WorldWideScience

Sample records for geese

  1. Pioneering in geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about pioneering in geese-- the report gives a history of the goose and its evolution from the Pleistocene to currents species of geese. The report...

  2. Hybridization in geese: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Herbert H. T. Prins

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large knowledge gap in geese. In this review, we assemble the available information on hybrid geese by focusing on three main themes: (1) incidence and frequency, (2) behavioural mechanisms leading to hybridizatio...

  3. Lesser snow geese and ross's geese form mixed flocks during winter but differ in family maintenance and social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Smaller species are less likely to maintain families (or other forms of social groups) than larger species and are more likely to be displaced in competition with larger species. We observed mixed-species flocks of geese in southwest Louisiana and compared frequencies of social groups and success in social encounters of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter Snow Geese) with that of the smaller, closely- related Ross's Geese (C. rossii). Less than 7% of adult and social encounters and had higher odds of success against Ross's Geese than against individuals of their own species. The larger Snow Geese maintain families longer than Ross's Geese, which probably contributes to their dominance over Ross's Geese during winter. Predator vigilance probably is an important benefit of mixed flocking for both species. We suggest the long-standing association with Snow Geese (along with associated subordinate social status) has selected against family maintenance in Ross's Geese.

  4. Hepatic Lipogenesis Associated with Biochemical Changes in Overfed Landaise Geese and China Xupu Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-you; HE Rui-guo; HUANG Chou-shen; LI Xiang; ZHOU Qi-an; WANG Cheng; ZHAO Na; ZHOU Shi-xia

    2006-01-01

    This experiment studied hepatic lipogenesis associated with biochemical changes in overfed Landaise Geese and China Xupu geese. Twenty healthy male Landaise geese and 20 healthy male Xupu geese, hatched on the same day under the same feeding conditions, were selected as experimental animals. The animals were divided into two groups and each breed served as an experimental group. Per goose of per experimental group served for a repeat. Brown rice was selected as test diet. After overfeeding for 21 d and then slaughtering, the biochemical changes of hepatic lipogenesis in the genetic susceptibility to fatty liver were evaluated. These results showed that (1) the weight of fatty liver of the two breeds of geese were 801 and 375 g (P<0.05), respectively. There were no differences on the abdominal fat pat, filet total and filet pectoralis major in the two breeds experimental of the geese group (P<0.05) and no difference on body and filet skin plus subcutaneous adipose tissue (P>0.05) was found; (2) in these two breeds of geese, there were no differences on very-lowdensity lipoprotein (VLDL), cholesteryl esters (CE) (P< 0.05), free cholesterol (FC), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL) and protein (P<0.05); (3) there were no differences on activities of malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH), acetyl-CoA-carboxylas (ACX), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and mRNA level of ME in the two experimental breeds of geese groups (P < 0.05); (4) test in Landaise geese group showed that there was no significant correlation with the specific enzymatic activities, while in Xupu geese group, the liver weight was negatively correlated to the specific activity of ACX and positively to that of ME; (5) in these overfed geese, ME activity appeared to be a major factor involved in the genetic susceptibility to hepatic steatosis and it determined the hepatic lipogenesis capacity.

  5. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  6. Female-specific DNA sequences in geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M C; Lin, W C; Horng, Y M; Rouvier, R; Huang, C W

    2003-07-01

    1. The OPAE random primers (Operon Technologies, Inc., CA) were used for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting in Chinese, White Roman and Landaise geese. One of these primers, OPAE-06, produced a 938-bp sex-specific fragment in all females and in no males of Chinese geese only. 2. A novel female-specific DNA sequence in Chinese goose was cloned and sequenced. Two primers, CGSex-F and CGSex-R, were designed in order to amplify a 912-bp sex-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment on genomic DNA from female geese. 3. It was shown that a simple and effective PCR-based sexing technique could be used in the three goose breeds studied. 4. Nucleotide sequencing of the sex-specific fragments in White Roman and Landaise geese was performed and sequence differences were observed among these three breeds.

  7. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  8. The geese who flew home for Christmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H

    2013-01-01

    Gray geese of the bar-headed type (Anser indicus synonym: Eulabeia indica) perform trans-Himalayan migratory flight at extreme altitude. The physiological mechanisms include hyperventilation of cold air, increased lung diffusion capacity, proton gradients, high muscular temperature, amino acid...

  9. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  10. [Helminths in broiler geese fattened in runs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busta, J

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of helminths in broiler geese was studied in the rapid-fattening technological system in 1974-1978. The birds were kept on grassy run adjacent to water. Helminthological examination was performed in 1065 broilers and the following 16 helminth species were revealed: Notocotylus attenuatus (0.3%), Apatemon gracilis (1.5%), Cotyrulus cornutus (0.1%), Hypoderaeum conoideum (0.1%), Retinometra longicirrosa (3.2%), Drepanidotaenia lanceolata (3.1%), Sobolevicanthus fragilis (0.7%), Diorchis stefanskii (0.8%), Microsomacanthus microsoma (0.9%), Dilepis undula (0.1%), Capillaria caudinflata (0.2%), Capillaria obsignata (7.7%), Amidostomum anseris (3.7%), Trichostrongylus tenuis (0.2%), Ganguleterakis dispar (16.8%), and Heterakis gallinarum (0.4%). Seven of these species were found for the first time in geese in Czechoslovakia (A. gracilis, C. cornutus, H. conoideum, M. microsoma, D. undula, C. caudinflata, and H. gallinarum). The species Dilepis undula has not been recorded in this host species ever before. The extensity and intensity of the invasions, the frequency of monoinvasions and mixed invasions, and the relation of invasion extensity and intensity to the age of the broilers examined were evaluated during the study.

  11. Development of an aerial breeding pair survey for geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of nesting cackling Canada geese (Branta canadensis minima), emperor geese (Anser canagicus), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and...

  12. Development of an aerial breeding pair survey for geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon Delta: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of nesting cackling Canada geese (Branta canadensis minima), emperor geese (Anser canagicus), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and...

  13. Management plan for Midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to provide guidelines for management decisions affecting the Midcontinent Population of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons...

  14. Biology and subsistence hunting of geese at Chagvan Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chagvan Bay and Nanvak Bay are known to be important staging and/or stopover areas for large numbers of Pacific Brant (Branta bernicola) and Emperor Geese (Chen...

  15. Status of southern James Bay population of Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides background on the southern James Bay population (SJBP) of Canada geese, as well as a summary of problems confronting SJBP and recommendations...

  16. Effects of Immunization Against Inhibin on Egg-Laying Performance in Magang and Landaise Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yun-mao; LI Min-yi; SHI Zhen-dan; BAN Jin; QIN Yi-ping

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to improve egg-laying performance in incubating Magang geese of Guangdong origin and Landaise geese of French origin. In experiment 1, 50 adults, egg-laying Magang geese were inoculated intramuscularly (i.m.) on days 0, 22, and 45 with 1 mL of immunogen containing 1 mg of recombinant chicken inhibin fusion protein. Immunization significantly increased blood antibody titers against inhibin fusion protein, but did not affect the egg-laying performance within 10 days after the first inoculation. From day 15, the egg-laying rate in inhibin-immunized group increased and was significantly higher than the values of control geese from day 40 to 55. However, the reverse was true from day 55 to 75 when more immunized geese developed incubation. In the entire 120 days of the experiment, the immunized geese laid 17.3 eggs in contrast to 16.4 eggs laid by the control geese. From day 30 till the end of the experiment, weight of eggs in the control geese was significantly greater than that in inhibin-immunized birds. In experiment 2, 40 Landaise geese were immunized against inhibin, as described in experiment 1. These geese laid 9.0 eggs on average in contrast to 7.3 eggs laid by nonimmunized control geese over 90 days of egg laying. The above results demonstrated that immunization against recombinant chicken inhibin fusion protein improved egg-laying performance in geese, and the increment was higher in nonincubating geese.

  17. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

  18. Translocation and banding of Aleutian Canada geese in the western Aleutian Islands in 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In August 1990, 110 Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were captured and banded at Buldir Island. Twenty-five of these geese were translocated to...

  19. Survival and migration ecology of emperor geese along the Alaska Peninsula, progress report, March 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survival and migratory patterns of emperor geese (Chen canagica) were investigated during 1988-89 by marking flightless geese with neck collars and reobserving them...

  20. Autumn diet of lesser snow geese staging in northeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Alan W.; Hupp, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is used by lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in autumn for premigratory staging. To better understand the potential impacts of human disturbance on snow geese, we investigated species composition of, and temporal and age-related variation in, their diet during staging. Depending on age and time of collection, between 35.2 and 94.1% of the diet (aggregate percent wet mass, n = 75) consisted of 2 species of plants; underground stems of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium), and aerial shoots of northern scouring rush (Equisetum variegatum). The diet varied between August and September (P = 0.0089), morning and afternoon (P freezing, interspecific differences in nutritional quality, and plant senescence likely constrained the diet of snow geese to a small number of food items. Because alternative foods may not be available, human disturbance should be minimized in areas that provide these forage species.

  1. Carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) meal in geese diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, M; Coleou, J; Haas, C

    1992-07-01

    1. The apparent and true metabolisable energy values of carob pods meal for geese were measured to be 6.1 MJ/kg and 6.6 MJ/kg respectively. 2. Performance from 5 to 12 weeks was examined in geese fed on four diets containing 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg of carob pods meal. 3. The inclusion of carob pods meal up to 200 g/kg in geese diets did not affect the performance. 4. At 300 g/kg performance was highly depressed. 5. The digestibility of protein in the diets decreased linearly with an increase in the level of inclusion of carob pods meal. 6. The length of small intestine, large intestine and caeca and the weight of gizzard expressed per kg of body weight increased with an increase in the level of carob pods meal, which is rich in fibre, in the diets.

  2. Organophosphate insecticide poisoning of Canada geese in the Texas panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Wynn, L.D.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Kolbe, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen hundred waterfowl, mostly Canada Geese, died near Etter, Texas, in late January 1981 from anticholinesterase poisoning. Winter wheat in the area of the die-off had been treated with organophosphate insecticides to control greenbugs. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in brains of a sample of geese found dead were 75% below normal, enough to account for death (Ludke et al. 1975). The gastrointestinal (G I) tracts of geese found dead were packed with winter wheat; gas chromatography techniques identified parathion and methyl parathion in the GI tract contents. Residues of both chemicals were confirmed by mass spectrometry. We recommend that less toxic materials, such as malathion, be used on grain crops when waterfowl are in the vicinity of treatment.

  3. Effects of neckbands on body condition of migratory geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Ringing and marking are widely used techniques in avian ecology to assist studies of migration, survival and behaviour, and often used approaches to estimate population sizes. Only rarely however, are the effects of these markings on bird viability thoroughly tested. Using an abdominal profile...... index (API) of marked geese and body mass of recaptured birds previously marked, this study investigated the effect of neckbands on body condition of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus at different temporal scales, and evaluated to what extent capture, handling and banding affected these birds...... on short, medium and longer terms. Our results indicated that body condition of geese were negatively affected in the days immediately succeeding capture, but that only a minor effect persisted on a seasonal scale. We found no support for a long term effect of neckbands on the body mass of individual birds...

  4. Individually tracked geese follow the green wave during spring migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van R.E.; Kölzsch, A.; Kruckenberg, H.; Ebbinge, B.S.; Müskens, G.J.D.M.; Nolet, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Many migratory herbivores seem to follow the flush of plant growth during migration in order to acquire the most nutrient-rich plants. This has also been hypothesized for arctic-breeding geese, but so far no test of this so-called green wave hypothesis has been performed at the individual level. Dur

  5. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  6. Aquatic Bird Bornavirus 1 in Wild Geese, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane;

    2015-01-01

    To investigate aquatic bird bornavirus 1 in Europe, we examined 333 brains from hunter-killed geese in Denmark in 2014. Seven samples were positive by reverse transcription PCR and were 98.2%-99.8% identical; they were also 97.4%-98.1% identical to reference strains of aquatic bird bornavirus 1...

  7. Case report: Coccidiosis and lead poisoning in Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.

    1967-01-01

    Four dead Canada geese (Branta canadensis L.) collected at the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Delaware were found to have both marked duodenal lesions of coccidiosis and high levels of lead in the liver. Although only one goose had lead shot in the gizzard, all four had levels of lead in the liver suggestive of lead poisoning.

  8. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  9. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among

  10. Nesting biology of Lesser Canada Geese, Branta canadensis parvipes, along the Tanana River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig R. Ely; John M. Pearce; Roger W. Ruess

    2008-01-01

    Lesser Canada Geese (Brania canadensis parvipes) are widespread throughout interior regions of Alaska and Canada, yet there have been no published studies documenting basic aspects of their nesting biology. We conducted a study to determine reproductive parameters of Lesser Canada Geese nesting along the Tanana River near the city of Fairbanks, in...

  11. Killing wild geese with carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Lourens, A.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Verhoeven, M.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    The killing of animals is the subject of societal and political debate. Wild geese are caught and killed on a regular basis for fauna conservation and damage control. Killing geese with carbon dioxide (CO2) is commonly practiced, but not listed in legislation on the protection of flora and fauna, an

  12. Diurnal Variation In Behaviour Of Pink-Footed Geese (Anser Brachyrhynchus) During Spring Migration In Trøndelag, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzińska, Magda Ewa; Madsen, Jesper; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    in the behaviour of geese and to examine whether these variations are driven by digestibility of food geese feed on or also by external factors such as distance to the roost, disturbance and flock size. Based on diurnal flock scans of activity budgets (observations carried out between 05h00 and 22h00 hrs) in each...... habitat type, we fitted a model containing all predictors we believe may influence geese behaviour. The number of feeding and alert geese on fields displayed a strong diurnal trend, which varied among habitat types, frequent and sporadic disturbance, but not flock size. On roost sites, geese also showed...

  13. Avian cholera mortality in lesser snow geese nesting on Banks Island, Northwest Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Samelius, G.; Goldberg, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera is one of the most important diseases affecting waterfowl in North America, but little is known about its ecology and its impact on waterfowl populations. We documented avian cholera mortality in breeding lesser snow geese (Chen c. caerulescens) at the Egg River colony on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, in 1995 and 1996. Area of the breeding colony, core nesting area, and number of nesting geese were greater in 1996 (colony=7,537 ha, core area=1,581 ha, 401,000 nesting geese) than in 1995 (colony=6,637 ha, core area=996 ha, 318,000 nesting geese). Density of nesting geese also was greater in the core area during 1995 (120 geese/ha) than in 1996 (90 geese/ha). Pasteurella multocida (serotype 1) was cultured from the leg bones of adult snow goose carcasses collected after outbreaks. Mortality from avian cholera began during nesting and continued until birds dispersed at hatch. Mortality appeared to be in foci scattered throughout the nesting colony, but generally was greater where there were greater densities of nesting geese. We estimated that 30,000 and 20,000 geese died in 1995 and 1996, respectively, about 5-9% of the nesting colony. Between 1991 and 1997, at least 4 avian cholera outbreaks occurred at Banks Island. It appears that avian cholera has become endemic in this population of snow geese, and these birds have the potential to transmit the disease to other waterfowl, especially on wintering areas where waterfowl are very concentrated.

  14. Canada geese of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: family relationships, behavior and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geese described are non-migratory, free-flying Todd's Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior). The genealogy of 261 of these geese was traced by archival research and three years of field observations. Nest locations and densities, preferences for various types of artificial nest structures, clutch sizes, hatching success, brood survival to flight stage, and food habits were recorded. Resul ts indicate geese may:,pair as yearlings, but these bonds may be broken and re-formed before breeding. Pair bonding generally resulted in geese of similar ages remaining together until the death of one partner, although re-pairing, polygamy, and pairing between broodmates also occurred. The dominance hierarchy of related birds strongly influenced the position of 'outsiders' pairing with indigenous females. Dominant status passed not only from male to male, but, upon the death of the dominant male, in at least one instance, the surviving female retained dominant status. Gang broods were composed of progeny of the rearing pair, plus goslings relinquished by female offspring or siblings of the rearing pair. Among indentifiable geese, gang broods were reared by the dominant pair on each impoundment. Geese retained their family integrity both in flight and during the post-molt dispersion. Female and males paired with local females, nested in their natal areas. No significant relationship (P family. Collars, legbands, and telemetry were initially used to distinguish conspecifics. It was subsequently discovered that individual geese could be recognized by cheek-patch patterns, unusual plumage, or mannerisms. It is suggested that cheek-patch similarities in related Canada geese might be used to trace gene flow within flocks, and may be used for individual recognition by other Canada geese.

  15. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Frappell, P.B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W.K.; Newman, S.H.; Prosser, D.J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M.J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Na

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, investigations of Toxoplasma gondii infection in poultry (chickens, ducks, and geese have been reported worldwide, including China. However, little is known about the prevalence of T. gondii infection in poultry in northeastern China. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China. Methods In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in 502 adult chickens, 268 adult ducks, and 128 adult geese was surveyed using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results The seroprevalences of T. gondii were 5.8%, 7.8%, and 4.7% in chickens, ducks, and geese, respectively. Prevalence was higher in free-range groups (11.2%, 12.3%, and 8.9% than caged groups (4.7%, 7.5%, and 6.0%, and there was a statistically significant difference only between free-range chickens and caged chickens, but no significant difference was found between free-range ducks, geese and caged ducks, geese. Conclusions The present study shows the prescence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China, which suggests that consumption of poultry meat in Shenyang may pose a potential threat to human health and should be given attention.

  17. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-05-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  18. Avian cholera exposure and carriers in greater white-fronted geese breeding in Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study (2001a??03) on greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) breeding in Alaska, USA, to determine the exposure of this population to Pasteurella multocida and the potential role of these birds as disease carriers. We tested sera from nearly 600 adult geese for antibodies to P. multocida serotype 1. We found a low prevalence (birds sampled. Based on comparison with other waterfowl species, we concluded that these geese may be exposed to avian cholera during the winter or spring migration but are unlikely to play a significant role as carriers of the bacterium causing avian cholera.

  19. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.;

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution...... of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius...

  20. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution...... of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius...

  1. Report to the Pacific Flyway study committee on the 1985 and 1986 breeding pairs indices for geese and swans from aerial surveys of the coastal zone, Yukon Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 1672 miles of transects were flown this year, an increase of 264 miles over last year. All Canada geese, emperor geese, greater whitefronted geese, and...

  2. 1961 reproductive success in North American geese: Winter appraisals of productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the summer of 1961, reproductive success among North American geese was seldom better than "fair", and in some cases was decidedly poor. Nesting conditions...

  3. Fluoroscope Study of Lesser Snow Geese at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains the results of a fluoroscope study of Lesser Snow Geese wintering at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge in November of 1974.

  4. Progress report on restoration of Aleutian Canada geese in the Aleutian Islands, 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Additional information gathered on the flora and fauna of Agattu and Buldir islands is presented in the Appendices. Release techniques, care, and dispersal of geese...

  5. Dispersal and flock integrity of snow geese in Louisiana and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the winter 1972-73, 1,000 Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescensj were captured and color-marked at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern...

  6. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., without permit, kill or cause to be killed under its general supervision, resident Canada geese under the... at all reasonable times, including during actual operations, any Service special agent or refuge...

  7. Capturing, banding, and transplanting of Aleutian Canada geese, Buldir and Agattu Islands, Alaska, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to capture 100 Aleutian Canada geese and transplant to Agattu Island to continue efforts to re-establish a nesting population on...

  8. Progress report -- February 1983 : Migration and survival of MVP Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were (1) to document the variation in numbers, movements, harvest, and survival of MVP Canada geese and (2) to relate variation in these...

  9. Fall 1986 productivity estimates of emperor geese from aerial photographs on the Alaska peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production estimates for emperor geese (Anser canagicus) were obtained from aerial photographs taken from six locations on the north side of the Alaska Peninsula in...

  10. Aerial Survey of emperor geese and other waterbirds in southwestern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The fall aerial emperor goose survey was conducted in southwest Alaska for the 26' h consecutive year in 2004. Emphasis was on emperor geese, Pacific brant, Canada...

  11. Development of an aerial breeding pair survey for geese nesting in the Copper River Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service initiated a new aerial survey of breeding dusky Canada geese (Branta canadensis occidentalis) on the Copper River Delta in 1986...

  12. Observations of emperor geese in the Aleutian Islands, October 1988-April 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers observations of emperor geese in the Aleutian Islands from October 1988 - April 1989. Peak numbers for each study area, age ratios, habitat use,...

  13. Fall productivity estimates of emperor geese from aerial photographs from 1985-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs have been used to age emperor geese since 1985. The procedures were standardized in 1987. The method estimates the proportion of young in the fall...

  14. Nesting survey for Aleutian Canada geese at Nizki-Alaid, Alaska in 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nesting success was high in 1990, and moderate numbers of subadult birds, which may nest in future years, were present. Furthermore, a translocation of 38 geese...

  15. Southern James Bay Population : Canada Geese : Population Trend Information 1973-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the concern about the status of the Southern James Bay Population of Canada Geese at Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Since both Tennessee and...

  16. Aleutian Canada geese banding at Chagulak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project captured and banded twenty Aleutian Canada geese on Chagulak Island to help determine their wintering grounds and capture two additional birds for...

  17. Observations of Aleutian Canada geese on Little Kiska I. in 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys were conducted in June and August at Little Kiska Island to look for Aleutian Canada geese (Branta Canadensis leucopareia) returning from previous...

  18. The status of snow geese in the Sagavanirktok River Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study of snow geese in the Sagavanirktok River Delta in 1982 was an extension of a program that began in 1980 and continued in 1981. Because the nesting colony...

  19. Seasonal variation in nutritional characteristics of the diet of greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Raveling, Dennis G.

    2011-01-01

    We studied diet and habitat use of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) from autumn through spring on their primary staging and wintering areas in the Pacific Flyway, 1979-1982. There have been few previous studies of resource use and forage quality of wintering greater white-fronted geese in North America, and as a consequence there has been little empirical support for management practices pertaining to habitat conservation of this broadly distributed species. Observations of >2,500 flocks of geese and collections of foraging birds revealed seasonal and geographic variation in resource use reflective of changes in habitat availability, selection, and fluctuating physiological demands. Autumn migrants from Alaska arrived first in the Klamath Basin of California and southern Oregon, where they fed on barley, oats, wheat, and potatoes. Geese migrated from the Klamath Basin into the Central Valley of California in late autumn where they exploited agricultural crops rich in soluble carbohydrates, with geese in the Sacramento Valley feeding almost exclusively on rice and birds on the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta primarily utilizing corn. White-fronted geese began their northward migration in late winter, and by early spring most had returned to the Klamath Basin where 37% of flocks were found in fields of new growth cultivated and wild grasses. Cereal grains and potatoes ingested by geese were low in protein (7-14%) and high in soluble nutrients (17-47% neutral detergent fiber [NDF]), whereas grasses were low in available energy (47-49% NDF) but high in protein (26-42%). Greater white-fronted geese are generalist herbivores and can exploit a variety of carbohydrate-rich cultivated crops, likely making these geese less susceptible to winter food shortages than prior to the agriculturalization of the North American landscape. However, agricultural landscapes can be extremely dynamic and may be less predictable in the long-term than the historic environments to

  20. Meat Characteristics, Fatty Liver Weight and Blood Biochemical Parameters in Force-Feeding Geese

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A study on growth performance, meat characteristics, fatty liver weight and serum biochemical parameters (ASAT, ALAT, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine) in Landes geese before and after force-feeding was carried out. The overfeeding of geese with corn was taken after 90-days of age. Frequency of daily force feeding was gradually increased from 2 to 5 until the 15th day of force feeding. During force-feeding period, the body weight inc...

  1. Changes in nutrient dynamics of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese during spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl and other migratory birds commonly store nutrients at traditional staging areas during spring for later use during migration and reproduction. We investigated nutrient-storage dynamics in the midcontinent population of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons; hereafter white-fronted geese) at spring staging sites in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska during February-April and in southern Saskatchewan during April-May, 1998 and 1999. In Nebraska, lipid content of white-fronted geese did not increase, and protein content changed little over time for most age and sex categories. In Saskatchewan, lipids increased 11.4 g/day (SE = 1.7) and protein content increased 1.6 g/day (SE = 0.6) in the sample of adult geese collected over a 3-week period. A study conducted during 1979-1980 in the Rainwater Basin reported that white-fronted geese gained 8.8-17.7 g of lipids per day during spring, differing greatly from our results 2 decades later. In addition, lipid levels were less in the 1990s compared to spring 1980 for adult geese nearing departure from staging sites in Saskatchewan. This shift in where geese acquired nutrient stores from Nebraska to more northern staging sites coincided with a decrease in availability of waste corn in Nebraska, their primary food source while staging at that stopover site, and an increase in cultivation of high-energy pulse crops in Saskatchewan. White-fronted geese exhibited flexibility in nutrient dynamics during spring migration, likely in response to landscape-level variation in food availability caused by changes in agricultural trends and practices. Maintaining a wide distribution of wetlands in the Great Plains may allow springstaging waterfowl to disperse across the region and facilitate access to high-energy foods over a larger cropland base.

  2. Foreign direct investment and the flying geese model: Japanese electronics firms in Asia-Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    David W Edgington; Roger Hayter

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a critical examination of the 'flying geese' and 'billiard ball' models of foreign direct investment (FDI) and their ability to explain the spatial expansion of Japanese electronics multinationals (MNCs) in Asia-Pacific countries from 1985 to 1996. Data on Japanese FDI are analyzed in this region at the aggregate, sectoral, and firm level. The paper commences with a review of the flying geese model, especially that version which interprets Japanese FDI as a catalyst for Asian de...

  3. Supplementary artificial light to increase egg production of geese under natural lighting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Meng; Chen, Lih-Ren; Lee, Shuen-Rong; Jea, Yu-Shine; Kao, Jung-Yie

    2009-07-01

    A new supplementary lighting program was designed to increase the egg production of geese under natural light conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the supplementary lighting program on egg production of White Roman geese in an open housing system at the Tropic of Cancer. Forty mature White Roman geese were randomly allocated into two groups (male:female=1:4). The supplementary lighting program with a total daily photoperiod of between 12.0 h and 13.5 h was initiated on 1 November and withdrawn from the experimental group on 30 January. In contrast, the geese in the control group were kept under natural lighting conditions throughout this study. The results showed that the laying peak of the experimental group occurred earlier than normal in the reproductive season and the geese continued laying throughout the breeding season. The geese in the experimental group had 47.6 eggs/goose which was significantly (PTropic of Cancer.

  4. Gene Expression Profiling in the Pituitary Gland of Laying Period and Ceased Period Huoyan Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Luan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction; the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1 and Stathmin-2 (STMN2 were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.

  5. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L Y; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Xu, L; Zhang, J; Xing, H

    2017-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density on the growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese. In total, 336 healthy, 28-day-old, male Yangzhou goslings were randomly allotted to 30 plastic wire-floor pens according to 5 stocking densities (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 birds/m2). The results showed that with the stocking density increased from 2 birds/m2 to 6 birds/m2, the body weights of geese at 42 d (P density was increased to 6 birds/m2. Serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.013) and triiodothyronine (P density increased. The serum thyroxine concentration of geese from the 6 birds/m2 group was lower than that of geese from the other groups (P density will adversely influence thyroid function and the developments of the body weight, body size, feathers, and small intestine. Under our experimental conditions, we recommend that the stocking density of geese should be kept to 5 or fewer birds/m2 to avoid the negative effects of high stocking density on geese. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Factors Affecting the Incidence of Angel Wing in White Roman Geese: Stocking Density and Genetic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Lin, T Y; Cheng, Y S; Lee, Y P; Fan, Y K

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated stocking density and genetic lines, factors that may alter the severity and incidence of angel wing (AW), in White Roman geese. Geese (n = 384) from two genetically selected lines (normal- winged line, NL, and angel-winged line, AL, respectively) and one commercial line (CL) were raised in four pens. Following common commercial practice, low-stocking-density (LD), medium-stocking-density, and high-stocking-density treatments were respectively administered to 24, 32, and 40 geese per pen at 0 to 3 weeks (1.92 m(2)/pen) and 4 to 6 weeks (13.2 m(2)/pen) of age and to 24, 30, and 36 geese at 7 to 14 weeks (20.0 m(2)/pen) of age. The results revealed that stocking density mainly affected body weight gain in geese younger than 4 weeks, and that geese subjected to LD had a high body weight at 2 weeks of age. However, the effect of stocking density on the severity score of AW (SSAW) and incidence of AW (IAW) did not differ significantly among the treatments. Differences were observed among the genetic stocks; that is, SSAW and IAW were significantly higher in AL than in NL and CL. Genetic selection generally aggravates AW, complicating its elimination. To effectively reduce IAW, stocking density, a suspected causal factor, should be lower than that presently applied commercially.

  7. Effect of photoperiod on serum hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle in geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Z; Gao, G L; Wang, H W; Li, Q; Zhang, K S; Zhong, H; Wang, Q G

    2017-03-22

    The poor egg-laying rate of geese hinders the development of the goose industry; therefore, the reproductive performance of geese is an important area of investigation. To evaluate the relationship between photoperiod, reproductive hormones, and reproductive activity during the egg-laying cycle in geese under natural conditions, we collected blood samples from Sichuan white geese and Xupu geese to quantify changes in prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). We also calculated the rate of egg laying for the two populations during the egg-laying cycle. We show that the egg-laying rate and the serum concentration of some hormones (PRL, E2, VIP, FSH, GnIH, and LH) differed significantly between the two populations during the pre-laying, laying, and ceased-laying periods. Serum LH concentrations may be associated with maturation of the ovary and oviducts, whereas FSH, PRL, and GnIH play important roles in egg laying. These results provide a useful resource for future studies examining the laying rate in geese.

  8. Antibodies to avian influenza viruses in Canada geese (Branta canadensis): a potential surveillance tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Whitney M; Stallknecht, David E; Deliberto, Thomas J; Swafford, Seth; Pedersen, Kerri; Van Why, Kyle; Wolf, Paul C; Hill, Jerry A; Bruning, Darren L; Cumbee, James C; Mickley, Randall M; Betsill, Carl W; Randall, Adam R; Berghaus, Roy D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Traditionally, the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds has been defined by detection of virus or viral RNA through virus isolation or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our goals were to estimate AIV antibody prevalence in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and measure effects of age and location on these estimates. We collected 3,205 samples from nine states during June and July 2008 and 2009: Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Washington, and West Virginia. Serum samples were tested for AIV antibodies with the use of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 483 (15%) Canada geese had detectable antibodies to AIV. Significantly higher prevalences were detected in geese collected from northeastern and upper midwestern states compared with southeastern states. This trend is consistent with results from virus isolation studies reporting AIV prevalence in North American dabbling ducks. Within Pennsylvania, significantly higher antibody prevalences were detected in goose flocks sampled in urban locations compared to flocks sampled in rural areas. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in after-hatch-year geese compared to hatch-year geese. No significant differences in prevalence were detected from 10 locations sampled during both years. Results indicate that Canada geese are frequently exposed to AIVs and, with resident populations, may potentially be useful as sentinels to confirm regional AIV transmission within wild bird populations.

  9. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  10. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  11. Movements and Habitat Use by Temperate-Nesting Canada Geese During the Postbreeding Period in Southern Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Beaumont

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual behavior that reduces vulnerability to predation can affect population dynamics of animals. Temperate-nesting Canada Geese (Branta canadensis maxima have increased steadily throughout the Atlantic flyway and have become a nuisance in some parts of their range. The objective of our study was to describe movements and habitat use during the postbreeding period of Canada Geese recently established in southern Québec. More specifically, we wanted to determine whether geese were using areas where hunting was allowed to assess the potential of harvest to control the number of geese. We tracked a sample of geese fitted with radio or conventional alphanumeric collars throughout the fall in three zones characterized by different habitats and hunting pressure. Before the hunting season, geese left the breeding area where hunting was allowed to reach suburban areas where firearm discharge was prohibited or hunters' numbers were low. These postbreeding movements occurred when juveniles were approximately three months old. We observed few local movements among zones once migrant geese from northern breeding populations reached the study area. Radio-collared geese used mainly natural habitats (75.4 ± 2.6%, followed by urban (14.4 ± 2.7%, and agricultural habitats (10.3 ± 0.8%. They were located 73.8 ± 6.2% of the time in areas where hunting was prohibited. Geese that attended their juveniles during brood rearing were more prone to use areas where firearm discharge was restricted than geese that had abandoned or lost their brood. This study shows that under the prevailing regulations, the potential of hunting to manage the increasing breeding population of Canada Geese in southern Québec is limited.

  12. Exploitation of a new staging area in the Dutch Wadden Sea by Greylag Geese Anser anser : the importance of food-plant dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L; van der Wal, R; Esselink, Peter; Siepel, A

    1999-01-01

    The colonisation by Greylag Geese Anser anser of a new autumn migration staging area was studied on the island of Schiermonnikoog, The Netherlands. Over 500 Greylag Geese first visited the island in 1991. During subsequent years, peak numbers rose to 700-900 birds. The geese most likely originated f

  13. Development of an aerial breeding pair survey for geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1985 to 1986, indicated pair estimates were up .5 percent for cackling Canada geese (5,365 ± 45% to 5,393 ± 22%), down 29.7 percent for emperor geese (4,561 ±...

  14. Different time and energy budgets of Lesser Snow Geese in rice-prairies and coastal marshes in southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Many bird species use human-made habitats and an important issue is whether these are equally suitable foraging habitats as are historical, natural habitats. Historically, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens, hereafter Snow Geese) wintered in coastal marshes in Louisiana but began using rice-prairies within the last 60 years. Time spent feeding was used as an indicator of habitat suitability and time and energy budgets of Snow Geese were compared between rice-prairies and coastal marshes in southwest Louisiana. Composite diets of Snow Geese have a lower energy density in the rice-prairies than in coastal marshes; thus, we predicted that Snow Geese would spend relatively more time feeding in rice-praires to obtain existence energy. However, time spent feeding was higher in coastal marshes and thus, not proportional to energy density of composite diets. Snow Geese in coastal marshes ingested less apparent metabolizable energy than did Snow Geese in rice-prairies. In rice-prairies, juveniles spent more time feeding than did adults; however, time spent feeding was similar between age classes in coastal marshes. Undeveloped foraging skills probably cause juvenile Snow Geese to forage less efficiently in coastal marshes than in rice-prairies. These findings are consistent with recent trends in Snow Goose numbers, which increased in rice-prairies but remained stable in coastal marshes.

  15. Travel schedules to the high arctic : barnacle geese trade-off the timing of migration with accumulation of fat deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prop, J; Black, JM; Shimmings, P

    2003-01-01

    On their way from the wintering area to the breeding grounds in Spitsbergen, barnacle geese Branta leucopsis stage on islands off the coast of Norway. The aim of this study was to describe when the geese migrate in relation to the body stores deposited and explore questions related to the concept of

  16. Skipping the Baltic : the emergence of a dichotomy of alternative spring migration strategies in Russian barnacle geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhorn, Goetz; Drent, Rudolf H.; Stahl, Julia; Leito, Aivar; Alerstam, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing proportion of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, bound for breeding sites in the Russian Arctic delay their departure from the wintering quarters in the Wadden Sea by 4 weeks. These late-migrating geese skip spring stopover sites in the Baltic traditionally used b

  17. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  18. Genetic differentiation between sympatric and allopatric wintering populations of Snow Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, E.M.; Peters, J.L.; Jonsson, J.E.; Stone, R.; Afton, A.D.; Omland, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge on the Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland, USA has been the wintering area of a small population of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; LSGO) since the 1930s. Snow Geese primarily pair in wintering areas and gene flow could be restricted between this and other LSGO wintering populations. Winter pair formation also could facilitate interbreeding with sympatric but morphologically differentiated Greater Snow Geese (C. c. atlantica; GSGO).We sequenced 658 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region for 68 Snow Geese from East Coast and Louisiana wintering populations to examine the level of genetic differentiation among populations and subspecies. We found no evidence for genetic differentiation between LSGO populations but, consistent with morphological differences, LSGO and GSGO were significantly differentiated. We also found a lack of genetic differentiation between different LSGO morphotypes from Louisiana. We examined available banding data and found the breeding range of Delmarva LSGO overlaps extensively with LSGO that winter in Louisiana, and documented movements between wintering populations. Our results suggest the Delmarva population of LSGO is not a unique population unit apart from Mid-Continent Snow Geese. ?? 2009 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  19. Characterization of the Campylobacter jejuni population in the barnacle geese reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena, A-K; Skarp-de Haan, C P A; Rossi, M; Hänninen, M-L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and have been isolated from a wide number of different hosts and environmental sources. Waterfowl is considered a natural reservoir for this zoonotic bacterium and may act as a potential infection source for human campylobacteriosis. In this study, faecal samples from 924 barnacle geese were tested for the presence of C. jejuni and C. coli. The resulting C. jejuni and C. coli populations were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), structure analysis by BAPS and phylogenetic analysis based on full genome sequences. The prevalences of C. jejuni in barnacle geese faeces were 11.5% and 23.1% in 2011 and 2012, respectively, and only 0.2% of the samples were positive for C. coli in both years. Furthermore, a possible adaption of the clonal complexes (CCs) ST-702 and ST-1034 to the barnacle geese reservoir was found, as these two CCs represented the majority of the typed isolates and were repeatedly isolated from different flocks at several time-points. Further core genome phylogenetic analysis using ClonalFrame revealed a formation of a distinct monophyletic lineage by these two CCs, suggesting a certain degree of clonality of the C. jejuni population adapted to barnacle geese. Therefore, although STs also commonly found in humans patients (e.g. ST-45) were among the barnacle geese C. jejuni isolates, this reservoir is probably an infrequent source for human campylobacteriosis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Antibodies against Pasteurella multocida in snow geese in the western arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Baranyuk, V.; Sileo, L.; Price, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    To determine if lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) are a potential reservoir for the Pasteurella multocida bacterium that causes avian cholera, serum samples and/or pharyngeal swabs were collected from > 3,400 adult geese breeding on Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) during 1993-1996. Pharyngeal swab sampling rarely (> 0.1%) detected birds that were exposed to P. multocida in these populations. Geese with serum antibody levels indicating recent infection with P. multocida were found at both breeding colonies. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 3.5% at Wrangel Island, an area that has no recorded history of avian cholera epizootics. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 2.8% at Banks Island in 1994, but increased to 8.2% during 1995 and 1996 when an estimated 40,000-60,000 snow geese were infected. Approximately 50% of the infected birds died during the epizootic and a portion of the surviving birds may have become carriers of the disease. This pattern of prevalence indicated that enzootic levels of infection with P. multocida occurred at both breeding colonies. When no avian cholera epizootics occurred (Wrangel Island, Banks Island in 1994), female snow geese (4.7%) had higher antibody prevalence than males (2.0%).

  1. Identification of a Differentially-expressed Gene in Fatty Liver of Overfeeding Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In response to overfeeding, geese develop fatty liver. To understand the fattening mechanism,mRNA differential display reverse transcription PCR was used to study the gene expression differences between French Landes grey geese and Xupu white geese in conditions of overfeeding and normal feeding.One gene was found to be up-regulated in the fatty liver in both breeds, and it has a 1797 bp cDNA with 83%identity to chicken SELENBP1. The sequence analysis revealed that its open reading frame of 1413 bp encodes a protein of 471 amino acids, which contains a putative conserved domain of 56 kDa selenium binding protein with high homology to its homologues of chicken (95%), rat (86%), mouse (84%), human(86%), monkey (86%), dog (86%), and cattle (86%). The function of this protein has been briefly reviewed based on published information. In tissue expression analysis, the expression of geese SELENBP1 mRNA was found to be higher in liver or kidney than in other tested tissues. The results showed that overfeeding could increase the mRNA expression level of geese SELENBP1.

  2. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  3. Key actions towards the sustainable management of European geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, David A; Madsen, Jesper; Fox, Anthony D

    2017-03-01

    Increasing abundance of geese in North America and Europe constitutes a major conservation success, but has caused increasing conflicts with economic, health and safety interests, as well as ecosystem impacts. Potential conflict resolution through a single, 'one size fits all' policy is hindered by differences in species' ecology, behaviour, abundance and population status, and in contrasting political and socio-economic environments across the flyways. Effective goose management requires coordinated application of a suite of tools from the local level to strategic flyway management actions. The European Goose Management Platform, established under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds, aims to harmonise and prioritise management, monitoring and conservation efforts, sharing best practice internationally by facilitating agreed policies, coordinating flyway efforts, and sharing and exchanging experiences and information. This depends crucially upon adequate government financing, the collection of necessary monitoring data (e.g., on distribution, abundance, hunting bags, demography, ecosystem and agricultural damage), the collation and effective use of such data and information, as well as the evaluation of outcomes of existing management measures.

  4. Mortality patterns in endangered Hawaiian geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species.

  5. Juvenile greylag geese (Anser anser discriminate between individual siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella B R Scheiber

    Full Text Available Social species that maintain individualised relationships with certain others despite continuous changes in age, reproductive status and dominance rank between group members ought to be capable of individual recognition. Tests of "true" individual recognition, where an individual recognises unique features of another, are rare, however. Often kinship and/or familiarity suffice to explain dyadic interactions. The complex relationships within a greylag goose flock suggest that they should be able to recognise individuals irrespective of familiarity or kinship. We tested whether six-week-old hand-raised greylags can discriminate between two of their siblings. We developed a new experimental protocol, in which geese were trained to associate social siblings with geometrical symbols. Subsequently, focals were presented with two geometrical symbols in the presence of a sibling associated with one of the symbols. Significant choice of the geometrical symbol associated with the target present indicated that focals were able to distinguish between individual targets. Greylag goslings successfully learned this association-discrimination task, regardless of genetic relatedness or sex of the sibling targets. Social relationships within a goose flock thus may indeed be based on recognition of unique features of individual conspecifics.

  6. Foraging behaviour of pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) during spring migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzińska, Magda Ewa

    and their energetic consequences are therefore of great importance to these birds. In this thesis, I have aimed to address some aspects of the foraging decisions and behaviour of pink-footed geese during their spring migration to the Arctic breeding area. I combined field techniques with telemetry technology as well...... as modelling tools to address questions about how geese forage and fuel during their spring migration. The first three presented manuscripts focus on changes in goose foraging behaviour and energetics over the course of the day, a stopover season and the entire migration. They also focus on variety of factors...... having an influence on foraging behaviour, energetics, and habitat selection of pink-footed geese. The last manuscript utilises the results obtained in the first three manuscripts, results from a resource depletion model and knowledge from existing literature in an individual-based model to address...

  7. Ineffectiveness of acid-fast inclusions in diagnosis of lead poisoning in Canada geese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Young, L.T.

    1967-10-01

    Kidney tissues have been examined from Canada geese that succumbed to lead poisoning in two separate outbreaks. The frequency of occurrence of acid-fast intranuclear inclusions in these birds was quite low. In cases in which coccidiosis and lead poisoning both were involved, acid-fast inclusions were found in the kidneys of only one of three geese although all had significant levels of lead in the liver. Results from various cases indicated that Canada geese receiving a large exposure to lead may succumb without the formation of intranuclear acid-fast inclusions in the kidneys. It was concluded that a period of exposure of several days was required before the bird could respond by producing these inclusions. Definite diagnosis is based on a chemical analysis of the tissues. 1 table.

  8. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Bishop, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  9. Prioritizing refuge sites for migratory geese to alleviate conflicts with agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Anker; Wisz, Mary S.; Madsen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    to their connectivity, perimeter area ratio, years of historic use and proximity to roost. By combining historic data on foraging sites, a species distribution model, and a simple, accountable site selection process we demonstrate how the current compensation scheme can be made 10 times more efficient through strategic......Expanding populations of geese feeding on farmland during winter and spring conflict with agricultural interests along their migratory flyway in north-western Europe. In Mid-Norway, farmers scare spring-staging pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus off their land to protect crops, and this has had...

  10. An isotopic assessment of protein from diet and endogenous stores: Effects on egg production and incubation behaviour of geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Hobson, K.A.; Morse, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Little empirical information exists to assess to what degree geese use a capital versus income breeding strategy for investing nutrients into eggs. We used stable isotope methods to directly estimate the sources of protein deposited into egg yolks of Brent Branta bernicla and Emperor Geese Anser canagicus on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, USA. Approximately 59 and 45% of protein in egg yolks of Brent and Emperor Geese, respectively, was derived from exogenous sources (i.e. food plants on the local breeding area). Within clutches of Brent Goose eggs, first-laid eggs exhibited slightly higher contributions from endogenous reserves than last-laid eggs. This pattern was less clear for Emperor Geese, which may have been a consequence of possibly analyzing eggs that were laid by intraspecific nest parasites rather than by hosts. For both these species, individuals exhibited large variability in the percent contribution of exogenous versus endogenous stores to eggs, and future studies should identify ecological factors related to this variation. Those Emperor Geese in poor body condition incubated their nests less constantly, and based on δ13C values, they fed on terrestrial foods while off their nests. Although not a pure capital breeder, Emperor Geese used nutrients garnered on spring staging areas to fuel virtually all their own maintenance during incubation and to contribute half or more of the nutrients in eggs. These results highlight the ecological importance of these spring staging habitats to geese.

  11. Effects of predation risk on site selection of barnacle geese during brood-rearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, J; Loonen, MJJE; Mehlum, F; Black, JM; Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Barnacle geese Branta leucopsis breed on small islands in the Kongsfjorden area, Spitsbergen. Shortly after hatching, families approach feeding sites at the mainland coast in the close surroundings of the village Ny-Alesund. The goslings are subject to predation by arctic foxes Alopex lagopus throug

  12. Arctic geese : Herbivore-vegetation interaction, predators and human pressures - a symposium synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RH; Mehlum, F; Mehlum, F; Black, JM; Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    A symposium on the Svalbard geese was hosted by the Norwegian Polar Institute in Oslo, Norway, 23-26 September 1997, to collaborate new information on the three goose populations that breed in Svalbard: the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis, the light-bellied brent goose Branta bernicla hrota and the

  13. Proventricular impaction associated with nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis and ganglioneuritis in two Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, P Y; Julian, R J; Yason, C V; Artsob, H

    1991-07-01

    Two wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in an extremely emaciated state and with severe proventricular food impaction also had a nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis and ganglioneuritis. The condition in these two birds was morphologically similar to psittacine proventricular dilatation, a recently identified disease of psittacine birds.

  14. Fall Flock Composition, Behavior And Relative Hunting Vulnerability Of Canada Geese Affiliated With Crawford County, Pennsylvania

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The summer banding of Canada geese in northern Quebec did not go as well as expected. My intent this year was to leg- and neckband a large sample of adult and...

  15. Divergence in timing of parental care and migration in barnacle geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, R.M.; Kuiper, M.W.; Snijders, L.; Wieren, van S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    In migratory geese, the extended association of parents and offspring is thought to play a crucial role in culturally transmitting the migration strategy to the next generation. Goslings migrate with their parents and associate closely with them almost until the next breeding season. Families do not

  16. Arctic geese : Herbivore-vegetation interaction, predators and human pressures - a symposium synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RH; Mehlum, F; Mehlum, F; Black, JM; Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    A symposium on the Svalbard geese was hosted by the Norwegian Polar Institute in Oslo, Norway, 23-26 September 1997, to collaborate new information on the three goose populations that breed in Svalbard: the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis, the light-bellied brent goose Branta bernicla hrota and the

  17. Renal coccidiosis in interior Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior Todd, of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, Benjamin N.; Crites, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Kidneys from 309 Interior Canada geese from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway were examined for renal coccidia. Oocysts and/or young zygotes of Eimeria sp. were found in 6.8% of goose kidneys sampled. Only one type of renal coccidian oocyst was observed. Significantly more immature geese were infected than adults; however, there was no significant difference observed between the prevalences of infection in male and female birds. A host cellular response to zygotes and oocysts was noted in the majority of infected adult geese. Heavily infected kidneys were hypertrophic with minute foci on the surface of the organ. Histological examinations showed large numbers of unsporulated oocysts accumulated in distended collecting tubules, resulting in pressure necrosis to adjacent tissue and urate retention. Zygotes were observed in the cytoplasm of tubule cells and extracellularly in interstitial tissue. Infected tubule cells were characterized by the peripheral location of the nuclei, cytoplasmic basophilia, and cellular hypertrophy. This is the first report of an Eimeria sp. in the kidneys of Canada geese of the Mississippi Valley population.

  18. The benefit of large broods in barnacle geese : a study using natural and experimental manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, MJJE; Bruinzeel, LW; Black, JM; Drent, RH

    1999-01-01

    1. In precocial birds, where the young feed themselves, the costs and benefits of brood size are still poorly understood. An experimental manipulation of brood size was employed to examine the effects of brood size on both parents and young in a wild population of barnacle geese [Branta leucopsis (B

  19. Measuring neck collar loss of Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Frederiksen, Morten; Madsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The ability to estimate mark loss of ringed animals is important to assess demographic parameters from mark-recapture studies correctly. Based on 23 years of neck collar recovery data from the Svalbard breeding population of Pink-footed Geese, we estimate an overall average annual loss rate of 3...

  20. Real-time monitoring of Salmonella enterica in free-range geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Pedersen, Karl;

    2011-01-01

    Free-range geese were sampled longitudinally and Salmonella isolates characterized to reveal highly diverging colonization dynamics. One flock was intermittently colonized with one strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from 2 weeks of age, while in another, S. enterica serovar Mbandak...

  1. The benefit of large broods in barnacle geese : a study using natural and experimental manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, MJJE; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Black, JM; Drent, RH

    1. In precocial birds, where the young feed themselves, the costs and benefits of brood size are still poorly understood. An experimental manipulation of brood size was employed to examine the effects of brood size on both parents and young in a wild population of barnacle geese [Branta leucopsis

  2. Spring-staging ecology of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.; Reinecke, K.J.; Jorde, D.G.; Simpson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    A major part of the midcontinent greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stages for several weeks in spring in the Rainwater Basin Area (RBA) of south-central Nebraska where substantial mortality from disease occurs periodically. Effective management of this population requires better data on use of habitat, vulnerability to disease, and the role of staging areas in migration and reproduction, We studied use of habitat, foods, nutrient dynamics, and effect of changes in agriculture on food availability and habitat needs in spring 1979-80. During daylight, geese were observed primarily in harvested cornfields (76%) and growing winter wheat (23%). Corn grain and winter wheat shoots composed 90 and 9%, respectively, of foods consumed by collected geese (n = 42). Feeding activity did not vary among post-harvest cornfield treatments except that little feeding occurred (P lt 0.05) in moldboard-plowed fields ( lt 1%). Fat content for all geese increased (P ltoreq 0.01) with Julian date; protein content increased (P = 0.03) only among adult females, and there was no evidence (P gt 0.05) of temporal variation in calcium content. Adult geese storing 14.2 g of fat per day deposited approximately 582 g of fat between 22 February and 3 April. Energy requirements for thermal regulation were small compared with requirements for fat synthesis and probably had little effect on nutrient deposition. The 34,000 white-fronted geese present on the Harvard Marsh and Prairie Dog Marsh study areas in March 1980 probably used lt 20% of the corn available within a 5-km radius. We believe that midcontinent white-fronted geese arrive on Arctic breeding grounds with larger and less variable fat reserves than prior to modern agricultural development. We attribute this response to increased food availability on staging areas where the net effect of agricultural changes has been an increase in corn availability. Waterfowl managers can increase dispersion of geese and provide

  3. Distribution, abundance, and productivity of fall staging lesser snow geese on coastal habitats of northeast Alaska and northwest Canada, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the distribution, abundance, and productivity of fall staging lesser snow geese on coastal habitats of northeast Alaska and northwest Canada. The...

  4. Population size and production of geese and eiders nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska in 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual assessment of nesting populations of geese on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta(YKD) provides information for biologists, participants in cooperative goose...

  5. Nesting success of geese in the coastal tundra region of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, 1985 final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Progress was made in 1985 towards development of sampling methods to provide an unbiased estimate of annual production by geese nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta,...

  6. Development of an aerial breeding pair survey for geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1987 the breeding pair index and estimate of total cackling Canada geese increased over 1986 and 1985. Although cackler populations appear to be increasing, their...

  7. Nesting ecology and habitat requirements of geese at Kokechik Bay, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper summarizes the results of the third of a five-year study on the breeding biology and habitat requirements of geese nesting at Kokechik Bay, Alaska. Data...

  8. Nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge: 1988 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. Aerial surveys to document spring phenology and...

  9. Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Hou, Yuansheng; Tang, Mingjie; Zhang, Haiting; Zuohua, Yuanchun; Yin, Zuohua; Li, Tianxian; Guo, Shan; Xing, Zhi; He, Yubang; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders.

  10. Changes in agriculture and abundance of snow geese affect carrying capacity of sandhill cranes in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A.T.; Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Kinzel, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The central Platte River valley (CPRV) in Nebraska, USA, is a key spring-staging area for approximately 80 of the midcontinent population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes). Evidence that staging cranes acquired less lipid reserves during the 1990s compared to the late 1970s and increases in use of the CPRV by snow geese (Chen caerulescens) prompted us to investigate availability of waste corn and quantify spatial and temporal patterns of crane and waterfowl use of the region. We developed a predictive model to assess impacts of changes in availability of corn and snow goose abundance under past, present, and potential future conditions. Over a hypothetical 60-day staging period, predicted energy demand of cranes and waterfowl increased 87 between the late 1970s and 19982007, primarily because peak abundances of snow geese increased by 650,000 and cranes by 110,000. Compared to spring 1979, corn available when cranes arrived was 20 less in 1998 and 68 less in 1999; consequently, the area of cornfields required to meet crane needs increased from 14,464 ha in 1979 to 32,751 ha in 1998 and 90,559 ha in 1999. Using a pooled estimate of 88 kg/ha from springs 19981999 and 20052007, the area of cornfields needed to supply food requirements of cranes and waterfowl increased to 65,587 ha and was greatest in the eastern region of the CPRV, where an estimated 54 of cranes, 47 of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 45 of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and 46 of snow geese occurred during ground surveys. We estimated that a future reduction of 25 in available corn or cornfields would increase daily foraging flight distances of cranes by 2738. Crane use and ability of cranes to store lipid reserves in the CPRV could be reduced substantially if flight distance required to locate adequate corn exceeded a physiological maximum distance cranes could fly in search of food. Options to increase carrying capacity for cranes include increasing

  11. Effects of implanted radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas on the behavior of Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, J.W.; Ruhl, G.A.; Pearce, J.M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Tomeo, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether surgically-implanted radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas affected behavior of Lesser Canada Geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) in Anchorage, Alaska. We implanted either a 26-g VHF radio transmitter or a larger VHF radio that was the same mass (35 g) and shape as a satellite transmitter in the coelom of adult females captured during molt in 2000. A control group of females was marked with leg bands. We simultaneously observed behavior of radio-marked and control females from 4-62 d following capture. We observed no differences in the proportion of time birds in different treatments allocated among grazing, resting, comfort, walking, and alert behavior. Females in different treatments spent a similar proportion of time in the water. Implantation of radio transmitters did not affect the frequency of agonistic interactions. We conclude that coelomic radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas had minimal effects on the behavior of Canada Geese.

  12. Avoiding competition? Site use, diet and foraging behaviours in two similarly sized geese wintering in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Meijuan; Cao, Lei; Klaassen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Competition may occur when two species with similar feeding ecologies exploit the same limited resources in time and space. In recent years, the Eastern Tundra Bean Goose Anser fabalis serrirostris and Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons frontalis have increased in wintering numbers...... at Shengjin Lake, China. To examine the potential for coexistence and possible avoidance strategies, we studied (1) their habitat use, (2) foraging behaviours and (3) diets of birds foraging in mixed- and single-species flocks. Both species extensively exploited sedge meadows, where they showed considerable...... overlap in spatial distribution and diet. The percentage feeding time and diet of both species were unaffected by the presence of the other. Greater White-fronted Geese appeared diurnal sedge meadow specialists, almost never feeding in other habitats. Eastern Tundra Bean Geese were less selective...

  13. Why geese benefit from the transition from natural vegetation to agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony D.; Abraham, Kenneth F.

    2017-01-01

    The energy and nutrient content of most agricultural crops are as good as or superior to natural foods for wild geese and they tend to be available in agricultural landscapes in far greater abundance. Artificial grasslands (fertilised native swards and intensively managed reseeds) offer far super...... success and that European and North American farmland currently provides unrestricted winter carrying capacity for goose populations formerly limited by wetlands habitats prior to the agrarian revolution of the last century....

  14. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of Pink-Footed Geese: 2014 progress summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest-management strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) near their agreed target level (60 thousand) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark.  Specifically, this report provides an assessment of the most recent monitoring information and its implications for the harvest management strategy.

  15. Long-term memory of hierarchical relationships in free-living greylag geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Brigitte M; Scheiber, Isabella B R

    2013-01-01

    Animals may memorise spatial and social information for many months and even years. Here, we investigated long-term memory of hierarchically ordered relationships, where the position of a reward depended on the relationship of a stimulus relative to other stimuli in the hierarchy. Seventeen greylag geese (Anser anser) had been trained on discriminations between successive pairs of five or seven implicitly ordered colours, where the higher ranking colour in each pair was rewarded. Geese were re-tested on the task 2, 6 and 12 months after learning the dyadic colour relationships. They chose the correct colour above chance at all three points in time, whereby performance was better in colour pairs at the beginning or end of the colour series. Nonetheless, they also performed above chance on internal colour pairs, which is indicative of long-term memory for quantitative differences in associative strength and/or for relational information. There were no indications for a decline in performance over time, indicating that geese may remember dyadic relationships for at least 6 months and probably well over 1 year. Furthermore, performance in the memory task was unrelated to the individuals' sex and their performance while initially learning the dyadic colour relationships. We discuss possible functions of this long-term memory in the social domain.

  16. Nesting biology of Lesser Canada Geese, Branta canadensis parvipes, along the Tanana River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, C.R.; Pearce, J.M.; Ruess, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Lesser Canada Geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) are widespread throughout interior regions of Alaska and Canada, yet there have been no published studies documenting basic aspects of their nesting biology. We conducted a study to determine reproductive parameters of Lesser Canada Geese nesting along the Tanana River near the city of Fairbanks, in interior Alaska. Fieldwork was conducted in May of 2003, and consisted of locating nests along the riparian corridor between Fairbanks and Northpole, Alaska. Nests were found on gravel islands and shore habitats along the Tanana River, and were most commonly observed among driftwood logs associated with patches of alder (Alnus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.). Peak of nest initiation was 3-8 May, with a range from 27 April to 20 May; renesting was likely. Clutches ranged in size from 2 to 7 eggs and averaged 4.6 eggs. There was a negative correlation between clutch size and date of nest initiation. Egg size (mean mass = 128 g) was similar to other medium-sized Canada Geese. A positive correlation between egg size and clutch size was likely related to female age. Nineteen of 28 nests (68%) were active when visited; nests located on islands with nesting Mew Gulls (Larus canus) were more likely to be active than nests located elsewhere. Evidence at nest sites implicated Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as nest predators.

  17. Avian Influenza Surveillance in the Danube Delta Using Sentinel Geese and Ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftei, Daniel Narcis; Chereches, Razvan M.; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Valentine, Marissa A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus incursions from migrating birds have occurred multiple times in Romania since 2005. Beginning in September 2008 through April 2013, seasonal sentinel surveillance for avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) using domestic geese (Anser cygnoides) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Danube Delta was established by placing 15 geese and 5 ducks at seven sites. Tracheal and cloacal swabs, and sera collections (starting in 2009) were taken monthly. We studied a total of 580 domestic birds and collected 5,520 cloacal and tracheal swabs from each and 2,760 sera samples. All swabs were studied with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for evidence of AIV. Serological samples were studied with hemagglutination inhibition assays against avian H5, H7, and H9 influenza viruses. From 2009 to 2013, 47 swab specimens from Cot Candura, Enisala, and Saon screened positive for AIV; further subtyping demonstrated that 14 ducks and 20 geese had cloacal evidence of H5N3 carriage. Correspondingly, 4 to 12 weeks after these molecular detections, sentinel bird sera revealed elevated HI titers against H5 virus antigens. We posit that domestic bird surveillance is an effective method to conduct AIV surveillance among migrating birds in delta areas. PMID:24795823

  18. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  19. Lack of detection of host associated differences in Newcastle disease viruses of genotype VIId isolated from chickens and geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuyang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goose is usually considered to be resistant even to strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV that are markedly virulent for chickens. However, ND outbreaks have been frequently reported in goose flocks in China since the late 1990s with the concurrent emergence of genotype VIId NDV in chickens. Although the NDVs isolated from both chickens and geese in the past 15 years have been predominantly VIId viruses, published data comparing goose- and chicken-originated ND viruses are scarce and controversial. Results In this paper, we compared genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens genetically and pathologically. Ten entire genomic sequences and 329 complete coding sequences of individual genes from genotype VIId NDVs of both goose- and chicken-origin were analyzed. We then randomly selected two goose-originated and two chicken-originated VIId NDVs and compared their pathobiology in both geese and chickens in vivo and in vitro with genotype IV virus Herts/33 as a reference. The results showed that all the VIId NDVs either from geese or from chickens shared high sequence homology and characteristic amino acid substitutions and clustered together in phylogenetic trees. In addition, geese and chickens infected by goose or chicken VIId viruses manifested very similar pathological features distinct from those of birds infected with Herts/33. Conclusions There is no genetic or phenotypic difference between genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens. Therefore, no species-preference exists for either goose or chicken viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VIId NDVs between geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  20. Evaluation of histopathological changes, viral load and immune function of domestic geese infected with Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ailing; Diao, Youxiang; Chen, Hao; Wang, Jiao; Ge, Pingping; Sun, Xiaoyan; Hao, Dongmin

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of Newcastle disease in flocks of geese with high morbidity and mortality in southern and eastern China have been reported frequently since the late 1990s, which broke the traditional view that geese are considered to be the natural reservoir of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) but show few or no clinical signs after infection. In this present study, geese were infected intranasally with a local strain of NDV. Clinical disease and gross pathology were observed. Serum and immune organs were collected from geese sequentially euthanized or after disease-associated death. We studied the histopathology of immune organs by haematoxylin and eosin staining and NDV fusion protein was detected in tissues by immunohistochemistry. At the same time, the SYBR Green I real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the viral load from the collected samples. Serum samples were tested for NDV-specific antibodies and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibodies by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The results showed that severe lesions and numerous positive reactions of NDV antigen were detected in the immune organs. High viral loads developed in immune organs of infected geese, correlating with the severity of clinical signs and lesions in the tissues. Furthermore, the infected geese developed low HI antibody titres to both AIV and NDV. The present study showed that the replication and dissemination of the NDV isolate was widespread in immune organs of geese. The study revealed that waterfowl may not only be a natural reservoir of NDV but also become susceptible to disease and may play a major role in the epidemiology of Newcastle disease.

  1. Assessing body condition and energy budget components by scoring abdominal profiles in free-ranging pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, J.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    An abdominal profile index (API) was developed for pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus as a measure of body condition. On basis of carcass analysis of 56 adult geese with known API prior to collection, we found significant linear relationships between API against body mass, abdominal fat and tota

  2. Cassava foliage affects the microbial diversity of Chinese indigenous geese caecum using 16S rRNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Pan, Xiangyu; Xu, Tieshan; Zhang, Zhenwen; Zi, Xuejuan; Jiang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Geese are extremely adept in utilizing plant-derived roughage within their diet. However, the intestinal microbiome of geese remains limited, especially the dietary effect on microbial diversity. Cassava foliage was widely used in animal feed, but little information is available for geese. In this study, the geese were fed with control diet (CK), experimental diet supplemented with 5% cassava foliage (CF5) or 10% (CF10) for 42 days, respectively. The cecal samples were collected after animals were killed. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the microbial diversity in the caecum of geese with different dietary supplements. Taxonomic analysis indicated that the predominant phyla were distinct with different dietary treatments. The phyla Firmicutes (51.4%), Bacteroidetes (29.55%) and Proteobacteria (7.90%) were dominant in the CK group, but Bacteroidetes (65.19% and 67.29%,) Firmicutes (18.01% and 17.39%), Proteobacteria (8.72% and 10.18%), Synergistete (2.51% and 1.76%) and Spirochaetes (2.60% and 1.46%) were dominant in CF5 and CF10 groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was negatively correlated with the supplementation of cassava foliage. However, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were positively correlated with the supplementation of cassava foliage. Our study also revealed that the microbial communities were significantly different at genus levels. Genes related to nutrient and energy metabolism, immunity and signal transduction pathways were primarily enriched by the microbiome. PMID:28383519

  3. Cassava foliage affects the microbial diversity of Chinese indigenous geese caecum using 16S rRNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Pan, Xiangyu; Xu, Tieshan; Zhang, Zhenwen; Zi, Xuejuan; Jiang, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Geese are extremely adept in utilizing plant-derived roughage within their diet. However, the intestinal microbiome of geese remains limited, especially the dietary effect on microbial diversity. Cassava foliage was widely used in animal feed, but little information is available for geese. In this study, the geese were fed with control diet (CK), experimental diet supplemented with 5% cassava foliage (CF5) or 10% (CF10) for 42 days, respectively. The cecal samples were collected after animals were killed. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the microbial diversity in the caecum of geese with different dietary supplements. Taxonomic analysis indicated that the predominant phyla were distinct with different dietary treatments. The phyla Firmicutes (51.4%), Bacteroidetes (29.55%) and Proteobacteria (7.90%) were dominant in the CK group, but Bacteroidetes (65.19% and 67.29%,) Firmicutes (18.01% and 17.39%), Proteobacteria (8.72% and 10.18%), Synergistete (2.51% and 1.76%) and Spirochaetes (2.60% and 1.46%) were dominant in CF5 and CF10 groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was negatively correlated with the supplementation of cassava foliage. However, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were positively correlated with the supplementation of cassava foliage. Our study also revealed that the microbial communities were significantly different at genus levels. Genes related to nutrient and energy metabolism, immunity and signal transduction pathways were primarily enriched by the microbiome.

  4. Preliminary studies on the reaction of growing geese (Anser anser f. domestica) to the proximity of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, J; Borowski, S; Marć-Pieńkowska, J; Odrowaz-Sypniewska, G; Bernacki, Z; Siódmiak, J; Szterk, P

    2013-01-01

    Wind farms produce electricity without causing air pollution and environmental degradation. Unfortunately, wind turbines are a source of infrasound, which may cause a number of physiological effects, such as an increase in cortisol and catecholamine secretion. The impact of infrasound noise, emitted by wind turbines, on the health of geese and other farm animals has not previously been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of noise, generated by wind turbines, on the stress parameters (cortisol) and the weight gain of geese kept in surrounding areas. The study consisted of 40 individuals of 5-week-old domestic geese Anser anser f domestica, divided into 2 equal groups. The first experimental gaggle (I) remained within 50 m from turbine and the second one (II) within 500 m. During the 12 weeks of the study, noise measurements were also taken. Weight gain and the concentration of cortisol in blood were assessed and significant differences in both cases were found. Geese from gaggle I gained less weight and had a higher concentration of cortisol in blood, compared to individuals from gaggle II. Lower activity and some disturbing changes in behavior of animals from group I were noted. Results of the study suggest a negative effect of the immediate vicinity of a wind turbine on the stress parameters of geese and their productivity.

  5. Relationships between storage and secretion of hepatic lipids in two breeds of geese with different susceptibility to liver steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, E; Peresson, R; Guy, G; Hermier, D

    1997-04-01

    Susceptibility to liver steatosis was studied in Landes and Poland geese, which are hyper- and hyporesponsive, respectively, to overfeeding. Plasma lipoproteins were characterized at different stages of the overfeeding process, whereas fatty liver composition was determined after completion of overfeeding and slaughtering. Before overfeeding, plasma lipoprotein profile was typical of birds in both breeds, except that very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were low in triglyceride (approximately 30%). Moreover, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration was higher in the Poland geese (6.44 vs 4.97 g/L). During overfeeding, hepatic lipogenesis was increased, and fatty liver resulted from accumulation of primarily triglyceride (approximately 95% of lipid content), but also of all other lipids. This accumulation was significantly greater in the Landes geese for all lipids but phospholipid. Thus, the liver weight was 100% higher in this breed (1,005 g vs 485 g), whereas lipid release during sterilization was twofold higher (26.3 vs 7.5%). Parallel, plasma concentration and triglyceride content of hepatic lipoproteins, VLDL and HDL, increased about one- to twofold, this effect being greater in the Poland geese. Therefore, channeling of triglyceride towards secretion rather than in situ storage may be responsible for the hyporesponsiveness of this breed to overfeeding. In both breeds, and especially in the Landes geese, a relative deficiency in phospholipid synthesis together with an enhanced secretion may be limiting factors of hepatocyte hypertrophia and, therefore, of steatosis.

  6. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  7. Natural induction of spontaneous liver steatosis in Greylag Landaise geese (Anser anser).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, G; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Bénard, G; Fernandez, X

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment aimed at demonstrating that the Greylag geese (Anser anser), commonly used for the production of foie gras, are able to develop spontaneous hyperphagia and subsequent liver steatosis under specific handling conditions and without overfeeding. One hundred and eighty male geese were used in this experiment. After a period of feed restriction, at the age of 19 wk, corn was provided ad libitum. From wk 21 to 23, the daylight duration was progressively reduced from 10 to 7 h and kept as such until the end of the experiment (wk 31). Thirty birds were slaughtered at wk 19, 23, 25, 27, 29, and 31. During the first 2 wk after corn delivery, the average consumption rose up to 600 g/bird/d and decreased slowly thereafter to reach 270 g at wk 31. The liver weight increased from 95 (wk 19) to 514 g (wk 31), and most of these changes were due to the increase in liver lipid content from 6 to 50% of liver weight. There was no mortality during the experimental period. Histological observations indicate that the accumulation of fat in the livers occurred through a large increase in the size of the hepatocytes without modification of the cell boundaries and without any sign of inflammation or degeneration. Our data clearly show that under specific management conditions of feeding and photoperiod, the geese are able to initiate spontaneous liver steatosis. These results demonstrate their natural ability to store fat in the liver without any visible sign of tissue alteration. However, the variability in the response remains very high (at wk 31, the CV in liver weight was 45%). Further research is needed to better understand the origin of this variability.

  8. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Heinz, Gary H.; Sileo, Louis; Audet, Daniel J.; Campbell, Juile K.; Obrecht, Holly H.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has recently been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The effects of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho on posthatching development of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were examined for 6 wk. Day-old goslings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (48%) supplemented control diet, or CDARB sediment (3449 mug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12%, 24%, or 48%. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 0.68 ppm (ww), with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over fourfold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 1.61 ppm with decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma protein in addition to the effects just described. The 48% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.52 ppm with 22% mortality, decreased growth, and elevated plasma lactate dehydrogenase-L (LDH-L) activity. In this group the liver lead concentration was 6.57 ppm (ww), with twofold increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) and in reduced glutathione concentration; associated effects included elevated glutathione reductase activity but lower protein-bound thiols concentration and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 14.93 ppm with subacute renal tubular nephrosis in one of the surviving goslings. Three other geese in this treatment group exhibited calcified areas of marrow, and one of these displayed severe chronic fibrosing pancreatitis. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated less readily in gosling blood and tissues than reported in ducklings but at given concentrations was generally more toxic to goslings. Many of these effects were similar to those reported in wild geese and mallards within the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  9. Variations in band reporting rate and implications for kill rate in Greater Snow Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Souchay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal variation in reporting probability of banded Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica shot by hunters in eastern North America and evaluated potential residual biases in kill rate estimation. Adult Greater Snow Geese were marked with reward (value: US$10, $20, $30, $50, and $100 and standard bands ($0, control in the Canadian Arctic from 2003 to 2005. We used a spatially explicit multinomial model based on 200 direct recoveries from 4256 banded geese to estimate reporting rate and harvest rate. We found that reporting rate for standard bands varied over time whereas harvest rate was higher in Canada than in the U.S. The reporting probability increased from 0.40 ± 0.11 in the first year of the study to 0.82 ± 0.14 and 0.84 ± 0.13 the second and third years, respectively. Overall, these reporting rates are higher than two previous estimates for this population, which leads to lower estimates of kill rate. However, the large annual differences in reporting rates found in this study lead to uncertainty in the estimation of kill rate. We suggest that the increase in reporting rate in the last two year of the study may be due to the dissemination of information among hunters regarding the presence of reward bands on birds, resulting in increased reporting rate for all bands. This raises issues about the need to adequately inform the public in such large-scale studies to avoid undesirable temporal trends over the course of the study.

  10. Microbial infections are associated with embryo mortality in Arctic-nesting geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Cristina M.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Hare, Rebekah F.; Hueffer, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    To address the role of bacterial infection in hatching failure of wild geese, we monitored embryo development in a breeding population of Greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. During 2013, we observed mortality of normally developing embryos and collected 36 addled eggs for analysis. We also collected 17 infertile eggs for comparison. Using standard culture methods and gene sequencing to identify bacteria within collected eggs, we identified a potentially novel species of Neisseria in 33 eggs, Macrococcus caseolyticus in 6 eggs, and Streptococcus uberis and Rothia nasimurium in 4 eggs each. We detected seven other bacterial species at lower frequencies. Sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the Neisseria isolates most closely matched sequences from N. animaloris and N. canis (96 to 97% identity), but phylogenetic analysis suggested substantial genetic differentiation between egg isolates and known Neisseria species. Although definitive sources of the bacteria remain unknown, we detected Neisseria DNA from swabs of eggshells, nest contents, and cloacae of nesting females. To assess the pathogenicity of bacteria identified in contents of addled eggs, we inoculated isolates of Neisseria, Macrococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia at various concentrations into developing chicken eggs. Seven-day mortality rates varied from 70 to 100%, depending on the bacterial species and inoculation dose. Our results suggest that bacterial infections are a source of embryo mortality in wild geese in the Arctic.    

  11. Effects of male removal on female reproductive biology in Ross' and Lesser Snow Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschack, C.R.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    We studied effects of mate removal on nesting and hatching success, incubation behavior, body mass, and post-hatch dispersal distance of female Ross' (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens) at Karrak Lake. N.W.T., Canada. Male ge and widowed and paired control females were monitored through post-hatch dispersal. Nesting and hatching success did not differ between species or treatments (widowed vs paired) and averaged 77.5 ?? 3.8% and 64.0 ?? 3.6% (??SE), respectively. Paired females spent more time with their bills tucked (23.7 ?? 3.3% vs 9.1 ?? 4.0%) and less time alert (8.6 ?? 2.9% vs 22.9 ?? 3.5%) while on nests than did widowed females. Snow widowed females (31.1 ?? 4.7%) and Ross' widowed females (20.6 ?? 6.0%) generally spent more time each day in head-up alert than did Snow paired females (7.1 ?? 3.8%). Snow paired maleS (11.8 ?? 3.8%), Ross' paired females (9.4 ?? 3.6%), and Ross' paired males (7.9 ?? 3.6%). Body mass of paired and widowed female Ross' Geese did not differ at hatch or at time of post-hatch recapture; however, mean distance recaptured from the breeding colony was greater for paired (50.9 ?? 6.1 km) than for widowed females (27.3 ?? 6.6 km). Total mass gain (276 ?? 19 g) and rate of mass gain (8.4 ?? 0.5 g/day), from hatch until post-hatch recapture (33.1 ?? 1.2 days), were similar for widowed and paired female Ross' Geese. Male removal experiments in monogamous, precocial species generally have produced few effects on female nesting success or incubation behavior. We suggest that male parental care in arctic-nesting geese is more critical during laying and the post-hatch period than during incubation.

  12. Age as a factor in acquisition of parasites by Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, E.E.; Herman, C.M.

    1954-01-01

    Examination of 46 Canada goose goslings yielded 14 species of parasites, including five Protozoa, four Nematoda, two Cestoda, and three Trematoda. Evidence indicates that goslings acquired most of these infections during their first week of life. Some parasites, Prosthogonimus sp., occurred only in younger birds. Others, Leucocytozoon simondi, were evident only during the initial course of infection, while still others remained evident in older geese. Parasites with a direct life cycle appeared to be more prevalent than those requiring intermediate hosts. Among 29 birds from a refuge in Michigan, 14 species of parasites were found; while in 17 goslings from a Utah refuge, only five species occurred.

  13. Histology of the iris in geese and ducks photosensitized by ingestion of Ammi majus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barishak, Y R; Beemer, A M; Egyed, M N; Shlosberg, A; Eilat, A

    1975-09-01

    Geese and ducks were photosensitized by the ingestion of Ammi majus seeds, and exposure to sunlight. Mydriasis was a characteristic clinical feature of this syndrome in both species. Histologically the iris of the affected birds showed vacuolisation and varying degrees of atrophy of the muscle of the sphincter pupillae. The effect of pilocarpine and physostigmine on the normal and mydriatic eyes was studied. The possible mode of action of photosensitization and the significance of these findings in the light of the use of psoralens in human medicine is discussed.

  14. Spring migratory pathways and migration chronology of Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) wintering at the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Molly M.; Jodice, Patrick G.; Baldwin, Robert F.; Stanton, John D.; Epstein, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the migratory pathways, migration chronology, and breeding ground affiliation of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) that winter in and adjacent to the Santee National Wildlife Refuge in Summerton, South Carolina, United States. Satellite transmitters were fitted to eight Canada Geese at Santee National Wildlife Refuge during the winter of 2009–2010. Canada Geese departed Santee National Wildlife Refuge between 5 and 7 March 2010. Six Canada Geese followed a route that included stopovers in northeastern North Carolina and western New York, with three of those birds completing spring migration to breeding grounds associated with the Atlantic Population (AP). The mean distance between stopover sites along this route was 417 km, the mean total migration distance was 2838 km, and the Canada Geese arrived on AP breeding grounds on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay between 20 and 24 May 2010. Two Canada Geese followed a different route from that described above, with stopovers in northeastern Ohio, prior to arriving on the breeding grounds on 9 June 2010. Mean distance between stopover sites was 402 and 365 km for these two birds, and total migration distance was 4020 and 3650 km. These data represent the first efforts to track migratory Canada Geese from the southernmost extent of their current wintering range in the Atlantic Flyway. We did not track any Canada Geese to breeding grounds associated with the Southern James Bay Population. Caution should be used in the interpretation of this finding, however, because of the small sample size. We demonstrated that migratory Canada Geese wintering in South Carolina use at least two migratory pathways and that an affiliation with the Atlantic Population breeding ground exists.

  15. Climate change and Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris: shifts in distribution and advancement in spring departure times at Wexford versus elsewhere in the winter range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Merne, Oscar J; Walsh, Alyn J.;

    2012-01-01

    site (Islay further north in south west Scotland), and declines in the population as a whole. There was no evidence to suggest a northwards shift in wintering geese as might be predicted under global climate change. Although Greenland White-fronted Geese now depart from Wexford in spring on average 22...... in migration timing. The more rapid advancement of spring migration at Wexford compared to elsewhere in the range and the retention of wintering geese there in contrast to declining trends amongst the population as a whole suggest that local management of the food resource at Wexford may be responsible...

  16. Non-breeding Cackling, Ross's and Snow Geese on Baffin Island show no loss of body mass during wing moult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Leafloor, James O.; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg;

    2016-01-01

    Non-breeding Cackling Branta hutchinsii, Ross's Anser rossii and Lesser Snow Geese Anser caerulescens caerulescens captured during remigial moult on Baffin Island in 2015 showed no loss of body mass with moult stage, and individual variation in mass was largely explained by sex and measures of body...

  17. Dark-bellied brent geese Branta b. bernicla breeding near snowy owl Nyctea scandiaca nests lay more and larger eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, H.H. van; Willems, F.; Volkov, A.E.; Smeets, J.H.R.; Nowak, D.; Nowak, A.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that snowy owls Nyctea scandiaca defend an area around their nests against predators, hereby inadvertently creating safe havens for breeding dark-bellied brent geese Branta b. bernicla. However, studies investigating brent goose breeding ecology within the predator-

  18. Dark-bellied brent geese Branta b. bernicla breeding near snowy owl Nyctea scandiaca nests lay more and larger eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, H.H. van; Willems, F.; Volkov, A.E.; Smeets, J.H.R.; Nowak, D.; Nowak, A.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that snowy owls Nyctea scandiaca defend an area around their nests against predators, hereby inadvertently creating safe havens for breeding dark-bellied brent geese Branta b. bernicla. However, studies investigating brent goose breeding ecology within the predator-

  19. The relative importance of food biomass and quality for patch and habitat choice in Brent Geese Branta bernicla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, D; Drent, RH; Rubinigg, M; Stahl, J

    2005-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of food biomass and food quality for habitat preference in Brent Geese Branta bernicla by expefimentally manipulating forage parameters. Levels of biomass and ford quality (nitrogen content) were independently enhanced in plots of 2 x 6 m by temporary exclusion

  20. Insights into antimicrobial resistance among long distance migratory East Canadian High Arctic light-bellied Brent geese (Branta bernicla hrota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Austin; Wang, Juan; Fanning, Séamus; Bearhop, Stuart; McMahon, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the most significant threat to global public health and ascertaining the role wild birds play in the epidemiology of resistance is critically important. This study investigated the prevalence of AMR Gram-negative bacteria among long-distance migratory East Canadian High Arctic (ECHA) light-bellied Brent geese found wintering on the east coast of Ireland. In this study a number of bacterial species were isolated from cloacal swabs taken from ECHA light-bellied Brent geese. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified five species of Gram-negative bacteria; the dominant isolated species were Pantoea spp. (n = 5) followed by Buttiauxella agrestis (n = 2). Antimicrobial susceptibility disk diffusion results identified four of the Pantoea spp. strains, and one of the Buttiauxella agrestis strains resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. To our knowledge this is the first record of AMR bacteria isolated from long distance migratory ECHA light-bellied Brent geese. This indicates that this species may act as reservoirs and potential disseminators of resistance genes into remote natural ecosystems across their migratory range. This population of geese frequently forage (and defecate) on public amenity areas during the winter months presenting a potential human health risk.

  1. Differences in Fatty Acid Profiles, ADEK Vitamins and Sterols of the Yolk between Native Chickens and Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Kalaycı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the yolk lipid composition of geese and chickens which are free to select their diets from the environments. The proportion of oleic acid (18:1n-9 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3 was far greater in both of species of yolk lipids. In particular, the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid in the total lipid of the yolk was greater for the chicken compared to the geese. By contrast, the proportion of arachidonic acid in total yolk lipid was approximately two times greater for the goose than the chicken. Thus the chicken was more efficient at incorporating long-chain (C22 fatty acid of the n-3 series into yolk lipid whereas the geese incorporated C20 fatty acid of the n-6 series. The ADEK vitamins of the goose egg in mg/g yolk were very similar to that of the chicken egg. The cholesterol content of the geese egg in mg/g yolk was far greater to that of the chicken egg.

  2. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth, carcass and overfeeding traits in a white geese strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Gérard

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an experimental strain of white plumage geese created in 1989, two experiments were carried out from 1993 to 1995 in order to estimate genetic parameters for growth, and carcass composition traits in non-overfed animals, and genetic parameters for growth and fatty liver formation in overfed animals. Four hundred and thirty-one non-overfed animals were bred and slaughtered at 11 weeks of age; they were measured for forearm length, keel bone length, chest circumference and breast depth before and after slaughtering. The carcasses were partly dissected in order weigh breast, breast muscle and skin + fat, and abdominal fat. Four hundred and seventy-seven overfed animals were slaughtered at 20 weeks of age; they were measured for "paletot" (breast meat, bone and meat from wings, bone and meat from thigh and legs weight and liver weight. In these two experiments, the weights had moderate to high heritability values. Breast depth measured on live animals showed a low heritability value. In overfed animals, liver weight showed a high heritability value. Liver weight could be increased by selection without a great effect on "paletot" weight. Thus, obtaining a white plumage geese strain for fatty liver production by selection would be difficult because only 20% of overfed animals had fatty liver. The results did not allow to conclude on the influence of selection on liver weight on carcass traits such as muscle or fatty tissue weight.

  3. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth, carcass and overfeeding traits in a white geese strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzul, Catherine; Rouvier, Roger; Rousselot-Pailley, Daniel; Guy, Gérard

    2000-01-01

    In an experimental strain of white plumage geese created in 1989, two experiments were carried out from 1993 to 1995 in order to estimate genetic parameters for growth, and carcass composition traits in non-overfed animals, and genetic parameters for growth and fatty liver formation in overfed animals. Four hundred and thirty-one non-overfed animals were bred and slaughtered at 11 weeks of age; they were measured for forearm length, keel bone length, chest circumference and breast depth before and after slaughtering. The carcasses were partly dissected in order weigh breast, breast muscle and skin + fat, and abdominal fat. Four hundred and seventy-seven overfed animals were slaughtered at 20 weeks of age; they were measured for "paletot" (breast meat, bone and meat from wings, bone and meat from thigh and legs) weight and liver weight. In these two experiments, the weights had moderate to high heritability values. Breast depth measured on live animals showed a low heritability value. In overfed animals, liver weight showed a high heritability value. Liver weight could be increased by selection without a great effect on "paletot" weight. Thus, obtaining a white plumage geese strain for fatty liver production by selection would be difficult because only 20% of overfed animals had fatty liver. The results did not allow to conclude on the influence of selection on liver weight on carcass traits such as muscle or fatty tissue weight. PMID:14736387

  4. Prevalence, transmission, and genetic diversity of blood parasites infecting tundra-nesting geese in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John A.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Tom F.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Terenzi, John; Ely, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 842 blood samples collected from five species of tundra-nesting geese in Alaska was screened for haemosporidian parasites using molecular techniques. Parasites of the generaLeucocytozoon Danilewsky, 1890, Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890, and Plasmodium Marchiafava and Celli, 1885 were detected in 169 (20%), 3 (parasites and assess variation relative to species, age, sex, geographic area, year, and decade. Species, age, and decade were identified as important in explaining differences in prevalence of Leucocytozoonparasites. Leucocytozoon parasites were detected in goslings sampled along the Arctic Coastal Plain using both historic and contemporary samples, which provided support for transmission in the North American Arctic. In contrast, lack of detection of Haemoproteus and Plasmodiumparasites in goslings (n = 238) provided evidence to suggest that the transmission of parasites of these genera may not occur among waterfowl using tundra habitats in Alaska, or alternatively, may only occur at low levels. Five haemosporidian genetic lineages shared among different species of geese sampled from two geographic areas were indicative of interspecies parasite transmission and supported broad parasite or vector distributions. However, identicalLeucocytozoon and Haemoproteus lineages on public databases were limited to waterfowl hosts suggesting constraints in the range of parasite hosts.

  5. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth, carcass and overfeeding traits in a white geese strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzul, C; Rouvier, R; Rousselot-Pailley, D; Guy, G

    2000-01-01

    In an experimental strain of white plumage geese created in 1989, two experiments were carried out from 1993 to 1995 in order to estimate genetic parameters for growth, and carcass composition traits in non-overfed animals, and genetic parameters for growth and fatty liver formation in overfed animals. Four hundred and thirty-one non-overfed animals were bred and slaughtered at 11 weeks of age; they were measured for forearm length, keel bone length, chest circumference and breast depth before and after slaughtering. The carcasses were partly dissected in order weigh breast, breast muscle and skin + fat, and abdominal fat. Four hundred and seventy-seven overfed animals were slaughtered at 20 weeks of age; they were measured for "paletot" (breast meat, bone and meat from wings, bone and meat from thigh and legs) weight and liver weight. In these two experiments, the weights had moderate to high heritability values. Breast depth measured on live animals showed a low heritability value. In overfed animals, liver weight showed a high heritability value. Liver weight could be increased by selection without a great effect on "paletot" weight. Thus, obtaining a white plumage geese strain for fatty liver production by selection would be difficult because only 20% of overfed animals had fatty liver. The results did not allow to conclude on the influence of selection on liver weight on carcass traits such as muscle or fatty tissue weight.

  6. Behavioral correlates of heart rates of free-living Greater White-fronted Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, C.R.; Ward, D.H.; Bollinger, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    We simultaneously monitored the heart rate and behavior of nine free-living Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons) on their wintering grounds in northern California. Heart rates of wild geese were monitored via abdominally-implanted radio transmitters with electrodes that received electrical impulses of the heart and emitted a radio signal with each ventricular contraction. Post-operative birds appeared to behave normally, readily rejoining flocks and flying up to 15 km daily from night-time roost sites to feed in surrounding agricultural fields. Heart rates varied significantly among individuals and among behaviors, and ranged from less than 100 beats per minute (BPM) during resting, to over 400 BPM during flight. Heart rates varied from 80 to 140 BPM during non-strenuous activities such as walking, feeding, and maintenance activities, to about 180 BPM when birds became alert, and over 400 BPM when birds were startled, even if they did not take flight. Postflight heart rate recovery time averaged measures of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, are often better indicators of the degree of response to external stimuli than visual observations and can be used to improve estimates of energy expenditure based solely on activity data.

  7. Forage site selection by lesser snow geese during autumn staging on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1998-01-01

    Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) of the Western Canadian Arctic Population feed intensively for 2-4 weeks on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska at the beginning of their autumn migration. Petroleum leasing proposed for the Alaskan portion of the staging area on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) could affect staging habitats and their use by geese. Therefore we studied availability, distribution, and use by snow geese of tall and russett cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium and E. russeolum, respectively) feeding habitats on the ANWR. We studied selection of feeding habitats at 3 spatial scales (feeding sites [0.06 m2], feeding patches [ca. 100 m2], and feeding areas [>1 ha]) during 1990-93. We used logistic regression analysis to discriminate differences in soil moisture and vegetation between 1,548 feeding sites where snow geese exploited individual cotton-grass plants and 1,143 unexploited sites at 61 feeding patches in 1990. Feeding likelihood increased with greater soil moisture and decreased where nonforage species were present. We tested the logistic regression model in 1991 by releasing human-imprinted snow geese into 4 10 × 20-m enclosed plots where plant communities had been mapped, habitats sampled, and feeding probabilities calculated. Geese selected more feeding sites per square meter in areas of predicted high quality feeding habitat (feeding probability ≥ 0.6) than in medium (feeding probability = 0.3-0.59) or poor (feeding probability plants, feeding probability, and surface microrelief at 474 0.06- m2 sites in 20 thermokarst pits in 1992. Feeding probability was correlated with the percentage of underground biomass composed of cotton-grass (r = 0.56). Feeding probability and relative availability of cotton-grass forage were highest in flooded soils along the ecotone of flooded and upland habitats. In 1992, we also used the logistic regression model to estimate availability of high quality

  8. Habitat utilization by Canada and blue/snow geese on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge: Wildlife Management Study – No. 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A goose study on Clarence Cannon NWR was conducted during the fall of 1970 to determine what habitat types and conditions are initially attractive to Canada geese...

  9. Distribution and productivity of fall staging snow geese on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, and North Slope, Yukon Territory: Results of 1980 surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Population and distribution and productivity of snow geese from the Banks Island. Population that stage in fall on the arctic coastal plain between Barter Island,...

  10. Report to the Pacific Flyway Committee on 1985-2004 Coastal Zone Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Goose Survey of geese, swans and sandhill cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese, tundra swans and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) for the 20th consecutive year. The...

  11. Report to the Pacific Flyway Committee on 1985-2002 Coastal Zone Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Goose Survey of geese, swans and sandhill cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese, tundra swans and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) for the 18th consecutive year. The...

  12. Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock, poultry and humans : a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Elmberg, Johan; Berg, Charlotte; Lerner, Henrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Hessel, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occu...

  13. Effects of Bacillus subtilis var. natto and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermented liquid feed on growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal microflora, and organ antioxidant status in Landes geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Zhu, X Z; Wang, J P; Wang, Z X; Huang, Y Q

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis var. natto N21 (BAC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y10 (SAC) fermented liquid feed (FLF) during different incubation times on the growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal microflora, and organ antioxidative status in Landes geese. Two hundred forty male Landes geese (10 wk old) with the BW of 4.163 ± 0.108 kg were selected for a 3-wk trial and randomly allotted to 3 treatments according to their BW (10 replicates/treatment and 8 geese/replicate). The treatments included 1) CON, dry basal feed (corn-soybean basal diet mixed with water) before feeding (2:1 wt/wt), 2) FLF24, 24 h FLF, and 3) FLF48, 48 h FLF. The FLF diet was prepared by storing basal diet with 10(9) cfu/g feed of each BAC and SAC and water (2:1 wt/wt) in a closed tank at 20°C fermented for 24 or 48 h. The BW gain and feed intake of geese fed FLF24 and FLF48 was greater (P Feeding geese with FLF24 and FLF48 feeds increased (P feeding geese with BAC and SAC mix FLF can improve growth and feed intake, modulate the intestine ecology, and decrease the blood cholesterol concentrations; it also can improve the antioxidative status of organs and breast muscle.

  14. The roller coaster flight strategy of bar-headed geese conserves energy during Himalayan migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, C.M.; Spivey, R.J.; Hawkes, L. A.; Batbayar, N.; Chua, B.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Natsagdorj, T.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Wikelski, Martin; Butler, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biomechanical requirements of flight at high altitude have been the subject of much interest. Here, we uncover a steep relation between heart rate and wingbeat frequency (raised to the exponent 3.5) and estimated metabolic power and wingbeat frequency (exponent 7) of migratory bar-headed geese. Flight costs increase more rapidly than anticipated as air density declines, which overturns prevailing expectations that this species should maintain high-altitude flight when traversing the Himalayas. Instead, a "roller coaster" strategy, of tracking the underlying terrain and discarding large altitude gains only to recoup them later in the flight with occasional benefits from orographic lift, is shown to be energetically advantageous for flights over the Himalayas.

  15. The roller coaster flight strategy of bar-headed geese conserves energy during Himalayan migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, C M; Spivey, R J; Hawkes, L A; Batbayar, N; Chua, B; Frappell, P B; Milsom, W K; Natsagdorj, T; Newman, S H; Scott, G R; Takekawa, J Y; Wikelski, M; Butler, P J

    2015-01-16

    The physiological and biomechanical requirements of flight at high altitude have been the subject of much interest. Here, we uncover a steep relation between heart rate and wingbeat frequency (raised to the exponent 3.5) and estimated metabolic power and wingbeat frequency (exponent 7) of migratory bar-headed geese. Flight costs increase more rapidly than anticipated as air density declines, which overturns prevailing expectations that this species should maintain high-altitude flight when traversing the Himalayas. Instead, a "roller coaster" strategy, of tracking the underlying terrain and discarding large altitude gains only to recoup them later in the flight with occasional benefits from orographic lift, is shown to be energetically advantageous for flights over the Himalayas.

  16. Changing Arctic ecosystems: sea ice decline, permafrost thaw, and benefits for geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul; Whalen, Mary; Pearce, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strives to inform resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. A key area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past 30 years, leading to reductions in sea ice and thawing of permafrost. Loss of sea ice has increased ocean wave action, leading to erosion and salt water inundation of coastal habitats. Saltwater tolerant plants are now thriving in these areas and this appears to be a positive outcome for geese in the Arctic. This finding is contrary to the deleterious effects that declining sea ice is having on habitats of ice-dependent animals, such as polar bear and walrus.

  17. Species differences in hematological values of captive cranes, geese, raptors, and quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Hensler, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Hematological and serum chemical constituents of blood were determined for 12 species, including 7 endangered species, of cranes, geese, raptors, and quail in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Means, standard deviations, analysis of variance by species and sex, and a series of multiple comparisons of means were derived for each parameter investigated. Differences among some species means were observed in all blood parameters except gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Although sampled during the reproductively quiescent period, an influence of sex was noted in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, Ca, and P. Our data and values reported in literature indicate that most hematological parameters vary among species and, in some cases, according to methods used to determine them. Therefore, baseline data for captive and wild birds should be established by using standard methods, and should be made available to aid others for use in assessing physiological and pathological conditions of these species.

  18. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  19. mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Brantacanadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxinos, Ellen E; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Sorenson, Michael D; Jackson, Jennifer; Fleischer, Robert C

    2002-02-05

    Phylogenetic analysis of 1.35 kb of mtDNA sequence from fossils revealed a previously unknown radiation of Hawaiian geese, of which only one representative remains alive (the endangered Hawaiian goose or nene, Branta sandvicensis). This radiation is nested phylogenetically within a living species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and is related most closely to the large-bodied lineage within that species. The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) is also nested within the Canada goose species and is related most closely to the small-bodied lineage of Canada geese. The peripheral isolation of the barnacle goose in the Palearctic apparently allowed the evolution of its distinctive plumage pattern, whereas the two Nearctic lineages of Canada geese share a primitive plumage pattern. The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. One fossil species, limited to the island of Hawaii, was related closely to the nene but was over four times larger, flightless, heavy-bodied and had a much more robust cranium. Application of a rate calibration to levels of DNA divergence suggests that this species evolved on the island of Hawaii in less than 500,000 years. This date is consistent with the potassium/argon-based age of the island of Hawaii of 430,000-500,000 years. The giant Hawaii goose resembles the moa-nalos, a group of massive, extinct, flightless ducks that lived on older Hawaiian Islands and thus is an example of convergent evolution of similar morphologies in island ecosystems.

  20. The dynamics of avian influenza in western Arctic snow geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Brown, Justin D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Ip, Hon S.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.

    2015-01-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging, and despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3,000 sera samples from snow geese at 2 breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from > 4,000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between snow goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly-pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations.

  1. Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: Interspecific competition or ecological change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, P.L.; Mallek, E.J.; King, R.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska have changed in size and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis and/or B. hutchinsii) are stable with little indication of distributional shifts. The lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) population is proportionally small, but increasing rapidly. Coastline erosion of the Beaufort Sea has altered tundra habitats by allowing saltwater intrusion, which has resulted in shifts in composition of forage plant species. We propose two alternative hypotheses for the observed shift in black brant distribution. Ecological change may have altered optimal foraging habitats for molting birds, or alternatively, interspecific competition between black brant and greater white-fronted geese may be excluding black brant from preferred habitats. Regardless of the causative mechanism, the observed shifts in species distributions are an important consideration for future resource planning. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Effect of different fibre sources on performance, carcass characteristics and gastrointestinal tract development of growing Greylag geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-01-01

    1. The effects of different fibre sources on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and gastrointestinal tract development were studied in growing Greylag geese (Anser anser). 2. Four experimental diets were formulated with corn (maize) straw silage (CSS), steam-exploded corn (maize) straw, steam-exploded wheat straw, and steam-exploded rice straw as fibre sources. A total of 224 male Greylag geese at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to one of the 4 experimental diets. 3. The birds fed on the CSS diets had higher average daily feed intakes than those fed on the steam-exploded straws. However, the 4 treatments had similar average daily gain, which contributed to significant differences in feed conversion ratios. The different fibre sources had no significant effects on the carcass characteristics. 4. The CSS-fed birds had larger gizzards and lower relative length of the caeca than the other three groups. However, the relative weights and lengths of the other gut segments, the relative weights of major organs and the pH values of the gastrointestinal contents were similar between the 4 treatments. It was concluded that straw fibres with different physico-chemical properties exerted an effect on daily feed intake and gastrointestinal development, especially for the gizzard. The pretreatment of straw had a large effect on utilisation efficiency and animal performance. Steam explosion is a promising straw pretreatment for inclusion in diets for geese.

  3. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence and two new genotypes of the parasite in endangered Hawaiian Geese (nene: Branta sandvicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Verma, Shiv K.; Su, Chunlei; Medeiros, John; Kaiakapu, Thomas; Kwok, Oliver C.; Dubey, Jitender P.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite transmitted by domestic cats (Felis catus) that has historically caused mortality in native Hawaiian birds. To estimate how widespread exposure to the parasite is in nene (Hawaiian Geese, Branta sandvicensis), we did a serologic survey for T. gondii antibody and genetically characterized parasite DNA from the tissues of dead birds that had confirmed infections by immunohistochemistry. Of 94 geese sampled, prevalence on the island of Kauai, Maui, and Molokai was 21% (n=42), 23% (n=31), and 48% (n=21), respectively. Two new T. gondii genotypes were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism from four geese, and these appeared segregated geographically. Exposure to T. gondii in wild nene is widespread and, while the parasite is not a major cause of death, it could have sublethal or behavioral effects. How to translate such information to implement effective ways to manage feral cats in Hawaii poses challenges.

  5. Molecular characterization, tissue expression, and polymorphism analysis of liver-type fatty acid binding protein in Landes geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z; Shao, D; Sun, X X; Niu, J W; Gong, D Q

    2015-01-01

    Liver weight is an important economic trait in the fatty goose liver industry. Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is involved in the formation and metabolism of fatty acids. Thus, we hypothesized that sequence polymorphisms in L-FABP were associated with fatty liver weight in goose. We first isolated, sequenced, and characterized the goose L-FABP gene, which had not been previously reported. The goose L-FABP gene was 2490 bp and included 4 exons coding for a 126-amino acid protein. Analysis of expression levels of the goose L-FABP gene in different tissues showed that the expression level in the liver tissue was higher than in other tissues, and was significantly higher in the liver tissue of overfed geese than in control geese. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism located at 774 bp in the gene was identified in a Landes goose population. To test whether this single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with fatty liver production, liver weight and the ratio of liver to carcass weights were determined for the 3 genotypes with this single nucleotide polymorphism (TT, TG, GG) in overfed Landes geese. Our data indicate that individuals with the GG genotype had higher values for the variables measured than those with the other 2 genotypes, suggesting that L-FABP can be a selection marker for the trait of fatty liver production in goose.

  6. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Schmutz, Joel A

    2009-06-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  7. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States); Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Newhouse, Michael [NJ Meadowlands Commission, One DeKorte Park Plaza, Lyndhurst, NJ 07071 (United States); Jeitner, Christian [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine. Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Mizrahi, David [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  8. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez moins de 1% des adultes et aucun oison n'en portait. Cependant, les concentrations sanguines m??dianes de base (??chantillons de sang contenant moins de 0,18 ppm de plomb) ??taient plus ??lev??es chez les adultes que chez les oisons, ce qui signifie probablement que les adultes avaient ??t?? expos??s au plomb au cours de saisons pr??c??dentes. Les plombs perdus ??taient abondants dans les territoires de migration et les territoires d'hiver et la proportion d'??chantillons de sang contenant des concentrations a?Y 0,18 ppm ??tait

  9. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; McKernan, Moira A; Eisenreich, Karen M; Link, William A; Olsen, Glenn H; Hoffman, David J; Knowles, Kathy A; McGowan, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was lympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 microg/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 microg/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 microg/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney (<5 microg/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  10. Evaluation of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program: addressing resettlement issues in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkins, Leigh; Pritchard, Cecilia; Haskayne, Donna; Watson, Andy; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the impact of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program on a sample of offenders who attended it. This program used theatre performance, experiential exercises, skills practice role-plays, and metaphors such as the masks to invite a group of offenders to consider and explore issues connected with their release and reconnecting with a life outside prison. Pre- and postprogram psychometric tests, behavior ratings, and interviews were completed to assess the effectiveness of the program. Significant changes were observed from pre- to posttreatment in terms of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and improved confidence in skills (i.e., social and friendship, occupational, family and intimacy, dealing with authority, alternatives to aggression or offending, and self-management and self-control skills). Improved behavior and engagement within the program was observed over the 3 days of the program. Interviews also revealed the positive impact the program had on the participants. This provides evidence supporting the short-term effectiveness of the Re-Connect program.

  11. Heart rate during conflicts predicts post-conflict stress-related behavior in greylag geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A F Wascher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social stressors are known to be among the most potent stressors in group-living animals. This is not only manifested in individual physiology (heart rate, glucocorticoids, but also in how individuals behave directly after a conflict. Certain 'stress-related behaviors' such as autopreening, body shaking, scratching and vigilance have been suggested to indicate an individual's emotional state. Such behaviors may also alleviate stress, but the behavioral context and physiological basis of those behaviors is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded beat-to-beat heart rates (HR of 22 greylag geese in response to agonistic encounters using fully implanted sensor-transmitter packages. Additionally, for 143 major events we analyzed the behavior shown by our focal animals in the first two minutes after an interaction. Our results show that the HR during encounters and characteristics of the interaction predicted the frequency and duration of behaviors shown after a conflict. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first study to quantify the physiological and behavioral responses to single agonistic encounters and to link this to post conflict behavior. Our results demonstrate that 'stress-related behaviors' are flexibly modulated by the characteristics of the preceding aggressive interaction and reflect the individual's emotional strain, which is linked to autonomic arousal. We found no support for the stress-alleviating hypothesis, but we propose that stress-related behaviors may play a role in communication with other group members, particularly with pair-partners.

  12. Protective efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile virus vaccine in domestic geese (Anser anser)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Lieberman, M.M.; Hofmeister, E.; Nerurkar, V.R.; Wong, T.; Weeks-Levy, C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction of the West Nile virus (WNV) to Hawai'i will undoubtedly devastate many populations of critically endangered avian species indigenous to Hawai'i. The protective efficacy of a protein-based WNV subunit vaccine formulated with adjuvant was evaluated in domestic geese as a surrogate species for the endangered Ne??ne??, the state bird of Hawai'i. Prevention of viremia following viral infection of vaccinated birds was used as the clinical endpoint of protection. ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization tests demonstrate that significant levels of vaccine antigen-specific antibody were produced in groups of birds vaccinated with 5 or 10 ??g of the WN-80E antigen formulated with ISA720 adjuvant. Moreover, after challenge with WNV, no viremia was detected in vaccinated birds, whereas viremia was detected up to 4 days after and virus was detected by oral swab for 6 days after infection among control groups. Safe and effective vaccination of managed or captive endangered bird populations will protect species with critically low numbers that could not survive the added mortality of introduced disease. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mating activity of domestic geese ganders (Anser anser f. domesticus) during breeding period in relation to age, testosterone and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2013-11-30

    In breeding geese, natural mating applies. The objective of this study was to determine seasonal- and age-related changes in the sexual activity of ganders. Moreover, T, T4 and T3 plasma levels were evaluated. The study was conducted on 2/3-year-old males (n=15) and 1- or 2/3-year-old females (1♂:4♀). Sexual activity of ganders was characterized through the frequency of: courtship, attempts at and successful copulations and total mating activity (MA). Reproductive results manifested by egg production and fertility were recorded. Laying percentage (January-June) was 37.1 and 28.6% for 1-, and 2/3-year-old geese, respectively. MA was noted before the sexual maturity of females and the T level peak. MA was highest at the onset and during peak production (March) for ganders kept with 1-, and 2/3-year-old geese, respectively. From April to May a decrease in fertility with a reduction of the frequency of copulations was observed. At this time low levels of T were noted. The effect of goose age on the MA was shown, with higher frequency of copulations for ganders kept with 1-year-old geese. We suggest that in the successful seasonal mating in geese, social factors such as the presence of females and female age play an important role. The reduction in fertility during the spring period may be associated with decreases in the efficiency of successive mating sequences. The higher frequency of copulations without affecting fertility, for ganders kept with young geese, may be because of differences in sperm transfer or storage/transport efficiency.

  14. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.

    1985-01-01

    The lower Flathead System Canada Goose Study was initiated to determine population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on nest and brood habitat on the southern half of Flathead Lake and the lower Flathead River as a result of the operations of Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1984 field season as part of an ongoing project. Geese used Pablo, Kicking Horse, Ninepipe Reservoirs heavily during late summer and fall. Use of the river by geese was high during the winter, when the reservoirs were frozen, and during the breeding period. Most breeding geese left the river after broods fledged. Thirteen percent of the artificial tree nest structures on the river were used by nesting geese. Goose nest initiation on the river peaked the last week in March through the first week in April, and hatching peaked the first week in May. Predation was the most significant cause of nest loss on the river, and nest loss by flooding was not observed. Avian predation was the single largest factor contributing to nest loss on the lake. Habitat use was studied in 4 brood areas on the river and 8 brood areas on the lake, and available habitat was assessed for 2 portions of both the lake and the river. Brood habitat use was significantly different from the available habitat in all areas studied. On the lower river, broods used wheat fields, gravel bars, and shrub habitats. On the upper river, coniferous forest and shrub habitats were preferred. On the West Bay of the lake, brood areas consisted primarily of lawns and tall herbaceous habitat, while on the South Bay, marshes dominated the brood areas studied. Water levels on the river and lake affect both accessibility of these areas to brooding geese, and the ecology of the habitats preferred by geese. 43 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs.

  15. Stable Isotopes Suggest Low Site Fidelity in Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) in Mongolia: Implications for Disease Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiao, Xiangming; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-central Mongolia. Samples were collected from actively molting Bar-headed Geese (n = 61), and some individual samples included both a newly grown feather (still in sheath) and an old, worn feather from the bird’s previous molt (n = 21). Although there was no difference in mean hydrogen isotope ratios for the old and new feathers, the isotopic variance in old feathers was approximately three times higher than that of the new feathers, which suggests that these birds use different and geographically distant molting locations from year to year. To further test this conclusion, online data and modeling tools from the isoMAP website were used to generate probability landscapes for the origin of each feather. Likely molting locations were much more widespread for old feathers than for new feathers, which supports the prospect of low molt-site fidelity. This finding indicates that population connectivity would be greater than expected based on data from a single annual cycle, and that disease spread can be rapid even in areas like Mongolia where Bar-headed Geese generally breed in small isolated groups. PMID:27695389

  16. Fidelity and breeding probability related to population density and individual quality in black brent geese Branta bernicla nigricans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedinger, J.S.; Chelgren, N.D.; Ward, D.H.; Lindberg, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    1. Patterns of temporary emigration (associated with non-breeding) are important components of variation in individual quality. Permanent emigration from the natal area has important implications for both individual fitness and local population dynamics. 2. We estimated both permanent and temporary emigration of black brent geese (Branta bernicla nigricans Lawrence) from the Tutakoke River colony, using observations of marked brent geese on breeding and wintering areas, and recoveries of ringed individuals by hunters. We used the likelihood developed by Lindberg, Kendall, Hines & Anderson 2001 (Combining band recovery data and Pollock's robust design to model temporary and permanent emigration. Biometrics, 57, 273-281) to assess hypotheses and estimate parameters. 3. Temporary emigration (the converse of breeding) varied among age classes up to age 5, and differed between individuals that bred in the previous years vs. those that did not. Consistent with the hypothesis of variation in individual quality, individuals with a higher probability of breeding in one year also had a higher probability of breeding the next year. 4. Natal fidelity of females ranged from 0.70 ?? 0.07-0.96 ?? 0.18 and averaged 0.83. In contrast to Lindberg et al. (1998), we did not detect a relationship between fidelity and local population density. Natal fidelity was negatively correlated with first-year survival, suggesting that competition among individuals of the same age for breeding territories influenced dispersal. Once females nested at the Tutakoke River, colony breeding fidelity was 1.0. 5. Our analyses show substantial variation in individual quality associated with fitness, which other analyses suggest is strongly influenced by early environment. Our analyses also suggest substantial interchange among breeding colonies of brent geese, as first shown by Lindberg et al. (1998).

  17. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Rodney W.; Leafloor, James O.; Douglas, David C.; Abraham, Kenneth F.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  18. Effects of substituting yellow corn for sorghum in geese diets on magret and foie gras quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, J; Auvergne, A; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Bannelier, C; Manse, H; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the effects of substitution of yellow corn with sorghum during the growing-finishing (G period), overfeeding (O period), or both periods on magret and foie gras quality in geese. In total, 260 ganders were divided into 4 groups (65 birds in each) differing in the cereal (yellow corn or sorghum) included in the diet given during the G and the O periods, using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The groups differed in the nature of the cereal in the diet offered to birds between 44 and 104 d of age (G period: a diet containing 500 g of sorghum/kg (SS and SC groups) or a diet containing 500 g of yellow corn/kg (CS and CC groups). The groups differed also in the diet offered to birds between 105 and 120 d of age (O period): 967 g of yellow corn/kg (SC and CC groups) or 965 g of sorghum/kg (SS and CS groups). At the end of the O period, the birds were slaughtered after 10 h of fasting to measure foie gras and breast muscle weight, color, and chemical composition. The mortality in the SC group was higher (P foie gras that were heavier 984 vs. 885 g, in CS+SS vs. CC+SC groups, respectively; P foie gras, but altered its color to a paler yellow. In contrast, a substitution during the G period only (SC group) resulted in increased mortality during the O period.

  19. 日粮纤维对鹅消化系统影响研究进展%Research Progress of the Effects of Dietary Fiber on the Digestive System of Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽艳; 刘国君; 赵秀华; 黄萌; 李满雨

    2015-01-01

    为了研究鹅对日粮纤维的营养需求水平 ,进一步制定鹅的饲养标准 ,从日粮纤维定义、鹅消化系统特点、日粮纤维对鹅消化道功能的影响及鹅对日粮纤维消化吸收的影响因素几方面进行了综述.结果表明 :鹅的不同品种及不同生长时期、不同纤维来源和日粮纤维的不同加工方式等对日粮纤维消化吸收的能力也不同 ;鹅日粮纤维含量适中时 ,可促进鹅消化系统的发育 ,含量过高 ,则对消化系统的发育有不利影响.%In order to analyze the nutrition requirement level of geese to dietary fiber ,provide certain theoretical basis for developing the feeding standard of geese ,the definition of dietary fiber ,characteristics of geese diges-tive system ,favorable effects and adverse effects of dietary fiber on the digestive tract function of geese ,and factors affecting the digestion and absorption of dietary fiber in geese were summarized .The results showed that different varieties and growth periods of geese ,different fiber sources and different processing methods of fiber influenced absorption of dietary fiber in geese ,when the dietary fiber content was moderate ,it could pro-mote the development of the digestive system of geese ,while the content was too high ,it was adverse to the de-velopment of the digestive system of geese .

  20. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee on 1986-1997 Breeding Ground Surveys of Dusky Canada Geese on the Copper River Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1997 Copper River Delta survey for breeding dusky Canada geese was conducted from 13-15 May by the Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  1. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee on 1986-2002 Breeding Ground Survey Preliminary Results for Dusky Canada geese on the Copper River Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Copper River Delta dusky Canada geese survey was conducted on 17-18 May, 2002, for the 17th consecutive year by the Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S....

  2. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee on 1986-2000 Breeding Ground Survyes of Dusky Canada Geese on the Copper River Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Copper River Delta dusky Canada geese survey was conducted on 16-17 May 2000 for the 15th consecutive year by the Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S....

  3. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee on 1986-1999 Breeding Ground Survyes of Dusky Canada Geese on the Copper River Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1999 Copper River Delta survey for breeding dusky Canada geese was conducted on 17-18 May by the Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  4. Dark-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla bernicla, as recorded by satellite telemetry, do not minimize flight distance during spring migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, M; Alerstam, T; Clausen, P; Drent, R; Ebbinge, RS

    2002-01-01

    Nine Dark-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla bernicla were equipped with satellite transmitters during spring staging in the Dutch Wadden Sea in 1998 and 1999. The transmitters (in all cases less than 3% of body mass) were attached to the back by a flexible elastic harness. One juvenile female was

  5. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihu Lu

    Full Text Available Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection.

  6. Plasma lipoproteins and liver lipids in two breeds of geese with different susceptibility to hepatic steatosis: changes induced by development and force-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, D; Saadoun, A; Salichon, M R; Sellier, N; Rousselot-Paillet, D; Chapman, M J

    1991-05-01

    Susceptibility to fatty liver in the force-fed goose is partly under genetic control. However, the mechanisms leading to liver steatosis in this avian model are poorly understood, but may involve perturbation in hepatic lipoprotein synthesis. Plasma lipoproteins were fractionated by density gradient ultracentrifugation from plasma of geese differing in their susceptibility to liver steatosis (Landes breed, highly susceptible; Rhine breed, partly resistant). The concentrations and chemical compositions of the major lipoprotein classes (VLDL, IDL, LDL and HDL) were characterized at 8, 22 and 27 wk of age and compared to the lipid composition of the corresponding liver. In non-force-fed geese, the lipoprotein profile was typical of birds, with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) predominating (4-5 g/L). However, at 22 and 27 wk of age, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels were significantly lower in Landes geese suggesting that this breed may possess a lower ability to export liver lipids, which would explain its susceptibility to liver steatosis when overfed. The livers of force-fed geese were specifically enriched in triglyceride, and to a lesser extent, in cholesteryl esters and non-esterified fatty acids as compared to those of control geese of the same age (27 wk). This accumulation of lipids was more pronounced in the Landes breed and was responsible for the higher liver weight in that breed. In both breeds, liver steatosis was accompanied by an increase in plasma levels of HDL (11 g/L), whereas low-density lipoproteins were essentially absent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1996 breeding ground surveys of geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone, Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of nesting geese, swans and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta for the 12th consecutive year. The survey...

  8. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1993 breeding ground surveys of geese and swans in the coastal zone, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta w-ere conducted for the ninth consecutive year. The population response of emperor...

  9. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1992 breeding ground surveys of geese and swans in the coastal zone, Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta were conducted for the eighth consecutive year. The survey was flown from 11 - 19...

  10. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1994 breeding ground surveys of geese and swans in the coastal zone, Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta were conducted for the tenth consecutive year. The survey was flown from 2 - 10...

  11. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1999 breeding ground survyes of geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of nesting geese, tundra swans, and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta for the 15th consecutive year. The...

  12. AWNR progress report number FY83-1: Distribution, abundance and productivity of fall staging lesser snow geese on coastal habitats of northeast Alaska and northwest Canada, 1980 and 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the distribution, abundance, and productivity of lesser snow geese which stage in late August and September in the arctic coastal regions between...

  13. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1991 breeding ground surveys of geese and swans in the coastal zone, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta were conducted for the seventh consecutive year. The survey was flown from 6 June13...

  14. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1995 breeding ground surveys of geese and swans in the coastal zone, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of nesting geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta were conducted for the eleventh consecutive year. The...

  15. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-2000 breeding ground survyes of geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese, tundra swans, and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta for the 16th consecutive year. The survey...

  16. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte Høj; Madsen, Jesper; Johnson, Fred A.; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.

    2014-01-01

    The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased during the last decades and is giving rise to agricultural conflicts along their migration route, as well as causing grazing impacts on tundra vegetation. An adaptive flyway management plan has been implemented, which will be based on predictive population models including environmental variables expected to affect goose population development, such as weather conditions on the breeding grounds. A local study in Svalbard showed that snow cover prior to egg laying is a crucial factor for the reproductive output of pink-footed geese, and MODIS satellite images provided a useful estimator of snow cover. In this study, we up-scaled the analysis to the population level by examining various measures of snow conditions and compared them with the overall breeding success of the population as indexed by the proportion of juveniles in the autumn population. As explanatory variables, we explored MODIS images, satellite-based radar measures of onset of snow melt, winter NAO index, and the May temperature sum and May thaw days. To test for the presence of density dependence, we included the number of adults in the population. For 2000–2011, MODIS-derived snow cover (available since 2000) was the strongest indicator of breeding conditions. For 1981–2011, winter NAO and May thaw days had equal weight. Interestingly, there appears to have been a phase shift from density-dependent to density-independent reproduction, which is consistent with a hypothesis of released breeding potential due to the recent advancement of spring in Svalbard.

  17. Modelling Water Level Influence on Habitat Choice and Food Availability for Zostera Feeding Brent Geese Branta bernicla in Non-Tidal Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P.

    2000-01-01

    Brent geese Branta bernicla spring fattening around Agero, Denmark, alternate between feeding on saltmarshes and submerged Zostera beds in Limfjorden. It appeared from field observations that these alternations depended on the water level in Limfjorden. A model was developed to assess the impact...... of water level fluctuations on the habitat use. A second model was developed to estimate the impact of water level on Zostera availability. The first model was successful in demonstrating that fluctuations in water levels had considerable influence on habitat use by the brent geese, i.e. they fed...... on Zostera at low water levels and on saltmarshes during high water levels, particularly so in early spring, and that the switch between habitats occurred within a narrow water level span of ca 30 cm. The second model demonstrated that the switch between habitats could be explained by lowered availability...

  18. Modelling Water Level Influence on Habitat Choice and Food Availability for Zostera Feeding Brent Geese Branta bernicla in Non-Tidal Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P.

    2000-01-01

    Brent geese Branta bernicla spring fattening around Agero, Denmark, alternate between feeding on saltmarshes and submerged Zostera beds in Limfjorden. It appeared from field observations that these alternations depended on the water level in Limfjorden. A model was developed to assess the impact ......). The models presented may be considered as tools in investigations of habitat use and carrying capacity of seagrass beds in non-tidal areas, where birds' access to feeding areas regularly may be hindered by high water levels....

  19. Identification and differential expression of microRNAs in ovaries of laying and Broody geese (Anser cygnoides by Solexa sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent functional studies have demonstrated that the microRNAs (miRNAs play critical roles in ovarian gonadal development, steroidogenesis, apoptosis, and ovulation in mammals. However, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in the ovarian function of fowl. The goose (Anas cygnoides is a commercially important food that is cultivated widely in China but the goose industry has been hampered by high broodiness and poor egg laying performance, which are influenced by ovarian function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the miRNA transcriptomes of ovaries from laying and broody geese were profiled using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics was used to determine differential expression of the miRNAs. As a result, 11,350,396 and 9,890,887 clean reads were obtained in laying and broodiness goose, respectively, and 1,328 conserved known miRNAs and 22 novel potential miRNA candidates were identified. A total of 353 conserved microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between laying and broody ovaries. Compared with miRNA expression in the laying ovary, 127 miRNAs were up-regulated and 126 miRNAs were down-regulated in the ovary of broody birds. A subset of the differentially expressed miRNAs (G-miR-320, G-miR-202, G-miR-146, and G-miR-143* were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, 130,458 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative target genes. Gene ontology annotation and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that the differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in ovarian function, including hormone secretion, reproduction processes and so on. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first global miRNA transcriptome data in A. cygnoides and identifies novel and known miRNAs that are differentially expressed between the ovaries of laying and broody geese. These findings contribute to our understanding of the functional involvement of mi

  20. Preliminary results of an influenza surveillance in wild birds, game birds, domestic ducks and geese in North Eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Scremin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the avian influenza (AI epidemics which occurred in Italy between 1997 and 2003, a surveillance program, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health was implemented. Among the tasks of this surveillance program was an investigation on wild and domestic birds to asses circulation of avian influenza viruses in their natural reservoirs. In this study we collected samples from migratory wild birds (Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, from national and importated game fowls, and from 7 backyard farms of geese and ducks. Cloacal swabs were screened by means of real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR and/or directly processed for attempted virus isolation in embryonated fowl’s SPF eggs and blood samples for presence of antibodies against avian influenza viruses. Avian influenza viruses were only obtained from migratory waterfowls belonging to the family Anseriformes, and not from domestic waterfowls or game birds. This study confirms that the risk of introduction of novel influenza viruses in densely populated areas of poultry farms in Veneto is linked to migratory wild birds and in particular from birds belonging to the family Anseriformes.

  1. Transfer of radionuclides to man from greylag geese Anser anser and wigeon Anas penelope grazing the saltmarshes at Ravenglass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, V.P.W.; Horrill, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The greylag goose and wigeon are both traditional quarry of wildfowlers. Populations of these birds in the Ravenglass estuary feed and roost on saltmarshes containing radioactivity originating from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. There is therefore, via the meat, a potential pathway for the transfer of radionuclides to man. The birds' intake of gamma-emitting fission and activation products, including /sup 60/Co, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 154/Eu, /sup 155/Eu and /sup 241/Am, was investigated by examining their concentrations in vegetation from the feeding areas and in their faeces. Muscle and liver tissues were also analysed. Only /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs were detected and quantified in breast muscle. Estimated transfer coefficients for /sup 137/Cs were very similar for both species. A single person would have had to consume in excess of the total number of wigeon shot or the total population of geese to obtain even 1% of his or her Annual Limit on Intake.

  2. Pathology and diagnosis of avian bornavirus infection in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) and mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Canada: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Ojkic, Davor; Delay, Josepha; Campbell, Doug; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2013-04-01

    Nine hundred and fifty-five pathology cases collected in Ontario between 1992 and 2011 from wild free-ranging Canada geese, trumpeter swans and mute swans were retrospectively evaluated for the pathology associated with avian bornavirus (ABV) infection. Cases were selected based on the presence of upper gastrointestinal impaction, central nervous system histopathology or clinical history suggestive of ABV infection. The proportion of birds meeting at least one of these criteria was significantly higher at the Toronto Zoo (30/132) than elsewhere in Ontario (21/823). Central, peripheral and autonomic nervous tissues were examined for the presence of lymphocytes and plasma cells on histopathology. The presence of virus was assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on frozen brains and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Among selected cases, 86.3% (44/51) were considered positive on histopathology, 56.8% (29/51) were positive by immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR was positive on 88.2% (15/17) of the frozen brains and 78.4% (40/51) of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Histopathological lesions included gliosis and lymphoplasmacytic perivascular cuffing in brain (97.7%), spinal cord (50%), peripheral nerves (55.5%) and myenteric ganglia or nerves (62.8%), resembling lesions described in parrots affected with proventricular dilatation disease. Partial amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid gene from seven geese were 100% identical amongst themselves and 98.1 to 100% identical to the waterfowl sequences recently described in the USA. Although ABV has been identified in apparently healthy geese, our study confirmed that ABV can also be associated with significant disease in wild waterfowl species.

  3. Foraging range, habitat use and minimum flight distances of East Atlantic Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota in their spring staging areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Hounisen, Jens Peder

    2013-01-01

    related to differences in habitat use. Geese using a high proportion of agricultural areas flew greater distances than those avoiding this habitat. Compared to historical data on the same population, these findings indicate a significant enlargement of foraging ranges and increased use of terrestrial...... habitats. This might reflect changes in habitat availability, and is probably related to significant declines in Common Eelgrass Zostera marina in both these areas. From a historically rather sedentary lifestyle, which centred around foraging on Zostera beds in fjord habitats, this population now feeds...... habitat use is associated with increased energetic costs in the form of higher minimum flight distances....

  4. Flying Geese Theory's Enlightenment on the Improvement of Class Teaching System%雁行理论对完善班级授课制的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雯; 粟斌

    2013-01-01

    Flying Geese Theory is a group development one which is summed up from the phenomenon that the wild geese often fly in"v"formation during the seasonal migration.Class teaching system is an organizational form which groups a certain number of students of similar age, educational level into teaching classes , and provides them with collective teaching according to the curricu-lum, the teaching progress and the time scheduleby the teachers .Based on the analysis of advantages and disadvantages of class teaching system, integrating the concept of "independence, cooperation, flying"interpreted by flying geese theory , this study builds up flying geese learning groups , and provides students with teaching activities and learning environment not losing the collective impact and in favor of individual independent study , to promote the harmonious development of overall aspects of students .%  雁行理论是根据雁群在季节迁徙途中常以“V”字队形飞行这一现象总结出的团体发展理论。班级授课制是把一定数量、年龄、文化程度的学生组成教学班,然后由教师根据规定课程、教学进度、教学时间表,对学生进行集体教学的一种组织形式。两者之间存在着相似与相通之处。论文在对班级授课制优缺点分析的基础之上,整合雁行理论中所诠释的“自主、合作、飞翔”理念,建构雁阵学习团体,旨在为学生提供适合其发展的教学活动形式和学习环境,寻求既不失集体影响又有利于个人独立探究的教学组织形式,以促进学生个性全面和谐发展。

  5. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: assessment for the 2013-2015 hunting seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This report describes progress on the development of an adaptive harvestmanagement strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese near their agreed target level (60,000) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark. Specifically, this report provides an optimal harvest quota for the 2013-2015 hunting seasons and describes a process for evaluating whether emergency hunting closures would be needed during that period. By combining varying hypotheses about survival and reproduction, a suite of nine models have been developed that represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent, and the extent to which spring temperatures are important. The most current set of monitoring information was used to update model weights for the 1991 – 2012 period. Current model weights suggest no evidence for density-dependent survival. These results suggest that the pink-footed goose population may have recently experienced a release from density-dependent mechanisms, corresponding to the period of most rapid growth in population size. There was equivocal evidence for the effect of May temperature days (number of days with temperatures above freezing) on survival and on reproduction. The optimal harvest strategy suggests that the appropriate annual harvest quota for the 20132015 period is 15,000; hence there is no need to take emergency measures to close the upcoming hunting season. For comparison, the estimated harvest in 2012 was 11,000. If the harvest quota of 15,000 were met, the autumn 2013 population count is expected to be 76,000. If only the most recent 3-year mean harvest were realized (11,500), an autumn population size of 80,000 thousand is expected. Thus, it may be that harvest is approaching the magnitude needed to stabilize the population.

  6. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1988 breeding pairs indices for geese and swans from aerial surveys of the coastal zone, Yukon Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The final year of·the 4-year study to develop an aerial survey of geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon Delta has been completed. Tne survey was flown from...

  7. Pathogenicity and transmission of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza clade 2.3.4.4 viruses (H5N8 and H5N2) in domestic waterfowl (Pekin ducks and Chinese geese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic ducks and geese are common backyard poultry in many countries, frequently in contact with wild waterfowl, which are natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses and have played a key role in the spread of Asian-lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In late 2014, a reassor...

  8. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  9. Applicability of anatid and galliform microsatellite markers to the genetic diversity studies of domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus through the genotyping of the endangered zatorska breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapkowska Ewa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of a sufficient number of molecular markers seriously limits the cognition of genetic relationships within and between populations of many species. Likewise, the genetic diversity of domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus, with a great number of breeds throughout the world, remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Findings Thirty-five goose, seventeen duck and eight chicken microsatellite primer pairs were screened for their utility in the cross-species amplification on DNA from 96 individuals of Zatorska breed of domestic geese. Twenty-seven of 42 amplifying primer pairs revealed length-polymorphic products, but three of them were difficult to score. Fifteen primer pairs amplifying the same length product across all individuals. One polymorphic microsatellite locus was assigned by genotyping of known sex individuals to the Z-chromosome. Conclusions We present a set of 24 polymorphic microsatellite markers useful for population genetic studies of the domestic goose. Another 15 markers were classified as monomorphic, but they might also be suitable for the assessment of genetic diversity in geese.

  10. Latitudinal-Related Variation in Wintering Population Trends of Greylag Geese (Anser Anser along the Atlantic Flyway: A Response to Climate Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ramo

    Full Text Available The unusually high quality of census data for large waterbirds in Europe facilitates the study of how population change varies across a broad geographical range and relates to global change. The wintering population of the greylag goose Anser anser in the Atlantic flyway spanning between Sweden and Spain has increased from 120 000 to 610 000 individuals over the past three decades, and expanded its wintering range northwards. Although population sizes recorded in January have increased in all seven countries in the wintering range, we found a pronounced northwards latitudinal effect in which the rate of increase is higher at greater latitudes, causing a constant shift in the centre of gravity for the spatial distribution of wintering geese. Local winter temperatures have a strong influence on goose numbers but in a manner that is also dependent on latitude, with the partial effect of temperature (while controlling for the increasing population trend between years being negative at the south end and positive at the north end of the flyway. Contrary to assumptions in the literature, the expansion of crops exploited by greylag geese has made little contribution to the increases in population size. Only in one case (expansion of winter cereals in Denmark did we find evidence of an effect of changing land use. The expanding and shifting greylag population is likely to have increasing impacts on habitats in northern Europe during the course of this century.

  11. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzyme activities and electrolyte composition in the small intestinal fluid of geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Yang, Lin; Wang, Yongchang; Zhai, Shuangshuang; Wang, Shenshen; Yang, Zhipeng; Wang, Wence

    2017-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzymes and electrolyte composition in jejunum of geese. A 3×3 factorial and completely randomized design was adopted with three protein levels and three energy levels. The experiment included four replicates for each treatment, and three geese for each replicate. Isovolumetric supernate from centrifugal jejuna fluid were mixed in each replicate. Activities of digestive enzymes and ions were analyzed. The results showed trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were significantly increased with increasing of dietary protein and energy levels (Penergy levels. However, no significant differences were found for the activities of amylase and cellulase, as well as the concentration of Na(+) among groups with different protein and energy levels. In conclusion, digesta enzymes and electrolytes in the small intestine adapted to the protein and energy levels. The activities of protease, rather than amylase and cellulase were induced with increasing of protein and energy levels. The imbalance of positive and negative ions was possibly adjusted by the fluctuant concentrations of K(+) , Cl(-) and Ca(2+) for maintaining normal physiological function.

  12. Performance of Fatty Liver Development in Response to Brown Rice and Corn-Based Diets in Overfed Landes Geese(Anser anser)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; ZHOU Qi; HE Rui-guo; WANG Yu-lian; SUN Yun-zi; ZHOU Ying; YANG Zheng-mei; ZHANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    The effect of brown rice and corn-based diets on fatty liver weight, carcass traits, lipids accumulation and liver composition of Landes geese (Anser anser) after feeding the same amount of each diet was investigated. After 2 weeks overfeeding,besides body weight and body weight gain increased significantly, the fatty liver weights were increased dramatically from 94.67 to 554.67 and 754.00 g in corn treatment and rice treatment, respectively, and the accumulation lipids in adipose tissues reached up to or close to 2 folds of initial weight in both treatments. Liver weight was greater in brown rice group than in corn group(P<0.05). Compared to before overfeeding, triacylglycerols (TG) in geese fatty liver increased dramatically and predominated (from 9.08% to close to or more than 90% of hepatic lipids), whereas phospholipids (PL) and cholesteryl esters (CE) decreased sharply in both treatments (P<0.05). However, the percentages of lipids, TG and PL in fatty liver were higher in brown rice treatment than in corn treatment, and that of CE was lower (P<0.05). It indicates that overfeeding chiefly results in lipids accumulation in goose fatty liver and adipose tiss ues. Brown rice-based diet induces greater fatty liver, and brown rice is one of high quality overfeeding ingredients instead of corn.

  13. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  14. Pre-exposing Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) to a low-pathogenic H1N1 avian influenza virus protects them against H5N1 HPAI virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Yohannes; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Leith, Marsha; Kehler, Helen; Suderman, Matthew; Pasick, John

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies we examined the role of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the epidemiology of Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. To expand on this and better understand how pre-exposure to heterosubtypic low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses might influence the outcome of H5N1 HPAI infection, we pre-exposed naïve juvenile Canada Geese to different North American wild-bird-origin LPAI viruses. We selected H1, H2, and H6 hemagglutinin subtype viruses based on their higher-order evolutionary relatedness to the H5 hemagglutinin. Pre-exposing Canada Geese to either H2N3 or H6N5 viruses did not protect them against a lethal H5N1 HPAI virus challenge. In addition, H5N1 was transmitted to naïve control birds that were placed among both groups resulting in death by 5 days postcontact. In contrast, Canada Geese that were pre-exposed to H1N1 were protected against a lethal H5N1 challenge, shed minimal amounts of the virus into the environment, and did not transmit the infection to naïve contact birds. None of the H1N1, H2N3, or H6N5 pre-exposure sera neutralized H5N1 in vitro; however, sera from H1N1-infected birds reduced virus plaque size but not number when compared with H2N3, H6N5, or negative sera, suggesting that antibodies directed against the neuraminidase may have had a role in the protective effects observed.

  15. 场区绿化情况对种鹅产蛋性能的影响%Effect of Tree Planting in Factory Area on Laying Performance of Breeding Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄炎坤; 崔锦; 王鑫磊; 姜东凤

    2012-01-01

    Through the comparison of effects of planting trees on breeding geese's laying performance in 4 breeding geese farms, it showed that the geese farm of better afforestation could provide cool living environment so that the laying period was prolonged and egg production increased (P0. 05). The result shows that the reduction of temperature is an effective action to prolong laying period and increase egg production.%通过对鹅舍前后和运动场内不同绿化情况的4个种鹅场鹅群产蛋性能的对比,发现绿化效果好的鹅场由于在春末和夏初能够为鹅群提供凉爽的生活环境,而使其产蛋期明显延长,而且产蛋数量也显著增加(P<0.05);但是,在春末和夏初种蛋的受精率和孵化率相对较低.在低温季节鹅场绿化情况对鹅群的产蛋量、种蛋受精率和孵化率没有显著影响(P>0.05).说明降低环境温度是延长鹅群产蛋期和提高产蛋量的有效措施.

  16. Quantitative analysis of waterfowl parvoviruses in geese and Muscovy ducks by real-time polymerase chain reaction: correlation between age, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number of waterfowl parvoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniakowski Grzegorz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waterfowl parvoviruses cause serious loss in geese and ducks production. Goose parvovirus (GPV is infectious for geese and ducks while Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV infects Muscovy ducks only. So far, for these viruses' sensitive detection polymerase chain reaction (PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP were applied. However, there was no molecular biology method for both waterfowl parvoviruses detection and quantification which could unify the laboratory procedures. The level of GPV and MDPV replication and distribution plays a significant role in the parvoviral infection progress and is strictly correlated to clinical symptoms. Meanwhile, experiments conducted previously on GPV distribution in geese, performed as animal trial, did not involve epidemiological data from the disease field cases. The study on the correlation between age, clinical symptoms and viral DNA copy number may be benefitable in understanding the GPV and MDPV infection. Such data may also aid in determination of the stage and severity of the infection with parvoviruses. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop quantitative real-time PCR for parallel detection of GPV and MDPV in geese and Muscovy ducks and to determine the correlation between the age of the infected birds, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number for the estimation of the disease stage or severity. Results In order to develop quantitative real-time PCR the viral material was collected from 13 farms of geese and 3 farms of Muscovy ducks. The designed primers and Taqman probe for real-time PCR were complementary to GPV and MDPV inverted terminal repeats region. The pITR plasmid was constructed, purified and used to prepare dilutions for standard curve preparation and DNA quantification. The applied method detected both GPV and MDPV in all the examined samples extracted from the heart and liver of the infected birds. The conducted correlation tests have shown relationship

  17. Quantitative analysis of waterfowl parvoviruses in geese and Muscovy ducks by real-time polymerase chain reaction: correlation between age, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number of waterfowl parvoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Kozdruń, Wojciech

    2012-03-15

    Waterfowl parvoviruses cause serious loss in geese and ducks production. Goose parvovirus (GPV) is infectious for geese and ducks while Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infects Muscovy ducks only. So far, for these viruses' sensitive detection polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) were applied. However, there was no molecular biology method for both waterfowl parvoviruses detection and quantification which could unify the laboratory procedures. The level of GPV and MDPV replication and distribution plays a significant role in the parvoviral infection progress and is strictly correlated to clinical symptoms. Meanwhile, experiments conducted previously on GPV distribution in geese, performed as animal trial, did not involve epidemiological data from the disease field cases. The study on the correlation between age, clinical symptoms and viral DNA copy number may be benefitable in understanding the GPV and MDPV infection. Such data may also aid in determination of the stage and severity of the infection with parvoviruses. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop quantitative real-time PCR for parallel detection of GPV and MDPV in geese and Muscovy ducks and to determine the correlation between the age of the infected birds, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number for the estimation of the disease stage or severity. In order to develop quantitative real-time PCR the viral material was collected from 13 farms of geese and 3 farms of Muscovy ducks. The designed primers and Taqman probe for real-time PCR were complementary to GPV and MDPV inverted terminal repeats region. The pITR plasmid was constructed, purified and used to prepare dilutions for standard curve preparation and DNA quantification. The applied method detected both GPV and MDPV in all the examined samples extracted from the heart and liver of the infected birds. The conducted correlation tests have shown relationship between age, clinical symptoms during

  18. Veias do sistema porta-hepático em gansos domésticos Veins from hepatic portal vein system in domestic geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C. Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição intraparenquimal das veias porta-hepáticas foi estudada em 30 gansos domésticos. Latex Neoprene corado foi injetado pela veia isquiática e os animais forma fixados por imersão e injeção intramuscular com formol a 10% e dissecados. O fígado esteve composto por um grande lobo hepático direito e por um lobo hepático esquerdo menor, os quais estiveram conectados por uma ponte de parênquima. O lobo direito do fígado teve exclusivamente vasos do sistema porta-hepático formados pela distribuição intraparenquimal da veia porta-hepática direita, enquanto que no lobo esquerdo estes originaram-se da veia porta-hepática direita e de pequenas veias porta-hepáticas esquerdas. A veia porta-hepática direita emitiu o ramo caudal direito, que emitiu um pequeno ramo caudolateral direito e um grande ramo caudomedial direito. Cranialmente esta veia emitiu os ramos craniais direito e ramos lateral direito. A porção transversa da veia porta-hepática direita cruzou para o lobo hepático esquerdo, emitindo de 1 a 6 pequenos ramos craniais e caudais para a região média do fígado. No lobo esquerdo, o ramo esquerdo da veia porta-hepática direita emitiu o ramo cranial esquerdo, o ramo lateral esquerdo e o ramo medial. De 1 a 6 veias porta-hepáticas esquerdas foram identificadas desembocando ou no ramo esquerdo da veia porta-hepática direita ou em sua porção transversa, oriundos do ventrículo gástrico e do pró-ventrículo. Em 40% dos gansos uma veia porta-hepática própria oriunda da confluência de vasos venosos da face esquerda do ventrículo distribuiu-se na extremidade caudal do lobo esquerdo isoladamente.The intraparenchymal distribution of the hepatic portal veins in 30 domestic geese were studied. Stained Neoprene latex was injected into the isquiatic vessels, and the animals were fixed in 10% formaldehyde by immersion and intramuscular injection. The liver of geese was composed of a large right and a smaller left

  19. Regulation of the hunting season as a tool for adaptive harvest management — First results for pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jesper; Clausen, Kevin; Christensen, Thomas K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2016-01-01

    Adjustment of hunting season length is often used to regulate harvest of waterbirds but the effects are disputed. We describe the first results of season length extension on the harvest of the pink-footed goose, which has been selected as the first test case of adaptive harvest management of waterbirds in Europe. In Denmark, the season (previously 1 September to 31 December) was extended to include January in 2014-15 with the aim to increase the harvest and, in the longer term, reduce the population size. The total harvest in Denmark increased by 52% compared to previous years, and almost 50% of the Danish harvest was taken in the January extension. In the course of the hunting season, the proportion of adults in the bag increased. In this case, the outcomes from the first extension of season suggest that season length adjustment can be an effective tool to regulate harvest, though dependent on winter weather conditions and hunters’ motivation for shooting geese.

  20. 木薯渣作为鹅饲粮的营养价值评定%Nutritional Values Evaluation of Cassava Residue Feed on Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦品; 王志跃; 杨海明; 张芬芬; 张得才

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of cassava residue and determine metabolizable energy ( ME) and major nutrient utilization of cassava residue for geese. Eighteen 60-week-old healthy male Yangzhou geese with similar body weight were randomly divided into 3 groups ( groupⅠ, groupⅡ, group Ⅲ) with 6 replicates per group and 1 goose per replicate. The method of forced-feeding was used in this metabolism experiment. 100 g basal diet was forced fed in group Ⅰ, and 100 g diet which by substituting 20%, 40% of the basal diet with cassava residue were forced fed in group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ, respectively. Method of quadric equations was used to obtain the utilization of nutrient of cassava residue. The results showed as follows:1) gross energy ( GE) and the contents of crude protein ( CP) , ether extract ( EE) , crude fiber ( CF) , neutral detergent fiber ( NDF) , acid detergent fiber ( ADF) , total phosphorus ( TP) , calcium ( Ca) of cassava residue were 15.49 MJ/kg, 10.47%, 1.73%, 19.13%, 56.12%, 45.15%, 0.17% and 0.50%, re-spectively. Contents of amino acid ( AA) of cassava residue were very rich, and the content of glutamic ( Glu) was up to 0.99%. 2) The apparent metabolizable energy ( AME) and true metabolizable energy ( TME) of cassava residue were 3.73 and 5.08 MJ/kg, respectively. The utilization of CP, CF, ADF, NDF, TP and Ca of cassava residue were 30.01%,56.31%,77.62%,65.16%,12.58% and 14.77%, respectively. Utilization of AA of cassava residue were relatively low, the utilization of arginine ( Arg) , proline ( Pro) , Glu, cysteine (Cys), threonine ( Thr) and aspartate ( Asp) were 72. 15%, 60. 80%, 58. 40%, 52. 41%, 50. 04% and 8.88%, respectively. It is concluded that fiber contents cassava residue are higher, AA contents are rich, it can be fed by geese, and fiber in cassava residue can be better used by geese.%本试验旨在评定木薯渣的营养价值及测定木薯渣在鹅中的代谢能和

  1. 小麦饲粮中添加木聚糖酶对肉鹅血糖和血清总蛋白水平的影响%Effect of Wheat Based Diet Supplemented with Xylanase on Blood Sugar and Total Protein in Serum of Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳丽; 史东辉; 杨桂芹

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The effects of wheat based diet supplemented with xylarmse on blood sugar and total protein in serum of geese were studied. [Method] By using the randomized design of single factor, the 1-day-old healthy goslings were divided into 6 groups and fed with corn based diet, wheat based diet and wheat based diet supplemented with xylanase at different concentrations respectively, the contents of blood sugar and total protein in serum were determined. [Result] The wheat based diet supplemented with xylanase could increase the blood sugar and total protein in serum of geese and wheat based diet supplemented with 0.2% xylanase generated the best effect, which was higher than those of corn based diet group. As for the concentration of protein in senun, wheat based diet supplemented with O. 2% xylarmse was significantly different from corn based diet and wheat based diet. [Conclusion] The wheat based diet supplemented with xylanase could enhance geese production.

  2. 扬州盐水鹅感官指标描述词的筛选研究%The Screening on Evaluating Descriptor of Yangzhou Brine Geese Sensory Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正荣; 颜云荞

    2014-01-01

    以扬州盐水鹅为原料,参照GB/T 16860-1997等国家标准,采用感官评价结合M值、主成分分析和相关性分析方法对扬州盐水鹅感官指标描述词进行筛选。结果表明,扬州盐水鹅感官评价指标主要包括外观、风味和质地3个方面,其中外观指标的描述词为形态饱满,色泽澄黄油亮;风味(包括气味)指标的描述词为香气扑鼻和鲜咸;质地指标的描述词为湿润多汁,烂而不散和韧而不老。%The descriptor of Yangzhou brine geese sensory index was screened by M value method,principal component analysis and correlation analysis coupled with sensory evaluation by means of Yangzhou brine geese. It was concluded that the indicators of Yangzhou brine geese sensory index comprised appearance ,texture and flavor,and the appearance comprised form full,butter bright color;the flavor comprised nice-smelling,fresh and salted;the texture comprised wet juicy,rotten and do not come loose,tough and old.

  3. Philopatry in a changing world: Response of Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus to the loss of a key autumn staging area due to restoration of Filsø Lake, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin; Madsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    to the sudden loss of a major autumn staging area along their migration corridor, Filsø in Denmark, which followed the re-establishment of a former lake on open arable land serving as foraging site to tens of thousands of geese. Comparisons of goose usage before and after the restoration event revealed that 1...... to alter site use allows a swift response to rapidly changing environmental conditions. This might above all relate to the agricultural habitat use of this species, leaving them plenty of alternatives in the modern Danish landscape....

  4. 吉林白鹅小肠形态学发育规律%Study on developmental morphology of the small intestine of Jilin white geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青竹; 张立春; 郑艳秋; 王丹; 娄玉杰

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the morphological changes of the small intestine of Jilin white geese.The height,width of the villi,depth of the crypts and muscle thickness were measured in 11-53 days of life.The results indicated that the height, width of the villi increased with the age.The villus height was the greatest in the jejunum.The villus height and width of the ileum peaked at 39 days of age,earlier than that of jejunum and duodenum.The crypt depth in the ileum increased during 11 to 53 days,whereas that in the jejunum and duodenum peaked at 39 days of age and then decreased during 39 and 53 days.The muscle thickness in the small intestine were positively correlated with the age of the geese.and the muscle thickness of the duodenum,jejunum,and ileum peaked at 53,53, and 46 days, respectively.The ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth (V:C)in all the small intestinal segments increased as the age,the V:C ratio in the jejunum is the highest at the age of 53 days.%应用组织切片技术对11~53日龄吉林白鹅小肠绒毛高度、绒毛宽度、隐窝深度和肌层厚度进行测定.姑果显示,小肠各段绒毛高度及宽度随日龄增加整体上呈增长趋势,空肠绒毛最长,回肠绒毛高度、宽度在39日龄达到峰值,早于空肠和十二指肠.回肠隐窝深度11~53日龄随日龄增加而增加,十二指肠和空肠隐窝深度在39日龄达到峰值,39~53日龄变浅.小肠各段肌层厚度与日龄呈正相关,回肠的肌层厚度在46日龄达到高峰,十二指肠和空肠的肌层厚度在53日龄达到高峰.小肠各段绒毛高度/隐窝深度的比值随日龄增加而增加,53日龄时空肠的绒毛高度/隐窝深度的比值最高.

  5. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink‐footed geese: 2016 progress summary: Technical Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, No. 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink‐footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) near their agreed target level (60,000) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark. This report provides an assessment of the most recent monitoring information (1991-2015) and its implications for the harvest management strategy. By combining varying hypotheses about survival and reproduction, a suite of nine models have been developed that represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent. These results suggest that the pink‐footed goose population may have recently experienced a release from density‐dependent mechanisms, corresponding to the period of most rapid growth in population size. Beginning with the 2016 hunting season, harvest quotas will be prescribed on an annual basis rather than every three years because of the potential to better meet population management objectives. Based on updated model weights, the recent observations of population size (74,800), the proportion of the population comprised of one-year-old birds (0.138), and temperature days in Svalbard (20), the optimal harvest quota for the 2016 hunting season is 25,000. The large increase in quota compared to that during first three years of AHM reflects stakeholders’ desire to reduce population size to the goal of 60,000, recognizing that population size remains relatively high and above-average production is expected in 2016 due to a warm spring.

  6. Flying Geese Model of Regional Independent Innovation%自主创新区域实现的大国雁阵模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红

    2011-01-01

    The intersection between endogenously indigenous innovation demand and financial crisis shock occurs historically in Chinese economy. The key to shake off the crisis and realize sustainable economic growth is to reshape the regionally indigenous innovation pattern. The paper analyzes regional characteristics from the perspective of evolution in indigenous innovation. On the premise of Creative Destruction Theory and Flying Geese Model, it plans an analytic framework in the view of national conditions in China. Namely, taking the opportunity of industrial upgrading among eastern, central and western areas, it is critical to combine the market and government strength to construct indigenous innovative division of labor based on comparative advantages.%我国经济内生的自主创新需求与金融危机冲击历史性地复合在一起,摆脱危机并实现经济持续增长的关键是重塑地区自主创新模式.从分析自主创新演化的区域特征出发,结合创造性毁灭理论与雁阵范式的预设前提,立足差异性经济体系的国情,给出一个自主创新区域实现的分析框架.以东中西部三大区域的产业升级为契机,合市场和政府之力构筑基于比较优势的自主创新分工体制.

  7. Effects of different methods on force-feeding results in Lande geese%不同填饲方式对朗德鹅填饲效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠影; 刘毅; 龚绍明; 王翠; 周宗清; 何大乾

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of two force-feeding methods in Landes geese.The weight of geese and liver,maturation period of liver and slaughter performance between the two groups were measured.The results showed that it could decrease fatty deposition in tissues surrounding liver and increase fatty deposition in liver by changed force-feeding method.It could also significantly shorten force-feeding period 15.5%.There were no significant differences in slaughter performance.%采用两种填饲方式对84日龄朗德鹅进行填饲,比较分析试验组和对照组的体重和肥肝变化,以及肥肝成熟期、肝重、屠宰指标等。结果显示:试验组的填饲方式能够减缓脂肪在肝脏周边脂肪组织内的沉积,加速脂肪在肝脏内的沉积,显著缩短填饲周期15.5%,且对屠宰指标无显著影响(P >0.05)。

  8. 美国在亚太地区“雁阵安全模式”浅析%Study on US“Flying Geese Security Model”in Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊佑; 李志东

    2015-01-01

    Since Obama administration gets in office, “Flying Geese Security Model” has been taking shape under the influence of US Rebalancing to Asia-Pacific strategy. This model is different from “Hub-and-Spokes Security Model”, which came into being during the Cold War, or “Fan Security Model”, which came into being after the end of Cold War. The main features of “Flying Geese Security Model”include that US as the leading goose is directing its followers towards its targets, US-Japan alliance and US-South Korea alliance are the second echelon formation right behind the leading goose, US and its allies --Australia, Philippines and Thailand are the third echelon formation, US and other Asia-Pacific countries such as Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore and India are the fourth echelon formation. On the whole this model is like flying geese with a leading goose ahead and other geese following behind. Five aspects account for the formation of this security model, which are the changed global trends, the uniqueness of the Asia-Pacific region, the adjustment of the American Middle East policy, the US domestic situation and the rising China. The constructing “Flying Geese Security Model”will have great influence on US itself, China and the Asia-Pacific region.%奥巴马政府执政以来,在“再平衡”战略的背景下,美国在亚太地区逐渐形成了“雁阵安全模式”。这一模式不同于冷战时期的“轴毂安全模式”,也不同于冷战后的“扇形安全模式”。“雁阵安全模式”的主要特点是以美国为领头雁,指引雁阵所针对方向;紧随其后的第二梯队是美日同盟、美韩同盟;第三梯队是美国与澳大利亚、菲律宾和泰国等盟国的关系;第四梯队是美国与越南、印度尼西亚、新加坡和印度等国的关系;总体上形成“一雁领头、群雁跟随”的“雁阵”模式。这一安全模式形成的动因主要来自全球趋势的变化、亚太地

  9. Effects of Lighting Time on Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels of Zi Geese in Fall and Winter%秋冬季节光照时间对籽鹅血清生殖激素水平变化规律的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋菊; 周瑞进; 杨焕民; 朱双

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the variation of serum reproductive hormone levels of breed-ing Zi geese in un-natural breeding season, and sought for the possibility of lighting time affecting anti-seasonal breeding of Zi geese. A total of 300 two-year-old breeding Zi geese (female 180, male 120) were divided into 3 groups ( female 60 and male 40 per group) . Geese in the control group were natural lighting, and the others in short lighting group and long lighting group were controlled with 11 h lighting and 13 h darkling and 15 h lighting and 9 h darkling, respectively. The preliminary trial period lasted for 1 week and trial period lasted for 10 weeks. The results showed that the levels of follicle-stimulatingg hormone ( FSH ) , luteinizing hormone ( LH) in serum of female geese and testosterone ( T) in serum of male geese were increased with the increas-ing of lighting time, and the serum prolactin ( PRL) level of female geese was increased at the beginning and then decreased with the increasing of lighting time. The hormone levels of geese in long lighting group were approached to the hormone levels of geese in control group at the experiment end. When the lighting time re-duced, the levels of FSH and LH in serum of female geese and T in serum of male geese were decreased, but the serum PRL level of female geese was increased. In conclusion, lighting time can affect the reproductive hormone levels of breeding Zi geese in the anestrous season, and the reproductive hormone levels of breeding Zi geese are varied in different lighting time. Therefore, the anti-seasonal reproduction of Zi geese will come true by artificial regulation lighting time.%本试验旨在研究在秋冬非繁殖季节,不同光照时间对籽鹅种鹅血清生殖激素水平的影响及其变化规律,探讨通过控制光照时间调控籽鹅反季节生产的可能性。选择2年龄健康籽鹅300只(母鹅180只、公鹅120只),分成3个组,每组母鹅60只、公鹅40

  10. Effect of vitamin C and sodium erythorbate on the quality of irradiated saltwater-stewed geese%维生素C与异抗坏血酸钠对辐照盐水鹅品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛菲

    2012-01-01

    The effect of antioxidant vitamin C and sodium erythorbate on the quality of vacuum-packed irradiated saltwater-stewed geese was studied.Saltwater-stewed geese were added two antioxidants respectively,vitamin C(0.02%) and sodium erythorbate(0.02%).The vacuum packaged samples were radiated by 6kGy 60Co-γ,then storaged at 25℃.The Aw value,TBA value,POV value,fatty acid value and TVBN content were analysed.The result showed that:TBA value,POV value,fatty acid value and TVBN content of saltwater-stewed geese decreased significantly(p〈0.05) in contrast to the controls within 28d after irradiation,which meaned that each of two antioxidants could delay fat oxidation obviously,the antioxidant effect of sodium erythorbate was better than that of vitamin C.%研究了添加维生素C与异抗坏血酸钠对盐水鹅真空包装制品经辐照处理后品质的影响。在盐水鹅中分别加入0.02%(w:w)的维生素C、异抗坏血酸钠两种抗氧化剂,作真空包装,经60Coγ射线以6kGy剂量辐照后,于25℃贮藏,对其Aw值、TBA值、POV值、酸价、TVBN含量进行序时检测。结果表明,相比对照组,盐水鹅的TBA值、POV值、酸价以及TVBN含量在辐照后28d内均显著降低(p〈0.05),说明维生素C与异抗坏血酸钠在延缓脂肪氧化方面均效果明显;两者比较,异抗坏血酸钠的抗氧化效果优于维生素C。

  11. Mad Cows and Cooked Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Science leads with the results of a recent gloomy assessment of the cause of global climate change. Nature leads off this week with a story about U.S. attempts to prevent the spread of mad cow disease.

  12. 印度Ladakh地区斑头雁的数量、种群结构和栖息地利用%Number, population structure and habitat use of bar-headed geese Anser indicus in Ladakh (India) during the brood-rearing period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herbert H. T. PRINS; Sipke E. van WIEREN

    2004-01-01

    于1998、2000和2002年在印度的Ladakh地区进行了野外考察以研究斑头雁的繁殖行为和种群大小.Ladakh地区的斑头雁集小群在淡水湖泊中的小岛上进行繁殖,不在树上和悬崖上繁殖.5月份开始产卵.群内孵化的同步性较低.盐水湖岸上没有观察到进行繁殖或带有幼雏的斑头雁.作者所调查的Ladakh地区有350-1000只斑头雁,该物种的数量满足了Ramsar公约的有关规定,建议将该地区列为国际重要地区[动物学报50(5):738-744,2004].%In 1998, 2000 and 2002 expeditions were conducted in Ladakh, India, to study breeding behaviour and population size of bar-headed geese Anser indicus. Bar-headed geese in Ladakh bred in small colonies on islets in fresh water lakes but not in trees and apparently not on cliffs. Egg laying started in May. Hatching synchrony within colonies was low. Breeding bar-headed geese or geese with juveniles were not observed on the shores of saline lakes. The area of Ladakh that we surveyed contained between 350 and 1 000 individuals, which makes Lake Tsomoriri (4 650 m altitude)meet the Ramsar Convention criteria for this goose species. We propose this area to be listed as such [ Acta Zoologica Sinica 50 (5): 738-744, 2004].

  13. 从咏鹅诗看基督精神对杜甫潜移默化的影响%Imperceptible Influence of the Christian Spirit on Du Fu in His Poems on Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思齐

    2013-01-01

      杜甫是伟大的诗人,他属于中国,更属于世界。杜甫一生中创作了大量的表现重大历史题材的现实主义诗篇,然而他也创作了一些闲适诗,其中有五首提及鹅。杜甫的咏鹅诗以诗人自身为吟咏对象的显现场所。这一现象启迪我们去追问杜甫咏鹅诗的本质,这些作品产生的原因,以及它们对真理的关系。海德格尔关于作品与真理关系的论述,为我们认识杜甫的咏鹅诗,提供了一个参照系。从杜甫的咏鹅诗出发,我们可以进而更好地把握杜甫民生诗篇的本质,因而二者在本质上是一致的,它们都是对生命本真状态的关注。杜甫的诗歌创作之所以达到了世界一流水准,与他所生活的时代和生存的境况均有关系。作为唐朝国教之一的基督宗教对杜甫有着潜移作用,以至于他无须变更自己的话语体系就接纳了基督精神。杜甫长期面临的生存压力使得他的思维异常地敏感,以至于在基督精神的推动下他关注到了自身、周边生存物以及宇宙中的其他生命个体。杜甫诗歌这一基本品格使得杜诗具有恒久的认识价值与审美价值。杜诗的认识价值使人们认为它值得一读且百读不厌。%Du Fu is a great poet of China and of the world. He wrote a great number of realistic poems that reflected major events of the history and poems of leisure all his life, five of which are on geese. The best poems on geese by Du Fu are that the poet took himself as a target, which inspires us to seek the essence of his poems on geese, the reasons why the poems were written, and the relationship bwtween the poems and the truth. Martin Heidegger’s discussion on the relationship between the poems and the truth has provided us with a frame of reference for a better understanding of Du Fu’s poems on geese. It is a better way than ever to grasp the essence of Du Fu’s poems on people’s livelihood

  14. 木薯渣在50~70日龄仔鹅饲粮中的适宜添加量%Optimum Supplemental Level of Cassava Residues for Geese at 50 to 70 Days of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海明; 张芬芬; 王志跃; 李彦品; 巨晓军

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究木薯渣在50~70日龄仔鹅饲粮中的适宜添加量。选取200只50日龄健康、体重相近的扬州鹅公鹅,随机分为5组,每组4个重复,每个重复10只。对照组饲喂基础饲粮,试验组分别饲喂添加5%、10%、15%和20%木薯渣的试验饲粮,试验期21 d。结果表明:1)与对照组相比,饲粮中添加木薯渣显著降低了10周龄鹅饲粮能量的表观代谢率( P<0.05);饲粮中添加10%、15%、20%木薯渣显著提高了64~70日龄和50~70日龄仔鹅平均日采食量( P<0.05);饲粮中添加15%、20%木薯渣显著提高了50~56日龄仔鹅的平均日增重( P<0.05);饲粮中添加20%木薯渣显著降低了仔鹅的腹脂率( P<0.05),显著提高了肌肉中粗灰分的含量( P<0.05)。2)饲粮中添加木薯渣对仔鹅其他屠宰性能、饲粮养分表观代谢率及肉品质、肌肉常规养分含量无显著影响(P>0.05)。3)由饲料成本降低百分比和经济效益呈现的二次关系可知,当木薯渣添加量为21.4%时,饲料成本降低百分比值最大;当木薯渣添加量为20.9%时,经济效益最高。由此可见,饲粮中添加木薯渣可以促进仔鹅生长,对屠宰性能、饲粮养分表观代谢率、肉品质及肌肉常规养分含量无显著影响。综合仔鹅生长性能、屠宰性能、饲粮表观养分利用率及对经济效益的分析,50~70日龄仔鹅饲粮中木薯渣的适宜添加量为20%。%The objective of this experiment was to study on optimum supplemental level of cassava residues for geese at 50 to 70 days of age.Two hundred 49-day-old healthy male geese with similar body weight were ran-domly allocated into 5 groups with 4 replicates and each replicate had 10 geese.The control group was fed a basal diet and experimental groups were fed experimental diets supplemented with 5%, 10%, 15%and 20%cassava residues

  15. A hypothesis: the conjunction of soldiers, gas, pigs, ducks, geese and horses in northern France during the Great War provided the conditions for the emergence of the "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-1919.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, J S; Lambkin, R; Sefton, A; Daniels, R; Elliot, A; Brown, R; Gill, D

    2005-01-01

    The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 was a cataclysmic outbreak of infection wherein over 50 million people died worldwide within 18 months. The question of the origin is important because most influenza surveillance at present is focussed on S.E. Asia. Two later pandemic viruses in 1957 and 1968 arose in this region. However we present evidence that early outbreaks of a new disease with rapid onset and spreadability, high mortality in young soldiers in the British base camp at Etaples in Northern France in the winter of 1917 is, at least to date, the most likely focus of origin of the pandemic. Pathologists working at Etaples and Aldershot barracks later agreed that these early outbreaks in army camps were the same disease as the infection wave of influenza in 1918. The Etaples camp had the necessary mixture of factors for emergence of pandemic influenza including overcrowding (with 100,000 soldiers daily changing), live pigs, and nearby live geese, duck and chicken markets, horses and an additional factor 24 gases (some of them mutagenic) used in large 100 ton quantities to contaminate soldiers and the landscape. The final trigger for the ensuing pandemic was the return of millions of soldiers to their homelands around the entire world in the autumn of 1918.

  16. Metabolizable Energy and Fiber Digestibility Values of 11 Unconventional Feedstuffs for Geese%鹅对11种非常规饲料代谢能和纤维利用率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章双杰; 徐国银; 郭军; 汤青萍; 邹剑敏; 李慧芳; 朱春红; 陆火林; 苏建东; 谈为忠

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the availability of different unconventional feedstuffs for geese. A total of 30 Taihu ganders were selected and divided into 5 groups with 6 replicates per group and 1 goose in each replicate, and one group was allocated as control. Taihu ganders in 4 treated groups were force-fed with uniform weight of different uncommon feedstuffs after 24 h fasting, and the control group was kept in fasting with no force feeding. All excretion of each group was collected in 24 h after force feeding with plates. There was a 12-day recovery period between treatments. In this study, we total analyzed the metabolizable energy (ME), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemi cellulose (HC) of eleven kinds of uncommon feedstuffs which including brewer' s grains, distillers grains, empty-grain rice, ryegrass powder, rice husk, corn stalk, rice straw, wheat straw, wheat husk, mushroom bran and peanut vine for geese. The results showed that true metabolizable energy (TME) values of 11 kinds of feedstuffs were 9.29, 8.67, 8.97, 5.89, 3.85, 3.10, 3.32, 3.02, 5.29, 2.48 and 3. 15 MJ/kg, respectively. Availability of NDF for different uncommon feedstuffs ranged from 6. 14% to 45.01%, availability of ADF ranged from 4. 52% to 32. 57% , availability of HC ranged from 18.45% to 61. 59%. The optimum prediction equation: TME = 12.205 -0.232 CF (R2 = 0.817). These results indicated that geese are preferred to uncommon feedstuffs with high availability, and there is a significantly negative correlation between energy availability and the crude fiber (CF). ME values tested in this experiment can provide foundation for preparation and adjustment of feed formula for reasonable utilization of uncommon feedstuffs for geese.%本研究旨在探索鹅对不同非常规饲料的利用率.试验以30只成年太湖鹅公鹅为研究对象,随机分为5组,每组6个重复,每个重复1只鹅,其中1组为内源排泄物对照组.空腹24 h

  17. 江苏盐城滩涂湿地雁鸭类资源调查及保护对策%A Survey of Geese and Duck Resources in Coastal Wetland of Yancheng City,Jiangsu Province and a Strategy for Their Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王加连; 吕士成; 陈亚

    2011-01-01

    2008年10月至2010年3月,对江苏盐城滩涂湿地的雁鸭类资源进行调查.共记录到雁鸭类34种,其中旅鸟17种,占所调查雁鸭类总物种数的50.0‰冬候鸟16种,占47.1‰夏候鸟1种,占2.9%.记录到国家I级重点保护野生动物1种,国家11级重点保护野生动物3种.此外,还分析了该区雁鸭类资源数量减少的原因,提出了保护和管理对策.%A survey of geese and duck resources was carried out in coastal wetland of Yancheng ciiy. Jiangsu province, from October 2008 to March 2010. A tolal of .14 species of geese and duck were recorded in the area. Among them. 17 species (50.0%) were travelling birds, 16 species (47.1%) were winter migrants and only one species (2.9%) was summer breeder. Four species were listed as, the National Key Protected Wild Animals of China, one of which was in the first class of priority and the rest three were in the second class of priority. In addition, the cause for the decline of the geese and duck resources was discussed and some management measures to protect these resources were proposed.

  18. Effect of diets supplemented with Wedelia Chinensis plants on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of Hepu geese%蟛蜞菊组成日粮对合浦鹅养分利用和生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨家晃; 卢玉发; 何仁春; 黄丽霞; 梁方方; 卢桂猷

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of diets supplemented with Wedelia chinensis on nutrients digestion and growth performance of goose.[Method]Ninety-six 21 d Hepu geese with similar body weight were randomly selected in 4 groups and given 4 treatments of diets:concentrate + fresh elephant grass (diet 1 ) ; concentrate + fresh W.chinensis (diet 2); concentrate +10% W.chinensis powder + fresh W.chinensis (diet 3); concentrate + 22%W.chinensis powder + fresh W.chinensis (diet 4).Each group of geese (24 geese in 1:1 of male:female ratio) was fed indoor in triplicate for 42 d and digestion was monitored after 7 d of adaptation to the diets.The apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients was determined and the blood physiological indices and slaughtering traits were also measured at the end of trial.[Result]The results showed lesser apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) and energy in geese fed with diet 4 compared to those fed with diet 1,2 and 3 (P<0.05).The geese fed diet 2,3 and 4 showed better apparent digestibility for fibrous materials,including acid detergent fiber(ADF),neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and hemi-cellulose,compared to geese fed with diet 1 (P<0.05).No significant differences were observed for digestion of other nutrients among the 4 diets (P>0.05).The geese fed with diet 2 showed higher daily weight gain than those fed with diet 1,3 (P<0.05) and diet 4 (P<0.01),however,geese fed with diet 1 and 3 did not show significant difference amongst them (P>0.05).Also,no significant difference was observed in blood physiological indices and slaughter traits among 4 groups (P>0.05).[Conclusion]It may be concluded that W.chinensis can be used as a good feedstuff for geese when it is supplemented with diet in proper form and suitable ratio.%[目的]探讨蟛蜞菊作为日粮主要成分对鹅生长性能和养分利用率的影响.[方法]将96羽21日龄体重相近的合浦鹅随机分为4组,每组3

  19. 玉米干酒糟及其可溶物对仔鹅生长性能及肉品质的影响%Effects of Feeding Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小娟; 王志跃; 杨海明; 王信喜

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮中添加不同水平玉米干酒糟及其可溶物( DDGS)对仔鹅生长性能和肉品质的影响.选取160只3周龄扬州鹅(母),随机分为4个组,每个组4个重复,每个重复10只鹅.对照组饲喂玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮,试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组玉米DDGS占饲粮的比例分别为10%、20%、30%.在试验期每周末称量禁食12 h后的仔鹅体重,以重复为单位记录周采食量,在仔鹅10周龄末屠宰采样,分离胸肌和腿肌,测定仔鹅肉品质.预试期1周,正试期6周(4~10周龄).结果表明:饲粮中添加玉米DDGS对试验组的平均日采食量、料重比无显著影响(P>0.05);5周龄时,试验Ⅰ组的体重显著高于试验Ⅲ组(P<0.05),8、9周龄时,试验Ⅱ组的体重显著高于对照组(P<0.05),但在整个试验期间各组的平均日增重无显著差异(P>0.05).试验组胸肌的pH、肉色、剪切力、失水率与对照组无显著差异(P>0.05).在脂质过氧化水平测试期第1天,试验Ⅰ和Ⅱ组硫代巴比妥酸反应物含量显著高于对照组(P<0.05),在第4、5天,3个试验组均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),从整个测试期的每天测试结果看,各组间的硫代巴比妥酸反应物含量均有随着玉米DDGS添加水平的增加呈先上升后下降的趋势.综上所述,在仔鹅的饲粮中添加至30%的玉米DDGS对仔鹅的生长和常规的肉品质指标无不利影响,但会提高仔鹅肌肉的脂质氧化水平,容易引起酸败.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance and meat quality in geese. One hundred and sixty Yangzhou geese aged 3 weeks were randomly divided into 4 groups, each of which was replicated 4 times with 10 geese per replicate. The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, and experimental groups I , II and III were fed the basal diets containing 10% , 20% and 30% corn DDGS

  20. Analysis on nutrient sausage made with geese bone paste and carrots%鹅骨泥胡萝卜营养灌肠的营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪学荣

    2012-01-01

    分析测定了鹅骨泥胡萝卜营养灌肠和传统猪肉灌肠的常规营养成分、矿物质元素、维生素和氨基酸组成,并将二者进行了比较。分析测定结果表明:普通灌肠和新型营养灌肠的水分和脂肪含量差异不显著(p〉0.05);灰分差异显著(0.01%The nutri paste of geese and carrots ents, minerals, vitamins and amino acids of the nutrient sausage made with the and traditional pork sausage were analyzed and compared. The results revealed that the difference of the water and fat content between the traditional sausage and the new nutrient sausage were not remarkable ( p 〉 0.05 ) ; but the difference of the content of ash was remarkable (0.01 〈 p 〈 0.05 ), were 2. 512% and 2. 739% ; the difference of protein and total sugar were exceptional remarkable ( p 〈0.01 ), were 19.34% ,20.26% and 0.6154% ,0. 6157% ; the difference of the content of most con- vention mineral element were exceptional remarkable, the content of calcium and phosphorus were up to 0.4% and 0.26% ; the content of vitamin A and beta- carotene were up to 450mg/kg and 48mg/kg; the difference of seven essential amino acids in seventeen total amino acids were exceptional remarkable, the content of leucine and lysine amino acids were the highest.

  1. 饲粮粗蛋白质和代谢能水平对4~8周龄四川白鹅生产性能和氮平衡的影响%Effects of Dietary Crude Protein and Metabolizable Energy Levels on Performance and Nitrogen Balance of Sichuan White Geese Aged from 4 to 8 Weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴; 陈明君; 彭祥伟

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮粗蛋白质( CP)和代谢能( ME)水平对4~8周龄四川白鹅生产性能和氮平衡的影响。采用3×3双因素试验设计,设3个ME水平(12.86、12.13、11.43 MJ/kg)和3个CP水平(17%、15%、13%),配制9种试验饲粮。选择540只体重相近、健康的22日龄四川白鹅,随机分成9组,每组4个重复,每个重复15只。试验期为35 d。在试验第21天,每组挑选8只体重接近各组平均体重的试验鹅进行代谢试验。结果表明:1) CP水平对料重比有显著影响(P<0.05),ME水平对日干物质(DM)采食量、料重比有极显著影响(P<0.01),CP和ME水平的互作对日DM采食量有极显著影响( P<0.01)。随着CP水平的增加,每克增重消耗CP量极显著上升(P<0.01),每克增重消耗ME量先降低后升高(P<0.01)。2)CP水平对食入氮、粪尿氮、氮利用率、GE代谢率有极显著影响( P<0.01),ME水平对粪尿氮、氮利用率、粪尿GE和GE代谢率有显著(P<0.05)或极显著(P<0.01)的影响,CP和ME水平的互作对食入氮、食入GE、粪尿GE、ME有显著(P<0.05)或极显著(P<0.01)的影响。由此可知,4~8周四川白鹅适宜的CP水平为15%,ME水平为12.13 MJ/kg。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of crude protein(CP) and metabolizable energy(ME) levels on performance and nitrogen balance of Sichuan white geese aged from 4 to 8 weeks. Five hun-dred and forty healthy 22-day-old China Sichuan white geese with similar body weight were used in a 3 × 3 double factorial design trial and randomly allocated into 9 groups with 4 replicates in each group and 15 geese in each replicate. The geese were fed 9 experimental diets with three levels of ME(12. 86, 12. 13 and 11.43 MJ/kg) and three levels of CP(17%, 15% and 13%). The feeding experiment lasted for 35 days. Eight geese per group were picked up on the basis of individual weight immediate to the average weight of ev-ery group on day 21 of the experiment, and the geese were used in

  2. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein and Metabolizable Energy Levels on Performance and Nitrogen Balance of Sichuan White Geese Aged from 9 to 10 Weeks%饲粮粗蛋白质和代谢能水平对9~10周龄四川白鹅生产性能和氮平衡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴; 陈明君; 彭祥伟

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of crude protein ( CP) and metabolizable energy ( ME) levels on performance and nitrogen balance of Sichuan white geese aged from 9 to 10 weeks. Four hun-dred and thirty two 57-day-old healthy Sichuan white geese with similar body weight were used in a 3×3 double factorial design trial and randomly allocated into 9 groups with 4 replicates in each group and 12 geese in each replicate. The geese were fed 9 experimental diets with three levels of ME (12.86, 12.13 and 11.43 MJ/kg) and three levels of CP ( 15%, 13% or 11%) . The feeding experiment lasted for 14 days. Eight geese per group were picked up on the basis of individual weight immediate to the average weight of every group on day 8 of the experiment, and the geese were used in a metabolism trial. The results showed as follows:1) CP level had significant effects on daily dry matter ( DM) intake and feed to gain ratio ( P<0.05) , the daily DM intake and feed to gain ratio were decreased with CP level increased; ME level had significant effect on daily DM intake ( P<0.01) , the daily DM intake was decreased with ME level increased; the interaction between CP and ME levels had significant effect on the consumed CP and ME for gain per gram (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with CP level increased, the consumed CP for gain per gram was increased, the consumed ME for gain per gram was decreased. 2) CP level had significant effects on nitrogen intake, nitrogen excretion from excrement, deposited nitrogen, GE excretion from excrement and availability of GE ( P<0.05 or P<0.01) , the nitrogen intake, ni-trogen excretion from excrement, deposited nitrogen, GE excretion from excrement were increased with CP level increased. The interaction between dietary CP and ME levels had significant effects on deposited nitrogen and availability of nitrogen (P<0.05). The results suggest that for Sichuan white geese aged from 9 to 10 weeks, the suitable dietary levels of CP and ME are 13% and 11

  3. IMMUNOGENICITY OF INACTIVATED H5N1 SUBTYPE AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS VACCINES IN DUCKS AND GEESE%重组禽流感病毒灭活疫苗(H5N1亚型)对鸭和鹅的免疫效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈欣悦; 程旭; 刘梅; 尤素兰; 刘加圣; 戴亚斌

    2013-01-01

      由H5N1亚型禽流感病毒(Avian influenza virus,AIV)引起的高致病性禽流感(highly pathogenic avian influenza, HPAI)是禽类的一种烈性传染病,疫苗免疫是禽流感防控中的重要环节。本试验采用重组禽流感病毒灭活疫苗(H5N1,Re-5株)和重组禽流感病毒H5亚型二价灭活疫苗(H5N1、Re-5株+Re-4株)进行了鸭和鹅的免疫试验,对免疫鸭和鹅的抗体水平进行了动态监测。试验结果表明,两种疫苗对鸭和鹅均具有良好的免疫效果。基于试验结果提出了鸭和鹅禽流感免疫程序:2 w左右首免,4~5 w时二免,开产前三免,此后每隔4~5个月加强免疫一次。%Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is caused by H5N1 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV), and the vaccination plays a key role in prevention and control. In this study, ducks and geese were immunized with either inactivated avian influenza vaccine (H5N1 subtype, Re-5 strain) or bivalent inactivated avian influenza vaccine (H5N1 subtype, Re-5 strain+Re-4 strain) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels were detected. Both vaccines induced strong immune responses in ducks and geese. Based on these results, the proposal for the AIV vaccination program in ducks and geese should include the initial dose at 2-week-old, the second dose at 4-5-week-old, the third dose before the beginning of laying period, and further boosters at every 4-5 month interval.

  4. Effects of Citrus Pomace on Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Sichuan White Geese at 1 to 21 Days of Age%柑橘皮渣对1~21日龄四川白鹅生长性能及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志鹏; 王文策; 叶慧; 林祯平; 杨琳

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of citrus pomace on growth performance and ser-um biochemical parameters of Sichuan white geese at 1 to 21 days of age. A total of 828 one-day-old Sichuan white geese were distributed into one-factor experiment for 6 groups with 6 replicates and 23 ducks per repli-cate. Six corn-soybean meal type diets were perpared with the similar metabolizable energy, crude protein and acid amino, and the citrus pomace level in those diets was 0 ( control group) , 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%, respectively. The experment lasted for 21 days. The results showed as follows:1) the feed/gain of 8% group was significantly lower than that of the control group, the final weight and average daily gain showed a firstly increased and then decreased tendency. 2) Compared with the control group, the serum high-density lipopro-tein content of 8% group was significantly improved (P0.05). In conclusion, 6% citrus pomace added in the diet can improve the growth performance of Sichuan white geese at 1 to 21 days of age.%本试验旨在探索柑橘皮渣对1~21日龄四川白鹅生长性能及血清生化指标的影响。选用828只1日龄四川白鹅,用单因子试验设计,随机分成6组,每个组6个重复,每个重复23只鹅。各组分别饲喂含柑橘皮渣0(对照组)、2%、4%、6%、8%和10%的等代谢能、等粗蛋白质、等氨基酸的玉米-豆粕型饲粮。试验期21 d。结果表明:1)6%组料重比显著低于对照组(P0.05)。由此可见,饲粮柑橘皮渣添加量为6%时,对1~21日龄四川白鹅生产性能有较好的促进作用。

  5. ω-6/ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸比例对生长期扬州 鹅血脂代谢及冠脉事件预测因子的影响%Effect of ω-6/ω-3 PUFA Ratios on Blood Lipid Metabolism and Predictive Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Growing Yangzhou Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦芝; 潘晓花; 王剑飞; 喻礼怀; 王洪荣; 王加启

    2011-01-01

    本文旨在初步探讨不同ω-6/ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)比例对扬州鹅血脂、血清超敏C反应蛋白(hypersensitive C-reactive protein,HsCRP)及可溶性CD40配体(sCD40L)的影响.试验选择160只同批出雏、体重接近的21日龄的扬州鹅,随机分成4组,每组4个重复,每个重复10只.分别饲喂ω-6/ω-3 PUFA比例为3∶1、6∶1、9∶1、12∶1的饲粮,并分别于42、56、70日龄时进行采血和血脂等指标的测定.结果表明:56、70日龄时,ω-6/ω-3 PUFA比例为6∶l组扬州鹅的血清中有较低的总甘油三酯(TG)(P<0.05)、总胆固醇(TC)(P<0.05)和低密度脂蛋白(LDL) (P <0.05),且该组的高密度脂蛋白(HDL)在4组中最高(P<0.05).HsCRP或sCD40L水平总体上随ω/6/ω-3 PUFA比例的增加呈现上升趋势,基本都以3∶1组最低,但各处理间的差异多不显著(P>0.05).综上所述,ω-6/ω-3 PUFA比例为6∶1组有较好的降低血脂的效应,而低ω-6/ω-3 PUFA比例(3∶1)饲粮有降低扬州鹅HsCRP和sCD40L的趋势.%The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of different ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios on blood lipid metabolism, and predictive factors for coronary artery disease in growing Yangzhou geese. Hundred and sixty 21-day-old healthy Yangzhou geese with average body weight of (0.407 0.023) kg were randomly divided into 4 groups. They were fed diets with different ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios, which were 3:1, 6:1, 9:1 and 12:1, respectively. The blood samples were obtained to determine the blood lipid, hypersensitive C-reactive protein (HsCRP), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) at the age of 42, 56, and70 days, respectively. The results showed as follows: the geese fed the diet with the (ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratio of 6:1 had much lower blood total triglyceride (TG) ( P 0.05). In conclusion, the diet with ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratio of 6:1 can decrease blood lipid; moreover, the diet with low ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios (3:1) has a tendency to decrease blood HsCRP and sCD40L

  6. 无氮饲粮法与饥饿法对测定扬州鹅内源性氨基酸排泄量的影响%Effects of Nitrogen-Free Diet Method and Fasting Method on Endogenous Amino Acid Losses of Yangzhou Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋银屏; 王志跃; 周春江; 杨海明

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous amino acid losses in intact and caecectomized geese were determined by nitrogen-free diet method (NFD) and fasting method (FAS) in this study and the differences of the two methods were compared. Twelve adult male Yangzhou geese were randomly divided into two groups with six birds in each group, and one group was chosen to be caecetomized. The geese were fasted for 24 h and the endogenous amino acid losses were detected by collecting all excrement in 24 h. The results showed that endogenous serine, leucine, and phenylalanine losses in caecectomized group determined by NFD were significantly lower than those in intact group (P 0. 05). The endogenous aspartate and valine losses in intact group determined by FAS were significantly higher than those in caecectomized group (P 0. 05). It is concluded that endogenous amino acid losses in intact and caecectomized geese determined by NFD and FAS are different, most of endogenous amino acid losses are extremely significantly different, and all most endogenous amino acid losses determined by NDF are higher than those determined by FAS.%本试验旨在研究无氮饲粮法及饥饿法测定去盲肠鹅及正常鹅内源性氨基酸排泄量的差异.选用成年扬州鹅公鹅12只,随机分成2组,每组6只,对其中一组进行去盲肠手术,采用24 h禁食+24 h全收粪法进行试验.结果表明:无氮饲粮法测定的内源性氨基酸排泄量中,正常组的丝氨酸、亮氨酸、苯丙氨酸显著高于去盲肠组(P<0.05),去盲肠组的精氨酸极显著高于正常组(P<0.01),其余氨基酸差异均不显著(P>0.05).饥饿法测定的内源性氨基酸排泄量中,正常组的天冬氨酸与缬氨酸显著高于去盲肠组(P<0.05),其余氨基酸差异均不显著(P>0.05).由此表明,无氮饲粮法与饥饿法测定扬州鹅内源性氨基酸排泄量并不完全相同,大部分氨基酸之间存在极显著差异,饥饿法测定的多数内源性氨基酸排泄量低于无氮饲粮法.

  7. Study on the Meat Production Performance and Meat Quality of Yangzhou Geese and Its Crossed Combinations%扬州鹅及其杂交配套组合肉用性能和肉品质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢恺舟; 黄玉萍; 陈学森; 陈书琴; 戴国俊; 赵万里

    2012-01-01

    The slaughter performance, meat quality and chemical constitutes of 70-day-old Yangzhou geese and its four different crossed combinations (KxB, KxA, CxA and SxA)were measured.The results indicated that the percentage of dressed weight was above 87.10%, percentage of eviscerated yield was above 67.94%. The value of carnation was 0.58~-1.68, and all the carnation of breast muscle were ligter than leg muscle. The tenderness of leg muscle was better than breast muscle,and there was no significant difference between genders. The content of crude fat of breast muscle was significant higher than leg muscle of gander in the K xB group (P<0.05), the content of water of breast muscle was significant higher than leg muscle in SxA group and goose in AxA group (P<0.05), the content of crude protein was extensively significant lower than leg muscle of goose in AxA group (P<0.0l), there was no significant difference in the content of chemical constitutes between parts and between genders. Except for the content of IMP of breast muscle was significant higher than that of leg muscle from goose in CxA group (P<0.05=, the contents of IMP and the thiamine were no significant difference between two anatomical muscles in four groups.%以70日龄扬州鹅(A×A)及其4个杂交配套组合(K×B、K×A、C×A和S×A)鹅群体为试验素材,测定其屠宰性能、常规肉品质和化学指标.结果表明:5个鹅群体中,屠宰率、全净膛率都分别在87.10%、67.94%以上;肌肉肉色(OD值)为0.58~1.68,且胸肌肉色均较腿肌浅;嫩度在性别间差异不显著,但腿肌的嫩度比胸肌好;K×B群体公鹅胸肌粗脂肪、S×A群体及A×A群体母鹅胸肌的水分含量均显著高于腿肌(P<0.05),A×A群体母鹅胸肌蛋白含量极显著小于腿肌(P<0 01),S×A群体公鹅腿肌的粗脂肪含量在性别间差异显著(P<0.05),其他群体的常规化学成分含量在部位和性别间差异均不显著;除C×A群体母鹅胸肌中的肌苷酸

  8. Wild geese of the Yangtze River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is a process in which organisms decide to choose a suitable site for nesting, roosting or foraging. The question where the organisms are, and when they will leave are two of the fundamental questions frequently asked by ecologists. Habitat selection is affected by various

  9. Personality differences explain leadership in barnacle geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Eijkelenkamp, B.; Van Oers, K.; van Lith, B.; van Wieren, S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Personality in animal behaviour describes the observation that behavioural differences between individuals are consistent over time and context. Studies of group-living animals show that movement order among individuals is also consistent over time and context, suggesting that some individuals lead

  10. 饲粮代谢能水平对1~3周龄四川白鹅生长性能和血清生化指标的影响%Effects of Dietary Metabolizable Energy Level on Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Indices of Sichuan White Geese Aged from 1 to 3 Weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴; 赵献芝; 刘万红; 何德超; 彭祥伟

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary metabolizable energy ( ME) level on growth performance and serum biochemical indices of Sichuan white geese aged from 1 to 3 weeks. Seven hun-dred and eighty healthy 3-day-old Sichuan white geese with similar body weight were randomly allocated into 5 groups with 6 replicates in each group and 26 geese in each replicate. Using in a single factorial design trial, the geese were fed 5 experimental diets with 5 dietary ME levels ( 12. 86, 12. 13 11. 43, 10. 73 and 10.00 MJ/kg) , and dietary crude protein level was 20% in every group. The experiment lasted for 18 days. The results showed as follows:1) the average daily feed intake and ratio of feed to gain of dietary ME level 10.00 MJ/kg group were significantly higher than those of other groups ( P<0.01) , the final weight and aver-age daily gain of dietary ME level 12.13 and 10.00 MJ/kg groups were significantly higher than those of dieta-ry ME level 10.73 MJ/kg group ( P<0.05) . 2) The feed cost of dietary ME level 12.86 MJ/kg group was the highest, while the feed cost of dietary ME level 10.73 MJ/kg group was the lowest. 3) The serum total choles-terol content of dietary ME level 12.86 MJ/kg group was significantly lower than that of other groups ( P<0.05 or P<0.01) , the serum low density lipoprotein content of dietary ME level 10.73 and 10.00 MJ/kg groups was significantly lower than that of other groups ( P<0.01) , and the activities of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in serum of dietary ME level 12.86 MJ/kg group were significantly higher than those of other groups ( P<0.01) . In conclusion, the regression analysis shows that selected low ratio of feed to gain and high average daily gain as indicators, the recommended dietary ME level of Sichuan white geese is 12.22 MJ/kg; selected high average daily gain and low feed cost as indicators, the recommended dietary ME level is 10.75 MJ/kg.%本试

  11. 锰对1~4周龄五龙鹅生长性能、屠宰性能、胫骨发育及酶活性的影响%Effects of Manganese on Growth Performance, Slaughter Performance, Tibia Development and Enzyme Activities of Wulong Geese Aged from 1 to 4 Weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝维; 张雪君; 葛文华; 张名爱; 岳斌; 史雪萍; 王鑫; 徐晨晨

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of manganese on growth performance, slaughter performance , tibia development and enzyme activities of Wulong geese aged from 1 to 4 weeks, and to find the appropriate supplemental level of manganese. A total of 360 one-day-old Wulong geese with similar average body weight were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates per group and 10 geese per replicate ( half male and half female) . Geese in the groups were fed the basal diet ( manganese content was 20 mg/kg) sup-plemented with 0 ( group Ⅰ) , 30 ( group II) , 60 ( group Ⅲ) , 90 ( group Ⅳ) , 120 ( group ⅴ) and 150 mg/kg ( group Ⅵ) manganese, respectively. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks. The results showed as follows: 1 ) using unrelated comparative analysis method, when the dietary manganese level was 117. 74 mg/kg, the average daily gain reached the highest, and when the dietary manganese level was 105. 71 mg/kg, the ratio of feed to gain reached the lowest. 2) The dressed percentage, percentage of half-e-viscerated yield, percentage of eviscerated yield and percentage of leg muscle in groupsⅣandⅴwere signifi-cantly higher than those in groupⅠ( P<0 . 05 or P<0 . 01 ) , and the percentage of abdominal fat in groupⅴwas significantly lower than that in group Ⅰ (P <0. 05). 3) The bone mineral density, bone strength, ash and calcium contents in groups Ⅳ and ⅴ were significantly higher than those in group Ⅰ ( P<0 . 05 or P<0 . 01 ) . 4 ) The serum manganese superoxide dismutase activity in groups Ⅳ and ⅴ was significantly higher than that in group Ⅰ ( P<0 . 05 or P<0 . 01 ) , and the activities of malic dehydrogenase and lipoproteinester-ase in liver in groups Ⅳ and ⅴ were significantly lower than those in group Ⅰ ( P<0 . 05 or P<0 . 01 ) . In conclusion, dietary manganese at appropriate supplemental level can promote growth performance, slaughter performance and tibia development of Wulong geese aged from 1 to 4 weeks

  12. Effects of Zymotic Grape Seed Meal on Digestive Physiology, Immune Organ Indices and Antioxidant Indices of Wulong Geese Aged from 5 to 12 Weeks%发酵葡萄籽粕对5~12周龄五龙鹅消化生理、免疫器官指数和抗氧化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝维; 隋丽; 岳斌; 葛文华; 张名爱; 张开磊; 贾玉辉; 史雪萍

    2016-01-01

    Wulong geese aged from 5 to 12 weeks, to find the appropriate supplemental level of the zymotic grape seed meal and its feed effect.A to-tal of 288 five-week-old Wulong geese were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates per group and 8 geese per replicate ( half male and half female) .Geese in the control group ( groupⅠ) were fed a basal diet, and the others were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2%( groupⅡ) , 4%( groupⅢ) , 6%( groupⅣ) , 8%( groupⅤ) , 10%( groupⅥ) zymotic grape seed meal, respectively.The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows:1) compared with the control group, the activities of amylase, trypsin, lipase in duodenum and jejunum in group Ⅴ were significantly increased (P0.05) .3) Compared with the control group, the intestinal villus height in groupⅣwas significantly increased (P0.05).Compared with the control group, the serum total antioxidant capacity in group Ⅴwas significantly increased ( P<0.01);the serum malonaldehyde content in groupⅣwas significant-ly decreased ( P<0.01 ) , the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in serum in group Ⅴ were significantly increased ( P<0.01) .In conclusion, zymotic grape seed meal can improve diges-tive enzyme activity, optimize the structure of intestinal tissue, improve antioxidant function of Wulong geese aged from 5 to 12 weeks, and has no effect on immune organ index, and the dietary appropriate supplemental level is 6%to 8%.

  13. Effects of Cassava Residues on Growth Performance, Slaughter Performance and Visceral Development of Geese at 22 to 49 Days of Age%木薯渣对22~49日龄仔鹅生长性能、屠宰性能及内脏器官发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芬芬; 王志跃; 杨海明; 李彦品; 马尹鹏; 谢燕娟

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cassava residues supplemental level on growth performance, slaughter performance and visceral development of geese at 22 to 49 days of age. Three hundred 19-day-old healthy male geese with similar body weight were randomly allocated into 5 groups with 6 replicates in each group and 10 geese in each replicate. The control group was fed a basal diet, and ex-perimental groups were fed experimental diets supplied with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% cassava residues, re-spectively. The experiment lasted for 28 days. The results showed as follows: 1 ) compared with the control group, dietary supplied with cassava residues significantly improved the average daily feed intake ( ADFI) at 22 to 28, 29 to 35 and 22 to 49 days of age and the average daily gain ( ADG) at 22 to 28, 22 to 49 days of age ( P<0.05) . The ADG of geese at 22 to 49 days had a quadratic curve relationship with the supplemental level of cassava residues ( P=0.017) . When the ADG achieved highest, the supplemental level of cassava resi-dues was 12.4%. 2) Compared with the control group, dietary supplied with cassava residues significantly re-duced muscular stomach index and the relative weight of duodenum (P<0.05). 3) The reduce percentage of fodder costs of each groups had a relationship of quadratic curve ( P<0.05) . When the amount of cassava resi-dues was 17.9%, the percentage was biggest. Therefore, the diets of adding appropriate cassava residues can stimulate the growth of geese and reduce the costs of fodder at 22 to 49 days of age. They also has a certain in-fluence on the development of muscular stomach and duodenum. According to the average daily gain maximum limits and feed cost minimum limit, the suggested amount of cassava residues added to dietary is 12. 4% to 17.9%.%本试验旨在研究饲粮中添加不同水平木薯渣对22~49日龄仔鹅生长性能、屠宰性能及内脏器官发育的影响。选取300只19日龄健康、

  14. 牛至油对东北白鹅免疫器官指数及部分血清生化指标的影响%Effects of oregano oil on the immune organ index and serum biochemical indicators of the northeast white geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬; 曾召英; 李昕; 贾丙玉; 周海英; 王冬梅; 张敏; 李建国; 范宪生

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine how could oregano oil affect the growth and slaughter performance,immune organ index,as well as biochemical indicators of blood serum in the Northeast white geese.To this end,the premix oforegano oil was incorporated into the basal diet for the chosen geese.168 goslings were randomly divided into 4 groups withmales and females together.The control group was fed only with the basal diet.While 50 mg/kg,100 mg/kg,150 mg/kg oreganooil premix were added in the diet of test groups.Results reveals that:The addition of 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg oreganooil premix (with 10%of quality score)in the diet can improve the immune organ index,increase the content of IgG,IgM,C3,C4 and TP in the serum,decrease LDH activity,enhance the immunity function and raise the anti-stress ability.%研究了东北白鹅日粮中添加牛至油预混剂对其生长性能、屠宰性能和免疫器官指数及部分血清生化指标的影响。168只公母混合鹅雏按试验要求分为4组,对照组饲喂基础日粮,试验各组在基础日粮中分别添加50、100和150 mg/kg的牛至油预混剂。结果表明:在东北白鹅日粮中添加100 mg/kg及150 mg/kg质量分数10%牛至油预混剂可提高免疫器官指数,提高血清中的免疫球蛋白IgG、IgM、总蛋白含量及补体C3、C4水平,降低乳酸脱氢酶活性,增强机体的免疫性能,提高抗应激能力。

  15. Effects of Illumination Time and Ambient Temperature on Reproductive System and Gene Expression and Secretion of Hormone in Breeding Geese%光照时间和环境温度对种鹅繁殖系统及相关激素mRNA表达、分泌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海明; 巨晓军; 王志跃; 丁家桐; 王信喜; 陈永华

    2015-01-01

    ,皱褶明显,分泌腺丰富;16 h光照处理组、低温处理组种鹅的输卵管膨大部颜色暗红,假复层柱状上皮和固有层较薄,皱褶模糊,分泌腺较少。④16 h光照处理组种鹅垂体PRL基因表达量极显著高于8、12 h光照处理组(P<0.01)。⑤光照时间与环境温度对种鹅生殖系统、激素基因表达影响的互作效应不显著(P>0.05)。【结论】16 h长光照抑制了卵巢、卵泡的生长发育,12 h光照增长了输卵管的长度;16 h长光照提高了PRL基因的表达丰度。综合各方面的情况,长光照抑制了种鹅的繁殖机能,扬州鹅种鹅的最适光照时间为12 h。高温提高了种鹅血清LH、PRL浓度,低温影响了输卵管组织结构,故种鹅饲养期间要适当控温,尽量避免种鹅暴露于极端温度环境。%Objective]The experiment was conducted to study the effects of illumination time and ambient temperature treatments on reproductive system and gene expression and secretion of hormone in breeding Yangzhou geese, so that the functional characteristics of illumination time and ambient temperature could be preliminarily discovered.[Method] The geese of 200-day-old and receiving gradually decreased natural sunlight were selected as experimental animals. At the beginning of experiment, the sunlight time was 9.7 h a day, and the ambient temperature was about 5℃. Treatments were assigned in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement (2 × 3) including 2 levels of ambient temperature (0-5℃, 25-30℃) and 3 levels of illumination time (8 h, 12 h, 16 h). The illumination increased and decreased based on the natural day. In this study 120 adult female geese were randomly assigned to 6 groups with 20 birds each. Feed and water were freely available. On day 30, 5 geese of each treatment were taken randomly to collect 3 mL blood sample from wing venous for determination of related hormone indexes. At the same time, 3

  16. Effects of Bacillus Megaterium on Growth Performance, Slaughter Performance, Viscera Indices and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Geese from 1 to 70 Days of Age%巨大芽孢杆菌对1~70日龄扬州鹅生长性能、屠宰性能、脏器指数及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡中梅; 王志跃; 杨海明; 丁文骏; 靳世磊; 张艳云

    2016-01-01

    本文旨在研究巨大芽孢杆菌对1~70日龄扬州鹅生长性能、屠宰性能、脏器指数及血清生化指标的影响。选择260只1日龄健康、体重相近的扬州鹅公鹅,随机分成4组,每组5个重复,每个重复13只。对照组(Ⅰ组)饲喂基础饲粮,试验组(Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ组)分别饲喂添加20、40、60 mg/kg巨大芽孢杆菌的试验饲粮。试验期70 d。结果表明:1)Ⅳ组14、56日龄仔鹅体重显著大于对照组( P<0.05),28、42日龄仔鹅体重极显著大于对照组( P<0.01);Ⅳ组1~28日龄仔鹅平均日增重极显著高于对照组(P<0.01),显著高于Ⅱ组(P<0.05),Ⅳ组1~28日龄仔鹅料重比显著低于Ⅱ组( P<0.05),极显著低于Ⅲ组( P<0.01),Ⅲ、Ⅳ组29~70日龄仔鹅平均日采食量显著高于对照组( P<0.05)。2)Ⅳ组全净膛率、半净膛率显著高于对照组( P<0.05),胸肌率、腿肌率、腹脂率各组之间无显著差异( P>0.05)。3)Ⅳ组肌胃指数、空肠指数显著高于对照组( P<0.05)。4)Ⅱ组高密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量显著高于Ⅳ组( P<0.05),低密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量显著低于对照组( P<0.05)。由此可见,添加巨大芽孢杆菌可以改善仔鹅生长性能,对其全净膛率、半净膛率、肠道发育、血清中高密度脂蛋白含量、低密度脂蛋白含量有一定的影响,添加量为60 mg/kg时效果较好。%The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus megaterium on growth perform-ance, slaughter performance, visceral indices and serum biochemical parameters of geese from 1 to 70 days of age.Two hundred and sixty 1-day-old healthy male geese with similar body weight were randomly divided into 4 groups with 5 replicates in each group and 13 geese per replicate.The geese in control group ( group Ⅰ) were fed a basal diet, and the others in

  17. Effects of Different Chicory and Formula Feed Ratios in Dietary on Slaughter Traits and Muscle Quality of Geese%日粮中菊苣添加比例对鹅屠宰性能和肉品质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家宏; 韩光明; 马谈斌; 毕建花; 寇祥明; 王守红; 金银根; 唐鹤军; 盖玉芳

    2013-01-01

    研究日粮中菊苣的添加量对扬州鹅屠宰性能、肉品质、氨基酸和脂肪酸组成的影响,确定鹅对菊苣的最大耐受度.结果显示:在菊苣与饲料的比例为12:1组中鹅的全净膛率显著低于对照组(P<0.05),但是腿肌率显著高于对照组(P<0.05),各组中屠体重、屠宰率、半净膛率、胸肌率、翅膀率、腹脂率均无显著差异;日粮中菊苣的比例增加,显著提高了鹅胸肌和腿肌的水分含量和肉色(P<0.05),显著提高胸肌的脂肪含量(P<0.05),显著降低胸肌中蛋白质含量(P<0.05);菊苣添加过量有致使胸肌和腿肌中氨基酸含量下降的趋势,尤其是组氨酸含量在12∶1组中都显著低于其它组(P<0.05);日粮中菊苣添加比例增加,显著提高胸肌中多不饱和脂肪酸含量(P<0.05),腿肌中多不饱和脂肪酸组成差异不显著,无论胸肌还是腿肌,亚麻酸的含量都得到了显著的提高(P<0.05),其中在胸肌中的提高幅度较大.结果说明,菊苣过量添加对扬州鹅的屠宰性能影响较小,但是会影响鹅肉品质、脂肪酸和氨基酸组成.日粮中菊苣添加量越多,鹅肉中的亚麻酸含量越高.%The aim of this study is to examine the effects of different chicory and formula feed ratios in the dietary on the slaughter traits, muscle quality, aniino acid, and fatty acid composition of Yangzhou geese, and determine the maximum tolerance to the added chicory. The results were as follows; in 12: 1 (the ratio of chicory to formula feed in the dietary) group, the goose eviscerated rate was significantly lower than that in the control group (P <0.05) , but the leg muscle rate was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The carcass weight, slaughter rate, eviscerated yield with giblet, brisket rate, wing rate and abdominal fat rate in each group had no significant difference. Along with the increase of chicory proportion in the diet, the moisture content and muscle

  18. Effects of Phytase Supplementation in a Low Zinc Diet on Growth Performance, Tibial Development, Immune Performance and Antioxidant Capacity of Geese Aged from 1 to 4 Weeks%低锌饲粮添加植酸酶对1~4周龄鹅生长性能、胫骨发育、免疫性能及抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠文; 王宝维; 葛文华; 张名爱; 岳斌; 张泽南; 张洋洋; 任民

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of phytase supplementation in a low zinc diet on growth performance, tibial development, immune performance and antioxidant capacity of geese aged from 1 to 4 weeks, and to explore whether phytase could effectively reduce the zinc supplemental level and increase the biological availability of zinc. A total of 360 Wulong geese were randomly divided into six groups with six replicates per group and ten geese per replicate ( half male and half female) . Geese in the group Ⅰ ( positive control group) were fed the basal diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg zinc sulfate, and without phytase;geese in the group Ⅱ ( negative control group) were fed a basal diet supplemented with 1 200 U/kg phytase, and with⁃out zinc sulfate; and the others in the groups Ⅲ to Ⅵ were fed the diets supplemented with 16, 32, 48 and 64 mg/kg zinc sulfate based on negative control group, respectively. The experiment lasted for 28 days. The results showed as follows:1) by quadratic curve fitting analysis, in the condition of dietary supplemented with 1 200 U/kg phytase, when dietary zinc supplemental level was 34.00 to 44.7 mg/kg, the average daily gain and feed to gain reached the best. 2) The bone mineral density ( BMD) of groupsⅣ and Ⅵ was significantly higher than that of group Ⅱ (P0.05). By quadratic curve fitting analysis, when the zinc supplemental level was 50.24 and 47.49 mg/kg, respectively, the T⁃AOC in serum and liver was the highest. 4) The thymus index and bursa of Fabricius index of groups Ⅲ to Ⅵ were significantly higher than those of groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ ( P<0. 05 or P<0.01) , while the level of serum antibody against avian influenza of groups Ⅳ to Ⅵ was significantly higher than that of groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ before or after immunization ( P<0.05 or P<0.01) . In conclusion, diet adding phytase can enhance the growth performance of Wulong geese aged from 1 to 4 weeks, promote development of tibia, enhance the

  19. The Flying Geese Changes of the Efficiency of Local Government Fiscal Expenditures in China: 1978--2010%中国省域地方政府财政支出效率的雁形演化:1978-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌

    2012-01-01

    本文采用三阶段DEA方法评价了1978-2010年中国各省的财政支出效率,并利用雁形图分析了各地区财政效率的动态演化过程。实证结果表明:我国各地方政府的财政支出管理效率均值从改革开放至今没有明显改善;自1994年税改以后地方政府财政支出管理效率水平的差距呈现出扩大的趋势。中部地区财政支出效率的整体表现最优,内部的差异也最小;东部地区表现出明显的两极分化,但分化程度有逐年减小的趋势;西部与中、东部地区存在明显的差距,而且这种差距有扩大的趋势。%To eliminate the influence of environmental variables and random factors, this paper uses the three-stage DEA model to evaluate the fiscal expenditures efficiency of all provinces in China from 1978 to 2011. And then uses the flying geese graph to analyze the dynamic changes of fiscal efficiency in eastern, central and western china. Empirical results show that the fiscal expenditures efficiency of all local governments in china has no obvious improvement from 1978;since the 1994 fiscal reform, the management efficiency gap of the fiscal expenditures between local governments has enlarged. The central area shows the best overall performance and a narrow internal gap. The eastern region shows a significant polarization and the degree of differentiation tends to decrease in recent years. However, concern is the gap between the western area and the others are becoming larger.

  20. Differential Expression of Adipose Triglyceride Lipase and Long-Chain Acyl-CoA-Synthetase 1 Genes and Their Regulation of Fat Deposition and Serum Lipid Metabolism of Geese%鹅脂肪甘油三酯脂肪酶和长链脂酰辅酶 A合成酶1基因表达差异及其对脂肪沉积和血清脂类代谢的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝维; 孔敏; 葛文华; 张名爱; 马传兴; 张肖

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the difference of adipose triglyceride lipase ( ATGL) gene and long⁃chain acyl⁃CoA⁃synthetase 1 ( ACSL1) genes expression in different tissues and organs of geese, and to explore the expression of two genes on body fat deposition and serum lipid metabolism regulation. Selected thirty 16⁃week⁃old Wulong Geese ( half male and half female) , and the ATGL and ACSL1 gene expressions in different tissues and organs ( liver, heart, subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, breast muscle, leg muscle, muscu⁃lar stomach, glandular stomach, small intestine, kidney, brain, lung, spleen ) were detected by real⁃time quantitative PCR after slaughter. The results showed as follows:1) The expressions of ATGL and ACSL1 genes were detected in subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, breast muscle and leg muscle of geese; ATGL gene expression in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat relative was the highest, followed by that in the liver and spleen, in kidney, heart, breast muscle and leg muscle only a few of expression. ACSL1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, liver and spleen was the highest, and slightly expressed in kidney, heart, breast muscle and leg muscle, and almost no expression in muscular stomach, glandular stom⁃ach and lung. 2) ATGL gene expression showed a significant negative correlation with intramuscular fat ( IMF) percentage in leg muscle, IMF percentage in breast muscle, percentage of abdominal fat, percentage of leg muscle and percentage of breast muscle (P0.05) , and was signifi⁃cantly positively correlated with percentage of leg muscle (P0.05) , and it were significantly negatively correlated with the triglyceride content. In conclusion, the expressions of ATGL and ACSL1 genes in different tissues and organs of geese have obvious differences, which have a negative regulation on fat deposition and serum lipid metabolism.%本试验旨在研究脂肪甘油三酯脂肪酶( ATGL)

  1. 致鹅卵黄性腹膜炎大肠杆菌30S核糖体蛋白S6的原核表达及纯化%Prokaryotic expression and purification of 30 S ribosomal protein S6 of salpingitis-peritonitis Escherichia coli isolated from layer geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文杰; 张勇攀; 钱文正; 邵红霞; 钱琨; 秦爱建

    2012-01-01

    根据已发表的30S核糖体蛋白S6(RPS6)基因序列,设计合成了1对针对RPS6的特异性引物,用PCR方法从致鹅卵黄性腹膜炎大肠杆菌中扩增出RPS6基因,并将扩增的目的片段克隆至pGEM-TEasy载体中。测序正确后将RPS6基因片段克隆进表达载体pET-32a(+)中,提取pET-32a(+)-RPS6质粒,转化到大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中,用IPTG诱导表达。结果显示,PCR产物大小为396bp,与GenBank中同源序列的相似性为99.7%。SDS-PAGE分析结果表明,构建的重组RPS6在大肠杆菌中获得了可溶性表达,分子质量约为34ku,大小与预期相一致。HisTrap FF镍柱纯化大量表达的RPS6融合蛋白(His-RPS6),证实得到了高纯度的重组蛋白,为该蛋白功能研究提供了条件。%According to the 30 S ribosomal protein S6(RPS6) gene sequence,a pair of specific primers was designed. The genomic DNA was extracted from salpingitis-peritonitis Escherichia coli strain isolated from layer geese and used as template to amplify the RPS6 gene by PCR. The RPS6 fragment was then cloned into the pGEM-T Easy vector and sequenced. The result showed that the RPS6 fragment was 396 bp. Comparing with the sequences of the RPS6 gene deposited in the GenBank,the homology was 99.7% with other E. coli. The RPS6 fragment was digested and cloned into the expression vector pET-32a (+), and then transformed into competent E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The positive recombinant pET-32a(+)- RPS6/DE3 clones were identified by double enzyme digestion and then expressed by IPTG induction. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the expressed fusion protein was 34 ku and was soluble. Using the HisTrap FF Ni2+ column,the protein His-RPS6 was purified. This recombinant protein provided basis for function research of RPS6.

  2. Nutrient Absorption and Nutrient Balance in an Agro-pastoral Compound Production Pattern of “Raising Geese in Corn Fields” in Tibet%西藏“玉米田养鹅”模式下养分吸收与养分平衡特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙志鹏; 张宇阳; 王超; 权红; 关法春

    2016-01-01

    harmonize economic benefits with ecological ones is a significant challenge to development of Tibetan agriculture. Nutrient absorption and nutrient balance of a farmland ecosystem is one of the key factors affect productivity and environmental quality of the system. Raising Geese in Corn Fields(hereinafter referred to as RGICF)is a compound production pattern based on the principle of“Agro-pastoral Integration”, a concept proposed in 2011. This conceptual farming method relies on the use of weeds and bottom leaves of the crops in the fields as feed sources to raise poultry with. To evaluate differences between the two systems of RGICF and conventional corn cultivation in nutrient absorption,nutrient balance,nutrient distribution in the plant,and nutrient input and output of the system,a field experiment was conducted at Village Zhangmai of Bayi,Tibetan Autonomous Region,in Southwest China 2013. Two treatments,RGICF and conventional corn cultivation(hereinafter referred to as CK),were laid out in the experimental field. Each treatment was designed to have three blocks or plots,and each plot covered an area of 80 m2. Logs were kept of RGICF and CK from May 2013 to May 2014 about nutrient inputs and outputs,while chemical analysis were conducted of samples of the corn for nutrient(N,P and K)concentration and distribution in stalks and grains,and samples of the soil,too,for nutrient budgeting. Results show that no significant differences were found between RGICF and CK in N,P and K concentration in corn grains and stalks. Correlation between nutrient adsorption and corn yield exhibited and order of P>K>N in RGICF and P>N>K. No significant differences were found either between RGICF and CK in nutrient harvest,adsorption efficiency and utilization efficiency of N,P and K. Nutrient budgeting of the systems revealed nutrient disbalance in the systems,particularly N and K deficits in the soil after harvest. Compared with RGICF,CK was 39.0% and 34.90% greater in N and K deficit

  3. 50 CFR 21.60 - Conservation order for light geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or as loose shot for muzzleloading) other than steel shot, bismuth-tin, tungsten-iron, tungsten-polymer, tungsten-matrix, tungsten-bronze, tungsten-nickel-iron, tungsten-tin-iron, tungsten-nickel-iron-tin, tungsten-iron-copper-nickel, or other shots that are authorized in § 20.21(j). (h) Can...

  4. Fall survey of emperor geese of southwest coastal Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The annual fall emperor goose survey was conducted 3 - 8 October, 1984. As during the previous five years the survey began in Bethel, included all coastal habitat to...

  5. Spring survey of emperor geese in southwestern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The uncertain status of the emperor goose prompted the Pacific Flyway study committee, recently charged with the responsibility of drafting a management plan for the...

  6. Propagation of Aleutian Canada geese on Amchitka Island, Alaska, 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The methods of propagation on Amchitka Island were changed from past years in that artificial incubation and rearing were abandoned in favor of more natural goose...

  7. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  8. Key actions towards the sustainable management of European geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroud, David A.; Madsen, Jesper; Fox, Anthony D.

    2017-01-01

    by differences in species' ecology, behaviour, abundance and population status, and in contrasting political and socio-economic environments across the flyways. Effective goose management requires coordinated application of a suite of tools from the local level to strategic flyway management actions....... The European Goose Management Platform, established under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds, aims to harmonise and prioritise management, monitoring and conservation efforts, sharing best practice internationally by facilitating agreed policies, coordinating flyway...

  9. The swans and geese of Alaska's arctic slope

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A mid-summer aerial search was made on the 23,000 square miles of waterfowl habitat on Alaska's Arctic slope. Observations included 159 whistling swan (Olor...

  10. The Asian Developmental State and the Flying Geese Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kasahara (Shigehisa)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ East Asian economies have been subject to theoretical debates, especially regarding the principal factors that have contributed to their impressive development performance. Many economists familiar with the region’s institutional particularities believe that their catch

  11. A report on the Agassiz flock of Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the history of Canada goose production by the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) flock from 1955 to 1964. Attached is a nesting structure...

  12. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  13. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  14. The Melanocortin-4 Receptor Gene (MC4R) Expression Detected By SYBR Green I Real-time Quantitative PCR in Landes Geese before and after Overfeeding%SYBR Green I荧光定量PCR法检测朗德鹅填饲前后黑素皮质素受体-4基因(MC4R)的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原昊; 张红艳; 田勇; 沈军达; 王芳; 弓彦; 王德前; 石放雄; 卢立志

    2011-01-01

    黑素皮质素受体4基因(MC4R)在各组织中的不同表达对于鹅脂肪代谢具有重要作用.本研究应用强制填饲技术建立腹型肥胖朗德鹅(Casuarius casuarius)模型,提取填饲后及正常朗德鹅新鲜腹脂、肝脏等13种组织的总RNA,SYBR GreenI荧光定量PCR法检测各组织MC4R基因的表达,选择β-actin作为内参基因,使用半定量2-△△Ct法分析.PCR结果显示,MC4R基因及β-actin在填饲前后朗德鹅心脏、肝脏、脾脏、肺、肾脏、肌胃、小肠、胰腺、脑、胸肌、腿肌、腹脂、皮下脂等13种组织中均存在不同程度表达.SYBR Green I荧光定量PCR结果表明,在肾、小肠和心这3个组织中,填饲后朗德鹅MC4R表达量均比对照组中朗德鹅该基因表达量低,填饲后分别为填饲前表达量的0.41±1.80、0.65±5.75和0.72±1.22倍.而在其他组织中,MC4R基因表达量均有不同程度的增加,填饲组/对照组相对表达量倍数由高到低顺序分别为:22.78±1.00倍(脑),9.08±2.80倍(肝),5.28±1.83倍(肺),3.78±3.01倍(胰),3.07±3.64倍(腿肌),2.90±0.97倍(胃),2.34±1.66倍(皮下脂肪),2.18±3.01倍(腹脂),2.07±0.37倍(胸肌),2.01±1.75倍(脾).结果符合MC4R作用机理,为畜牧生产及人类肥胖问题的研究提供间接依据.%The expression characterization of Melanocortin-4 Receptor Gene (MC4R) before and after overfeeding plays an important role in fat metabolism of Lades geese (Casuarius caswrius). SYBR Green I Real-time quantitative PCR was developed to analyze the expression characterization of MC4R gene in 13 tissues. PCR results showed that both MC4R and β-actin were expressed in all 13 tissues before and after overfeeding of Landes goose. SYBR Green I Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the relative expression of MC4R in kidney, intestine and heart after overfeeding was lower than those before overfeeding, their 2-Δδo values were 0.41 ±1.80, 0.65±5.75 and 0.72±1.22, respectively. But the

  15. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio... producers should adhere to the following procedure: (i) Assess the problem to determine its extent or... control methods on sound biological, environmental, social, and cultural factors. (iii)...

  16. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1987-08-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council calls for wildlife mitigation at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River System. Beginning April, 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration funded a study of the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr Dams on the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffittii) inhabitating the Flathead Valley of northwest Montana. The study was conducted by personnel of the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP), to: (1) identify the size and productivity of this population, (2) identify current habitat conditions and losses of nesting and brood-rearing areas, (3) describe the effects of water level fluctuations on nesting and brood-rearing, and (4) identify mitigation alternatives to offset these effects. Annual pair and nest surveys were used to document the location and fate of goose nests. The number of known nesting attempts varied from 44 in 1984 to 108 in 1985, to 136 in 1986 and 134 in 1987. Fifty-four percent of the annual meeting nesting effort took place on elevated sites which were secure from the flooding and dewatering effects of fluctuating water levels. An average of 15 nests were found on stumps in the remnant Flathead River delta, however, an area strongly influenced by the operation of Kerr Dam. Annual nest losses to flooding and predation attributable to fluctuations caused by the dam were recorded. 53 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  17. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp. (E) Plants: Butte County..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating... institutions for scientific or educational purposes, processing for human consumption and subsequent...

  18. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Riverside fairy shrimp. (E) Plants: Butte County meadowfoam, large-flowered wooly meadowfoam, Cook's..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating... institutions for scientific or educational purposes, processing for human consumption and subsequent...

  19. Long-term memory of hierarchical relationships in free-living greylag geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Brigitte M.; Scheiber, Isabella B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Animals may memorise spatial and social information for many months and even years. Here, we investigated long-term memory of hierarchically ordered relationships, where the position of a reward depended on the relationship of a stimulus relative to other stimuli in the hierarchy. Seventeen greylag

  20. 77 FR 26032 - Proposed Information Collection; Control and Management of Resident Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... establishing two depredation orders and three control orders that allow State and tribal wildlife agencies..., and eggs taken. Depredation order for nests and eggs. 50 CFR 21.50 allows private landowners and... number of nests with eggs they destroyed. Depredation order for agricultural facilities. 50 CFR 21.51...

  1. The roller coaster flight strategy of bar-headed geese conserves energy during Himalayan migrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bishop, C M; Spivey, R J; Hawkes, L A; Batbayar, N; Chua, B; Frappell, P B; Milsom, W K; Natsagdorj, T; Newman, S H; Scott, G R; Takekawa, J Y; Wikelski, M; Butler, P J

    2015-01-01

    .... Instead, a "roller coaster" strategy, of tracking the underlying terrain and discarding large altitude gains only to recoup them later in the flight with occasional benefits from orographic lift...

  2. Aerial survey of emperor geese and other waterbirds in southwestern Alaska, spring 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 30th consecutive spring aerial emperor goose survey was conducted on 27 April and from 2-3 May. An amphibious Cessna 206 (N234JB) was used, flown at 45m (150...

  3. The status of wintering Canada geese in the "Southern Region" of the Atlantic Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In our previous descriptions of Canada goose sub-populations, we have found it convenient to generalize about the "southern region"; those wintering birds...

  4. Avoiding Competition? Site Use, Diet and Foraging Behaviours in Two Similarly Sized Geese Wintering in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Meijuan; Cao, Lei; Klaassen, Marcel; Zhang, Yong; Fox, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Competition may occur when two species with similar feeding ecologies exploit the same limited resources in time and space. In recent years, the Eastern Tundra Bean Goose Anser fabalis serrirostris and Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons frontalis have increased in wintering numbers at Sh

  5. A harvest management strategy for Canada geese in the western Mississippi Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) harvest in the Mississippi Flyway became increasingly complex during the 1980s. A strategy for managing harvest was...

  6. Habitat use of barnacle geese at a subarctic salt marsh in the Kolokolkova Bay, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, AJ; Lavrinenko, OV; Elsakov, [No Value; van Eerden, MR; Stahl, J

    2004-01-01

    Along the east Atlantic migratory flyway, goose and swan species rely on the availability of suitable coastal habitats as staging sites during migration and for breeding. Especially for the Russian part of the flyway, detailed descriptions of these habitats in relation to use by herbivores are lacki

  7. Response of Greater Snow Geese to Hunting at Bombay Hook NWR and Related Wetland Changes.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wintering snow goose populations have increased dramatically in the vicinity of Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge during the last 20 years. Peak populations have...

  8. Fall survey of emperor geese and other associated water birds of coastal southwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During 6-10 October, the annual fall Emperor Goose survey was conducted in Southwest Alaska. Areas surveyed included the eastern coast of Kuakdkwin Bay, coast line...

  9. Aerial Survey of Emperor Geese and other Waterbirds in Southwestern Alaska, Fall 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A fall aerial emperor goose survey was conducted on the Alaska Peninsula for the 21st consecutive year in 1999. Replicate aerial surveys of the north side of the...

  10. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Ecological Services Office (for the Colorado River and Arizona sites) or the Carlsbad Fish and Wildlife... goldfields, Hoover's spurge, fleshy owl's clover, Colusa grass, hairy Orcutt grass, Solano grass, Greene's tuctoria, Sacramento Valley Orcutt grass, San Joaquin Valley Orcutt grass, slender Orcutt grass,...

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia species isolates in ducks and geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. isolated from duck and goose intestinal contents. A total of 471 samples, including 291 duck and 180 goose intestinal contents, were purchased from wet markets between November 2008 and July 2010. Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. were isolated from 58 (12.3%), 107 (22.7%), and 80 (17%) of the samples, respectively. It was concluded that Listeria ivanovii, Salmonella Thompson, and Yersinia enterocolitica were the predominant serovars among Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp., respectively. Moreover, resistance to tetracycline was common in Listeria (48.3%) and Salmonella spp. (63.6%), whereas 51.3% of the Yersinia spp. isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Therefore, continued surveillance of the prevalence of the pathogens and also of emerging antibiotic resistance is needed to render possible the recognition of foods that may represent risks and also ensure the effective treatment of listeriosis, salmonellosis, and yersiniosis.

  12. [A new species of Blastocystis anseri (Protista: Rhizopoda) from domestic geese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, L M

    1992-01-01

    A new species, Blastocystis anseri, was found in domestic goose. Sizes of blastocyst in culture are 7.5-46.2 x 7.5-46.2 m. Method of cultivation of Blastocystis anseri on biphase egg medium was worked out. Liquid phase can be made of Hank's solution or 199 medium with an addition of 30-40% hen or bovine serum. Optimum temperature for cultivation is 39 +/- 0.5 degree, ph 7.0-7.2.

  13. Breeding barnacle geese in Kolokolkova Bay, Russia : number of breeding pairs, reproductive success and morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jeugd, HP; Gurtovaya, E; Eichhorn, G; Litvin, KY; Mineev, OY; van Eerden, M

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of an expedition to a barnacle-goose (Branta leucopsis) breeding area in Kolokolkova Bay, west of the lower Pechora delta in northern Russia, undertaken in July 2002. In total, 6 breeding colonies were found within the study area, harbouring 1,324 nests. Mean clutch size was 2.

  14. The effect of personality on social foraging: shy barnacle geese scrounge more

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Prins, H.H.T.; van Wieren, S.E.; Van Oers, K.; Nolet, B.A.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Animals foraging in groups can either search for food themselves (producing) or search for the food discoveries of other individuals (scrounging). Tactic use in producer–scrounger games is partly flexible but individuals tend to show consistency in tactic use under different conditions suggesting th

  15. Pacific Flyway management plan for the Pacific Flyway Population of greater white-fronted geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For the purposes of this management plan, the greater white-fronted goose subspecies (Anseralbifrons frontalis) occurring in the Pacific Flyway is termed the Pacific...

  16. Avoiding Competition? Site Use, Diet and Foraging Behaviours in Two Similarly Sized Geese Wintering in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Meijuan; Cao, Lei; Klaassen, Marcel; Zhang, Yong; Fox, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Competition may occur when two species with similar feeding ecologies exploit the same limited resources in time and space. In recent years, the Eastern Tundra Bean Goose Anser fabalis serrirostris and Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons frontalis have increased in wintering numbers at Sh

  17. Aerial Survey of emperor geese and other waterbirds in southwestern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 24th consecutive spring aerial emperor goose survey was conducted from 30 April-3 May. An amphibious Cessna 206 (N234JB) flown at 45m (150 feet) ASI, and...

  18. Geese and hunters of Alaska's Yukon delta: management problems and political dilemmas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this paper are to: a) summarize data on goose populations; b) describe actions taken and their effects on goose populations; c) explore some...

  19. Arctic geese, migratory connectivity and agricultural change : calling the sorcerer's apprentice to order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jefferies, Robert L.; Drent, Rudolf H.

    2006-01-01

    The current favourable numerical status of most arctic-breeding goose populations conceals an increasing dependence on man-modified habitats for much of the year. Almost all populations are now heavily dependent on agricultural crops when the birds are away from the arctic breeding grounds. We

  20. Biological Data on Canada Geese in the 1989-90 Harvest at Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a series of correspondences to and from Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge that provides information on how to report the age, sex, and morphological...

  1. The effect of boldness on decision-making in barnacle geese is group-size-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Adamczyk, M.A.P.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    In group-living species, decisions made by individuals may result in collective behaviours. A central question in understanding collective behaviours is how individual variation in phenotype affects collective behaviours. However, how the personality of individuals affects collective decisions in gr

  2. Spring survey of emperor geese southwestern Alaska, 23 to 27 April, 1981, trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the last week of April, 1981, an aerial survey was performed along the coastline from the south side of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta to the northeast coast of...

  3. The Nutritional Value of Selected Moist-soil Plants and Agricultural crops for Canada Geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Migrant and wintering waterfowl commonly utilize both agricultural crops and native plants as food. Producing these foods and making them available for consumption...

  4. Breeding biology and productivity of geese on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The breeding biology of most goose species has been described. Investigations on the Yukon Delta by Mickelson (1975) and Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick (1977) provide...

  5. Internal transport of alien and native plants by geese and ducks: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Alberto; van Leeuwen, Casper H. A.; Luque, Carlos J.; Hussner, Andreas; Velez-Martin, Alberto; Perez-Vazquez, Andres; Green, Andy J.; Castellanos, Eloy M.

    2015-01-01

    Alien plant species are rapidly spreading in aquatic ecosystems around the world, causing major ecological effects. They are typically introduced by humans, after which natural vectors facilitate their further spread. Migratory waterbirds have long been recognised as important dispersal vectors for

  6. Habitat use of barnacle geese at a subarctic salt marsh in the Kolokolkova Bay, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, AJ; Lavrinenko, OV; Elsakov, [No Value; van Eerden, MR; Stahl, J

    2004-01-01

    Along the east Atlantic migratory flyway, goose and swan species rely on the availability of suitable coastal habitats as staging sites during migration and for breeding. Especially for the Russian part of the flyway, detailed descriptions of these habitats in relation to use by herbivores are

  7. Heart rate modulation in bystanding geese watching social and non-social events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, Claudia A. F.; Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Simply observing other individuals interacting has been shown to affect subsequent behaviour and also hormones in 'bystander' individuals. However, immediate physiological responses of an observer have been hardly investigated. Here we present results on individuals' heart rate (HR) responses during

  8. 1962 reproductive success in North American geese: Winter appraisals of productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An occasional year of poor reproductive success is no novelty among Arctic-nesting birds. Conservationists have become reconciled to this fact, although they still...

  9. Early development of gaze following into distant space in juvenile Greylag geese (Anser anser)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kehmeier, Sophia; Schloegl, Christian; Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; Weiss, Brigitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Visual co-orientation with another's gaze direction (gaze following) may provide important information about the location of food, social interactions or predators. Gaze following has been shown in a variety of mammals, but only in few bird species, and has not been tested in precocial birds at all.

  10. Capturing, banding and transplanting of Aleutian Canada Geese, Buldir and Agattu Islands, Alaska, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes capturing, banding, and transplanting the Aleutian Canada Good on selected nesting islands in the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime...

  11. PHYLOGENETIC AND FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY OF SEAGULL AND CANADIAN GEESE FECAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of increasing public health concerns on the risks associated with swimming in waters contaminated with waterfowl feces, there is little information on the gut microbial communities of aquatic birds. To address the molecular microbial diversity of waterfowl, 16S rDNA and ...

  12. Heart rate responses to induced challenge situations in Greylag geese (Anser anser)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, Claudia A. F.; Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; Braun, Anna; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Adequate short-term responses to stressors are of great importance for the health and well-being of individuals and factors modulating the physiological stress response (e.g., controllability, suddenness, familiarity) of a stimulus are well described under laboratory conditions. In the present study

  13. Hunting for the optimal hunt - Contributions to a sustainable harvest strategy for pink-footed geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gitte Høj

    in order to reduce conflicts with agriculture and degradation of tundra vegetation in Svalbard. The population target shall be achieved through an adaptive harvest management (AHM) framework and optimization of hunting practices and organisation. The objective of this thesis has been to support...... the development of the AHM plan. This has been done at the flyway level by developing demographic population models and exploring the application of dynamic optimization methods to find an optimal management strategy. At the local and regional levels I explored effects of hunting practises and organisation at one......As part of the recently endorsed African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird (AEWA) International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus, a stable population target of 60,000 (current population is c. 80,000 during 2011-2013) has been agreed...

  14. A modeling approach to energy savings of flying Canada geese using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Joo-Sung; Park, Jae-Hyung; Jang, Seong-Min; Han, Seog-Young

    2013-03-07

    A flapping flight mechanism of the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) was estimated using a two-jointed arm model in unsteady aerodynamic performance to examine how much energy can be saved in migration. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate airflow fields around the wing and in the wake. From the distributions of velocity and pressure on the wing, it was found that about 15% of goose flight energy could be saved by drag reduction from changing the morphology of the wing. From the airflow field in the wake, it was found that a pair of three-dimensional spiral flapping advantage vortices (FAV) was alternately generated. We quantitatively deduced that the optimal depth (the distance along the flight path between birds) was around 4m from the wing tip of a goose ahead, and optimal wing tip spacing (WTS, the distance between wing tips of adjacent birds perpendicular to the flight path) ranged between 0 and -0.40m in the spanwise section. It was found that a goose behind can save about 16% of its energy by induced power from FAV in V-formation. The phase difference of flapping between the goose ahead and behind was estimated at around 90.7° to take full aerodynamic benefit caused by FAV.

  15. Greater energy stores enable flightless moulting geese to increase resting behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portugal, Steven J.; Green, Jonathan A.; Piersma, Theunis; Eichhorn, Goetz; Butler, Patrick J.; Pichegru, Lorien

    2011-01-01

    Many species of waterfowl undergo a post-breeding simultaneous flight feather moult (wing moult) which renders them flightless and vulnerable to predation for up to 4 weeks. Here we present an analysis of the correlations between individual time-budgets and body mass states in 13 captive Barnacle Ge

  16. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004;24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

  17. Arctic geese, migratory connectivity and agricultural change : calling the sorcerer's apprentice to order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jefferies, Robert L.; Drent, Rudolf H.

    2006-01-01

    The current favourable numerical status of most arctic-breeding goose populations conceals an increasing dependence on man-modified habitats for much of the year. Almost all populations are now heavily dependent on agricultural crops when the birds are away from the arctic breeding grounds. We exami

  18. Aerial survey of emperor geese and other waterbirds in southwestern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents results of the 28 th consecutive year of fall aerial emperor goose surveys in southwest Alaska. All bird and marine mammal species were counted...

  19. A comparison of biologically active elements in geese in relation to avian cholera

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian cholera caused an estimated mortality of between 166,000 to 197,000 migrating waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska in the 10-year period 1975 through...

  20. The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Goose Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this plan is to restore populations of cackling Canada geese, Emperor geese, Pacific white-fronted geese, and Pacific brant to prescribed levels. The...

  1. Fall migration goose and swan observation in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper summarizes the observations of migratory geese and swan in Alaska during the fall of 1965. Whistling Swans, Canada Geese, Black Brant, Emperor Geese, and...

  2. Comparing on Muscle Quality of French Landaise Geese and Wanxi White Geese%朗德鹅与皖西白鹅肌肉品质比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐前明; 彭克森; 张学道; 李立虎; 李培英

    2007-01-01

    对70日龄朗德鹅和皖西白鹅的肌肉品质进行研究.分别对朗德鹅和皖西白鹅的屠宰性能、肉常规品质和胸、腿肌纤维密度与肌纤维直径进行了测定.结果表明: 10周龄朗德鹅肌肉的失水率、系水力和pH值差异不显著,各组朗德鹅胸肌与腿肌的肌直径大于各组皖西白鹅,且差异显著(P<0.05),而各组朗德鹅胸肌与腿肌的肌纤维密度低于各组皖西白鹅值,且差异显著(P<0.05).结论:朗德鹅的肌肉品质明显优于皖西白鹅.

  3. Geese impact on the nitrogen cycle and especially on the fate of litter nitrogen in Artic wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, Maarten; Fivez, Lise; Meire, Patrick; Janssens, Ivan; Boeckx, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Due to land use changes and reduced hunting pressure in their wintering grounds, goose numbers increased dramatically over the past 50 years. To understand the consequences of these changes, studies on ecosystem processes of the breeding grounds in the Artic are indispensable. A key process affected

  4. Spatial variation in life-history trade-offs results in an ideal free distribution in Black Brant Geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Christopher A; Sedinger, James S; Ward, David H; Boyd, W Sean

    2014-05-01

    Ideal free distribution theory predicts that individuals distribute themselves so fitness is equal among patches. In this paper we evaluate all components of adult fitness to assess the hypothesis that individuals distribute themselves among seven brood-rearing areas so that trade-offs among different life history traits result in equal mean fitness among individuals using different areas. We used estimates of vital rates (clutch size, nest survival, pre-fledging survival, post-fledging survival, juvenile survival, and breeding probability) to estimate brood-rearing-area-specific per capita recruitment rates and survival for adult females. We summed brood-rearing-area-specific per capita recruitment and adult survival to calculate brood-rearing-area-specific estimates of lambda. We found little variation in lambda among brood-rearing areas and lifetime fitness implications of changing brood-rearing area were negligible (< 1% brood-rearing area mean fitness). We conclude that adult female Black Brant distribute themselves in an ideal free manner, resulting in equal fitness among females using these areas.

  5. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1986-04-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic water level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Changes in chronology of seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding and erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Our 1985 pair count data indicated that 95 to 143 nests may have been present. Hatching success for 1985 nests (55%) was low compared to long-term averages for the region. Predation was the predominant cause of ground nest failure (25 nests); we documented 2 nest failures due to flooding. The maximum gosling count in the study area for 1985 was 197. Six key brood-rearing areas were identified. Most (80%) sites were located in the herbaceous or pasture cover type and the riparian bench landform. Analysis of aerial photographs taken prior to construction of Kerr Dam documented the loss of 1859 acres of habitat along the north shore of Flathead Lake. Losses were attributed to inundation and to continuing erosion due to operation of Kerr Dam. Lake and river water level regimes were compared with the chronology of important periods in the nesting cycle. Low lake levels in May and early June coincide with the breed-rearing period. Mudflats are heavily used by broods, but their effect on survival must still be documented. Preliminary recommendations to protect and enhance Canada goose habitat and production are being developed.

  6. Development of an Aerial Breeding Pair Survey of Dusky Canada Geese (Branta canadensis occidentalis) on the Copper River Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) population has declined for several years (Cornely and Jarvis 1984 Cornely et al. 1985; Campbell 1984, 1988;...

  7. Nesting success of geese in the coastal tundra region of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta: 1986 field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Goose nesting success on the YK Delta in 1986 increased over 1984 and 1985. Environmental conditions were close to average in spite of a cool and prolonged spring....

  8. Nesting success of geese in the coastal tundra region of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta: 1985 field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Goose production on the YK Delta in 1985 remained depressed. Environmental conditions of the late spring were partially responsible, but do not fully explain...

  9. Individualities in a flock of free-roaming greylag geese : Behavioral and physiological consistency over time and across situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj-Fiser, Simona; Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; Blejec, Andrej; Moestl, Erich; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    The concept of personality implies individual differences in behavior and physiology that show some degree of repeatability/consistency over time and across contexts. Most studies of animal personality, particularly studies of individuals' variation in physiological mechanisms, have been conducted o

  10. Neisseria arctica sp. nov. isolated from nonviable eggs of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Cristina M.; Himschoot, Elizabeth; Hare, Rebekah F.; Meixell, Brandt; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Hueffer, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    During the summers of 2013 and 2014, isolates of a novel Gram-negative coccus in the Neisseria genus were obtained from the contents of nonviable greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) eggs on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. We used a polyphasic approach to determine whether these isolates represent a novel species. 16S rRNA gene sequences, 23S rRNA gene sequences, and chaperonin 60 gene sequences suggested that these Alaskan isolates are members of a distinct species that is most closely related to Neisseria canis, N. animaloris, and N. shayeganii. Analysis of the rplF gene additionally showed that our isolates are unique and most closely related to N. weaveri. Average nucleotide identity of the whole genome sequence of our type strain was between 71.5% and 74.6% compared to close relatives, further supporting designation as a novel species. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis showed a predominance of C14:0, C16:0, and C16:1ω7c fatty acids. Finally, biochemical characteristics distinguished our isolates from other Neisseria species. The name Neisseria arctica (type strain KH1503T = ATCC TSD-57T = DSM 103136T) is proposed.

  11. Arctic geese during brood-rearing on the central Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta: Analysis of patterns of distribution: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July 1985 two systematic aerial surveys were flown over the coastal fringe of the central Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, to examine the patterns of distribution...

  12. A Handshake between Markets and Hierarchies: Geese as an Example of Successful Collaborative Management of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Tuvendal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An important task in research about natural resource management is to communicate the utility of different approaches from various settings. Using ecosystem services as a conceptual frame, we study a local solution to alleviate goose-human conflicts in an agricultural region in Sweden. Increasing goose numbers and crop damage led to the foundation of a goose management group (GMG, comprising landowners, farmers, hunters, ornithologists, conservation NGOs, and local and county level administration. The GMG was not given any formal or legal authority. We asked: is this management solution successful? Which problems can be solved and which remain? Can the GMG stand as a model for management of other species and in other landscapes? We interviewed present members of the GMG and analyzed minutes from its meetings. We found that the GMG has autonomy to self-organize and shows adaptive capacity over time in handling variability and complexity in its socio-ecological system. This makes the GMG a sustainable solution for local management of a resource in which goose population growth and legislation are decided at other (national or international levels. We assessed what constitutes perceived success and found that GMG is geared toward “mediation of opposing preferences” by establishing a figurative handshake between stakeholders. By comparing how four general challenges in ecosystem service management align with formative attributes of the GMG, we discuss in which ways this management solution is applicable to other ecosystem services in other contexts.

  13. The status of geese and swans nesting on the coastal fringe of the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge in 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The major objectives of the refuge inventory program this spring were: 1) To describe spring weather and habitat condition and to document waterfowl migration; 2) To...

  14. Latitudinal variability in the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in non-migrant and Arctic migratory geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandstrom, Cecilia A. M.; Buma, Anita G. J.; Hoye, Bethany J.; Prop, Jouke; van der Jeugd, Henk; Voslamber, Berend; Madsen, Jesper; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular coccidian parasite found worldwide and is known to infect virtually all warm-blooded animals. It requires a cat (family Felidae) to complete its full life cycle. Despite the absence of wild felids on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, T. gondii has been found i

  15. An evaluation of productivity and mortality factors influencing geese at south Nelson Island, Alaska: A report of results from 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents a field investigation of goose productivity in 1984 conducted on Nelson Island on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge. The procedures used...

  16. Escherichia coli Concentrations in Feces of Geese, Coots, and Gulls Residing on Recreational Water in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Koene, M.G.J.; Kleijn, D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Contamination of recreational water by bird feces is a main concern of water managers. It is important to understand the sources of Escherichia coli contamination since the organism is frequently used as a water hygiene parameter. Here, we address presence and levels of E. coli in fecal she

  17. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1985-02-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding or erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Counts of indicated pairs suggest there were 73-125 occupied nests in the study area; 44 were located in 1984. Twenty were island ground nests, 19 were tree nests, and 5 were on man-made structures. Hatching success was 76 percent. Sixty-one percent of all nests were in deciduous forest habitat; 87 percent were on riparian bench or island landforms. Seventy-four percent of all nests were within 5 m of the seasonal high water mark (HWM) and 85 percent of ground nests were 1 m or less above the HWM. Production, habitat use, and distribution of broods were documented through aerial, boat, ground, and observation tower surveys. 28 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Latitudinal variability in the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in non-migrant and Arctic migratory geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandstrom, Cecilia A. M.; Buma, Anita G. J.; Hoye, Bethany J.; Prop, Jouke; van der Jeugd, Henk; Voslamber, Berend; Madsen, Jesper; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular coccidian parasite found worldwide and is known to infect virtually all warm-blooded animals. It requires a cat (family Felidae) to complete its full life cycle. Despite the absence of wild felids on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, T. gondii has been found

  19. Low Survival Rates of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides) Estimated from Neck-collar Resighting and Telemetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Lee, Ki-Sup; Poyarkov, Nikolay D.

    2016-01-01

    American goose species. Poor survival may be a key demographic parameter contributing to their declining trend. Quantitative threat assessments and associated conservation measures, such as restricting hunting, may be a key step to mitigate for their low survival rates and maintain or enhance...

  20. Glucocorticoids enhance and suppress heart rate and behaviour in time dependent manner in greylag geese (Anser anser)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj-Fiser, Simona; Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; Kotrschal, Kurt; Weiss, Brigitte M.; Wascher, Claudia A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Stress responses involve autonomic, endocrine and behavioural changes. Each of these responses has been studied thoroughly in avian species, but hardly in an integrative way, in free-living birds. This is necessary to reveal the temporal dynamics of the stress response. Towards that goal, we recorde

  1. Environmental parameters linked to the last migratory stage of barnacle geese en route to their breeding sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati Najafabadi, Mitra; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, A.K.; Kölzsch, A.; Exo, K-M.; Nolet, B.A.; Griffin, L.; Stahl, J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The migration timing of birds can be controlled by endogenous parameters. However, little is known about how environmental parameters influence the timing of migration and which have the greatest influence at different stages of migration. In this study we identified the main environmental parameter

  2. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1983-84

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 10th annual wintering ground study of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 22 October 1983 to 11 May 1984....

  3. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1980-1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The migration and wintering ground study of the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was continued again in California in 1980-81 from October 10...

  4. Observations of translocated Aleutian Canada geese following their release at Nizki/Alaid Island in August 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Using available information, we estimate that 19 of the 20 birds in the first translocated flock were still alive 2 days after their release, and at least 8 birds...

  5. 76 FR 59271 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...) Whether the rule will have an annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy or adversely affect an... Enforcement Fairness Act. For the reasons outlined above, this rule would have an annual effect on the economy...). Light Geese: Includes lesser snow (including blue) geese, greater snow geese, and Ross's geese....

  6. 1986 Dulbi Slough goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) was conducted on 69.0 miles of Dulbi Slough in Alaska. Seven hundred and...

  7. "Católico, de coração!" Um Wild Geese no Santo Ofício de Lisboa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Antônio Iglesias Magalhães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo investiga o processo inquisitorial do católico irlandês Robert Walters que, após servir aos ingleses na ilha de São Cristóvão, no Caribe, apresentou-se ao Santo Ofício de Lisboa, em 1631. O jovem, que seguiria para lutar contra os neerlandeses no Brasil, reflete na sua trajetória as contradições inerentes aos sentimentos religiosos da sua época, submetidos aos objetivos das políticas nacionais e mercantis da Era Moderna.

  8. HPAI Surveillance of White-fronted Geese and other Waterfowl in Mississippi at Coldwater River, Dahomey, and Tallahatchie National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Project and results of sampling for HP Avian Influenza duirng 2009-2011 on Refuges assoicated with N. MS Refuges Complex. Reports also contains sampling protocol.

  9. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, I. Joseph

    1984-01-01

    The lower Flathead River Canada goose study was initiated to determine goose population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on Canada goose nest and brood habitat, as a result of releases from Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1983 field season (15 February to 30 September, 1983) as part of an ongoing project. (DT)

  10. Regulation of the hunting season as a tool for adaptive harvest management — first results for pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper; Clausen, Kevin; Christensen, Thomas Kjær

    2016-01-01

    Adjustment of hunting season length is often used to regulate harvest of waterbirds but the effects are disputed. We describe the first results of season length extension on the harvest of the pink-footed goose, which has been selected as the first test case of adaptive harvest management of wate...

  11. Fall staging of lesser snow geese on the north slope of the Arctic National Wildlife Range: Results of 1978 aerial surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study represents an effort to continue monitoring Snow Goose activities on ANWR after completion of the Arctic Gas studies in 1977. Specific objectives were: 1)...

  12. Waterfowl populations, production and habitat ecology on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska: Population and ecology of cackling geese: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a progress report on the waterfowl populations, production and habitat ecology on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, specifically the populations and ecology...

  13. Energetic consequences of a major change in habitat use: endangered Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota losing their main food source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Fælled, Casper Cæsar;

    2012-01-01

    habitats such as saltmarsh and winter wheat. In contrast to those birds exploiting aquatic habitats, birds relying on these new habitats showed higher energy expenditure and failed to balance their energy budget. Eelgrass (Zostera) was energetically superior to other food resources, with marine Ulva being...

  14. United States Fish and Wildlife Service Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Environmental Assessment for the Management of conflicts associated with non-migratory (resident) Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern...

  15. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee on 1986-1991 breeding ground surveys of dusky Canada geese on the Copper River Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Development of an expanded aerial survey on the Copper River Delta was begun in 1985. survey design was standardized in 1988 and the same transects have been flown...

  16. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee on 1986-1994 breeding ground surveys of Dusky Canada geese on the Copper River Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Development of an expanded aerial survey on the Copper River Delta was begun in 1986. Survey design was standardized in 1988 and the same transects have been flown...

  17. 糙米对朗德鹅产肝性能影响的研究%Effect of Brown Rice Feeding on Fatty Liver Performance of Landaise Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥友; 何瑞国; 周庆安; 王程; 周世霞; 赵娜

    2005-01-01

    本试验选取同批孵化和在相同饲养管理条件下统一饲养、体重4.5kg10周龄的健康雄性朗德鹅40只为试验动物,以糙米为试验组日粮、以玉米为对照组日粮,研究糙米对朗德鹅产肝性能的影响.结果表明:(1)试验组的肝重、肝活比、肝屠比、末重和增重显著地高于对照组(P<0.05);(2)试验组和对照组的屠体重、全净膛率和半净膛率差异显著(P<0.05);试验组和对照组的屠宰率、胸肌率、腿肌率、皮脂率、皮脂厚、腹脂率差异不显著(P>0.05);(3)试验组和对照组肥肝的总胆固醇、磷脂和腿肌的脂肪以及胸肌脂肪差异显著(P<0.05);试验组和对照组肥肝的水分、蛋白质和脂肪差异不显著(P>0.05);试验组和对照组腿肌的粗蛋白和水分差异不显著(P>0.05);试验组和对照组胸肌水分和蛋白质差异不显著(P>0.05);(4)肝重与末重、体增重、肝活比、肝屠比呈明显的正相关关系(P<0.05 or P<0.01);肝重与料肝比、全净膛率、半净膛率、呈现明显的负相关关系(P<0.05 or P<0.01);肝重与腹脂率、皮脂率和皮脂重的线性关系依次增强;腹脂重、腹脂率、皮脂重呈现明显的正相关关系(P<0.05 or P<0.01).

  18. Vietnam tra Flying Geese e middle-income trap: le sfide della politica industriale per una nuova tigre dell’Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Masina

    2012-01-01

    A 1993 World Bank report used the expression “East Asian miracle” to describe the impressive economic performance achieved by eight countries in the region. Within this group three Southeast Asian countries were singled out as the most suitable models for successful economic development – Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand (ASEAN3). While the first generation of East Asian industrializers (especially Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan) had relied on a strong state intervention in the economy, these...

  19. Dark-Bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla bernicla, as Recorded by Satellite Telemetry, do not Minimize Flight Distance During Spring Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M.; Alerstam, T.; Clausen, P.;

    2002-01-01

    of six adult males). Only 7% of total time during spring migration was spent in active flight, as contrasted to c. 80% at long-term stopovers. Overall average travelling speed was 118 km day-1 (range 97-148). Including fattening prior to departure the rate of travel falls to 62 km day-1 (range 49......-70), in keeping with theoretical predictions. Routes followed deviated from the great circle route, adding at least 700 km (16%) to the journey from Wadden Sea to Taymyr, and we conclude that the coastal route is chosen to facilitate feeding, drinking and resting en route instead of minimizing total flight...

  20. 鹅对日粮纤维消化机理的研究%Study on Digestive Mechanism of Dietary Fiber in Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄玉杰; 张桂山

    2008-01-01

    文中主要从日粮纤维对鹅消化道生理功能的影响、日粮纤维水平对鹅生长发育的影响、鹅对日粮纤维消化利用特点、鹅对日粮纤维的消化机理4个方面进行综述,进一步明确鹅对日粮纤维的消化机理,为开展鹅对日粮纤维的营养研究及制定鹅的饲养标准提供理论依据.

  1. Varying energetic costs of Brent Geese along a continuum from aquatic to agricultural habitats: the importance of habitat-specific energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Fox, Anthony David

    2013-01-01

    and alert than birds feeding in aquatic areas, and also spent much less time roosting. Frequency of disturbance was found to be higher in terrestrial habitats compared to aquatic habitats. These stress-related behavioural differences between habitats highlight the vulnerability of the species associated...

  2. Comparison of GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R expression in Liver between Wanxi White Geese and Landaise Geese%皖西白鹅与朗德鹅肝脏中GHR,IGF-1和IGF-IR基因的表达比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑智勇; 周杰; 朱枫桥; 李舜; 陆春瑞

    2009-01-01

    @@ 皖西白鹅属家鹅(Anser cygnoides orientalis),是我国优秀的地方品种.本实验通过对90日龄皖西白鹅肝脏中生长激素靶基因,生长激素受体(growth hormone recepwr,GHR)、胰岛素样生长因子1(insulin like growth factor-1,IGF-1)和胰岛素样生长因子1受体(insulin like growth fac-tor-1 receptor,IGF-1R)的mRNA表达与肝重率的相关性分析,并与朗德鹅比较,旨在为研究鹅肝脏生长的调控机理及用于生产鹅肥肝的品种选育提供资料.

  3. White-fronted Goose Telementry, 1998-2000 [ds330

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Using radio-telemetry, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) distribution and movements during winter in Central California were determined during...

  4. 添加黑麦草饲粮对鹅肉脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of Adding Different Amount of Rye Grass on Fatty Acid Compositions in Geese Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯德庆; 黄勤楼; 黄秀声; 陈钟佃; 钟珍梅

    2015-01-01

    本研究旨在观察饲粮中添加不同比例多花黑麦草(Lolium multi florum Lam)对鹅肉脂肪酸组成影响,揭示牧草摄食量与鹅肉α-亚麻酸(ALA)相对含量之间的关系.选用50羽14日龄长乐灰鹅,分成5个处理,饲养期60 d.各处理饲粮中黑麦草干物质比例分别为:0.00% (CK),5.42%,11.92%,19.52%和27.24%.结果表明:随着饲粮中黑麦草比例的提高,鹅肉ALA相对含量显著增加,试验各组分别比对照组增加了86.90%,197.24% (P<0.05),393.10%(P<0.05)和304.83% (P<0.05);PUFA/SFA显著上升(P<0.05);n-6PUFA/n-3PUFA显著下降(P<0.05).鹅肉ALA相对含量与饲粮中黑麦草比例的曲线回归模型方程为:y=0.270+0.106x-0.002x2(F=22.99**).当饲粮中黑麦草的干物质比例在0%~26.50%时,鹅肉ALA的含量呈上升趋势;当黑麦草的比例超过26.50%时,鹅肉ALA的含量转而呈下降趋势.说明黑麦草中的ALA能够通过摄食消化过程沉积到鹅肉中.

  5. Wilde ganzen en cultuurland in Nederland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the period 1965-1985 numbers of migrating geese wintering in The Netherlands increased notably: from approximately 100.000 to 600.000 birds. Not all these birds are present during the whole winterseason: a maximum of about seventy percent of the total number of geese occurring in The Netherlands

  6. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt;

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  7. 76 FR 54675 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... geese (Anser albifrons), and tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). Production of arctic-nesting geese depends heavily upon the timing of snow and ice melt, and on spring and early summer temperatures. In 2011.... Conditions in the central Arctic, especially near Queen Maud Gulf, improved relative to last year's very...

  8. Graylag in the City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    “I remember clearly last year the wild geese came here to hatch.On the 27th day they arrived here,their eggs disappeared”,said Han Mingxiu,who walded in the park every morning for three years.“The geese cireled around the lake,quacking wildly.they looked very sad.”

  9. Wilde ganzen en cultuurgrasland in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the period 1965-1985 numbers of migrating geese wintering in The Netherlands increased notably: from approximately 100.000 to 600.000 birds. Not all these birds are present during the whole winterseason: a maximum of about seventy percent of the total number of geese occurring in The Netherlands

  10. Faltering lemming cycles reduce productivity and population size of a migratory Arctic goose species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Bauer, S.; Feige, N.; Kokorev, Y.; Popov, I.Y.; Ebbinge, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    1. The huge changes in population sizes of Arctic-nesting geese offer a great opportunity to study population limitation in migratory animals. In geese, population limitation seems to have shifted from wintering to summering grounds. There, in the Arctic, climate is rapidly changing, and this may im

  11. Avian reservoirs and zoonotic potential of the emerging human pathogen Helicobacter canadensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldenström, J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Ottvall, R.

    2003-01-01

    A polyphasic identification approach was used to investigate the taxonomic position of Campylobacter-like isolates recovered from barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and Canada geese (Branta candensis). Seven strains were selected from a collection of 21 isolates and analyzed by extensive phenotypic...

  12. Seed dispersal by small herbivores and tidal water: Are they important filters in the assembly of salt-marsh communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, E.R.; Zozaya, E.L.; Kuijper, D.P.J.; Bakker, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    1. Characteristics of internal seed dispersal (endozoochory) by European Brown Hares were compared with similar dispersal by Brent Geese. Hares deposited more seeds of mid-successional, perennial, high-marsh species than did geese, which deposited more seeds of early successional, annual, low-marsh

  13. Seed dispersal by small herbivores and tidal water : are they important filters in the assembly of salt-marsh communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, ER; Zozaya, EL; Kuijper, DPJ; Bakker, JP

    1. Characteristics of internal seed dispersal (endozoochory) by European Brown Hares were compared with similar dispersal by Brent Geese. Hares deposited more seeds of mid-successional, perennial, high-marsh species than did geese, which deposited more seeds of early successional, annual, low-marsh

  14. 1985 Koyukuk NWR goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey of white-fronted geese and Canada geese within Koyukuk NWR and Kayiuh Flat Unit, Innoko NWR, July 16-August 8, 1985, counting 5,857 plus/minus 3,127 adult and...

  15. Occurrence of Plasmodium in Anatidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    Until a little over a decade ago reports of Plasrnodium in geese, ducks, and swans were the result of examination of single blood smears from wild birds. One would gather from the earlier studies that Anatidae are infrequently infected. During the past decade we have conducted studies on prevalence of Plasmodium by an isodiagnosis technique, inoculating blood from wild birds into captive young geese, ducks, and other species of birds and determining the status of infection in the donors by examination of repetitive blood smears from the recipients. Examination by this technique of a series of adult Canada geese from the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan uncovered a prevalence of 60% during five successive years. Domestic geese were the primary recipients but we found that several other species of geese, ducks, and gulls were also susceptible. Similar studies on Canada geese from other areas (Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and southern Michigan) uncovered infection rates from zero to 27%. Following isolation of Plasmodlum in a single canvasback duck (Aythya valisineria) in southern Michigan by inoculation into a domestic duck, a series of 88 canvasbacks from Chesapeake Bay in Maryland this winter uncovered an infection rate of 27%. The most common parasite observed in both the geese and was as P. circumflexum.

  16. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R.D.; Stein, G.; Novilla, M.N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  17. Waterbird Census Summary 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This summarizes the waterbird survey work done at Patuxent Research Refuge in 2008. Canada geese, wood ducks, mallards, hooded mergansers, pied-billed grebes, belted...

  18. Biology of nesting Aleutian Canada goose, summer 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975 breeding Aleutian Canada geese, Branta canadensis leucopareia, were studied at Buldir Island, western Aleutian Islands. Buldir is the only known...

  19. Preliminary report to the Pacific Flyway Committee on the Combined Pacific White-fronted Goose Surveys to Estimate a breeding population index for Alaska, 1985-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Historically the Pacific population of white-fronted geese has been monitored and managed based on wintering inventories conducted in California. In recent years it...

  20. Draft genome sequences of five clinical Enterococcus cecorum strains isolated from different poultry species in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolka, Beata; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida;

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report five draft genome sequences of Enterococcus cecorum strains that were isolated from different bird species of affected poultry flocks (commercial broilers [CB], broiler breeders [BB], commercial layers [CL], ducks [D], and geese [G]) in Poland....

  1. Gåsetrekket i Vesterålen og Nord-Trøndelag 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tombre, I.; Madsen, J.; Bakken, J.;

    of the staging period. Accordingly, for newly sown fields, the goose pressure was massive in 2004, partly due to an early season, partly due to the high number of geese present. A co-ordinated count was conducted at the 8th of May, and almost 32 000 geese were counted in the county (out of a total population...... was extremely early in 2004. Geese also arrived early, with the first individuals recorded the 27th of March. Due to the early spring, farmers also started the grain sowing early and in May most geese were feeding on newly sown fields. In late spring seasons, such fields are only used during the last phase...... involved farmers received compensation based on the size of their property, suggest that some farmers suffer considerably more than others considering goose pressure on their fields. The various initiatives should, based on registrations in the present study, be organised at a larger scale where...

  2. Aleutian Goose Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1995-96 status report includes the most recent observations of Aleutian Canada geese populations wintering in the El Sobrante and East San Francisco Bay areas...

  3. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese, black ducks, mallards, and blue-winged teal are the primary waterfowl species that nest on Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Black ducks and...

  4. Monitoring emperor goose populations by aerial counts and fall age ratio - 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, we photographed flocks of emperor geese (Chen canagica) during fall migration at lagoons along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula for the 18th...

  5. Pacific Brant and Emperor goose census, production and family group counts, Izembek NWR Complex, Fall 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Productivity surveys of brant and emperor geese have been conducted annually for 34 years at the Izembek National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex as a continuing...

  6. Preliminary progress report on coastal zone for the July Pacific Flyway Study Committee meetings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A memorandum reporting on a project to provide population information for management of Arctic geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta.

  7. Preliminary report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee on the combined Pacific White-fronted goose surveys to estimate a breeding population index for Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Historically the Pacific population of white-fronted geese has been monitored and managed based on wintering inventories conducted in California. In recent years it...

  8. An evaluation of goose productivity on the Yukon Delta NWR, Alaska: A summary report, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ten field crews documented the nesting chronology, sources and magnitude of predation, and productivity of arctic nesting geese on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta from...

  9. Waterbird Census Summary 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This summarizes the waterbird survey work done at Patuxent Research Refuge in 2007. After the record low in 2006, Canada geese populations returned to near the ten...

  10. Waterbird Census Summary 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This summarizes the waterbird survey work done at Patuxent Research Refuge in 2009. Canada geese were somewhat below the 1997-2006 ten year average. Mallards and...

  11. NUTRITIONAL CONDITION OF PACIFIC BLACK BRANT WINTERING AT THE EXTREMES OF THEIR RANGE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danielle D. Mason; Perry S. Barboza; David H. Ward

    2006-01-01

    ... Danielle D. Mason Perry S. Barboza David H. Ward body composition; energy storage; geese; lipid; protein; winter Abstract Endogenous stores of energy allow birds to survive periods of severe wea...

  12. NWHL Final Report 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lead poisoning was demonstrated to occur in Canada geese using Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge during the 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program. Necropsies...

  13. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Waterfowl: Dusky Canada Goose Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Six subspecies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) winter in and around the lower Columbia River Valley. While the overall populations of 5 of these subspecies are...

  14. Summary of 1989 San Luis NWR and Merced NWR grazing program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1988 grazing programs at San Luis and Merced NWR's were quite effective in improving upland habitat for wintering geese, sandhill cranes, and other wildlife. The...

  15. Aleutian Canada goose population and nest surveys at Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 6 to 26 June, six biologists made 231 observations of geese. Of this number, 43 were banded, 74 unbanded, and 114 undiscernible. From these observations it is...

  16. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Amchitka Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 136 geese were captured on Buldir. Four died in the transplant efforts. One bird died during transport and three died on Amchitka. The birds that died...

  17. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  18. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all refuge...

  19. Cropland and Grassland Management Plan Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A major wildlife objective for the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is the production of food for Canada geese during the fall migration, winter and spring...

  20. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service : Environmental Assessment for Opening Portions of Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge for Hunting as Proposed in the 1992 Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to open portions of the Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge for hunting of Canada geese, white-tailed deer, and other...

  1. Monitoring emperor goose populations by aerial survey counts and fall age ratio

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1985.to 1994, we photographed flocks of emperor geese (Chen canagica) during fall migration at lagoons along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula. The gray...

  2. 1977-1984 Canada Goose Necropsy Data from Swan Lake NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Collection of data sheets detailing necropsy results from Canada Geese carcasses found at Swan Lake NWR. The data sheets give detailed reports on what was found...

  3. Assessment of impacts to aquatic organisms from pesticide use on the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary habitat management objective for the three refuges of the Willamette Valley NWR Complex is to provide high quality forage for wintering Canada geese. To...

  4. Water Program Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a brief overview of the water management program at Presquile National Wildlife Refuge in 1960. The refuge maintains wintering flocks of ducks and geese...

  5. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose (RDG) Mark-Resight Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The lower Columbia River Valley supports a large number of Canada and cackling geese, with many subspecies intermixing in fall and winter. During hunting season,...

  6. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose (RDG) Banding Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The lower Columbia River Valley supports a large number of Canada and cackling geese, with many subspecies intermixing in fall and winter. During hunting season,...

  7. Waterbird Census Summary 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This summarizes the waterbird survey work done at Patuxent Research Refuge in 2010.Canada geese numbers continued to be much below the 1997-2006 ten year average....

  8. Monitoring emperor goose populations by aerial counts and fall age ratio

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1995, we photographed flocks of emperor geese Chen canagica during fall migration at lagoons along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula for the 11th...

  9. 1991 progress report and 1989-1991 preliminary final report : Fergus Falls/Alexandria experimental September Canada goose hunt

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The number of resident Canada geese in the Fergus Falls/Alexandria vicinity has increased to a level that has created nuisance problems. The growth of this flock has...

  10. Reconciling competing values placed upon goose populations: The evolution of and experiences from the Islay Sustainable Goose Management Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Rae; Shaw, Jessica M

    2017-03-01

    The Scottish island of Islay hosts 45 000 barnacle geese Branta leucopsis (56% of the Greenland barnacle goose population, plus those passing through on migration), 5000 Greenland white-fronted geese Anser albifrons flavirostris (up to 30% of the world population) and 2500 greylag geese Anser anser, most of which feed on 9000 ha of grassland. The financial impacts of estimated agricultural damage have risen greatly over the past 20 years due to increasing goose numbers and higher farming costs. Mechanisms implemented to resolve conflict over time are reviewed for their effectiveness. Emphasis is placed on coordinating the implementation of strategic national conflict resolution at a local scale where the relative pressure from internationally important concentrations of geese on agriculture is acute. Despite the "local" nature of this problem, the benefit from the experience of decades of attempted conflict resolution and the effectiveness of existing programmes can contribute much to the regional and flyway dimensions of this international issue.

  11. Monitoring Emperor Goose Populations by Aerial Counts and the Fall Age Ratio - Fall 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2003, we photographed flocks of emperor geese (Chen canagica) during fall migration at lagoons along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula for the 19th...

  12. Animal Control Plan Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl production objectives for the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge are to create habitat supporting the production of 16,000 ducks and 500 geese annually....

  13. 75 FR 34154 - Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Clark County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., waterbirds, migratory landbirds, and raptors. Background The CCP Process The National Wildlife Refuge System... largest contiguous sanctuary for dusky Canada geese and sandhill cranes on the south end of the refuge....

  14. Birds of Buldir Island, Alaska with notes on abundance and nesting chronology

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the study was to evaluate nesting chronologies, population sizes, and habitat utilization of birds, particularly Aleutian Canada Geese (Branta...

  15. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Amchitka Islands, Alaska, summer 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 136 geese were captured on Buldir. Of this number, 11 died in capture or transplant process. The birds that died represented an eight percent mortality...

  16. Study on Effect of alfalfa, ryegrass and wheat middlings contents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... Berghman LR, Van Beemen J, Decuypere E, Kuhn ER, Vandesande F. (1988). ... of digestion kinetics of two fibre sources in geese (Anseris). S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. ... Ravindran V, Wu YB, Thomas DG., Morel PCH (2006).

  17. Subinoculation as a technique in the diagnosis of avian plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Snyder, E.L.

    1966-01-01

    In two successive years, 1964 and 1965, blood subinoculated from wild Canada geese, negative for Plasmodium by examination of peripheral blood smears, into 5-day-old domestic geese produced 60 % infection in the recipients. Prepatent and patent periods, as well as intensity of parasitemia showed much variation. Intramuscular inoculation produced the same prevalence as the intravenous route, but longer prepatent periods and less intensity of parasitemia.

  18. Zatorska goose - a subject of parasitological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Basiaga, Marta; Kowal, Jerzy; Nosal, Paweł; Wierzbowska, Izabela; Kapkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of gastrointestinal parasites in a native breed of geese - Zatorska goose - based on coproscopic testing. Faecal samples were collected from 90 young geese in three age groups (5, 7 and 9 weeks old) in 2014. The geese were kept indoors on deep litter and pastured from spring to autumn. The area of the pastures around the buildings where the geese grazed was about 1 hectare, divided into quarters for different age groups. Before grazing, the birds were dewormed with fenbendazole (Fenbenat powder 4%, Naturan). As additional treatment for coccidiosis, coccidiostats were added to the feed. The study was conducted using the McMaster quantitative method with centrifugation (flotation liquid: NaCl and glucose). The birds were shown to be infected with coccidia and nematodes. The prevalence of Eimeria sp. infection (mean 40%) and the number of oocysts per gram of faeces (reaching 5,300 OPG) were highest in the youngest age group of geese. The level of Amidostomum anseris infection was similar in the three age groups, with prevalence from 40% to 50% (nematode egg output ranged from 50 to 350 eggs per gram of faeces, EPG). Capillaria anatis was observed only in 5- and 7-week-old geese.

  19. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection rates and exposure to influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  20. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection and exposure to influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R; Hall, Jeffrey S; Schmutz, Joel A; Pearce, John M; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S; Ip, Hon S

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006-2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1-3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40-60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  1. 目送归鸿,手挥五弦——第二届雁翼学术研讨会暨《雁翼传》出版座谈会综述%Gazing Wild Geese and Playing Chinese Lute——Review on the Second Yanyi Academic Conference and the Symposium of the Publication of A Biography of Yanyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德春

    2015-01-01

    On 24 April 2015, the Second Yanyi Academic Conference and the Symposium of the publica-tion of A Biography of Yanyi was held in the academic report hall on the first floor of academic exchanges center of Handan College .The Second Yanyi Academic Conference and the Symposium of the publication of A Biography of Yanyi not only exchanged the latest research fruits of Yanyi Studies , but also pointed out the direction and path for the true Yanyi Studies .Let us pray that the true Yanyi Studies can have a brilliant tomorrow .%2015年4月24日,第二届雁翼学术研讨会暨《雁翼传》出版座谈会在邯郸学院学术交流中心一楼报告厅举行. 第二届雁翼学术研讨会暨《雁翼传》出版座谈会不仅交流研讨了雁翼研究的最新成果,也为真正的雁翼研究指明了方向和道路,让我们祈盼真正的雁翼研究能够有一个辉煌灿烂的明天.

  2. 高钙日粮对农安籽鹅不同部位肌肉μ-Calpain mRNA表达量的影响%Effects of high dietary calcium on mRNA muscular expression of μ-calpain at different parts of geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; 孙会

    2011-01-01

    选用8周龄农安籽鹅120只,随机分成4组,每组3个重复,每个重复10只.其中对照组饲喂基础日粮(Ca 0.6%),其余为试验1至3组,钙含量分别为0.9%、1.2%和1.5%.预饲期为7 d,试验期为28 d.分别于试验期的第7、14、21、28 d进行屠宰.试验结果表明:日粮中添加不同水平的丙酸钙对鹅胸肌和腿肌μ-Calpain mRNA表达量无显著影响(P>0.05).不同屠宰时间对胸肌μ-Calpain mRNA表达量影响差异极显著(P<0.01),而对腿肌μ-Calpain mRNA表达量无显著影响(P>0.05).在不同屠宰时间和添加不同钙水平的条件下,胸肌的μ-Calpain mRNA表达量均高于腿肌μ-Calpain mRNA表达量.

  3. Construction of goose pavovirus VP3 gene vaccine and preliminary report on its elicitation of neutralizing antibodies in mice and geese%小鹅瘟病毒VP3基因疫苗的构建及其诱导小鼠和鹅中和抗体的初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩新锋; 程安春; 汪铭书; 刘晓东; 卢菲; 黎敏; 车茜

    2008-01-01

    PER扩增小鹅瘟病毒(IHPV)CHv株VP3基因并克隆入pMD 18-T-Simple载体,亚克隆正向插入到真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1(+)CMV启动子下游多克隆位点,经PCR和HindⅢ与BamH Ⅰ双酶切鉴定表明成功构建了GPV VP3基因疫苗(pcDNA3.1-GPV-VP3).该疫苗以200μg/只肌注免疫Balb/c小鼠和鹅,同时分别设肌注PBS和pcDNA3.1(+)作为对照,于免疫后第30、45、60、75、90、105天应用鸭胚原代成纤维细胞(DEF)进行微量中和试验检测小鼠和鹅血清抗100 TCID50 GPV的抗体效价.结果表明,pcDNA3.1.GPV-VP3免疫小鼠第30天可检测到抗GPV的中和抗体,抗体效价缓慢上升至90天达到高峰(平均1:135.8)后下降,105天仍高于75天;免疫鹅的中和抗体效价呈现与小鼠类似的规律,第90天达到高峰(平均1:98.5).因此,peDNA3.1-GPV-VP3具有良好的免疫原性,肌注免疫小鼠和鹅后能够诱发产生抗GPV的中和抗体,有进一步开展临床研究和应用的前景.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships and pathogenicity variation of two Newcastle disease viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yinfeng; Li, Yanling; Yuan, Runyu; Li, Xianwei; Sun, Minhua; Wang, Zhaoxiong; Feng, Minsha; Jiao, Peirong; Ren, Tao

    2014-08-12

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an OIE listed disease caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains, which is enzootic and causes large economic losses in the poultry sector. Genotype VII and genotype IX NDV viruses were the predominant circulating genotype in China, which may possibly be responsible for disease outbreaks in chicken flocks in recent years. While ducks and geese usually have exhibited inapparent infections. In the present study, we investigate the complete genome sequence, the clinicopathological characterization and transmission of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses, SS-10 and NH-10, isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China in 2010. F, and the complete gene sequences based on phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SS-10 (genotype VII) and NH-10 (genotype IX) belongs to class II. The deduced amino acid sequence was (112)R-R-Q-K/R-R-F(117) at the fusion protein cleavage site. Animal experiment results showed that the SS-10 virus isolated from ducks was highly pathogenic for chickens and geese, but low pathogenic for ducks. It could be detected from spleen, lung, kidney, trachea, small intestine, bursa of fabricius, thymus, pancreas and cecal tonsils, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and could transmit to the naive contact birds. Moreover, it could transmit to chickens, ducks and geese by naive contact. However, the NH-10 virus isolated from ducks could infect some chickens, ducks and geese, but only caused chickens to die. Additionally, it could transmit to the naive contact chickens, ducks, and geese. The two NDV isolates exhibited different biological properties with respect to pathogenicity and transmission in chickens, ducks and geese. Therefore, no species-preference exists for chicken, duck or goose viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VII NDVs between ducks, geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  5. Spring snow goose hunting influences body composition of waterfowl staging in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    A spring hunt was instituted in North America to reduce abundance of snow geese (Chen caerulescens) by increasing mortality of adults directly, yet disturbance from hunting activities can indirectly influence body condition and ultimately, reproductive success. We estimated effects of hunting disturbance by comparing body composition of snow geese and non-target species, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected in portions of south-central Nebraska that were open (eastern Rainwater Basin, ERB) and closed (western Rainwater Basin, WRB; and central Platte River Valley, CPRV) to snow goose hunting during springs 1998 and 1999. Lipid content of 170 snow geese was 25% (57 g) less in areas open to hunting compared to areas closed during hunting season but similar in all areas after hunting was concluded in the ERB. Protein content of snow geese was 3% (14 g) less in the region open to hunting. Greater white-fronted geese had 24% (76 g; n = 129) less lipids in the hunted portion of the study area during hunting season, and this difference persisted after conclusion of hunting season. We found little difference in lipid or protein content of northern pintails in relation to spring hunting. Indirect effects of spring hunting may be considered a collateral benefit regarding efforts to reduce overabundant snow goose populations. Disrupted nutrient storage observed in greater white-fronted geese represents an unintended consequence of spring hunting that has potential to adversely affect reproduction for this and other species of waterbirds staging in the region.

  6. Quantification of plasma and egg 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) residues for the efficient development of a nicarbazin-based contraceptive for pest waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John J; Britton, Walter M; MacDonald, Alexander; Primus, Thomas M; Goodal, Margaret J; Yoder, Christi A; Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A

    2002-02-01

    Urbanization and associated landscaping has increased the abundance of year-round habitat for waterfowl, resulting in vegetation damage, loss of recreational activities, air transportation mishaps and health hazards. As part of a research program to develop socially acceptable techniques for management of pest bird populations, we are evaluating nicarbazin as a contraceptive in pest and surrogate avian species. As reproductive studies with Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) are tedious due to the difficulty of conducting controlled field studies and/or breeding geese in captivity, we evaluated the effects of oral nicarbazin administration on the production and hatchability of chicken eggs. Blood plasma and egg DNC concentrations were correlated to contraceptive efficacy. Subsequent studies are being conducted with geese to determine the diet nicarbazin concentration required to produce the desired blood and plasma DNC concentrations. This approach permits the expeditious evaluation of formulations and dosing regimes by simply monitoring blood DNC concentrations in target species.

  7. Differential channelling of liver lipids in relation to susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in the goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, D; Salichon, M R; Guy, G; Peresson, R

    1999-10-01

    In response to overfeeding for the production of "foie gras," the Poland goose differs from the Landes goose by a lesser susceptibility to hepatic steatosis, resulting in a lower accumulation of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG), together with a greater exportation of hepatic phospholipid (PL) in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) (Fournier et al., 1997). A study was designed 1) to compare the liver composition in overfed and nonoverfed geese of the two breeds of geese and 2) to determine whether the differential channelling of lipids in response to overfeeding is reflected in the PL and fatty acid profiles of the different hepatic lipids, whether stored or secreted. In nonoverfed geese, there were no breed-related differences in liver weight (approximately 90 to 100 g), hepatic lipid content (3 to 4%), and lipid and PL composition. However, plasma VLDL and HDL of the Landes breed contained a higher phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio than those of the Poland breed (20.7 and 33.8 vs 12.6 and 25.6 in VLDL and HDL, respectively). After 14 d of overfeeding, hepatic PL profiles were identical in the two breeds and similar to that in control livers; choline-containing PL accounted for 95% of total PL. In contrast, plasma HDL concentrations of the Landes geese were lower than those of the Poland geese (9.4 vs 12.9 g/L) and their PC:PE (13.6%) and PL-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content (25%) were decreased compared with the Poland geese (21.2 and 30%). It is likely that the higher susceptibility to fatty liver of the Landes breed involves a differential channelling of PL, resulting in a greater hepatic retention of PC and PUFA that are necessary for plasma membrane growth and cell hypertrophy.

  8. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatinajafabadi, Mitra; Wang, Tiejun; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Albertus G; Kölzsch, Andrea; Nolet, Bart A; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Griffin, Larry; Stahl, Julia; Cabot, David

    2014-01-01

    Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI), has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7). Data were collected over three years (2008-2010). Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%), while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%). Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration), thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.

  9. Comparative analysis of the gastrointestinal microbial communities of bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) in different breeding patterns by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Cao, Jian; Li, Ji-Rong; Yang, Fang; Li, Zhuo; Li, Lai-Xing

    2016-01-01

    The bar-headed goose is currently one of the most popular species for rare birds breeding in China. However, bar-headed geese in captivity display a reduced reproductive rate. The gut microbiome has been shown to influence host factors such as nutrient and energy metabolism, immune homeostasis and reproduction. It is therefore of great scientific and agriculture value to analyze the microbial communities associated with bar-headed geese in order to improve their reproductive rate. Here we describe the first comparative study of the gut microbial communities of bar-headed geese in three different breeding pattern groups by 16SrRNA sequences using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The results showed that Firmicutes predominated (58.33%) among wild bar-headed geese followed by Proteobacteria (30.67%), Actinobacteria (7.33%) and Bacteroidetes (3.33%). In semi-artificial breeding group, Firmicutes was also the most abundant bacteria (62.00%), followed by Bacteroidetes (28.67%), Proteobacteria (4.20%), Actinobacteria (3.27%) and Fusobacteria (1.51%). The microbial communities of artificial breeding group were dominated by Firmicutes (60.67%), Fusobacteria (29.67%) and Proteobacteria (9.33%). Wild bar-headed geese had a significant higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while semi-artificial breeding bar-headed geese had significantly more Bacteroidetes. The semi-artificial breeding group had the highest microbial community diversity and richness, followed by wild group, and then the artificial breeding group. The marked differences of genus level group-specific microbes create a baseline for future bar-headed goose microbiology research.

  10. Body temperature depression and peripheral heat loss accompany the metabolic and ventilatory responses to hypoxia in low and high altitude birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Cadena, Viviana; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the thermoregulatory, metabolic and ventilatory responses to hypoxia of the high altitude bar-headed goose with low altitude waterfowl. All birds were found to reduce body temperature (T(b)) during hypoxia, by up to 1-1.5 degrees C in severe hypoxia. During prolonged hypoxia, T(b) stabilized at a new lower temperature. A regulated increase in heat loss contributed to T(b) depression as reflected by increases in bill surface temperatures (up to 5 degrees C) during hypoxia. Bill warming required peripheral chemoreceptor inputs, since vagotomy abolished this response to hypoxia. T(b) depression could still occur without bill warming, however, because vagotomized birds reduced T(b) as much as intact birds. Compared to both greylag geese and pekin ducks, bar-headed geese required more severe hypoxia to initiate T(b) depression and heat loss from the bill. However, when T(b) depression or bill warming were expressed relative to arterial O(2) concentration (rather than inspired O(2)) all species were similar; this suggests that enhanced O(2) loading, rather than differences in thermoregulatory control centres, reduces T(b) depression during hypoxia in bar-headed geese. Correspondingly, bar-headed geese maintained higher rates of metabolism during severe hypoxia (7% inspired O(2)), but this was only partly due to differences in T(b). Time domains of the hypoxic ventilatory response also appeared to differ between bar-headed geese and low altitude species. Overall, our results suggest that birds can adjust peripheral heat dissipation to facilitate T(b) depression during hypoxia, and that bar-headed geese minimize T(b) and metabolic depression as a result of evolutionary adaptations that enhance O(2) transport.

  11. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Shariatinajafabadi

    Full Text Available Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI, has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7. Data were collected over three years (2008-2010. Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%, while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%. Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration, thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.

  12. Avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl in North America and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Jesper; Thomsen, Anders F.; Bertelsen, Mads Frost;

    The first avian bornavirus (ABV) was identified in 2008 by researchers investigating the cause of proventricular dilation disease in psittacine birds 3,4. A distinctly separate genotype (ABV-CG) was discovered in 2009 in association with neurological disease in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta...... was identified in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) 2. In order to determine whether avian bornavirus was present in European waterfowl, the brains of 333 hunter killed geese in Denmark were examined by real time RT-PCR for the presence of avian bornavirus; seven birds (2.1%) were positive. Sequences were 98...

  13. Hemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis in a goose flock in Poland--disease course analysis and characterization of etiologic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaweł, Andrzej; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elzbieta; Kozdruń, Wojciech; Bobrek, Kamila; Bobusia, Katarzyna; Nowak, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese (HNEG) is an epizootic viral disease caused by infection with goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) that affects domestic geese. This study describes the epizootic analysis, laboratory diagnosis, and molecular characterization of GHPV isolates associated with HNEG cases in Poland. HNEG symptoms persisted in infected flocks for 2 wk with a 32% mortality rate. Primary gross lesions included hemorrhaging of the kidneys, intestines, and lungs. Histopathologic examination confirmed HNEG and identified that the causative agent was similar to other GHPV isolates and identical to the Toulouse 2008 isolate.

  14. Diurnal variation in the behaviour of the Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) during the spring stopover in Trøndelag, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzinska, Magda Ewa; Madsen, Jesper; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    During the spring migration, the Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus stops in mid-Norway to refuel before continuing its flight to the Svalbard breeding grounds. While in mid-Norway the geese feed on pasture, stubble and newly sown grain fields. Here, we describe the diurnal variation in goose...... the birds were most alert in the morning and afternoon. The behaviour of Pink-footed Goose also varied with habitat type, disturbance level and distance to roost. The diurnal variation in feeding activity differed from behaviour reported for geese on the wintering grounds, indicating that the birds have...

  15. Multi-scale occupancy approach to estimate Toxoplasma gondii prevalence and detection probability in tissues: an application and guide for field sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Stacey A; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Bailey, Larissa L; Iqbal, Asma; Su, Chunlei; Dixon, Brent R; Alisauskas, Ray T; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Jenkins, Emily J

    2016-08-01

    Increasingly, birds are recognised as important hosts for the ubiquitous parasite Toxoplasma gondii, although little experimental evidence exists to determine which tissues should be tested to maximise the detection probability of T. gondii. Also, Arctic-nesting geese are suspected to be important sources of T. gondii in terrestrial Arctic ecosystems, but the parasite has not previously been reported in the tissues of these geese. Using a domestic goose model, we applied a multi-scale occupancy framework to demonstrate that the probability of detection of T. gondii was highest in the brain (0.689, 95% confidence interval=0.486, 0.839) and the heart (0.809, 95% confidence interval=0.693, 0.888). Inoculated geese had an estimated T. gondii infection probability of 0.849, (95% confidence interval=0.643, 0.946), highlighting uncertainty in the system, even under experimental conditions. Guided by these results, we tested the brains and hearts of wild Ross's Geese (Chen rossii, n=50) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens, n=50) from Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. We detected 51 suspected positive tissue samples from 33 wild geese using real-time PCR with melt-curve analysis. The wild goose prevalence estimates generated by our multi-scale occupancy analysis were higher than the naïve estimates of prevalence, indicating that multiple PCR repetitions on the same organs and testing more than one organ could improve T. gondii detection. Genetic characterisation revealed Type III T. gondii alleles in six wild geese and Sarcocystis spp. in 25 samples. Our study demonstrates that Arctic nesting geese are capable of harbouring T. gondii in their tissues and could transport the parasite from their southern overwintering grounds into the Arctic region. We demonstrate how a multi-scale occupancy framework can be used in a domestic animal model to guide resource-limited sample collection and tissue analysis in wildlife. Secondly, we confirm the value of traditional occupancy in

  16. Comparative susceptibility of waterfowl and gulls to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild avian species in the Orders Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, shorebirds) have traditionally been considered the natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses (AIV) and morbidity or mortality is rarely associated with AIV infection in these hosts. However, ...

  17. Human Language, Unit II: Language Curriculum, Level C [Grade Three]; Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project, the lessons in this second of a two-part unit on the human language intended for grades three and four revolve around the character Sad Sam, who gets lost in the woods and happens to observe four animals (bears, raccoons, geese, and robins). Having been introduced to Sad Sam in lesson 1, the…

  18. 78 FR 52337 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    .... Mottled ducks viii. Wood ducks ix. Youth Hunt x. Mallard Management Units xi. Other 2. Sea Ducks 3... frameworks. Due to the comprehensive nature of the annual review of the frameworks performed by the Councils... pressure. We recognize the continuing problems posed by increasing numbers of resident Canada geese and...

  19. Development of Double Antibody Sandwich ELISA for Detection of Duck or Goose Flavivirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Hui-min; LI Xiang-rui; LI Yin; HUANG Xin-mei; HAN Kai-kai; LIU Yu-zhuo; ZHAO Dong-min; ZHANG Jing-feng; LIU Fei; LI Tong-tong; ZHOU Xiao-bo

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for detection of duck or goose flavivirus, polyclonal antibody against the flavivirus strain JS804 in geese and monoclonal antibody against the E protein of flavivirus strain JS804 in geese were used as the capture antibody and detection antibody, respectively. The optimal dilution of the capture antibody and detecting antibody capable of detecting the flavivirus strain JS804 in geese were 1:3 200 and 1:160 in the check-board titration, respectively. The reaction time of sample was 1 h, and the optimal working dilution of HRP-labeled goat-anti-mouse IgG was 1:10 000. The positive standard value was 0.247 (OD450 nm). The geese flavivirus could be detected at a minimal concentration of 1.875μg mL-1. The ELISA had no cross-reaction with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Avian influenza virus (AIV), Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Duck hepatitis virus (DHV), and Gosling plague virus (GPV). Twenty clinical samples were detected by the DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR respectively, with the agreement rate of 75%. The results revealed that the DAS-ELISA possessed favorable specificity and higher sensitivity, indicating a suitable method for rapid detection of the duck or goose flavivirus.

  20. 76 FR 53535 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). Production of arctic-nesting geese depends heavily upon the timing of snow and ice melt, and on spring and early summer temperatures. In 2011, snowmelt timing was average to... Arctic, especially near Queen Maud Gulf, improved relative to last year's very late spring, so...

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of New Emerging Newcastle Disease Virus Strains Isolated from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hualei; Lv, Yan; Afonso, Claudio L.; Ge, Shengqiang; Zheng, Dongxia; Zhao, Yunling

    2013-01-01

    Five Newcastle disease virus strains isolated from geese were classified into a new genotype, designated genotype XII. The complete genome sequences of two strains indicated that these viruses were distinct from viruses of genotype VII. More investigations need to be conducted for us to understand the origin of these new strains. PMID:23469337

  2. Predation danger can explain changes in timing of migration: the case of the Barnacle goose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, R.M.; Eichhorn, G.; Langevelde, van F.; Bauer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding stopover decisions of long-distance migratory birds is crucial for conservation and management of these species along their migratory flyway. Recently, an increasing number of Barnacle geese breeding in the Russian Arctic have delayed their departure from their wintering site in the Ne

  3. 7 CFR 70.14 - Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. 70.14... Products General § 70.14 Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. Squabs and domesticated game birds (including, but not being limited to, quail, pheasants, and wild species of ducks and geese...

  4. Relationship between body composition and homeothermy in neonates of precocial and semiprecocial birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, GH; Ricklefs, RE

    We dissected carcasses of neonates belonging to ducks and geese (Anatidae; 8 species), shorebirds (Charadriidae and Scolopacidae; 12 species), gulls and terns (Laridae; 3 species), and nonanseriform water birds (Podicipedidae and Rallidae; 2 species) ranging in yolk-free lean wet body mass from 2.5

  5. Vegetation succession and herbivory in a salt marsh: changes induced by sea level rise and silt deposition along an elevational gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; De Leeuw, J.; Bakker, J.P.; Platerink, R.J.; Van Wijnen, H.J.; De Munck, W.

    1997-01-01

    1 The relationships between soil development, vertical vegetation zonation, vegetation succession and herbivory by Brent geese, Branta bernicla, were studied in a coastal salt marsh. We were able to analyse up to 100 years of salt marsh development by comparing sites where vegetation succession had

  6. Vegetation succession and herbivory in a salt marsh : changes induced by sea level rise and silt deposition along an elevational gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H; De Leeuw, J; Bakker, JP; Platerink, RJ; Van Wijnen, HJ; De Munck, W

    1997-01-01

    1 The relationships between soil development, vertical vegetation zonation, vegetation succession and herbivory by Brent geese, Branta bernicla, were studied in a coastal salt marsh. We were able to analyse up to 100 years of salt marsh development by comparing sites where vegetation succession had

  7. Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose. ... The systemic study of genetic diversity and origin of Chinese indigenous geese will provide ... The 521 bp control region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA from 13 lightbody type ...

  8. Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

    Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian…

  9. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies to Viral Emerging Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Bradley

    2011-03-31

    During the current period the following key objectives were achieved: demonstration of high titer antibody production by geese following immunization with inactived H1N1 virus; completion of the epitope mapping of West Nile Virus-specific goose antibodies and initiation of epitope mapping of H1N1 flu-specific goose antibodies; advancement in scalable purification of goose antibodies.

  10. Threatened species to super-abundance: The unexpected international implications of successful goose conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony D.; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Wild geese wintering in western Europe were declining by the 1930s probably due to loss of natural habitat and over exploitation through hunting, although the causes will never be known. Refuge provision and hunting restrictions from the 1950s enabled numbers to recover. Improved monitoring syste...

  11. Body size declines despite positive directional selection on heritable size traits in a barnacle goose population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, K; van der Jeugd, HP; van der Veen, IT; Forslund, P

    Analyses of more than 2000 marked barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) in the largest Baltic colony, Sweden, showed that structurally large females generally produced larger clutches and larger eggs, hatched their broods earlier in the season, and produced more and heavier-young than smaller females.

  12. 9 CFR 381.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... use as human food. Egg Products Inspection Act. “Egg Products Inspection Act” means the Act so... (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, guineas, ratites, or squabs, also termed young pigeons from one to about... poultry is slaughtered, eviscerated, canned, salted, stuffed, rendered, boned, cut up, or...

  13. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  14. Crowded skies: Conflicts between expanding goose populations and aviation safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradbeer, David R.; Rosenquist, Camilla; Christensen, Thomas Kjær

    2017-01-01

    population dynamics and ecology. Airports can minimise goose strikes by managing habitats within the airport property, applying deterrents to scare geese away and lethal control, but goose migration and movements at greater spatial scales present greater challenges. Habitat management outside of airports can...

  15. Host diversity begets parasite diversity: bird final hosts and trematodes in snail intermediate hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, R.F.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    It is postulated that disease is a product of adverse habitats. Overpopulation causes overutilization of food supplies, which results in malnutrition and a decrease in resistance to diseases. Examples of such ecological relationships in populations of Canada geese, California quail, red grouse, deer, rabbits, voles, mice and lemmings are presented.

  16. The impact of disease on wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1969-01-01

    It is postulated that disease is a product of adverse habitats. Overpopulation causes overutilization of food supplies, which results in malnutrition and a decrease in resistance to diseases. Examples of such ecological relationships in populations of Canada geese, California quail, red grouse, deer, rabbits, voles, mice and lemmings are presented.

  17. A large-scale multi-species spatial depletion model for overwintering waterfowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baveco, J.M.; Kuipers, H.; Nolet, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model to evaluate the capacity of accommodation areas for overwintering waterfowl, at a large spatial scale. Each day geese are distributed over roosting sites. Based on the energy minimization principle, the birds daily decide which surrounding fields to exploit within t

  18. Narrow-front loop migration in a population of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, as revealed by satellite telemetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemoes, Mikkel; Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Tottrup, Anders P.; Vardanis, Yannis; Howey, Paul W.; Thorup, Kasper; Wikelski, Martin; Alerstam, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Narrow migration corridors known in diurnal, social migrants such as raptors, storks and geese are thought to be caused by topographical leading line effects in combination with learning detailed routes across generations. Here, we document narrow-front migration in a nocturnal, solitary migrant,

  19. Cooperative white-fronted goose banding in Alaska: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the period from June 26 through July 1, 1976, a 6-man crew trapped and banded 2,232 white -fronted geese at two locations in Alaska. The operation was a...

  20. The morphological development of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of the migratory barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishop, CM; Butler, PJ; ElHaj, AJ; Egginton, S; Loonen, MJJE

    1996-01-01

    The masses of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of wild barnacle goose goslings, from a migratory population, were examined systematically during development and their values compared to those of pre-migratory geese. Pre-flight development was typified by approximately linear increases of body, leg,

  1. Sweet salvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jane

    2016-04-20

    A bar-tailed godwit, I thought, feeling rather smug. I was photographing wading birds at the nearby salt marshes, and was very pleased with myself, not only for recognising the creature, but for getting some reasonable pictures. I also saw a flock of migrant geese and some lapwings, so altogether it was a satisfying trip.

  2. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  3. Connecting seas : western Palaearctic continental flyway for water birds in the perspective of changing land use and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eerden, MR; Drent, RH; Stahl, J; Bakker, JP

    2005-01-01

    The western Palaearctic continental flyway that connects the tundra and taiga belts of Russia with north-west Europe is the major migratory avenue for an estimated 9.3 million herbivorous water birds ( swans, geese and ducks). Agricultural practices together with protection measures subsidize the ca

  4. Nest parasitism in the barnacle goose: evidence from protein fingerprinting and microsatellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderholm, S.; Marshall, R.C.; Van der Jeugd, H.P.; Waldeck, P.; Larsson, K.; Andersson, Malte

    2009-01-01

    Geese are often seen as one of nature's best examples of monogamous relationships, and many social pairs stay together for life. However, when parents and young are screened genetically, some chicks do not match their social parents. Although this has often been explained as adoption of foreign youn

  5. Predator protection or similar habitat selection in red-breasted goose nesting associations : extremes along a continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, JL; Prop, J; Kokorev, Y; Black, JM

    2003-01-01

    We tested the predator protection and similar habitat hypotheses in relation to red-breasted goose, Branta ruficollis, nesting associations. Geese began laying 1-3 weeks after all associated species. In almost all cases they nested on the mainland only if raptors were also present and always followe

  6. Goose-mediated nutrient enrichment and planktonic grazer control in arctic freshwater ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geest, G.J.; Hessen, D.O.; Spierenburg, P.; Dahl-Hansen, G.A.P.; Christensen, G.; Brehm, Michaela; Loonen, M.J.J.E.; Faerovig, P.J.; Van Donk, E.

    2007-01-01

    A dramatic increase in the breeding population of geese has occurred over the past few decades at Svalbard. This may strongly impact the fragile ecosystems of the Arctic tundra because many of the ultra-oligotrophic freshwater systems experience enrichment from goose feces. We surveyed 21 shallow tu

  7. A large-scale multi-species spatial depletion model for overwintering waterfowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baveco, J.M.; Kuipers, H.; Nolet, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model to evaluate the capacity of accommodation areas for overwintering waterfowl, at a large spatial scale. Each day geese are distributed over roosting sites. Based on the energy minimization principle, the birds daily decide which surrounding fields to exploit within

  8. Migratory bird hunter opinions regarding potential management strategies for controlling light goose populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Nilon, Charles H.; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A.

    2014-01-01

    We expanded the Nebraska Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) harvest survey (NE, USA) in spring 2012 to assess migratory bird hunter opinions regarding future management strategies for controlling light goose populations. Although hunters strongly agreed that population control of light geese was an important wildlife management issue, they were generally unsupportive of wildlife officials using forms of direct control methods to control light goose populations. Respondents who indicated participation in the 2012 LGCO were also less supportive of any form of direct control compared with migratory bird hunters who did not participate in the LGCO. When presented with alternative methods by wildlife officials for future light goose population control, respondents were most supportive of wildlife agencies selectively shooting light geese on migration and wintering areas and least supportive of wildlife officials using bait with approved chemicals to euthanize light geese. A clear understanding of public perception of various potential direct-control options will likely assist wildlife biologists in making informed decisions on how to proceed with population control of light geese.

  9. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  10. Social Scenes in the Sky

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Compared with humans, you might not think of birds as social animals. (I mean, you hardly ever see geese hanging out at the mall.) But look skyward when great flocks of birds migrate toward their feeding grounds. Many of these birds not only fly and feast together, but also breed in huge colonies and join forces to fend off predators.

  11. 75 FR 58249 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ..., beginning with the 2010-11 season. Written Comments: The Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) urged us to reduce... ongoing mortality. Fortunately, waterfowl management has a rich and successful history of monitoring and... experiment indicate that the percentage of migrant geese harvested in the 6-county region surrounding Terre...

  12. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... periods associated with these rules. The Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) urged us to reduce bag limits.... Fortunately, waterfowl management has a rich and successful history of monitoring and assessment programs... 22. In 2007, Minnesota began a 3-year experiment to assess the proportion of migrant geese harvested...

  13. Operational Implications of Private Military Companies in the Global War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    for the negative image of the industry, thanks largely to the genre of which films from which came The Dogs of War and The Wild Geese.42 Civilians...www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2004/tr20040401-0575.html, accessed 12 Aug 2004. 126 Joseph Neff and Jay Price, “The Bridge: After the Horror , Strong

  14. Acceptability of Lethal Control of Wildlife that Damage Agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, M.T.J.; Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The use of lethal control of wildlife is controversial. We examined the acceptability of using lethal control to minimize the impacts of geese and deer on agricultural crops in the Netherlands. Two sets of predictors were examined: wildlife value orientations (WVOs) and demographics. The two

  15. Growth of black brant and lesser snow goose goslings in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Hogrefe, Kyle R.; Sedinger, James S.; Martin, Philip D.; Stickney, Alice A; Obritschkewitsch, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Gosling body mass can affect first year survival, recruitment, adult body size, and future fecundity of geese, and can serve as an indicator of forage availability and quality on brood-rearing areas. From 2012–2014 we measured body mass of 76 black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and 268 lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings of known age on the Colville River Delta (CRD) of northern Alaska to determine if there was evidence of density-dependent declines in gosling growth following recent population increases of those species and sympatric greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis). We contrasted contemporary body mass of brant goslings and forage biomass in brood-rearing habitats that were shared by all species, with measures obtained on, and near the CRD in the 1990s, prior to the establishment of snow goose nesting colonies in the area. Body mass of brant goslings recaptured between 25 and 32 days of age had not changed over the past 2 decades, despite an influx of snow geese, and increases in populations of brant and white-fronted geese. At 30 days of age, body mass of brant goslings on the CRD was 100–400 g heavier than for brant goslings of the same age on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska. Contemporary biomass of grazed Carex subspathacea on CRD brood-rearing areas was comparable to the 1990s and was 2–4 times greater than for the same plant community on the YKD. Historical data on growth of snow goose goslings were not available for the CRD. However, average body mass of 34-day-old snow goose goslings was >230 g heavier than for conspecifics of the same age in the Hudson Bay region. We conclude that the establishment of nesting snow geese on the CRD has not negatively affected brant gosling growth, and that recent population increases of all species have likely not been constrained by forage availability on brood-rearing areas. Barring demographic changes elsewhere in their annual cycles, we predict that

  16. Cloning and expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) in the liver of the Sichuan white goose and landes goose responding to overfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi-Xiong; Han, Chun-Chun; Wang, Ji-Wen; Li, Liang; Tang, Hui; Lv, Jia; Lu, Lizhi; Xu, Feng

    2011-06-01

    The EST sequence of goose (Anser cygnoides) Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1(SCD-1) was obtained from a subtractive cDNA library. To further investigate the role of SCD-1 in lipid metabolism in geese, 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE were carried out in this study to obtain the complete cDNA sequence of goose SCD-1, which contained a 29-bp 5' UTR, a 1074-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 357 amino acids, and a 125-bp 3' UTR. The expression of SCD-1 was measured in several tissues, and the effects of overfeeding on the expression of SCD-1 were studied. The results of real time RT-PCR demonstrated that, compared to the brain, goose SCD-1 mRNA was more abundant in the liver. Overfeeding markedly increased the mRNA expression of SCD-1 in the liver of Sichuan White and Landes geese, and gene expression was markedly higher in the Sichuan White goose than in the landes goose. The mRNA abundance of SCD-1 in the liver had significant positive correlations with triacylglycerol (TG) content in liver lipids and in the levels of plasma insulin and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) levels in Sichuan white geese. However, the mRNA abundance of SCD-1 in the livers of Landes geese had only significant positive correlations with the TG content in liver lipids. In conclusion, SCD-1 is not only critical for hepatic steatosis in geese but is also important for the difference in lipid deposition in the livers of the two breeds.

  17. An implantable instrument for studying the long-term flight biology of migratory birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivey, Robin J., E-mail: r.spivey@bangor.ac.uk, E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk; Bishop, Charles M., E-mail: r.spivey@bangor.ac.uk, E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk [Department of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    The design of an instrument deployed in a project studying the high altitude Himalayan migrations of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) is described. The electronics of this archival datalogger measured 22 × 14 × 6.5 mm, weighed 3 g, was powered by a ½AA-sized battery weighing 10 g and housed in a transparent biocompatible tube sealed with titanium electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). The combined weight of 32 g represented less than 2% of the typical bodyweight of the geese. The primary tasks of the instrument were to continuously record a digitised ECG signal for heart-rate determination and store 12-bit triaxial accelerations sampled at 100 Hz with 15% coverage over each 2 min period. Measurement of atmospheric pressure provided an indication of altitude and rate of ascent or descent during flight. Geomagnetic field readings allowed for latitude estimation. These parameters were logged twice per minute along with body temperature. Data were stored to a memory card of 8 GB capacity. Instruments were implanted in geese captured on Mongolian lakes during the breeding season when the birds are temporarily flightless due to moulting. The goal was to collect data over a ten month period, covering both southward and northward migrations. This imposed extreme constraints on the design's power consumption. Raw ECG can be post-processed to obtain heart-rate, allowing improved rejection of signal interference due to strenuous activity of locomotory muscles during flight. Accelerometry can be used to monitor wing-beat frequency and body kinematics, and since the geese continued to flap their wings continuously even during rather steep descents, act as a proxy for biomechanical power. The instrument enables detailed investigation of the challenges faced by the geese during these arduous migrations which typically involve flying at extreme altitudes through cold, low density air where oxygen availability is significantly reduced compared to sea level.

  18. Role of bird movements in the epidemiology of West Nile and avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Perry, William M.; Smith, Lacy M.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Avian infl uenza virus (AIV) is infl uenced by site fi delity and movements of bird hosts. We examined the movement ecology of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) as potential hosts for West Nile virus (WNV) and greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) as potential hosts for AIVs. Research was based on radio-telemetry studies conducted in the Central Valley of California, USA. While crows were restricted to a small area of only a few square kilometers, the distribution of the geese encompassed the northern Central Valley. The crows used 1.5 to 3.5 different roosting areas monthly from February through October, revealing lower roost fi delity than the geese that used 1.1 to 1.5 roosting areas each month from November through March. The crows moved a mean distance of 0.11 to 0.49 km/month between their roosting sites and 2.5 to 3.9 km/month between roosting and feeding sites. In contrast, the geese moved 4.2 to 19.3 km/month between roosting areas, and their feeding range varied from 13.2 to 19.0 km/month. Our comparison of the ecological characteristics of bird movements suggests that the limited local movements of crows coupled with frequent turnover of roosts may result in persistence of focal areas for WNV infection. In contrast, widespread areas used by geese will provide regular opportunities for intermixing of AIVs over a much greater geographic area.

  19. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (movement between northern and southern wintering areas for Wrangel Island birds and little evidence of exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island populations. Face

  20. Mark-resight approach as a tool to estimate population size of one of the world’s smallest goose populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Fælled, Casper Cæsar; Clausen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of a mark–resight procedure to estimate total population size in a local goose population. Using colour-ring sightings of the increasingly scattered population of Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota from their Danish staging areas, we estimate a ...... a total population size of 7845 birds (95% CI: 7252–8438). This is in good agreement with numbers obtained from total counts, emphasizing that this population, although steadily increasing, is still small compared with historic numbers.......The present study investigates the use of a mark–resight procedure to estimate total population size in a local goose population. Using colour-ring sightings of the increasingly scattered population of Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota from their Danish staging areas, we estimate...

  1. Avian collision risk at an offshore wind farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desholm, Mark; Kahlert, Johnny

    2005-09-22

    We have been the first to investigate whether long-lived geese and ducks can detect and avoid a large offshore wind farm by tracking their diurnal migration patterns with radar. We found that the percentage of flocks entering the wind farm area decreased significantly (by a factor 4.5) from pre-construction to initial operation. At night, migrating flocks were more prone to enter the wind farm but counteracted the higher risk of collision in the dark by increasing their distance from individual turbines and flying in the corridors between turbines. Overall, less than 1% of the ducks and geese migrated close enough to the turbines to be at any risk of collision.

  2. Genome and metagenome analyses reveal adaptive evolution of the host and interaction with the gut microbiota in the goose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guangliang; Zhao, Xianzhi; Li, Qin; He, Chuan; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Shuyun; Ding, Jinmei; Ye, Weixing; Wang, Jun; Chen, Ye; Wang, Haiwei; Li, Jing; Luo, Yi; Su, Jian; Huang, Yong; Liu, Zuohua; Dai, Ronghua; Shi, Yixiang; Meng, He; Wang, Qigui

    2016-01-01

    The goose is an economically important waterfowl that exhibits unique characteristics and abilities, such as liver fat deposition and fibre digestion. Here, we report de novo whole-genome assemblies for the goose and swan goose and describe the evolutionary relationships among 7 bird species, including domestic and wild geese, which diverged approximately 3.4~6.3 million years ago (Mya). In contrast to chickens as a proximal species, the expanded and rapidly evolving genes found in the goose genome are mainly involved in metabolism, including energy, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Further integrated analysis of the host genome and gut metagenome indicated that the most widely shared functional enrichment of genes occurs for functions such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, propanoate metabolism and the citrate cycle. We speculate that the unique physiological abilities of geese benefit from the adaptive evolution of the host genome and symbiotic interactions with gut microbes. PMID:27608918

  3. Goose management schemes to resolve conflicts with agriculture: Theory, practice and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eythórsson, Einar; Tombre, Ingunn M; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, the four countries hosting the Svalbard population of pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus along its flyway launched an International Species Management Plan for the population. One of the aims was to reduce conflicts between geese and agriculture to an acceptable level. Since 2006, Norway has offered subsidies to farmers that provide refuge areas for geese on their land. We evaluate the mid-Norwegian goose management subsidy scheme, with a view to its adjustment to prevailing ecological and socio-economic parameters. The analysis indicates that the legitimacy of the scheme is highly dependent on transparency of knowledge management and accountability of management scheme to the farming community. Among farmers, as well as front-line officials, outcomes of prioritisation processes within the scheme are judged unfair when there is an evident mismatch between payments and genuine damage. We suggest how the scheme can be made more fair and responsive to ecological changes, within a framework of adaptive management.

  4. Isolation of myxoviruses from migratory waterfowls in San-in district, western Japan in winters of 1997-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengqing, Yu; Shinya, Kyoko; Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2002-11-01

    Between November 1997 and February 2000, winter migratory waterfowls of several species staying in San-in district, western Japan were surveyed for influenza A virus and paramyxovirus at four stations. A total of 18 influenza A viruses was isolated from 1,404 fecal samples of whistling swans, pintails, mallards, and white-fronted geese. Five different hemagglutinins and eight neuraminidases were identified in the viruses isolated, in 11 different combinations, including H7N8 related to a subtype of a highly pathogenic chicken virus. In 2000, five lentogenic (non-pathogenic) Newcastle disease viruses were also isolated from white-fronted geese. These results suggested that possible precursor viruses for highly pathogenic avian myxoviruses are still brought into Japan by migratory waterfowls. The results also support the contention that continued surveillance of wild waterfowl population should be an integral part of control policies for these serious poultry diseases.

  5. Determination of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), a component of Nicarbazin, in Canada goose (Branta canadensis) eggshells using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Randal S; VerCauteren, Kurt; Buettgenbach, Teresa L; Johnston, John J

    2003-02-26

    A method was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography to assay 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the active ingredient in Nicarbazin, in eggshells collected from Canada geese fed a formulated feed fortified with Nicarbazin at doses of 0, 125, 250, and 500 microg/g. The method was developed using chicken eggshells fortified with DNC. The method was used to quantify DNC in both the shell-associated membranes and the calcified shell extracellular matrix. These values were compared to those obtained for a composite sample consisting of both the membranes and the calcified shell extracellular matrix. The validated method was used to quantify DNC in eggshells from geese fed fortified feed to ascertain the effect of Nicarbazin feed concentration on shell DNC concentration. DNC levels in the eggshells were highly correlated with feed dose.

  6. Hunting for the optimal hunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gitte Høj; Madsen, Jesper; Wisz, Mary

    The Svalbard breeding population of pink-footed geese winters in Denmark, The Netherlands and Belgium, and Nord-Trøndelag is a central staging area both during spring and autumn. During autumn the geese feed primarily on stubble fields (which does not conflict with agriculture), but in spring...... they feed on pastures and newly sown cereal fields, to great economic expense to farmers. The agricultural conflict has intensified over time as the pink-footed goose population has increased from c. 20,000 in the 1970s to an unprecedented peak of c. 80,000 in 2011 and as the spring staging period in Nord......-Trøndelag has become extended. In the recently endorsed AEWA adaptive International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose a stable population target of 60,000 has been agreed in order to reduce conflicts with agriculture and damage to the tundra vegetation in Svalbard...

  7. Balancing ecosystem function, services and disservices resulting from expanding goose populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buij, Ralph; Melman, Theodorus C. P.; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.

    2017-01-01

    in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the influence of goose populations on vegetation biomass, carbon storage and methane emission, species diversity and disease transmission. To estimate the implications of their growing abundance for humans, we explore how these functions contribute to the provision...... of ecosystem services and disservices. We assess the weight, extent and trends among such impacts, as well as the balance of their value to society. We examine key unresolved issues to enable a more balanced assessment of the economic costs or benefits of migratory geese along their flyways, including...... the spatial and temporal variation in services and their contrasting value to different user groups. Many ecological functions of geese are concluded to provide neither services nor disservices and, ecosystem disservices currently appear to outweigh services, although this varies between regions. We consider...

  8. Evaluation of Salmonella rod incidence in poultry in the Lublin Province over the years 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawinska, Beata; Saba, Leon; Wdowiak, Leszek; Ondrasovicova, Olga; Nowakowicz-Debek, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    The researches included geese, broiler chickens and reproductive laying hens. The occurrence of Salmonella rods assigned to the serovars in the bird flocks was assessed for the years 2001-2005. In geese, during 2001-2003, S. typhimurium was isolated most frequently, whereas in 2004 - S. enteriditis (42.8%). Throughout the research period, in the flocks of reproductive laying hens, the S. enteriditis proved the most commonly reported serovar (67.8%). Among broiler chickens in 2001, S. typhimurium prevailed by only a slight percentage (45.1%). In the bird flocks under investigation, the highest Salmonella rate was obtained from the dead embryos, followed by cloacal swabs, inner organs of birds and faeces, while the lowest was detected in the litter obtained from chick breeding boxes.

  9. Lead poisoning in wild birds from southern Spain: a comparative study of wetland areas and species affected, and trends over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, R; Green, A J; Lefranc, H; Baos, R; Figuerola, J

    2007-01-01

    We studied lead (Pb) shot contamination in sediments from the Guadalquivir marshes and six other closed-basin lagoons in Southern Spain that are of major importance for threatened species of waterbirds. Shot densities were relatively low in Doñana, ranging from 0 to 25 shot/m(2) in the top 10 cm of sediments. The density at Medina lagoon (Ramsar site) was 148 shot/m(2), making it the most contaminated wetland known in Europe. Densities in the other five lagoons ranged from 9 to 59 shot/m(2). We studied the prevalence of ingested Pb shot in waterbirds from Doñana and found a lower prevalence in ducks than previously recorded in other Spanish wetlands. Lead shot were also found embedded in tissues of some waterbirds, proving that protected species such as the greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) and the glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) are subjected to illegal hunting. The prevalence of embedded shot for geese was especially high (44% for trapped birds). Lead shot were detected in 2.8% of the pellets of the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) which usually preys on geese. We found that the prevalence of ingested Pb shot in geese and in Spanish imperial eagles has significantly decreased in recent years, possibly due to restrictions on hunting activity, efforts to remove shot from a sand dune used by geese to obtain grit, and to the high rainfall in Doñana during the last years that permitted waterfowl to stay more within the protected areas.

  10. High-throughput sequencing reveals the core gut microbiome of Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) in different wintering areas in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Cao, Jian; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xuelian; Zheng, Sisi; Sharshov, Kirill; Li, Laixing

    2016-04-01

    Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core gut microbiome related to wild bar-headed goose is of crucial importance for probiotics development that may meet the demands of bar-headed goose artificial breeding industries and accelerate the domestication of this species. However, the core microbial communities in the wild bar-headed geese remain totally unknown. Here, for the first time, we present a comprehensive survey of bar-headed geese gut microbial communities by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology using nine individuals from three distinct wintering locations in Tibet. A total of 236,676 sequences were analyzed, and 607 OTUs were identified. We show that the gut microbial communities of bar-headed geese have representatives of 14 phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The additive abundance of these four most dominant phyla was above 96% across all the samples. At the genus level, the sequences represented 150 genera. A set of 19 genera were present in all samples and considered as core gut microbiome. The top seven most abundant core genera were distributed in that four dominant phyla. Among them, four genera (Lactococcus, Bacillus, Solibacillus, and Streptococcus) belonged to Firmicutes, while for other three phyla, each containing one genus, such as Proteobacteria (genus Pseudomonas), Actinobacteria (genus Arthrobacter), and Bacteroidetes (genus Bacteroides). This broad survey represents the most in-depth assessment, to date, of the gut microbes that associated with bar-headed geese. These data create a baseline for future bar-headed goose microbiology research, and make an original contribution to probiotics development for bar-headed goose artificial breeding industries.

  11. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Agricultural Institute, Xinjiang: "Discovery of Polymor- phus Diploinflatus in China"] [Abstract] During an examination of ducks and geese in Xinjiang...tion assay method was used for testing because it is highly specific, easy to use, requires no special equip- ment, and shows a reaction quickly...The provincial party com- mittee has used the Cangshan County "Garlic and Gin- ger Incident" to launch a criticism and discussion cam - paign

  12. Research on MPPT Control of PV System Based on Improved Hybrid Particle Swarm Algorithm%基于改进混合粒子群算法MPPT控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石科仁; 朱长青

    2016-01-01

    Based on the physical mechanism of photovoltaic array, combined with the equivalent circuit of pho⁃tovoltaic cells, the mathematical model is built. In MATLAB/Simulink, different simulation models are developed for the independent photovoltaic system which can be imitated in the situations of a constant condition, light intensi⁃ty mutation and temperature mutation. PSO algorithm is improved to Geese-HPSO algorithm. The independent pho⁃tovoltaic system based on photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is simulated and the simulation results are compared with the disturbance observation method. The quickness and accuracy of the im⁃proved Geese-HPSO algorithm to track the maximum power point are testified.%基于光伏阵列的物理机制,结合光伏电池的等效电路,建立了数学模型,在MATLAB/Simulink仿真环境下,建立了可以模拟恒定条件、光强突变、温度突变条件下仿真的独立光伏系统模型,将PSO算法改进为Geese-HPSO算法,进行基于光伏阵列MPPT控制的独立光伏系统仿真,同时将仿真结果与扰动观察法进行对比,验证了Geese-HPSO算法跟踪最大功率点的快速性与准确性。

  13. Environmental Assessment: Tree Removal to Improve FAA Radar Coverage, Youngstown Air Reserve Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Trees would ultimately regenerate , particularly if aggressive invasive species were controlled . The Proposed Action would result in a major loss of the...include toads, frogs, and salamanders . A wide range of birds from Canada geese to common song birds are found within and near the Project Study Area...drainage. As the vegetation at the site regenerates over a three to five or more year period, site hydrology would return to the current conditions

  14. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with antia??T. gondiia??specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

  15. Restoring Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    Watching flocks of waterfowl taking off and landing in the large expanse of wetland near his home is a favorite pastime of Li Qiwen a middle-aged primary school teacher in Weichang Township,Luobei County in Heilongjiang Province.The wetland is home to hundreds of species of birds,including rare white storks and red-crowned cranes,as well as more common geese and ducks.

  16. Evaluation on nutritional value of napier in goose%籽粒苋对鹅营养价值的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛文华; 张乐乐; 胡文婷; 王宝维; 张名爱; 岳斌; 赵辉

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to explore the nutritional value of amaranth meal and the differences of different methods and breeds to determine the true metabolic energy and the conventional nutrient-efficiency of it. 24 healthy adult Wulong (mini-type) and Qingnong gray (large-scale) male geese were selected. The geese were divided into four treatment groups, with 6 geese in each group. Every goose was forced to feed 80 g per day. This trial adopted the method of total feces collection. Therefore amaranth meal was an ideal crude fiber feed for goose. It was better to be forced to feed single feedstuff with microelement and vitamin when evaluating the value of amaranth meal. There were some differences in the utilization of nutrition between the two breeds of geese.%为了探索籽粒苋对鹅的营养价值以及不同方法不同鹅品种对其真代谢能、常规养分利用效果与差异,分别选取健康成年五龙鹅(小型)和青农灰鹅(大型)公鹅各24只,各设4个处理组,每个处理组6只,试验鹅单笼饲养,每天强饲80 g,试验采用全收粪法.试验结果表明,籽粒苋对鹅是一种较为理想的粗纤维饲料;对籽粒苋进行营养价值评定时,采用强饲并添加维生素和微量元素的方法最好;两品种之间对籽粒苋的真代谢能及常规养分的利用率具有一定的差异.

  17. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Missouri River Recovery Program Lower Little Sioux Bend Shallow Water Habitat Construction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchus), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), Canada geese (Branta Canadensis), spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia), and...streams, riparian forest, woodland, and grassland habitats that would otherwise result in the taking of migratory birds, eggs , young, and/or active nests...Since 1972 the Act has extended eligibility to recreational and open space lands such as scenic highway corridors, salt ponds and wildlife preserves

  18. Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Ganders’ Response to Semen Collection and Ejaculate Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Jerysz, Anna; Lukaszewicz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Compared to other domestic bird species, geese exhibit the lowest reproductive efficiency (poor semen quality, low egg production, and poor fertility and hatchability rates). From an economic perspective, it is a necessity of improve these reproductive traits. Studies have demonstrated that the essential trace element—selenium—plays key roles in testicular development and the maintenance of spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of feed supplementation with ...

  19. Mike O’Callaghan Federal Medical Center Campus Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Center Campus Final EA Departments to the basement, outpatient clinics and medical center diagnostics to the first floor, surgical services to the...Center Campus Final EA 3.8.1 Vegetation The Integrated Natural Resource Management Plan (INRMP) describes the desert scrub creosote bush/white bursage...domestic geese and ducks. The areas with the most diverse wildlife are those containing native desert scrub vegetation, mostly located in clear

  20. Specificity of a Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron marker for human feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, C.A.; Christiansen, J.M.; Yampara-Iquise, H.; Benson, V.W.; Baffaut, C.; Davis, J.V.; Broz, R.R.; Kurtz, W.B.; Rogers, W.M.; Fales, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    A bacterial primer set, known to produce a 542-bp amplicon specific for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, generated this product in PCR with 1 ng of extracted DNA from 92% of 25 human fecal samples, 100% of 20 sewage samples, and 16% of 31 dog fecal samples. The marker was not detected in 1 ng of fecal DNA from 61 cows, 35 horses, 44 pigs, 24 chickens, 29 turkeys, and 17 geese. Copyright ?? 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.