratiecurven, aantoonbaarheidsgrens, en

  9. Production pattern, chemical composition and digestibility of forage maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.


    Verslag van een onderzoek naar de invloed van rassenkeuze en de zaaidatum op de opbrengst, voedingswaarde en verteerbaarheid van voedermais. Verschillen bleken vooral veroorzaakt te worden door verschillen in koolhydraat-gehalte en de verteerbaarheid van de celwand

  10. Onderzoek monsters verduurzaamde champignons op basis van Verordening PGF 1981 Verduurzaamde Groenten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.M.; Veen, van der N.G.


    Monsters verduurzaamde champignons zijn conform Verordening PGF 1981 Verduurzaamde Groenten onderzocht op het gehalte aan zwaveldioxide, keukenzout en mononatriumglutaminaat alsmede op uiterlijke kwaliteitsaspekten. De monsters zijn genomen en ingezonden door de AID. Voor wat betreft de resultaten

  11. Emissions from Prescribed Burning of Agricultural Fields in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PM2.5, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and continuous...


    Emissions from residential fireplace and woodstove appliances burning fuels available from the San Francisco Bay area were sampled for polychlornated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), particulatematter (P...

  13. Demonstration of a consensus approach for the calculation of physicochemical properties required for environmental fate assessments (United States)

    Eight software applications are compared for their performance in estimating the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), melting point, vapor pressure and water solubility for a dataset of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzodioxin...

  14. Influence of Z-phase on Long-term Creep Stability of Martensitic 9 to 12 % Cr Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Hald, John


    stabileren Z-Phasen (Cr(V,Nb)N) mit einem Verlust an Kriechfestigkeit. Cr-Gehalte >10,5 % beschleunigen die Ausscheidung der Z-Phasen. Dies beschränkte Bemühungen, einen martensitischen, kriechfesten Stahl mit hohem Cr-Gehalt zum Schutz vor Oxidation zu entwickeln. 9-%-Cr-Stähle werden offensichtlich nicht...... durch die Z-Phase negativ beeinflusst. Die Untersuchung der Z-Phasen-Ausscheidung hat zur Entwicklung eines 12-%-Cr-martensitischen Versuchsstahls geführt, dessen Kriechfestigkeit durch die Z-Phase gewährleistet wird. Derartige Stähle erlauben die ombination hoher Festigkeit bei gleichzeitig guter...

  15. Laboratory experiments and analytical investigations on the transfer of organic substances from lignite into ground water and residue lakes during flooding of opencast lignite mines. Final report; Laborexperimente und analytische Untersuchungen ueber den Eintrag braunkohlebuertiger organischer Stoffe in Grundwaesser und Restseegewaesser bei der Flutung von Braunkohletagebauen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzschuh, R.; Frauendorf, H.; Herrmann, D.; Pietzsch, K.


    Lignite samples of diffrent lithotypes and composition from opencast mines of Lusatia and the region near Leipzig were submitted to weathering processes in laboratory scale experiments and the transfer of organic matter from lignite into the hydrosphere has been observed. By means of high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry used in combination with data from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry numerous lignite-derived aromatic and heteroaromatic (poly-)carboxylic acids as well as aliphatic dicarboxylic acids could be characterized in the aqueous extracts. Investigations on water samples from lignite mining residue lakes cofirm these results. Furthermore, formation of chlororganic compounds like polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxine and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), benzenes (PCBz) and phenols (PCPh) has been investigated on different lignite samples under natural weathering conditions and thermal treatment. (orig.) [German] Braunkohlen verschiedener Lithotypen und Zusammensetzung aus Tagebauen der Lausitz und der Region um Leipzig wurden in Laborexperimenten Verwitterungsprozessen unterzogen und der Uebergang organischer Materie aus der Braunkohle in die Hydrosphaere beobachtet. Mit Hilfe der HPLC-Elektrospray-MS-Untersuchungen in Kombination mit Daten aus GC-MS-Messungen konnten zahlreiche aus der Braunkohle stammende aromatische und heteroaromatische (Poly-)Carbonsaeuren sowie aliphatische Dicarbonsaeuren in den waessrigen Extrakten charakterisiert werden. Untersuchungen an Wasserproben aus bereits gefluteten Tagebaurestseen bestaetigen diese Ergebnisse. Weiterhin wurde die Bildung chlororganischer Verbindungen, wie polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und -furane (PCDD/F) sowie polychlorierter Biphenyle (PCB), Benzole (PCBz) und Phenole (PCPh) an unterschiedlichen Braunkohleproben unter natuerlichen Bedingungen und nach thermsicher Behandlung untersucht. (orig.)

  16. De evaluatie van Corning "MAGIC TSH-RIA" en de mogelijke toepassing van deze kit voor de bepaling van TSH in hielprikbloed van pasgeborenen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvers LH; Loeber JG


    Bij de evaluatie van de Corning "MAGIC TSH-RIA"-kit voor de RIA van hTSH in serum werd nagegaan of met deze kit, na modificatie, het TSH- gehalte in hielprikbloed van pasgeborenen kan worden gemeten. De ijkcurven van de bloedvlek- en serumcalibratoren kwamen goed met elkaar overeen. Het

  17. Cranberry houdt van zuur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukema, N.J.


    Cranberries houden van zand- of veengrond met een pH lager dan 5,5 en vragen een hoog gehalte aan organische stof. PPO-onderzoekers hebben een handleiding gemaakt voor de teelt cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Een eisenprofiel toont waaraan rassen in Nederland moeten voldoen wat betreft kleur,

  18. De betekenis van chloride voor bomen: toxische gehalten in blad, naalden en grond : een literatuuroverzicht = The significance of chloride for trees: toxic concentrations in foliage and soil : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den J.


    Literatuurstudie over de relaties tussen het zoutgehalte in de bodem (het C-cijfer), het chloride-gehalte van blad en naalden, de groei en het optreden van zichtbare schadeverschijnselen. Voor een groot aantal geslachten en soorten zijn de C-cijfers, kritische chloride-gehalten en het

  19. THC-concentraties in wiet, nederwiet en hasj in Nederlandse coffeeshops (2001 - 2002)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Pijlman, F.T.A.; Rigter, S.; Hoek, J.; Mostert, L.


    THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is de belangrijkste psychoactieve verbinding in de cannabisplant. In 1999 is door de ministeries van VWS en Justitie een onafhankelijke monitor geëntameerd naar de THC-gehaltes in cannabisproducten zoals die in de Nederlandse coffeeshops worden verkocht, als input voor het

  20. Ringonderzoek : bepaling van coccidiostaticagehalte in diervoeders, met behulp van turbidimetrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broex, N.J.G.; Huf, F.


    Voor de gehalte bepaling van monensin, salinomycine en narasin in diervoeders is de zg. turbidimetrische methode geringtest door 12 laboratoria. Ieder laboratorium heeft 9 monsters ontvangen, resp. 3 voormengsels en 6 diervoeders met monensin, salinomycine of narasin. De monsters zijn onderzocht met


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n. [,erste-orde model vir innamevoorspelling is gebruik ntet skape wat ruvoere van uiteenlopende gehalte gevot:r is Belangrike verander- likes, wat in hierdic studie geidentrfiseer is, is dic rumenkapasrteit van die drcre, die eerste-orde vervalkonstante vlr fermentasie van die dieet, die clplosbl'arhetd van dre dieel cn dre ...

  2. Nitraatgehalte en kropgewicht van sla afhankelijk van voeding en enkele andere factoren : teelt op voedingsfilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreij, de C.; Post, W.H.K.; Klein - Buitendijk, H.


    Gedurende de winters 1991 - 1995 werden 20 proeven met sla gedaan. Doel van de proeven was het zoeken naar de optimale samenstelling van de voedingsoplossing voor sla geteeld in voedingsfilm (Nutrient Film Technique), met een laag N03- gehalte in het gewas een hoog kropgewicht en geen rand.

  3. Chloride, alkali- en aardalkalimetaal opneming via de voeding; resultaten van 201 duplicaten van 24-uurs voeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen; H.A.M.G.; Kamp; C.G.van de


    Onderzocht werden 201 duplicaten van evenzovele 24-uurs voedingen op gehalte aan chloride, natrium, kalium, calcium, magnesium, rubidium en lithium en hieruit werd de opname van deze elementen per persoon en per etmaal berekend. De gemiddelde opname bedroeg voor chloride 5,08 gram, voor natrium

  4. Microelements in potatoes under "normal" conditions, and as affected by microelements in municipal waste compost, sewage sludge, and dredged materials from harbours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de S.; Lubbers, J.


    Verslagen van onderzoekingen naar de invloed van bemesting van zand- en kleigronden met gekomposteerd huishoudelijk afval, rioolslib van verschillende oorsprong en slib uit de Rotterdamse haven op het gehalte aan het aantal spore-elementen en zware metalen in de grond en in aardappelen die op deze

  5. see van Galilea gegaan in die middel van die Tienstede-gebied". AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Die behandeling van hierdie onderwerpe is van heel ongelyke lengte en ook wel verskillend van gehalte. Die historiese uiteensettings lyk my aanmerklik beter geslaag as die sistematies-teologiese, hoewel ook daarin die hoofsake m.i. reg gestel word en tereg sowel teen die historisme as teen sekere teses en uitgroeisels ...

  6. Contractiemechanisme en elektrolythuishouding van het geïsoleerde, overlevende rattehart, mede in verband met de werking van insuline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Offerijns, F.G.J.; Willebrands, A.F.; Groen, J.


    Het waarnemen van een effect van insuline op de contracties van het geïsoleerde, overlevende rattenhart was aanleiding om de fysische verrichtingen in samenhang van het gehalte aan water en elektrolyten van dit orgaan tot onderwerp van studie te maken. Daarbij werd een zo goed mogelijk aan de

  7. Wat is het geheim van ammonium? (interview met Bram van der Maas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der A.A.


    Beter meten is meer weten. Dat is het uitgangspunt van de 'ion selectieve meter' die Horticoop en CleanGrow bezig zijn te ontwikkelen. Daarmee zijn zes elementen te controleren. Maar wat zegt bijvoorbeeld het gehalte ammonium over een gewas? Onderzoeker Bram van der Maas: 'Met ammonium is misschien

  8. Enkele polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen (PAH) en stikstofhoudende analoga (N-PAH) in levensmiddelen en ander biologisch materiaal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen; H.A.M.G.; Wilbers; A.A.M.M.; Jekel;


    Beschreven worden de resultaten van het onderzoek van margarine en halvarine (N=28), rundernieren (N=6), maiskiemen (N=1), "vet" uit overstortputjes (N=1), spinazie (N=5), boerenkool (N=8), mosselen (N=10), brood (N=4) en duplicaten van 24-uurs voeding (N=6) op gehalte aan

  9. ʼn Kritiese evaluering van wetgewing wat die gesondheid van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    gereguleer wat "basiese watervoorsiening" omskryf as "die voorgeskrewe minimum standaard van watervoorsieningsdienste wat nodig is vir die betroubare voorsiening van ʼn toereikende hoeveelheid en gehalte water aan huishoudings, met inbegrip van informele huishoudings, om lewe en persoonlike higiëne te steun".

  10. Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied. Resultaten over 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lembrechts J; Glastra P; Nissan LA; Overwater RMW; LSO


    Van 25 havenspeciemonsters is het Ra-226-gehalte bepaald. De monsters zijn in 2001 verzameld in de Rotterdamse havens en in de Nieuwe Waterweg. Zoals ook in eerdere meetcampagnes is vastgesteld, worden hoge radiumgehaltes gevonden in de omgeving van de voormalige lozingspunten van de

  11. Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard H; Overwater RMW; Glastra P; Nissan LA; LSO


    In 2002 zijn wederom havenspeciemonsters verzameld in de Rotterdamse havens en in de Nieuwe Waterweg. Van 25 monsters is het 226Ra-gehalte bepaald. Zoals ook in eerdere meetcampagnes is vastgesteld, worden hoge radiumgehalten gevonden in de omgeving van de voormalige lozingspunten van de

  12. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter Manfred; Bakker, W.; Luthe, G.


    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the

  13. Ampfer im Grünland erfolgreich kontrollieren - Ein praktischer Leitfaden für den ökologischen Landbau


    Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft, FAL


    Insbesondere die großblättrigen Ampfer-Arten Stumpfblättriger Ampfer (Rumex obtusifolius L.) und Krauser Ampfer (Rumex crispus L.) sind als lästiges Unkraut im Grünland bekannt. Durch ihren Blattreichtum verdrängen sie die Futtergräser, besitzen jedoch selbst einen sehr geringen Futterwert. Gemindert wird die Futterqualität durch den niedrigen Energeigehalt bzw. Zuckergehalt und den relativ hohen Gehalt an Oxalsäure.

  14. Mineral phases in raw and processed municipal waste incineration residues


    Bayuseno, Athanasius Priharyoto (Dipl.)


    Die Eigenschaften von Filterstäuben und Schlacken aus deutschen Müllverbrennungsanlagen (MVA) und der chemisch-mineralogische Umsatz von Filterstäuben wurden mit dem Ziel erforscht, die enthaltenen Schwermetalle durch kristallchemische Substitution in beständigen Mineralphasen zu immobilisieren. Die Hauptgemengteile der frischen Schlacken sind Silikate und Oxide, außerdem ist ein hoher Gehalt an Glas vorhanden. Die frischen Filterstäube erhalten eine erhebliche Menge Glas und unterschiedliche...

  15. Studien zur Zusammensetzung der Inhaltsstoffe getrockneter Heidelbeeren und Formulierungen zum Colon-Targeting von Anthocyanen


    Oehme, Anett


    Die Ergebnisse verschiedener in vitro Untersuchungen und Tierstudien deuten darauf hin, dass Anthocyane zur Prävention und Therapie von intestinalen Erkrankungen wie akutem Durchfall oder chronisch entzündlichen Darm¬erkrankungen (CED) sowie Darmkrebs geeignete Naturstoffe sind. Mit bis zu 780 mg/100 g Frischgewicht weisen Heidelbeeren (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) besonders hohe Anthocyan¬¬gehalte auf. In getrockneter Form sind diese Beeren ein bewährtes Therapeutikum in der Volksheilkunde und we...

  16. Strategien für die Melissezüchtung (Melissa officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittler, Johannes


    Full Text Available Es wurden 120 Melisseherkünfte in Feldversuchen evaluiert. In diesem Material wurde die Variabilität für Winterhärte, Gehalt und Zsammensetzung des ätherischen Öls, Rosmarinsäuregehalt und eingeschränkt Blattertrag beschrieben. Die beschriebene Variabilität ermöglichte die Entwicklung homozygoter Linien mit hoher Eigenleistung für die genannten Zuchtziele bis zur I4-Inzuchtgeneration. Die Kreuzung definierter Linien ermöglichte die Schaffung eines neuen Genpools als Ausgansmaterial für die Entwicklung weiterer aussichtsreicher Linien.

  17. Magnesium (United States)

    Bechtel, H.; Bulian, W.; Bungardt, K.; Gürs, K.; Gürs, U.; Helling, W.; Kyri, H.; Laue, H. J.; Mahler, W.; Matting, A.; Meyer, F. R.; Mialki, W.; Ritter, F.; Ruge, J.; Saur, G.; Simon, W.; Strnat, K.; Weber, R.; Weigand, H. H.; Weik, H.; Ziesler, H.; Borchers, Heinz; Schmidt, Ernst

    Magnesium wird überwiegend durch Schmelzflußelektrolyse hergestellt. Das dabei anfallende Reinmagnesium hat einen Mg-Gehalt von etwa 99,9%. Hauptbeimengung ist das Eisen; Silizium und Aluminium sind nur in Spuren vorhanden. Der Anwendungsumfang des Reinmagnesiums ist gering; dagegen werden Magnesiumlegierungen zunehmend, insbesondere für den Druckguß verwendet. Neben den bis etwa zum Jahre 1950 allein gebräuchlichen Mg-Mn-, Mg-Al- und Mg-Al-Zn-Legierungen werden heute mehr und mehr die besonders warmfesten Legierungen mit Zusätzen von Zirkon, Thorium und Seltenen Erden hergestellt (siehe dazu auch Abschnitt Seltene Erden). Als Umhüllungsmaterial für Uranstäbe dient die Legierung Magnox A 12, die nach [H 3] neben 1 % Al noch geringe Mengen an Ca und Ba enthält. In den in Deutschland üblichen Kurzzeichen (DIN 1729) werden die chemischen Symbole und der ungefähre Gehalt der wichtigsten Legierungselemente angegeben. Gußlegierungen werden zusätzlich durch ein G (Sandguß oder Kokillenguß) oder ein D (Druckguß) gekennzeichnet (siehe Tab. 5).

  18. Influence of Z-phase on Long-term Creep Stability of Martensitic 9 to 12 % Cr Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Hald, John


    Die langfristige Kriechstabilität der neuesten Generation martensitischer 9 bis 12 % kriechfester Stähle basiert auf dem bekannten Grade 91, d. h. auf der Stärkung durch die feinen MNNitride (V und Nb). Langzeit-Hochtemperaturtests zeigen den Ersatz der MN-Nitride durch die thermodynamisch...... stabileren Z-Phasen (Cr(V,Nb)N) mit einem Verlust an Kriechfestigkeit. Cr-Gehalte >10,5 % beschleunigen die Ausscheidung der Z-Phasen. Dies beschränkte Bemühungen, einen martensitischen, kriechfesten Stahl mit hohem Cr-Gehalt zum Schutz vor Oxidation zu entwickeln. 9-%-Cr-Stähle werden offensichtlich nicht...... durch die Z-Phase negativ beeinflusst. Die Untersuchung der Z-Phasen-Ausscheidung hat zur Entwicklung eines 12-%-Cr-martensitischen Versuchsstahls geführt, dessen Kriechfestigkeit durch die Z-Phase gewährleistet wird. Derartige Stähle erlauben die ombination hoher Festigkeit bei gleichzeitig guter...

  19. Monitoring of brominated flame retardants, dioxins, PCBs and other organohalogen compounds in fish from The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwen, S. van; Boer, J. de [Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (Netherlands); Traag, W. [State Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products (Netherlands)


    A new monitoring program on organic contaminants in fish from the Netherlands has begun in 2003. The aim of this program is to determine the levels and temporal trends of contamination for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) and -methanol (TCPM) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) in fish that is regularly consumed by the Dutch population. Earlier studies indicated that these contaminants are present in fish but no comprehensive dataset was available for evaluation of possible risks for consumers. The results of the first year are shown in this paper.

  20. Contribution of tobacco smoking to dioxin accumulation: opposite effects according to gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierens, S.; Bernard, A. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Eppe, G.; Focant, J.F.; Pauw, E. De [Univ. of Liege (Belgium)


    Tobacco smoke contains a variety of polycyclic hydrocarbons including dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans). It has been estimated that smoking 20 cigarettes per day should lead to a dioxin intake almost equivalent to that from food (1 to 3 pg TEQ/kg bw/day), the major source of human exposure. However, studies that have measured dioxins in smokers have found no increased levels, some of them even reporting significantly lower values than in non-smokers. We show here that dioxins concentrations are affected by a gender-smoking interaction that could exert a confounding effect.

  1. Toxic deposition monitoring network data listing for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air and precipitation, 1989 and 1990. Report No. ARB-107-92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The toxic deposition network was established in late 1987 to monitor for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCs), trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDD/PCDFs) in air and precipitation. This report gives the 1989 and 1990 air and precipitation monitoring results for PCBs and OCs. Data from the site at Shallow Lake are incomplete because the site was closed in October 1990. Trace metal data are reported as part of the APIOS monitoring program.

  2. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M. (Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie)


    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Assadipour


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The trade-off between time, cost, and quality is one of the important problems of project management. This problem assumes that all project activities can be executed in different modes of cost, time, and quality. Thus a manager should select each activity’s mode such that the project can meet the deadline with the minimum possible cost and the maximum achievable quality. As the problem is NP-hard and the objectives are in conflict with each other, a multi-objective meta-heuristic called CellDE, which is a hybrid cellular genetic algorithm, is implemented as the optimisation method. The proposed algorithm provides project managers with a set of non-dominated or Pareto-optimal solutions, and enables them to choose the best one according to their preferences. A set of problems of different sizes is generated and solved using the proposed algorithm. Three metrics are employed for evaluating the performance of the algorithm, appraising the diversity and convergence of the achieved Pareto fronts. Finally a comparison is made between CellDE and another meta-heuristic available in the literature. The results show the superiority of CellDE.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Balans tussen tyd, koste en gehalte is een van die belangrike probleme van projekbestuur. Die vraagstuk maak gewoonlik die aanname dat alle projekaktiwiteite uitgevoer kan word op uiteenlopende wyses wat verband hou met koste, tyd en gehalte. ‘n Projekbestuurder selekteer gewoonlik die uitvoeringsmetodes sodanig per aktiwiteit dat gehoor gegegee word aan minimum koste en maksimum gehalte teen die voorwaarde van voltooiingsdatum wat bereik moet word.

    Aangesien die beskrewe problem NP-hard is, word dit behandel ten opsigte van konflikterende doelwitte met ‘n multidoelwit metaheuristiese metode (CellDE. Die metode is ‘n hibride-sellulêre genetiese algoritme. Die algoritme lewer aan die besluitvormer ‘n versameling van ongedomineerde of Pareto


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Avakh Darestani


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The quality of the raw material and supplied product from suppliers plays a critical role in the quality of the final product. It has become the norm that vehicle manufacturers require their suppliers to measure product quality and service with a product audit method. Measuring quality of product is emphasised by QS9000 VDA6.5 and ISO/TS16949. From a competitive standpoint, and also to see continuous improvement in business, companies need to monitor their suppliers’ performance. Quality and delivery are two very important indicators of supplier performance. This paper presents a statistical method for measuring the quality of supplied product. This method allocates different weights to variables and attributes characteristics. Moreover, following normal distribution, the tolerance zone is divided to three regions with different scores. Therefore, the quality of suppliers’ products can be monitored based on the Product Quality Audit Score (PQAS. However, this method may be employed for organisations to monitor their raw material, work-in-process parts, and final product. It can be an indicator to monitor supplier quality behaviour.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gehalte van grondstowwe en produkte/komponente wat deur leweransiers verskaf word, speel ‘n kritiese rol in die gehalte van die finale produk. Dit het die norm geword in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf dat daar van leweransiers verwag word om hulle produkkwaliteit en –diens te meet by wyse van ‘n produkouditmetode. Die meting van produkkwaliteit word benadruk deur QS9000 VDA6.5 en ISO/TS16949. Uit ‘n mededingingshoek en ook om kontinue verbetering te monitor, is dit noodsaaklik dat leweransiers se verrigting gemeet word. Gehalte en aflewering is twee van die belangrikste indikatore van leweransiersverrigting. In hierdie artikel word ‘n statistiese model voorgehou vir die meting van die kwaliteit van die gelewerde produk. Die metode ken verskillende

  5. Hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking of high alloyed austenitic materials; Wasserstoffversproedung und wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion hochlegierter austenitischer Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mummert, K.; Uhlemann, M.; Engelmann, H.J. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)


    zunehmendem Ni-Gehalt der Legierung zu und fuehrt zu eindeutiger Abnahme der Duktilitaet in der Ni-Basislegierung. Obwohl es im Falle der Spannungsrisskorrosion eine lokale Wasserstoffquelle im Werkstoff durch den kathodischen Teilprozess der Korrosion gibt, wird Risswachstum nur beobachtet, wenn die Wasserstoffkonzentration in einer kleinen `Prozesszone` vor der Rissspitze einen auf den Spannungszustand bezogenen kritischen Wert erreicht. Mit zunehmendem Ni-Gehalt der Legierung nimmt die Wahrscheinlichkeit hierfuer infolge zunehmender Diffusionsgeschwindigkeit des Wasserstoffs im austenitischen Gitter ab. Demzufolge zeigen insbesondere austenitische Staehle mit geringem Ni-Gehalt Empfindlichkeit gegen transkristalline SpRK. In diesem Falle ist das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten an der Rissspitze auch durch analoge Prozesse bestimmt, wie es an wasserstoffbeladenen Proben beobachtet wird. (orig.)

  6. The Empirical content of theories in judgment and decision making: Shortcomings and remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glockner


    Full Text Available According to Karl Popper, we can tell good theories from poor ones by assessing their empirical content (empirischer Gehalt, which basically reflects how much information they convey concerning the world. ``The empirical content of a statement increases with its degree of falsifiability: the more a statement forbids, the more it says about the world of experience.'' Two criteria to evaluate the empirical content of a theory are their level of universality (Allgemeinheit and their degree of precision (Bestimmtheit. The former specifies how many situations it can be applied to. The latter refers to the specificity in prediction, that is, how many subclasses of realizations it allows. We conduct an analysis of the empirical content of theories in Judgment and Decision Making (JDM and identify the challenges in theory formulation for different classes of models. Elaborating on classic Popperian ideas, we suggest some guidelines for publication of theoretical work.

  7. Riots ‒ Anmerkungen zu Begriff und Konzept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Rucht


    Full Text Available Ausgehend von sozialwissenschaftlichen Befunden werden zunächst ältere massenpsychologische Deutungen von riots zurückgewiesen. Die überwiegende Mehrzahl der im riot Aufbegehrenden entspricht nicht dem Typus entfremdeter und verängstigter Einzeltäter_innen. Zweitens benennt der Beitrag eine Reihe von Bedingungen für das Zustandekommen von riots. Drittens wird der Begriff ‚riot‘ in formaler Hinsicht näher bestimmt und einerseits von moderateren Formen des Protests, andererseits von geplanter und organisierter Gewalt (z. B. Terrorismus abgegrenzt. Abschließend wird die Frage des politischen Gehalts von riots und deren normativen Grundlagen erörtert.

  8. Man trägt jetzt Gesundheit Fashion and Images of Gender in the Weimar Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fleig


    Full Text Available Die Dissertation untersucht die Wechselwirkungen von emanzipatorischen Einstellungen und modischem Erscheinungsbild der „Neuen Frau“ in der Weimarer Republik. Sie zeigt, inwiefern die Bilder dieses neuen Frauentyps dem historischen Konzept einer „Neuen Frau“ zum Durchbruch verhelfen. Deutlich wird aber auch, dass die rasche Popularität dieses Frauenbildes seinen ursprünglich auf gesellschaftliche Veränderung zielenden Gehalt veräußerlicht.Kessemeier’s dissertation deals with the complicated relations between early feminist ideas and images of the “new woman” in the German twenties. Kesselmeier shows the role which visual images played in making the historical concept of a “new woman” popular. She documents that the immediate popularity of this image was related to contemporary societal changes but that the final product, the “new woman,” focused on form (physical appearance rather than content.

  9. Herbesin oor die opleiding van natuurwetenskaponderwysers in Suid-Afrika: Lesse uit Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef de Beer


    Full Text Available Finland word dikwels gesien as die ‘goudstandaard‘ in natuurwetenskaponderwys, danksy die land se uitmuntende prestasie in internasionale toetse soos die program vir internasionale studentassessering (PISA en tendense in internasionale wiskunde- en natuurwetenskapstudie (TIMSS. Daarteenoor laat Suid-Afrika se prestasie in TIMSS veel te wense oor. Volgens die Wêreld-Ekonomiese Forum (WEF se wêreldwye mededingendheidsverslag (2010–2011, is Suid-Afrika 137ste op die ranglys van 139 lande wat betref die gehalte van wiskunde- en natuurwetenskaponderwys. Die skrywers van hierdie artikel beskou die gehalte van natuurwetenskaponderwysers as die sleutel om hierdie probleem die hoof te bied. Ons dink na oor Finland as die ‘superoutoriteit’ in natuurwetenskaponderwys en oor lesse wat Suid-Afrika kan leer omtrent die verskaffing van beter voordiensopleiding vir studente wat hulle as natuurwetenskaponderwysers wil bekwaam. In hierdie artikel verbind ons ontluikende temas wat uit kwalitatiewe navorsingsdata na vore gekom het met aanbevelings oor hoe voordiensopleiding vir voornemende onderwysers verbeter kan word, gebaseer op die beste gebruike in Finland. Ons gebruik onderhoude met Finse onderwysers en onderwysdosente, skoolwaarneming in beide lande, artefakte soos die refleksies van Suid-Afrikaanse onderwysstudente oor hulle ondervindings in skole, en onderwysers se reaksies op die Sienings van die Aard van Natuurwetenskappe (Views of the Nature of Science-vraelys. Die derdegenerasie–kultuurhistoriese aktiwiteitsteorie (KHAT word gebruik as ’n navorsingslens om ‘spanning/onderstrominge’ in natuurwetenskaponderwys in Suid-Afrika te beklemtoon, en ons dui aan hoe hierdie aspekte by die opleiding van onderwysers verreken kan word.

  10. Outpatients’ experiences of quality service delivery at a teaching hospital in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebin J Arries


    of service commitments, unethical context, and inter-personal relationship difficulties that render them powerless and dehumanised. Recommendations are made to improve the quality of service delivery at outpatient departments. Opsomming Gehalte dienslewering aan die verbruiker van gesondheidsorg is ‘n wetlike realiteit wat in die Witskrif op die Transformasie van die Openbare Dienste (South Africa, 1997 beklemtoon word. Die rigtinggewende filosofie wat in hierdie raamwerk aangeneem word is die van Batho Pele, wat beteken dat die verbruiker van gesondheidsorg op die voorgrond geplaas word. Vanuit ‘n gehalte perspektief word daar toenemend aandag aan hospitaalprosesse gegee. Analogies, kan ‘n buite-pasiëntdepartement gesien word as ‘n industriële area waar die tegnologiese kennis aan pasiënte oorgedra word deur dienslewering, wat ‘n hoeksteen van die besigheid van ‘n hospitaal is. Buitepasiënte as verbruikers van gesondheidsorg maak gevolgtrekkings oor gehaltedienslewering op die basis van hulle belewenisse van sodanige dienste. In dié opsig, is ‘n pasiënt se belewenis van ‘n bepaalde diens ‘n aanwysing van sy/haar vlak van tevredenheid met die gehalte van daardie diens. Geen Suid-Afrikaanse studie oor buite-pasiënte se belewenisse van gehaltedienslewering kon in die literatuur gevind word nie. Die doelstelling van die studie is om buite-pasiënte se belewenisse van die gehalte van dienslewering by ‘n opleidingshospitaal te verken en te beskryf. ‘n Kwalitatiewe, verkennende, beskrywende studie wat binne ‘n spesifieke konteks plaasvind, is uitgevoer. Fokusgroeponderhoude is gevoer met buite-pasiënte wat aan die seleksie-kriteria voldoen het. Oop-kodering is gebruik om die inhoud van die verbatim getranskribeerde transkripsies en veldnotas te analiseer. Strategieë vir vertrouenswaardigheid, naamlik mede-kodering, verlengde betrokkenheid, kruisvalidasie en voldoende verwysing is toegepas om die geloofwaardigheid van die studie en

  11. Brominated dioxin-like compounds: in vitro assessment in comparison to classical dioxin-like compounds and other polyaromatic compounds. (United States)

    Behnisch, Peter Alexander; Hosoe, Kazunori; Sakai, Shin-ichi


    Recently, several countries agreed to adopt the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). One future obligation will be to add other POPs as new evidence becomes available. In vitro cell-based bioassays offer a rapid, sensitive, and relatively inexpensive solution to screen possible POP candidates. In the present study, we investigated the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)-receptor activity of several dioxin-like POPs by using the Micro-EROD (Ethoxy-Resorufin-O-Deethylase) and DR-CALUX (Dioxin-Responsive-Chemical Activated Luciferase gene eXpression) bioassays, which are two state-of-the-art methods. The Micro-EROD system used in our study utilizes a wild-type rat liver cell line (rat liver H4IIEC3/T cells), while the DR-CALUX bioassay consists of a genetically modified rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line that incorporates the firefly luciferase gene coupled to dioxin-responsive elements (DREs) as a reporter gene. In the case of the DR-CALUX bioassay, we used an exposure time of 24 h, whereas we used a 72-h exposure time in the Micro-EROD bioassay. The aim of this study was to compare conventional dioxin-like POPs (such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans, PCDD/Fs and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) with several other classes of possible candidates to be added to the current toxicity equivalent factor (TEF) model in the future. Therefore, this study compares in vitro CYP1A1 (Micro-EROD bioassay) and firefly luciferase induction (DR-CALUX bioassay) in several mixed polyhalogenated dibenzodioxins and -furans (PXDD/Fs; X=Br, Cl, or F), alkyl-substituted polyhalogenated dibenzodioxins and -furans (PMCDD/Fs; M=methyl), polyhalogenated biphenyls (PXBs, X=Br, Cl ), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pentabromophenols (PBPs), and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A). We also evaluate congener-specific relative potencies (REPs) and efficacies (% of TCDD(max)) and discuss the dose-response curves of these compounds, as well as the dioxin-like potency of

  12. Persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere from urban and industrial environments in the Rhine Valley: PCBs, PCDD/Fs. (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Millet, Maurice


    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and furan (PCDD/F) concentrations in the atmosphere were analysed using passive air samplers (PAS) close to the Rhine River between France and Germany. Collectors were placed in industrial, urban, rural and remote areas (Vosges Mountains) between March 2009 and August 2010, and the mean PCB concentrations (sum of 22 congeners) were 3.3, 3.9, 4.1 and 1.4 ng PAS(-1) day(-1), respectively. Two events during the sampling period were observed in April 2009 and February-March 2010 with the highest PCB concentrations found in the industrial area (19.6 ng PAS(-1) day(-1)). PCDD/F level were measured during these periods, and the maximum concentration observed was from 37.5 fg WHO PAS(-1) day(-1.)

  13. Decomposition of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial off-gas by electron beams: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paur, H.R.


    The electron beam induced decomposition of volatile organic compounds (e.g. aromatic compounds, esters, chlorinated hydrocarbons) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins) in industrial off gas has been investigated by several research groups in Germany and Japan. The method was shown to be effective for cleaning the waste gas of a paint factory, the waste air discharged from an automobile tunnel, the off gas cleaning from a groundwater remediation plant and the flue gas of a waste incinerator. The electron beam process achieves high removal efficiencies for volatile organic compounds. Reaction models have been developed, which suggest that the organic compounds are oxidized by hydroxyl radicals. The electron beam process may treat very large off-gas volumes at ambient temperatures and has a low energy consumption. The production of secondary wastes can be avoided or minimized. Compared to conventional methods the investment and operation costs of the process seem to be attractive for selected applications

  14. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils: literature review. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, D.C.; Sklarew, D.S.


    This report reviews and summarizes available literature data on the attenuation of PCBs in soil and to review the current literature on the conceptual and mathematical approaches that may be applicable to modeling PCB sorption/desorption in soils. Because research has suggested that toxicity attributed to PCBs may be caused or enhanced by other closely associated hydrophobic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), literature on PCDD and PCDF attenuation data in soils has also been briefly reviewed; these data are amenable to the same modeling approaches as described for PCBs. Sorption/desorption data have been emphasized, but information on other attenuation mechanisms has been included as well. Major deficiencies in the data are identified and, based on these deficiencies, recommendations are made for a combined program of experimental work and model development. These recommendations identify specific areas for research which in the near future would allow the development of a predictive capability. 150 refs.

  15. Effects on ambient air caused by emissions from the Clean Harbors incinerator and underground water treatment facility in Mercier : evaluation by atmospheric dispersion modeling; Effets sur l'air ambiant des emissions de l'incinerateur Clean Harbors et de l'Unite de traitement des eaux souterraines (UTES) a Mercier : evaluation par modelisation de la dispersion atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, G.; Walsh, P.; Brault, M.P.; Couture, Y.; Briere, J.F. [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Direction du suivi de l' etat de l' environnement; Guay, F.; Longpre, L. [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Direction regionale de l' analyse et de l' expertise de l' Estrie de la Monteregie; Lemire, R.; Busque, D. [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Service de l' information sur le milieu atmospherique


    Clean Harbors is a leading provider of high-tech, high-temperature destruction of hazardous and industrial waste. The Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks created an atmospheric dispersion model to determine the impact of the Clean Harbors incinerator and underground water treatment facility on air quality in Mercier, Quebec. This document described the dispersion model and its inputs, including emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fine particulates, mercury, lead and arsenic. The effects of these emissions on air quality were evaluated by considering meteorological data, source characteristics, topography and land use zoning. The modeling study showed that emissions from the incinerator were well below criteria levels and do not cause significant deterioration in air quality. However, higher than allowable limits of polyvinyl chloride and benzene emissions were found 700 m from the underground water treatment facility. Nearby residential areas were not affected. 21 refs., 9 tabs., 10 figs., 1 appendix.

  16. Air pollution control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Baumann, K.; Droescher, F.; Gross, H.; Steisslinger, B.


    Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO 2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs [de

  17. Dioxin Levels in Mainstream Smoke from Cigarettes with Different TPM Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CJ


    Full Text Available The presence of dioxin-like compounds, such as chlorinated dibenzodioxins, chlorinated dibenzofurans and chlorinated biphenyls, in mainstream cigarette smoke has been investigated for seven cigarette brands covering a range of ‘tar’ deliveries from 1 mg to 14 mg. Adjusted per milligram of total particulate matter (TPM, ultra-light cigarettes had the highest concentrations of toxic equivalents (TEQ of 10 fg/mg TPM. As the ‘tar’ delivery increased, lower concentration values were found in lights and full-flavor cigarettes. Calculated on the basis of a pack of twenty cigarettes, mainstream smoke from the ultra-lights and lights products produced values around 200 fg TEQ, and the full-flavor brand produced 575 fg TEQ per pack. Levels of TEQ from dioxin-like compounds in the tobacco section of four cigarette brands did not show significant differences and were similar to previous literature findings.

  18. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles. (United States)

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter; Bakker, Wouter; Luthe, Gregor


    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the surface of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles, being formed during the fabrication process of the TiO2. Thereby, the samples comprise PCBs with higher congener numbers or, in the absence of PCBs, a high concentration of PCDDs and PCDFs. This new class of POPs on an active catalytic surface and the great range of applications of nanoparticular TiO2, such as in color pigments, cosmetics, and inks, give rise to great concern due to their potential toxicity.

  19. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li


    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  20. Dioxin formation mechanisms: Implications for combustion technologies. Report for October 1997--March 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullett, B.K.


    The paper discusses current mechanistic theories relating to the formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and how these theories relate to coal combustion, diesel vehicles, and open burning practices that may be of interest for the Asia-Pacific region. Co-firing coal with waste combustion has been shown to significantly decrease PCDD/F formation, likely by affecting the catalytic activity of the fly ash. On-road sampling results for diesel trucks have shown that modern, electronically controlled vehicles are likely a minor source of PCDD/F, although older vehicles remain a virtually uncharacterized and potentially significant source. Recent results from open burning of municipal waste have shown that PCDD/F emission factors are at least 14 orders of magnitude higher than modern waste combustors

  1. Investigations of environmental concentrations of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and organic tin compounds in representative samples: methodological developments and actual as well as retrospective monitoring. Final report; Verfolgung von Umweltbelastungen durch Alkylphenole, Bisphenol A und organische Zinnverbindungen repraesentativen Umweltproben: Methodische Entwicklungen und aktuelles sowie retrospektives Monitoring. Bd. 1: Organische Zinnverbindungen. Bd. 2: Alkylphenole, Bisphenol A. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedel, H.; Lepper, P.; Sohn, H.; Steinhanses, J.; Boehmer, W.; Bruckert, H.J.; Wenzel, A.


    were approx. 2.5 {mu}g/kg. Tin-organic compounds: TBT and TPhT were detected as major contaminants (max. 385 and 86 {mu}g Sn/kg of matrix, respectively). The maximum values for DBT and MBT were 14 and 9 {mu} Sn/kg, respectively. The highest values detected for DPhT were 13 {mu}g Sn/kg. The most highly loaded samples were bream muscles and zebra mussels from the river Elbe. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Forschungsvorhabens wurden analytische Methoden zur quantitativen Bestimmung von Alkylphenolen (4-Nonylphenol, 4NP; 4-tert.-Octylphenol, 4tOP) und Alkylphenolethoxylaten (4-Nonylphenolmonoethoxylat, 4NP1EO; 4-tert.-Octylphenolmonoethoxylat, 4tOP1EO), Bisphenol A (BPhA) sowie organischen Zinnverbindungen (Tributylzinn, TBT; Dibutylzinn, DBT, Monobutylzinn, MBT; Triphenylzinn, TPhT) in verschiedenen biologischen Matrices adaptiert und weiterentwickelt. Die Methoden wurden in Form von Standardarbeitsanweisungen (SOP) dokumentiert. Mit diesen Methoden wurden Proben aus der Umweltprobenbank des Bundes analysiert. Aus marinen Oekosystemen der Nord- und Ostsee wurden Blasentang, Miesmuschel, Aalmuttermuskulatur, Silbermoewenei und aus limnischen Oekosystemen (Elbe, Mulde, Saale, Rhein, Saar, Bornhoeveder Seengebiet) Dreikantmuschel und Brassenmuskulatur verschiedener Jahrgaenge analysiert. Alkylphenole: In der Regel lagen die Gehalte an 4NP und 4NP1EO sowohl in den marinen, als auch in den limnischen Oekosystemen oberhalb der Gehalte von 4tOP und 4tOP1EO. In den marinen Proben war die Miesmuschel hoeher belastet als die anderen Matrices. Die Gehalte in den Proben aus limnischen Oekosystemen lagen deutlich hoeher als die der Proben aus den marinen Oekosystemen. Die hoechste Konzentration wurde mit 324 {mu}g/kg Frischgewicht fuer 4NP1EO in Brassenmuskulatur in der Saar bei Guedingen gemessen. Bisphenol A: Der Gehalt an BPhA in den untersuchten Proben war durchweg gering. Die Analysen ergaben in Dreikantmuschel Konzentrationen von 1-2,5 {mu}g BPhA/kg; nur am Standort Rehlingen

  2. Organic tin compounds, alkylphenols and bisphenol A in marine and limnetic specimen from the German federal environmental specimen bank. Methodological developments as well as actual and retrospective monitoring; Organische Zinnverbindungen, Alkylphenole und Bisphenol A in marinen und limnischen Biota der Umweltprobenbank. Methodische Entwicklungen sowie aktuelles und retrospektives Monitoring. Teilberichte 1 - 3: Organische Zinnverbindungen. Alkylphenole und Alkylphenolethoxylate. Biosphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedel, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umweltchemie und Oekotoxikologie, Schmallenberg (Germany); Lepper, P.; Sohn, H.; Steinhanses, J.; Boehmer, W.; Wenzel, A.; Bruckert, H.J.


    a higher value of approx. 5 {mu}g/kg was detected. The BPhA concentration in bream muscles was always below the limit of determination (LOD). The lowest content of BPhA in marine samples was found for mussels (concentrationGehalte an 4NP und 4NP1EO sowohl in den marinen, als auch in den limnischen Oekosystemen oberhalb der Gehalte von 4tOP und 4tOP1EO. In den marinen Proben war die Miesmuschel hoeher belastet als die anderen Matrices. Die Gehalte in den Proben aus limnischen Oekosystemen lagen deutlich hoeher als die der Proben aus den marinen Oekosystemen. Die hoechste


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wessel


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The final car assembly lines at Volkswagen’s production sites in Germany and South Africa are analysed to determine the best automation level based on cost, productivity, quality, and flexibility for a plant location. The methodology used is proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The final assembly processes are analysed and classified according to the automation level. The operations are evaluated at every level of automation based on information from existing factories. If the best levels of automation for all the parameters correspond, the optimal level of automation for a plant is reached. Otherwise, improvements and/or additional considerations are required to optimise the automation level. The result of the analysis indicates that the highest automation level is not necessarily the best in terms of cost and quality, and some de-automation is required. The analysis also shows that a low automation level can result in poor product quality and low productivity. The best automation strategy should be based on the analysis of all the aspects of the process in the local context.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die finale monteerlyne by Volkswagen se aanlegte in Duitsland en Suid-Afrika is ontleed om die beste outomatisasievlak te bepaal gebaseer op koste, produktiwiteit, gehalte en aanpasbaarheid gegee die ligging. Die metodologie wat gevolg is, word voorgestel deur die Fraunhofer Instituut. Die finale monteerprosesse is ontleed volgens outomatisasievlak. Die aktiwiteite is ontleed teen elke vlak van outomatisasie gebaseer op inligting van bestaande vervaardigingsaanlegte. Indien die beste outomatisasievlakke vir alle parameters ooreenstem, dan is die optimale vlak van outomatisasie bereik. Indien nie, is verbeterings en/of addisionele oorwegings nodig om die outomatisasievlak te optimiseer. Die resultaat van die ontleding toon dat die grootste mate van outomatisasie nie noodwendig die beste is in terme van koste en gehalte nie

  4. Reasons for students’ poor clinical competencies in the Primary Health Care: Clinical nursing, diagnosis treatment and care programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomasonto B. Magobe


    The objectives of the study were to explore and describe the perceptions of both clinical instructors and students, in terms of the reasons for poor clinical competencies. Results established that two main challenges contributed to students’ poor clinical competencies: challenges within the PHC clinical field and challenges within the learning programme (University. Opsomming Die primêre kliniese verpleegkundiges, tradisioneel bekend as primêre gesondheidsorg verpleegkundiges, funksioneer in Suid-Afrika as eerste-linie verskaffers van kliniese primêre gesondheidsorg (PGS dienste binne die publieke PGS fasiliteite. Dit is hulle uitgebreide rol. Hierdie uitgebreide rol van die verpleegkundige (soos deur Wet op Verpleging,No 50 van 1978, artikel 38A voorgeskryf, vereis opleiding in kliniese vaardighede van hoë gehalte deur verpleegskole en universiteite. Die doelwitte van die navorsing was om die persepsies van beide kliniese dosente en leerders,met betrekking tot die redes vir swak kliniese vaardighede, repektiewelik te verken en te beskryf.Twee temas is deur die resultate as uitdagings (hoof redes vir die swak vaardighede van leerders aangetoon, naamlik uitdagings in die PGS kliniese praktyk en die uitdagings in die leerprogram (universiteit.

  5. Die metaphorische Bedeutungsvielfalt von Präpositionen im DaF-Unterricht an brasilianischen Hochschulen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schröder


    Full Text Available Seit der Schlüsselpublikation Metaphors We Live By (Lakoff & Johnson 1980 wenden sich immer mehr Linguisten der kognitiven Verankerung sprachlicher Strukturen zu und schenken insbesondere dem bildschematischen Gehalt von Präposit i- onen sowie ihren metaphorischen Bedeutungserweiterungen besondere Beachtung, wie u.a. die Pionierarbeit von Brugman & Lakoff (1988 zur Polysemie der Präposition over bezeugt. Gerade im Kontext ‚Deutsch als Fremdsprache‘ (DaF sind solche Untersuchungen wertvoll, da Präpositionen im Deutschen zusätzlich auch als Nachverb und Präfix Bedeutu ng erlangen, was Bellavia (2007: 80 - 158 u.a. anhand von um und über erarbeitet. Dennoch fehlt bislang noch eine adäquate Hereinnahme dieser Erkenntnisse in die Lehrwerke im DaF - Bereich, wie wir in diesem Beitrag aufzeigen werden. Im Anschluss daran illust rieren wir, wie Deutschlernende auf die kognitive Motiviertheit und die damit verbundene Strukturiertheit des fremdsprachlichen Wor t- schatzes aufmerksam gemacht werden können, und schlagen Übungen auf der Basis authentischer Sprachkorpora vor, die sich u.a. auch Korpusanalysen zunutze machen.

  6. Needle pollutant concentrations in Austrian long-term observation sites (spruce), 1968-1987 - (a contribution to the discussion of increased pollutant deposition and washout effects); Nadelnaehrstoffgehalte auf oesterreichischen Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen (Fichte) von 1968 bis 1987 - (ein Beitrag zur Diskussion erhoehter Schadstoffeintraege bzw. Auswaschungseffekten)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, K.


    In order to obtain information on the nutrient supply prior to the establishment of the Austrian biological indicator grid in 1983, needle data of long-term observation areas were analyzed in order to find out whether, and from when on, changes occurred in the course of 20 years, and whether the nutrient supply (in particular of N and Mg) differs since 1983 as compared to former years. According to the results of the long-term experimental areas, one may assume the following: an increase of the N-concentrations has taken place only locally and with different onset; indeed, the magnesium concentrations have been increasing again scince the establishment of the biological indicator grid. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um Anhaltspunkte ueber die Naehrelementversorgung vor Bearbeitung des oesterreichischen Bioindikatornetzes ab 1983 zu erhalten, wurden die nadelanalytischen Daten von Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen dahingehend ausgewertet, ob und ab wann Veraenderungen im Verlauf von 20 Jahren eingetreten sind und ob sich die Naehrelementversorgung (insbesondere von N und Mg) seit 1983 gegenueber frueheren Jahren unterscheidet. Nach den Ergebnissen der Dauerversuchsflaechen darf angenommen werden, dass eine Anhebung der N-Gehalte nur lokal und mit zeitlich unterschiedlichem Beginn vorhanden ist und die Magnesiumgehalte seit der Bearbeitung des Bioindikatornetzes eher wieder anstiegen. (orig.)

  7. More attention for health due to air quality of particulates; Meer aandacht voor gezondheid door luchtkwaliteit van fijn stof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuken, M.; Voogt, M. [TNO, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Van den Elshout, S. [DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond, Rotterdam (Netherlands); De Jonge, D. [GGD amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    This article demonstrates that elementary carbon (EC) is a reliable indicator for soot concentrations in outdoor air and a better indicator for traffic emissions of particulate matter than PM10 and PM2.5. In Rotterdam, PM content remains at the same level, whereas concentrations of elementary carbon decrease steadily. The article recommends further study into which part of health effects ascribed to PM should actually be attributed to EC or for example to abrasion emissions, road dust blowing up and ultra fine particles. [mk]. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt aangetoond dat elementair koolstof (EC) een goede indicator is voor roetconcentraties in de buitenlucht en een betere indicator voor verkeersuitstoot van fijn stof dan PM10 of PM2,5. In Rotterdam blijven PM-gehaltes op hetzelfde niveau, terwijl concentraties van elementair koolstof gestaag dalen. Het wordt aanbevolen te onderzoeken welk deel van de aan PM toegeschreven gezondheidseffecten in werkelijkheid aan EC is toe te schrijven of aan bijvoorbeeld slijtage-emissies, opwervelend wegenstof en ultrafijne deeltjes.

  8. Influence of the composition on the radiation embrittlement alloys; Einfluss der Zusammensetzung auf die Strahlenversproedungslegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmert, J.; Kryukov, A.; Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Erak, D.Yu.; Gerashenko, S.S.


    behaviour as the weld metal. For the Ni rich alloys such well-validated references are missing. The experiment is part of an extended research programme. It is supposed to continue in order to gain information about the synergistic effects of these elements. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Strahlenversproedung der Reaktordruckbehaelter ist bei Reaktoren des Types WWER ein Problem von hoher sicherheitstechnischer Relevanz. Sie wird entscheidend durch die Zusammensetzung des Druckbehaeltermaterials bestimmt. Mit einem Bestrahlungsexperiment auf Surveillancepositionen zweier russischer WWER-440-Reaktoren sollte der Einfluss von Kupfer, Phosphor und Nickel auf die Strahlenversproedung nachgewiesen werden. Dazu wurden 8 Testlegierungen ausgewaehlt, deren Zusammensetzung zwischen 0,015-0,42% Cu, 0,002-0,039% P, 0,01-1,98% Ni, 0,09-0,37% Si und 0,35-0,49% Mn variierte. An Proben aus diesen Legierungen wurden Kerbschlagbiege- und Zugversuche im Ausgangszustand, in 2 bestrahlten Zustaenden (Fluenx: 1x10{sup 19} und 8x10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} [E>0,5 MeV]) und nach einer Ausheilgluehung bei 475 C/100 h durchgefuehrt. Die Legierungen haben im Ausgangszustand ein ferritisches Gefuege, die Legierungselemente koennen, vom Kupfer abgesehen, als geloest angenommen werden. Nach Bestrahlung tritt ein ausgepraegter Haertungs- und Versproedungseffekt auf. Der Effekt steigt mit dem Gehalt an Cu und P. Im Bereich von 1,1-1,98% bewirkt Nickel eine zusaetzliche, von der Ni-Konzentration unabhaengige Versproedung. Sie manifestiert sich in einer Verschiebung der Uebergangstemperatur bei einer Fluenz von 1x10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} und einer Flussdichte von 4x10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s [E>0,5 MeV] um ca. 120 C, die nicht abhaengig vom Cu- und P-Gehalt ist. Ausserdem wird bei Ni-Legierungen die Kerbschlagarbeit in der Zaehigkeitshochlage besonders stark abgesenkt. Bei sehr niedrigen Gehalten an P und Cu gelten diese Zusammenhaenge nicht. Durch eine Ausheilgluehung kann bei Legierungen mit niedrigem Cu- und P-Gehalt der


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Gorlach


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Quality of surface preparation of components and structures for further painting and/or coating is important in many fields of engineering. One of the most widely used methods of surface preparation is abrasive blasting. In the last few years, a new method for surface preparation has evolved, namely thermo-abrasive blasting. This technique utilises a high enthalpy thermal jet, generated by the thermo-abrasive blasting gun, to propel abrasive particles. Thermo-abrasive blasting has a number of advantages over conventional abrasive blasting, which were assessed during trials. This paper describes a progress in the applications of thermo-abrasive blasting as well as future potentials for South African industry. The performance data and economic comparison of conventional and thermo-abrasive blasting are also presented in this paper.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gehalte van voorbereiding van komponent- en struktuuroppervlaktes is oral belangrik in ingenieurswesetoepassings. Wat vrywel tot die hede dikwels gebruik was, is straalskuring. Onlangs het 'n nuwe metode tot stand gekom naamlik termostraalskuring. Die metode maak gebruik van 'n hoë entalpie termostaat om skuurmiddel aan te dryf. Die nuwe metode besit sekere voordele in vergelyking met tradisionele straalskuring. Praktykbevestiging is hiervan met toetse verkry. Hierdie stuk bespreek ook die praktyktoepassings van termostraalskuring en die gepaardgaande voordele vir die Suid-Afrikaanse nywerheid. Toepassingsdata en ekomiese vergelyking van konvensionele- en termostraalskuring word ook behandel.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Labuschagne


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper describes the characteristics of a project management methodology that is currently used in the consulting engineering industry in South Africa. Based on currently-used methodologies in other industries, and on a Delphi survey conducted in several consulting engineering companies, guidelines for a project management methodology for the consulting engineering industry are proposed. Respondents of the survey were in full agreement on typical project life cycle phases. They were also in agreement that a lack of project management knowledge and maturity prevents the successful implementation of such a methodology in a company. Lastly, the respondents agree that, by applying a project management methodology in the South African consulting engineering industry, more consistent results regarding time, cost, and quality could be achieved.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel beskryf die karakteristieke van ʼn projekbestuurmetodologie wat tans gebruik word deur die raadgewende ingenieursbedryf in Suid-Afrika. Gebaseer op metodologieë wat tans in ander bedrywe gebruik word, en op ʼn Delphi ondersoek in verskeie raadgewende ingenieursmaatskappye, word riglyne voorgestel vir die raadgewende ingenieursbedryf. Respondente het eenstemmigheid oor tipiese fases in die projeklewensiklus. Hulle het ook saamgestem dat ʼn gebrek aan projekbestuurkennis en -volwassenheid die suksesvolle implementering van so ʼn metodologie voorkom. Ten slotte het die respondente saamgestem dat, deur die toepassing van ʼn projekbestuurmetodologie in die Suid-Afrikaanse raadgewende ingenieursbedryf, meer konsekwente resultate ten opsigte van tyd, koste, en gehalte behaal kan word.

  11. Clay stones of the deep Namur as potental sources of nitrogen of Northwest-German natural gases - first indications from the pyrolisis tests; Tonsteine des tiefen Namur als potentielle Stickstoffquellen nordwestdeutscher Erdgase - erste Indizien aus Pyrolyseuntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krooss, B.M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und organische Geochemie; Karg, H. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)


    The content of molecular nitrogen in the natural gas deposits of the Northwest-German basin can show values of up to 100 volume percent (nitrogen province) and therefore carry a high exploration risk. Analysis of the generation of the gas from carboniferous clay stone by means of open pyrolysis shows that the nitrogen generation potential is relatively high when compared to coal (according to TOC standards). This analysis enabled the determination of generation graphs for nitrogen, partly also for methane, from Namur clay stones of a maturity between 2.81 and 3.86 volume percent. (orig.). [Deutsch] Die Gehalte an molekularem Stickstoff (N{sub 2}) in Erdgaslagerstaetten des Nordwestdeutschen Beckens koennen Werte von nahezu 100 Vol.-% (Stickstoffprovinz) erreichen und stellen somit ein hohes Explorationsrisiko dar. Die Untersuchung der Gasgenese aus karbonischen Tonsteinen mit der Methode der offenen Pyrolyse zeigt ein im Vergleich zu Kohlen hohes Stickstoff-Genesepotential (TOC-normiert). Mit Hilfe der verwendeten Analysenmethode konnten Genesekurven fuer Stickstoff, sowie teilweise fuer Methan, aus Namur Tonsteinen in einem Reifebereich von 2.81 bis 3.86% VR{sub r} bestimmt werden. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rohne


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper the important .issues involved in successfully implementing corrective action systems in quality management are discussed. The work is based on experience in implementing and operating such a system in an automotive manufacturing enterprise in South Africa. The core of a corrective action system is good documentation, supported by a computerised information system. Secondly, a systematic problem solving methodology is essential to resolve the quality related problems identified by the system. In the following paragraphs the general corrective action process is discussed and the elements of a corrective action system are identified, followed by a more detailed discussion of each element. Finally specific results from the application are discussed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Belangrike oorwegings by die suksesvolle implementering van korrektiewe aksie stelsels in gehaltebestuur word in hierdie artikel bespreek. Die werk is gebaseer op ondervinding in die implementering en bedryf van so 'n stelsel by 'n motorvervaardiger in Suid Afrika. Die kern van 'n korrektiewe aksie stelsel is goeie dokumentering, gesteun deur 'n gerekenariseerde inligtingstelsel. Tweedens is 'n sistematiese probleemoplossings rnetodologie nodig om die gehalte verwante probleme wat die stelsel identifiseer aan te spreek. In die volgende paragrawe word die algemene korrektiewe aksie proses bespreek en die elemente van die korrektiewe aksie stelsel geidentifiseer. Elke element word dan in meer besonderhede bespreek. Ten slotte word spesifieke resultate van die toepassing kortliks behandel.

  13. Electroleaching for a decontamination of mercury polluted soils and residues. Development of a hydrometallurgical cyclic process; Elektrolaugung zur Dekontamination quecksilberbelasteter Boeden und Reststoffe. Entwicklung eines hydrometallurgischen Kreislaufprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeming, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Technikum


    In this thesis, the possibilities and limitations of a hydrometallurgical clean-up technique are shown for treating mercury contaminated solids. The principles of the technique were described by models that derived from theoretical considerations. These models were experimentally examined, tested with realcontaminated solids and used to design a new process, the electroleaching. Two variants of this cyclic process were developed. They differ in the combination of a chloridic oxidative leaching step, a cathodic mercury deposition and an anodic leachate regeneration. All steps were analysed thermodynamically and kinetically. Treating highly contaminated soils residual concentrations of mercury below 1 mg kg{sup -1} were achieved. It was also possible to separate simultaneously traces of gold from mercury containing gold mining residues and to lower contents of chlorinated hydrocarbons a well. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit werden die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer hydrometallurgischen Reinigungstechnik fuer Feststoffe aufgezeigt, die mit Quecksilber kontaminiert sind. Dazu wurden aus theoretischen Ueberlegungen heraus entwickelte Modellierungen experimentell abgeprueft, verfahrenstechnisch umgesetzt und an realkontaminierten Feststoffen erprobt. So wurde ein neues Kreislaufverfahren entwickelt, die Elektrolaugung. Die zwei vorgestellten Prozessvarianten unterscheiden sich durch die jeweilige Kombination von chloridisch-oxidierender Laugung, kathodischer Quecksilberabscheidung und anodischer Laugungsmittel-Regenerierung. Alle Teilprozesse wurden sowohl thermodynamisch als auch kinetisch analysiert. Bei Behandlung industrieller Altlasten konnten Quecksilber-Restgehalte unter 1 mg kg{sup -1} erreicht werden. Ebenso konnten Goldspuren aus quecksilberhaltigen Abgaengen brasilianischer Goldgewinnung abgetrennt sowie Gehalte an chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen verringert werden. (orig.)

  14. Investigation for a chemical and physical description of different types of biomass; Untersuchung zur chemischen und physikalischen Beschreibung verschiedener Biomassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuelpnagel, R. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule), Witzenhausen (Germany). Inst. fuer Nutzpflanzenkunde


    If the same type of biomass is harvested at different times, preserved by different technques and then processed into fuel, the physical and chemical characteristics of the fuel will differ. After describing biomass fuel of the `wet line`, the author carried out investigations of lumpiness, bulk density and materials density of chopped materials in order to obtain a preliminary physical characterisation. Two samples of wood chips were characterized as well. The chemical description started with an analysis of nutrient content, acidity and concentrations of fermentation acids in the `wet line` biomass. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wird die gleiche Biomasse zu unterschiedlichen Zeitpunkten geerntet, auf verschiedenen Wegen konserviert und beim Feuchtgut mechanisch zu Brennstoff aufbereitet, so wird dies Einfluss auf die physikalischen und chemischen Charakteristika eines Brennstoffes nehmen. Nach einer ersten Beschreibung des Brennstoffes Biomasse aus der `Feuchtgutlinie` sollten durch Untersuchungen zur Stueckigkeit, Schuettdichte und Materialdichte von Haeckselgut aus beiden Verfahren eine erste physikalische Charakterisierung durchgefuehrt werden, in die auch zwei Proben von Holzhackschnitzeln einbezogen wurde. Mit der Analyse der Naehrstoffgehalte sowie der Aciditaet und der Gehalte an Gaersaeuren in den Biomassen aus der Feuchtgutlinie sollte die chemische Beschreibung begonnen werden. (orig.)

  15. Comprehensive analytics of biofuels. Pt. 2. Continuation of the article of GIT Labor-Fachzeitschrift 5/2008, S. 464; Umfassende Analytik von Biokraftstoffen. T. 2. Fortsetzung des Artikels der GIT Labor-Fachzeitschrift 5/2008, S. 464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, A.; Loyall, U.; Zumbraegel, B.; Bordeanu, A.; Haider, C.; Spinnler, G.; Schlink, R.; Wille, A. [Metrohm AG, Herisau (Switzerland)


    The contribution under consideration offers a comprehensive overview of modern analysis methods for the investigation of biodiesel and bioethanol. Thus, methods are described for the determination of the water content in biodiesels and ethanol, for the determination of the content of copper, chloride and sulfate in ethanol as well as for the determination of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and antioxidants in biodiesels. Particularly in the background of the valid ASTM standards and EN standards, these analytical methods substantially contribute to the identification of those fuels, which do not correspond to the specifications. Particularly in the sector of biofuels, standards are subjected to a permanent examination and actualization. [German] Der vorliegende Beitrag bietet einen umfassenden Ueberblick ueber moderne Analysenmethoden zur Untersuchung von Biodiesel und Bioethanol. So werden Methoden zur Bestimmung des Wassergehaltes in Biodiesel und Ethanol, zur Bestimmung des Gehaltes von Kupfer, Chlorid und Sulfat in Ethanol sowie zur Bestimmung der Alkalimetalle, Erdalkalimetalle und Antioxidantien in Biodiesel beschrieben. Speziell vor dem Hintergrund der geltenden ASTM-Standards und EN-Standards tragen diese analytischen Methoden erheblich zur Identifizierung derjenigen Kraftstoffe bei, die nicht den Spezifikationen entsprechen. Speziell im Sektor der Biokraftstoffe sind Normen einer permanenten Ueberpruefung und Aktualisierung unterworfen.

  16. PAH analysis in Leipzig allotment soils; Untersuchungen zum Gefaehrdungspotential polycyclischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) in Leipziger Kleingartenboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittrich, R.; Butze, B.; Mueller, S.; Prawalsky, R.; Stoye, H. [Umwelt-Consult e.V., Leipzig (Germany)


    Soils in 29 allotments were analyzed systematically with a view to the following aspects: Concentration ratios of the 16 components analyzed. Occurrence and classification of so-called PAH patterns. Interdependences between PAH patterns and soil features. PAH concentrations and soil-immanent buffer characteristics (humus concentration, pH, clay concentration, sesquioxide concentrations, exchange capacity). [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit konzentriert sich auf die Untersuchung der PAK-Belastung kleingaertnerisch genutzter Boeden. Die hier vorgestellten Ergebnisse resultieren aus Probjekten von Umwelt-Consult e.V. aus den Jahren 1995 bis 1997 im Auftrag der Stadt Leipzig und dem unter fachlicher Begleitung des Referates Geochemie der Abt. Boden/Geochemie vom LfUG gefoerderten Forschungsvorhaben 'Untersuchungen zum Gefaehrdungspotential polycyclischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) in Boeden der Stadt Leipzig'. Hierbei wurden systematisch Boeden in 29 Kleingartenanlagen untersucht. Folgende Fragestellungen sollten beantwortet werden: Stehen die PAK-Konzentrationen der 16 analysierten Einzelkomponenten in bestimmten Groessenverhaeltnissen zueinander? Sind sogenannte PAK-Muster zu erkennen und lassen sich diese klassifizieren? Welche Beziehungen gibt es zwischen PAK-Mustern und Bodenmerkmalen? Korrespondieren die PAK-Konzentrationen (Gesamt-PAK, Einzelkomponenten) im Boden und deren bodenhorizont-bezogene Abfolge mit der Auspraegung bodenimmanenter Puffermerkmale (Humusgehalt, pH-Wert, Tongehalt, Gehalt an Sesquioxiden, Austauschkapazitaet)? (orig.)

  17. Consumption patterns and risk assessment of crab consumers from the Newark Bay Complex, New Jersey, USA. (United States)

    Pflugh, Kerry Kirk; Stern, Alan H; Nesposudny, Laura; Lurig, Lynette; Ruppel, Bruce; Buchanan, Gary A


    The Newark Bay Complex (NBC) is a significant historical repository of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dioxin-like compounds. Detection of high levels of 2,3,7,8 tetrachloro-dibenzodioxins (TCDD) and its toxicological equivalents in blue crabs in the early 1990's led to a ban on the taking and distribution of crabs from the NBC. Despite this ban and ongoing communication outreach, surveys of crabbers in 1995, 2002 and 2005 by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) showed that crabbing for recreational purposes and for significant dietary supplementation was continuing. At the time they were surveyed, the crabbers had been consuming these crabs for an average of 37% of their lives. Thus, exposure can be considered chronic. The surveys provided data on the duration, frequency and amount of NBC crab consumption. In 2004, the NJDEP sampled blue crabs in the NBC and analyzed the edible portions for 2,3,7,8 TCDD toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentration. We have combined the survey-based exposure data and the 2,3,7,8 TCDD TEQ concentration data to produce an estimate of the lifetime cancer risk to NBC crabbers from dioxin-like compounds. We employed a point-estimate approach using discrete lower, central tendency and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) estimates of exposure factors and a probabilistic approach to exposure factors. Both approaches show central tendency lifetime cancer risk of greater than one-in-a-thousand (10(-3)) and an upper percentile/RME risk of approximately one-in-a-hundred (10(-2)). Little extrapolation is involved in applying the 2,3,7,8-TCDD TEQ concentration data in crabs to risk estimates in the population consuming those crabs. The ongoing and frequent nature of the crab collection minimizes the uncertainty often inherent in food recall surveys. These estimates point to the continued risk posed to NBC crab consumers and to the continuing importance of this resource which, with proper remediation, could provide

  18. Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona


    Brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and others - have been measured in 11 pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers in Ireland. Additionally, the study has measured levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD\\/Fs), mixed halogenated dioxins (PXCC\\/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in these samples. The mean sum of 19 PBDEs including BDE-209 was 4.85 ng g(-1) fat, which is comparable with that found in other European countries. BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-209, BDE-99 and BDE-100 were found at the highest concentrations. The only PBBs detected consistently were BB-77, BB-126 and BB-153, with highest concentrations being found for BB-153 (mean = 0.13 ng g(-1) fat). The mean sum of HBCD enantiomers was 3.52 ng g(-1) fat, with α-HBCD representing over 70% of the total. Of the other brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane) (BTBPE) - examined, only TBBP-A was detected above the limit of detection (LOD), in two of the 11 pools analysed. All measured PBDF congeners were observed (at 0.02-0.91 pg g(-1) fat), but 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzodioxin (TeBDD) was the only PBDD detected, with a mean concentration of 0.09 pg g(-1) fat. The occurrence of the mixed chlorinated\\/brominated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls, 2-B-3,7,8-CDD, 2,3-B-7,8-CDF, 4-B-2,3,7,8-CDF, PXB 105, PXB 118, PXB 126 and PCB 156 in breast milk in the current study may indicate that levels of these contaminants are increasing in the environment. Polychlorinated naphthalenes were detected in all samples, but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFAS. The pattern of occurrence of these brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Irish breast milk shows a general

  19. Diet survey of two cultural groups in a coastal British Columbia community. (United States)

    Jin, A; Teschke, K; Marion, S A


    As part of a larger study of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) pollution, to describe and compare Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal residents' recalled diets. We surveyed a stratified random sample aged 25 to 64 years: forest products mill employees (n = 84), Aboriginal reserve residents (n = 78), and other residents (n = 80). We administered a questionnaire on intake of fish/seafood, wild game and plants, domesticated animal meat and eggs, dairy products, vegetable oils and cereals; age, gender, childbearing, lactation, residence and smoking. We measured height and weight. Reserve residents ate less seafood, but more fish roe, eulachon grease, smoked salmon, clams and sea urchins, more deer organs, hamburger meat, pork, fried chicken, and hot-dogs, but less rabbit, beef steaks/roasts, high-fibre cereals, potato chips, bread, cheese and milk. We cannot yet quantify PCDD and PCDF intakes. The wild food consumption data are unique and may be useful for risk assessments in the target population and similar communities.

  20. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in street dust samples. (United States)

    Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Bruckmann, Peter; Schmidt, Torsten C


    Owing to massive pollution with polychlorinated biphenyls in the harbour area of Dortmund (Germany), several dust samples were taken from surfaces at industrial sites and analyzed by the North-Rhine Westphalian State Agency for Nature, Environment, and Consumer Protection (LANUV NRW). This report describes and validates a rapid approach to screening for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in street dust. Samples were collected by using a natural bristle brush and stainless steel scoops. Mass recovery of fine-particle sea sand (a dust surrogate) on asphalt and concrete surfaces was used as a criterion for the effectiveness of sampling. Better recoveries of sea sand were achieved on concrete than on asphalt surfaces. Furthermore, temperature optimization for a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method used to extract PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) from street dust samples was developed and compared with Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of PCBs in real street dust samples. Toluene was used as the extraction solvent in both cases. During this study, a combination of toluene and PLE achieved better extraction efficiencies than Soxhlet extraction. Finally, the performance of the PLE method was evaluated by analysing NIST Standard Reference Material 1649a for PCB and PCDD/F concentrations. This demonstrated that the accuracy of the PLE method for the determination of both substance classes was satisfactory. In addition, concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in street dust samples from industrial sites are reported. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Dioxins contamination of food in Italy: an overview of the situation 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scortichini


    Full Text Available The Istituto Zooprofilattico dell’Abruzzo e Molise ‘G. Caporale’ (IZS A&M has been monitoring contamination of food by the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDF as part of the National Surveillance Plan (NSP in Italy since 1999, on license from the Italian Ministry of Health. Between 1999 and 2000, 238 samples (including meat, fish, eggs, milk, fat, feedstuffs were analysed. The results of the tests were expressed in terms of international toxic equivalents (I-TEQs from NATO/CCMS, 1988 and World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs. These results showed contamination levels comparable to those detected in similar studies conducted in other European countries for products such as milk (mean: 0.81 pg I-TEQ/g fat, meat (mean: 0.73 pg I-TEQ/g fat and fat (mean: 0.51 pg I-TEQ/g fat. The highest dioxin content was found in fish (mean: 5.28 pg I-TEQ/g fat and fish feeds (mean 6.60 pg ITEQ/ g fat. These two matrices also showed complete duplication of contamination profiles. Other edible matrices (milk, meat, eggs revealed the presence of HpCDD and OCDD. This could be due to the introduction into Italy of the animal feed additive choline chloride contaminated by these congenerse.

  2. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon (United States)

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K.; Tabor, Dennis; Yonker, Nick


    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas-fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, filter-based metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled to determine emission factors, the amount of pollutant formed per amount of biomass burned. The effect on emissions from covering the piles with polyethylene (PE) sheets to prevent fuel wetting versus uncovered piles was also determined. Results showed that the uncovered ("wet") piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emission factors for VOCs, PM2.5, PCDD/PCDF, and PAHs. Removal of the PE prior to ignition, variation of PE size, and changing PE thickness resulted in no statistical distinction between emissions. Results suggest that dry piles, whether covered with PE or not, exhibited statistically significant lower emissions than wet piles due to better combustion efficiency.

  3. The joint EC/EPA mid-Connecticut test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgroe, J.D.; Brna, T.G.


    In early 1989, Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a comprehensive test program on a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) unit of the Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartford. The program, conducted in cooperation with the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA), the facility's operator, included characterization and performance test phases. The results of the characterization tests were used in defining both the combustion and flue gas cleaning system operating conditions for the performance tests. The results of the performance tests are emphasized in this paper and are summarized in three parts. First, the combustion tests results will be addressed and related to good combustion practice for RDF combustors. Then, the performance of the lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter system in controlling acid gas (hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide), trace organic [polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF)], trace metal [arsenic (as), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)], and particulate matter (PM) emissions will be discussed. Finally, the results of ash/residue analyses will be presented

  4. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in ... (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, semi-volatile organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans), filter-based metals, and volatile organics were sampled for determination of emission factors. The effect on emissions from covering or not covering piles with polyethylene sheets to prevent fuel wetting was determined. Results showed that the uncovered (“wet”) piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emissions of volatile organic compounds. Results for other pollutants will also be discussed. This work determined the emissions from open burning of forest slash wood, with and without plastic sheeting. The foresters advocate the use of plastic to keep the slash wood dry and aid in the controlled combustion of the slash to reduce fuel loading. Concerns about the emissions from the burning plastic prompted this work which conducted an extensive characterization of dry, wet, and dry with plastic slash pile emissions.

  5. Association of persistent organic pollutants and non-persistent pesticides with diabetes and diabetes-related health outcomes in Asia: A systematic review. (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Staimez, Lisa R


    Over half of the people with diabetes in the world live in Asia. Emerging scientific evidence suggests that diabetes is associated with environmental pollutants, exposures that are also abundant in Asia. To systematically review the literature concerning the association of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and non-persistent pesticides with diabetes and diabetes-related health outcomes in Asia. PubMed and Embase were searched to identify studies published up to November 2014. A secondary reference review of all extracted articles and the National Toxicology Program Workshop on the association of POPs with diabetes was also conducted. A total of 19 articles met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated in this review. To date, the evidence relating POPs and non-persistent pesticides with diabetes in Asian populations is equivocal. Positive associations were reported between serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several organochlorine pesticides (DDT, DDE, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane) with diabetes. PCDD/Fs were also associated with blood glucose and insulin resistance, but not beta-cell function. There were substantial limitations of the literature including: most studies were cross-sectional, few studies addressed selection bias and confounding, and most effect estimates had exceptionally wide confidence intervals. Few studies evaluated the effects of organophosphates. Well-conducted research is urgently needed on these pervasive exposures to inform policies to mitigate the diabetes epidemic in Asia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China. (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan


    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  7. Inventory of U.S. 2012 dioxin emissions to atmosphere. (United States)

    Dwyer, Henri; Themelis, Nickolas J


    In 2006, the U.S. EPA published an inventory of dioxin emissions for the U.S. covering the period from 1987-2000. This paper is an updated inventory of all U.S. dioxin emissions to the atmosphere in the year 2012. The sources of emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), collectively referred to in this paper as "dioxins", were separated into two classes: controlled industrial and open burning sources. Controlled source emissions decreased 95.5% from 14.0 kg TEQ in 1987 to 0.6 kg in 2012. Open burning source emissions increased from 2.3 kg TEQ in 1987 to 2.9 kg in 2012. The 2012 dioxin emissions from 53 U.S. waste-to-energy (WTE) power plants were compiled on the basis of detailed data obtained from the two major U.S. WTE companies, representing 84% of the total MSW combusted (27.4 million metric tons). The dioxin emissions of all U.S. WTE plants in 2012 were 3.4 g TEQ and represented 0.54% of the controlled industrial dioxin emissions, and 0.09% of all dioxin emissions from controlled and open burning sources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. PCB and PAH release from power stations and waste incineration processes in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyke, Patrick H. [PD Consulting, Magdalen, Brobury, HR3 6DX (United Kingdom); Foan, Colin [The Environment Agency, National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, Kings Meadow House, Kings Meadow Road, Reading, (United Kingdom); Fiedler, Heidelore [United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, 11-13, chemin des Anemones, CH-1219, Chatelaine (Switzerland)


    This study focused on emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from incineration and power generation processes. Increased concern over human exposure to both classes of compounds has meant that environmental regulators need to assess the contribution made by emissions from regulated processes to human exposure. In the first part of an assessment in the UK we reviewed literature data on emissions of PCB, focusing on the dioxin-like PCB assigned toxic equivalency factors by the World Health Organization, and PAH. The literature study was supplemented by a series of plant tests to gather initial real plant data. Literature data were limited and the lack of standard protocols for measurement and reporting of both PCB and PAH meant that few data sets were comparable. Levels of dioxin-like PCB reported in the literature and measured in UK plant tests showed that well-controlled modern combustion plants with comprehensive pollution controls gave low emissions, typically about 5-10% of the toxic equivalent of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at the same plants and below the widely used standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/N m{sup 3}. (Author)

  9. Measurement and analysis of environmental exposure factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86. 1. environmental survey. Vol. 3c. Indoor situation in homes: Indoor air. Description of VOC in the indoor air of the Federal Republic of Germany; Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86. 1. Umwelt-Survey. Bd. 3c. Wohn-Innenraum: Raumluft. Deskription fluechtiger organischer Verbindungen in der Raumluft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Chutsch, M.; Henke, M.; Huber, M.; Kliem, C.; Leiske, M.; Mailahn, M.; Schulz, C.; Schwarz, E.; Seifert, B.; Ullrich, D.


    Gemeindegroessenklasse repraesentative Stichprobe von n=2731 Faellen zugrunde liegt. Er ist Teil C des dritten Berichtsbands und enthaelt die Deskription der Gehalte zahlreicher fluechtiger organischer Verbindungen in der Raumluft der Haushalte der Allgemeinbevoelkerung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Unterstichprobe). Funktion und Zielsetzung dieses dritten Auswertungsteils bestehen in der moeglichst praezisen Schaetzung der tatsaechlichen Schadstoffbelastungen der Haushalte der Allgemeinbevoelkerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland waehrend der Jahre 1985/86. Damit soll Interessierten die Moeglichkeit einer Orientierung und uebersichtsmaessigen Einordnung zu bewertender Untersuchungsergebnisse gegeben werden. Im Sinne dieser Vergleichsfunktion werden die geschaetzten Verteilungen der gemessenen Gehalte in der Gesamtpopulation und in nachstehend genannten Teilpopulationen wiedergegeben: Ausstentemperaturklasse, Gemeindegroessenklasse, Regionstyp, Industriebeschaeftigtenzahl im Kreis, Bebauungsart, Baujahr des Hauses, Wohnflaeche, Heizungsart, Brennstoff/Energietraeger, Anzahl der Personen im Haushalt, Raucher im Haushalt, Kinder (unter 14 Jahren) im Haushalt, Altersklasse des Bodenbelages, Altersklasse des Wandbelages, Altersklasse der Moebel, Renovierung/Neumoeblierung waehrend der letzten Monate, Vorhandensein von Spanplatten an Wand, Fussboden, Vorhandensein von Moeblen aus gepresster Spanplatte (nur im Fall von Formaldehyd), Anwendung von Insektiziden bzw. Geruchsverbesserern/Toilettensteinen bzw. von Sanitaerreinigern/Desinfektionsmitteln. Gesicherte kausale Aussagen lassen sich aus rein deskriptiven Analysen nicht herleiten. (orig.)

  10. In vivo {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy: Determination of the intra- and extracellular lipid contents in dependence on insulin action in offspring of type-II-diabetic subjects; In-vivo {sup 1}H-MR-Spektroskopie: Bestimmung des intra- und extramyozellulaeren Lipidgehalts in Abhaengigkeit von der Insulinwirkung bei direkten Nachkommen von Typ-II-Diabetikern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, K.; Machann, J.; Strempfer, A.; Schick, F.; Claussen, C.D. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnosik; Jacob, S.; Haering, H.U. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Innere Medizin IV


    >7 ml/kg/min; n=10) klassifiziert. Der Musculus tibialis anterior (M. tibialis ant.) und der Musculus soleus (M. soleus) wurden jeweils MR-spektroskopisch untersucht. Ergebnisse: Bei insulinresistenten Probanden liess sich fuer beide Muskeln ein signifikant hoeherer intramyozellulaerer Lipidgehalt feststellen. Im M. tibialis ant. war der IMCL-Anteil um das 1,6fache (rel. Einheiten {+-}SEM 3,2{+-}0,4 vs. 2,0{+-}0,3; p{<=}0,01), im M. soleus um das Doppelte erhoeht (rel. Einheiten {+-}SEM: 13,0{+-}1,9 vs. 6,6{+-}0,9; p{<=}0,01). Bei der Untersuchung des EMCL-Anteils im M. soleus zeigte sich kein Zusammenhang zur MCR. Ausserdem stand der Gehalt an intramyozellulaerem Fett nicht im Zusammenhang mit der Dicke des subkutanen Fettes. Schlussfolgerung: Bei direkten Nachkommen von Typ-II-Diabetikern besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen Insulinresistenz und dem Gehalt intramyozellulaer gelegener Lipide, der sich mittels der volumenselektiven {sup 1}H-MR-Spektroskopie nachweisen liess. (orig.)

  11. The experiences of private somatology therapists on their self-management in a private practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Richter


    Somatologie terapeute het ‘n veeleisende werk hetsy fisies en emosioneel. Lang werksure, gekoppel met die hantering van kliënte op ‘n daaglikse basis, asook die stremming om te alle tye ‘n hoë gehalte kliëntesorg te verseker, is als faktore wat spanning op die terapeut plaas. Die gebrek aan selfbestuur van ’n terapeut – in die agtergrond van die bogenoemde bydraende faktore − kan tot ’n swak oordeelsvermoë en dienooreenkomstige substandaard optrede in die werkplek lei. Die doel van hierdie studie was onder andere om die ervarings van privaat somatologie-terapeute te ondersoek en te omskryf, waarvolgens aanbevelings vir verbeterde selfbestuur in privaat somatologie-praktyke beskryf was. Vir die doeleindes van hierdie study, word selfbestuur gedefinieër as ‘n metode om nie alleenik die interaksies met die kliënte en die werkstressors te bestuur nie, maar ook om die gevoelens van die terapeute te bestuur, deur middel van die uitoefening van ‘n verskeidenheid tegnieke, onder andere, self-dissipline. ’n Beskrywende, ondersoekende en kontekstuele kwalitatiewe ontwerp is gevolg. Die toeganklike populasie het uit terapeute (n = 15 in ses private somatologie-praktyke in die Pretoria-Noordstreek bestaan. ’n Doelgerigte steekproef is gevolglik geneem. Tien individuele ongestruktureerde onderhoude, asook ‘n loodstudie is uitgevoer en veldnotas is geneem. Oop kodering het vier temas met subtemas geïdentifiseer. Die model van Lincolin en Guba is gebruik om betroubaarheid te verseker en etiese oorwegings is tydens die navorsingsproses gevolg. Ingeligte toestemming is deur die privaat kliniekpraktyke en deelnemers verleen. Een tema het inderdaad aangedui dat selfbestuurstrategieë gedemonstreer behoort te word om sodoende ’n gevoel van beheer te bekom. Hierdie studie het geidentifiseer dat daar ‘n definitiewe behoefte is om die terapeut binne die veeleisende werksomgewing te koester wat ons die somatologiepraktyk noem.

  12. Die genetiese verbetering van wyndruifkultivars en wyngisrasse vir ’n markgerigte wynbedryf: Nuwe benaderings tot die oeroue kuns van wynbereiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Pretorius


    Full Text Available Die groeiende gaping tussen wynproduksie en wynverbruik, die verskuiwing van verbruikersvoorkeure vanaf basiese kommoditeitswyn na topgehaltewyn en die uitmergelende mededinging wat ekonomiese globalisering meebring, vereis ’n totale omwenteling in die magiese wonderwêreld van wyn. In die proses om die wynbedryf van ’n produksiegedrewe bedryf na ’n markgerigte onderneming te transformeer, word daar, onder andere, toenemend op biotegnologiese innovasie gereken om die wynbedryf met ’n kwantumsprong oor die formidabele markuitdagings van die 21ste eeu te lanseer. Markgerigte ontwerpersdruifkultivars en -wyngisrasse word tans met chirurgiese presisie geneties geprogrammeer vir die kostemededingende produksie van hoë gehalte druiwe en wyn met relatief minimale insette en ’n lae omgewingsimpak. Ten opsigte van wingerdbiotegnologie behels dit die daarstelling van strestolerante en siekteweer-standbiedende Vitis vinifera-variëteite met verhoogde produktiwiteit, doeltreffendheid, volhoubaarheid en omgewingsvriendelikheid, veral betreffende plaag- en siektebeheer, waterverbruiksdoeltreffendheid en druifgehalte. Met betrekking tot wyngisbiotegnologie val die klem op die ontwikkeling van Saccharomyces cerevisiae-rasse met verbeterde gistings-, prosesserings- en biopreserveringsvermoëns, en kapasiteite vir die verhoging van die heilsaamheid en sensoriese kwaliteit van wyn. Die suksesvolle kommersialisering van transgeniese druifkultivars en wyngiste hang van ’n menigte wetenskaplike, tegniese, veiligheids-, etiese, wetlike, ekonomiese  en bemarkingsfaktore af, en daarom sal dit dwaas wees om oor die kort termyn hoë verwagtings te koester. In die lig van die fenomenale potensiële voordele van pasgemaakte druifvariëteite en gisrasse, sal dit oor die lang termyn ewe selfvernietigend wees indien hierdie strategies belangrike “lewensversekeringspolis” nie deur die wynbedryf uitgeneem word nie. Hierdie oorsig lig die belangrikste voorbeelde

  13. Water pollution potential of mineral oils with high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extracts); Untersuchungen zur Wassergefaehrdung durch Mineraloele mit hohen Gehalten an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (Heizoel Schwer und Extrakte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, G. [Mobil Schmierstoff GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)


    A data base on highly aromatic mineral oils has been compiled to classify mineral oil products according to their water-pollution potential (water hazard class or Wassergefaehrdungsklasse, WGK). This activity has been undertaken through the Commission for Water Hazardous Materials (Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe, KBwS). In this special case, highly aromatic mineral oils containing a high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, PAK) were evaluated. A test method for measuring the elution potential of PAK into water was developed on petroleum products with high viscosity and high freeze point. This method was applied to determine the solubility of 23 PAK (including 16 PAK according to EPA 610 and 6 PAK according to the German drinking water regulation (Trinkwasserverordnung, TVO)) from heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extract in the aqueous phase. For the 6 PAK, according to TVO, a sum limit of 0,2 {mu}g/l in drinking water is permitted by German legislation. This limit was not exceeded in any of the water phases examined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Einstufung von Mineraloelprodukten in die Wassergefaehrdungsklassen (WGK) durch die Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe ist es notwendig, Basisdaten zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Im speziellen Fall handelt es sich um die Bewertung von Mineraloelen, die sich durch einen hohen Gehalt an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) auszeichnen. Zur Eluierbarkeit von PAK`s aus Produkten mit hoher Viskosiaet bzw. mit hohem Stockpunkt wurde eine Pruefmethode entwickelt. Diese Methode wurde zur Bestimmung der Loeslichkeit von 23 PAK`s (16 PAK`s nach EPA-Liste incl. 6 PAK`s der TVO) aus den Mineraloelen Heizoel Schwer und Neutralextrakt in der Wasserphase eingesetzt. Fuer die PAK der TVO ist in der TVO ein Summengrenzwert von 0,2 {mu}g/l Trinkwasser angegeben. Dieser Grenzwert wurde in keiner der untersuchten Wasserphasen ueberschritten. (orig.)

  14. Future of the gas industry. Energy carriers instead of power source?; Zukunft der Gaswirtschaft. Energietraeger statt Energiequelle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, David; Janssen, Matthias; Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics, Koeln (Germany)


    For a long time, natural gas was considered as an ideal bridge technology for the energy transition because of the relatively low CO{sub 2} content. With increasing decarbonisation of electricity generation by renewable energies and the associated political vision of a far-reaching electrification of energy applications, in particular in the heat sector, the gas sector is, however, threatened to be overtaken by the renewables. This creates increasing uncertainty for business models and investments in the natural gas sector itself, but also potentially high macroeconomic costs of the energy transition. It can be shown that such a development is not unavoidable if the gas sector succeeds in using the existing possibilities cleverly. Thereby the continued use of existing gas infrastructure plays a central role. For use of the opportunities, however, a paradigm shift in politics, regulation and natural gas sector is necessary, whose key points are developed in this article. [German] Lange wurde Gas aufgrund des relativ geringen C0{sub 2}-Gehalts als ideale Brueckentechnologie fuer die Energiewende gehandelt. Mit zunehmender Dekarbonisierung der Stromerzeugung durch erneuerbare Energien und der damit verbundenen politischen Vision einer weitreichenden Elektrifizierung von Energieanwendungen insbesondere im Waermesektor droht die Gaswirtschaft allerdings von den Erneuerbaren ueberholt zu werden. Das schafft zunehmende Unsicherheit fuer Geschaeftsmodelle und Investitionen im Gassektor selbst, aber auch potenziell hohe gesamtwirtschaftliche Kosten der Energiewende. Es laesst sich zeigen, dass eine solche Entwicklung nicht unabwendbar ist, wenn es der Gaswirtschaft gelingt, die vorhandenen Moeglichkeiten clever zu nutzen. Dabei spielt der fortgesetzte Gebrauch der bereits vorhandenen Gasinfrastruktur die zentrale Rolle. Zur Nutzung der Chancen ist aber ein Paradigmenwechsel in Politik, Regulierung und Gaswirtschaft notwendig, dessen Eckpunkte in diesem Artikel entwickelt

  15. Nitrogen emissions during pyrolysis and combustion; Einfluesse auf die Stickstofffreisetzung bei der Pyrolyse und Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepsel, R.F.; Friebel, J.; Halang, S. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. IEC


    Reduction of nitric oxide emissions during brown coal combustion is an important contribution to clean utilisation of this very important domestic primary energy source. In modern processes, the nitrogen contained in the fuels is the main source of oxides. The distribution of this nitrogen in the products can be influenced by modifying the degassing parameters especially in the first phase of combustion, i.e. pyrolysis. The heat-up rate, pressure, as well as the genesis and mineral content of the coal were found to be the main influencing paramters. Depending on the fuel characteristics (degree of coalification, concentration of volatile matter, ash composition), the nitrogen released during pyrolysis and the nitrogen retained in the solid residue contribute to the total emissions of nitric oxides in different degrees. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verminderung der Stickoxidemission bei der Verbrennung von Braunkohle stellt einen wichtigen Beitrag zur sauberen Verwertung dieses bedeutendsten einheimischen Primaerenergietraegers dar. In modernen Prozessen bildet dabei der im Brennstoff gebundene Stickstoff die Hauptquelle der Oxide. Insbesondere durch Einflussnahme auf die Entgasungsbedingungen waehrend der ersten Phase der Verbrennung - der Pyrolyse - kann die Verteilung dieses Stickstoffes auf die Produkte beeinflusst werden. Als wesentliche Einflussgroessen auf die Einbindung in den verbleibenden Koks und die Freisetzung fluechtiger N-haltiger Gase (HCN, NH{sub 3}) wurden die Aufheizgeschwindigkeit, der Druck und die Mineralsubstanz der Kohle gefunden. Eine wesentliche Einflussgroesse stellt daneben auch die Herkunft der Kohlen dar. In Abhaengigkeit von den Brennstoffeigenschaften (Inkohlungsgrad, Gehalt an fluechtigen Bestandteilen, Aschezusammensetzung) tragen der waehrend der Pyrolyse freigesetzte und der im festen Rueckstand verbleibende Stickstoff in unterschiedlichem Masse zur Gesamtemission an Stickoxiden bei. (orig.)

  16. Communication of job-related information and work family conflict in dual-career couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedelia Theunissen


    Full Text Available It is known that work-family conflict is a determinant of marital dissatisfaction. The goal of this study was to determine whether inadequate communication regarding the sharing of job-related information between dual-career spouses contributes to marital dissatisfaction. The Work Perception Questionnaire (WPQ was designed and administered to obtain information on dimensions that 80 dual-career couples (married or in co-habitation perceived to contribute to marital conflict and that have an impact on the quality of their relationships. The main findings indicated that male partners experienced more marital conflict than their female partners if they did not have adequate job-related information about their partner’s work. However, the findings for the female partners were nonsignificant. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Dit is algemeen bekend dat werk- en gesinskonflik ‘n oorsaak van huweliksontevredenheid is. Die doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal of ontoereikende kommunikasie oor werksverwante inligting tussen gades in dubbelloopbaanverhoudings ‘n bydraende faktor tot huweliksontevredenheid is. Die Werk Persepsie Vraelys (WPV is ontwerp en toegepas ten einde inligting te versamel rakende sekere dimensies wat volgens die persepsies van 80 dubbelloopbaanpare (wat getroud is of saamwoon aanleiding gee tot huwelikskonflik en wat moontlik ‘n impak op die gehalte van hul verhouding mag hê. Die belangrikste bevinding was dat manlike gades meer huwelikskonflik ervaar indien hul gades nie werksverwante inligting met hulle deel nie. Die resultate vir vroulike gades was egter nie beduidend nie. Die implikasies van die resultate word bespreek.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Du Plessis


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study was done to assist a local auto carrier company with tactical operational planning. The objective of the planning process is to maximise the number of vehicles delivered while being on time and adhering to staff and maintenance schedule constraints.

    We investigated the feasibility of allowing part of the fleet to roam the closed spatial network, as opposed to the traditional assignment of the complete fleet to fixed routes. We developed decision-making rules for roaming and fixed-to-route auto carriers, and evaluated the quality of these proposed rules, in combination with different fleet compositions, using discrete event simulation and four performance measures.

    We found that the auto carrier company should adopt a tactical operations policy where at least 50% of the fleet is allowed to roam, while roaming auto carriers pick vehicles to transport according to specific rules.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie is gedoen om ’n plaaslike motorvervoer-onderneming te help met taktiese bedryfsbeplanning. Die doelwit van die beplanningsproses is om die aantal voertuie wat betyds afgelewer word te maksimeer met inagneming van personeel- en instandhoudingbeperkings. Ons het die moontlikheid dat ’n deel van die vragmotorvloot swerwend in die geslote ruimtelike roete-network moet opereer, ondersoek. Dit is in teenstelling met die tradisionele vaste toedeling van vragmotors aan roetes. Besluitnemingreëls vir swerwende en vaste-roete vragmotors is ontwikkel, en die gehalte van die reëls is met diskrete simulasie en vier prestasiemaatstawwe evalueer.

    Ons het bevind dat die vervoeronderneming ’n bedryfsbeleid behoort te aanvaar wat toelaat dat ten minste 50% van die vloot swerf, terwyl hierdie swerwende vragmotors voertuie volgens spesifieke reëls by oplaaipunte moet kies.

  18. Determination of the streaming potential and the corresponding total charge in aqueous asphalthene containing suspensions; Bestimmung der Stroemungspotentiale und der korrespondierenden Gesamtladungen in waessrigen, asphaltenhaltigen Suspensionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Rosenplaenter, A. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Rahimian, I. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)


    The choice of demulgators for separating crude oil emulsions is still done empirically. The knowledge of the charge of crude oil compounds is essential for the amount of needed demulsifiers. By using the Particle Charge Detector of the Muetek Company the surface charges of these compounds could be determined. The suspension will be titrated with demulsifier. Surface active compounds ar enriched within the colloids of crude oil, i.e. the resins and the asphaltenes. The asphaltenes could be divided into the easy, medium and difficult soluble asphaltenes. The streaming potential of the colloids and their corresponding total charge could be determined successfully. With increasing quantity of asphaltenes the charge consumption increase almost linearly. The heavy soluble asphaltenes are needing the highest share of demulsifiers followed by the middle and the light soluble asphaltenes. The resins only show very small charge consumption. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Auswahl von Spaltern zur Trennung von Rohoelemulsionen erfolgt zumeist empirisch. Bei Kenntnis der Ladung der rohoeleigenen Emulgatoren ist eine gezieltere Auswahl der Splater moeglich. Mit Hilfe eines Partikelladungsdetektors sollten die Oberflaechenladungen der rohoeleigenen Emulgatoren bestimmt werden. Dazu wurden Suspensionen der Rohoelkolloide mit Tensid titriert. Grenzflaechenaktive Stoffe sind in den Rohoelkolloiden, also den Erdoelharzen und den Asphaltenen, angereichert. Die Asphaltene lassen sich in leicht-, mittel- und schwerloesliche Komponenten einteilen. Es konnte das Stroemungspotential der Rohoelkolloide und die korrespondierende Gesamtladung erfolgreich bestimmt werden. Mit konstant steigendem Gehalt an Kolloiden steigt auch der Ladungsverbrauch annaehernd linear. Bei den Asphaltenfraktionen verbrauchen die schwerloeslichen Asphaltene mit Abstand den groessten Anteil der Ladung, gefolgt von den mittel- und den leichtloeslichen. Die Erdoelharze zeigen einen sehr geringen Ladungsverbrauch. (orig.)

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in street dust of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. (United States)

    Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Bruckmann, Peter; Molt, Karl; Schmidt, Torsten C


    In this study the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in street dust samples was investigated using pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Street dust samples were taken from rural, urban, industrial and industrially influenced urban areas. PCB6 concentrations ranged from 5090±2200 μg/kg (average±standard error of mean) in dusts from industrial premises to 29±8.7 μg/kg in rural areas. Concentration ranges were for dioxin-like PCB toxicity equivalents (dl-PCB TEQ) from 362±164 ng/kg (industrial premises) to 6.5±1.8 ng/kg (rural areas), and for PCDD/PCDF TEQ from 503±448 ng/kg to 2.4±0.13 ng/kg, respectively. Area concentrations of PCB6 (0.040 μg/m2-22 μg/m2), dl-PCB TEQ (0.0038 ng/m2-2.6 ng/m2) and PCDD/PCDF TEQs (14 pg/m2-1980 pg/m2) were estimated. Furthermore, particle size related concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in street dusts were analysed showing throughout almost all samples a distinctive trend of increasing concentrations with decreasing particle sizes. Characterization of homologue patterns of PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs in street dusts was performed showing a dependence of homologue patterns on different area types, especially for PCBs. It could be demonstrated that the analysis of concentrations in combination with specific homologue patterns of PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs in street dust samples enables allocation of potential emission sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PCDD/Fs atmospheric deposition fluxes and soil contamination close to a municipal solid waste incinerator. (United States)

    Vassura, Ivano; Passarini, Fabrizio; Ferroni, Laura; Bernardi, Elena; Morselli, Luciano


    Bulk depositions and surface soil were collected in a suburban area, near the Adriatic Sea, in order to assess the contribution of a municipal solid waste incinerator to the area's total contamination with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Samples were collected at two sites, situated in the area most affected by plant emissions (according to the results of the Calpuff air dispersion model), and at an external site, considered as a reference. Results show that the studied area is subject to low contamination, as far as these compounds are concerned. Deposition fluxes range from 14.3 pg m(-2)d(-1) to 89.9 pg m(-2)d(-1) (0.75 pg-TEQ m(-2)d(-1) to 3.73 pg-TEQ m(-2)d(-1)) and no significant flow differences are observed among the three monitored sites. Total soil concentration amounts to 93.8 ng kg(-1) d.w. and 1.35 ng-TEQ kg(-1)d.w, on average, and confirms a strong homogeneity in the studied area. Furthermore, from 2006 to 2009, no PCDD/Fs enrichment in the soil was noticed. Comparing the relative congener distributions in environmental samples with those found in stack emissions from the incineration plant, significant differences are observed in the PCDD:PCDF ratio and in the contribution of the most chlorinated congeners. From this study we can conclude that the incineration plant is not the main source of PCDD/Fs in the studied area, which is apparently characterized by a homogeneous and widespread contamination situation, typical of an urban area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PCDDs/PCDFs, dl-PCBs and HCB in the flue gas from coal fired CFB boilers. (United States)

    Grochowalski, Adam; Konieczyński, Jan


    The aim of the project was to measure the actual emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from four selected power plants in Poland in order to update the national inventory of PCDDs/PCDFs emission. Relatively low PCDDs/PCDFs as well as dl-PCBs concentrations in flue gas obtained in measurements in this study for four different circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boilers indicate practical absence of any hazards caused by PCDDs/PCDFs emission from these units. The results of PCDDs/PCDFs determination obtained in this study indicate that hard coal combustion in large CFB in the four central heating plants (CHP) is not a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emission to the environment even if operated by co-firing of waste coal. PCDDs/PCDFs concentration in flue gases as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 0.012-0.060 ng I-TEQ/m(n)(3) and 7.51-46.4 microg I-TEQ/TJ, respectively. Dl-PCBs concentration was practically below the LOQ=0.006 ng WHO-PCB TEQ/m(n)(3) in all experiments. HCB concentration as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 11.5-42.0 ng/m(n)(3) and 6.19-26.7 mg/TJ, respectively, where the highest value was obtained for co-firing of waste coal, however. Obtained in this work emission factors will be used for national emission inventory purposes instead of the factors proposed by Toolkit or taken from previous measurements. However, consideration should be given to the fact that the measurements in most cases are related to single installations. Therefore, the need for further development of national factors for the power generation industry in Poland is desired.

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of Salicylate and Dibenzofuran Metabolism in Sphingomonas wittichii RW1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eCoronado


    Full Text Available Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium isolated for its ability to degrade the xenobiotic compounds dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (DBF. A number of genes involved in DBF degradation have been previously characterized, such as the dxn cluster, dbfB, and the electron transfer components fdx1, fdx3 and redA2. Here we use a combination of whole genome transcriptome analysis and transposon library screening to characterize RW1 catabolic and other genes implicated in the reaction to or degradation of DBF. To detect differentially expressed genes upon exposure to DBF, we applied three different growth exposure experiments, using either short DBF exposures to actively growing cells or growing them with DBF as sole carbon and energy source. Genome-wide gene expression was examined using a custom-made microarray. In addition, proportional abundance determination of transposon insertions in RW1 libraries grown on salicylate or DBF by ultra-high throughput sequencing was used to infer genes whose interruption caused a fitness loss for growth on DBF. Expression patterns showed that batch and chemostat growth conditions, and short or long exposure of cells to DBF produced very different responses. Numerous other uncharacterized catabolic gene clusters putatively involved in aromatic compound metabolism increased expression in response to DBF. In addition, only very few transposon insertions completely abolished growth on DBF. Some of those (e.g., in dxnA1 were expected, whereas others (in a gene cluster for phenylacetate degradation were not. Both transcriptomic data and transposon screening suggest operation of multiple redundant and parallel aromatic pathways, depending on DBF exposure. In addition, increased expression of other non-catabolic genes suggests that during initial exposure, S. wittichii RW1 perceives DBF as a stressor, whereas after longer exposure, the compound is recognized as a carbon source and metabolized using several pathways in

  3. Application of a mass-balance model to predict PCDD/F turnover in a Baltic coastal estuary (United States)

    Karlsson, O. Magnus; Malmaeus, J. Mikael; Josefsson, Sarah; Wiberg, Karin; Håkanson, Lars


    A dynamical, process-based mass-balance model was applied to quantify the transports of polychlorinated- p-dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to, within and from the Kallrigafjärden Bay, a coastal estuary in the Baltic Sea, and to predict the PCDD/F levels in the water and sediments of the bay. Before the modelling, a one-year sampling programme was implemented in 2007-2008 to measure the flows of PCDD/Fs in tributaries entering the system, the fluxes from the adjacent sea and the levels in water, sediment and fish within the estuary. The collected data set was used as input data to the model and for validation purposes. The model was originally developed and tested for suspended particulate matter and phosphorus in Baltic coastal areas. In this work, it was run monthly without any tuning of the original model variables. The simulation results compared favourably with the field measurements of levels of 15 PCDD/F congeners in the water and sediments of the bay. The dominating fluxes of PCDD/Fs were the exchange with the adjacent sea, followed by riverine input, atmospheric deposition and sediment burial. Although the sediment-water exchange was of minor importance for the overall mass-balance due to the rapid water turnover and limited areas favourable for the long-term deposition of fine sedimentary matter, sensitivity analyses indicated that the model's predictive capability was improved with about 5% by taking the sediment burial and release into account.

  4. PCDD/F and aromatic emissions from simulated forest and grassland fires (United States)

    Gullett, B.; Touati, A.; Oudejans, L.

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from simulated grassland and forest fires were quantitatively sampled to derive emission factors in support of PCDD/F inventory development. Grasses from Kentucky and Minnesota; forest shrubs from California and Florida; and pine forest biomass from the Piedmont region of North Carolina, western North Carolina, and coastal Oregon were collected and tested in a burn facility that mimicked a prescribed fire in the natural environment scenario. Ambient sampling methods for PCDD/F were variously accompanied by real-time measurements of major aromatic species, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and styrene. Emission factors in mass of toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/F per kg of carbon burned (kg Cb) for the two grasses averaged 0.32 ng TEQ/kg Cb. Burn tests ( n = 27) on forest biomass from the five sources show PCDD/F emission factors ranging from 0.3 to 26.3 ng TEQ/kg Cb, with a mean and median of 5.8 and 3.3 ng TEQ/kg Cb, respectively. Variation of the forest green/brown needle content, sample size, burn scenario, and facility ventilation rate showed no consistent effects on PCDD/F emissions. For forest burns, 30-35% of the PCDD and 50-55% of the PCDF emissions occurred during the flaming period from 0 to 5 min, while the highest emission factors (per mass of carbon burned) were recorded during the smoldering period from 5 to 60 min. Emissions of PCDD/F exceeded those present in the raw biomass by a factor of four, confirming PCDD/F formation from combustion rather than from simple surface volatilization. The majority of the PCDD/F partitions to the emissions rather than the ash.

  5. PCDDs/PCDFs, dl-PCBs and HCB in the flue gas from coal fired CFB boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grochowalski, A.; Konieczynski, J. [Krakow Technical University, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Chemistry


    The aim of the project was to measure the actual emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from four selected power plants in Poland in order to update the national inventory of PCDDs/PCDFs emission. Relatively low PCDDs/PCDFs as well as dl-PCBs concentrations in flue gas obtained in measurements in this study for four different circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boilers indicate practical absence of any hazards caused by PCDDs/PCDFs emission from these units. The results of PCDDs/PCDFs determination obtained in this study indicate that hard coal combustion in large CFB in the four central heating plants (CHP) is not a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emission to the environment even if operated by co-firing of waste coal. PCDDs/PCDFs concentration in flue gases as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 0.012-0.060 ng I-TEQ/m{sup 3} and 7.51-46.4 {mu}g 1-TEQ/TJ, respectively. DI-PCBs concentration was practically below the LOQ= 0.006 ng WHO-PCB TEQ/m{sup 3} in plant experiments. HCB concentration as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 11.5-42.0 ng/m{sup 3} and 6.19-26.7 mg/TJ, respectively, where the highest value was obtained for co-firing of waste coal, however. Obtained in this work emission factors will be used for national emission inventory purposes instead of the factors proposed by Toolkit or taken from previous measurements. However, consideration should be given to the fact that the measurements in most cases are related to single installations. Therefore, the need for further development of national factors for the power generation industry in Poland is desired.

  6. Serum concentrations of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and PCBs, among former phenoxy herbicide production workers and firefighters in New Zealand. (United States)

    't Mannetje, Andrea; Eng, Amanda; Walls, Chris; Dryson, Evan; McLean, Dave; Kogevinas, Manolis; Fowles, Jeff; Borman, Barry; O'Connor, Patrick; Cheng, Soo; Brooks, Collin; H Smith, Allan; Pearce, Neil


    To quantify serum concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like compounds in former phenoxy herbicide production plant workers and firefighters, 20 years after 2,4,5-T production ceased. Of 1025 workers employed any time during 1969-1984, 430 were randomly selected and invited to take part in a morbidity survey and provide a blood sample; 244 (57%) participated. Firefighters stationed in close proximity of the plant and/or engaged in call-outs to the plant between 1962 and 1987 also participated (39 of 70 invited). Reported here are the serum concentrations of TCDD and other chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Determinants of the serum concentrations were assessed using linear regression. The 60 men who had worked in the phenoxy/TCP production area had a mean TCDD serum concentration of 19.1 pg/g lipid, three times the mean concentration of the 141 men and 43 women employed in other parts of the plant (6.3 and 6.0 pg/g respectively), and more than 10 times the mean for the firefighters (1.6 pg/g). Duration of employment in phenoxy herbicide synthesis, maintenance work, and work as a boilerman, chemist, and packer were associated with increased serum concentrations of TCDD and 1,2,3,4,7-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD). Employment as a boilerman was also associated with elevated serum concentrations of PCBs. Occupations in the plant associated with phenoxy herbicide synthesis had elevated levels of TCDD and PeCDD. Most other people working within the plant, and the local firefighters, had serum concentrations of dioxin-like compounds comparable to those of the general population.

  7. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.


    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 'Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States', the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD 50 < 10 μg/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants

  8. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations ... (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent toxicity testing. A representative crude oil (Bayou Sweet) was burned in ocean-salinity seawater and emissions were collected from the plume by means of a crane-suspended emission sampling platform. A comprehensive array of emissions was characterized, accounting for over 92% by mass of the combustion products even without accounting for H2O. The particulate matter emissions were 70 g/kg (±8.3) of oil consumed, composed of 81% (±8) elemental carbon, and 80% were 1 µm in diameter or less. The particulate matter emissions were strongly light absorbing and had a single scattering albedo of 0.4 (±0.01) at 532 nm. Emissions of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were approximately 1 g/kg of oil consumed. While the oil burn particles were highly PAH-enriched, less than 30% of the PAHs were particle-bound, the rest being in the gas phase. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/DF) was observed at 1.2 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg of oil consumed. Analysis of the particles showed the major elements to be Na, S, Cl and Si with no other elements, including metals, exceeding 5 mg/kg oil consumed. The unburned oil mass was 29% of the original crude oil mas

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis of Salicylate and Dibenzofuran Metabolism in Sphingomonas Wittichii RW1. (United States)

    Coronado, Edith; Roggo, Clémence; Johnson, David R; van der Meer, Jan Roelof


    Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium isolated for its ability to degrade the xenobiotic compounds dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (DBF). A number of genes involved in DBF degradation have been previously characterized, such as the dxn cluster, dbfB, and the electron transfer components fdx1, fdx3, and redA2. Here we use a combination of whole genome transcriptome analysis and transposon library screening to characterize RW1 catabolic and other genes implicated in the reaction to or degradation of DBF. To detect differentially expressed genes upon exposure to DBF, we applied three different growth exposure experiments, using either short DBF exposures to actively growing cells or growing them with DBF as sole carbon and energy source. Genome-wide gene expression was examined using a custom-made microarray. In addition, proportional abundance determination of transposon insertions in RW1 libraries grown on salicylate or DBF by ultra-high throughput sequencing was used to infer genes whose interruption caused a fitness loss for growth on DBF. Expression patterns showed that batch and chemostat growth conditions, and short or long exposure of cells to DBF produced very different responses. Numerous other uncharacterized catabolic gene clusters putatively involved in aromatic compound metabolism increased expression in response to DBF. In addition, only very few transposon insertions completely abolished growth on DBF. Some of those (e.g., in dxnA1) were expected, whereas others (in a gene cluster for phenylacetate degradation) were not. Both transcriptomic data and transposon screening suggest operation of multiple redundant and parallel aromatic pathways, depending on DBF exposure. In addition, increased expression of other non-catabolic genes suggests that during initial exposure, S. wittichii RW1 perceives DBF as a stressor, whereas after longer exposure, the compound is recognized as a carbon source and metabolized using several pathways in parallel.

  10. Fetal exposure markers of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. (United States)

    Lampa, Erik; Eguchi, Akifumi; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato


    Fetal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. Although the placenta acts as a barrier between the mother and the fetus, these contaminants transfer through the placenta exposing the fetus. Several studies have investigated placental transfer, but few have assessed the co-variation among these contaminants. Maternal blood, cord blood, and cord tissue were collected from 41 Japanese mother-infant pairs and analyzed for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Hierarchical cluster analysis followed by principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation. Two stable clusters of dioxin-like PCBs were found in maternal and cord blood. One cluster of low/medium chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs was present in all three matrices with 2,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#118) and 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#126) explaining the majority of the clusters' variances. Medium/high chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs clustered in maternal blood and cord blood but not in cord tissue. 2,3,4,4',5-PeCB(#114) and 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-HpCB(#189) explained the majority of the clusters' variances. There was a substantial correlation between the sum of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCDD/F in all three matrices. The sum of the four suggested PCBs plus 3,3',4,4'-TeCB(#77) correlated well with total PCDD/F in all three matrices. Apart from the dioxin-like PCBs, little co-variation existed among the studied contaminants. The five PCBs can be used as fetal exposure markers for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in maternal and cord blood respectively. In cord tissue, more higher chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs need to be measured as well.

  11. Perinatal dioxin exposure and the neurodevelopment of Vietnamese toddlers at 1 year of age. (United States)

    Pham, Tai The; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Van Hoang, Luong; Tran, Anh Hai; Nguyen, Trung Viet; Nishijo, Hisao


    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in both the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. This may potentially have adverse health effects, particularly on infant neurodevelopment. We followed 214 infants whose mothers resided in a dioxin-contaminated area in Da Nang, Vietnam, from birth until 1 year of age. Perinatal exposure to dioxins was estimated from toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) concentrations in breast milk. In infants, daily dioxin intake (DDI) was used as an index of postnatal exposure through breastfeeding. Neurodevelopment of toddlers was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). No significant differences in neurodevelopmental scores were exhibited for cognitive, language or motor functions between four exposure groups of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ or 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD. However, social-emotional scores were decreased in the high PCDDs/Fs-TEQ group and the high 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD group compared with those with mild exposure, after adjusting for confounding factors. Cognitive scores in the mild, moderate, and high DDI groups were significantly higher than those in low DDI group, but there were no differences in cognitive scores among the three higher DDI groups. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to dioxins may affect social-emotional development of 1-year-old toddlers, without diminishing global neurodevelopmental function. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP ... (United States)

    Opportunistic particle samples were gathered from the sail of a tethered aerostat during at-sea plume sampling of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Emission factors were calculated using previous sampling values of background-adjusted CO2 and particulate matter (PM)-bound C. The mean of five thermal-optical analyses indicated that the burned crude oil particulate matter was 93% carbon (w/w) with the predominance being refractory elemental carbon (82% w/w) on average. PAHs accounted for roughly 60 ug/g of the PM mass or 4.5 mg/kg oil burned, at least an order of magnitude less than earlier laboratory based studies. Microscopy indicates that the soot from the in situ oil burns is distinct from more common soot by its aggregate size, primary particle size, and nanostructure within the primary particles. The PCDD/PCDF concentration of the PM was 1.5 to 3.3 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg PM sampled, about 10-fold lower than from a previous dedicated gas/solid sample, indicating loss of small particle-bound and more volatile PCDD/PCDF congeners through the aerostat sail. This work presents an analysis of smoke particles opportunistically caught during the in situ surface oil burns during the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon di

  13. Exposure to atmospheric pms, pahs, pcdd/fs and metals near an open air waste burning site in Beirut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Baalbaki


    Full Text Available Baalbaki, R., El Hage, R., Nassar, J., Gerard, J., Saliba, N.B., Zaarour, R., Abboud, M., Wehbeh, F., Khalaf, L.K., Shihadeh, A.L., Saliba, N.A. 2016. Exposure to atmospheric PMS, PAHS, PCDD/FS and metals near an open air waste burning site in Beirut. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(2: 91-103. Since July 2015, Lebanon has experienced the worst solid waste management crisis in its history. Consequently, open-air waste burning in the vicinity of highly populated areas in Beirut has become a common practice. This study evaluates the effects of open-air dumping and burning on local air quality and public health. The levels of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, gaseous and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, and particle-bound metals at a residence close to waste burning are reported. Concentrations, determined between October 2 and December 2, 2015, were compared either to previous measurements or to measurements taken away from a nearby burning incident, and after it had rained. Subsequently, the cancer risk due to exposure to these chemicals was assessed. Results showed alarming increases in pollutant concentrations which was translated into an increase in short-term cancer risk from about 1 to 20 people per million on the days when waste was being burned. Findings were shared with the public to warn the community against the dangers of waste mismanagement, and underline the obvious need for solid waste management at the governmental and municipal levels.

  14. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.


    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  15. Development of a sample preparation method for the determination of arsenic in seawater using total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis; Entwicklung eines Probenvorbereitungsverfahrens zur Bestimmung von Arsen im Meerwasser mit der Totalreflexions-Roentgenfluoreszenzanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffer, E.; Schmidt, D.


    The method developed in 1983 by Prange for preparing samples for the determination the heavy metals V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and U in seawater using total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was modified in such a way that in addition to the above-mentioned elements also the content of the seawater in inorganic arsenic compounds can be determined. There are four principal arsenic compounds which occur in seawater: arsenate, arsenite, monomethyl arsonic acid, and dimethyl arsenic acid, the two inorganic compounds usually being the predominant species with an overall proportion of 80 to 100%. It was shown that application of Prange`s sample preparation method permits complete detection of arsenite whereas arsenate goes completely undetected. The method was therefore extended by a reduction step. Four reducing agents, namely formic acid, hydroxyl-ammonium chloride, potassium iodide and sodium thiosulphate were examined under varying conditions. The experiments with formic acid, hydroxyl-ammonium chloride, and potassium iodide were not successful. Sodium thiosulphate, by contrast, proved a suitable reducing agent. This made it possible to modify the sample preparation method in such a way as to permit a quantitative analysis of inorganic arsenic compounds in seawater. The efficacy of the method was demonstrated by analysis of the certified reference materials NASS and CASS and of samples to which defined amounts of arsenic had been added. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die von A. Prange 1983 entwickelte Methode der Probenvorbereitung fuer die Bestimmung der Schwermetalle V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn und U im Meerwasser mit der Totalreflexions-Roentgenfluoreszenzanalyse wurde so modifiziert, dass neben den genannten Elementen auch der Gehalt der anorganischen Arsen-Spezies im Meerwasser ermittelt werden kann. Im Meerewasser treten hauptsaechlich vier As-Verbindungen auf: Arsenat, Arsenit, Monomethylarsonsaeure und Dimethylarsinsaeure, wobei die anorganischen Spezies allgemein mit

  16. Towards a Framework for the Description and Evaluation of Dictionary Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Swanepoel


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The reviewing of dictionaries is a time-honoured praxis, but reviewers have often been criticized for only describing the design features of the dictionaries under review and not evaluating these features, for narrowing their reviews down to one or two subjectively chosen design features, and for not explicating their evaluation criteria or indicating their validity. Improving the quality of dictionary reviews is a task that has been delegated to dictionary criticism as a component of metalexicography. In this article, it is proposed that a first step in this direction would be to devise for each dictionary type a set of comprehensive, objective, valid, generally accepted, and operationalizable evaluation criteria. To this end, a general framework for the description and evaluation of dictionary evaluation criteria is developed in this article, using parameters from research on dictionary criticism and the usability of websites.


    Opsomming: 'n Voorstel vir 'n raamwerk vir die beskrywing en evalueringvan woordeboekevalueringskriteria. Die resenseer van woordeboeke is 'n gerespekteerdepraktyk, maar resensente is al dikwels daarvan beskuldig dat hulle net 'n beskrywing geevan die ontwerpkenmerke van woordeboeke onder bespreking en nie hierdie kenmerke evalueernie, dat hulle hul resensies beperk tot een of twee subjektief gekose ontwerpkenmerke en dat hullenie hulle evalueringskriteria duidelik uiteensit of hulle geldigheid aandui nie.Die verbetering van die gehalte van woordeboekresensies is 'n taak wat opgedra is aan diewoordeboekkritiek as 'n onderdeel van die metaleksikografie. In hierdie artikel word voorgesteldat 'n eerste stap in hierdie rigting sou wees om vir elke woordeboektipe 'n stel omvattende, objektiewe,geldige, algemeen aanvaarde en


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dastkhan


    . Volgens die vooruitskatting wat gedoen is met behulp van 'n tydreeksanalise, blyk dit dat die gunstelingterreine vir navorsing in die toekoms op die gebiede van inligtingstegnologie, intelligente sisteme, optimisering, gehalte en voorsienings-kettingbestuur sal wees.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Leonard


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Since the early days of computing, IT professionals have been struggling with their end users (customers to such an extent that end users became sceptic about the quality of service and support IT professionals can offer. As such, relationships between IT professionals and end users were in many cases very poor, which impacts negatively on the efforts to use information technology to the advantage of organizations or communities as a whole. This paper briefly describes the historical reasons therefor and gives a theoretical foundation for the establishment of IT-end user relationships. The paper describes IT-end user relationships as intriguing and complex and proposes a conceptual framework that explains all the important elements involved during the establishment and maintenance of sound relationships as well as for managing change. This paper is based on a research study conducted into the working relationship between IT departments and its end users. The research was done by means of a qualitative approach in which thought experiments were used to inductively refine the results of the research study.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Sedert die ontstaan van die rekenaarwese en die gepaardgaande dienslewering via inligtingstegnologie bestaan die neiging by eindpuntgebruikers om skepties te staan teenoor die gehalte van diens wat deur inligtingstegnoloë gebied kan word. Dit het daartoe gelei dat die verhoudinge tussen eindpuntgebruikers en die inligtingstegnoloë vertroebel is. Voordelige gebruik van inligtingstegnologie deur ondernemings en die gemeenskap is gevolglik daardeur benadeel. Hierdie stuk behandel kortliks die historiese oorsake vir die toedrag van sake. Dit beskryf ook die teoretiese grondslae vir die skepping van wedersydse verhoudings vir die probleemsituasie. Die stuk ondersoek die aandagwekkende en komplekse verhoudingsmilieu. Dit beskryf vervolgens ’n voorgestelde konsepraamwerk waarmee die belangrik elemente

  19. Analytic studies on pollutant deposition through domestic coal combustion - influence of the current structural change on pollution in an urban region. Final report; Analytische Untersuchungen zum Schadstoffeintrag durch den Hausbrand - Auswirkungen des gegenwaertigen Strukturwandels auf die urbane Belastungssituation. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engewald, W.; Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.


    In the present paper the author reports on the continuation of an OEKOR part project in which he had undertaken a chemical characterisation of emissions from domestic brown coal combustion. On the basis of a partitioning by land use of the Greater Leipzig region he initiated long-term observations of local pollution levels for the various structural types of land. The aim of the work was to facilitate a comprehensive analysis of local air quality in terms of VOC levels. The current concern about VOCs results from the toxicological risk they have been proven to pose to the human organism and from their relevance to the chemistry of the atmosphere (e.g., as precursors of ground-level ozone and other oxidising agents). The task to be accomplished was broken down into the following main steps: Development and trial of a sampling and analysis method for determining an as wide a spectrum of environmental VOCs as possible; elaboration of a measuring strategy for obtaining results of high representativeness and power; installation and operation of pollution monitoring sites in selected structural types of area characteristic of Leipzig; execution of measuring campaigns of several weeks each at selected sites during both winter and summer periods. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] In Fortsetzung eines vom Berichterstatter bearbeiteten OeKOR-Teilprojekts zur chemischen Charakterisierung von Emissionen aus dem Hausbrand von Braunkohle galt es, auf der Basis einer an der Flaechennutzung ausgerichteten Untergliederung der Stadtregion Leipzig in unterschiedliche Strukturtypen langfristige Immissionsbeobachtungen zu beginnen mit dem Ziel, eine Zustandsanalyse des Umweltmediums Luft bezueglich des Gehalts an fluechtigen organischen Verbindungen (VOC) in ihrer gesamten Breite zu ermoeglichen. Das verstaerkte Interesse an diesen Verbindungen resultiert aus dem fuer eine Reihe von VOC belegten toxikologischen Gefahrenpotential fuer den menschlichen Organismus sowie ihrer atmosphaerenchemischen

  20. Development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide applying high throughput methods; Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren zur Spaltung von Methanol in Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid mittels Hochdurchsatz-Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Torsten


    The topic of this thesis has been the development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. As an important constraint here, the content of noble metals of the catalysts should be as low as possible. High-throughput-methods were applied in some of the syntheses and experiments to accelerate the development, as, for example, the use of liquid based sol-gel syntheses and the examination of catalyst libraries by spatial resolution gas chromatography. This screening technique allowed to test up to 207 different substances during one single experiment. Then, different combinatorial strategies were applied. First, these methods led to a highly active and stable catalyst in the ternary system of Cu-Ni-Zn, which showed high conversion and selectivity comparable to an industrial reference catalyst. Its activity during an 18 hour long term run was constant in contrast to the reference. Second, an additional approach starting from a broader variety of elements led to a Ce- Ru- and to a Cr-Ru-catalyst. Both of them were highly active in short term experiments, but lost their outstanding performances during long term runs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasste sich mit der Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren fuer die Spaltung von Methanol zu Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid, die einen moeglichst geringen Gehalt an Edelmetallen aufweisen sollten. Um diesen Prozess zu beschleunigen, wurden in einem Teil der Synthesen und Experimente Hochdurchsatzmethoden verwendet. Neben der Roboter gestuetzten Sol-Gel-Synthese umfasste dies die Untersuchung von Katalysatorbibliotheken mittels ortsaufgeloester Gaschromatographie, die es ermoeglichte, in einem Experiment bis zu 207 verschiedene Substanzen auf ihre katalytische Aktivitaet zu testen. Unter Anwendung verschiedener kombinatorischer Strategien wurde zunaechst ein sehr aktiver und stabiler Katalysator im ternaeren Cu-Ni-Zn-System entdeckt. Neben Umsaetzen und

  1. Studies of volatile secondary molasses constituents with inhibitory effect on yeast fermentation. Pt. 1. Determination of molasses and yeast components by GC and HPLC; Untersuchungen ueber fluechtige Nebenbestandteile der Melasse mit inhibitorischer Wirkung auf die Hefegaerung. T. 1. Bestimmung von Melasse- und Hefeinhaltsstoffen mittels GC und HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattohi, N.


    Hefegaerung wurden ermittelt. Dabei zeigte sich, dass im Fall der Inhibitorwirkung auf die Gaerung die MHK-Werte sehr hoch liegen; sie werden praktisch von den einzelnen Carbonsaeure- und Alkanolgehalten der Problemmelassen nicht erreicht. Jedoch weisen diese Saeuren und Alkohole deutliche Synergieeffekte auf, was durch Ermittlung der MHK-Werte von Gemischen belegt wurde. Vor allem die Gehalte der Problemmelassen an Buttersaeure + Kaprylsaeure + Hexanol und Heptanol sind fuer die Hemmwirkung bei der Hefegaerung verantwortlich. (orig.)

  2. International Odra project (IOP) 'Interdisciplinary German Polish studies on the behaviour of pollutants in the Oder system'. Sub project 4: the state of suspended particulate matter in the Odra River system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K.H.; Damke, H.; Kasbohm, J.; Puff, T.; Breitenbach, E.; Theel, O.; Kiessling, A.


    anhand ausgewaehlter biogener Bestandteile angestrebt. Durch die Charakterisierung der rezenten fluviatilen Feststoffe (Schwebstoffe und schwebstoffbuertige Sedimente) und die Ermittlung ihres Mengenanteiles werden Aussagen zur Belastungsentwicklung der Aestuargewaesser und der Ostsee durch die Oder moeglich. Aus dieser Zielstellung ergibt sich folgende Untersuchungsstrategie. Die stoffliche, strukturelle und biogene Charakteristik der Schwebstoffe umfasst die Ermittlung - der Schwebstoffkonzentration - der granulometrischen Zusammensetzung - des Kohlenstoff- und Schwefelgehaltes - des Gehaltes an biogenem Opal - des Mineral- und Phasenbestandes - des Metallgehaltes - der Struktur der Schwebstoffflocken - der Diatomeen-Assoziationen in den Schwebstoffflocken und am Periphyton. (orig.)

  3. The 1996 thaw as a {sup 18}O tracer experiment at the lysimeter plant in Wagna; Die Schneeschmelze 1996 als {sup 18}O-Tracerversuch an der Lysimeteranlage in Wagna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fank, J.; Zojer, H. [Forschungsgesellschaft Joanneum, Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Geothermie und Hydrogeologie; Stichler, W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie


    tieferverlagert. Diese Verlagerung ist in den Verlaeufen der {sup 18}O-Konzentration im Sickerwasser in den unterschiedlichen Messtiefen nachvollziehbar. Die Verlagerung ist an Neubildungsereignisse gekoppelt, wobei Schneeschmelzvorgaenge eher einen dispersiven Fluss, Niederschlagsereignisse einen `piston flow` Effekt ausloesen. Die Winterniederschlaege erreichen Mitte April eine Tiefe von 60 bis 70 cm. Die Daempfung des {sup 18}O-Gehaltes zeigt bevorzugte Fliesscharakteristika in den unterschiedlichen Kompartimenten der ungesaettigten Zone (feinklastischer Boden, Kiese und Sande). (orig.)

  4. Investigations performed on the compost worm Eisenia fetida and selected species of earthworms concerning the intake of HCB and pyrene with the goal of deriving a bioaccumulation test; Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme von HCB und Pyren durch den Kompostwurm Eisenia fetida und ausgewaehlte Regenwurmwildarten. Ableitung eines Bioakkumulationstests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vespermann, A.; Riepert, F.; Pflugmacher, J. [Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Inst. fuer Oekotoxikologie im Pflanzenschutz, Berlin (Germany)


    . Die Expositionszeit der Regenwuermer betrug 4 Wochen bei woechentlicher Bestimmung der Konzentrationen der Testsubstanzen in den Wuermern und Boeden. Die fuer E. fetida sowie die Wildarten errechneten Anreicherungsfaktoren (AF) beliefen sich bei HCB in Abhaengigkeit des verwendeten Bodens auf Werte zwischen 10 und 17 und bei Pyren auf Werte zwischen 0,9 und 1,7. Durch Umrechnung der Bodenkonzentrationen auf Gehalte in der Wasserphase und Ableitung der entsprechenden Anreicherungsfaktoren kann ein Vergleich mit BCF-Werten, die aus QSAR'S anderer Regenwurmarten und Fischen berechnet wurden, hergestellt werden. Die Ergebnisse lassen den Schluss zu, dass der Regenwurmtest mit E. fetida (OECD 1984, ISO 1998) fuer die Untersuchung der Bioakkumulation geeignet ist. (orig.)

  5. Energy reduction and production engineering aspects. Consequences of mixing water reducing additives in the ceramics industry; Beschouwing energiereductie en productietechnische aspecten. Consequenties van aanmaakwaterverlagende additieven in de grofkeramische industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wijck, H.; Marks, H. [Stichting Technisch Centrum voor de Keramische Industrie TCKI, Velp (Netherlands)


    van de toevoeging van aanmaakwaterverlagende additieven aan een kleireceptuur. Doel is om energie te besparen tijdens het droogproces. Hiertoe is de theoretische werking van de meeste van dergelijke additieven beschreven. Er is onderzoek gedaan naar een drietal geselecteerde additieven (in een dosering van enkele tienden van procenten). Er is met name gekeken naar de invloed op het gehalte organisch koolstof, her aanmaakwatergehalte, de consistentiestabiliteit, de vochtgeleiding, de groene sterkte en de fysische en mechanische eigenschappen van het gebakken product, alsmede het uitlooggedrag van de gebakken producten.

  6. Kirkeby's English?Swahili Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Mdee


    woordeboekkritiek. Die kriteria gesteldeur McMillan (1949 sal as gids dien vir hierdie resensieartikel: (1 die hoeveelheid inligting in diewoordeboek; (2 die gehalte van die inligting aangebied; en (3 die doeltreffendheid van die aanbiedingvan die inligting. Vrae wat in die loop van hierdie artikel gestel sal word, sluit in: Gee diewoordeboek die inligting wat deur die gebruiker verlang word? Is die inligting deursigtig beskikbaar?Hoe word die inligting aangebied?


  7. Detecting the formation of products of radiolysis of tryptophan in foods rich in protein and irradiated with {gamma} rays; Nachweis der Entstehung von Tryptophan-Radiolyseprodukten in {gamma}-bestrahlten eiweissreichen Lebensmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeberg, K.K.; Wickern, B. van; Simat, T.J.; Steinhart, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie und Lebensmittelchemie


    enzymatische Hydrolyse mit Proteinase K und Carboxypeptidase A fuer Eiklar und Huehnerfleisch sowie mit Proteinase K und Pronase E fuer Nordseegarnelen entwickelt. Die vier OH-TRP-Isomere wurden als Radiolyseprodukte in allen Proben identifiziert und quantifiziert. Die Bestimmung erfolgte mittels RP-HPLC und EC-Detektion (750 mV). Die Gehalte schwankten zwischen 0,02 und 1,97 mg/kg Protein. Ein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen bestrahlten und unbestrahlten Proben beim Eiklar und beim Huehnerbrustfleisch konnte ab einer Bestrahlungsdosis von 3 kGy festgestellt werden. Bei den Nordseegarnelen war bis zu einer Bestrahlungsdosis von 5 kGy kein signifikanter Unterschied zu den unbestrahlten Proben feststellbar. (orig.)

  8. Irradiation behavior of a submerged arc welding material with different copper content; Bestrahlungsverhalten einer UP-Versuchsschweissnaht mit unterschiedlichen Kupfergehalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, R. [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Bartsch, R. [Kernkraftwerk Obrigheim GmbH (Germany)


    Che report presents results of an irradiation program on specimens of submerged arc weldings with copper contents of 0.14% up to 0.42% and a fluence up to 2.2E19 cm{sup -2} (E>1MeV). Unirradiated and irradiated tensile- Charpy-, K{sub lc}- and Pellini-specimens were tested of material with a copper content of 0.22%. On the other materials Charpy tests and tensile tests were performed. The irradiation of the specimens took place in the KWO - ``RPV, a PWR with low flux and in the VAK - RPV, a small BWR with high flux. - The irradiation induced embrittlemnt shows a copper dependence up to about 30%. The specimens with a copper content higher than 0.30% show no further embrittlement. Irradiation in different reactors with different flux (factor > 33) shows the same state of embrittlement. Determination of a K{sub lc}, T-curve with irradiated specimens is possible. The conservative of the RT{sub NDT} - concept could be confirmed by the results of Charpy-V, drop weight- and K{sub lc}-test results. [Deutsch] Zur zusaetzlichen Absicherung des KWO-RDB wurde Ende 1979 eine UP-Versuchsschweissnaht mit vergleichbarer chemischer Zusammensetzung und vergleibaren mechanisch-technologischen Werkstoffen im unbestrahlten Ausgangszustand wie die RDB Core-Rundnaht hergestellt. Teile der Naht wurden durch Verkupfern der Schweissdraehte auf unterschiedliche Gehalte von Cu=0,14% bis 0,42% eingestellt. Aus dieser Schweissverbindung wurden Proben im VAK und KWO-RDB bestrahlt. Im Rahmen der Aktivitaeten zur Absicherung des KWO-RDBs erfolgte 1995 die Pruefung der bestrahlten Proben. Die mechanisch technologischen Werkstoffwerte vor und nach Bestrahlung werden gegenuebergestellt und praesentiert. Mit dem Ergebnis wurde ein weiterer Nachweis fuer die Konservativitaet des RT{sub NDT}-Konzeptes erbracht. Es wurde nachgewiesen, dass fuer den untersuchten Bereich kein Dose-Rate Effekt bzw. Bestrahlungszeiteinfluss existiert. Fuer UP-Schweissungen mit den vorliegenden Fertigungsparametern und bei

  9. The occupational effects of unconventional (custom-made hearing protection for platinum mine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Steenkamp


    gehoorbeskermers oorweeg moet word. Die resultate toon sekere positiewe aspekte ten opsigte van gehalte gehoorkonservering en het bevestig dat doelgemaakte gehoorbeskermers (met hul unieke eienskappe nie slegs gehoor beskerm nie, maar verskeie ander beroepsverwante voordele inhou.

  10. Facilitating nurses’ knowledge of the utilisation of reflexology in adults with chronic diseases to enable informed health education during comprehensive nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Steenkamp


    bepaalde insluitingskriteria was toegepas tydens die selekteringsproses. Die studie gehalte is nagegaan en beoordeel met toepaslike instrumente van die Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP en die American Dietetic Association (ADA se Evidence analysis manual (n = 21. Bewys uitreksel, analisering en sintese van studies (n = 18 was gedoen deur die bewysklas gradering en vlak van bewysterkte soos beskryf in die handleidings van ADA en CASP. Bevindings dui op ‘n statisitese beduidenisvolle verlaging in die frekwensie van konvulsies by pasiënte met epilepsie, ‘n verbetering van sensoriese en urinêre simptome ge-assosieer met veelvuldige sklerose en ‘n kliniese beduidenisvolle afname in angstigheid en pyn by pasiënte met kanker en fibromialgiese sindroom. Hierdie bevindings kan deur verpleegkundiges gebruik word om pasiente met hierdie kroniese siektes in te lig omtrent alternatiewe maniere van behandeling.

  11. Strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in industrial effluents: IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reemtsma, T.; Klinkow, N.


    The assessment of amounts and effects of hazardous substances in industrial effluents necessitates a combination of chemical and biological investigations. Therefore in this study a strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in wastewater discharges was developed which connects the parameters persistence, bioaccumulation, and aquatic toxicity. The strategy IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment) was elaborated based on the evaluation of existing investigation strategies and the available test systems. The strategy has a modular structure to assure a flexible investigation with regard to the particularities of a given wastewater. After the determination of acute and chronic toxicity and genotoxicity a microbial degradation test is carried out to obtain the persistent wastewater fraction. The bioaccumulating substances are determined from this fraction by solid-phase extraction. Within the strategy differences between direct and indirect discharges are taken into account and particulate matter is considered as well. By the modular linking it can be determined if a wastewater contains toxic and persistent and bioaccumulating substances, which present an important potential of hazard for the aquatic environment. The first application of the strategy on three wastewater samples of the chemical and the metal processing industry showed that the strategy can be used as planned. (orig.) [German] Die Erfassung der Gehalte und Wirkungen gefaehrlicher Stoffe in Abwassereinleitungen der Industrie erfordert eine Kombination chemischer und biologischer Untersuchungen, die ueber das bisher in der AbwV festgelegte Mass hinausgeht. In dieser Studie wurde deshalb eine Untersuchungsstrategie fuer gefaehrliche Stoffe in Abwasserleitungen entwickelt, die die Parameter Persistenz, Bioakkumulierbarkeit und Toxizitaet auch experimentell verknuepft. Die Ausarbeitung erfolgte nach Auswertung der international bestehenden Untersuchungsstrategien sowie der zur Verfuegung stehenden

  12. Analysis of self-organized In(Ga)As quantum structures with the scanning transmission electron microscope; Analyse selbstorganisierter In(Ga)As-Quantenstrukturen mit dem Raster-Transmissionselektronenmikroskop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwald, Andres


    '-Strukturen (DWell) und von vertikal korrelierten Quantum Dots (QDs) analysiert werden. Zur Optimierung von DWell-Strukturen wurden Proben untersucht, deren nominelle InAs-QD-Wachstumsposition innerhalb des einbettenden InGaAs-Quantum Wells (QWs) gezielt variiert wurde. Das RTEM bietet in Verbindung mit der EELS-Methode grosses Potential zur chemischen Analyse von Quantenstrukturen. Untersucht wurde eine Probenreihe selbstorganisierter InGaAs/GaAs-Strukturen auf GaAs-Substrat, deren Verspannung durch Variieren des Ga-Gehalts des InGaAs-Materials zwischen 2.4 % und 4.3 % veraendert worden ist. (orig.)

  13. Natural climate variations in historical times up to 10.000 years ago. Final report; Natuerliche Klimavariationen in historischen Zeiten bis 10.000 Jahre vor heute. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, C.; Graf, W.; Stichler, W.; Trimborn, P.


    {delta}{sup 13}C resp. from 6,470 BC for {delta}{sup 2}H to AD 905, with a five-year resolution. The variations of {delta}{sup 2}H were interpreted as isotope signals of precipitation while the variations of {delta}{sup 13}C were seen as resulting from the availability of water to the trees. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeit befasst sich mit der klimatischen Aussagekraft der {sup 2}H- und {sup 13}C-Gehalte von Baum-Jahrringen und von Pflanzenmaterial allgemein. In Klimakammerexperimenten wurde der Einfluss von Variationen der Lufttemperatur, relativen Luftfeuchtigkeit und der Wasserverfuegbarkeit auf die Verhaeltnise der stabilen Isotope von drei verschiedenen C{sub 3}-Pflanzenarten (Brassica oleracea, Eucalyptus globulus, Vicia faba) untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass die {delta}{sup 2}H-Werte der Pflanzenstaengel vor allem vom Isotopenverhaeltnis des aufgenommenen Wassers abhingen, sowie von der {sup 2}H-Anreicherung des Blattwassers, die wiederum von der relativen Luftfeuchtigkeit der Umgebungsluft beeinflusst wurde. Die {sup 13}C-Gehalte der Pflanzenstaengel hingegen wurden durch alle drei Parameter beeinflusst und waren sowohl mit der relativen Luftfeuchtigkeit, als auch mit der Temperatur negativ korreliert. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch der Bewaesserungsstatus auf die {sup 13}C-Diskriminierung der Pflanzen einen grossen Einfluss hatte. Hoehere Wasserverfuegbarkeit fuehrte zu niedrigeren {sup 13}C-Gehalten. Die Ergebnisse der Isotopenanalysen konnten durch Gaswechselmessungen untermauert werden. Weiterhin wurden Kalibrierungsstudien mit {delta}{sup 2}H- und {delta}{sup 13}C-Zeitreihen sueddeutscher Fichten (Picea abies) an zwei Standorten (Schussbach, Klosterreichenbach) durchgefuehrt. Es werden methodische Ansaetze fuer die Erstellung von langen Isotopenreihen aus Jahrringen subfossiler Eichen aufgezeigt. Die Untersuchungen am subfossilen Holz beruecksichtigen die verschiedenen Bestandteile der Jahrringe (Spaetholz, Fruehholz) und unterschiedlich

  14. Reproduction Symposium: does grazing on biosolids-treated pasture pose a pathophysiological risk associated with increased exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds? (United States)

    Evans, N P; Bellingham, M; Sharpe, R M; Cotinot, C; Rhind, S M; Kyle, C; Erhard, H; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Lind, P M; Fowler, P A


    Biosolids (processed human sewage sludge), which contain low individual concentrations of an array of contaminants including heavy metals and organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans known to cause physiological disturbances, are increasingly being used as an agricultural fertilizer. This could pose a health threat to both humans and domestic and wild animal species. This review summarizes results of a unique model, used to determine the effects of exposure to mixtures of environmentally relevant concentrations of pollutants, in sheep grazed on biosolids-treated pastures. Pasture treatment results in nonsignificant increases in environmental chemical (EC) concentrations in soil. Whereas EC concentrations were increased in some tissues of both ewes and their fetuses, concentrations were low and variable and deemed to pose little risk to consumer health. Investigation of the effects of gestational EC exposure on fetal development has highlighted a number of issues. The results indicate that gestational EC exposure can adversely affect gonadal development (males and females) and that these effects can impact testicular morphology, ovarian follicle numbers and health, and the transcriptome and proteome in adult animals. In addition, EC exposure can be associated with altered expression of GnRH, GnRH receptors, galanin receptors, and kisspeptin mRNA within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, gonadotroph populations within the pituitary gland, and regional aberrations in thyroid morphology. In most cases, these anatomical and functional differences do not result in altered peripheral hormone concentrations or reproductive function (e.g., lambing rate), indicating physiological compensation under the conditions tested. Physiological compensation is also suggested from studies that indicate that EC effects may be greater when exposure occurs either

  15. Characterization of the dust/smoke aerosol that settled east of the World Trade Center (WTC) in lower Manhattan after the collapse of the WTC 11 September 2001. (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Weisel, Clifford P; Millette, James R; Eisenreich, Steven; Vallero, Daniel; Offenberg, John; Buckley, Brian; Turpin, Barbara; Zhong, Mianhua; Cohen, Mitchell D; Prophete, Colette; Yang, Ill; Stiles, Robert; Chee, Glen; Johnson, Willie; Porcja, Robert; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Hale, Robert C; Weschler, Charles; Chen, Lung Chi


    The explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) was a catastrophic event that produced an aerosol plume impacting many workers, residents, and commuters during the first few days after 11 September 2001. Three bulk samples of the total settled dust and smoke were collected at weather-protected locations east of the WTC on 16 and 17 September 2001; these samples are representative of the generated material that settled immediately after the explosion and fire and the concurrent collapse of the two structures. We analyzed each sample, not differentiated by particle size, for inorganic and organic composition. In the inorganic analyses, we identified metals, radionuclides, ionic species, asbestos, and inorganic species. In the organic analyses, we identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, pesticides, phthalate esters, brominated diphenyl ethers, and other hydrocarbons. Each sample had a basic pH. Asbestos levels ranged from 0.8% to 3.0% of the mass, the PAHs were > 0.1% of the mass, and lead ranged from 101 to 625 microg/g. The content and distribution of material was indicative of a complex mixture of building debris and combustion products in the resulting plume. These three samples were composed primarily of construction materials, soot, paint (leaded and unleaded), and glass fibers (mineral wool and fiberglass). Levels of hydrocarbons indicated unburned or partially burned jet fuel, plastic, cellulose, and other materials that were ignited by the fire. In morphologic analyses we found that a majority of the mass was fibrous and composed of many types of fibers (e.g., mineral wool, fiberglass, asbestos, wood, paper, and cotton). The particles were separated into size classifications by gravimetric and aerodynamic methods. Material 53 microm in diameter. The results obtained from these samples can be used to understand the contact and types of exposures to

  16. Emissions from prescribed burning of agricultural fields in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Holder, A. L.; Gullett, B. K.; Urbanski, S. P.; Elleman, R.; O'Neill, S.; Tabor, D.; Mitchell, W.; Baker, K. R.


    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide a current and comprehensive set of emissions data for air quality models, climate models, and emission inventories. Batch measurements of PM2.5, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and continuous measurements of black carbon (BC), particle mass by size, CO, CO2, CH4, and aerosol characteristics were taken at ground level, on an aerostat-lofted instrument package, and from an airplane. Biomass samples gathered from the field were burned in a laboratory combustion facility for comparison with these ground and aerial field measurements. Emission factors for PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), CH4, and CO measured in the field study platforms were typically higher than those measured in the laboratory combustion facility. Field data for Kentucky bluegrass suggest that biomass residue loading is directly proportional to the PM2.5 emission factor; no such relationship was found with the limited wheat data. CO2 and BC emissions were higher in laboratory burn tests than in the field, reflecting greater carbon oxidation and flaming combustion conditions. These distinctions between field and laboratory results can be explained by measurements of the modified combustion efficiency (MCE). Higher MCEs were recorded in the laboratory burns than from the airplane platform. These MCE/emission factor trends are supported by 1-2 min grab samples from the ground and aerostat platforms. Emission factors measured here are similar to other studies measuring comparable fuels, pollutants, and combustion conditions. The size distribution of refractory BC (rBC) was single modal with a log-normal shape, which was

  17. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jiuyong; Guo Jie; Xu Zhenming


    The major economic driving force for recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs) of PCBs. The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up almost 70 wt% of waste PCBs, were treated by combustion or land filling in the past. However, combustion of the NMFs will cause the formation of highly toxic polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) while land filling of the NMFs will lead to secondary pollution caused by heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leaching to the groundwater. Therefore, recycling of the NMFs from waste PCBs is drawing more and more attention from the public and the governments. Currently, how to recycle the NMFs environmental soundly has become a significant topic in recycling of waste PCBs. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the NMFs, the compositions and characteristics of the NMFs, methods and outcomes of recycling the NMFs from waste PCBs and analysis and treatment for the hazardous substances contained in the NMFs were reviewed in this paper. Thermosetting resin matrix composites, thermoplastic matrix composites, concrete and viscoelastic materials are main applications for physical recycling of the NMFs. Chemical recycling methods consisting of pyrolysis, gasification, supercritical fluids depolymerization and hydrogenolytic degradation can be used to convert the NMFs to chemical feedstocks and fuels. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) can be used to determine the toxicity characteristic (TC) of the NMFs and to evaluate the environmental safety of products made from the recycled NMFs. It is believed that physical recycling of the NMFs has been a promising recycling method. Much more work should be done to develop comprehensive and industrialized usage of the NMFs recycled by physical methods. Chemical recycling methods have the advantages in eliminating hazardous substances

  18. Assessment of seasonality in exposure to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs by using long-term food-consumption data. (United States)

    Feinberg, M; Soler, L; Contenot, S; Verger, P


    According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance related to uncertainties in dietary exposure assessment, exposure assessment based on short-term food-consumption surveys, such as 24-h recalls or 2-day records, tend to overestimate long-term exposure because of the assumption that the dietary pattern will be similar day after day over a lifetime. The aim of this study was to make an assessment of dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), also called 'dioxins' and 'dioxin-like PCBs', using long-term household purchase and consumption survey data collected by TNS-Secodip. Weekly purchases of the major dioxins and dl-PCB vector products of these contaminants were collected for 328 single-person households, who participated at TNS-Secodip consumption surveys from 2003 to 2005 and who were single-person households in order to estimate better their consumption. These data were combined with average contamination levels of food products. Weekly gross average exposure was estimated at 10.2 pg toxic equivalent (WHO TEQ) kg(-1) bw week(-1) (95% confidence interval [9.6, 10.9]). According to the typical shape of the distribution of individual weekly exposures, it is sensible to fit an exponential law to these data. The mean was therefore 12.1 pg WHO TEQ kg(-1) bw week(-1). This value is higher than the arithmetic mean because it better takes into account inter-individual variability. It was estimated that about 20% of persons in this sample were exceeding the current health-based guidance value mainly due to high consumption of seafood and/or dairy products. Thanks to long survey duration (3 years) and the weekly recording of food consumption, it was possible to demonstrate the actual seasonality of dietary exposure to dioxins and dl-PCBs with a maximum between March and September; similar seasonality is observable for fish consumption. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were

  19. Comment réduire le taux de contaminants environnementaux dans les huiles de poisson sans en affecter les caractéristiques nutritionnelles ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique


    Full Text Available Crude fish oil is an important ingredient in fish feed for fish farming; it can be used as functional food or neutraceutical (cod liver oil, EPA/DHA concentrates or incorporated in healthy foods after refining. Major components of fish oil have positive nutritional properties. Polyunsaturated fatty acids can go up to 40% with variable proportions of EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22-6 [ω-3 fatty acids]. Content of fat soluble vitamins is usually high. Unfortunately, fish oil is also sensitive to degradation products (polymeric and oxidized fat, increased polar content, off-flavor problems…. The beneficial nutritional properties of fish oil are in great contrast with the presence of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs such as polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/PCDFs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, mainly originating from the environment. Usual steps for fish oil refining are neutralization, bleaching, winterization (optional and deodorization. Processing difficulties consist in finding the best operating conditions for an effective removal of unwanted contaminants and a maximal preservation of the nutritional qualities (processing duality. In this work, different adsorbents (filter aid, silica powder, bleaching earth and active carbon were tested for the best removal of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs; it was shown that filter aid, silica and bleaching earth have no significant effect on decontamination while removal of majority non ortho PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs was possible with active carbon. Mono-ortho PCBs were significantly less absorbed by active carbon. Deodorization was further investigated. Processing temperature had a very pronounced effect on the reduction of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs. Already at 210 °C, all of them were removed efficiently to a level below the limit set by European Legislation. But temperature increase was limited by the risk of degradation of EPA/DHA (ω-3. Combination of active carbon treatment and

  20. Does long term residency near industry have an impact on the body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in older women? (United States)

    Pless-Mulloli, T; Edwards, R; Howel, D; Wood, R; Paepke, O; Herrmann, T


    For the retrospective study of environment and health linkages biomarkers of exposure are required. Polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been useful markers in some settings. This is the first study of PCDD/F body burden in a population based sample from the UK. The authors aimed to investigate whether long term residents close to a heavy chemical industrial complex (Teesside, UK) had a higher body burden and distinct pattern of PCDD/F and PCBs. We measured current levels of PCDD/F and PCBs in a population based sample of older women (mean 64 years, range 42-79 years). Forty women were recruited, 20 living near (zone A: 0.1-2.7 km) and 20 distant (zone C: 5-40 km) from industry during 2000-03. The authors ascertained occupational exposure to lung carcinogens, residential history, consumption of local produce, breast feeding, diet, and height and weight. The mean body burden measured on lipid basis in ng/kg for the whole sample was: WHO-TEQ (PCDD/Fs): 29.9, 2378TCDD: 4.0, PCB 118:16200, PCB156: 13100. Body burdens were similar to others reported from industrialised countries, except that mean 2378TCDD was slightly higher. Mean ages, body mass index, and lifelong dietary patterns were similar in both zones. The authors found no significant difference in mean body burden levels between zones A and C before or after adjustment for covariates. All congener patterns were consistent with an urban background pattern, and there was no significant difference between congener compositions in the two zones. The TCDD body burden increased with age with accelerated increments above age 70. Long term residency near heavy and chemical industry did not have an effect on women's body burden of PCDD/Fs and PCBs on Teesside, UK. The body burden of PCDD/F and PCBs was not a suitable biomarker for chronic, non-occupational exposure to industrial air pollution.

  1. Challenges to Issues of Balance and Representativeness in African Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapelo Joseph Otlogetswe


    rekenaarprogrammatuur het die herwinning van sulkeinligting toenemend redelik maklik geword. Die gehalte van herwonne inligting vir leksikografiesedoeleindes steun egter op die inligtingsinset by die korpusboufase. Indien korpusse nie verteenwoordigendis van die verskillende taalgebruike van 'n spraakgemeenskap nie, mag hulle blyk onbetroubare bronne van leksikografiese inligting te wees. Daar is egter kwessies in Afrikatale watbaie Afrikakorpusse problematies maak. Hierdie kwessies sluit in die tekort aan tekste van verskillendegenres, die niebeskikbaarheid van gebalanseerde en verteenwoordigende geskrewe tekste,die volkome afwesigheid van gesproke tekste asook geletterdheidsprobleme in Afrikagemeenskappe.Hierdie artikel ondersoek derhalwe die verskillende uitdagings betreffende die bou vanbetroubare Afrikataalkorpusse. Dit voer aan dat Afrikatale teenoor besondere uitdagings staan enkorpusnavorsing 'n verskillende behandeling mag vereis in vergelyking met Europese en Amerikaansekorpusnavorsing. Ten slotte kom dit tot die gevolgtrekking dat kwessies van balans enverteenwoordigendheid teoreties onmoontlik lyk wanneer gekyk word na die resultate van sosiolinguistiesenavorsing oor die verskillende bestaande taalvariëteite wat moeilik is om presies in 'nkorpus te verteenwoordig.


  2. 'n Lewe met die vaders Oor Carl Borchardt as student van die vroee kerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Ie Roux


    Full Text Available A life with the fathers Carl Borchardt's views on the early church This article focuses on Carl Borchardt's contribution to the study of the early church. Especially one aspect of his historical endeavours is highlighted: the close link between the Bible and church history. He illustrated how the early church lived from the Bible and how patristic theology was shaped fundamentally by the Bible. Because he was so wellequiped for the study of the early church Borchardt succeeded highlighting the beauty of patristic exegesis and opening up new ways� of understanding our religious past. Dit was in Julie 1968 dat ek Carl Borchardt vir die eerste keer ontmoet het. Professor Ben Marais was die semester weg en Borchardt moes die middeleeue en die reformasie aan ons doseer. Hy was inderdaad 'n uitstekende keuse. Pas twee jaar gelede het hy in Leiden by die befaamde Bakhuizen van den Brink gepromoveer. Sy proefskrif, Hilary of Poitier's role in the Arian struggle, was van so 'n gehalte dat dit in die reeks, Kerkhistorische Studien, opgeneem is. Borchardt was 'n uitnemende plaasvervanger vir Ben 1-farais. So ver ek egter kan onthou, was dosent Borchardt 'n bietjie skugter en manuskripgebonde, maar tog was daar iets in sy Iesings wat my na al die jare nog bybly: 'n deeglike kennis van en 'n vaardigheid met primere en sekondere bronne van die middeleeue en die reformasie. Nou nog onthou ek van die bronne wat hy met die oog op 'n Lutherstudie vermeld het. Drie jaar later was ons saam kollegas aan die Universiteit van Suid-Afrika. Borchardt was in aIle opsigte my senior, maar tog was hy 'n besondere kollega. Tydens daardie goeie Unisajare was ons dosentegetalle klein en gevolglik het ek Borchardt op 'n besondere manier leer ken. Talle gesprekke oor die kerkgeskiedenis het in sy kantoor of by die teekan plaasgevind. Toe hy in 1975 Unisa se diens verlaat en hom by die Universiteit van Pretoria aangesluit het, was dit 'n droewige dag. Vir my was dit egter 'n

  3. Alexander von Humboldt brachte Guano nach Europa - mit ungeahnten globalen Folgen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Rott


    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Die vorliegende Abhandlung beschäftigt sich mit einem bisher wenig beachteten Aspekt von Humboldts Amerikanischer Reise (1799─1804. Während seine Studien der Pflanzen- und Tierwelt bis heute große Aufmerksamkeit genießen, wird Humboldts Beitrag zu der Entwicklung der modernen Landwirtschaft wenig beachtet. Während seines Aufenthalts in Lima erhielt er Proben von Guano, Vogelmist von den Chincha-Inseln vor der peruanischen Küste. Einige Proben, die er von dieser Reise zurückbrachte, wurden von Wissenschaftlern in Frankreich und Deutschland untersucht. Die Analysenergebnisse zeigten außerordentlich hohe Gehalte an Pflanzennährstoffen, insbesondere Stickstoff und Phosphor. In den folgenden Jahrzehnten wurde Guano zu einem bedeutsamen Düngemittel und Auslöser eines Booms in Europa und Peru. Die Auswirkungen dieser Entwicklung sind bis heute sichtbar und werden hier unter besonderer Beachtung von Phosphor beschrieben. Abstract One aspect of Humboldt’s travel to South America (1799─1804 received little attention. The fascination of his studies of the South American flora and fauna is unbroken to the present day. Yet Humboldt’s contribution to modern agriculture remains almost unnoticed. During his stay in Lima Humboldt received samples of guano, a mixture of bird droppings from the Chincha Islands off the Peruvian coast, which he took to Europe and had analyzed by the most famous chemists in France and Germany. The results showed outstanding fertilizing effects, in particular due to the high content of nitrogen and phosphorus. The ensuing boom starting from the 1840s influenced agriculture in Europe and the economy of Peru seriously. Some aspects of this historical development may give an idea of the ensuing change not only in agriculture. Résumé Il y a un aspect du voyage de Alexander von Humboldt en Amérique du Sud (1799─1804 qui jusqu’à présent a été peu considéré. Ses études de la flore at le da

  4. Corrosion resistance and microstructure of alloy 625 weld overlay on ASTM A516 grade 70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Mohammad J. [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Ketabchi, Mostafa [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Dept.


    Nickel-based alloys are a crucial class of materials because of their excellent corrosion resistance. In the present study, single layer and two layers alloy 625 weld overlays were deposited by GTAW process on A516 grade 70 carbon steel. The dilution in terms of Fe, Ni, Mo and Nb content was calculated in 30 points of weld overlay. Microstructure observations showed that alloy 625 had austenitic structure with two types of Laves and NbC secondary phases. The uniform and pitting corrosion resistance of alloy 625 weld overlay as casted and as forged were evaluated in accordance with ASTM G48-2011 standard at different temperatures to determine the weight loss and critical pitting temperature. For achieving a better comparison, samples from alloy 625 as casted and as forged were tested under the same conditions. The results point out that single layer alloy 625 weld overlay is not suitable for chloride containing environments, two layers alloy 625 weld overlay and alloy 625 as casted have acceptable corrosion resistance and almost the same critical pitting temperature. Alloy 625 as forged has the best corrosion resistance and the highest critical pitting temperature among all test specimens. Also, the corrosion behavior was evaluated in accordance with ASTM G28 standard. The corrosion rate of single layer weld overlay was unacceptable. The average corrosion rate of two layers weld overlay and in casted condition were 35.82 and 33.01 mpy, respectively. [German] Nickellegierungen sind aufgrund ihres exzellenten Korrosionswiderstandes eine bedeutende Werkstoffklasse. In der diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurden mittels WIG-Schweissens ein- und zweilagige Schweissplattierungen auf den Kohlenstoffstahl A516 (Grade 70) aufgebracht. Die Vermischung in Form des Fe-, Ni-, Mo- und Nb-Gehaltes wurde an 30 Punkten der Schweissplattierungen berechnet. Die mikrostrukturellen Untersuchungen ergaben, dass die Legierung 625 eine austenitische Struktur mit zwei Arten von

  5. Hauptschülers’ Conceptions of Work – An Exclusion from the Subjective Dissolution of Boundaries?/Hauptschüler und ihre Vorstellung von Arbeit – eine Ausgrenzung von der subjektivierten Entgrenzung?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Kölzer


    sich die Erfahrungen, die Hauptschüler mit Arbeit sammeln, einseitig auf atypische, unsichere Beschäftigungsverhältnisse mit hohem Prekaritätsrisiko konzentrieren sowie auf Normalarbeitsverhältnisse, beschränkt auf Berufe mit niedrigem Status, schlechter Bezahlung und hohen Gesundheitsrisiken. Privilegierte Tätigkeiten mit hohem Subjektivierungsgrad bleiben ihnen meist vorenthalten. Diese institutionell und sozial erzeugte eher einseitige Erfahrungskonzentration verursacht daher im Prozess der emotionalen Konditionierung einen eher engen Arbeitsbegriff. Gleichzeitig stellt Subjektivierung zusammen mit ihren Entgrenzungsphänomenenzunehmend eine „generelle Anforderungsstruktur an alle Beschäftigten“ (Lohr, Nickel 2005, 217 dar. Um sich auf „Arbeitsanforderungen mit höherem Gehalt an subjektiven Flexibilitäts- und Selbstgestaltungspotenzialen einzustellen“ (ebd., 221, – so meine These – bedarf es allerdings vorab einer differenzierteren Vorstellung von Arbeit, insbesondere ein Bewusstsein für die Subjektivierung von Erwerbsarbeit mit ihren Entgrenzungsphänomenen. Doch treten die befragten Hauptschüler mit einer eher einseitigen, negativen und vorwiegend fordistisch geprägten Perspektive auf Arbeit in den Lernprozess und später wahrscheinlich auch in den Arbeitsmarkt ein, wenn es Schule und Unterricht nicht gelingt, diese Vorstellungen zu erweitern und zu differenzieren. Insofern kann von einer Ausgrenzung von subjektiver Entgrenzung aufgrund eines unzureichenden Arbeitsbegriffes und einer mit aktuellen Anforderungen wenig kompatiblen Arbeitseinstellung gesprochen werden.

  6. The Ndebele Language Corpus: A Review of Some Factors Influencing the Content of the Corpus*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samukele Hadebe


    ALLEX Project (tans ALRI by die Universiteit van Zimbabwe. Dit is bedoel om soveel moontlik te weerspie?l van die Ndebeletaal soos in Zimbabwe gepraat. Die Ndebeletaalkorpus is opgebou om veelbenodigde materiaal te verskaf vir die studie van die Ndebeletaal, met spesiale fokus op woordeboeksamestelling en navorsing. Soos die meeste korpora, kan die Ndebeletaalkorpus in die toekoms gebruik word vir ander doeleindes waaraan nie by tye van sy ontstaan gedink is nie. Dit is ontwerp om aan algemeen aanvaarde standaarde te voldoen sodat dit aanpasbaar kan wees vir verskillende moontlike gebruike deur verskillende navorsers. Die artikel wil die bouproses van die Ndebeletaalkorpus skets met spesiale klem op die uitdagings wat die samestellers ondervind het, en moontlike oplossings. Dit word aanvaar dat sommige van hierdie uitdagings nie eie aan Ndebele alleen mag wees nie, maar ook verwante Afrikatale in 'n min of meer soortgelyke situasie mag raak. Die hooffokus van die bespreking sal op die samestelling van die Ndebeletaalkorpus wees, d.w.s. die soort tekste wat die korpus uitmaak. Die korpus is saamgestel uit gepubliseerde tekste, ongepubliseerde tekste en mondelinge materiaal versamel in Ndebelesprekende distrikte van Zimbabwe. Daar sal geredeneer word dat die gebruik van die korpus en sy betroubaarheid vir navorsing op onder andere sy inhoud berus. Daar sal ook getoon word dat die inhoud van die korpus op 'n aantal faktore berus, sommige waarvan sosiolinguistiese, politieke en ekonomiese oorwegings insluit. Hierdie oorwegings het implikasies vir beide die inhoud en gehalte van gepubliseerde en mondelinge tekste wat die Ndebeletaalkorpus uitmaak.


  7. Rapid method to predict the storage stability of middle distillates; Schnelltest zur Vorhersage der Lagerstabilitaet von Mitteldestillaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depta, H.; Wehn, R. [RWE - Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Entwicklung mbH, Wesseling (Germany); Kohlmeyer, U. [Deutsche Shell AG, Hamburg (Germany)


    und zwar: - die colorimetrische/spektralphotometrische Methode nach R.K. Solly und S.J. Marshman, - die Quantifizierung der SMORS nach M.A. Wechter und D.R. Hardy und - die Bestimmung von Phenalen und Phenalenon sowie von nichtbasischen stickstoffhaltigen Aromaten. Als Referenztest diente die ASTM D 4625-92 (Lagerung bei 43 C ueber einen Zeitraum von 12 Wochen mit Luftkontakt). Nach den vorliegenden Ergebnissen ist keine dieser Methoden als zuverlaessiger Schnelltest geeignet, da die Regressionsanalyse keine akzeptable Korrelation zwischen den Messwerten und den Unloeslichen aus dem Referenztest ausweist. Die Hypothese des Alterungsmechanismus von Pedley et al. konnte nicht bestaetigt werden. Die besten Resultate liefert die spektralphotometrische Methode, mit der unter Einbeziehung des Gesamtstickstoffgehaltes eine Vorhersagegenauigkeit der Testergebnisse nach ASTM von etwa 75% erzielt werden kann. Der zusaetzlich durchgefuehrte Rancimat-Test korreliert ueberhaupt nicht mit den Unloeslichen nach ASTM D 4625-92. Ebensowenig korrelieren die Unloeslichen nach ASTM D 4625 mit dem Gehalt an Sedimenten, die sich nach einem Jahr natuerlicher Lagerung gebildet haben und mittels DIN 51419 bestimmt wurden. Der ergaenzend durchgefuehrte `Shell Fenstertest` hingegen ermoeglicht eine Sicherheit in der Vorhersage der Langzeitstabilitaet von 78%, die sich nach einer Ueberarbeitung des Verfahrens im Hinblick auf reproduzierbare Testbedingungen vermutlich noch verbessern liesse. (orig.)

  8. Drinking water pollution with nickel from water boilers; Nickel-Eintrag aus Wasserkochern ins Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, E. [Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Stuttgart (Germany). Chemisches Inst.


    , dass Geraete mit offener Heizspirale beim Aufkochen Nickel in relevanten Mengen ins Trinkwasser abgeben. Die Untersuchung von 8 gebrauchten Wasserkochern mit offener Heizspirale ergab in einem Fall einen Gehalt ueber dem geltenden Grenzwert von 50 {mu}gNi/l, in zwei Faellen einen Nickelgehalt ueber dem vogeschlagenen neuen Grenzwert (20 {mu}g/l) und bei weiteren drei Geraeten einen Nickelgehalt knapp darunter (>10 {mu}g/l). Durch Entkalken stieg die Nickelkonzentration des aufgekochten Wassers um bis zum 50-fachen auf max. 640 {mu}g/l an. Der systematische Test eines Neugeraets bestaetigte diese Befunde: Zwar fiel der Nickelgehalt des Kochwassers bei normaler Benutzung unter die Nachweisgrenze von 5 {mu}g/l (120 Kochvorgaenge), jedoch waren nach dem Entkalken jeweils fuenf Kochvorgaenge erforderlich, um durch Bildung einer neuen Kalkschicht auf der Heizspirale den Nickelgehalt wieder unter 20 {mu}g/l zu senken. Die Verwendung von deionisiertem Wasser hatte dauerhaft Nickelgehalte zwischen 94 und 190 {mu}g/l zur Folge. Eine gesundheitliche Abschaetzung ergab, dass die mit der Verwendung von Wasserkochern mit offenen Heizspiralen verbundenen Nickelmengen zwar relevant sind, jedoch hinsichtlich der Nickelfracht der Gesamtnahrung nicht aus dem Rahmen fallen. Angesichts der weit verbreiteten Nickelallergie scheint eine Begrenzung der oralen Nickelaufnahme aus dieser Quelle aber dennoch geboten. (orig.)

  9. Thoughts and Views on the Compilation of Monolingual Dictionaries in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C.P Golele


    woordeboeksamestelling betref, is bekendheid met die heel nuutste ontwikkelinge in die teorie en praktyk van die leksikografie noodsaaklik. Die fokus van die Afrikatale moet op die samestelling van eentalige woordeboeke gerig wees. Dit is belangrik dat hierdie eentalige woordeboeke reg van die begin af op 'n deurlopende basis bruikbaar moet wees. Voortdurende aandag moet aan die uitbreiding van die korpusse en die werklike raadpleging van hierdie korpusse op makro- en mikrostrukturele vlak gegee word. Die eindprodukte moet van 'n ho? leksikografiese gehalte wees, goed gebalanseerd betreffende lemmakeuse, lengte van artikels, maksimum gebruik van beskikbare woordeboekruimte, e.s.m. Hulle moet ook op so 'n manier beplan en saamgestel word dat die oorgang van papierwoordeboeke na elektroniese woordeboeke maklik en natuurlik bewerkstellig kan word. Gevorderde en voortdurende opleiding in die samestelling van eentalige woordeboeke moet aangebied word. Sleutelwoorde: EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEKE, AMPTELIKE TALE, WOORDEBOEKSAMESTELLING, KORPUSSE, NASIONALE LEKSIKOGRAFIE-EENHEDE, TEIKENGEBRUIKERS, WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIK, WOORDEBOEKKULTUUR, KERNTERME

  10. The Concept of "Simultaneous Feedback": Towards a New Methodology for Compiling Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Good lexicographers are constantly striving to enhance the quality of their dictionaries. Since dictionaries are ultimately judged by their target users, there is an urgency to provide for the target users' needs. In order to determine such needs more accurately, it has become common practice to submit users of a dictionary to a series of tests to monitor their success in information rehieval. In most cases such feedback unfortunately comes too late so that it can at best be considered for. implementation in the next or revised edition of the dictionary. In this article it is argued that feedback from the target users should be obtained while the compilation of the dictionary is still in progress, a process referred to as "simultaneous feedback". This concept, which offers a new methodology for compiling dictionaries, overcomes the major problem 'of creating and publishing entire dictionaries before feedback from target users can be obtained. By this new methodology, the release of several small-scale parallel dictionaries triggers feedback that is immediately channelled to the compilation process of a main dictionary. As such, the target users constantly guide the compilers during the entire compilation process. After a theoretical presentation of the new concept, the feasibility of simultaneous feedback is illustrated with reference to the creation of a bilingual CiIuba-Dutch leamer's dictionary. It is shown how this main project has been successfully complemented by three parallel projects.


    Opsomming: Die konsep van "gelyktydige terugvoering": Onderweg na Innuwe metodologie vir die samestelling van. woordeboeke. Goeie leksikograwestreef voortdurend daama om die gehalte van hul woordeboeke te verbeter

  11. Risks of increased UV-B radiation: higher plants; Risiken erhoehter UV-B-Strahlung: Hoehere Pflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, W. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Botanisches Inst.; Hofmann, H. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Botanisches Inst.


    -B-sensitiv als Arten, die bevorzugt im Flachland wachsen und/oder haben alpine Arten eine groessere Faehigkeit, Schutzmechanismen auszubilden? Paare oder Tripletts von Arten der gleichen Gattung, die in verschiedenen Hoehenstufen vorkommen, wurden in Gewaechshaus - also ohne UV-B - aus Samen angezogen. Zur Pruefung ihrer Faehigkeit zur `Adaptation` an UV-B-Strahlung wurde ein Teil der Pflanzen vor dem Sensitivitaetstest 5-6 Wochen lang mit zusaetzlichem UV-B bestrahlt. Die Sensitivitaet wurde in einer Belichtungskammer durch zusaetzliches UV-B verschiedener Bestrahlungsstaerken geprueft; als Kriterium wurden aeusserlich sichtbare Schaeden - von leichter Bronzierung oder Vergilbung bis zum Absterben - herangezogen. Bei den gleichen Pflanzen wurde der Gehalt an UV-B-absorbierenden Substanzen (Phenylpropane, meist Flavonoide) gemessen. Aus den Ergebnissen koennen folgende Schlussfolgerungen gezogen werden: Von Arten der gleichen Gattung sind alpine Arten nicht bereits aufgrund ihrer genetischen Konstitution resistenter als Flachlandarten, haben aber eine bessere Faehigkeit zur Adaptation; dies beruht z.T. auf einer erhoehten Akkumulation UV-B-absorbierender Substanzen. Deutliche Unterschiede in der Sensitivitaet zwischen verschiedenen Gattungen koennten bei einer Erhoehung der UV-B-Strahlung zu Artenverschiebung in Oekosystemen fuehren. (orig./KW)

  12. Value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in community nursing science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Beukes


    ervaar word,wat kliniese leer op sy beurt in gemeenskapsverpleegkunde negatief beïnvloed. Die doel van die studie was om die belewenis van studente met betrekking tot waardesensitiewe kliniese begeleiding in gemeenskapsverpleegkunde te verken en te beskryf. ’n Verkennende, beskrywende en kontekstuele ontwerp is gebruik. Die interaksie wat tussen die gemeenskapsverpleegkundiges en studente tydens kliniese begeleiding plaasgevind het, is vir waardesensitiwiteit deur middel van video opnames, deelnemerobservasie en fokusgroeponderhoude verken. Die data wat deur middel van video-opnames en deelnemerobservasie ingesamel is, is deur die navorser en ’n eksterne kodeerder ontleed en gekodeer.’n Induktiewe beskrywende metode is gebruik om belangrike segmente van die gereeldheid van gedrag te identifiseer en beskryf. Fokusgroeponderhoude is deur die navorsers en ’n eksterne kodeerder getranskribeer, ontleed en gekodeer deur gebruik te maak van Tesch se stappe van analise (Creswell 1994:155–156. Lincoln en Guba (1985:290 se kriteria vir geloofwaardigheid is in die studie gebruik. Die algemene bevindinge dui daarop dat kliniese begeleiding in gemeenskapsverpleegkunde nie waarde-sensitief is nie. Gevolglik moet riglyne vir waarde-sensitiewe kliniese begeleiding vir voorgraadse studente in gemeenskapsverpleegkunde ontwikkel word. Die volgende waardes(waardes waarvoor riglyne ontwikkel moet word is geïdentifiseer, naamlik respek tydens kliniese begeleiding, waarde-sensitiewe kommunikasie en sensitiwiteit vir gehalte van kliniese begeleiding.

  13. Preparation of a Bimetal Using Mechanical Alloying for Environmental or Industrial Use (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Geiger, Cherie; Clausen, Christian


    Following the 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act ban on their manufacture, PCBs remain an environmental threat. PCBs are known to bio-accumulate and concentrate in fatty tissues. Further complications arise from the potential for contamination of commercial mixtures with other more toxic chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Until recently, only one option was available for the treatment of PCB-contaminated materials: incineration. This may prove to be more detrimental to the environment than the PCBs themselves due to the potential for formation of PCDDs. Metals have been used for the past ten years for the remediation of halogenated solvents and other contaminants in the environment; however, zero-valent metals alone do not possess the activity required to dehalogenate PCBs. Palladium has been shown to act as an excellent catalyst for the dechlorination of PCBs with active metals. This invention is a method for the production of a palladium/magnesium bimetal capable of dechlorinating PCBs using mechanical milling/mechanical alloying. Other base metals and catalysts may also be alloyed together (e.g., nickel or zinc) to create a similarly functioning catalyst system. Several bimetal catalyst systems currently can be used for processes such as hydrogen peroxide synthesis, oxidation of ethane, selective oxidation, hydrogenation, and production of syngas for further conversion to clean fuels. The processes for making these bimetal catalysts often involve vapor deposition. This technology provides an alternative to vapor deposition that may provide equally active catalysts. A hydrogenation catalyst including a base material coated with a catalytic metal is made using mechanical milling techniques. The hydrogenation catalysts are used as an excellent catalyst for the dehalogenation of contaminated compounds and the remediation of other industrial compounds. The mechanical milling technique is

  14. Climate change and the Lower Weser region: Direct and indirect consequences of a climate change for the ecological situation in the Weser, the forelands and in the diked marshes. Final report; Klimaaenderung und Unterweserregion (KLIMU) 'Fallstudie Weseraestuar'. Direkte und indirekte Auswirkungen eines Klimawandels auf die oekologischen Verhaeltnisse in Weser, Vorland und Binnendeichsmarschen. Teilprojekt Oekologischer Komplex. T. A: Binnenland. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, D.; Schirmer, M.


    Temperatur die Invasion thermophiler Arten; erhoehte Temperatur und CO{sub 2}-Gehalte der Atmosphaere erlauben eine Produktivitaetssteigerung um 25% und nuetzen der Landwirtschaft. Die Biotoptypen des Feuchtgruenlandes bleiben nutzungsbedingt, deichnahe Flaechen bis zu 2 km werden tendenziell feuchter, deichferne werden z.T. im Sommer unter deutlicher Trockenheit leiden. Die Reaktionsvarianten des Kuestenschutzes fuehren zum Verbrauch z.T. hochwertiger Flaechen (Sperrwerk, Deichverstaerkung) bzw. zu Nutzungseinschraenkung in Sturmflutentlastungspoldern. Die in 'Zukunftsbildern' betrachteten moeglichen Entwicklungen der Landwirtschaft wuerden im Falle ihrer Intensivierung der klimabedingten Landschaftsentwicklung zuwiderlaufen und konfliktsteigernd wirken, waehrend eine Extensivierung dieser Entwicklung entspraeche und konfliktmindernd wirkt. (orig.)

  15. Nonvolatile organic pollutants in domestic dust samples from the urban Hamburg area; Schwerfluechtige organische Umweltchemikalien in Hamburger Hausstaeuben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hausstaeube beitragen, sind die Belastungen durch Organozinn-Verbindungen als eher gering einzuschaetzen. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalat (DEHP) kommt unter den 58 schwerfluechtige Umweltchemikalien besondere Bedeutung zu. DEHP war in fast allen Hausstaeuben die Hauptkomponente. Die Stoffgruppe der Phthalate wies insgesamt die hoechsten Gehalte auf. Neben den Phthalaten trugen hauptsaechlich die Chlorparaffine und das Biozid Permethrin zur Belastung bei. Es folgten Organophosphate, weitere Biozide, Organozinn-Verbindungen und Benzo(a)pyren. Eine Bewertung der Einzelstoffe erfolgte an Hand von 95% Percentilen, die aus den jeweiligen Haeufigkeitsverteilungen erhalten wurden. Ein 95% Percentil besagt, dass 95% der Hausstaeube einen geringeren oder hoechstens gleich hohen Stoffgehalt aufweisen als es dem 95% Percentil entspricht. Ueblicherweise dienen 95% Percentile als umwelthygienische Referenzwerte. (orig.)[abstract truncated

  16. Measures on fireside emission reduction during wood combustion in industrial furnaces; Massnahmen zur feuerungsseitigen Emissionsminderung bei der Holzverbrennung in gewerblichen Feuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuberbuehler, U.


    dahingehend umgestaltet, dass die notwendigen Bedingungen zur feuerungsseitigen NO{sub x}-Minderung erfuellt wurden. Beim Test des entwickelten Feuerungskonzeptes wurde im kontinuierlichen Lastbetrieb mit beschichteten Spanplatten (N-Gehalt 4,3%) eine mittlere NO{sub x}-Konzentration von ca. 450 mg/m{sup 3} gemessen, was gegenueber einer konventionellen Unterschubfeuerung eine NO{sub x}-Minderung um ca. 40% darstellt. Die mittlere CO-Konzentration betrug 30 mg/m{sup 3} und die Partikelkonzentrationen lagen ohne nachgeschalteten Staubabscheider deutlich unter 50 mg/m{sup 3}. Grundsaetzlich koennen durch feuerungsseitige Massnahmen die Emissionen bei der Verbrennung, besonders bei schwierigen Brennstoffen, gegenueber konventioneller Technik deutlich vermindert werden. Die Wirksamkeit feuerungsseitiger Massnahmen haengt entscheidend von den dafuer notwendigen Bedingungen im Feuerraum ab, (orig.) (abstract truncated)

  17. Catalytically supported reduction of emissions from small-scale biomass furnace systems; Katalytisch unterstuetzte Minderung von Emissionen aus Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Ingo; Lenz, Volker; Schenker, Marian; Thiel, Christian [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kraus, Markus; Matthes, Mirjam; Roland, Ulf [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Bindig, Rene; Einicke, Wolf-Dietrich [Leipzig Univ. (Germany)


    speziellen Pruefverfahren in einer groesseren Messreihe durchzufuehren. Die groessere Stichprobe ist dann auf Basis von GC/MS-Verfahren hinsichtlich der PAK und PCDD/F-Gehalte zu analysieren. Aufbauend auf den Erkenntnissen aus dem im Dezember 2010 abgeschlossenen Forschungsvorhaben zur katalytisch unterstuetzten Emissionsminderung aus Kleinfeuerungsanlagen sind weitere Untersuchungen zur Abgasreinigung geplant. Das DBFZ erhaelt zusammen mit mehreren Industriepartnern und weiteren Forschungseinrichtungen vom BMU eine Foerderung fuer das Nachfolgeprojekt ''Emissionsminderung durch integrierte Massnahmen in Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen'' (FKZ: 03KB051). Sowohl an Stueckholzfeuerungen als auch vollautomatischen Multifuelkesseln sollen katalytische Verfahren der Abgasreinigung entwickelt und praxisnah in den Bau von Prototypen einfliessen.

  18. Seaweeds in closed systems; Zeewieren in gesloten systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, P. ' t [Koers en Vaart, Barendrecht (Netherlands); Schipper, J. [Hortimare, Heerhugowaard (Netherlands)


    eigenschappen, in diervoeders en voor de teelt van schelpdieren (zeeoor). Daarnaast worden extracten uit zeewier gebruikt voor de cosmetica-industrie en farmaceutische producten, en vormen ze een mogelijke bron van biologische brandstoffen. Zeewier kan wellicht ook dienen als eiwitplatform voor de steeds groeiende vraag naar viseiwitten en soja-eiwit. Hoewel Nederland op het terrein van offshore en waterbouw en ook op het gebied van zaaien, telen en zaadveredeling een goede naam heeft, is de kennis van het telen en oogsten van zeewier hier zeer beperkt. Met de komst van windmolenparken in de Noordzee en de exploitatie van het continentale plat, komt ook de teelt van zeewieren in beeld. Hierbij wordt gedacht in extensieve en intensieve teeltsystemen equivalent met wat we in de land- en tuinbouw kennen. Voor bepaalde toepassingen van zeewier zijn beter gecontroleerde teeltomstandigheden nodig, bijvoorbeeld als het gaat om specifieke inhoudsstoffen, kwaliteitseisen met betrekking tot voeding of bij de vermeerdering van het zeewier voor de toekomstige grootschalige zeewierteelt. Daar waar de waarde van het geteelde zeewier toeneemt, en daarmee de wens tot oogstzekerheid en risicobeheersing, zijn gesloten systemen waarschijnlijk de beste benadering. Doordat de teeltcondities bij gesloten systemen beter beheersbaar zijn, zijn opbrengsten naar verwachting hoger, zijn de gehaltes aan inhoudsstoffen constanter en is de algehele kwaliteit beter. Bovendien kunnen eventuele plagen eenvoudiger bestreden of voorkomen worden. In tegenstelling tot op land gebaseerde zeewierteelt kunnen gesloten systemen beschikken over veel, schoon en relatief mineraalarm zeewater. Dit opent ook mogelijkheden voor temperatuurregulering met behulp van zeewater. Het concept van zeewieren in gesloten systemen is in zekere zin vergelijkbaar met de glastuinbouw. Op basis van de gehanteerde prijzen voor zeewier blijkt de kweek van volwassen planten voor industriële toepassingen in gesloten systemen niet haalbaar