WorldWideScience

Sample records for geco galaxy evolution

  1. GECO: Galaxy Evolution COde - A new semi-analytical model of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardelli, E

    2010-01-01

    We present a new semi-analytical model of galaxy formation, GECO (Galaxy Evolution COde), aimed at a better understanding of when and how the two processes of star formation and galaxy assembly have taken place. Our model is structured into a Monte Carlo algorithm based on the Extended Press-Schechter theory, for the representation of the merging hierarchy of dark matter halos, and a set of analytic algorithms for the treatment of the baryonic physics, including classical recipes for the gas cooling, the star formation time-scales, galaxy mergers and SN feedback. Together with the galaxies, the parallel growth of BHs is followed in time and their feedback on the hosting galaxies is modelled. We set the model free parameters by matching with data on local stellar mass functions and the BH-bulge relation at z=0. Based on such local boundary conditions, we investigate how data on the high-redshift universe constrain our understanding of the physical processes driving the evolution, focusing in particular on the ...

  2. Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, F.

    We review both the observational and theoretical constraints on the evolution of the abundances of heavy elements in gas and stars in galaxies of different morphological type. The main aim of this work is to document the progress made in our understanding of the physical processes regulating the chemical evolution of galaxies during the last sixteen years since the appearance, in this same journal (volume 5, page 287), of the well know review of Beatrice Tinsley, to whom I dedicate this paper. Finally, this article is addressed particularly to readers who do not actively work on galactic chemical evolution and who might use it as a cook book where the main ingredients are discussed and useful recipes can be found.

  3. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies keystones of galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, S C; Gallagher, S; Wyse, F G

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  4. Evolution of galaxy habitability

    OpenAIRE

    Gobat, R.; Hong, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, and how it evolves with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone (known as habitability) depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4e10 Msun. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way type...

  5. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kentaro; Reddy, Naveen; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.

    2016-07-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the current status of observational and computational studies on galaxy formation and evolution. In particular, a joint analysis of star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and metallicities of galaxies throughout cosmic time can shed light on the processes by which galaxies build up their stellar mass and enrich the environment with heavy elements. Comparison of such observations and the results of numerical simulations can give us insights on the physical importance of various feedback effects by supernovae and active galactic nuclei. In Sect. 1, we first discuss the primary methods used to deduce the SFRs, stellar masses, and (primarily) gas-phase metallicities in high-redshift galaxies. Then, we show how these quantities are related to each other and evolve with time. In Sect. 2, we further examine the distribution of SFRs in galaxies following the `Main Sequence' paradigm. We show how the so-called `starbursts' display higher specific SFRs and SF efficiencies by an order of magnitude. We use this to devise a simple description of the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population since z ˜3 that can successfully reproduce some of the observed statistics in the infrared (IR) wavelength. We also discuss the properties of molecular gas. In Sect. 3, we highlight some of the recent studies of high-redshift galaxy formation using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We discuss the physical properties of simulated galaxies such as luminosity function and escape fraction of ionizing photons, which are important statistics for reionization of the Universe. In particular the escape fraction of ionizing photons has large uncertainties, and studying gamma-ray bursts (which is the main topic of this conference) can also set observational constraints on this uncertain physical parameter as well as cosmic star formation rate density.

  6. Understanding Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Avila-Reese, V

    2006-01-01

    The old dream of integrating into one the study of micro and macrocosmos is now a reality. Cosmology, astrophysics, and particle physics intersect in a scenario (but still not a theory) of cosmic structure formation and evolution called Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) model. This scenario emerged mainly to explain the origin of galaxies. In these lecture notes, I first present a review of the main galaxy properties, highlighting the questions that any theory of galaxy formation should explain. Then, the cosmological framework and the main aspects of primordial perturbation generation and evolution are pedagogically detached. Next, I focus on the ``dark side'' of galaxy formation, presenting a review on LCDM halo assembling and properties, and on the main candidates for non-baryonic dark matter. It is shown how the nature of elemental particles can influence on the features of galaxies and their systems. Finally, the complex processes of baryon dissipation inside the non-linearly evolving CDM halos, formation o...

  7. The evolution of galaxy habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Gobat, R

    2016-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, as well as its evolution with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone ("habitability") depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4e10 Msun. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way type galaxies to host a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone, consistent with the value derived from Kepler observations. On the other hand, the habitability of passive galaxies is slightly but systematically higher, unless we assume an unrealistically high sensitivity of planets to supernovae. We find that the overall habitability of galaxies has not changed significantly in the last ~8 Gyr, with most of the habitable planets in local disk galaxies having formed ~1.5 Gyr before our own solar system. Finally, we expe...

  8. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  9. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kormendy, John

    2013-01-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via available evolution processes. The inner parts shrink and the outer parts expand, provided that some physical process transports energy or angular momentum outward. The evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks, and galaxy disks are all fundamentally similar. These processes for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. Part 1 discusses formation, growth, and death of bars. Part 2 details the slow ("secular") rearrangement of angular momentum that results from interactions between stars or gas and nonaxisymmetries such as bars. We have a heuristic understanding of how this forms outer rings, inner rings, and stuff dumped into the center. Observations show that barred galaxies have central concentrations of gas and star formation. Timescales imply that they grow central "pseudobulges" that get mistaken for ellip...

  10. Do Galaxies Follow Darwinian Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Using VIMOS on ESO's Very Large Telescope, a team of French and Italian astronomers have shown the strong influence the environment exerts on the way galaxies form and evolve. The scientists have for the first time charted remote parts of the Universe, showing that the distribution of galaxies has considerably evolved with time, depending on the galaxies' immediate surroundings. This surprising discovery poses new challenges for theories of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The 'nature versus nurture' debate is a hot topic in human psychology. But astronomers too face similar conundrums, in particular when trying to solve a problem that goes to the very heart of cosmological theories: are the galaxies we see today simply the product of the primordial conditions in which they formed, or did experiences in the past change the path of their evolution? ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 45/06 Galaxy Distribution in Space In a large, three-year long survey carried out with VIMOS [1], the Visible Imager and Multi-Object Spectrograph on ESO's VLT, astronomers studied more than 6,500 galaxies over a wide range of distances to investigate how their properties vary over different timescales, in different environments and for varying galaxy luminosities [2]. They were able to build an atlas of the Universe in three dimensions, going back more than 9 billion years. This new census reveals a surprising result. The colour-density relation, that describes the relationship between the properties of a galaxy and its environment, was markedly different 7 billion years ago. The astronomers thus found that the galaxies' luminosity, their initial genetic properties, and the environments they reside in have a profound impact on their evolution. "Our results indicate that environment is a key player in galaxy evolution, but there's no simple answer to the 'nature versus nurture' problem in galaxy evolution," said Olivier Le Fèvre from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

  11. Galaxy Evolution in Rich Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, U.; Hill, J. M.

    2000-12-01

    We present the first results of a study of the morphological and spectral evolution of galaxies within the dense cores of distant clusters at redshifts between z=0.4 and 1. The morphology, colors, concentration index, and asymmetry parameters of these cluster members are compared by using a combination of deep HST NICMOS and WFPC2 imaging, covering the rest-frame U and J bands. We also discuss the influence of dust obscuration on the derived measurements. Of particular interest is the morphology of galaxies at near-infrared wavelengths in rich clusters which show an excess of blue galaxies (Butcher-Oelmer effect), namely Abell 851 (z=0.4) and CL 1603+43 (z=0.92). We focus our study on optical/near-infrared measurements of galaxy asymmetry and central concentration, derived from a large number (>400) of objects detected within the core of Abell 851. The sensitivity and reliability of these parameters for galaxy classification and physical diagnostic purposes are tested. In conjunction with the use of recent source extraction software we are able to establish a fast, robust, and highly automated procedure of mapping the structural parameters of large galaxy samples. This work is supported by NASA, under contract NAS5-26555.

  12. AGN evolution from a galaxy evolution viewpoint

    CERN Document Server

    Caplar, Neven; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2014-01-01

    We explore the connections between the evolving galaxy and AGN populations. We present a simple phenomenological model that links the evolving galaxy mass function and the evolving quasar luminosity function, motivated by similarities between the two, which makes specific and testable predictions for the distribution of host galaxy masses for AGN of different luminosities. We show that the phi$^{*}$ normalisations of the galaxy mass function and the AGN luminosity function closely track each other over a wide range of redshifts, implying a constant "duty cycle" of AGN activity. The strong redshift evolution in the AGN break luminosity $L^*$ is produced by either an evolution in the distribution of Eddington rations, or in the $m_{bh}/m_{*}$ mass ratio, or both. An evolving $m_{bh}/m_{*}$ ratio, such that it is ten times higher at $z \\sim 2$ (i.e. roughly following $(1+z)^{2}$), reproduces the observed distribution of SDSS quasars in the ($m_{bh},L$) plane and accounts for the apparent "sub-Eddington boundary"...

  13. Secular evolution of disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2008-01-01

    Galaxy disks evolve through angular momentum transfers between sub-components, like gas, stars, or dark matter halos, through non axi-symmetric instabilities. The speed of this evolution is boosted in presence of a large fraction of cold and dissipative gas component. When the visible matter dominates over the whole disk, angular momentum is exchanged between gas and stars only. The gas is driven towards the center by bars, stalled transiently in resonance rings, and driven further by embedded bars, which it contributes to destroy. From a small-scale molecular torus, the gas can then inflow from viscous torques, dynamical friction, or m=1 perturbations. In the weakened bar phases, multiple-speed spiral patterns can develop and help the galaxy to accrete external gas flowing from cosmic filaments. The various phases of secular evolution are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  14. Galaxy Evolution in Clusters Since z ~ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature" vs. "nurture" in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the Universe was half its present age. Many of the results presented here have been obtained within the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  15. How environment drives galaxy evolution: lessons learnt from satellite galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, A

    2015-01-01

    It is by now well established that galaxy evolution is driven by intrinsic and environmental processes, both contributing to shape the observed properties of galaxies. A number of early studies, both observational and theoretical, have shown that the star formation activity of galaxies depends on their environmental local density and also on galaxy hierarchy, i.e. centrals vs. satellites. In fact, contrary to their central (most massive) galaxy of a group/cluster, satellite galaxies are stripped of their gas and stars, and have their star formation quenched by their environment. Large galaxy surveys like SDSS now permit us to investigate in detail environment-driven transformation processes by comparing centrals and satellites. In this paper I summarize what we have so far learnt about environmental effects by analysing the observed properties of local central and satellite galaxies in SDSS, as a function of their stellar mass and the dark matter mass of their host group/cluster.

  16. Using Galaxy Winds to Constrain Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher W.; Klypin, A.; Ceverino, D.; Kacprzak, G.; Klimek, E.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of mock quasar spectra of metal absorption lines in the proximity of formed galaxies in cosmological simulation is a highly promising for understanding the role of galaxies in IGM physics, or IGM physics in the role of galaxy formation in context of the cosmic web. Such analysis using neutral hydrogen in the cosmic web has literally revolutionized our understanding of the Lyman alpha forest. We are undertaking a wholesale approach to use powerful Lambda-CDM simulations to interpret absorption line data from redshift 1-3 starbursting galaxies e.g. Lyman break galaxies, etc) The data with which direct quantitative comparison is made are from the DEEP survey (Weiner et al.) and the collective work of Steidel et al. and collaborators. The simulations are performed using the Eulerian Gasdynamics plus N-body Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code, which has gas cell resolutions of 20-50 pc. Physical processes implemented in the code include realistic radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment and thermal feedback due to type II and type Ia supernovae. We quantitatively compare the spatial and kinematic distribution of HI, MgII, CIV, and OVI of absorption lines over a range of impact parameters for various simulated galaxies as a function of redshift, and discuss key insights for interpreting the underlying temperature, density, and ionization structure of the halo/cosmic-web interface, and the influence of galaxies on its chemical enrichment.

  17. Galaxy evolution in clusters since z=1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    2011-11-01

    It is now 30 years since Alan Dressler published his seminal paper onthe morphology-density relation. Although there is still much to learnon the effect of the environment on galaxy evolution, extensive progress has been made since then both observationally and theoretically.Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature'' vs. "nurture'' in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the universe was half its present age.Many of the results presented here have been obtainedwithin the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  18. First phylogenetic analyses of galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, D

    2004-01-01

    The Hubble tuning fork diagram, based on morphology, has always been the preferred scheme for classification of galaxies and is still the only one originally built from historical/evolutionary relationships. At the opposite, biologists have long taken into account the parenthood links of living entities for classification purposes. Assuming branching evolution of galaxies as a "descent with modification", we show that the concepts and tools of phylogenetic systematics widely used in biology can be heuristically transposed to the case of galaxies. This approach that we call "astrocladistics" has been first applied to Dwarf Galaxies of the Local Group and provides the first evolutionary galaxy tree. The cladogram is sufficiently solid to support the existence of a hierarchical organization in the diversity of galaxies, making it possible to track ancestral types of galaxies. We also find that morphology is a summary of more fundamental properties. Astrocladistics applied to cosmology simulated galaxies can, uns...

  19. Chemical and mass evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, B L

    2004-01-01

    An introduction is given to projects investigating galaxy evolution quantitatively by spectroscopic observations of very distant galaxies that have weak apparent brightnesses and small sizes as it is feasible with 10m-class telescopes like SALT. Such methods encompass scaling relations like the Tully-Fisher and Fundamental Plane relations that can be utilized to determine the luminosity evolution and mass assembly of galaxies. The stellar populations can be analyzed with respect to age, metallicity, and chemical enrichment by measureing absorption line strengths. Possible effects on galaxy evolution of the environment in rich clusters of galaxies compared to the field are also addressed. For each method, recent applications are presented like the evolution of the TFR determined with 77 field spirals up to z=1, a study of the internal kinematics of distant cluster spirals and a comparison of the stellar populations of ellipticals in the field and in rich clusters at z=0.4.

  20. The morphological evolution of field galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S

    1994-01-01

    I review two observational programs which, together, promise to unravel the detailed astrophysical evolution of normal field galaxies over the last 5-7 Gyr. Systematic ground-based spectroscopy of faint galaxies have revealed an increasing faint end slope for the luminosity function with redshift. The trend is strongest for galaxies undergoing intense star-formation. Deep images taken with the repaired HST can be used to count galaxies as a function of morphological type. Regular `Hubble sequence' galaxies follow the no-evolution prediction, but irregular/peculiar sources have a steeper count slope and provide the excess population. Although the overlap between the spectral and HST samples is currently small, plans to merge similar datasets should reveal the physical explanation for the demise of star formation in faint blue galaxies since z\\simeq0.5-1.

  1. Joint evolution of black holes and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Colpi, M; Haardt, F

    2006-01-01

    OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES Introduction Some Useful Formalism General Considerations Resolved Stellar Dynamics Gas as a Tracer of the Gravitational Potential Tackling the Unresolvable: Reverberation Mapping Scaling Relations for SMBHs Black Hole Demographics The Future JOINT EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLES AND GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONAL ISSUES Galaxy Activity: Generalities Local Evidence on the Interplay Between the Stellar and Gravitational Origin of AGN Activity The Cosmic History of Galaxy Activity Constraints on the Cosmic Energy Budget Current Observational Programs and Fut

  2. Astrocladistics: a phylogenetic analysis of galaxy evolution I. Character evolutions and galaxy histories

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, D; Douzery, E J P; Verhamme, A; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Choler, Philippe; Douzery, Emmanuel J.P.; Verhamme, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This series of papers is intended to present astrocladistics in some detail and evaluate this methodology in reconstructing phylogenies of galaxies. Being based on the evolution of all the characters describing galaxies, it is an objective way of understanding galaxy diversity through evolutionary relationships. In this first paper, we present the basic steps of a cladistic analysis and show both theoretically and practically that it can be applied to galaxies. For illustration, we use a sample of 50 simulated galaxies taken from the GALICS database, which are described by 91 observables (dynamics, masses and luminosities). These 50 simulated galaxies are indeed 10 different galaxies taken at 5 cosmological epochs, and they are free of merger events. The astrocladistic analysis easily reconstructs the true chronology of evolution relationships within this sample. It also demonstrates that burst characters are not relevant for galaxy evolution as a whole. A companion paper is devoted to the formalization of th...

  3. SAGE: Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M.

    2016-01-01

    SAGE (Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution) models galaxy formation in a cosmological context. SAGE has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model runs on any dark matter cosmological N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties.

  4. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Edmond; Masters, Karen L; Nichol, Robert C; Bosma, A; Bell, Eric F; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Willett, Kyle W

    2013-01-01

    Observations have shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy. In a parallel effort, simulations have shown that this connection is consistent with the theory of bar-driven secular evolution. But observational evidence of bar-driven secular evolution has been sparse. In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to look for evidence of this secular evolution. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 +/- 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. We characterize bars by the bar likelihood, the likelihood a bar is present in a given galaxy, and the bar length. These two bar properties show interesting correlations with the specific star formation rate and the inner central structure of galaxies. Comparing these observations to state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution, which include live halos and ...

  5. Angular momentum evolution of galaxies in EAGLE

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Claudia del P; Stevens, Adam R H; Cortese, Luca; Padilla, Nelson D; Davis, Timothy A; Contreras, Sergio; Croton, Darren

    2016-01-01

    We use EAGLE to study the specific angular momentum of galaxies, j, at z1.2, and then increase as lstars~a. Galaxy mergers reduce lstars by a factor of 2-3. These tracks are driven by both the evolution of the total jstars but also its radial distribution. Regardless of the aperture used to measure j, two distinct channels leading to low jstars in galaxies at z=0 are identified: (i) galaxy mergers, and (ii) early formation of most of the stars.

  6. Testing AGN feedback models in galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Su

    Galaxy formation and evolution have been one of the most challenging problems in astrophysics. A single galaxy has various components (stars, atomic and molecular gas, a supermassive black hole, and dark matter) and has interacted with its cosmic environment throughout its history. A key issue in understanding galaxy evolution is to find the dominant physical processes in the interactions between the components of a galaxy and between a galaxy and its environment. AGN feedback has been proposed as a key process to suppress late star formation in massive elliptical galaxies and as a general consequence of galaxy mergers and interactions. In this thesis, I investigate feedback effects from active galactic nuclei (AGN) using a new simulation code and data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In the first chapter, I test purely mechanical AGN feedback models via a nuclear wind around the central SMBH in elliptical galaxies by comparing simulation results to four well-defined observational constraints: the mass ratio between the SMBH and its host galaxy, the lifetime of the quasar phase, the X-ray luminosity from the hot interstellar medium, and the mass fraction of young stars. Even though purely mechanical AGN feedback is commonly assumed in cosmological simulations, I find that it is inadequate, and cannot reproduce all four observational constraints simultaneously. This result suggests that both mechanical and radiative feedback modes are important physical processes. In the second chapter, I simulate the coevolution of the SMBH and its host galaxy under different environments, represented by different amounts of gas stripping. Though the connection between environment and galaxy evolution has been well-studied, environmental effects on the growth of the SMBH have not been answered yet. I find that strong gas stripping, which satellite galaxies might experience, highly suppresses SMBH mass accretion and AGN activity. Moreover, the suppression of the SMBH growth is

  7. Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costagliola, F.; Aalto, S.; I. Rodriguez, M.;

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the molecular gas properties of a sample of 23 galaxies in order to find and test chemical signatures of galaxy evolution and to compare them to IR evolutionary tracers. Observation at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the EMIR broadband receiver, mounted on the IRAM 30 m telesco...... detect the molecule in its vibrationally excited state.We find low HNC/HCN line ratios (...

  8. The orbital evolution of binary galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R.; Junqueira, S.

    2001-02-01

    We present the results of self-consistent numerical simulations performed to study the orbital circularization of binary galaxies. We have generalized a previous model (Junqueira & de Freitas Pacheco 1994) and confirmed partially their results. The orbital evolution of pairs of galaxies is faster when we consider interacting pairs with contacting ``live'' galaxy halos but the circularization time remains larger than the Hubble time. Besides, the time behavior of the orbits has changed in comparison with previous work because of tidal forces and dynamical friction acting on the halos.

  9. The Size Evolution of Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Lizhi; Cooper, Andrew P; Frenk, Carlos S; Li, Ran; Gao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that the amplitude of the size mass relation of massive early type galaxies evolves with redshift. Here we use a semi-analytical galaxy formation model to study the size evolution of massive early type galaxies. We find this model is able to reproduce the amplitude of present day amplitude and slope of the relation between size and stellar mass for these galaxies, as well as its evolution. The amplitude of this relation reflects the typical compactness of dark halos at the time when most of the stars are formed. This link between size and star formation epoch is propagated in galaxy mergers. Mergers of high or moderate mass ratio (less than 1:3) become increasingly important with increasing present day stellar mass for galaxies more massive than $10^{11.4}M_{\\odot}$. At lower masses, low mass ratio mergers play a more important role. In situ star formation contribute more to the size growth than it does to stellar mass growth. We also find that, for ETGs identified at $z=2$, minor me...

  10. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    and temperature structure of these, with locally resolved radiation fields. In the first study, SÍGAME is combined with the radiative transfer code LIME to model the spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of CO. A CO SLED close to that of the Milky Way is found for normal star-forming massive galaxies at z _ 2...

  11. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    , most [CII] emission can be traced back to the molecular part of their ISM. The observed L[CII]-SFR relation at z > 0:5 is reproduced and a similar relation is established on kpc scales for the first time theoretically. A third study uncovers the presence of AGNs among massive galaxies at z _ 2...

  12. Monolithic View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Chiosi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We review and critically discuss the current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution limited to Early Type Galaxies (ETGs as inferred from the observational data and briefly contrast the hierarchical and quasi-monolithic paradigms of formation and evolution. Since in Cold Dark Matter (CDM cosmogony small scale structures typically collapse early and form low-mass haloes that subsequently can merge to assembly larger haloes, galaxies formed in the gravitational potential well of a halo are also expected to merge thus assembling their mass hierarchically. Mergers should occur all over the Hubble time and large mass galaxies should be in place only recently. However, recent observations of high redshift galaxies tell a different story: massive ETGs are already in place at high redshift. To this aim, we propose here a revision of the quasi-monolithic scenario as an alternative to the hierarchical one, in which mass assembling should occur in early stages of a galaxy lifetime and present recent models of ETGs made of Dark and Baryonic Matter in a Λ-CDM Universe that obey the latter scheme. The galaxies are followed from the detachment from the linear regime and Hubble flow at z ≥ 20 down to the stage of nearly complete assembly of the stellar content (z ∼ 2 − 1 and beyond.  It is found that the total mass (Mh = MDM + MBM and/or initial over-density of the proto-galaxy drive the subsequent star formation histories (SFH. Massive galaxies (Mh ~ _1012M⊙ experience a single, intense burst of star formation (with rates ≥ 103M⊙/yr at early epochs, consistently with observations, with a weak dependence on the initial over-density; intermediate mass haloes (Mh~_ 1010 − 1011M⊙ have star formation histories that strongly depend on their initial over-density; finally, low mass haloes (Mh ~_ 109M⊙ always have erratic, burst-like star forming histories. The present-day properties (morphology, structure, chemistry and photometry of the

  13. A data base for galaxy evolution modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitherer, C; Alloin, D; FritzVonAlvensleben, U; Gallagher, JS; Huchra, JP; Matteucci, F; OConnell, RW; Beckman, JE; Bertelli, GP; Bica, E; Boisson, C; Bonatto, C; Bothun, GD; Bressan, A; Brodie, JP; Bruzual, G; Burstein, D; Buser, R; Caldwell, N; Casuso, E; Cervino, M; Charlot, S; Chavez, M; Chiosi, C; Christian, CA; Cuisinier, F; Dallier, R; deKoter, A; Delisle, S; Diaz, AI; Dopita, MA; Dorman, B; Fagotto, F; Fanelli, MN; Fioc, M; GarciaVargas, ML; Girardi, L; Goldader, JD; Hardy, E; Heckman, TM; Iglesias, J; Jablonka, P; Joly, M; Jones, L; Kurth, O; Lancon, A; Lejeune, T; Loxen, J; Maeder, A; Malagnini, ML; Marigo, P; MasHesse, JM; Meynet, G; Moller, CS; Molla, ML; Morossi, C; Nasi, E; Nichols, JS; Odegaard, KJR; Parker, JWM; Pastoriza, MG; Peletier, R; Robert, C; RoccaVolmerange, B; Schaerer, D; Schmidt, A; Schmitt, HR; Schommer, RA; Schmutz, W; Silva, L; Stasinska, G; Sutherland, RS; Tantalo, R; Traat, P; Vallenari, A; Vazdekis, A; Walborn, NR; Worthey, G

    1996-01-01

    This paper represents a collective effort to provide an extensive electronic data base useful for the interpretation of the spectra and evolution of galaxies. A broad variety of empirical and theoretical data is discussed here, and the data are made fully available in the AAS CD-ROM Series, Vol. 7.

  14. Galaxy Formation and Evolution Recent Progress

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S

    2001-01-01

    In this series of lectures I review recent observational progress in constraining models of galaxy formation and evolution highlighting the importance advances in addressing questions of the assembly history and origin of the Hubble sequence in the context of modern pictures of structure formation.

  15. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weijgaert, Marinus; van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2014-01-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral h

  16. Chemical Evolution of Blue Compact Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Shi; Xu Kong; Fu-Zhen Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Based on a sample of 72 Blue Compact Galaxies (BCGs) observed with the 2.16 m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) and about 4000 strong emission line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,we analyzed their chemical evolution history using the revised chemical evolution model of Larsen et al. Our sample covers a much larger metallicity range (7.2<12+log(O/H) <9.0). We found that, in order to reproduce the observed abundance pattern and gas fraction over the whole metallicity range, a relatively continuous star formation history is needed for high metallicity galaxies, while assuming a series of instantaneous bursts with long quiescent periods (some Gyrs) for low metallicity galaxies. Model calculations also show that only the closed-box model is capable of reproducing the observational data over the whole metallicity range. Models that consider the ordinary winds and/or inflow can only fit the observations in the low metallicity range, and a model with enriched wind cannot fit the data in the whole metallicity range. This implies that the current adopted simple wind and inflow models are not applicable to massive galaxies, where the underlying physics of galactic winds or inflow could be more complicated.

  17. Chemical Evolution models of Local Group galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, M P

    2003-01-01

    Status quo and perspectives of standard chemical evolution models of Local Group galaxies are summarized, discussing what we have learnt from them, what we know we have not learnt yet, and what I think we will learn in the near future. It is described how Galactic chemical evolution models have helped showing that: i) stringent constraints on primordial nucleosynthesis can be derived from the observed Galactic abundances of the light elements, ii) the Milky Way has been accreting external gas from early epochs to the present time, iii) the vast majority of Galactic halo stars have formed quite rapidly at early epochs. Chemical evolution models for the closest dwarf galaxies, although still uncertain so far, are expected to become extremely reliable in the nearest future, thanks to the quality of new generation photometric and spectroscopic data which are currently being acquired.

  18. Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer: Scientific Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara; Ninkov, Zoran; Robberto, Massimo; Hull, Tony; Purves, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    GESE is a mission concept consisting of a 1.5-m space telescope and UV multi-object slit spectrograph designed to help understand galaxy evolution in a critical era in the history of the universe, where the rate of star-formation stopped increasing and started to decline. To isolate and identify the various processes driving the evolution of these galaxies, GESE will obtain rest-frame far-UV spectra of 100,000 galaxies at redshifts, z approximately 1-2. To obtain such a large number of spectra, multiplexing over a wide field is an absolute necessity. A slit device such as a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) or a micro-shutter array (MSA) enables spectroscopy of a hundred or more sources in a single exposure while eliminating overlapping spectra of other sources and blocking unwanted background like zodiacal light. We find that a 1.5-m space telescope with a MSA slit device combined with a custom orbit enabling long, uninterrupted exposures (approximately 10 hr) are optimal for this spectroscopic survey. GESE will not be operating alone in this endeavor. Together with x-ray telescopes and optical/near-IR telescopes like Subaru/Prime Focus Spectrograph, GESE will detect "feedback" from young massive stars and massive black holes (AGN's), and other drivers of galaxy evolution.

  19. Galaxy evolution spectroscopic explorer: scientific rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara; Ninkov, Zoran; Robberto, Massimo; Hull, Tony; Purves, Lloyd

    2016-07-01

    GESE is a mission concept consisting of a 1.5-m space telescope and UV multi-object slit spectrograph designed to help understand galaxy evolution in a critical era in the history of the universe, where the rate of star-formation stopped increasing and started to decline. To isolate and identify the various processes driving the evolution of these galaxies, GESE will obtain rest-frame far-UV spectra of 100,000 galaxies at redshifts, z 1-2. To obtain such a large number of spectra, multiplexing over a wide field is an absolute necessity. A slit device such as a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) or a micro-shutter array (MSA) enables spectroscopy of a hundred or more sources in a single exposure while eliminating overlapping spectra of other sources and blocking unwanted background like zodiacal light. We find that a 1.5-m space telescope with a MSA slit device combined with a custom orbit enabling long, uninterrupted exposures ( 10 hr) are optimal for this spectroscopic survey. GESE will not be operating alone in this endeavor. Together with x-ray telescopes and optical/near-IR telescopes like Subaru/Prime Focus Spectrograph, GESE will detect "feedback" from young massive stars and massive black holes (AGN's), and other drivers of galaxy evolution.

  20. The Chemical Evolution of Dynamically Hot Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Richer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the chemical properties of M32, the bulges of M31 and the Milky Way, and the dwarf spheroidal galaxies NGC 205, NGC 185, Sagittarius, and Fornax using oxygen abundances for their planetary nebulae. Our principal result is that the mean stellar oxygen abundances correlate very well with thei r mean velocity dispersions, implying that the balance between energy input from type II supernovae and the gravitational potential controls chemical evolution in bulges, ellipticals, and dwarf spheroidals. It appears that chemical evolution ceases once supernovae have injected sufficient energy that a galacti c wind develops. All of the galaxies follow a single relation between oxygen abundance and luminosity, but the dwarf spheroidals have systematically higher [O/Fe] ratios than the other galaxies. Consequently, dynamically hot galaxies do not share a common star formation history nor need to a common chemical evolution, despite attaining similar mean stellar oxygen abundances when formin g similar masses. The oxygen abundances support previous indications that stars in higher luminosity ellipticals and bulges were formed on a shorter time scale than their counterparts in less luminous systems.

  1. Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer: Scientific Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara; Ninkov, Zoran; Robberto, Massimo; Hull, Tony; Purves, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    GESE is a mission concept consisting of a 1.5-m space telescope and UV multi-object slit spectrograph designed to help understand galaxy evolution in a critical era in the history of the universe, where the rate of star-formation stopped increasing and started to decline. To isolate and identify the various processes driving the evolution of these galaxies, GESE will obtain rest-frame far-UV spectra of 100,000 galaxies at redshifts, z approximately 1-2. To obtain such a large number of spectra, multiplexing over a wide field is an absolute necessity. A slit device such as a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) or a micro-shutter array (MSA) enables spectroscopy of a hundred or more sources in a single exposure while eliminating overlapping spectra of other sources and blocking unwanted background like zodiacal light. We find that a 1.5-m space telescope with a MSA slit device combined with a custom orbit enabling long, uninterrupted exposures (approximately 10 hr) are optimal for this spectroscopic survey. GESE will not be operating alone in this endeavor. Together with x-ray telescopes and optical/near-IR telescopes like Subaru/Prime Focus Spectrograph, GESE will detect "feedback" from young massive stars and massive black holes (AGN's), and other drivers of galaxy evolution.

  2. The software system ``Evolution of radio galaxies''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Kopylov, A. I.; Zhelenkova, O. P.; Verkhodanova, N. V.; Chernenkov, V. N.; Parijskij, Yu. N.; Soboleva, N. S.; Temirova, A. V.

    The project of the informational system creation on the problem of evolution of radio galaxies is described. This system, being developed at present at the server http://sed.sao.ru, allows a user to operate with simulated curves of spectral energy distributions (SED) and to estimate ages and redshifts by photometric data using χ2-method. Authors use SEDs of several models (GISSEL'98 (Bruzual, Charlot, 1996), PEGASE (Fioc, Rocca-Volmerange, 1996, 1998)) for different types of galaxies. Synthetic spectra are smoothed by the filter sensetivity curves before the procedure of age estimation. There is a possibility to calculate extictions in different filters using infrared maps. The server containes full archive of RC-catalog radio galaxy images obtained with 6 m telescope of SAO and VLA data. Modes of HTTP, FTP and FTP access, formats of output result (TABLE and GNUPLOT graphic) and additional functions are described.

  3. System to Study Evolution of Radio Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhodanova, N. V.; Verkhodanov, O. V.; Kopylov, A. I.; Zhelenkova, O. P.; Chernenkov, V. N.; Parijskij, Yu. N.; Soboleva, N. S.; Temirova, A. V.

    The project of the informational system creation on the problem of evolution of radio galaxies is described. This system, being developed at present at the server http:// sed.sao.ru, allows a user to operate with simulated curves of spectral energy distributions (SED) and to estimate ages and redshifts by photometric data using χ2-method. Authors use SEDs of several models (GISSEL'98 (Bruzual, Charlot, 1996), PEGASE (Fioc, Rocca-Volmerange, 1996, 1998)) for different types of galaxies. Synthetic spectra are smoothed by the filter sensetivity curves before the procedure of age estimation. There is a possibility to calculate extictions in different filters using infrared maps. The server containes full archive of RC-catalog radio galaxy images obtained with 6 m telescope of SAO and VLA data. Modes of HTTP, FTP and FTP access, formats of output result (TABLE and GNUPLOT graphic) and additional functions are described.

  4. The Metallicity Evolution of Interacting Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Torrey, Paul; Kewley, Lisa; Hernquist, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear inflows of metal-poor interstellar gas triggered by galaxy interactions can account for the systematically lower central oxygen abundances observed in local interacting galaxies. Here, we investigate the metallicity evolution of a large set of simulations of colliding galaxies. Our models include cooling, star formation, feedback, and a new stochastic method for tracking the mass recycled back to the interstellar medium from stellar winds and supernovae. We study the influence of merger-induced inflows, enrichment, gas consumption, and galactic winds in determining the nuclear metallicity. The central metallicity is primarily a competition between the inflow of low-metallicity gas and enrichment from star formation. An average depression in the nuclear metallicity of ~0.07 is found for gas-poor disk-disk interactions. Gas-rich disk-disk interactions, on the other hand, typically have an enhancement in the central metallicity that is positively correlated with the gas content. The simulations fare reas...

  5. Birth and Evolution of Radio Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Uttley, P.; Kaiser, C. R.

    2010-10-01

    FRII radio galaxies are relatively simple systems which can be used to determine the influence of jets on their environments. Even simple analytical models of FRII evolution can link the observed lobe luminosities and sizes to fundamental properties such as jet power and density of the ambient medium; these are crucial for understanding AGN feedback. However, due to strong flux selection effects interpreting FRII samples is not straightforward. To overcome this problem we construct Monte Carlo simulations to create artificial samples of radio galaxies. We explore jet power and external density distributions by using them as the simulation input parameters. Further, we compute radio luminosity functions and fit them to the observed data, that cover redshifts up to z 2. This allows us to find the most plausible distributions of FRIIs’ fundamental properties, but also to set more precise limits on the size cut-off and to discuss the possibility of FRII evolution into FRI objects.

  6. Galaxy Collisions, Gas Stripping and Star Formation in the Evolution of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Palous, J

    2004-01-01

    A review of gravitational and hydrodynamical processes during formation of clusters and evolution of galaxies is given. Early, at the advent of N-body computer simulations, the importance of tidal fields in galaxy encounters has been recognized. Orbits are crowded due to tides along spiral arms, where the star formation is enhanced. Low relative velocity encounters lead to galaxy mergers. The central dominating galaxies in future clusters form before the clusters in a merging process in galaxy groups. Galaxy clusters are composed in a hierarchical scenario due to relaxation processes between galaxies and galaxy groups. As soon as the overall cluster gravitational potential is built, high speed galaxy versus galaxy encounters start to play a role. These harassment events gradually thicken and shorten spiral galaxy disks leading to the formation of S0 galaxies and ellipticals. Another aspect of the high speed motion in the hot and diluted Intracluster Medium (ICM) is the ram pressure exerted on the Interstellar...

  7. Chemical Evolution Library for Galaxy Formation Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a software library for chemical evolution simulations of galaxy formation under the simple stellar population (SSP) approximation. In this library, all of the necessary components concerning chemical evolution, such as initial mass functions, stellar lifetimes, yields from Type II and Type Ia supernovae, asymptotic giant branch stars, and neutron star mergers, are compiled from the literature. Various models are pre-implemented in this library so that users can choose their favorite combination of models. Subroutines of this library return released energy and masses of individual elements depending on a given event type. Since the redistribution manner of these quantities depends on the implementation of users’ simulation codes, this library leaves it up to the simulation code. As demonstrations, we carry out both one-zone, closed-box simulations and 3D simulations of a collapsing gas and dark matter system using this library. In these simulations, we can easily compare the impact of individual models on the chemical evolution of galaxies, just by changing the control flags and parameters of the library. Since this library only deals with the part of chemical evolution under the SSP approximation, any simulation codes that use the SSP approximation—namely, particle-base and mesh codes, as well as semianalytical models—can use it. This library is named “CELib” after the term “Chemical Evolution Library” and is made available to the community.

  8. Formation, Evolution and Properties of Isolated Field Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Niemi, Sami-Matias; Nurmi, Pasi; Saar, Enn

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged] We study the properties, evolution and formation mechanisms of isolated field elliptical galaxies. We create a mock catalogue of isolated field elliptical galaxies from the Millennium Simulation Galaxy Catalogue, and trace their merging histories. The formation, identity and assembly redshifts of simulated isolated and non-isolated elliptical galaxies are studied and compared. Observational and numerical data are used to compare age, mass, and the colour-magnitude relation. Our results, based on simulation data, show that almost seven per cent of all elliptical galaxies brighter than -19mag in B-band can be classified as isolated field elliptical galaxies. Isolated field elliptical galaxies show bluer colours than non-isolated elliptical galaxies and they appear younger, in a statistical sense, according to their mass weighted age. Isolated field elliptical galaxies also form and assemble at lower redshifts compared to non-isolated elliptical galaxies. About 46 per cent of isolated field elliptical...

  9. On the Formation and Evolution of cD Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, Hrant

    2008-01-01

    The cannibalism mechanism of formation of cD galaxies in clusters of Bautz-Morgan class I is analyzed. Dependences between absolute magnitude of cD galaxies, and of the clusters in which they reside (richness, redshifts) are considered. Evidences are presented in favor of formation of cD galaxies by cannibalism and their evolution.

  10. The Evolution of Galaxy Clustering in Hierarchical Models

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The main ingredients of recent semi-analytic models of galaxy formation are summarised. We present predictions for the galaxy clustering properties of a well specified LCDM model whose parameters are constrained by observed local galaxy properties. We present preliminary predictions for evolution of clustering that can be probed with deep pencil beam surveys.

  11. Forward and backward galaxy evolution in comoving number density space

    CERN Document Server

    Torrey, Paul; Ma, Chung-Pei; Hopkins, Philip F; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy comoving number density is commonly used to forge progenitor/descendant links between observed galaxy populations at different epochs. However, this method breaks down in the presence of galaxy mergers, or when galaxies experience stochastic growth rates. We present a simple analytic framework to treat the physical processes that drive the evolution and diffusion of galaxies within comoving number density space. The evolution in mass rank order of a galaxy population with time is influenced by the galaxy coagulation rate and galaxy "mass rank scatter" rate. We quantify the relative contribution of these two effects to the mass rank order evolution. We show that galaxy coagulation is dominant at lower redshifts and stellar masses, while scattered growth rates dominate the mass rank evolution at higher redshifts and stellar masses. For a galaxy population at $10^{10} M_\\odot$, coagulation has been the dominant effect since $z=2.2$, but a galaxy population at $10^{11} M_\\odot$ was dominated by mass rank s...

  12. A Phenomenological Model for the Evolution of Proto-Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tabatabaei, F K

    2003-01-01

    The contraction model of Field and Colgate for proto-galaxies, first proposed to describe the observed properties of quasars, is generalized and used to investigate the evolution of galaxies. The LEDA data base for elliptical, spiral, compact and diffuse galaxies is employed and it is shown that the above model is consistent with observational evidences regarding their dynamical evolution, star formation rate and different morphologies.

  13. Energetic constraints to chemo-photometric evolution of spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The problem of chemo-photometric evolution of late-type galaxies is dealt with relying on prime physical arguments of energetic self-consistency between chemical enhancement of galaxy mass, through nuclear processing inside stars, and luminosity evolution of the system. Chemical enhancement is assessed in terms of the so-called "yield metallicity", that is the metal abundance of processed mass inside stars, as constrained by the galaxy photometric history.

  14. The Evolution of Galaxy Structure Over Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conselice, Christopher J.

    2014-08-01

    I present a comprehensive review of the evolution of galaxy structure in the Universe from the first galaxies currently observable at z ˜ 6 down to galaxies observable in the local Universe. Observed changes in galaxy structures reveal formation processes that only galaxy structural analyses can provide. This pedagogical review provides a detailed discussion of the major methods used to study galaxies morphologically and structurally, including the well-established visual method for morphology; Sérsic fitting to measure galaxy sizes and surface brightness profile shapes; and nonparametric structural methods [such as the concentration (C), asymmetry (A), clumpiness (S) (CAS) method and the Gini/M20 parameters, as well as newer structural indices]. These structural indices measure fundamental properties of galaxies, such as their scale, star-formation rate, and ongoing merger activity. Extensive observational results demonstrate how broad galaxy morphologies and structures change with time up to z ˜ 3, from small, compact and peculiar systems in the distant Universe to the formation of the Hubble sequence, dominated by spirals and ellipticals. Structural methods accurately identify galaxies in mergers and allow measurements of the merger history out to z ˜ 3. I depict properties and evolution of internal structures of galaxies, such as bulges, disks, bars, and at z>1 large star-forming clumps. I describe the structure and morphologies of host galaxies of active galactic nuclei and starbursts/submillimeter galaxies, along with how morphological galaxy quenching occurs. The role of environment in producing structural changes in galaxies over cosmic time is also discussed. Galaxy sizes can also change with time, with measured sizes up to a factor of 2-5 smaller at high redshift at a given stellar mass. I conclude with a discussion of how the evolving trends, in sizes, structures, and morphologies, reveal the formation mechanisms behind galaxies and provides a new

  15. Thermodynamic evolution of the cosmological baryonic gas II. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Alimi, J M

    2004-01-01

    The problem of galaxy formation and its dependence on thermodynamic properties is addressed by using Eulerian hydrodynamic numerical simulations of large scale structure formation. Global galaxy properties are explored in simulations including gravitation, shock heating and cooling processes, and following self-consistently the chemical evolution of a primordial composition hydrogen-helium plasma without assuming collisional ionization equilibrium. The galaxy formation model is mainly based on the identification of converging dense cold gas regions. We show that the evolution at low redshift of the observed cosmic star formation rate density is reproduced, and that the galaxy-like object mass function is dominated by low-mass objects. The galaxy mass functions are well described by a two power-law Schechter function whose parameters are in good agreement with observational fits of the galaxy luminosity function. The high-mass end of the galaxy mass function includes objects formed at early epochs and residing...

  16. Interaction-Triggered Star Formation in Distant Galaxies and the Role of Mergers in Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lihwai

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of galaxy merger rates and its impact on galaxy properties have been studied intensively over the last decade. It becomes clear now that various types of mergers, i.e. gas-rich (wet), gas-poor (dry), or mixed mergers, affect the merger products in different ways. The epoch when each type of merger dominates also differs. In this talk, I review the recent progress on the measurements of galaxy merger rates out to z ~ 3 and the level of interaction-triggered star formation using large samples from various redshift surveys. These results provide insights to the importance of mergers in the mass assembly history of galaxies and in the evolution of galaxy properties. I also present new results in characterizing the environment of galaxy mergers, and discuss their implications in the built up of red-sequence galaxies.

  17. Astrocladistics: a phylogenetic analysis of galaxy evolution II. Formation and diversification of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, D; Choler, P; Verhamme, A; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Douzery, Emmanuel J.P.; Choler, Philippe; Verhamme, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This series of papers is intended to evaluate astrocladistics in reconstructing phylogenies of galaxies. The objective of this second paper is to formalize the concept of galaxy formation and to identify the processes of diversification. We show that galaxy diversity can be expected to organize itself in a hierarchy. In order to better understand the role of mergers, we have selected a sample of 43 galaxies from the GALICS database built from simulations with a hybrid model for galaxy formation studies. These simulated galaxies, described by 119 characters and considered as representing still undefined classes, have experienced different numbers of merger events during evolution. Our cladistic analysis yields a robust tree that proves the existence of a hierarchy. Mergers, like interactions (not taken into account in the GALICS simulations), are probably a strong driver for galaxy diversification. Our result shows that mergers participate in a branching type of evolution, but do not seem to play the role of a...

  18. The Evolution of Spheroidal Galaxies in Different Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Fritz, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the kinematic and chemical evolution of 203 distant spheroidal (elliptical and S0) galaxies at 0.2galaxies. From HST/ACS and WFPC2 imaging, surface brightness profiles and structural parameters were derived for half of the galaxy sample. The scaling relations of the Faber-Jackson relation and Kormendy relation as well as the Fundamental Plane indicate a moderate evolution for the whole galaxy population in each density regime. In all environments, S0 galaxies show a faster evolution than elliptical galaxies. For the cluster galaxies a slight radial dependence of the evolution out to one virial radius is found. Dividing the samples with respect to their mass, a mass dependent evolution with a stronger evolution of lower-mass galaxies (M<2x10^{11...

  19. Time-dependent secular evolution in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, M D

    2004-01-01

    Lynden-Bell & Kalnajs (1972) presented a useful formula for computing the long-range torque between spiral arms and the disk at large. The derivation uses second-order perturbation theory and assumes that the perturbation slowly grows over a very long time: the time-asymptotic limit. This formula has been widely used to predict the angular momentum transport between spiral arms and stellar bars between disks and dark-matter halos. However, this paper shows that the LBK time-asymptotic limit is not appropriate because the characteristic evolution time for galaxies is too close to the relevant dynamical times. We demonstrate that transients, not present in the time-asymptotic formula, can play a major role in the evolution for realistic astronomical time scales. A generalisation for arbitrary time dependence is presented and illustrated by the bar--halo and satellite--halo interaction. The natural time dependence in bar-driven halo evolution causes quantitative differences in the overall torque and qualitat...

  20. The role of black holes in galaxy formation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A; Faber, S M; Binney, J; Dekel, A; Kormendy, J; Mushotzky, R; Babul, A; Best, P N; Brüggen, M; Fabian, A C; Frenk, C S; Khalatyan, A; Netzer, H; Mahdavi, A; Silk, J; Steinmetz, M; Wisotzki, L

    2009-07-09

    Virtually all massive galaxies, including our own, host central black holes ranging in mass from millions to billions of solar masses. The growth of these black holes releases vast amounts of energy that powers quasars and other weaker active galactic nuclei. A tiny fraction of this energy, if absorbed by the host galaxy, could halt star formation by heating and ejecting ambient gas. A central question in galaxy evolution is the degree to which this process has caused the decline of star formation in large elliptical galaxies, which typically have little cold gas and few young stars, unlike spiral galaxies.

  1. Automata network models of galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, David; Scalo, John

    1993-01-01

    Two ideas appear frequently in theories of star formation and galaxy evolution: (1) star formation is nonlocally excitatory, stimulating star formation in neighboring regions by propagation of a dense fragmenting shell or the compression of preexisting clouds; and (2) star formation is nonlocally inhibitory, making H2 regions and explosions which can create low-density and/or high temperature regions and increase the macroscopic velocity dispersion of the cloudy gas. Since it is not possible, given the present state of hydrodynamic modeling, to estimate whether one of these effects greatly dominates the other, it is of interest to investigate the predicted spatial pattern of star formation and its temporal behavior in simple models which incorporate both effects in a controlled manner. The present work presents preliminary results of such a study which is based on lattice galaxy models with various types of nonlocal inhibitory and excitatory couplings of the local SFR to the gas density, temperature, and velocity field meant to model a number of theoretical suggestions.

  2. Metallicity evolution in mergers of disk galaxies with black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Antti; Johansson, Peter H.

    2016-10-01

    We use the TreeSPH simulation code Gadget-3 including a recently improved smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) module, a detailed metallicity evolution model and sophisticated subresolution feedback models for supernovae and supermassive black holes in order to study the metallicity evolution in disk galaxy mergers. In addition, we examine the simulated morphology, star formation histories, metallicity gradients and kinematic properties of merging galaxies and merger remnants. We will compare our simulation results with observations of the early-type Centaurus A galaxy and the currently colliding Antennae galaxies.

  3. Tracing cosmic evolution with clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Voit, G M

    2004-01-01

    The most successful cosmological models to date envision structure formation as a hierarchical process in which gravity is constantly drawing lumps of matter together to form increasingly larger structures. Clusters of galaxies currently sit atop this hierarchy as the largest objects that have had time to collapse under the influence of their own gravity. Thus, their appearance on the cosmic scene is also relatively recent. Two features of clusters make them uniquely useful tracers of cosmic evolution. First, clusters are the biggest things whose masses we can reliably measure because they are the largest objects to have undergone gravitational relaxation and entered into virial equilibrium. Mass measurements of nearby clusters can therefore be used to determine the amount of structure in the universe on scales of 10^14 to 10^15 solar masses, and comparisons of the present-day cluster mass distribution with the mass distribution at earlier times can be used to measure the rate of structure formation, placing ...

  4. The Evolution of Cuspy Triaxial Galaxies Harboring Central Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Holley-Bockelmann, K; Sigurdsson, S; Hernquist, L E; Norman, C; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Hernquist, Lars; Norman, Colin

    2002-01-01

    We use numerical simulations to study the evolution of triaxial elliptical galaxies with central black holes. In contrast to earlier numerical studies which used galaxy models with central density ``cores,'' our galaxies have steep central cusps, like those observed in real ellipticals. As a black hole grows in these cuspy triaxial galaxies, the inner regions become rounder owing to chaos induced in the orbit families which populate the model. At larger radii, however, the models maintain their triaxiality, and orbital analyses show that centrophilic orbits there resist stochasticity over many dynamical times. While black hole induced evolution is strong in the inner regions of these galaxies, and reaches out beyond the nominal ``sphere of influence'' of a black hole, our simulations do not show evidence for a rapid {\\it global} transformation of the host. The triaxiality of observed elliptical galaxies is therefore not inconsistent with the presence of supermassive black holes at their centers.

  5. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Das

    2013-03-01

    Giant Low Surface Brightness (GLSB) galaxies are amongst the most massive spiral galaxies that we know of in our Universe. Although they fall in the class of late type spiral galaxies, their properties are far more extreme. They have very faint stellar disks that are extremely rich in neutral hydrogen gas but low in star formation and hence low in surface brightness. They often have bright bulges that are similar to those found in early type galaxies. The bulges can host low luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that have relatively low mass black holes. GLSB galaxies are usually isolated systems and are rarely found to be interacting with other galaxies. In fact many GLSB galaxies are found under dense regions close to the edges of voids. These galaxies have very massive dark matter halos that also contribute to their stability and lack of evolution. In this paper we briefly review the properties of this unique class of galaxies and conclude that both their isolation and their massive dark matter halos have led to the low star formation rates and the slower rate of evolution in these galaxies.

  6. Gas mass fractions and the evolution of spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGaugh, SS; DeBlok, WJG

    1997-01-01

    We show that the gas mass fraction of spiral galaxies is strongly correlated with luminosity and surface brightness. It is not correlated with linear size. Gas fraction varies with luminosity and surface brightness at the same rate, indicating evolution at fixed size. Dim galaxies are clearly less e

  7. Directly detecting the evolution of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trager, Scott; Faber, SM; Dressler, A; Renzini, A; Bender, R

    2005-01-01

    We describe observations focused on understanding the epochs and timescales of the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies, particularly those in clusters. We show that while early-type cluster galaxies are on average older and closer to coeval than their counterparts in the field, significan

  8. Evolution of the atomic and molecular gas content of galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, Gergö; Somerville, Rachel S.; Trager, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of atomic and molecular gas in galaxies in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include new modelling of the partitioning of cold gas in galactic discs into atomic, molecular, and ionized phases. We adopt two scenarios for the formation of molecules: one pressure base

  9. Evolution of Normal Galaxies HST Morphologies and Deep Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, R

    1996-01-01

    I review progress in understanding the evolution of normal field and cluster galaxies through the combination of HST imaging and ground-based spectroscopy. These data suggest that the bulk of the star formation producing the present-day galaxy population occurred at accessible redshifts, $z$1 Universe. Some possible approaches are briefly discussed.

  10. The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, David (Editor); Thronson, Harley A. (Editor); Shull, J. Michael (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Third Teton Summer School on Astrophysics discussed the formation of galaxies, star formation in galaxies, galaxies and quasars at high red shift, and the intergalactic and intercluster medium and cooling flows. Observation and theoretical research on these topics was presented at the meeting and summaries of the contributed papers are included in this volume.

  11. Stochastic 2-D Models of Galaxy Disk Evolution. The Galaxy M33

    CERN Document Server

    Mineikis, Tadas

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a fast numerical 2-D model of galaxy disk evolution (resolved along the galaxy radius and azimuth) by adopting a scheme of parameterized stochastic self-propagating star formation. We explore the parameter space of the model and demonstrate its capability to reproduce 1-D radial profiles of the galaxy M33: gas surface density, surface brightness in the i and GALEX FUV passbands, and metallicity.

  12. The Diverse Properties of the Most Ultraviolet Luminous Galaxies Discovered by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Hoopes, C G; Salim, S; Seibert, M; Tremonti, C A; Schiminovich, D; Rich, R M; Martin, D C; Charlot, S; Kauffmann, G; Forster, K; Friedman, P G; Morrissey, P; Neff, S G; Small, T; Wyder, T K; Bianchi, L; Donas, J; Lee, Y W; Madore, B F; Milliard, B; Szalay, A S; Welsh, B Y; Yi, S K; Hoopes, Charles G.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Salim, Samir; Seibert, Mark; Tremonti, Christy A.; Schiminovich, David; Charlot, Stephane; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G.; Small, Todd; Wyder, Ted K.; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F.; Milliard, Bruno; Szalay, Alex S.; Welsh, Barry Y.; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the properties of a sample of ultraviolet luminous galaxies (UVLGs) selected by matching the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Surveys with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Third Data Release. Out of 25362 galaxies between 0.02x10^10 L_solar at 1530 Angstroms (observed wavelength). The properties of this population are well correlated with ultraviolet surface brightness. We find that the galaxies with low UV surface brightness are primarily large spiral systems with a mixture of old and young stellar populations, while the high surface brightness galaxies consist primarily of compact starburst systems. In terms of the behavior of surface brightness with luminosity, size with luminosity, the mass-metallicity relation, and other parameters, the compact UVLGs clearly depart from the trends established by the full sample of galaxies. The subset of compact UVLGs with the highest surface brightness (``supercompact UVLGs'') have characteristics that are remarkably similar to Lyman Break Galaxies at higher r...

  13. Giant disk galaxies : Where environment trumps mass in galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Courtois, H M; Sorce, J G; Pomarede, D

    2015-01-01

    We identify some of the most HI massive and fastest rotating disk galaxies in the local universe with the aim of probing the processes that drive the formation of these extreme disk galaxies. By combining data from the Cosmic Flows project, which has consistently reanalyzed archival galaxy HI profiles, and 3.6$\\mu$m photometry obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, with which we can measure stellar mass, we use the baryonic Tully-Fisher (BTF) relationship to explore whether these massive galaxies are distinct. We discuss several results, but the most striking is the systematic offset of the HI-massive sample above the BTF. These galaxies have both more gas and more stars in their disks than the typical disk galaxy of similar rotational velocity. The "condensed" baryon fraction, $f_C$, the fraction of the baryons in a dark matter halo that settle either as cold gas or stars into the disk, is twice as high in the HI-massive sample than typical, and almost reaches the universal baryon fraction in some cases,...

  14. Predicting Galaxy Star Formation Rates via the Co-evolution of Galaxies and Halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Douglas F.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2014-03-06

    In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy is determined by its dark matter halo formation history, and as such, that more quiescent galaxies reside in older halos. This simple model has been remarkably successful at predicting color-based galaxy statistics at low redshift as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To further test this method with observations, we present new SDSS measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star forming galaxy samples. We find that our age matching model is in excellent agreement with these new measurements. We also employ a galaxy group finder and show that our model is able to predict: (1) the relative SFRs of central and satellite galaxies, (2) the SFR-dependence of the radial distribution of satellite galaxy populations within galaxy groups, rich groups, and clusters and their surrounding larger scale environments, and (3) the interesting feature that the satellite quenched fraction as a function of projected radial distance from the central galaxy exhibits an approx r-.15 slope, independent of environment. The accurate prediction for the spatial distribution of satellites is intriguing given the fact that we do not explicitly model satellite-specific processes after infall, and that in our model the virial radius does not mark a special transition region in the evolution of a satellite, contrary to most galaxy evolution models. The success of the model suggests that present-day galaxy SFR is strongly correlated with halo mass assembly history.

  15. UV Properties and Evolution of High-redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    I assess the problem of morphological and photometric evolution of high-redshift galaxies in the ultraviolet wavelength range. My discussion will partly rely on a new set of template galaxy models, in order to infer the expected changes along the Hubble morphological sequence at the different cosmic epochs. The impact of evolution on the faint-end galaxy luminosity function at z~1 and beyond will also be evaluated and briefly discussed. See http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~eps/home.html for more info and model retrieval.

  16. UV properties and evolution of high-redshift galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    I assess the problem of morphological and photometric evolution of high-redshift galaxies in the ultraviolet wavelength range. My discussion will partly rely on a new set of template galaxy models, in order to infer the expected changes along the Hubble morphological sequence at the different cosmic epochs. The impact of evolution on the faint-end galaxy luminosity function at z~1 and beyond will also be evaluated and briefly discussed. See http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~eps/home.html for mor...

  17. UV properties and evolution of high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, A

    2002-01-01

    I assess the problem of morphological and photometric evolution of high-redshift galaxies in the ultraviolet wavelength range. My discussion will partly rely on a new set of template galaxy models, in order to infer the expected changes along the Hubble morphological sequence at the different cosmic epochs. The impact of evolution on the faint-end galaxy luminosity function at z~1 and beyond will also be evaluated and briefly discussed. See http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~eps/home.html for more info and model retrieval.

  18. Morphological Evolution of Disc Galaxies in Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of several numerical simulations of disc binary galaxies. It was performed detailed numerical N-body simulations of the dynamical interaction of two disc galaxies. The disc galaxies are embedded in spherical halos of dark matter and present central bulges. The dynamical evolution of the binary galaxy is analyzed in order to study the morphological evolution of the stellar distribution of the discs. The satellite galaxy is held on fixed, coplanar or polar discs, of eccentric ($e=0.1$, $e=0.4$ or $e=0.7$) orbits. Both galaxies have the same mass and size similar to the Milk Way. We have shown that the merge of two disc galaxy, depending on the initial conditions, can result in a disc or a lenticular galaxy, instead of an elliptical one. Besides, we have demonstrated that the time of merging increases linearly with the initial apocentric distance of the galaxies and decreases with the orbit's eccentricity. We also have shown that the tidal forces and the fusion of the discs can excite tran...

  19. The evolution of the galaxy content of dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, S.; Zehavi, I.; Baugh, C. M.; Padilla, N.; Norberg, P.

    2017-03-01

    We use the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework to characterize the predictions from two independent galaxy formation models for the galactic content of dark matter haloes and its evolution with redshift. Our galaxy samples correspond to a range of fixed number densities defined by stellar mass and span 0 ≤ z ≤ 3. We find remarkable similarities between the model predictions. Differences arise at low galaxy number densities which are sensitive to the treatment of heating of the hot halo by active galactic nuclei. The evolution of the form of the HOD can be described in a relatively simple way, and we model each HOD parameter using its value at z = 0 and an additional evolutionary parameter. In particular, we find that the ratio between the characteristic halo masses for hosting central and satellite galaxies can serve as a sensitive diagnostic for galaxy evolution models. Our results can be used to test and develop empirical studies of galaxy evolution, and can facilitate the construction of mock galaxy catalogues for future surveys.

  20. Evolution of galaxy groups in the Illustris simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Raouf, Mojtaba; Dariush, Ali A

    2016-01-01

    We present the first study of evolution of galaxy groups in the Illustris simulation. We focus on dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups representing dynamically evolved and evolving galaxy systems, respectively. The evolutionary state of a group is probed from its luminosity gap and separation between the brightest group galaxy and the center of mass of the group members. We find that the Illustris simulation, over-produces large luminosity gap galaxy systems, known as fossil systems, in comparison to observations and the probed semi-analytical predictions. However, this simulation is equally successful in recovering the correlation between luminosity gap and luminosity centroid offset, in comparison to the probed semi-analytic model. We find evolutionary tracks based on luminosity gap which indicate that a large luminosity gap group is rooted in a small luminosity gap group, regardless of the position of the brightest group galaxy within the halo. This simulation helps, for the first time, to explo...

  1. Effects of dust grains on early galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, H

    2002-01-01

    Stars form out of molecular gas and supply dust grains during their last evolutionary stages; in turn hydrogen molecules (H2) are produced more efficiently on dust grains. Therefore, dust can drastically accelerate H2 formation, leading to an enhancement of star formation activity. In order to examine the first formation of stars and dust in galaxies, we model the evolution of galaxies in the redshift range of 55) galaxies in sub-millimetre and near-infrared bands. We find that: i) ALMA can detect dust emission from several thousands of galaxies per square degree, and ii) NGST can detect the stellar emission from 10^6 galaxies per square degree. Further observational checks of our predictions include the integrated flux of metal (oxygen and carbon) lines. We finally discuss possible color selection strategies for high-redshift galaxy searches.

  2. The chemical evolution of galaxies in the local volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxall, Kevin V.

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the universe has greatly changed since the first matter condensed from the primordial soup of the Big Bang. As galaxies have grown and evolved over the past Hubble time, massive luminous galaxies have built up more heavy elements than their low mass counterparts. While sundry physical mechanisms have been proposed to account for this observed trend, the physical connection between galaxy mass and metallicity has evaded the understanding of astronomers for several decades. In order to gain a greater understanding of this metallicity-luminosity relation and the physical drivers behind the chemical evolution of galaxies, we have performed a detailed study of galaxies in both isolated and non-isolated environments: namely, galaxies in the local volume (D ≤ 5 Mpc) and galaxy members belonging to the M81 group. Our results from studying the M81 group imply that recent interactions among the central galaxies in this group, rather than mechanisms intrinsic to the galaxies, are likely responsible for the anomalously high abundances in three cluster members. While tidal interactions can alter the chemical make up the galaxies involved, the well established metallicity-luminosity relation indicates a more universal chemical evolution. To further explore this idea, we analyze galaxy abundances, stellar & gas distributions, and kinematics from both new and archival observations of forty-five low mass galaxies within 5 Mpc of the Milky Way. Our results indicate that these galaxies occupy a different mass-to-light ratio parameter space than their larger counter parts. Our study of the local volume explores the effects of various galaxy attributes such as mass, star formation rate, gas mass fraction, and the mass distribution that offer more concrete connections with the evolution of the system. We show that none of the attributes measured in this study exhibit more correlation with metallicity (measured via nebular oxygen abundances) than does the luminosity

  3. Galaxy evolution within the Kilo-Degree Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; La Barbera, F; Roy, N; Radovich, M; Getman, F; Brescia, M; Cavuoti, S; Capaccioli, M; Longo, G

    2015-01-01

    The ESO Public Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) is an optical wide-field imaging survey carried out with the VLT Survey Telescope and the OmegaCAM camera. KiDS will scan 1500 square degrees in four optical filters (u, g, r, i). Designed to be a weak lensing survey, it is ideal for galaxy evolution studies, thanks to the high spatial resolution of VST, the good seeing and the photometric depth. The surface photometry have provided with structural parameters (e.g. size and S\\'ersic index), aperture and total magnitudes have been used to derive photometric redshifts from Machine learning methods and stellar masses/luminositites from stellar population synthesis. Our project aimed at investigating the evolution of the colour and structural properties of galaxies with mass and environment up to redshift $z \\sim 0.5$ and more, to put constraints on galaxy evolution processes, as galaxy mergers.

  4. Galaxy Evolution Within the Kilo-Degree Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; La Barbera, F.; Roy, N.; Radovich, M.; Getman, F.; Brescia, M.; Cavuoti, S.; Capaccioli, M.; Longo, G.

    The ESO Public Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) is an optical wide-field imaging survey carried out with the VLT Survey Telescope and the OmegaCAM camera. KiDS will scan 1,500 deg2 in four optical filters (u, g, r, i). Designed to be a weak lensing survey, it is ideal for galaxy evolution studies, thanks to the high spatial resolution of VST, the excellent seeing and the photometric depth. The surface photometry has provided with structural parameters (e.g. size and Sérsic index), aperture and total magnitudes have been used to obtain photometric redshifts from Machine Learning methods and stellar masses/luminositites from stellar population synthesis. Our project aimed at investigating the evolution of the colour and structural properties of galaxies with mass and environment up to redshift z ˜ 0.5 and more, to put constraints on galaxy evolution processes, as galaxy mergers.

  5. Disk galaxy formation and evolution models up to intermediate redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Firmani, C

    1999-01-01

    Making use of a seminumerical method we develop a scenario of disk galaxy formation and evolution in the framework of inflationary cold dark matter (CDM) cosmologies. Within the virializing dark matter halos, disks in centrifugal equilibrium are built-up and their galactic evolution is followed through an approach which considers the gravitational interactions among the galaxy components, the turbulence and energy balance of the ISM, the star formation (SF) process due to disk gravitational instabilities, the stellar evolution and the secular formation of a bulge. We find that the main properties and correlations of disk galaxies are determined by the mass, the hierarchical mass aggregation history and the primordial angular momentum. The models follow the same trends across the Hubble sequence than the observed galaxies. The predicted TF relation is in good agreement with the observations except for the standart CDM. While the slope of this relation remains almost constant up to intermediate redshifts, its z...

  6. Binary Aggregations in Hierarchical Galaxy Formation The Evolution of the Galaxy Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Poli, F

    2002-01-01

    We develop a semi-analytic model of hierarchical galaxy formation with an improved treatment of the evolution of galaxies inside dark matter haloes. We take into account not only dynamical friction processes building up the central dominant galaxy, but also binary aggregations of satellite galaxies inside a common halo described using the kinetic Smoluchowski equation. The description of gas cooling, star formation and evolution, and Supernova feedback follows the standard prescriptions widely used in semi-analytic modelling. We find that binary aggregations are effective in depleting the number of small/intermediate mass galaxies over the redshift range 1-16. We compare our predicted luminosity functions with those obtained from deep multicolor surveys in the rest-frame B and UV bands for the redshift ranges 01 and even more at z ~ 3 by the effect of binary aggregations. The predictions from our dynamical model are discussed and compared with the effects of complementary processes which may conspire in affec...

  7. The Evolution of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E.; Koleva, M; Prugniel, P; Vauglin,

    2011-01-01

    Within the Local Universe galaxies can be studied in great detail star by star. The Colour-Magnitude Diagram synthesis analysis method is well established as the most accurate way to determine the detailed star formation history of galaxies going back to the earliest times. This approach has benefit

  8. Evolution of dwarf galaxies : A dynamical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelli, Federico; Fraternali, Filippo; Verheijen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    For a rotating galaxy, the inner circular-velocity gradient dRV(0) provides a direct estimate of the central dynamical mass density, including gas, stars, and dark matter. We consider 60 low-mass galaxies with high-quality H I and/or stellar rotation curves (including starbursting dwarfs, irregulars

  9. Evolution of dwarf galaxies: a dynamical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelli, Federico; Fraternali, Filippo; Verheijen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    For a rotating galaxy, the inner circular-velocity gradient dRV(0) provides a direct estimate of the central dynamical mass density, including gas, stars, and dark matter. We consider 60 low-mass galaxies with high-quality H I and/or stellar rotation curves (including starbursting dwarfs, irregulars

  10. A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR PREDICTING HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Silk, Joseph [Institut d' Astrophysique, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2015-01-20

    We show that the ratio of galaxies' specific star formation rates (SSFRs) to their host halos' specific mass accretion rates (SMARs) strongly constrains how the galaxies' stellar masses, SSFRs, and host halo masses evolve over cosmic time. This evolutionary constraint provides a simple way to probe z > 8 galaxy populations without direct observations. Tests of the method with galaxy properties at z = 4 successfully reproduce the known evolution of the stellar mass-halo mass (SMHM) relation, galaxy SSFRs, and the cosmic star formation rate (CSFR) for 5 < z < 8. We then predict the continued evolution of these properties for 8 < z < 15. In contrast to the nonevolution in the SMHM relation at z < 4, the median galaxy mass at fixed halo mass increases strongly at z > 4. We show that this result is closely linked to the flattening in galaxy SSFRs at z > 2 compared to halo SMARs; we expect that average galaxy SSFRs at fixed stellar mass will continue their mild evolution to z ∼ 15. The expected CSFR shows no breaks or features at z > 8.5; this constrains both reionization and the possibility of a steep falloff in the CSFR at z = 9-10. Finally, we make predictions for stellar mass and luminosity functions for the James Webb Space Telescope, which should be able to observe one galaxy with M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} per 10{sup 3} Mpc{sup 3} at z = 9.6 and one such galaxy per 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup 3} at z = 15.

  11. The evolution of the galaxy content of dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, S; Baugh, C M; Padilla, N; Norberg, P

    2016-01-01

    We use the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework to characterise the predictions from two independent galaxy formation models for the galactic content of dark matter haloes and its evolution with redshift. Our galaxy samples correspond to a range of fixed number densities defined by stellar mass and span $0 \\le z \\le 3$. We find remarkable similarities between the model predictions. Differences arise at low galaxy number densities which are sensitive to the treatment of heating of the hot halo by active galactic nuclei. The evolution of the form of the HOD can be described in a relatively simple way, and we model each HOD parameter using its value at $z=0$ and an additional evolutionary parameter. In particular, we find that the ratio between the characteristic halo masses for hosting central and satellite galaxies can serve as a sensitive diagnostic for galaxy evolution models. Our results can be used to test and develop empirical studies of galaxy evolution and can facilitate the construction of mock...

  12. Looking Wider and Further: The Evolution of Galaxies Inside Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are rare objects in the universe, but on-going wide field optical surveys are identifying many thousands of them to redshift 1.0 and beyond. Using early data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and publicly released data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), this dissertation explores the evolution of cluster galaxies in the redshift range from 0 to 1.0. As it is common for deep wide field sky surveys like DES to struggle with galaxy detection efficiency at cluster core, the first component of this dissertation describes an efficient package that helps resolving the issue. The second part focuses on the formation of cluster galaxies. The study quantifies the growth of cluster bright central galaxies (BCGs), and argues for the importance of merging and intra-cluster light production during BCG evolution. An analysis of cluster red sequence galaxy luminosity function is also performed, demonstrating that the abundance of these galaxies is mildly dependent on cluster mass and redshift. The last component of the dissertation characterizes the properties of galaxy filaments to help understanding cluster environments

  13. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weygaert, Rien; van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2016-10-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral hydrogen, central in both driving and regulating star formation, directly traces the gas reservoir and can reveal interactions and signs of cold gas accretion. For a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have carefully selected a sample of 59 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS at distances of ~100 Mpc, and pursued deep UV, optical, Hα, IR, and HI imaging to study in detail the morphology and kinematics of both the stellar and gaseous components. This sample allows us to not only examine the global statistical properties of void galaxies, but also to explore the details of the dynamical properties. We present an overview of the VGS, and highlight key results on the HI content and individually interesting systems. In general, we find that the void galaxies are gas rich, low luminosity, blue disk galaxies, with optical and HI properties that are not unusual for their luminosity and morphology. We see evidence of both ongoing assembly, through the gas dynamics between interacting systems, and significant gas accretion, seen in extended gas disks and kinematic misalignments. The VGS establishes a local reference sample to be used in future HI surveys (CHILES, DINGO, LADUMA) that will directly observe the HI evolution of void galaxies over cosmic time.

  14. Dynamical Evolution of Elliptical Galaxies with Central Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, D; Merritt, David; Quinlan, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    We study the effect of a massive central singularity on the structure of a triaxial galaxy using N-body simulations. Starting from a single initial model, we grow black holes with various final masses Mh and at various rates, ranging from impulsive to adiabatic. In all cases, the galaxy achieves a final shape that is nearly spherical at the center and close to axisymmetric throughout. However, the rate of change of the galaxy's shape depends strongly on the ratio Mh/Mg of black hole mass to galaxy mass. When Mh/Mg 2%, the galaxy becomes axisymmetric in little more than a crossing time. We propose that the rapid evolution toward axisymmetric shapes that occurs when Mh/Mg > 2% provides a negative feedback mechanism which limits the mass of central black holes by cutting off their supply of fuel.

  15. The Effects of the Ionizing Radiation Background on Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Hambrick, D Clay; Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    We find that the amount and nature of the assumed ionizing background can strongly affect galaxy formation and evolution. Galaxy evolution simulations typically incorporate an ultraviolet background which falls off rapidly above z=3; e.g., that of Haardt & Madau (1996). However, this decline may be too steep to fit the WMAP constraints on electron scattering optical depth or observations of intermediate redshift (z ~ 2-4) Ly-alpha forest transmission. As an alternative, we present simulations of the cosmological formation of individual galaxies with UV backgrounds that decline more slowly at high redshift: both a simple intensity rescaling and the background recently derived by Faucher-Giguere (2009), which softens the spectrum at higher redshifts. We also test an approximation of the X-ray background with a similar z-dependence. We find for the test galaxies that an increase in either the intensity or hardness of ionizing radiation generically pushes star formation towards lower redshifts: although overa...

  16. The Co-Evolution of Galaxies, their ISM, and the ICM: The Hydrodynamics of Galaxy Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Rukmani; Sarazin, Craig L.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Cluster of galaxies are hostile environments. Infalling cluster galaxies are stripped of their dark matter, stars, and hot and cold interstellar medium gas. The ISM, in addition to tidal and ram pressure stripping, can evaporate due to thermal conduction. Gas loss and the subsequent suppression of star formation is not straightforward: magnetic fields in the ISM and ICM shield galaxies and their stripped tails from shear instabilities and conduction, radiative cooling can inhibit gas loss, and feedback from stars and AGN can replenish the ISM. While there is observational evidence that these processes operate, a theoretical understanding of the physics controlling the energy cycle in cluster galaxies remains elusive. Additionally, galaxies have a significant impact on ICM evolution: orbiting galaxies stir up and stretch ICM magnetic field lines, inject turbulence into the ICM via their wakes and g-waves, and infuse metals into the ICM. Quantifying the balance between processes that remove, retain, and replenish the ISM, and the impact of galaxies on the ICM require specialized hydrodynamic simulations of the cluster environment and its galaxies. I will present results from some of these simulations that include ram pressure stripping of galaxies' hot ISM, the effect of magnetic fields on this process, and the effectiveness of isotropic and anisotropic thermal conduction in removing and retaining the ISM.

  17. Star clusters as tracers of galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S

    2009-01-01

    Star clusters represent the most common 'mode' of star formation. They are found in all types of environments, cascading down from galaxy groups and merging pairs through starbursts to normal galaxies and dwarves and even isolated regions in extragalactic space. As they maintain a link to the overall star formation in a system, they can be used as tracers of the star formation history of environments located at distances prohibitive to the study of individual stars. This makes them ideally suited to the study of mergers and interactions in galaxy pairs and groups. In this work we present observations of the star cluster populations in the local starburst galaxy M82, post-interaction spiral NGC 6872, the "Antennae" merging pair and two compact groups, "Stephan's Quintet" and HCG 7. In each case, we extract information on the clusters and their hosts using mainly HST photometry and Gemini spectroscopy.

  18. Disentangling the Dynamical Mechanisms for Cluster Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    explanation of the nature of the color-magnitude relation as effectively an age -mass relation resolves the dilemma faced by the conventional explanation, that...in-fallers from the field region. The existence of the morphology-density relation over several orders-of-magnitude variation of local sur- face ...color evolution of the BO galaxies in their sample is much faster than the morphologial evolution. In the secular evolution scenario, these two

  19. Time Evolution of Galaxy Scaling Relations in Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We predict the evolution of galaxy scaling relationships from cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations, that reproduce the scaling relations of present-day galaxies. Although we do not assume co-evolution between galaxies and black holes a priori, we are able to reproduce the black hole mass--velocity dispersion relation. This relation does not evolve, and black holes actually grow along the relation from significantly less massive seeds than have previously been used. AGN feedback does not very much affect the chemical evolution of our galaxies. In our predictions, the stellar mass--metallicity relation does not change its shape, but the metallicity significantly increases from $z\\sim2$ to $z\\sim1$, while the gas-phase mass-metallicity relation does change shape, having a steeper slope at higher redshifts ($z\\lesssim3$). Furthermore, AGN feedback is required to reproduce observations of the most massive galaxies at $z\\lesssim1$, specifically their positions on the star formation main sequence and galaxy mass...

  20. Formation, Evolution, and Revolution of Galaxies by SKA: Activities of SKA-Japan Galaxy Evolution Sub-SWG

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu T; Iono, Daisuke; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Tee, Wei Leong; Wang, Wei-Hao; Momose, Rieko

    2016-01-01

    Formation and evolution of galaxies have been a central driving force in the studies of galaxies and cosmology. Recent studies provided a global picture of cosmic star formation history. However, what drives the evolution of star formation activities in galaxies has long been a matter of debate. The key factor of the star formation is the transition of hydrogen from atomic to molecular state, since the star formation is associated with the molecular phase. This transition is also strongly coupled with chemical evolution, because dust grains, i.e., tiny solid particles of heavy elements, play a critical role in molecular formation. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of neutral-molecular gas transition, star formation and chemical enrichment is necessary to clarify the galaxy formation and evolution. Here we present the activity of SKA-JP galaxy evolution sub-science working group (subSWG) Our activity is focused on three epochs: z \\sim 0, 1, and z > 3. At z \\sim 0, we try to construct a unified picture o...

  1. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Kreckel, Kathryn; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weygaert, Rien; van der Hulst, J M; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; Peletier, Reynier F

    2014-01-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral hydrogen, central in both driving and regulating star formation, directly traces the gas reservoir and can reveal interactions and signs of cold gas accretion. For a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have carefully selected a sample of 59 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS at distances of ~100 Mpc, and pursued deep UV, optical, Halpha, IR, and HI imaging to study in detail the morphology and kinematics of both the stellar and gaseous components. This sample allows us to not only examine the global statistical properties of void galaxies, but also to explore the details of the dynamical properties. We present an overview of the VGS, and highlight key re...

  2. Isolated lenticular galaxies: properties and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Katkov, Ivan Yu

    2014-01-01

    This work is dedicated to investigation of galaxies that do not fit into a common scenario of galaxy formation - isolated lenticular galaxies. We have studied stellar populations and ionized gas content of a sample of 22 lenticular galaxies (among those 4 targets have appeared to be of erroneous morphological classification) by undertaking deep long-slit spectroscopy with the Russian 6-m telescope and with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The obtained average ages of the stellar populations in bulges and discs covers a wide range between 1.5 and >15 Gyr, that indicates the absence of distinct epoch of their stellar content formation. In contrast to galaxies in groups and clusters, the stellar population ages in bulges and discs of isolated lenticulars tend to be equal, that supports the inefficiency of the bulge rejuvenation in sparse environment. Almost all the lenses and rings possess intermediate ages of the stellar populations, within the range of 2-5 Gyr. By analyzing the emission-line spectr...

  3. The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S

    1998-01-01

    Galaxies represent the visible fabric of the Universe and there has been considerable progress recently in both observational and theoretical studies. The underlying goal is to understand the present-day diversity of galaxy forms, masses and luminosities. Popular models predict the bulk of the population assembled recently, in apparent agreement with optical observations. However, numerous uncertainties remain, including the role that dust might play in obscuring star-forming systems. Astronomers now seek more detailed tests to verify that the Hubble sequence of types arises from transformations driven by the dynamical assembly of smaller systems. Multi-wavelength surveys and studies of the resolved internal properties of distant galaxies promise answers to these fundamental questions.

  4. AGN feedback drives the colour evolution of local galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shabala, Stanislav S; Silk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effects of AGN feedback on the colour evolution of galaxies found in local (z<0.2) groups and clusters. Galaxies located within the lobes of powerful Fanaroff-Riley type II (edge-brightened) sources show much redder colours than neighbouring galaxies that are not spatially coincident with the radio source. By contrast, no similar effect is seen near Fanaroff-Riley type I (core-dominated) radio sources. We show that these colours are consistent with FR-IIs truncating star formation as the expanding bow shock overruns a galaxy. We examine a sample of clusters with no detectable radio emission and show that galaxy colours in these clusters carry an imprint of past AGN feedback. AGN activity in the low-redshift Universe is predominantly driven by low-luminosity radio sources with short duty cycles. Our results show that, despite their rarity, feedback from powerful radio sources is an important driver of galaxy evolution even in the local volume.

  5. Kinematic evolution of simulated star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassin, Susan A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Brooks, Alyson [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Governato, Fabio [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry Street, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gardner, Jonathan P., E-mail: kassin@stsci.edu [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ∼8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of 'disk settling'. For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art 'zoom in' hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking because the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (σ{sub g}) and increase in ordered rotation (V{sub rot}) with time. The slopes of the relations between both σ{sub g} and V{sub rot} with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling'.

  6. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last approximately 8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking as the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (sigma(sub g)) and increase in ordered rotation (V(sub rot)) with time. The slopes of the relations between both sigma(sub g) and V(sub rot) with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling.

  7. Galaxies driven only by secular evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The AMIGA project (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies, http://amiga.iaa.es) has identified a significant sample of very isolated (T cc (nearest-neighbor) ~2-3Gyr) galaxies in the local Universe and revealed that they have different properties than galaxies in richer environments. Our analysis of a multiwavelength database includes quantification of degree of isolation, morphologies, as well as FIR and radio line/continuum properties. Properties usually regarded as susceptible to interaction enhancement show lower averages in AMIGA-lower than any galaxy sample yet identified. We find lower MIR/FIR measures (Lisenfeld et al. 2007), low levels of radio continuum emission (Leon et al. 2008), no radioexcess above the radioFIR correlation (0%, Sabater et al.2008), a small number of AGN (22%, Sabater et al. 2012), and lower molecular gas content (Lisenfeld et al. 2011). The late-type spiral majority in our sample show very small bulge/total ratios (largely TIC-114.

  8. On the Evolution of the Central Density of Quiescent Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C. Marcella; Faber, S. M.; Cibinel, Anna; Dekel, Avishai; Koo, David C.; Renzini, Alvio; Woo, Joanna

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the origin of the evolution of the population-averaged central stellar mass density (Σ1) of quiescent galaxies (QGs) by probing the relation between stellar age and Σ1 at z ˜ 0. We use the Zurich ENvironmental Study (ZENS), which is a survey of galaxy groups with a large fraction of satellite galaxies. QGs shape a narrow locus in the Σ1-M ⋆ plane, which we refer to as Σ1 ridgeline. Colors of (B - I) and (I - J) are used to divide QGs into three age categories: young (4 Gyr). At fixed stellar mass, old QGs on the Σ1 ridgeline have higher Σ1 than young QGs. This shows that galaxies landing on the Σ1 ridgeline at later epochs arrive with lower Σ1, which drives the zeropoint of the ridgeline down with time. We compare the present-day zeropoint of the oldest population at z = 0 with the zeropoint of the quiescent population 4 Gyr back in time, at z = 0.37. These zeropoints are identical, showing that the intrinsic evolution of individual galaxies after they arrive on the Σ1 ridgeline must be negligible, or must evolve parallel to the ridgeline during this interval. The observed evolution of the global zeropoint of 0.07 dex over the last 4 Gyr is thus largely due to the continuous addition of newly quenched galaxies with lower Σ1 at later times (“progenitor bias”). While these results refer to the satellite-rich ZENS sample as a whole, our work suggests a similar age-Σ1 trend for central galaxies.

  9. Galaxy evolution at low redshift?; 1, optical counts

    CERN Document Server

    Dennefeld, M

    1996-01-01

    We present bright galaxy number counts in the blue (16galaxies implying a ``high'' normalization of the local luminosity function. Our counts and colour distributions exhibit no large departure from what standard no-evolution models predict, removing the need for evolution of the galaxy population in the optical, out to Bj=21. This result disagrees with that of Maddox et al. (1990) on the APM catalog. We show that the APM and similar catalogs may be affected by a systematic magnitude scale error which would explain this discrepancy.

  10. 60 micron luminosity evolution of rich clusters of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.M.; Rieke, G.H. (Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The average 60-micron flux has been determined for a collection of optically selected galaxy clusters at redshifts ranging from 0.30 to 0.92. The result, 26 mJy per cluster, represents the faintest flux determination known of using the IRAS data base. The flux from this set of clusters has been compared to the 60-micron flux from a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. It is found that the far-infrared luminosity evolution in cluster galaxies can be no more than a factor of 1.7 from z = 0.4 to the present epoch. This upper limit is close to the evolution predicted for simple aging of the stellar populations. Additional processes such as mergers, cannibalism, or enhanced rates of starbursts appear to occur at a low enough level that they have little influence on the far-infrared emission from clusters over this redshift range. 38 refs.

  11. Dynamical stability and evolution of the discs of Sc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, B

    1997-01-01

    We examine the local stability of galactic discs against axisymmetric density perturbations with special attention to the different dynamics of the stellar and gaseous components. In particular the discs of the Milky Way and of NGC 6946 are studied. The Milky Way is shown to be stable, whereas the inner parts of NGC 6946, a typical Sc galaxy from the Kennicutt (1989) sample, are dynamically unstable. The ensuing dynamical evolution of the composite disc is studied by numerical simulations. The evolution is so fierce that the stellar disc heats up dynamically on a short time scale to such a degree, which seems to contradict the morphological appearance of the galaxy. The star formation rate required to cool the disc dynamically is estimated. Even if the star formation rate in NGC 6946 is at present high enough to meet this requirement, it is argued that the discs of Sc galaxies cannot sustain such a high star formation rate for longer periods.

  12. Mechanical AGN Feedback: Controlling the Thermodynamical Evolution of Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspari, M; Temi, P

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental gap in the current understanding of galaxies concerns the thermodynamical evolution of the ordinary, baryonic matter. On one side, radiative emission drastically decreases the thermal energy content of the interstellar plasma (ISM), inducing a slow cooling flow toward the centre. On the other side, the active galactic nucleus (AGN) struggles to prevent the runaway cooling catastrophe, injecting huge amount of energy in the ISM. The present study intends to deeply investigate the role of mechanical AGN feedback in (isolated or massive) elliptical galaxies, extending and completing the mass range of tested cosmic environments. Our previously successful feedback models, in galaxy clusters and groups, demonstrated that AGN outflows, self-regulated by cold gas accretion, are able to properly quench the cooling flow, without destroying the cool core. Via 3D hydrodynamic simulations (FLASH 3.3), including also stellar evolution, we show that massive mechanical AGN outflows can indeed solve the cooling ...

  13. Galaxy Formation and Chemical Evolution in Hierarchical Hydrodynamical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cora, S A; Tissera, P B; Lambas, D G

    2000-01-01

    We report first results of an implementation of a chemical model in a cosmological code, based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. We show that chemical SPH simulations are a promising tool to provide clues for the understanding of the chemical properties of galaxies in relation to their formation and evolution in a cosmological framework.

  14. Stellar evolution in the outer Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerba, Ryszard; Siódmiak, Natasza; Leśniewska, Aleksandra; Karska, Agata; Sewiło, Marta

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the distribution of different classes of spectroscopically identified sources and theoretical models in the color-color diagrams (CCDs) combining the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) data to develop a method to classify Outer Galaxy sources detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope (hereafter Spitzer) SMOG survey in the IRAC 3.68.0 µm and MIPS 24 µm bands. We supplement the Spitzer data with the data from other satellite and ground-based surveys. The main goal of our study is to discover and characterize the population of intermediate- and low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Outer Galaxy and use it to study star formation in a significantly different environment than the Galaxy inside the solar circle. Since the YSOs can be confused with evolved stars in the MIR, these classes of objects need to be carefully separated. Here we present the initial results of our analysis using the Ks-[8.0] vs. Ks-[24] CCD as an example. The evolved stars separated from YSOs in the YSO selection process will be investigated in detail in the follow-up study.

  15. Stellar evolution in the outer Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Szczerba, Ryszard; Leśniewska, Aleksandra; Karska, Agata; Sewiło, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of different classes of spectroscopically identified sources and theoretical models in the color-color diagrams (CCDs) combining the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) data to develop a method to classify Outer Galaxy sources detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope (hereafter Spitzer) SMOG survey in the IRAC 3.6 and 8.0 micrometer and MIPS 24 micrometer bands. We supplement the Spitzer data with the NIR data from the 2MASS and UKIDSS (JHKs) surveys, as well as with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) at 12 and 22 micrometers and AKARI (9 and 18 micrometers) MIR surveys. The main goal of our study is to discover and characterise the population of intermediate- and low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Outer Galaxy and use it to study star formation in a significantly different environment than the Galaxy inside the solar circle. Since the YSOs can be confused with evolved stars in the MIR, these classes of objects need to be carefully separated. Here ...

  16. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kassin, Susan A; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J; Gardner, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ~8 billion years since z=1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking as the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (sigma_g) and increase in ordered rotation (Vrot) with time. The slopes of the relations between both sigma_g and Vrot with r...

  17. Dark Matter and the Chemical Evolution of Irregular Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carigi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three types of chemical evolution models for irregular galaxies: closed-box with continuous star formation rates (SFRs, closed-box with burstin g SFRs, and O-rich outflow with continuous SFRs. We discuss the chemical evolution of the irregular galaxies NGC 1560 and II Zw 33, and a "typical" irregular galaxy. The fraction of low-mass stars needed by our models is larger than that derived for the solar vicinity, but similar to that found in globular clusters. For our typical irregular galaxy we need a mass fraction of about 40% in the form of substellar objects plus non baryonic dark matter inside the Holmberg radius, in good agreement with the results derived for NGC 1560 and II Zw 33 where we do have an independent estimate of the mass fraction in non baryonic dark matter. Closed-box models are better than O-rich outflow models in explaining the C/O and Z/O observed values for our typical irregular galaxy.

  18. A prescription for galaxy biasing evolution as a nuisance parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, L.; Kirk, D.; Lahav, O.; Abdalla, F. B.; Gaztañaga, E.

    2015-04-01

    There is currently no consistent approach to modelling galaxy bias evolution in cosmological inference. This lack of a common standard makes the rigorous comparison or combination of probes difficult. We show that the choice of biasing model has a significant impact on cosmological parameter constraints for a survey such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), considering the two-point correlations of galaxies in five tomographic redshift bins. We find that modelling galaxy bias with a free biasing parameter per redshift bin gives a Figure of Merit (FoM) for dark energy equation of state parameters w0, wa smaller by a factor of 10 than if a constant bias is assumed. An incorrect bias model will also cause a shift in measured values of cosmological parameters. Motivated by these points and focusing on the redshift evolution of linear bias, we propose the use of a generalized galaxy bias which encompasses a range of bias models from theory, observations and simulations, b(z) = c + (b0 - c)/D(z)α, where parameters c, b0 and α depend on galaxy properties such as halo mass. For a DES-like galaxy survey, we find that this model gives an unbiased estimate of w0, wa with the same number or fewer nuisance parameters and a higher FoM than a simple b(z) model allowed to vary in z-bins. We show how the parameters of this model are correlated with cosmological parameters. We fit a range of bias models to two recent data sets, and conclude that this generalized parametrization is a sensible benchmark expression of galaxy bias on large scales.

  19. A simple model linking galaxy and dark matter evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, Simon; Lilly, Simon; Amara, Adam; Paranjape, Aseem; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: simon.birrer@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: simon.lilly@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-20

    We construct a simple phenomenological model for the evolving galaxy population by incorporating predefined baryonic prescriptions into a dark matter hierarchical merger tree. The model is based on the simple gas-regulator model introduced by Lilly et al., coupled with the empirical quenching rules of Peng et al. The simplest model already does quite well in reproducing, without re-adjusting the input parameters, many observables, including the main sequence sSFR-mass relation, the faint end slope of the galaxy mass function, and the shape of the star forming and passive mass functions. Similar to observations and/or the recent phenomenological model of Behroozi et al., which was based on epoch-dependent abundance-matching, our model also qualitatively reproduces the evolution of the main sequence sSFR(z) and SFRD(z) star formation rate density relations, the M{sub s} – M{sub h} stellar-to-halo mass relation, and the SFR – M{sub h} relation. Quantitatively the evolution of sSFR(z) and SFRD(z) is not steep enough, the M{sub s} – M{sub h} relation is not quite peaked enough, and, surprisingly, the ratio of quenched to star forming galaxies around M* is not quite high enough. We show that these deficiencies can simultaneously be solved by ad hoc allowing galaxies to re-ingest some of the gas previously expelled in winds, provided that this is done in a mass-dependent and epoch-dependent way. These allow the model galaxies to reduce an inherent tendency to saturate their star formation efficiency, which emphasizes how efficient galaxies around M* are in converting baryons into stars and highlights the fact that quenching occurs at the point when galaxies are rapidly approaching the maximum possible efficiency of converting baryons into stars.

  20. Effects on Galaxy Evolution: Pair Interactions versus Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnesen, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    In a hierarchical universe, mergers may be an important mechanism not only in increasing the mass of galaxies but also in driving the colour and morphological evolution of galaxies. We use a large sample of ~1000 simulated galaxies of stellar mass greater than 10^{9.6} solar masses (for ~4800 observations at multiple redshifts) from a high-resolution (0.46 kpc/h) cosmological simulation to determine under what circumstances being a member of a pair influences galaxy properties at z <= 0.2. We identify gravitationally bound pairs, and find a relative fraction of blue-blue (wet), red-red (dry), and blue-red (mixed) pairs that agrees with observations (Lin et al. 2010). All pairs tend to avoid the extreme environments of clusters and void centres. While pairs in groups can include galaxies that are both blue, both red, or one of each colour, in the field it is extraordinarily rare for pair galaxies to both be red. We find that, while physically bound pairs closer than 250 kpc/h tend to be bluer than the galax...

  1. Hints on halo evolution in SFDM models with galaxy observations

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X; Urena-Lopez, L Arturo; Valenzuela, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    A massive, self-interacting scalar field has been considered as a possible candidate for the dark matter in the universe. We present an observational constraint to the model arising from strong lensing observations in galaxies. The result points to a discrepancy in the properties of scalar field dark matter halos for dwarf and lens galaxies, mainly because halo parameters are directly related to physical quantities in the model. This is an important indication that it becomes necessary to have a better understanding of halo evolution in scalar field dark matter models, where the presence of baryons can play an important role.

  2. Energetic constraints to chemo-photometric evolution of spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    The problem of chemo-photometric evolution of late-type galaxies is dealt with relying on prime physical arguments of energetic self-consistency between chemical enhancement of galaxy mass, through nuclear processing inside stars, and luminosity evolution of the system. Our analysis makes use of the Buzzoni template galaxy models along the Hubble morphological sequence. The contribution of Type II and Ia SNe is also accounted for in our scenario. Chemical enhancement is assessed in terms of the so-called ‘yield metallicity’ (?), that is the metal abundance of processed mass inside stars, as constrained by the galaxy photometric history. For a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF), ? being nearly insensitive to the galaxy star formation history. The interstellar medium (ISM) metallicity can be set in terms of ?, and just modulated by the gas fraction and the net fraction of returned stellar mass (f). For the latter, a safe upper limit can be placed, such as f≲ 0.3 at any age. The comparison with the observed age-metallicity relation allows us to set a firm upper limit to the Galaxy birthrate, such as b≲ 0.5, and to the chemical enrichment ratio ΔY/ΔZ≲ 5. About four out of five stars in the solar vicinity are found to match the expected ? figure within a factor of 2, a feature that leads us to conclude that star formation in the Galaxy must have proceeded, all the time, in a highly contaminated environment where returned stellar mass is in fact the prevailing component to gas density. The possible implication of the Milky Way scenario for the more general picture of late-type galaxy evolution is discussed moving from three relevant relationships, as suggested by the observations. Namely (i) the down-sizing mechanism appears to govern star formation in the local Universe; (ii) the ‘delayed’ star formation among low-mass galaxies, as implied by the inverse b-Mgal dependence, naturally leads to a more copious gas fraction when moving from giant to dwarf

  3. VLT\\/UVES Abundances in Four Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies II. Implications for Understanding Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstoy, E; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, V; Szeifert, A K T; Tolstoy, Eline

    2003-01-01

    We have used UVES on VLT-UT2 to take spectra of 15 individual red giant stars in the centers of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Sculptor, Fornax, Carina and Leo I. We measure the abundance variations of numerous elements in these low mass stars with a range of ages (1-15Gyr old). This means that we can effectively measure the chemical evolution of these galaxies WITH TIME. Our results show a significant spread in metallicity with age, but an overall trend consistent with what might be expected from a closed (or perhaps leaky) box chemical evolution scenario over the last 10-15Gyr. We notice that each of these galaxies show broadly similar abundance patterns for all elements measured. This suggests a fairly uniform progression of chemical evolution with time, despite quite a large range of star formation histories. It seems likely that these galaxies had similar initial conditions, and evolve in a similar manner with star formation occurring at a uniformly low rate, even if at different times. With our ...

  4. Evolution of collisionless systems of gravitating masses, and the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.; Klypin, A.A.

    1981-03-01

    A series of dissipation-free models are investigated for the formation of structure in elliptical galaxies or rich clusters of galaxies by the rapid relaxation process. Using the method of macroparticles, the evolution of two types of systems comprising approx.10/sup 4/ particles is computed numerically: a) a system of superposed homogeneous oblate ellipsoids differing widely in mass and initial density; b) successive accretion of a set of low-density envelopes. In all cases an extended, flattened power-law surface-density profile develops, in good agreement with the profiles observed. The relationship between the parameters of the initial and final distributions is discussed.

  5. The formation and evolution of high-redshift dusty galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Ge, Jian; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Spilker, Justin; Strandet, Maria; Ashby, Matthew; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Lundgren, Britt; Zhao, Yinan; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Caucal, Paul; SPT SMG Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Star formation and chemical evolution are among the biggest questions in galaxy formation and evolution. High-redshift dusty galaxies are the best sites to investigate mass assembly and growth, star formation rates, star formation history, chemical enrichment, and physical conditions. My thesis is based on two populations of high-redshift dusty galaxies, submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers, which are selected by dust emission and dust absorption, respectively.For the SMG sample, I have worked on the gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 2.8 thesis is focused on the stellar masses and star formation rates of these objects by means of multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling. The data include HST/WFC3, Spitzer/IRAC, Herschel/PACS, Herschel/SPIRE, APEX/Laboca and SPT. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these DSFGs have specific SFRs that lie above the MS, suggesting that we are witnessing ongoing strong starburst events that may be driven by major mergers. SPT0346-52 at z = 5.7, the most extraordinary source in the SPT survey for which we obtained Chandra X-ray and ATCA radio data, was confirmed to have the highest star formation surface density of any known galaxy at high-z.The other half of my thesis is focused on a new population of quasar absorption line systems, 2175 Å dust absorbers, which are excellent probes of gas and dust properties, chemical evolution and physical conditions in the absorbing galaxies. This sample was selected from the SDSS and BOSS surveys and followed up with the Echelle Spectrographs and Imager on the Keck-II telescope, the Red & Blue Channel Spectrograph on the Multiple Mirror Telescope, and the Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph onboard the Very Large Telescope. We found a correlation between the presence of the 2175 Å bump and other ingredients including high metallicity, high depletion level, overall low ionization state of gas, neutral

  6. Co-evolution of black holes and galaxies: the role of selection biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portinari, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Quasars are tracers of the cosmological evolution of the Black Hole mass- host galaxy relation, and indicate that the formation of BHanticipated that of the host galaxies. We find that selection effects andstatistical biases dominate the interpretation of the observational results;and co-evolution (= constant BH/galaxy mass ratio) is still compatiblewith observations.

  7. Kinematic and chemical evolution of early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, B L; Böhm, A; Bender, R; Fritz, A; Maraston, C

    2004-01-01

    We investigate in detail 13 early-type field galaxies with 0.2galaxies) is at z~0.4, we compare the field galaxies to 22 members of three rich clusters with z=0.37 to explore possible variations caused by environmental effects. We exploit VLT/FORS spectra (R~1200) and HST/ACS imaging to determine internal kinematics, structures and stellar population parameters. From the Faber-Jackson and Fundamental Plane scaling relations we deduce a modest luminosity evolution in the B-band of 0.3-0.5mag for both samples. We compare measured Lick absorption line strengths (Hdelta, Hgamma, Hbeta, Mg_b, & Fe5335) with evolutionary stellar population models to derive light-averaged ages, metallicities and the element abundance ratios Mg/Fe. We find that all these three stellar parameters of the distant galaxies obey a scaling with velocity dispersion (mass) which is very well consistent with the one of local nearby galaxies. In particular, the distribution...

  8. Evolution of Galaxy Luminosity Function Using Photometric Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, B H F; Benoist, C; da Costa, L N; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Ogando, R L C; de Simoni, F; Mesquita, A A

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of using photometric redshifts for studying the evolution of both the global galaxy luminosity function (LF) and that for different galaxy types. To this end we compare LFs obtained using photometric redshifts from the CFHT Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) D1 field with those from the spectroscopic survey VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) comprising ~4800 galaxies. We find that for z<2, in the interval of magnitudes considered by this survey, the LFs obtained using photometric and spectroscopic redshifts show a remarkable agreement. This good agreement led us to use all four Deep fields of CFHTLS comprising ~386000 galaxies to compute the LF of the combined fields and estimate directly the error in the parameters based on field-to-field variation. We find that the characteristic absolute magnitude M* of Schechter fits fades by ~0.7mag from z~1.8 to z~0.3, while the characteristic density phi* increases by a factor of ~4 in the same redshift bin. We use the galaxy classification provided by the templ...

  9. A Prescription for Galaxy Biasing Evolution as a Nuisance Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Clerkin, L; Lahav, O; Abdalla, F B; Gaztanaga, E

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no consistent approach to modelling galaxy bias evolution in cosmological inference. This lack of a common standard makes the rigorous comparison or combination of probes difficult. We show that the choice of biasing model has a significant impact on cosmological parameter constraints for a survey such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), considering the 2-point correlations of galaxies in five tomographic redshift bins. We find that modelling galaxy bias with a free biasing parameter per redshift bin gives a Figure of Merit (FoM) for Dark Energy equation of state parameters $w_0, w_a$ smaller by a factor of 10 than if a constant bias is assumed. An incorrect bias model will also cause a shift in measured values of cosmological parameters. Motivated by these points and focusing on the redshift evolution of linear bias, we propose the use of a generalised galaxy bias which encompasses a range of bias models from theory, observations and simulations, $b(z) = c + (b_0 - c)/D(z)^\\alpha$, where $c, ...

  10. Galaxy Pairs in COSMOS -- Merger Rate Evolution Since z=1

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, C Kevin; Scoville, N; Capak, P; Drory, N; Gao, Y

    2011-01-01

    We present results of a statistical study of the cosmic evolution of mass dependent major-merger rate since z=1. A stellar mass limited sample of major-merger pairs (CPAIR sample) was selected from the archive of the COSMOS survey, based on photo-z and visual inspections of the HST-ACS images. Pair fractions at different redshifts derived using the CPAIR sample and a local K-band selected pair sample show no significant variations with stellar mass. The pair fraction exhibits moderately strong cosmic evolution, with the best-fitting evolutionary index m=2.2+-0.2. The best-fitting function for the merger rate implies that galaxies with stellar mass between 1E+10 -- 3E+11 M_sun have undergone 0.4 -- 1.2 major-mergers since z=1. Our results show that, for massive galaxies at z<1, major mergers involving star forming galaxies (i.e. wet and mixed mergers) can account for the formation of both ellipticals and red quiescent galaxies (RQGs). On the other hand, major mergers cannot be responsible for the formation ...

  11. Evolution of Dust-to-Metal Ratio in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, A K

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of the dust-to-metal ratio in galaxies based on a simple evolution model for the amount of metal and dust with infall. We take into account grain formation in stellar mass-loss gas, grain growth by the accretion of metallic atoms in a cold dense cloud, and grain destruction by SNe shocks. Especially, we propose that the accretion efficiency is independent of the star-formation history. This predicts various evolutionary tracks in the metallicity ($Z$)--dust-to-gas ratio ($\\cal D$) plane depending on the star-formation history. In this framework, the observed linear $Z$--$\\cal D$ relation of nearby spiral galaxies can be interpreted as a sequence of a constant galactic age. We emphasize that an observational study of the $Z$--$\\cal D$ relation of galaxies at $z\\sim 1$ is very useful to constrain the efficiencies of dust growth and destruction. We also suggest that the Lyman break galaxies at $z\\sim 3$ have a very low dust-to-metal ratio, typically $\\ltsim 0.1$. Although th...

  12. Cosmological Evolution and Hierarchical Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Percival, W J

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the rate at which dark matter halos merge to form higher mass systems. Two complementary derivations using Press-Schechter theory are given, both of which result in the same equation for the formation rate. First, a derivation using the properties of the Brownian random walks within the framework of Press-Schechter theory is presented. We then use Bayes' theorem to obtain the same result from the standard Press-Schechter mass function. The rate obtained is shown to be in good agreement with results from Monte-Carlo and N-body simulations. We illustrate the usefulness of this formula by calculating the expected cosmological evolution in the rate of star formation that is due to short-lived, merger-induced starbursts. The calculated evolution is well-matched to the observed evolution in ultraviolet luminosity density, in contrast to the lower rates of evolution that are derived from semi-analytic models that do not include a dominant contribution from starbursts. Hence we suggest that the bulk of t...

  13. Size evolution of normal and compact galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, M.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Theuns, T.; Trayford, J. W.; Qu, Y.; Schaller, M.; Berthet, M.; Helly, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    We present the evolution of galaxy sizes, from redshift 2 to 0, for actively star forming and passive galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamical 1003 cMpc3 simulation of the EAGLE project. We find that the sizes increase with stellar mass, but that the relation weakens with increasing redshift. Separating galaxies by their star formation activity, we find that passive galaxies are typically smaller than active galaxies at a fixed stellar mass. These trends are consistent with those found in observations and the level of agreement between the predicted and observed size-mass relations is of the order of 0.1 dex for z galaxies with that of the population as a whole. While the evolution of the size-stellar mass relation for active galaxies provides a good proxy for the evolution of individual galaxies, the evolution of individual passive galaxies is not well represented by the observed size-mass relation due to the evolving number density of passive galaxies. Observations of z ˜ 2 galaxies have revealed an abundance of massive red compact galaxies, which depletes below z ˜ 1. We find that a similar population forms naturally in the simulation. Comparing these galaxies with their z = 0 descendants, we find that all compact galaxies grow in size due to the high-redshift stars migrating outwards. Approximately 60 per cent of the compact galaxies increase in size further due to renewed star formation and/or mergers.

  14. The Evolution of Stars and Gas in starburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, R C; Lacerda, R R; Fernandes, Roberto Cid; Leao, Joao Rodrigo Souza; Lacerda, Reiner Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    In systems undergoing starbursts the evolution of the young stellar population is expected to drive changes in the emission line properties. This evolution is usually studied theoretically, with a combination of evolutionary synthesis models for the spectral energy distribution of starbursts and photoionization calculations. In this paper we present a more empirical approach to this issue. We apply empirical population synthesis techniques to samples of Starburst and HII galaxies in order to measure their evolutionary state and correlate the results with their emission line properties. A couple of useful tools are introduced which greatly facilitate the interpretation of the synthesis: (1) an evolutionary diagram, whose axis are the strengths of the young, intermediate age and old components of the stellar population mix, and (2) the mean age of stars associated with the starburst, $\\ov{t}_{SB}$. These tools are tested with grids of theoretical galaxy spectra and found to work very well even when only a small...

  15. Iron in galaxy groups and clusters: confronting galaxy evolution models with a newly homogenized data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Robert M.; Thomas, Peter A.; Henriques, Bruno M. B.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis of the iron abundance in the hot gas surrounding galaxy groups and clusters. To do this, we first compile and homogenize a large data set of 79 low-redshift (tilde{z} = 0.03) systems (159 individual measurements) from the literature. Our analysis accounts for differences in aperture size, solar abundance, and cosmology, and scales all measurements using customized radial profiles for the temperature (T), gas density (ρgas), and iron abundance (ZFe). We then compare this data set to groups and clusters in the L-GALAXIES galaxy evolution model. Our homogenized data set reveals a tight T-ZFe relation for clusters, with a scatter in ZFe of only 0.10 dex and a slight negative gradient. After examining potential measurement biases, we conclude that some of this negative gradient has a physical origin. Our model suggests greater accretion of hydrogen in the hottest systems, via stripping from infalling satellites, as a cause. In groups, L-GALAXIES over-estimates ZFe, indicating that metal-rich gas removal (via e.g. AGN feedback) is required. L-GALAXIES is consistent with the observed ZFe in the intracluster medium (ICM) of the hottest clusters at z = 0, and shows a similar rate of ICM enrichment as that observed from at least z ˜ 1.3 to the present day. This is achieved without needing to modify any of the galactic chemical evolution (GCE) model parameters. However, the ZFe in intermediate-T clusters could be under-estimated in our model. We caution that modifications to the GCE modelling to correct this disrupt the agreement with observations of galaxies' stellar components.

  16. Radio continuum surveys and galaxy evolution: The AGN view

    OpenAIRE

    Smolcic, Vernesa

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how galaxies form in the early universe and their subsequent evolution through cosmic time is a major goal of modern astrophysics. Panchromatic look-back sky surveys significantly advanced the field in the past decades, and we are now entering an even more fruitful period - a 'golden age' of radio astronomy - with upgraded, and new facilities delivering an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity. An overview of recent developments in radio continuum sky surveys, focusing on t...

  17. Cross-Roads in Studies of Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S

    2001-01-01

    Studies of galaxy evolution at optical and near-infrared wavelengths have reached an interesting point in their historical development and the arrival of a new millenium provides an appropriate occasion to review the overall direction in which this subject is moving. The aim of this short essay is to emphasize the qualitatively different datasets now arriving and the more detailed and challenging scientific analyses needed for future progress.

  18. The Hubble Deep Field and the Early Evolution of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Madau, P

    1997-01-01

    I review some recent progress made in our understanding of galaxy evolution and the cosmic history of star formation. The Hubble Deep Field (HDF) imaging survey has achieved the sensitivity to capture the bulk of the extragalactic background light from discrete sources. No evidence is found in the optical number-magnitude relation down to AB=29 mag for a large amount of star formation at high redshifts. The emission history of the universe at ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared wavelengths can be modeled from the present epoch to z~4 by tracing the evolution with cosmic time of the galaxy luminosity density, as determined from several deep spectroscopic samples and the HDF. The global spectrophotometric properties of field galaxies are well fitted by a simple stellar evolution model, defined by a time-dependent star formation rate (SFR) per unit comoving volume and a universal initial mass function which is relatively rich in massive stars. The SFR density is found to rise sharply, by about an order of ma...

  19. The Evolution of Galaxy Disks in Dense Environments - Lessons from Compact Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, J; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Yun, M S; Borthakur, S

    2008-01-01

    Disk galaxies in compact galaxy groups exhibit a remarkable shortfall of neutral hydrogen compared to both isolated spirals and spirals in more loose groups, but the origin of this HI deficiency remains unclear. Based on a sample of highly HI deficient compact galaxy groups, here updated to also include HCG 58 and HCG 93, we summarise the first results of a multi-wavelength campaign aimed at understanding the processes responsible for modifying the HI content of galaxy disks in these environments. While tidal stripping, ram pressure stripping by hot intragroup gas, and star-formation induced strangulation could individually be affecting the ISM in some of the group members, these processes each face specific difficulties in explaining the inferred deficiency of HI for the sample as a whole. A complete picture of the mechanisms driving the ISM evolution in the disk galaxies of these groups has thus yet to emerge, but promising avenues for further progress in this field are briefly discussed on the basis of the...

  20. Radio continuum surveys and galaxy evolution: The AGN view

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, Vernesa

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how galaxies form in the early universe and their subsequent evolution through cosmic time is a major goal of modern astrophysics. Panchromatic look-back sky surveys significantly advanced the field in the past decades, and we are now entering an even more fruitful period - a 'golden age' of radio astronomy - with upgraded, and new facilities delivering an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity. An overview of recent developments in radio continuum sky surveys, focusing on the physical properties and cosmic evolution of radio AGN since z~5 is presented here.

  1. Cloning Dropouts: Implications for Galaxy Evolution at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwens, R J; Illingworth, G D; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Broadhurst, Tom; Illingworth, Garth

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of high redshift galaxies in the two Hubble Deep Fields, HDF-N and HDF-S, is investigated using a cloning technique that replicates z~ 2-3 U dropouts to higher redshifts, allowing a comparison with the observed B and V dropouts at higher redshifts (z ~ 4-5). We treat each galaxy selected for replication as a set of pixels that are k-corrected to higher redshift, accounting for resampling, shot-noise, surface-brightness dimming, and the cosmological model. We find evidence for size evolution (a 1.7x increase) from z ~ 5 to z ~ 2.7 for flat geometries (Omega_M+Omega_LAMBDA=1.0). Simple scaling laws for this cosmology predict that size evolution goes as (1+z)^{-1}, consistent with our result. The UV luminosity density shows a similar increase (1.85x) from z ~ 5 to z ~ 2.7, with minimal evolution in the distribution of intrinsic colors for the dropout population. In general, these results indicate less evolution than was previously reported, and therefore a higher luminosity density at z ~ 4-5 (~ 50...

  2. Constraints on galaxy formation models from the galaxy stellar mass function and its evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Luiz Felippe S; Bower, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We explore the parameter space of the semi-analytic galaxy formation model GALFORM, studying the constraints imposed by measurements of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) and its evolution. We use the Bayesian Emulator method to quickly eliminate vast implausible volumes of the parameter space and zoom in on the most interesting regions, allowing us to identify a set of models that match the observational data within the model uncertainties. We find that the GSMF strongly constrains parameters related to the quiescent star formation in discs, stellar and AGN feedback and the threshold for disc instabilities, but more weakly restricts other parameters. Constraining the model using the local data alone does not usually select models that match the evolution of the mass function well. Nevertheless, we show that a small subset of models provides an acceptable match to GSMF data out to redshift 1.5, without introducing an explicit redshift dependence of feedback parameters. We explore the physical significanc...

  3. Galaxy rotation and supermassive black hole binary evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, M. A.; Tahir, A.; Khan, F. M.; Holley-Bockelmann, H.; Baig, A. M.; Berczik, P.; Chishtie, F.

    2017-09-01

    Supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries residing at the core of merging galaxies are recently found to be strongly affected by the rotation of their host galaxies. The highly eccentric orbits that form when the host is counterrotating emit strong bursts of gravitational waves that propel rapid SMBH binary coalescence. Most prior work, however, focused on planar orbits and a uniform rotation profile, an unlikely interaction configuration. However, the coupling between rotation and SMBH binary evolution appears to be such a strong dynamical process that it warrants further investigation. This study uses direct N-body simulations to isolate the effect of galaxy rotation in more realistic interactions. In particular, we systematically vary the SMBH orbital plane with respect to the galaxy rotation axis, the radial extent of the rotating component, and the initial eccentricity of the SMBH binary orbit. We find that the initial orbital plane orientation and eccentricity alone can change the inspiral time by an order of magnitude. Because SMBH binary inspiral and merger is such a loud gravitational wave source, these studies are critical for the future gravitational wave detector, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, an ESA/NASA mission currently set to launch by 2034.

  4. The Influence of Cluster Mergers on Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawle, T. D.; Altieri, B.; Bouy, H.; Egami, E.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Richard, J.; Valtchanov, I.; Walth, G.

    2016-06-01

    The rich environment of galaxy clusters is understood to have a profound effect on the evolution of constituent galaxies. However, even clusters of a similar mass and at fixed redshift are not homogeneous, displaying a range in structural complexity. Here we concentrate on the effect of cluster merging, the most massive dynamic process in the Universe. Two spectacular cluster mergers at z~0.3 are explored: the archetypal Bullet cluster (1E0657-558; Rawle et al. 2012), and the HST Frontier Field, Pandora's cluster (Abell 2744; Rawle et al. 2014, 2016). We present detailed analysis of their total star formation, derived from multi-wavelength observations of both dusty and unobscured activity from Herschel, Spitzer, WISE and GALEX. Examination of the morphologies of individual cluster galaxies reveals striking evidence for transformation and enhanced star formation, triggered by the merger-induced shock front. This includes several galaxies identified as having "jellyfish" morphologies caused by the passing shock. We discuss the implications, and preview future work exploring a large sample of clusters covering a range of dynamic states and redshifts.

  5. Evolution of dwarf galaxies simulated in the cosmological LCDM scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Colin, Pedro; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Valenzuela, Octavio

    2014-03-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of low-mass galaxies with the aim to explore the way their stellar masses are assembled. We analyze how the mass assembly histories of the parent halo determine the growth of their host galaxy and its implications on the current paradigm of formation and evolution of low-mass structures in the LCDM scenario. We have found that low-mass galaxies simulated in this scenario assemble their stellar masses following roughly the dark matter halo assembly, which seems to be in tension with the downsizing trend suggested by current observational inferences. We show that there is no more room to increase the strength of feedback from astrophysical processes in order to deviate strongly the stellar mass assembly from the dark halo one, as has been recently invoked to solve some of the potential issues faced by CDM-based simulations of dwarf galaxies. Alejandro González acknowledges finacial support from UNAM, Fundacion UNAM, and the APS to attend this meeting.

  6. Evolution of galaxy stellar masses and star formation rates in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Furlong, M; Theuns, T; Schaye, J; Crain, R A; Schaller, M; Vecchia, C Dalla; Frenk, C S; McCarthy, I G; Helly, J; Jenkins, A; Rosas-Guevara, Y M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of galaxy masses and star formation rates in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These comprise a suite of hydrodynamical simulations in a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony with subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. The subgrid feedback was calibrated to reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function and galaxy sizes. Here we demonstrate that the simulations reproduce the observed growth of the stellar mass density to within 20 per cent. The simulation also tracks the observed evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function out to redshift z = 7, with differences comparable to the plausible uncertainties in the interpretation of the data. Just as with observed galaxies, the specific star formation rates of simulated galaxies are bimodal, with distinct star forming and passive sequences. The specific star formation rates of star forming galaxies ar...

  7. Probing early-type galaxy evolution with the Kormendy relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, B L; Bender, R; Belloni, P; Greggio, L; Seitz, S

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of early-type galaxies in four clusters at z=0.4 (Abell370, Cl0303+17, Cl0939+47 and Cl1447+26) and in one at z=0.55 (Cl0016+16). The galaxies are selected according to their spectrophotometrically determined spectral types and comprise the morphological classes E, S0 and Sa galaxies. Structural parameters are determined by a two-component fitting of the surface brightness profiles derived from HST images. Exploring a realistic range of K-corrections using Bruzual and Charlot models, we construct the rest-frame B-band Kormendy relations (mu_e-log(R_e)) for the different clusters. We do not detect a systematic change of the slope of the relation as a function of redshift. We discuss in detail how the luminosity evolution, derived by comparing the Kormendy relations of the distant clusters with the local one for Coma, depends on various assumptions and give a full description of random and systematic errors by exploring the influences of selection bias, different star formation hist...

  8. The evolution of star formation activity in galaxy groups

    CERN Document Server

    Erfanianfar, G; Finoguenov, A; Wuyts, S; Wilman, D; Biviano, A; Ziparo, F; Salvato, M; Nandra, K; Lutz, D; Elbaz, D; Dickinson, M; Tanaka, M; Mirkazemi, M; Balogh, M L; Altieri, M B; Aussel, H; Bauer, F; Berta, S; Bielby, R M; Brandt, N; Cappelluti, N; Cimatti, A; Cooper, M; Fadda, D; Ilbert, O; Floch, E Le; Magnelli, B; Mulchaey, J S; Nordon, R; Newman, J A; Poglitsch, A; Pozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of the total star formation (SF) activity, total stellar mass and halo occupation distribution in massive halos by using one of the largest X-ray selected sample of galaxy groups with secure spectroscopic identification in the major blank field surveys (ECDFS, CDFN, COSMOS, AEGIS). We provide an accurate measurement of SFR for the bulk of the star-forming galaxies using very deep mid-infrared Spitzer MIPS and far-infrared Herschel PACS observations. For undetected IR sources, we provide a well-calibrated SFR from SED fitting. We observe a clear evolution in the level of SF activity in galaxy groups. The total SF activity in the high redshift groups (0.5

  9. Formation and Evolution of Galaxies and the Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue

    Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the most fundamental, unsolved problems in cosmology. This proposed research intends to significantly improve our abilities to make detailed predictions with regard to galaxy formation and evolution in the standard cosmological model, by not only significantly increasing the dynamic range of our simulations using a adaptive mesh refinement code but also including a host of physical processes, all of which are likely to be important at least in some circumstances but many of which have been ignored in current state-of-the-art simulations. It may be that many of the apparent discrepancies between the standard cosmological model and observations are a result of imperfect theoretical calculations. Our simulations should provide a more precise framework to properly interpret the vast observational database of galaxies and IGM from major NASA missions (HST, FUSE, Chandra, XMM-Newton and upcoming Constellation-X, among others) and to maximize scientific returns of major NASA microwave background experiments including WMAP and Planck missions, in conjunction with rich observational data from ground based facilities (Keck, SDSS and others).

  10. The evolution of galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Short, C J; Young, O E; Pearce, F R; Jenkins, A; Muanwong, O

    2010-01-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate, for the first time, the joint effect of feedback from supernovae (SNe) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) on the evolution of galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations. Our simulations are drawn from the Millennium Gas Project and are some of the largest hydrodynamical N-body simulations ever carried out. Feedback is implemented using a hybrid scheme, where the energy input into intracluster gas by SNe and AGN is taken from a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. This ensures that the source of feedback is a population of galaxies that closely resembles that found in the real universe. We show that our feedback model is capable of reproducing observed local X-ray scaling laws, at least for non-cool core clusters, but that almost identical results can be obtained with a simplistic preheating model. However, we demonstrate that the two models predict opposing evolutionary behaviour. We have examined whether the evolution predicted by our feedback model is compatible wi...

  11. Iron in galaxy groups and clusters: Confronting galaxy evolution models with a newly homogenised dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Robert M; Henriques, Bruno M B

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the iron abundance in the hot gas surrounding galaxy groups and clusters. To do this, we first compile and homogenise a large dataset of 79 low-redshift (|z| = 0.03) systems (159 individual measurements) from the literature. Our analysis accounts for differences in aperture size, solar abundance, and cosmology, and scales all measurements using customised radial profiles for the temperature (T), gas density, and iron abundance (Z). We then compare this dataset to groups and clusters in the L-Galaxies galaxy evolution model. Our homogenised dataset reveals a tight T-Z relation for clusters, with a scatter in Z of only 0.10 dex and a slight negative gradient. After examining potential measurement biases, we conclude that at least some of this negative gradient has a physical origin. Our model suggests greater accretion of hydrogen in the hottest systems, via stripping of gas from infalling satellites, as a cause. At lower temperatures, L-Galaxies over-estimates Z in groups, indicating ...

  12. The Fastest Galaxy Evolution in an Unbiased Compact Group Sample with WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwang-Ho; Hwang, Ho Seong; Sohn, Jubee; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2017-02-01

    We study the mid-infrared (MIR) properties of galaxies in compact groups and their environmental dependence using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. We use a volume-limited sample of 670 compact groups and their 2175 member galaxies with {M}rnoise ratio greater than 3. Among the 1541 galaxies, 433 AGN-host galaxies are identified by using both optical and MIR classification schemes. Using the remaining 1108 non-AGN galaxies, we find that the MIR [3.4]–[12] colors of compact group early-type galaxies are on average bluer than those of cluster early-type galaxies. When compact groups have both early- and late-type member galaxies, the MIR colors of the late-type members in those compact groups are bluer than the MIR colors of cluster late-type galaxies. As compact groups are located in denser regions, they tend to have larger early-type galaxy fractions and bluer MIR color galaxies. These trends are also seen for neighboring galaxies around compact groups. However, compact group member galaxies always have larger early-type galaxy fractions and bluer MIR colors than their neighboring galaxies. Our findings suggest that the properties of compact group galaxies depend on both internal and external environments of compact groups, and that galaxy evolution is faster in compact groups than in the central regions of clusters.

  13. AMAZE and LSD: Metallicity and Dynamical Evolution of Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; Cresci, G.; Gnerucci, A.; Troncoso, P.; Marconi, A.; Calura, F.; Cimatti, A.; Cocchia, F.; Fontana, A.; Granato, G.; Grazian, A.; Matteucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Pentericci, L.; Pipino, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Risaliti, G.; Silva, L.

    2010-12-01

    The metal content in galaxies provides important information on the physical processes responsible for galaxy formation, but little was known for galaxies at z > 3, when the Universe was less than 15% of its current age. We report on our metallicity survey of galaxies at z > 3 using SINFONI at the VLT. We find that at z > 3, low-mass galaxies obey the same fundamental relation between metallicity, mass and star formation rate as at 0 3 massive galaxies deviate from this relation, being more metal-poor. In some of these massive galaxies we can even map the gas metallicity. We find that galaxies at z > 3.3 have regular rotation, though highly turbulent, and inverted abundance gradients relative to local galaxies, with lower abundances near the centre, close to the most active regions of star formation. Overall the results suggest that prominent inflow of pristine gas is responsible for the strong chemical evolution observed in galaxies at z > 3.

  14. Evolution of dust extinction curves in galaxy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kuan-Chou; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Kentaro; Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh

    2017-07-01

    To understand the evolution of extinction curve, we calculate the dust evolution in a galaxy using smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations incorporating stellar dust production, dust destruction in supernova shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering. The dust species are separated into carbonaceous dust and silicate. The evolution of grain size distribution is considered by dividing grain population into large and small grains, which allows us to estimate extinction curves. We examine the dependence of extinction curves on the position, gas density and metallicity in the galaxy, and find that extinction curves are flat at t ≲ 0.3 Gyr because stellar dust production dominates the total dust abundance. The 2175 Å bump and far-ultraviolet (FUV) rise become prominent after dust growth by accretion. At t ≳ 3 Gyr, shattering works efficiently in the outer disc and low-density regions, so extinction curves show a very strong 2175 Å bump and steep FUV rise. The extinction curves at t ≳ 3 Gyr are consistent with the Milky Way extinction curve, which implies that we successfully included the necessary dust processes in the model. The outer disc component caused by stellar feedback has an extinction curve with a weaker 2175 Å bump and flatter FUV slope. The strong contribution of carbonaceous dust tends to underproduce the FUV rise in the Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve, which supports selective loss of small carbonaceous dust in the galaxy. The snapshot at young ages also explains the extinction curves in high-redshift quasars.

  15. Chemical Evolution of Mn in Three Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Men-Quan Liu; Jie Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Based on an improved model, more reasonable nucleosyn-thesis and explosion rate of SNeIa and CCSNe, we studied Mn evolution for three local dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), considering the detailed SNe yield and explosion rates for different types of progenitors. The results can explain the main observation ofMn abundance for tens stars in those dSphs, and give some constraints to the nucleosynthesis and explosion ratio of different types of supernovae and Star Formation Rates (SFR) in those dSphs.

  16. THE EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES IN A HIERARCHICAL UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonini, Chiara; Bernyk, Maksym; Croton, Darren [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC 3122 (Australia); Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the evolution of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from redshift z {approx} 1.6 to z = 0. We upgrade the hierarchical semi-analytic model of Croton et al. with a new spectro-photometric model that produces realistic galaxy spectra, making use of the Maraston stellar populations and a new recipe for the dust extinction. We compare the model predictions of the K-band luminosity evolution and the J - K, V - I, and I - K color evolution with a series of data sets, including those of Collins et al. who argued that semi-analytic models based on the Millennium simulation cannot reproduce the red colors and high luminosity of BCGs at z > 1. We show instead that the model is well in range of the observed luminosity and correctly reproduces the color evolution of BCGs in the whole redshift range up to z {approx} 1.6. We argue that the success of the semi-analytic model is in large part due to the implementation of a more sophisticated spectro-photometric model. An analysis of the model BCGs shows an increase in mass by a factor of 2-3 since z {approx} 1, and star formation activity down to low redshifts. While the consensus regarding BCGs is that they are passively evolving, we argue that this conclusion is affected by the degeneracy between star formation history and stellar population models used in spectral energy distribution fitting, and by the inefficacy of toy models of passive evolution to capture the complexity of real galaxies, especially those with rich merger histories like BCGs. Following this argument, we also show that in the semi-analytic model the BCGs show a realistic mix of stellar populations, and that these stellar populations are mostly old. In addition, the age-redshift relation of the model BCGs follows that of the universe, meaning that given their merger history and star formation history, the ageing of BCGs is always dominated by the ageing of their stellar populations. In a {Lambda}CDM universe, we define such evolution as &apos

  17. Galaxy Transformation Under Extreme Conditions: The Evolution of Galaxies in the Largest Structures in the High Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaux, Brian Clark

    This dissertation describes research performed in the field of observational astrophysics as part of the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environment (ORELSE) survey. The general motivation of the research presented in this dissertation is to investigate the processes responsible for the evolution of galaxies in a wide range of physical conditions over cosmic time. Throughout this dissertation, galaxy populations will be considered in the very nearby universe (i.e., within one billion light years from Earth), the middle-aged universe (i.e., eight billion years ago), and in the very early universe (i.e., just one billion years after the beginning of the universe). In each chapter I present unique data from observations taken and analyzed specifically for the ORELSE survey. In the first part of this dissertation I describe the context, aims, and current state of the ORELSE survey. The studies presented in this dissertation span a large range of galaxy samples and investigate a variety of different astrophysical phenomena. As all of these studies fall under the context of galaxy evolution, these initial sections will set the framework for the variety of studies presented in this thesis. In the second part of this dissertation I present four studies undertaken to investigate various aspects of galaxy evolution. The first of these studies is an investigation of a large population of very distant galaxies detected in one of the ORELSE fields. The survey in this field represents the deepest survey of a particular kind of very distant galaxy population known as Lymanalpha Emitter (LAEs). The number of LAEs found in this survey far exceeded expectations for such galaxies and are shown to be in excess of every other survey of similar galaxies at similar distances. This result has important consequences for galaxy evolution studies, as it suggests that faint LAEs may be much more numerous than previously thought. This work also has important consequences for

  18. The Evolution of Field Early-Type Galaxies in the FDF and WHDF

    CERN Document Server

    Fritz, Alexander; Ziegler, Bodo L

    2009-01-01

    We explore the properties of 24 field early-type galaxies at 0.20=-0.74\\pm0.08. The M/L evolution of these field galaxies suggests a continuous mass assembly of field early-type galaxies during the last 5 Gyr, that gets support by recent studies of field galaxies up to z~1. Independent evidence for recent SF activity is provided by spectroscopic (OII em., Hdelta) and photometric (rest-frame colors) diagnostics. Based on the Hdelta absorption feature we detect a weak residual SF for galaxies that acco unts for 5%-10% in the total stellar mass of these galaxies. The co-evolution in the luminosity and mass of our galaxies favours a downsizing formation process. We find some evidence that our galaxies experienced a period of SF quenching, possible triggered by AGN activity that is in good agreement with recent results on both observational and theoretical side. (abridged)

  19. Exploring the Optical and Infrared Evolution of Galaxies Since z=1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, Jason

    2006-12-01

    We track the evolution of galaxy optical and mid-infrared luminosity, and half-light radius, for 900 blue galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). We find that since z=1 the total infrared luminosity of a typical spiral galaxies has declined more rapidly than for peculiar/merger types. We suggest that gas consumption in disk galaxies results in lower star formation rates and hence lower total infrared luminosity with time. The optical luminosity of blue galaxies has also declined with time. Assuming a linear shift in MB with z, we use a maximum likelihood method to quantify the luminosity evolution of GOODS-N galaxies with respect to a volume limited local sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the amount of evolution is dependent on galaxy size. Under these assumptions, large (R1/2 > 5 kpc), and intermediate sized (3 managed by UC Santa Cruz under the cooperative agreement No. AST-9876783.

  20. Dynamical evolution of globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzio, J.C.

    1987-04-01

    The dynamical processes that affect globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies are analyzed. Two-body and impulsive approximations are utilized to study dynamical friction, drag force, tidal stripping, tidal radii, globular-cluster swapping, tidal accretion, and galactic cannibalism. The evolution of galaxies and the collision of galaxies are simulated numerically; the steps involved in the simulation are described. The simulated data are compared with observations. Consideration is given to the number of galaxies, halo extension, location of the galaxies, distribution of the missing mass, nonequilibrium initial conditions, mass dependence, massive central galaxies, globular-cluster distribution, and lost globular clusters. 116 references.

  1. The ALHAMBRA survey: evolution of galaxy spectral segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Hurtado-Gil, Ll; Martínez, V J; Fernández-Soto, A; Stefanon, M; Ascaso, B; López-Sanjuan, C; Márquez, I; Povic, M; Viironen, K; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E; Aparicio-Villegas, T; Benítez, N; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Castander, F J; Cepa, J; Cerviño, M; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Delgado, R M González; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Masegosa, J; Moles, M; Molino, A; del Olmo, A; Paredes, S; Perea, J; Prada, F; Quintana, J M

    2016-01-01

    We study the clustering of galaxies as a function of spectral type and redshift in the range $0.35 < z < 1.1$ using data from the Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey. The data cover 2.381 deg$^2$ in 7 fields, after applying a detailed angular selection mask, with accurate photometric redshifts [$\\sigma_z < 0.014(1+z)$] down to $I_{AB} < 24$. From this catalog we draw five fixed number density, redshift-limited bins. We estimate the clustering evolution for two different spectral populations selected using the ALHAMBRA-based photometric templates: quiescent and star-forming galaxies. For each sample, we measure the real-space clustering using the projected correlation function. Our calculations are performed over the range $[0.03,10.0] h^{-1}$ Mpc, allowing us to find a steeper trend for $r_p \\lesssim 0.2 h^{-1}$ Mpc, which is especially clear for star-forming galaxies. Our analysis also shows a clear early differentiation in the clustering properties...

  2. Quasar Evolution Driven by Galaxy Encounters in Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Poli, F; Vittorini, V

    2003-01-01

    We link the evolution of the galaxies in the hierarchical clustering scenario with the changing accretion rates of cold gas onto the central massive black holes that power the quasars. We base on galaxy interactions as main triggers of accretion; the related scaling laws are taken up from Cavaliere & Vittorini (2000), and grafted to a semi-analytic code for galaxy formation. As a result, at high $z$ the protogalaxies grow rapidly by hierarchical merging; meanwhile, much fresh gas is imported and also destabilized, so the holes are fueled at their full Eddington rates. At lower $z$ the galactic dynamical events are mostly encounters in hierarchically growing groups; now the refueling peters out, as the residual gas is exhausted while the destabilizing encounters dwindle. So, with no parameter tuning other than needed for stellar observables, our model uniquely produces at $z>3$ a rise, and at $z\\lesssim 2.5 $ a decline of the bright quasar population as steep as observed. In addition, our results closely f...

  3. The formation and evolution of star clusters in interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Moupiya; Li, Yuexing; Charlton, Jane; Hernquist, Lars; Knebe, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Observations of globular clusters show that they have universal lognormal mass functions with a characteristic peak at $\\sim 2\\times 10^{5}\\, {\\rm{M_{\\odot}}}$, but the origin of this peaked distribution is highly debated. Here we investigate the formation and evolution of star clusters in interacting galaxies using high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations performed with two different codes in order to mitigate numerical artifacts. We find that massive star clusters in the range of $\\sim 10^{5.5} - 10^{7.5}\\, {\\rm{M_{\\odot}}}$ form preferentially in the highly-shocked regions produced by galaxy interactions. The nascent cluster-forming clouds have high gas pressures in the range of $P/k \\sim 10^8 - 10^{12}\\, \\rm{K}\\,\\rm{cm^{-3}}$, which is $\\sim 10^4 - 10^8$ times higher than the typical pressure of the interstellar medium but consistent with recent observations of a pre-super star cluster cloud in the Antennae Galaxies. Furthermore, these massive star clusters have quasi-lognormal initial mass functions wi...

  4. The evolution of the dust and gas content in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Santini, P; Magnelli, B; Lutz, D; Lamastra, A; Causi, G Li; Eales, S; Andreani, P; Berta, S; Buat, V; Cooray, A; Cresci, G; Daddi, E; Farrah, D; Fontana, A; Franceschini, A; Genzel, R; Granato, G; Grazian, A; Floc'h, E Le; Magdis, G; Magliocchetti, M; Mannucci, F; Menci, N; Nordon, R; Oliver, S; Popesso, P; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Rodighiero, G; Rosario, D J; Salvato, M; Scott, D; Silva, L; Tacconi, L; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wuyts, S; Xu, K

    2013-01-01

    We use deep Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations in GOODSS, GOODSN and COSMOS to estimate the average dust mass (Mdust) of galaxies on a redshift-stellar mass (Mstar)-SFR grid. We study the scaling relations between Mdust, Mstar and SFR at z<=2.5. No clear evolution of Mdust is observed at fixed SFR and Mstar. We find a tight correlation between SFR and Mdust, likely a consequence of the Schmidt-Kennicutt (S-K) law. The Mstar-Mdust correlation observed by previous works flattens or sometimes disappears when fixing the SFR. Most of it likely derives from the combination of the Mdust-SFR and Mstar-SFR correlations. We then investigate the gas content as inferred by converting Mdust by assuming that the dust/gas ratio scales linearly with the gas metallicity. All galaxies in the sample follow, within uncertainties, the same SFR-Mgas relation (integrated S-K law), which broadly agrees with CO-based results for the bulk of the population, despite the completely different approaches. The majority of galaxies at ...

  5. The Dynamical and Chemical Evolution of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Revaz, Y; Sawala, T; Hill, V; Letarte, B; Irwin, M; Battaglia, G; Helmi, A; Shetrone, M D; Tolstoy, E; Venn, K A

    2009-01-01

    We present a large sample of fully self-consistent hydrodynamical Nbody/Tree-SPH simulations of isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). It has enabled us to identify the key physical parameters and mechanisms at the origin of the observed variety in the Local Group dSph properties. The initial total mass (gas + dark matter) of these galaxies is the main driver of their evolution. Star formation (SF) occurs in series of short bursts. In massive systems, the very short intervals between the SF peaks mimic a continuous star formation rate, while less massive systems exhibit well separated SF bursts, as identified observationally. The delay between the SF events is controlled by the gas cooling time dependence on galaxy mass. The observed global scaling relations, luminosity-mass and luminosity-metallicity, are reproduced with low scatter. We take advantage of the unprecedentedly large sample size and data homogeneity of the ESO Large Programme DART, and add to it a few independent studies, to constrain the s...

  6. Angular momentum transport and evolution of lopsided galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak

    2014-01-01

    The surface brightness distribution in the majority of stellar galactic discs falls off exponentially. Often what lies beyond such a stellar disc is the neutral hydrogen gas whose distribution also follows a nearly exponential profile at least for a number of nearby disc galaxies. Both the stars and gas are commonly known to host lopsided asymmetry especially in the outer parts of a galaxy. The role of such asymmetry in the dynamical evolution of a galaxy has not been explored so far. Following Lindblad's original idea of kinematic density waves, we show that the outer part of an exponential disc is ideally suitable for hosting lopsided asymmetry. Further, we compute the transport of angular momentum in the combined stars and gas disc embedded in a dark matter halo. We show that in a pure star and gas disc, there is a transition point where the free precession frequency of a lopsided mode, $\\Omega -\\kappa $, changes from retrograde to prograde and this in turn reverses the direction of angular momentum flow i...

  7. The Chemical Evolution of Galaxies: The Stellar Mass-Metallicity Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Hartwick, F D A

    2016-01-01

    The predictions of the multiple burst accretion model of chemical evolution are compared to the observations of the stellar masses and metallicities of star-forming galaxies. With the addition of one parameter, the model can account for the observations of the star-forming galaxies if the observations of the galaxies are identified with the star bursting behaviour of the model. This consistency with the model holds only if galaxy downsizing is assumed to occur.

  8. The Co-evolution of Galaxies, Black Holes, and AGN in a Hierarchical Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Somerville, Rachel S

    2008-01-01

    The observational link between Supermassive Black Holes (SMBH) and galaxies at low redshift seems to be very tight, and statistically the global evolution of star formation activity and BH accretion activity also seem to trace each other closely. However, pinning down the co-evolution of galaxies and BH on an object-by-object basis remains elusive. I present results from new models for the joint evolution of galaxies, SMBH, and AGN, which may be able to help resolve some of the observational puzzles. A unique aspect of these models is our treatment of self-regulated BH growth based on hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy-galaxy mergers. Although these models do quite well at reproducing the observed evolution of galaxies, they do not reproduce the observed history of BH accretion, predicting too much early accretion and not enough at late times. I suggest two possible resolutions to this problem.

  9. Evolution of the gas kinematics of galaxies in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the gas kinematics of galaxies by performing hydrodynamical simulations in a cosmological scenario. We paid special attention to the origin of the scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation and the features which could be associated with mergers and interactions. We extended the study by De Rossi et al. (2010) and analysed their whole simulated sample which includes both, gas disc-dominated and spheroid-dominated systems. We found that mergers and interactions can affect the rotation curves directly or indirectly inducing a scatter in the Tully-Fisher Relation larger than the simulated evolution since z=3. In agreement with previous works, kinematical indicators which combine the rotation velocity and dispersion velocity in their definitions lead to a tighter relation. In addition, when we estimated the rotation velocity at the maximum of the rotation curve, we obtained the best proxy for the potential well regardless of morphology.

  10. The Evolution of Galaxies: Unsolved Problems and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchra, John

    We've had an extremely interesting conference covering the observational aspects of galaxy evolution near and far. We've come a very long way since the earliest papers in the 1960's by Tinsley and others first quantified the photometric evolution of galaxies. In this summary, I will first go over some of the things that we know, such as the background that is often not discussed but which is important to keep in mind while looking at new evidence. These include the great progress that has been made on the cosmological model and the identification of fluctuations in the Cosmic microwave background. I'll follow that with a description of what we have learned at this Granadian Euroconference and the questions that either have been newly raised or have remained to be solved in the future, many of which are not at all new and are decidedly non-trivial to attack. The article finishes with a description of some promises for the future plus some general caveats about the way we do research, including Tarzan's dilemma.

  11. The redshift evolution of the stellar populations in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, R; Bruzual, A G; Bender, Ralf; Ziegler, Bodo; Bruzual, Gustavo

    1996-01-01

    Velocity dispersions \\sigma and Mg absorption line-strengths Mg_b have been measured for a sample of 16 ellipticals in 3 clusters at a redshift of 0.37. Like local cluster ellipticals, these objects show a correlation between Mg_b and \\sigma. However, at any given \\sigma, the mean Mg_b of the ellipticals at z=0.37 is weaker than the mean Mg_b of their local relatives in the Coma and Virgo clusters. The Mg_b weakening is smallest for the most luminous ellipticals and larger for the fainter objects. This is unambiguous evidence for {\\it small but significant passive evolution} of the stellar populations of elliptical galaxies with redshift. It requires that the bulk of the stars in cluster ellipticals has formed at z>2. The most luminous objects may even have formed at z>4. The Mg_b-\\sigma test is a very reliable estimator for the evolution of old stellar populations because it is virtually independent from the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and from the metallicities of the galaxies. Furthermore, the infl...

  12. Modelling Dust Evolution in Galaxies with a Multiphase, Inhomogeneous ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovska, Svitlana; Jenkins, Edward B; Klessen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model of dust evolution in a multiphase, inhomogeneous ISM including dust growth and destruction processes. The physical conditions for grain evolution are taken from hydrodynamical simulations of giant molecular clouds in a Milky Way-like spiral galaxy. We improve the treatment of dust growth by accretion in the ISM to investigate the role of the temperature-dependent sticking coefficient and ion-grain interactions. From detailed observational data on the gas-phase Si abundances [Si/H]_{gas} measured in the local Galaxy, we derive a relation between the average [Si/H]_{gas} and the local gas density n(H) which we use as a critical constraint for the models. This relation requires a sticking coefficient that decreases with the gas temperature. The synthetic relation constructed from the spatial dust distribution reproduces the slope of -0.5 of the observed relation in cold clouds. This slope is steeper than that for the warm medium and is explained by the dust growth. We find that it occurs for a...

  13. Stellar Populations and Chemical Evolution of Late--Type Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, M P

    2001-01-01

    Some aspects of the chemical evolution of late-type dwarf galaxies are reviewed, together with their implications on three issues of cosmological relevance: similarity to primeval galaxies, derivation of the primordial helium abundance, contribution to the excess of faint blue galaxies. A more detailed approach to model their evolution is suggested. The importance of deriving the star formation history in these systems by studying their resolved stellar populations is emphasized.

  14. Evolution of Compact and Fossil Groups of Galaxies from Semi-analytical Models of Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Mamon, Gary A.; Dariush, Ali. A.; Raouf, Mojtaba

    2017-05-01

    We compare the mean mass assembly histories of compact and fossil galaxy groups in the Millennium Dark Matter Simulation and an associated semi-analytic galaxy formation model. Tracing the halo mass of compact groups (CGs) from z = 0 to z = 1 shows that, on average, 55% of the halo mass in CGs is assembled since z˜ 1, compared to 40% of the halo mass in fossil groups (FGs) on the same time interval, indicating that compared to FGs, CGs are relatively younger galaxy systems. At z = 0, for a given halo mass, FGs tend to have a larger concentration than CGs. Investigating the evolution of CG’s parameters reveals that they become more compact with time. CGs at z = 0.5 see their magnitude gaps increase exponentially, but it takes ˜10 Gyr for them to reach a magnitude gap of 2 mag. The slow growth of the magnitude gap leads to only a minority (˜41%) of CGs selected at z = 0.5 turning into a FG by z = 0. Also, while three-quarters of FGs go through a compact phase, most fail to meet the CG isolation criterion, leaving only ˜30% of FGs fully satisfying the CG selection criteria. Therefore, there is no strong link of CGs turning into FGs or FGs originating from CGs. The relation between CGs and FGs is thus more complex, and in most cases, FGs and CGs follow different evolutionary tracks.

  15. Modeling the evolution of infrared galaxies : clustering of galaxies in the Cosmic Infrared Background

    CERN Document Server

    Pénin, Aurélie; Lagache, Guilaine; Béthermin, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies are a highly biased tracer of the underlying dark matter density field. Their clustering can be studied through the cosmic infrared background anisotropies. These anisotropies have been measured from 100 \\mum to 2 mm in the last few years. In this paper, we present a fully parametric model allowing a joint analysis of these recent observations. In order to develop a coherent model at various wavelengths, we rely on two building blocks. The first one is a parametric model that describes the redshift evolution of the luminosity function of star-forming galaxies. It compares favorably to measured differential number counts and luminosity functions. The second one is a halo model based description of the clustering of galaxies. Starting from a fiducial model, we investigate parameter degeneracies using a Fisher analysis. We then discuss how halo of different mass and redshift, how LIRGs and ULIRGs, contribute to the CIB angular power spectra. From the Fisher analysis, we conclude that we can...

  16. THE TULLY-FISHER RELATION FOR LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES - IMPLICATIONS FOR GALAXY EVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, M.A.; VAN DER HULST, JM; DE BLOK, WJG; MCGAUGH, SS

    1995-01-01

    We present the B-band Tully-Fisher relation for low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. These LSB galaxies follow the same Tully-Fisher relation as normal spiral galaxies. This implies that the mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of LSB galaxies is typically a factor of 2 larger than that of normal galaxies of

  17. Constraints on galaxy formation models from the galaxy stellar mass function and its evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Felippe S.; Vernon, Ian; Bower, Richard G.

    2017-04-01

    We explore the parameter space of the semi-analytic galaxy formation model GALFORM, studying the constraints imposed by measurements of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) and its evolution. We use the Bayesian emulator method to quickly eliminate vast implausible volumes of the parameter space and zoom in on the most interesting regions, allowing us to identify a set of models that match the observational data within model uncertainties. We find that the GSMF strongly constrains parameters related to quiescent star formation in discs, stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback and threshold for disc instabilities, but weakly restricts other parameters. Constraining the model using local data alone does not usually select models that match the evolution of the GSMF well. Nevertheless, we show that a small subset of models provides acceptable match to GSMF data out to redshift 1.5. We explore the physical significance of the parameters of these models, in particular exploring whether the model provides a better description if the mass loading of the galactic winds generated by starbursts (β0,burst) and quiescent discs (β0,disc) is different. Performing a principal component analysis of the plausible volume of the parameter space, we write a set of relations between parameters obeyed by plausible models with respect to GSMF evolution. We find that while β0,disc is strongly constrained by GSMF evolution data, constraints on β0,burst are weak. Although it is possible to find plausible models for which β0,burst = β0,disc, most plausible models have β0,burst > β0,disc, implying - for these - larger stellar feedback efficiency at higher redshifts.

  18. Dynamical Evolution of Globular Clusters in the Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武振宇; 束成钢; 陈文屏

    2003-01-01

    Given the initial conditions of spatial density distribution, velocity distribution and mass function, the dynamical evolution of globular clusters in the Milky Way is investigated in details by means of Monte Carlo simulations.Four dynamic mechanisms are considered: stellar evaporation, stellar evolution, tidal shocks due to both the disc and bulge, and dynamical friction. It is found that stellar evaporation dominates the evolution of low-mass clusters and all four are important for massive ones. For both the power-law and lognormal initial clusters mass functions, we can find the best-fitting models which can match the present-day observations with their main features of the mass function almost unchanged after evolution of several Gyr. This implies that it is not possible to determine the initial mass function only based on the observed mass function today. The dispersion of the modelled mass functions mainly depends on the potential wells of host galaxies with the almost constant peaks,which is consistent with current observations

  19. The evolution of Brightest Cluster Galaxies in a hierarchical universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tonini, Chiara; Croton, Darren; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) from redshift z~1.6 to z~0. We use the semi-analytic model of Croton et al. (2006) with a new spectro-photometric model based on the Maraston (2005) stellar populations and a new recipe for the dust extinction. We compare the model predictions of the K-band luminosity evolution and the J-K, V-I and I-K colour evolution with a series of datasets, including Collins et al. (Nature, 2009) who argued that semi-analytic models based on the Millennium simulation cannot reproduce the red colours and high luminosity of BCGs at z>1. We show instead that the model is well in range of the observed luminosity and correctly reproduces the colour evolution of BCGs in the whole redshift range up to z~1.6. We argue that the success of the semi-analytic model is in large part due to the implementation of a more sophisticated spectro-photometric model. An analysis of the model BCGs shows an increase in mass by a factor ~2 since z~1, and star formation activity do...

  20. The evolution of high-z galaxy colours: Interpreting the evolution of galaxy colours from $z = 8$ to $z = 5$

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Mattia; Graziani, Luca; Valiante, Rosa; Dayal, Pratika; Maio, Umberto; Ciardi, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to interpret existing data on the evolution of the UV luminosity function and UV colours, $\\beta$, of galaxies at $5 \\leq z \\leq 8$, to improve our understanding of their dust content and ISM properties. To this aim, we post-process the results of a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation with a chemical evolution model, which includes dust formation by supernovae and intermediate mass stars, dust destruction in supernova shocks, and grain growth by accretion of gas-phase elements in dense gas. We find that observations require a steep, Small Magellanic Cloud-like extinction curve and a clumpy dust distribution, where stellar populations younger than 15 Myr are still embedded in their dusty natal clouds. Investigating the scatter in the colour distribution and stellar mass, we find that the observed trends can be explained by the presence of two populations: younger, less massive galaxies where dust enrichment is mainly due to stellar sources, and massive, more chemically evolved ones, where efficie...

  1. Reproducing cosmic evolution of galaxy population from $z = 4$ to $0$

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    We present cosmological hydrodynamic simulations performed to study evolution of galaxy population. The simulations follow timed release of mass, energy, and metals by stellar evolution and employ phenomenological treatments of supernova feedback, pre-supernova feedback modeled as feedback by radiation pressure from massive stars, and quenching of gas cooling in large halos. We construct the fiducial model so that it reproduces the observationally estimated galaxy stellar mass functions and the relationships between the galaxy stellar mass and the host halo mass from $z = 4$ to 0. We find that the fiducial model constructed this way naturally explains the cosmic star formation history, the galaxy downsizing, and the star formation rate and metallicity of the star-forming galaxies. The simulations without the quenching of the gas cooling in large halos overproduce massive galaxies at $z < 2$ and fail to reproduce galaxy downsizing. The simulations that do not employ the radiation pressure feedback from youn...

  2. Galaxy distribution and evolution around a sample of 2dF groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, A L B; Lopes, P A A; Schilling, A C

    2009-01-01

    We study galaxy evolution and spatial patterns in the surroundings of a sample of 2dF groups. Our aim is to find evidence of galaxy evolution and clustering out to 10 times the virial radius of the groups and so redefine their properties according to the spatial patterns in the fields and relate them to galaxy evolution. Group members and interlopers were redefined after the identification of gaps in the redshift distribution. We then used exploratory spatial statistics based on the second moment of the Ripley function to probe the anisotropy in the galaxy distribution around the groups. We found an important anticorrelation between anisotropy and the fraction of early-type galaxies in these fields. Our results illustrate how the dynamical state of galaxy groups can be determined through the systematic study of their neighborhoods.

  3. Size evolution of normal and compact galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Furlong, M; Crain, R A; Schaye, J; Theuns, T; Trayford, J W; Qu, Y; Schaller, M; Berthet, M; Helly, J C

    2015-01-01

    We present the evolution of galaxy sizes, from redshift 2 to 0, for actively star forming and passive galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamical 1003 cMpc3 simulation of the EAGLE project. We find that the sizes increase with stellar mass , but that the relation weakens with increasing redshift. Separating galaxies by their star formation activity, we find that passive galaxies are typically smaller than active galaxies at fixed stellar mass. These trends are consistent with those found in observations and the level of agreement between the predicted and observed size - mass relation is of order 0.1 dex for z < 1 and 0.2-0.3 dex from redshift 1 to 2. We use the simulation to compare the evolution of individual galaxies to that of the population as a whole. While the evolution of the size-stellar mass relation for active galaxies provides a good proxy for the evolution of individual galaxies, the evolution of individual passive galaxies is not well represented by the observed size - mass relation due to th...

  4. Pseudo bulges in galaxy groups: the role of environment in secular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Barway, Sudhanshu

    2017-01-01

    We examine the dependence of the fraction of galaxies containing pseudo bulges on environment for a flux limited sample of ˜5000 SDSS galaxies. We have separated bulges into classical and pseudo bulge categories based on their position on the Kormendy diagram. Pseudo bulges are thought to be formed by internal processes and are a result of secular evolution in galaxies. We attempt to understand the dependence of secular evolution on environment and morphology. Dividing our sample of disc+bulge galaxies based on group membership into three categories: central and satellite galaxies in groups and isolated field galaxies, we find that pseudo bulge fraction is almost equal for satellite and field galaxies. Fraction of pseudo bulge hosts in central galaxies is almost half of the fraction of pseudo bulges in satellite and field galaxies. This trend is also valid when only galaxies are considered only spirals or S0. Using the projected fifth nearest neighbour density as measure of local environment, we look for the dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environmental density. Satellite and field galaxies show very weak or no dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environment. However, fraction of pseudo bulges hosted by central galaxies decreases with increase in local environmental density. We do not find any dependence of pseudo bulge luminosity on environment. Our results suggest that the processes that differentiate the bulge types are a function of environment while processes responsible for the formation of pseudo bulges seem to be independent of environment.

  5. Pseudo bulges in galaxy groups: the role of environment in secular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Barway, Sudhanshu

    2017-05-01

    We examine the dependence of the fraction of galaxies containing pseudo bulges on environment for a flux limited sample of ˜5000 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have separated bulges into classical and pseudo bulge categories based on their position on the Kormendy diagram. Pseudo bulges are thought to be formed by internal processes and are a result of secular evolution in galaxies. We attempt to understand the dependence of secular evolution on environment and morphology. Dividing our sample of disc + bulge galaxies based on group membership into three categories: central and satellite galaxies in groups and isolated field galaxies, we find that pseudo bulge fraction is almost equal for satellite and field galaxies. Fraction of pseudo bulge hosts in central galaxies is almost half of the fraction of pseudo bulges in satellite and field galaxies. This trend is also valid when only galaxies are considered only spirals or S0. Using the projected fifth nearest neighbour density as measure of local environment, we look for the dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environmental density. Satellite and field galaxies show very weak or no dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environment. However, fraction of pseudo bulges hosted by central galaxies decreases with increase in local environmental density. We do not find any dependence of pseudo bulge luminosity on environment. Our results suggest that the processes that differentiate the bulge types are a function of environment while processes responsible for the formation of pseudo bulges seem to be independent of environment.

  6. Mid-Infrared Evidence for Accelerated Evolution in Compact Group Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Lisa May; Gallagher, Sarah C; Hibbard, John E; Hornschemeier, Ann E; Charlton, Jane C; Jarrett, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    We find evidence for accelerated evolution in compact group galaxies from the distribution in mid-infrared colorspace of 42 galaxies from 12 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) compared to the the distributions of several other samples including the LVL+SINGS galaxies, interacting galaxies, and galaxies from the Coma Cluster. We find that the HCG galaxies are not uniformly distributed in colorspace, as well as quantitative evidence for a gap. Galaxies in the infall region of the Coma cluster also exhibit a non-uniform distribution and a less well defined gap, which may reflect a similarity with the compact group environment. Neither the Coma Center or interacting samples show evidence of a gap, leading us to speculate that the gap is unique to the environment of high galaxy density where gas has not been fully processed or stripped.

  7. Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy in the Solar Neighbourhood

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Sahijpal

    2013-12-01

    -body numerical simulations of an inhomogeneous Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE) of the solar neighbourhood with a high temporal resolution are presented. The solar annular ring is divided into distinct spatial grids of area ∼ 1–2 kpc2. Each grid evolves distinctly in terms of star formation and nucleosynthetic yields from numerous generations of stars. The evolution of the galaxy is simulated by considering discrete episodes of star formation. Subsequent to the evolution of the simulated stars within each grid the stellar nucleosynthetic yields are homogenized within the grid rather than the traditionally adopted criteria of homogenizing over the entire solar annular ring. This provides a natural mechanism of generating heterogeneities in the elemental abundance distribution of stars. A complex chemical evolutionary history is inferred that registers episodes of time-dependent contributions from SN II+Ib/c with respect to SN Ia. It was observed that heterogeneities can remerge even after episodes of large scale homogenizations on scales larger than the grid size. However, a comparison of the deduced heterogeneities with the observed scatter in the elemental abundances of the dwarf stars suggest only a partial match, specifically, for [Fe/H] > -0.5. The deduced heterogeneities in the case of carbon, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulphur, calcium and titanium can explain the observed heterogeneities for [Fe/H] < -0.5. It may not be possible to explain the entire observed spread exclusively on the basis of the inhomogeneous GCE.

  8. A Chemical Evolution Model for the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Zhen; Jing, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Fornax is the brightest Milky Way (MW) dwarf spheroidal galaxy and its star formation history (SFH) has been derived from observations. We estimate the time evolution of its gas mass and net inflow and outflow rates from the SFH using a simple star formation law that relates the star formation rate to the gas mass. We present a chemical evolution model on a 2D mass grid with supernovae (SNe) as sources of metal enrichment. We find that a key parameter controlling the enrichment is the mass M_x of the gas to mix with the ejecta from each SN. The choice of M_x depends on the evolution of SN remnants and on the global gas dynamics. It differs between the two types of SNe involved and between the periods before and after Fornax became an MW satellite at time t = t_sat . Our results indicate that due to the global gas outflow at t > t_sat , part of the ejecta from each SN may directly escape from Fornax. Sample results from our model are presented and compared with data.

  9. A Chemical Evolution Model for the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fornax is the brightest Milky Way (MW dwarf spheroidal galaxy and its star formation history (SFH has been derived from observations. We estimate the time evolution of its gas mass and net inflow and outflow rates from the SFH usinga simple star formation law that relates the star formation rate to the gas mass. We present a chemical evolution model on a 2D mass grid with supernovae (SNe as sources of metal enrichment. We find that a key parameter controlling the enrichment is the mass Mx of the gas to mix with the ejecta from each SN. The choice of Mx depends on the evolution of SN remnants and on the global gas dynamics. It differs between the two types of SNe involved and between the periods before and after Fornax became an MW satellite at time t = tsat. Our results indicate that due to the global gas outflow at t > tsat, part of the ejecta from each SN may directly escape from Fornax. Sample results from our model are presented and compared with data.

  10. Probing the Formation and Evolution of Galaxies via HOD/CLF Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaohu

    2011-01-01

    1. General framework of galaxy formation and evolution Galaxies are the building blocks of the universe, and we mankind live in the Milky Way which itself is a typical spiral galaxy. If one takes a look at an image photographed by a big telescope, e.g. the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) or the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), except for a small fraction of stars in our Milky Way, most of the sources are galaxies. Therefore it is pivotal to understand how galaxies are formed and evolved either to probe the nature of our universe, or to probe the origin of mankind.

  11. Magnetic field evolution and reversals in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, C. L.; Price, D. J.; Pettitt, A. R.; Bate, M. R.; Tricco, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the evolution of galactic magnetic fields using 3D smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) simulations of galaxies with an imposed spiral potential. We consider the appearance of reversals of the field, and amplification of the field. We find that magnetic field reversals occur when the velocity jump across the spiral shock is above ≈20 km s-1, occurring where the velocity change is highest, typically at the inner Lindblad resonance in our models. Reversals also occur at corotation, where the direction of the velocity field reverses in the corotating frame of a spiral arm. They occur earlier with a stronger amplitude spiral potential, and later or not at all with weaker or no spiral arms. The presence of a reversal at radii of around 4-6 kpc in our fiducial model is consistent with a reversal identified in the Milky Way, though we caution that alternative Galaxy models could give a similar reversal. We find that relatively high resolution, a few million particles in SPMHD, is required to produce consistent behaviour of the magnetic field. Amplification of the magnetic field occurs in the models, and while some may be genuinely attributable to differential rotation or spiral arms, some may be a numerical artefact. We check our results using ATHENA, finding reversals but less amplification of the field, suggesting that some of the amplification of the field with SPMHD is numerical.

  12. SPH code for dynamical and chemical evolution of disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Berczik, P

    1998-01-01

    The problem of chemical and dynamical evolution of galaxies is one of the most attracting and complex problems of modern astrophysics. Within the framework of the given work the standard dynamic Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code (Monaghan J.J. 1992, ARAA, 30, 543) is noticeably expanded. Our investigation concernes with the changes and incorporation of new ideas into the algorithmic inclusion of Star Formation (SF) and Super Novae (SN) explosions in SPH (Berczik P. & Kravchuk S.G., 1996, ApSpSci, 245, 27). The proposed energy criterion for definition of a place and efficiency of SF results in the successfully explain Star Formation History (SFH) in isolated galaxies of different types. On the base of original ideas we expand a code in a more realistic way of the description of effects of return of a hot, chemical enriched gas in Interstellar Matter (ISM). In addition to the account of SNII, we offer the self-agreed account of SNIa and PN. This allows to describe not only the ISM content of $ O^{1...

  13. Magnetic field evolution and reversals in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, C L; Pettitt, A R; Bate, M R; Tricco, T

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of galactic magnetic fields using 3D smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) simulations of galaxies with an imposed spiral potential. We consider the appearance of reversals of the field, and amplification of the field. We find magnetic field reversals occur when the velocity jump across the spiral shock is above $\\approx$20km s$^{-1}$, occurring where the velocity change is highest, typically at the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) in our models. Reversals also occur at corotation, where the direction of the velocity field reverses in the co-rotating frame of a spiral arm. They occur earlier with a stronger amplitude spiral potential, and later or not at all with weaker or no spiral arms. The presence of a reversal at a radii of around 4--6 kpc in our fiducial model is consistent with a reversal identified in the Milky Way, though we caution that alternative Galaxy models could give a similar reversal. We find that relatively high resolution, a few million particles in SPMHD, is ...

  14. 3D spectroscopic surveys: Exploring galaxy evolution mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Epinat, Benoît

    2011-01-01

    I review the major surveys of high redshift galaxies observed using integral field spectroscopy techniques in the visible and in the infrared. The comparison of various samples has to be done with care since they have different properties linked to their parent samples, their selection criteria and the methods used to study them. I present the various kinematic types of galaxies that are identified within these samples (rotators, mergers, etc.) and summarize the discussions on the mass assembly processes at various redshifts deduced from these classifications: at intermediate redshift (z~0.6) merger may be the main mass assembly process whereas the role of cold gas accretion along cosmic web filaments may increase with redshift. The baryonic Tully-Fisher relation is also discussed. This relation seems to be already in place 3 Gyr after the Big-Bang and is then evolving until the present day. This evolution is interpreted as an increase of the stellar mass content of dark matter haloes of a given mass. The dis...

  15. Abundances as Tracers of the Formation and Evolution of (Dwarf) Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstoy, E

    2004-01-01

    This aims to be an overview of what detailed observations of individual stars in nearby dwarf galaxies may teach us about galaxy evolution. This includes some early results from the DART (Dwarf Abundances and Radial velocity Team) Large Programme at ESO. This project has used 2.2m/WFI and VLT/FLAMES to obtain spectra of large samples of individual stars in nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and determine accurate abundances and kinematics. These results can be used to trace the formation and evolution of nearby galaxies from the earliest times to the present.

  16. Evolution of D and $^{3}He$ in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, M P

    2000-01-01

    The predictions of Galactic chemical evolution models for D and $^3$He are described in connection with those on the other Galactic quantities for which observational constraints are available. Models in agreement with the largest set of data predict deuterium depletions from the Big Bang to the present epoch smaller than a factor of 3 and do not allow for D/H primordial abundances larger than $\\sim4\\times10^{-5}$. Models predicting higher D consumption do not reproduce other observed features of our Galaxy. If both the primordial D and $^3$He are low, models assuming that 90% of low-mass stars experience an extra-mixing during the red giant phase reproduce all the $^3$He observed abundances. The same percentage allows to fit also the observed carbon isotopic ratios, thus supporting the self-consistency of the extra-mixing mechanism.

  17. Studying the Role of Mergers in Black Hole - Galaxy Co-evolution via a Morphological Analysis of Redshift 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Meredith; Urry, C. Megan

    2016-06-01

    We study the role of mergers in the quenching of star formation in galaxies at the dominant epoch of their evolution, by examining their color-mass distributions for different morphology types. We use HST ACS data from the CANDELS/GOODS North and South fields for galaxies in the redshift range 0.7 < z < 1.3 and use GALFIT to fit them with sersic profiles, enabling us to classify each as bulge-dominated (early type) or disk-dominated (late type). We find that spirals and ellipticals have distinct color-mass distributions, similar to studies at z=0, in that each have quenching modes of differing time scales. The smooth decay to the red sequence for the disky galaxies corresponds to a slow exhaustion of gas, while the lack of elliptical galaxies in the `green valley' indicates a faster quenching time for galaxies that underwent a major merger. We compare the inactive galaxies to the AGN hosts and find that the AGN phase lasts well into the red sequence for both types of host galaxy, spanning the full color space. The results suggest that the AGN trigger mechanism, as well as the significance of AGN feedback, is dependent on the merger history of the host galaxy.

  18. The fundamental plane of EDisCS galaxies - The effect of size evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Saglia, R P; Bender, R; Simard, L; Desai, V; Aragon-Salamanca, A; Milvang-Jensen, B; Halliday, C; Jablonka, P; Noll, S; Poggianti, B; Clowe, D I; De Lucia, G; Pello, R; Rudnick, G; Valentinuzzi, T; White, S D M; Zaritsky, D

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution of spectral early-type galaxies in clusters, groups and the field up to redshift 0.9 using the EDisCS dataset. We measure Re, Ie, and sigma for 154 cluster and 68 field galaxies. We study the evolution of the zero point of the fundamental plane (FP) and confirm results in the literature, but now also for the low cluster velocity dispersion regime. The mass-to-light ratio varies as Delta log M/L_B=(-0.54+-0.01)z=(-1.61+-0.01)log(1+z) in clusters, independent of their velocity dispersion. The evolution is stronger (Delta log M/L_B=(-0.76+-0.01)z=(-2.27+-0.03)log(1+z)) for field galaxies. The FP residuals correlate with galaxy mass and become progressively negative at low masses. The effect is visible at z>=0.7 for cluster galaxies and at z>=0.5 for field galaxies. We investigate the size evolution of our galaxy sample. We find that the half-luminosity radius for a galaxy with a dynamical or stellar mass of 2x10^11 Msol varies as (1+z)^{-1.0+-0.3} for both cluster and field galaxies. At th...

  19. Clustering of galaxies in a hierarchical universe - II. Evolution to high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere; Colberg, Jörg M.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; White, Simon D. M.

    1999-08-01

    In hierarchical cosmologies the evolution of galaxy clustering depends both on cosmological quantities such as Omega, Lambda and P(k), which determine how collapsed structures - dark matter haloes - form and evolve, and on the physical processes - cooling, star formation, radiative and hydrodynamic feedback - which drive the formation of galaxies within these merging haloes. In this paper we combine dissipationless cosmological N-body simulations and semi-analytic models of galaxy formation in order to study how these two aspects interact. We focus on the differences in clustering predicted for galaxies of differing luminosity, colour, morphology and star formation rate, and on what these differences can teach us about the galaxy formation process. We show that a `dip' in the amplitude of galaxy correlations between z=0 and z=1 can be an important diagnostic. Such a dip occurs in low-density CDM models, because structure forms early, and dark matter haloes of mass ~10^12M_solar, containing galaxies with luminosities ~L_*, are unbiased tracers of the dark matter over this redshift range; their clustering amplitude then evolves similarly to that of the dark matter. At higher redshifts, bright galaxies become strongly biased and the clustering amplitude increases again. In high density models, structure forms late, and bias evolves much more rapidly. As a result, the clustering amplitude of L_* galaxies remains constant from z=0 to z=1. The strength of these effects is sensitive to sample selection. The dip becomes weaker for galaxies with lower star formation rates, redder colours, higher luminosities and earlier morphological types. We explain why this is the case, and how it is related to the variation with redshift of the abundance and environment of the observed galaxies. We also show that the relative peculiar velocities of galaxies are biased low in our models, but that this effect is never very strong. Studies of clustering evolution as a function of galaxy

  20. Timing the Evolution of Quiescent and Star-forming Local Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Oh, Sree; Oh, Kyuseok; Lee, Jaehyun; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2016-06-01

    Constraining the star formation histories (SFHs) of individual galaxies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that regulate their evolution. Here, we combine multi-wavelength (ultraviolet, optical, and infrared) measurements of a very large sample of galaxies (˜230,000) at z motivated models of galaxy spectral energy distributions to extract constraints on galaxy physical parameters (such as stellar mass and star formation rate) as well as individual SFHs. In particular, we set constraints on the timescales in which galaxies form a certain percentage of their total stellar mass (namely, 10%, 50%, and 90%). The large statistics allows us to average such measurements over different populations of galaxies (quiescent and star-forming) and in narrow ranges of stellar mass. As in the downsizing scenario, we confirm that low-mass galaxies have more extended SFHs than high-mass galaxies. We also find that at the same observed stellar mass, galaxies that are now quiescent evolve more rapidly than galaxies that are currently still forming stars. This suggests that stellar mass is not the only driver of galaxy evolution, but plays along with other factors such as merger events and other environmental effects.

  1. Revealing the Physics and Evolution of Galaxies and Galaxy Clusters with SKA Continuum Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Prandoni, I

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we provide an overview of the science enabled by radio continuum surveys in the SKA era, focusing on galaxy/galaxy cluster physics and evolution studies, and other relevant continuum science in the >2020 scientific framework. We outline a number of 'reference' radio-continuum surveys for SKA1 that can address such topics, and comprehensively discuss the most critical science requirements that we have identified. We highlight what should be achieved by SKA1, to guarantee a major leap forwards with respect to the pre-SKA era, considering the science advances expected in the coming years with existing and upcoming telescopes (JVLA, LOFAR, eMERLIN, and the three SKA precursors: MWA, ASKAP and MeerKAT). In this exercise we take in due account also the other waveband facilities coming online at the same time (e.g. Euclid, LSST, etc.), which tackle overlapping scientific goals, but in a different manner. In this respect particular attention has been payed to ensure that the proposed reference surveys...

  2. Modeling the effects of dust evolution on the SEDs of galaxies of different morphological type

    CERN Document Server

    Schurer, A; Silva, L; Pipino, A; Granato, G L; Matteucci, F; Maiolino, R

    2009-01-01

    We present photometric evolution models of galaxies, in which, in addition to the stellar component, the effects of an evolving dusty interstellar medium have been included with particular care. Starting from the work of Calura, Pipino & Matteucci (2008), in which chemical evolution models have been used to study the evolution of both the gas and dust components of the interstellar medium in the solar neighbourhood, elliptical and irregular galaxies, it has been possible to combine these models with a spectrophotometric stellar code that includes dust reprocessing (GRASIL) (Silva et al. 1998) to analyse the evolution of the spectral energy distributions (SED) of these galaxies. We test our models against observed SEDs both in the local universe and at high redshift and use them to predict how the percentage of reprocessed starlight evolves for each type of galaxy. The importance of following the dust evolution is investigated by comparing our results with those obtained by adopting simple assumptions to t...

  3. Late stages of stellar evolution and their impact on spectrophotometric properties of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The connection between AGB evolution of stellar populations and infrared vs. ultraviolet properties of the parent galaxies is reviewed relying on the updated lookout provided by population-synthesis theory. In particular, planetary-nebula events and hot horizontal-branch evolution are assessed in a unitary view to outline a plain general picture of galaxy spectrophotometric evolution. This will include a brief discussion of relevant phenomena such as the "UV upturn" in ellipticals and the stellar mass loss properties along the galaxy morphological sequence.

  4. Late Stages of Stellar Evolution and their Impact on Spectrophotometric Properties of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, A.

    2007-12-01

    The connection between AGB evolution of stellar populations and infrared vs. ultraviolet properties of the parent galaxies is reviewed relying on the updated lookout provided by population-synthesis theory. In particular, planetary-nebula events and hot horizontal-branch evolution are assessed in a unitary view to outline a plain general picture of galaxy spectrophotometric evolution. This will include a brief discussion of relevant phenomena such as the ``UV upturn'' in ellipticals and the stellar mass loss properties along the galaxy morphological sequence.

  5. The Evolution of Interacting Spiral Galaxy NGC 5194

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Fenghui; Cheng, Liantao; Wang, Lang

    2015-01-01

    NGC 5194 (M51a) is a grand-design spiral galaxy and undergoing interactions with its companion. Here we focus on investigating main properties of its star-formation history (SFH) by constructing a simple evolution model, which assumes that the disc builds up gradually by cold gas infall and the gas infall rate can be parameterizedly described by a Gaussian form. By comparing model predictions with the observed data, we discuss the probable range for free parameter in the model and then know more about the main properties of the evolution and SFH of M51a. We find that the model predictions are very sensitive to the free parameter and the model adopting a constant infall-peak time $t_{\\rm p}\\,=\\,7.0{\\rm Gyr}$ can reproduce most of the observed constraints of M51a. Although our model does not assume the gas infall time-scale of the inner disc is shorter than that of the outer disc, our model predictions still show that the disc of M51a forms inside-out. We find that the mean stellar age of M51a is younger than t...

  6. The Evolution of Galaxy Clusters Across Cosmic Time

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, M; Jones, C; McNamara, B; Ohashi, T; Patnaude, D; Arnaud, K; Bautz, M; Blanchard, A; Bregman, J; Chartas, G; Croston, J; David, L; Donahue, M; Fabian, A; Finoguenov, A; Furuzawa, A; Gallagher, S; Haba, Y; Hornschemeier, A; Heinz, S; Kaastra, J; Kapferer, W; Lamer, G; Mahdavi, A; Makishima, K; Matsushita, K; Nakazawa, K; Nulsen, P; Ogle, P; Perlman, E; Ponman, T; Proga, D; Pratt, G; Randall, S; Richards, G; Romer, K; Ruszkowski, M; Schmidt, R; Smith, R; Tananbaum, H; Vrtilek, J; Worrall, D

    2009-01-01

    The large scale structure of the present Universe is determined by the growth of dark matter density fluctuations and by the dynamical action of dark energy and dark matter. While much progress has been made in recent years in constraining the cosmological parameters, and in reconstructing the evolution in the large--scale structure of the dark matter distribution, we still lack an understanding of the evolution of the baryonic component of the Universe. Located at nodes of the cosmic web, clusters of galaxies are the largest collapsed structures in the Universe with total masses up to 10$^{15}$ M$_{\\sun}$. Over 80% of their mass resides in the form of dark matter. The remaining mass is composed of baryons, most of which (about 85%) is a diffuse, hot plasma that radiates primarily in X-rays. X-ray observations of the evolving cluster population provide a unique opportunity to address such open and fundamental questions as: How do hot diffuse baryons dynamically evolve in dark matter potentials? How and when w...

  7. Clues on the Evolution of Cluster Galaxies From The Analysis of Their Orbital Anisotropies

    OpenAIRE

    Biviano, A.; Katgert, P.; Thomas, T; Mazure, A.

    2003-01-01

    We study the evolution of galaxies in clusters by the analysis of a sample of about 3000 galaxies, members of 59 clusters from the ESO Nearby Abell Cluster Survey (ENACS). We distinguish four cluster galaxy populations, based on their radial and velocity distributions within the clusters. Using the class of ellipticals and S0's (excluding the very bright ellipticals), we determine the average cluster mass profile, that we compare with mass models available from numerical simulations. We then ...

  8. Towards a Phylogenetic Analysis of Galaxy Evolution a Case Study with the Dwarf Galaxies of the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, D; Douzery, E J P; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Choler, Philippe; Douzery, Emmanuel J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Context: The Hubble tuning fork diagram has always been the preferred scheme for classification of galaxies. It is based on morphology only. At the opposite, biologists have long taken into account the genealogical relatedness of living entities for classification purposes. Aims: Assuming branching evolution of galaxies as a 'descent with modification', we show here that the concepts and tools of phylogenetic systematics widely used in biology can be heuristically transposed to the case of galaxies. Methods: This approach that we call "astrocladistics" is applied to Dwarf Galaxies of the Local Group and provides the first evolutionary tree for real galaxies. Results: The trees that we present here are sufficiently solid to support the existence of a hierarchical organization in the diversity of dwarf galaxies of the Local Group. This also shows that these galaxies all derive from a common ancestral kind of objects. We find that some kinds of dIrrs are progenitors of both dSphs and other kinds of dIrrs.We also...

  9. Galaxy distribution and evolution around a sample of 2dF groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. L. B.; Trevisan, M.; Lopes, P. A. A.; Schilling, A. C.

    2009-10-01

    Context: We study galaxy evolution and spatial patterns in the surroundings of a sample of 2dF groups. Aims: Our aim is to find evidence of galaxy evolution and clustering out to 10 times the virial radius of the groups and so redefine their properties according to the spatial patterns in the fields and relate them to galaxy evolution. Methods: Group members and interlopers were redefined after the identification of gaps in the redshift distribution. We then used exploratory spatial statistics based on the the second moment of the Ripley function to probe the anisotropy in the galaxy distribution around the groups. Results: We found an important anticorrelation between anisotropy around groups and the fraction of early-type galaxies in these fields. Our results illustrate how the dynamical state of galaxy groups can be ascertained by the systematic study of their neighborhoods. This is an important achievement, since the correct estimate of the extent to which galaxies are affected by the group environment and follow large-scale filamentary structure is relevant to understanding the process of galaxy clustering and evolution in the Universe.

  10. Modeling Dust Evolution in Galaxies with a Multiphase, Inhomogeneous ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovska, Svitlana; Dobbs, Clare; Jenkins, Edward B.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2016-11-01

    We develop a model of dust evolution in a multiphase, inhomogeneous interstellar medium (ISM) using hydrodynamical simulations of giant molecular clouds in a Milky Way-like spiral galaxy. We improve the treatment of dust growth by accretion in the ISM to investigate the role of the temperature-dependent sticking coefficient and ion-grain interactions. From detailed observational data on the gas-phase Si abundances [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}] measured in the local Galaxy, we derive a relation between the average [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}] and the local gas density n({{H}}) that we use as a critical constraint for the models. This relation requires a sticking coefficient that decreases with the gas temperature. The relation predicted by the models reproduces the slope of -0.5 for the observed relation in cold clouds, which is steeper than that for the warm medium and is explained by dust growth. We find that growth occurs in the cold medium for all adopted values of the minimum grain size a min from 1 to 5 nm. For the classical cutoff of {a}\\min =5 {nm}, the Coulomb repulsion results in slower accretion and higher [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}] than the observed values. For {a}\\min ≲ 3 {nm}, the Coulomb interactions enhance the growth rate, steepen the slope of the [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}]-n({{H}}) relation, and provide a better match to observations. The rates of dust re-formation in the ISM by far exceed the rates of dust production by stellar sources. After the initial 140 Myr, the cycle of matter in and out of dust reaches a steady state, in which the dust growth balances the destruction on a similar timescale of 350 Myr.

  11. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): maximum likelihood determination of the luminosity function and its evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Loveday, J; Baldry, I K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Driver, S P; Kelvin, L S; Phillipps, S

    2015-01-01

    We describe modifications to the joint stepwise maximum likelihood method of Cole (2011) in order to simultaneously fit the GAMA-II galaxy luminosity function (LF), corrected for radial density variations, and its evolution with redshift. The whole sample is reasonably well-fit with luminosity (Qe) and density (Pe) evolution parameters Qe, Pe = 1.0, 1.0 but with significant degeneracies characterized by Qe = 1.4 - 0.4Pe. Blue galaxies exhibit larger luminosity density evolution than red galaxies, as expected. We present the evolution-corrected r-band LF for the whole sample and for blue and red sub-samples, using both Petrosian and Sersic magnitudes. Petrosian magnitudes miss a substantial fraction of the flux of de Vaucouleurs profile galaxies: the Sersic LF is substantially higher than the Petrosian LF at the bright end.

  12. Redshift and luminosity evolution of the intrinsic alignments of galaxies in Horizon-AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Chisari, Nora Elisa; Codis, Sandrine; Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Miller, Lance; Benabed, Karim; Slyz, Adrianne; Gavazzi, Raphael; Pichon, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic galaxy shape and angular momentum alignments can arise in cosmological large-scale structure due to tidal interactions or galaxy formation processes. Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations have recently come of age as a tool to study these alignments and their contamination to weak gravitational lensing. We probe the redshift and luminosity evolution of intrinsic alignments in Horizon-AGN between $z=0$ and $z=3$ for galaxies with an $r$-band absolute magnitude of $M_r\\leq-20$. Alignments transition from being radial at low redshifts and high luminosities, dominated by the contribution of ellipticals, to being tangential at high redshift and low luminosities, where discs dominate the signal. This cannot be explained by the evolution of the fraction of ellipticals and discs alone: intrinsic evolution in the amplitude of alignments is necessary. We constrain the evolution of the alignment amplitude as a function of luminosity for elliptical galaxies alone and find it to be in good agreement with curre...

  13. It is not easy being green: the evolution of galaxy colour in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-08-01

    We examine the evolution of intrinsic u-r colours of galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which has been shown to reproduce the observed redshift z = 0.1 colour-magnitude distribution well, with a focus on z < 2. The median u-r of star-forming (`blue cloud') galaxies reddens by 1 mag from z = 2 to 0 at fixed stellar mass, as their specific star formation rates decrease with time. A red sequence starts to build-up around z = 1, due to the quenching of low-mass satellite galaxies at the faint end, and due to the quenching of more massive central galaxies by their active galactic nuclei (AGN) at the bright end. This leaves a dearth of intermediate-mass red sequence galaxies at z = 1, which is mostly filled in by z = 0. We quantify the time-scales of colour transition finding that most galaxies spend less than 2 Gyr in the `green valley'. We find the time-scale of transition to be independent of quenching mechanism, i.e. whether a galaxy is a satellite or hosting an AGN. On examining the trajectories of galaxies in a colour-stellar mass diagram, we identify three characteristic tracks that galaxies follow (quiescently star-forming, quenching and rejuvenating galaxies) and quantify the fraction of galaxies that follow each track.

  14. The Chemical Evolution of Narrow Emission Line Galaxies: the Key to their Formation Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Papaqui, J P; Ortega-Minakata, R A

    2011-01-01

    Using the largest sample of narrow emission line galaxies available so far, we show that their spectral characteristics are correlated with different physical parameters, like the chemical abundances, the morphologies, the masses of the bulge and the mean stellar age of the stellar populations of the host galaxies. It suggests that the spectral variations observed in standard spectroscopic diagnostic diagrams are not due solely to variations of ionization parameters or structures but reflect also the chemical evolution of the galaxies, which in turn can be explained by different galaxy formation processes.

  15. Frustration effects in spinel compound GeCo2O4 studied by ultrasound velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadataka; Hara, Shigeo; Ikeda, Shin-Ichi

    2009-03-01

    Ultrasound velocity measurements of the cubic spinel GeCo2O4 in the single crystal have been performed for the investigations of shear and compression moduli. The shear moduli reveal the absence of Jahn-Teller activity despite the presence of the orbital degeneracy in the Co2+ ions. This Jahn-Teller inactivity indicates that the intersite orbital-orbital interaction is much stronger than the Jahn-Teller coupling. The compression moduli reveal that the dominant path of the exchange interactions for the antiferromagnetic transition lies in the [111] direction. This exchange-path anisotropy is consistent with the antiferromagnetic structure with the wave vector q parallel [111], suggesting the presence of bond frustration among several ferromagnetic and antiferromagientic interactions. In the JT-inactive condition, the bond frustration can be induced by geometrical orbital frustration of t2g-t2g interaction between the Co2+ ions which can be realized in the pyrochlore lattice of the high spin Co2+ with t2g -orbital degeneracy. In GeCo2O4, the tetragonal elongation below TN releases the orbital frustration by quenching the orbital degeneracy.

  16. Empirical Constraints on the Evolution of the Relationship between Black Hole and Galaxy Mass: Scatter Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Rachel S.

    2009-01-01

    I investigate whether useful constraints on the evolution of the relationship between galaxy mass and black hole (BH) mass can be obtained from recent measurements of galaxy stellar mass functions and QSO bolometric luminosity functions at high redshift. I assume a simple power-law relationship between galaxy mass and BH mass, as implied by BH mass measurements at low redshift, and consider only evolution in the zero-point of the relation. I argue that one can obtain a lower limit on the zero...

  17. Evolution in Solitude - Field Galaxies from Half the Age of the Universe to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrum, Charity; Jørgensen, Inger; Oberhelman, Lindsey; Contreras, Taylor; Demarco, Ricardo; Fisher, Robert Scott; Bieker, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the stellar populations and evolutionary history of bulge-dominated (nser ≥ 1.5) field galaxies at redshifts up to z≈1 as part of the Gemini/HST Galaxy Cluster Project (GCP). High signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy from Gemini Observatory and imaging from Hubble Space Telescope is used to analyze a total of 44 field galaxies, focusing on 30 passive (EW[OII] ≤ 5Å) field galaxies. Our results indicate that the size-mass and size-velocity dispersion relations for the passive field galaxies show no significant evolution between z≈1 and the present. The passive field galaxies contain younger stellar populations than cluster galaxies at similar redshifts, with a formation redshift zform = 1.2-1.4 compared to zform = 1.8 for the cluster galaxies. We establish the Fundamental Plane and study the M/L ratios, both indicating that the formation redshift for the passive field galaxies is mass dependent. The zero point differences of the scaling relations for the M/L ratios agree with the formation redshift of zform = 1.2-1.4 found from the line indices and are consistent with the passive evolution model.

  18. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Galaxy Clusters: Scaling Relations and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Truong, N; Mazzotta, P; Planelles, S; Biffi, V; Fabjan, D; Beck, A M; Borgani, S; Dolag, K; Granato, G L; Murante, G; Ragone-Figueroa, C; Steinborn, L K

    2016-01-01

    We analyze hydrodynamical and cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters to study scaling relations between the cluster total masses and observable quantities such as gas luminosity, gas mass, temperature, and YX , i.e., the product of the last two properties. Our simulations are performed with the Smoothed-Particle-Hydrodynamic GADGET-3 code and include different physical processes. The twofold aim of our study is to compare our simulated scaling relations with observations at low (z~0) and intermediate (z~0.5) redshifts and to explore their evolution over the redshift range z=0-2. The result of the comparative study shows a good agreement between our numerical models and real data. We find that AGN feedback significantly affects low-mass haloes at the highest redshifts resulting in a reduction of the slope of the mass-gas mass relation (~13%) and the mass-YX relation (~10%) at z=2 in comparison to z=0. The drop of the slope of the mass-temperature relation at z=2 (~14%) is, instead, caused by early mergers...

  19. The Role of AGB Stars Feedback in Sustaining Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Javadi, Atefeh; Khosroshahi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared monitoring campaign at the UK InfraRed Telescope, of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. The main aim was to identify stars in the very final stage of their evolution, and for which the luminosity is more directly related to the birth mass than the more numerous less--evolved giant stars that continue to increase in luminosity. In first instance, only the central square kiloparsec were monitored and analysed, with the UIST camera. Photometry was obtained for 18,398 stars; of these 812 stars were found to be variable, most of which are asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We constructed the birth mass function and hence derived the star formation history. These stars are also important dust factories. We measure their dust production rates from a combination of our data with Spitzer Space Telescope mid-IR photometry. The mass loss rates are seen to increase with increasing strength of pulsation and with increasing bolometric luminosity. We construct a 2D map of the mass return ...

  20. Chemical evolution of giant molecular clouds in simulations of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richings, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) identified in hydrodynamic simulations of isolated, low-mass (M* ~ 10^9 M_sol) disc galaxies, with a particular focus on the evolution of molecular abundances and the implications for CO emission and the X_CO conversion factor in individual clouds. We define clouds either as regions above a density threshold n_H,min = 10 cm^-3, or using an observationally motivated velocity-integrated CO line intensity threshold of 0.25 K km s^-1. Our simulations include a non-equilibrium treatment for the chemistry of 157 species, including 20 molecules. We use a suite of runs to carefully investigate the effects of numerical resolution and pressure floors (i.e. Jeans mass limiters). We find cloud lifetimes up to ~40 Myr, with a median of 13 Myr, in agreement with observations. At ten per cent solar metallicity, young clouds (<10-15 Myr) tend to be underabundant in H2 and CO compared to chemical equilibrium, by factors of ~3 and 1-2 orders of magnitude, respectively....

  1. Modelling the chemical evolution in galaxies with KROME

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, Stefano; Capelo, Pedro R; Schleicher, Dominik R G; Banerjee, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and test chemical models for three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy evolution. The microphysics is modelled by employing the public chemistry package KROME and the chemical networks have been tested to work in a wide range of densities and temperatures. We describe a simple H/He network following the formation of H2, and a more sophisticated network which includes metals. Photochemistry, thermal processes, and different prescriptions for the H2 catalysis on dust are presented and tested within a simple one-zone framework. We explore the effect of changing some of the key parameters such as metallicity, radiation and non-equilibrium versus equilibrium metal cooling approximations on the transition between the different gas phases. We find that employing an accurate treatment of the dust-related processes induces a faster HI-H2 transition. In addition, we show when the equilibrium assumption for metal cooling holds, and how a non-equilibrium approach affects the thermal ...

  2. The Calibration and Data Products of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Morrissey, Patrick; Barlow, Tom A; Small, Todd; Seibert, Mark; Wyder, Ted K; Budavari, Tamas; Arnouts, Stephane; Friedman, Peter G; Forster, Karl; Martin, D Christopher; Neff, Susan G; Schiminovich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, Alexander S; Welsh, Barry Y; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2007-01-01

    We describe the calibration status and data products pertaining to the GR2 and GR3 data releases of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). These releases have identical pipeline calibrations that are significantly improved over the GR1 data release. GALEX continues to survey the sky in the Far Ultraviolet (FUV, ~154 nm) and Near Ultraviolet (NUV, ~232 nm) bands, providing simultaneous imaging with a pair of photon counting, microchannel plate, delay line readout detectors. These 1.25 degree field-of-view detectors are well-suited to ultraviolet observations because of their excellent red rejection and negligible background. A dithered mode of observing and photon list output pose complex requirements on the data processing pipeline, entangling detector calibrations and aspect reconstruction algorithms. Recent improvements have achieved photometric repeatability of 0.05 and 0.03 mAB in the FUV and NUV, respectively. We have detected a long term drift of order 1% FUV and 6% NUV over the mission. Astrometric pre...

  3. Sharing Gravity's Microscope: Star Formation and Galaxy Evolution for Underserved Arizonans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.; Bowman, Catherine DD; Taylor, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Learning science in a community is important for children of all levels and especially for many underserved populations. This project combines HST research of galaxy evolution using gravitationally lensed galaxies with hands-on activities and the Starlab portable planetarium to link astronomy with families, teachers, and students. To explore galaxy evolution, new activities were developed and evaluated using novel evaluation techniques. A new set of galaxy classification cards enable inquiry-based learning about galaxy ages, evolution, and gravitational lensing. Activities using new cylinder overlays for the Starlab transparent cylinder will enable the detailed examination of star formation and galaxy evolution as seen from the viewpoint inside of different types of galaxies. These activities were presented in several Arizona venues that enable family and student participation including ASU Earth and Space Open House, Arizona Museum of Natural History Homeschooling Events, on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, and inner city Phoenix schools serving mainly Hispanic populations. Additional events targeted underserved families at the Phoenix Zoo, in Navajo County, and for the Pascua Yaqui Tribe. After evaluation, the activities and materials will also be shared with local teachers and nationally.

  4. A hybrid model for the evolution of galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Zhen-Yi; Xia, Jun-Qing; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Negrello, Mattia; Gruppioni, Carlotta; Rigby, Emma; Castex, Guillaume; Delabrouille, Jacques; Danese, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] We present a comprehensive investigation of the cosmological evolution of the luminosity function (LF) of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the infrared (IR). Based on the observed dichotomy in the ages of stellar populations of early-type galaxies on one side and late-type galaxies on the other, the model interprets the epoch-dependent LFs at z \\geq 1.5 using a physical model for the evolution of proto-spheroidal galaxies and of the associated AGNs, while IR galaxies at z<1.5 are interpreted as being mostly late-type 'cold' (normal) and 'warm' (starburst) galaxies. As for proto-spheroids, in addition to the epoch-dependent LFs of stellar and AGN components separately, we have worked out the evolving LFs of these objects as a whole (stellar plus AGN component). The model provides a physical explanation for the observed positive evolution of both galaxies and AGNs up to z \\simeq 2.5 and for the negative evolution at higher redshifts, for the sharp transition from Euclidean to extremely...

  5. Tracing the evolution of massive galaxies up to z \\sim 3

    CERN Document Server

    Longhetti, M; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Nonino, M; Saracco, P; Vanzella, E

    2003-01-01

    A census of massive galaxies at redshift increasingly higher than $z\\sim$1 may provide strong constraints on the history of mass assembly and of star formation. Here we report on the analysis of three galaxies selected in the Hubble Deep Field South on the basis of their unusually red near-IR color J-K$\\ge$3. These objects result to be massive (M$_{star}\\sim 10^{11}$M$_{\\odot}$) galaxies at redshift 2.5$5) at 1$$4) on the basis of which we identified 4 massive evolved galaxies at 1.5$evolution scenario in which three massive galaxies at different redshift are apparently those we expect from a massive galaxy fully assembled at z$\\sim$3 which evolves passively in time down to $z=0$.

  6. The role of tidal interactions in driving galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, J; Lambas, D G; Scannapieco, C; Perez, Josefa; Tissera, Patricia B.; Lambas, Diego G.; Scannapieco, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    We carry out a statistical analysis of galaxy pairs selected from chemical hydrodynamical simulations with the aim at assessing the capability of hierarchical scenarios to reproduce recent observational results for galaxies in pairs. Particularly, we analyse the effects of mergers and interactions on the star formation (SF) activity, the global mean chemical properties and the colour distribution of interacting galaxies. We also assess the effects of spurious pairs.

  7. Galaxy Evolution Insights from Spectral Modeling of Large Data Sets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoversten, Erik A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-10-01

    This thesis centers on the use of spectral modeling techniques on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to gain new insights into current questions in galaxy evolution. The SDSS provides a large, uniform, high quality data set which can be exploited in a number of ways. One avenue pursued here is to use the large sample size to measure precisely the mean properties of galaxies of increasingly narrow parameter ranges. The other route taken is to look for rare objects which open up for exploration new areas in galaxy parameter space. The crux of this thesis is revisiting the classical Kennicutt method for inferring the stellar initial mass function (IMF) from the integrated light properties of galaxies. A large data set (~ 105 galaxies) from the SDSS DR4 is combined with more in-depth modeling and quantitative statistical analysis to search for systematic IMF variations as a function of galaxy luminosity. Galaxy Hα equivalent widths are compared to a broadband color index to constrain the IMF. It is found that for the sample as a whole the best fitting IMF power law slope above 0.5 M is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 with the error dominated by systematics. Galaxies brighter than around Mr,0.1 = -20 (including galaxies like the Milky Way which has Mr,0.1 ~ -21) are well fit by a universal Γ ~ 1.4 IMF, similar to the classical Salpeter slope, and smooth, exponential star formation histories (SFH). Fainter galaxies prefer steeper IMFs and the quality of the fits reveal that for these galaxies a universal IMF with smooth SFHs is actually a poor assumption. Related projects are also pursued. A targeted photometric search is conducted for strongly lensed Lyman break galaxies (LBG) similar to MS1512-cB58. The evolution of the photometric selection technique is described as are the results of spectroscopic follow-up of the best targets. The serendipitous discovery of two interesting blue compact dwarf galaxies is reported. These

  8. The Co-Evolution of Galaxies and Black Holes: Current Status and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, T M

    2008-01-01

    I begin by summarizing the evidence that there is a close relationship between the evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. They evidently share a common fuel source, and feedback from the black hole may be needed to suppress over-cooling in massive galaxies. I then review what we know about the co-evolution of galaxies and black holes in the modern universe (z 2) the most massive black holes and the progenitors of the most massive galaxies are forming. Here, we currently have a tantalizing but fragmented view of their co-evolution. In the next decade the huge increase in sensitivity and discovery power of our observatories will enable us to analyze the large, complete samples we need to achieve robust and clear results.

  9. The Bluedisk Survey: molecular gas distribution and scaling relations in the context of galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cormier, D; Wang, J; Pety, J; Usero, A; Roychowdhury, S; Carton, D; van der Hulst, J M; Jozsa, G I G; Garcia, M Gonzales; Saintonge, A

    2016-01-01

    One of the key goals of the Bluedisk survey is to characterize the impact of gas accretion in disc galaxies in the context of galaxy evolution. It contains 50 disc galaxies in the stellar mass range 10^10-10^11 Msun, of which half are bluer and more HI-rich galaxies than their HI-normal (control) counterparts. In this paper, we investigate how ongoing disc growth affects the molecular gas distribution and the star-formation efficiency in these galaxies. We present 12CO observations from the IRAM 30-m telescope in 26 galaxies of the Bluedisk survey. We compare the amount and spatial distribution of the molecular gas to key quantities such as atomic gas, stellar mass and surface density, star-formation rate and metallicity. We analyse the star-formation rate per unit gas (SFR/HI and SFR/H2) and relate all those parameters to general galaxy properties (HI-rich/control disc, morphology, etc.). We find that the HI-rich galaxies have similar H2 masses as the control galaxies. In their centres, HI-rich galaxies have...

  10. The Evolution of Post-Starburst Galaxies from z~1 to the Present

    CERN Document Server

    Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Ho, Shirley; Ross, Nicholas P

    2014-01-01

    Post-starburst galaxies are in the transitional stage between blue, star-forming galaxies and red, quiescent galaxies, and therefore hold important clues for our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this paper, we systematically searched for and identified a large sample of post-starburst galaxies from the spectroscopic dataset of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9. In total, we found more than 6000 objects with redshifts between z ~ 0.05 to z ~ 1.3, making this the largest sample of post-starburst galaxies in the literature. We calculated the luminosity function of the post-starburst galaxies using two uniformly selected subsamples: the SDSS Main Galaxy Sample and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS sample. The luminosity functions are roughly log-normal. The peak magnitudes shift as a function of redshift from M ~ -23.5 at z ~ 0.8 to M ~ -20.5 at z ~ 0.1. This is consistent with the downsizing trend, whereby higher mass galaxies form earlier than low-mass galaxies. We compared...

  11. Cosmic evolution of star formation properties of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungeun

    2014-01-01

    Development of bolometer array and camera at submillimeter wavelength has played an important role in detecting submillimeter bright galaxies, so called submillimeter galaxies. These galaxies seem to be progenitors of present-day massive galaxies and account for their considerable contributions to the light from the early universe and their expected high star formation rates if there is a close link between the submillimeter galaxies and the star formation activities, and the interstellar dust in galaxies is mainly heated by the star light. We review assembly of submillimeter galaxies chosen from the AzTEC and the Herschel SPIRE/PACS data archives, and investigate their spectral energy distribution fits including the data at other wavelengths to deduce details about stellar parameters including star formation rates and parameters yielding the metallicity, composition and abundance in dust, and disc structure of these galaxies. This work has been supported in part by Mid-career Researcher Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology 2011-0028001.

  12. Observational Evidence of Secular Evolution in Barred Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, I.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Zurita, A.; Funes, JG; Corsini, EM

    2008-01-01

    We report preliminary results of the derived stellar population metallicities and ages along the bars of a sample of 20 barred galaxies. We find that some galaxies show a positive radial bar metallicity gradient, implying that there has been a chemical enrichment and so that the star formation has l

  13. Galaxy Evolution in the Environment of ABCG 209

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, C P; Merluzzi, P; La Barbera, F; Massarotti, M; Busarello, G; Girardi, M

    2004-01-01

    We examine the environmental effects on the photometric properties of galaxies for the rich galaxy cluster ABCG 209 at z=0.209. We use archive CFHT optical imaging of a 42'x28' field centred on the cluster to produce a galaxy sample complete to B=25.0 and R=24.5. Both the composite and red sequence galaxy luminosity functions are found to be dependent on the local galaxy surface density, their faint-end slopes becoming shallower with increasing density. We explain this as a combination of the morphology-density relation, and dwarf galaxies being cannibalised and/or disrupted by the cD galaxy and the ICM in the cluster core. The B-R colour of the red sequence itself appears 0.02mag redder for the highest-density regions, indicative of their stellar populations being marginally (<5%) older or (<20%) more metal-rich. This may be due to the galaxies themselves forming earliest in the rarest overdensities marked by rich clusters, or their star-formation being suppressed earliest by the ICM.

  14. Can AGN feedback-driven star formation explain the size evolution of massive galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, W; Canning, R E A

    2013-01-01

    Observations indicate that massive galaxies at z~2 are more compact than galaxies of comparable mass at z~0, with effective radii evolving by a factor of ~3-5. This implies that galaxies grow significantly in size but relatively little in mass over the past ~10 Gyr. Two main physical models have been proposed in order to explain the observed evolution of massive galaxies: "mergers" and "puffing-up" scenarios. Here we introduce another possibility, and discuss the potential role of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback on the evolution of its host galaxy. We consider triggering of star formation, due to AGN feedback, with radiation pressure on dusty gas as the driving feedback mechanism. In this picture, stars are formed in the feedback-driven outflow at increasingly larger radii and build up the outer regions of the host galaxy. The resulting increase in size and stellar mass can be compared with the observed growth of massive galaxies. Star formation in the host galaxy is likely obscured due to ...

  15. The galaxy stellar mass function and its evolution with time show no dependence on global environment

    CERN Document Server

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Oemler, August; Dressler, Alan; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; De Lucia, Gabriella; Gladders, Mike; Abramson, Louis; Halliday, Claire

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the galaxy stellar mass function in different environments at intermediate redshift (0.3 10^{10.5} M_sun, to study cluster, group, and field galaxies at z=0.3-0.45, and the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS), at masses M_ast > 10^{10.2} M_sun, to investigate cluster and group galaxies at z=0.4-0.8. Therefore, in our analysis we include galaxies that are slightly less massive than the Milky Way. Having excluded the brightest cluster galaxies, we show that the mass distribution does not seem to depend on global environment. Our two main results are: (1) Galaxies in the virialized regions of clusters and in the field follow a similar mass distribution. (2) Comparing both ICBS and EDisCS mass functions to mass functions in the local Universe, we find evolution from z~0.4-0.6 to z~0.07. The population of low-mass galaxies has proportionally grown with time with respect to that of massive galaxies. This evolution is independent of environment -- the same for clusters and the field. Furth...

  16. The Evolution of Galaxy Number Density at z < 8 and its Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Conselice, Christopher J; Duncan, Kenneth; Mortlock, Alice

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the number density of galaxies in the universe, and thus also the total number of galaxies, is a fundamental question with implications for a host of astrophysical problems including galaxy evolution and cosmology. However there has never been a detailed study of this important measurement, nor a clear path to answer it. To address this we use observed galaxy stellar mass functions up to $z\\sim8$ to determine how the number densities of galaxies changes as a function of time and mass limit. We show that the increase in the total number density of galaxies ($\\phi_{\\rm T}$), more massive than M$_{*} = 10^{6}$ M_0, decreases as $\\phi_{\\rm T} \\sim t^{-1}$, where $t$ is the age of the universe. We further show that this evolution turns-over and rather increases with time at higher mass lower limits of M$_{*}>10^{7}$ M_0. By using the M$_{*}=10^{6}$ M_0 lower limit we further show that the total number of galaxies in the universe up to $z = 10$ is $2.0^{+0.7}_{-0.6} \\times 10^{12}$ (two trillion), ...

  17. Do group dynamics play a role in the evolution of member galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Annie; Balogh, Michael L; McGee, Sean L; Wilman, David J; Connelly, Jennifer L; Harris, William E; Mok, Angus; Mulchaey, John S; Bower, Richard G; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    We examine galaxy groups from the present epoch to z = 1 to explore the impact of group dynamics on galaxy evolution. We use group catalagues from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC) and the high redshift GEEC2 sample to study how the observed member properties depend on galaxy stellar mass, group dynamical mass and dynamical state of the host group. We find a strong correlation between the fraction of non-star-forming (quiescent) galaxies and galaxy stellar mass, but do not detect a significant difference in the quiescent fraction with group dynamical mass, within our sample halo mass range of 10^13-10^14.5 M_sun, or with dynamical sate. However, at a redshift of approximately 0.4 we do see some evidence that the quiescent fraction in low mass galaxies (log(M_star/M_sun) 10.5), evolution is most strongly correlated to the stellar mass of a galaxy with little or no additional effect related to either the group dynamical mass or dynamical state. For lo...

  18. Introducing the Illustris project: the evolution of galaxy populations across cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Springel, Volker; Sijacki, Debora; Nelson, Dylan; Snyder, Greg; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Torrey, Paul; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-11-01

    We present an overview of galaxy evolution across cosmic time in the Illustris simulation. Illustris is an N-body/hydrodynamical simulation that evolves 2 × 18203 resolution elements in a (106.5 Mpc)3 box from cosmological initial conditions down to z = 0 using the AREPO moving-mesh code. The simulation uses a state-of-the-art set of physical models for galaxy formation that was tuned to reproduce the z = 0 stellar mass function and the history of the cosmic star formation rate density. We find that Illustris successfully reproduces a plethora of observations of galaxy populations at various redshifts, for which no tuning was performed, and provide predictions for future observations. In particular, we discuss (a) the buildup of galactic mass, showing stellar mass functions and the relations between stellar mass and halo mass from z = 7 to 0, (b) galaxy number density profiles around massive central galaxies out to z = 4, (c) the gas and total baryon content of both galaxies and their haloes for different redshifts, and as a function of mass and radius, and (d) the evolution of galaxy specific star formation rates up to z = 8. In addition, we (i) present a qualitative analysis of galaxy morphologies from z = 5 to 0, for the stellar as well as the gaseous components, and their appearance in Hubble Space Telescope mock observations, (ii) follow galaxies selected at z = 2 to their z = 0 descendants, and quantify their growth and merger histories, and (iii) track massive z = 0 galaxies to high redshift and study their joint evolution in star formation activity and compactness. We conclude with a discussion of several disagreements with observations, and lay out possible directions for future research.

  19. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

  20. Chemodynamic evolution of dwarf galaxies in tidal fields

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, David; Romeo, Alessandro B

    2016-01-01

    The mass-metallicity relation shows that the galaxies with the lowest mass have the lowest metallicities. As most dwarf galaxies are in group environments, interaction effects such as tides could contribute to this trend. We perform a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of dwarf galaxies in external tidal fields to examine the effects of tides on their metallicities and metallicity gradients. In our simulated galaxies, gravitational instabilities drive gas inwards and produce centralized star formation and a significant metallicity gradient. Strong tides can contribute to these instabilities, but their primary effect is to strip the outer low-metallicity gas, producing a truncated gas disk with a large metallicity. This suggests that the role of tides on the mass-metallicity relation is to move dwarf galaxies to higher metallicities.

  1. The evolution of galaxy star formation activity in massive halos

    CERN Document Server

    Popesso, P; Finoguenov,; Wilman, D; Salvato, M; Magnelli, B; Gruppioni, C; Pozzi, F; Rodighiero, G; Ziparo, F; Berta, S; Elbaz, D; Dickinson, M; Lutz, D; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Cimatti, A; Fadda, D; Ilbert, O; Floch, E Le; Nordon, R; Poglitsch, A; Xu, C K

    2014-01-01

    There is now a large consensus that the current epoch of the Cosmic Star Formation History (CSFH) is dominated by low mass galaxies while the most active phase at 1~1, the most IR-luminous galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) are preferentially located in groups, and this is consistent with a reversal of the star-formation rate vs .density anti-correlation observed in the nearby Universe. At these redshifts, group galaxies contribute 60-80% of the CSFH, i.e. much more than at lower redshifts. Below z~1, the comoving number and SFR densities of IR-emitting galaxies in groups decline significantly faster than those of all IR-emitting galaxies. Our results are consistent with a "halo downsizing" scenario and highlight the significant role of "environment" quenching in shaping the CSFH.

  2. The evolution of the stellar populations in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoek, LB; de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM; de Jong, T

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the star formation history and chemical evolution of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies by modelling their observed spectro-photometric and chemical properties using a galactic chemical and photometric evolution model incorporating a detailed metallicity dependent set of stell

  3. The evolution of the stellar populations in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; Hulst, J. M. van der; Jong, T. de

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: We investigate the star formation history and chemical evolution of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies by modelling their observed spectro-photometric and chemical properties using a galactic chemical and photometric evolution model incorporating a detailed metallicity depen dent s

  4. Chemical evolution of giant molecular clouds in simulations of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richings, Alexander J.; Schaye, Joop

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within hydrodynamic simulations of isolated, low-mass (M* ˜ 109 M⊙) disc galaxies. We study the evolution of molecular abundances and the implications for CO emission and the XCO conversion factor in individual clouds. We define clouds either as regions above a density threshold n_{H, min} = 10 {cm}^{-3}, or using an observationally motivated CO intensity threshold of 0.25 {K} {km} {s}^{-1}. Our simulations include a non-equilibrium chemical model with 157 species, including 20 molecules. We also investigate the effects of resolution and pressure floors (i.e. Jeans limiters). We find cloud lifetimes up to ≈ 40 Myr, with a median of 13 Myr, in agreement with observations. At one-tenth solar metallicity, young clouds ( ≲ 10-15 Myr) are underabundant in H2 and CO compared to chemical equilibrium, by factors of ≈3 and one to two orders of magnitude, respectively. At solar metallicity, GMCs reach chemical equilibrium faster (within ≈ 1 Myr). We also compute CO emission from individual clouds. The mean CO intensity, ICO, is strongly suppressed at low dust extinction, Av, and possibly saturates towards high Av, in agreement with observations. The ICO-Av relation shifts towards higher Av for higher metallicities and, to a lesser extent, for stronger UV radiation. At one-tenth solar metallicity, CO emission is weaker in young clouds ( ≲ 10-15 Myr), consistent with the underabundance of CO. Consequently, XCO decreases by an order of magnitude from 0 to 15 Myr, albeit with a large scatter.

  5. Dynamical evolution of topology of large-scale structure. [in distribution of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III

    1991-01-01

    The nonlinear effects of statistical biasing and gravitational evolution on the genus are studied. The biased galaxy subset is picked for the first time by actually identifying galaxy-sized peaks above a fixed threshold in the initial conditions, and their subsequent evolution is followed. It is found that in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model the statistical biasing in the locations of galaxies produces asymmetry in the genus curve and coupling with gravitational evolution gives rise to a shift in the genus curve to the left in moderately nonlinear regimes. Gravitational evolution alone reduces the amplitude of the genus curve due to strong phase correlations in the density field and also produces asymmetry in the curve. Results on the genus of the mass density field for both CDM and hot dark matter models are consistent with previous work by Melott, Weinberg, and Gott (1987).

  6. Size Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies and Massive Compact Objects as the Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Totani, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic size evolution of early-type galaxies from z ~ 2 to 0 poses a new challenge in the theory of galaxy formation, which may not be explained by the standard picture. It is shown here that the size evolution can be explained if the non-baryonic cold dark matter is composed of compact objects having a mass scale of ~10^5 M_sun. This form of dark matter is consistent with or only weakly constrained by the currently available observations. The kinetic energy of the dark compact objects is transferred to stars by dynamical friction, and stars around the effective radius are pushed out to larger radii, resulting in a pure size evolution. This scenario has several good properties to explain the observations, including the ubiquitous nature of size evolution and faster disappearance of higher density galaxies.

  7. Evolution of the atomic and molecular gas content of galaxies in dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Popping, G; Peeples, M S

    2014-01-01

    We present a semi-empirical model to infer the atomic and molecular hydrogen content of galaxies as a function of halo mass and time. Our model combines the SFR-halo mass-redshift relation (constrained by galaxy abundances) with inverted SFR-surface density relations to infer galaxy H I and H2 masses. We present gas scaling relations, gas fractions, and mass functions from z = 0 to z = 3 and the gas properties of galaxies as a function of their host halo masses. Predictions of our work include: 1) there is a ~ 0.2 dex decrease in the H I mass of galaxies as a function of their stellar mass since z = 1.5, whereas the H2 mass of galaxies decreases by > 1 dex over the same period. 2) galaxy cold gas fractions and H2 fractions decrease with increasing stellar mass and time. Galaxies with M* > 10^10 Msun are dominated by their stellar content at z < 1, whereas less-massive galaxies only reach these gas fractions at z = 0. We find the strongest evolution in relative gas content at z < 1.5. 3) the SFR to gas m...

  8. Timing the evolution of quiescent and star-forming local galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pacifici, Camilla; Oh, Kyuseok; Lee, Jaehyun; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the star formation histories (SFHs) of individual galaxies is crucial to understanding the mechanisms that regulate their evolution. Here, we combine multi-wavelength (ultraviolet, optical, and infrared) measurements of a very large sample of galaxies (~230,000) at z<0.16, with physically motivated models of galaxy spectral energy distributions to extract constraints on galaxy physical parameters (such as stellar mass and star formation rate) as well as individual SFHs. In particular, we set constraints on the timescales in which galaxies form a certain percentage of their total stellar mass (namely, 10, 50 and 90%). The large statistics allows us to average such measurements over different populations of galaxies (quiescent and star-forming) and in narrow ranges of stellar mass. As in the downsizing scenario, we confirm that low-mass galaxies have more extended SFHs than high-mass galaxies. We also find that at the same observed stellar mass, galaxies that are now quiescent evolve more rapidl...

  9. Galaxy evolution in nearby galaxy groups. III. A GALEX view of NGC 5846, the largest group in the local universe

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Antonietta; Rampazzo, Roberto; Bianchi, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We explore the co-evolution of galaxies in nearby groups (V < 3000 km/s) with a multi-wavelength approach. We analyze GALEX far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) imaging and SDSS u,g,r,i,z data of groups spanning a large range of dynamical phases. We characterize the photometric properties of spectroscopically-confirmed galaxy members and investigate the global properties of the groups through a dynamical analysis. Here we focus on NGC 5846, the third most massive association of Early-Type Galaxies (ETG) after the Virgo and Fornax clusters. The group, composed of 90 members, is dominated by ETGs (about 80 per cent), and among ETGs about 40\\% are dwarfs. Results are compared with those obtained for three groups in the LeoII cloud, which are radically different both in member-galaxy population and dynamical properties. The FUV-NUV cumulative colour distribution and the normalized UV luminosity function (LF) significantly differ due to the different fraction of late-type galaxy population. The UV LF of NGC 5846 rese...

  10. Absorption Line Analysis to Interprete and Constrain Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Evolution with Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    The mammoth challenge for contemporary studies of galaxy formation and evolution are to establish detailed models in the cosmological context in which both the few parsec scale physics within galaxies are self-consistently unified and made consistent with the observed universe of galaxies. They key diagnostics reside with the gas physics, which dictate virtually every aspect of galaxy formation and evolution. The small scale physics includes stellar feedback, gas cooling, heating, and advection and the multiphase interstellar medium; the large scale physics includes intergalactic accretion, local merging, effects of supernovae driven winds, and the development of extended metal-enriched gas halos.Absorption line data have historically proven to be {and shall in the future} virtually the most powerful tool for understanding gas physics on all spatial scales over the majority of the age of the universe- the key to success. Simply stated, absorption lines are one of astronomy's most powerful observational windows on the universe {galaxy formation, galaxy winds, IGM metal enrichment, etc.}. The high quality and vast numbers of absorption line data {obtained with HST and FUSE} probe a broad range of gas structures {ISM, HVCs, halos, IGM} over the full cosmic span when galaxies are actively evolving.We propose to use LCDM hydrodynamic cosmological simulations employing a Eulerian Gasdynamics plus N-body Adaptive Refinement Tree {ART} code to develop and refine our understanding of stellar feedback physics and its role in governing the gas physics that regulates the evolution of galaxies and the IGM. We aim to substantially progress our understanding of all possible gas phases embedded within and extending far from galaxies. Our methodology is to apply a series of quantitative observational constraints from absorption line systems to better understand extended galaxy halos and the influence of the cosmological environment of the simulated galaxies: {1} galaxy halos

  11. Galaxy evolution. Isolated compact elliptical galaxies: stellar systems that ran away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan

    2015-04-24

    Compact elliptical galaxies form a rare class of stellar system (~30 presently known) characterized by high stellar densities and small sizes and often harboring metal-rich stars. They were thought to form through tidal stripping of massive progenitors, until two isolated objects were discovered where massive galaxies performing the stripping could not be identified. By mining astronomical survey data, we have now found 195 compact elliptical galaxies in all types of environment. They all share similar dynamical and stellar population properties. Dynamical analysis for nonisolated galaxies demonstrates the feasibility of their ejection from host clusters and groups by three-body encounters, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. Hence, isolated compact elliptical and isolated quiescent dwarf galaxies are tidally stripped systems that ran away from their hosts.

  12. The Evolution of Post-starburst Galaxies from z ~ 1 to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Strauss, Michael A.; Ho, Shirley; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2016-12-01

    Post-starburst galaxies are in the transitional stage between blue, star-forming galaxies and red, quiescent galaxies and therefore hold important clues for our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this paper, we systematically searched for and identified a large sample of post-starburst galaxies from the spectroscopic data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9. In total, we found more than 6000 objects with redshifts between z ˜ 0.05 and z ˜ 1.3, making this the largest sample of post-starburst galaxies in the literature. We calculated the luminosity function of the post-starburst galaxies using two uniformly selected subsamples: the SDSS main galaxy sample and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS sample. The luminosity functions are reasonably fit by half-Gaussian functions. The peak magnitudes shift as a function of redshift from M ˜ -23.5 at z ˜ 0.8 to M ˜ -20.3 at z ˜ 0.1. This is consistent with the downsizing trend, whereby more massive galaxies form earlier than low-mass galaxies. We compared the mass of the post-starburst stellar population found in our sample to the decline of the global star formation rate and found that only a small amount (˜1%) of all star formation quenching in the redshift range z = 0.2-0.7 results in post-starburst galaxies in the luminosity range our sample is sensitive to. Therefore, luminous post-starburst galaxies are not the place where most of the decline in the star formation rate of the universe is happening.

  13. Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE): Science Rationale, Optical Design, and Telescope Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Purves, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    One of the key goals of NASA’s astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spiral, elliptical, and irregular galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to help address this question by making a large ultraviolet spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z approximately 1 (look-back time of approximately 8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-m space telescope with an near-ultraviolet (NUV) multi-object slit spectrograph covering the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 micrometers (0.1-0.2 micrometers as emitted by galaxies at a redshift, z approximately 1) at a spectral resolution of delta lambda=6 A.

  14. An Analytic Model for the Evolution of the Stellar, Gas, and Metal Content of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2011-01-01

    We present an analytic formalism that describes the evolution of the stellar, gas, and metal content of galaxies. It is based on the idea, inspired by hydrodynamic simulations, that galaxies live in a slowly-evolving equilibrium between inflow, outflow, and star formation. We argue that this formalism broadly captures the behavior of galaxy properties evolving in simulations. The resulting equilibrium equations for the star formation rate, gas fraction, and metallicity depend on three key free parameters that represent ejective feedback, preventive feedback, and re-accretion of ejected material. We schematically describe how these parameters are constrained by models and observations. Galaxies perturbed off the equilibrium relations owing to inflow stochasticity tend to be driven back towards equilibrium, such that deviations in star formation rate at a given mass are correlated with gas fraction and anti-correlated with metallicity. After an early gas accumulation epoch, quiescently star-forming galaxies are...

  15. Star formation and turbulent dissipation in models of disk galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Avila-Reese, V; Vázquez-Semadeni, E

    2003-01-01

    The kinetic energy dissipation rate in the turbulent ISM of disk galaxies is a key ingredient in galaxy evolution models since it determines the effectiveness of large-scale star formation (SF) feedback. Using magneto-hydro-dynamic simulations, we find that the ISM dissipates efficiently the turbulent kinetic energy injected by sources of stellar nature. Thus, the SF process may be self-regulated by an energy balance only at the level of the disk ISM. The use of the self-regulation SF mechanism in galaxy evolutionary models, where disks form inside growing Cold Dark Matter halos, allows to predict the SF history of disk galaxies, including the Milky Way and the solar neighborhood, as well as the contribution of the whole population of disk galaxies to the cosmic SF history. The results are encouraging.

  16. Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE): Science Rationale, Optical Design, and Telescope Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Purves, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    One of the key goals of NASA’s astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spiral, elliptical, and irregular galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to help address this question by making a large ultraviolet spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z approximately 1 (look-back time of approximately 8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-m space telescope with an near-ultraviolet (NUV) multi-object slit spectrograph covering the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 micrometers (0.1-0.2 micrometers as emitted by galaxies at a redshift, z approximately 1) at a spectral resolution of delta lambda=6 A.

  17. The role of major mergers in (obscured) black hole growth and galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, E.; Privon, G.; Ricci, C.; Bauer, F.; Schawinski, K.; MODA Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    A clear picture is emerging in which rapid supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth episodes (luminous AGN) are directly linked to major galaxy mergers. Here, we present the first results from our MODA program aimed to obtain optical and near-IR Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectroscopy and mm/sub-mm ALMA maps for a sample of confirmed nearby dual AGN (separation 10 kpc), including the archetypical galaxy NGC6240. Specifically, we will focus here on Mrk 463, a very rich system of two galaxies separated by 3.8 kpc hosting two SMBH growing simultaneously. Clear evidence for complex morphologies and kinematics, outflows and feedback effects can be seen in this system, evidencing the deep connection between major galaxy mergers, SMBH growth and galaxy evolution.

  18. The ESO Distant Cluster Sample: galaxy evolution and environment out to z=1

    CERN Document Server

    Poggianti, Bianca M; Bamford, Steven; Barazza, Fabio; Best, Philip; Clowe, Douglas; Dalcanton, Julianne; De Lucia, Gabriella; Desai, Vandana; Finn, Rose; Halliday, Claire; Jablonka, Pascale; Johnson, Olivia; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Moustakas, John; Noll, Stefan; Nowak, Nina; Pello, Roser; Poirier, Sebastien; Rudnick, Gregory; Saglia, Roberto; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Simard, Luc; Varela, Jesus; von der Linden, Anja; Whiley, Ian; White, Simon D M; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    The ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS, P.I. Simon D.M. White, LP 166.A-0162) is an ESO large programme aimed at studying clusters and cluster galaxies at z=0.4-1. How different is the evolution of the star formation activity in clusters, in groups and in the field? Does it depend on cluster mass and/or the local galaxy density? How relevant are starburst and post-starburst galaxies in the different environments? Is there an evolution in the galaxies' structures, and if so, is this related to the changes in their star formation activity? These are some of the main questions that have been investigated using the EDisCS dataset.

  19. Ultrasound measurements in the spinel compound GeCo2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasame, H.; Yoshimoto, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Takase, K.; Takano, Y.; Hara, S.; Ikeda, Si

    2007-12-01

    Elastic properties of the spinel compound GeCo2O4 were investigated by the ultrasound velocity measurements in the single crystal. Absence of the elastic softening in (C11- C12)/2 in the paramagnetic state suggests the Jahn-Teller inactive character of Co2+, despite the presence of the orbital degree of freedom. The pronounced C44 anomaly in the paramagnetic state near TN alternatively suggests that the ultrasound dominantly couple to the exchange interactions among Co2+ ions by the exchange striction effect. The present results conclude that Co2+ adopts the high spin state in this substance. In the antiferromagnetic phase, new elastic anomalies were observed only in (C11- C12)/2 implying the occurrence of the magnetic transitions triggered by the exchange interactions within the Co2+ bonds along [110] directions.

  20. The dominant role of mergers in the size evolution of massive early-type galaxies since z similar to 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Sanjuan, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Ilbert, O.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Bridge, C.; Cucciati, O.; Kampczyk, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Xu, C.K.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P; Lilly, S. J.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Sanders, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Taniguchi, Y.; Zamorani, G.; Aussel, H.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J. -F; Le Brun, V.; Le Floc'h, E.; Maier, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Mignoli, M.; Pelló, R.; Peng, Y.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Presotto, V.; Ricciardelli, E.; Salvato, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Barnes, L.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Coppa, G.; Koekemoer, A.; Liu, C.T.; Moresco, M.; Nair, P.; Oesch, P.; Schawinski, K.; Welikala, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. The role of galaxy mergers in massive galaxy evolution, and in particular to mass assembly and size growth, remains an open question. In this paper we measure the merger fraction and rate, both minor and major, of massive early-type galaxies (M-star >= 10(11) M-circle dot) in the COSMOS field,

  1. Size evolution of star-forming galaxies with 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Lemaux, B. C.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Maccagni, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorín, R.; Bardelli, S.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Tresse, L.; Dunlop, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The size of a galaxy encapsulates the signature of the different physical processes driving its evolution. The distribution of galaxy sizes in the Universe as a function of cosmic time is therefore a key to understand galaxy evolution. Aims: We aim to measure the average sizes and size distributions of galaxies as they are assembling before the peak in the comoving star formation rate density of the Universe to better understand the evolution of galaxies across cosmic time. Methods: We used a sample of ~1200 galaxies in the COSMOS and ECDFS fields with confirmed spectroscopic redshifts 2 ≤ zspec ≤ 4.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS), representative of star-forming galaxies with iAB ≤ 25. We first derived galaxy sizes by applying a classical parametric profile-fitting method using GALFIT. We then measured the total pixel area covered by a galaxy above a given surface brightness threshold, which overcomes the difficulty of measuring sizes of galaxies with irregular shapes. We then compared the results obtained for the equivalent circularized radius enclosing 100% of the measured galaxy light r100T ~2.2 to those obtained with the effective radius re,circ measured with GALFIT. Results: We find that the sizes of galaxies computed with our non-parametric approach span a wide range but remain roughly constant on average with a median value r100T ~2.2 kpc for galaxies with 2 Program 185.A-0791.

  2. The evolution of emission lines in HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Stasinska, G; Leitherer, C; Stasinska, Grazyna; Schaerer, Daniel; Leitherer, Claus

    2001-01-01

    We constructed diagnostic diagrams using emission line ratios and equivalent widths observed in several samples of HII galaxies. The diagrams are compared to predictions from new photoionization models for evolving starbursts. We find that HII galaxies from objective-prism surveys are not reproduced by models of instantaneous starbursts surrounded by constant density, ionization bounded HII regions. The observed relations between emission line ratios and Hb equivalent width (W(Hb)) can be understood if older stellar populations are not negligible in HII galaxies. Also, different dust obscuration for stars and gas and leakage of Lyman continuum photons from the observed HII regions can be important. As a result, HII galaxies selected from objective-prism surveys are unlikely to contain many objects in which the most recent starburst is older than about 5~Myr. The observed increase of [OI]/Hb with decreasing W(Hb) can result from the dynamical effects of winds and supernovae. This interpretation provides also a...

  3. The redshift evolution of early-type galaxies in COSMOS: Do massive early-type galaxies form by dry mergers?

    CERN Document Server

    Scarlata, C; Lilly, S J; Feldmann, R; Kampczyk, P; Renzini, A; Cimatti, A; Halliday, C; Daddi, E; Sargent, M T; Koekemoer, A; Scoville, N; Kneib, J P; Leauthaud, A; Massey, R; Rhodes, J; Tasca, L; McCracken, H J; Mobasher, B; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D; Ajiki, M; Aussel, H; Murayama, T; Sanders, D B; Sasaki, S; Shioya, Y; Takahashi, M

    2007-01-01

    ABRIDGED: We study the evolution since z~1 of the rest-frame B luminosity function of the early-type galaxies (ETGs) in ~0.7 deg^2 in the COSMOS field. In order to identify ALL progenitors of local ETGs we construct the sample of high-z galaxies using two complementary criteria: (i) A morphological selection based on the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types, and (ii) A photometric selection based on the galaxy properties in the (U-V)-M_V color-magnitude diagram. We furthermore constrain both samples so as to ensure that the selected progenitors of ETGs are compatible with evolving into systems which obey the mu_B-r_{hl} Kormendy relation. Assuming the luminosity evolution derived from studies of the fundamental plane for high-z ETGs, our analysis shows no evidence for a decrease in the number density of the most massive ETGs out to z~ 0.7: Both the morphologically- and the photometrically-selected sub-samples show no evolution in the number density of bright (~L>2.5L*) ETGs. Allowing for different star format...

  4. The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies Perspectives on the Origin of the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S

    1998-01-01

    I review recent observational progress concerning the evolution of the morphological distribution of galaxies in the rich cluster environment and in the faint field population. By coupling HST imagery with ground-based spectroscopic diagnostics, evidence accumulates that galaxy morphology can be a transient phenomenon reflecting various changes in the star formation rate. Possible physical processes responsible for these changes are discussed. Future progress in understanding them will depend on securing 2-D spectroscopic data for representative systems.

  5. Massive relic galaxies challenge the co-evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Trujillo, Ignacio; Balcells, Marc; Bosch, Remco C E van den

    2015-01-01

    We study a sample of eight massive galaxies that are extreme outliers (3-5$\\sigma$) in the M$_{\\bullet}$-M$_\\mathrm{bulge}$ local scaling relation. Two of these galaxies are confirmed to host extremely large super massive black holes (SMBHs), whereas the virial mass estimates for the other six are also consistent with having abnormally large SMBHs. From the analysis of their star formation histories and their structural properties we find that all these extreme outliers can be considered as relic galaxies from the early (z$\\sim$2) Universe: i.e. they are compact (R$_{\\mathrm{e}}$$<$2 kpc) and have purely old stellar populations (t$\\gtrsim$10 Gyr). In order to explain the nature of such deviations from the local relations, we propose a scenario in which the hosts of these \\"uber-massive SMBHs are galaxies that have followed a different evolutionary path than the two-phase growth channel assumed for massive galaxies. Once the SMBH and the core of the galaxy are formed at z$\\sim$2, the galaxy skips the second...

  6. Kinematic and Structural Evolution of Field and Cluster Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Bodo L; Da Rocha, Cristiano; Böhm, Asmus; Peletier, Reynier F; Verdugo, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    To understand the processes that build up galaxies we investigate the stellar structure and gas kinematics of spiral and irregular galaxies out to redshift 1. We target 92 galaxies in four cluster (z = 0.3 & 0.5) fields to study the environmental influence. Their stellar masses derived from multiband VLT/FORS photometry are distributed around but mostly below the characteristic Schechter-fit mass. From HST/ACS images we determine morphologies and structural parameters like disk length, position angle and ellipticity. Combining the spectra of three slit positions per galaxy using the MXU mode of VLT/FORS2 we construct the two-dimensional velocity field from gas emission lines for 16 cluster members and 33 field galaxies. The kinematic position angle and flatness are derived by a Fourier expansion of elliptical velocity profiles. To trace possible interaction processes, we define three irregularity indicators based on an identical analysis of local galaxies from the SINGS project. Our distant sample display...

  7. The evolution of star formation histories of quiescent galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pacifici, Camilla; Weiner, Benjamin J; Holden, Bradford; Gardner, Jonathan P; Faber, Sandra M; Ferguson, Henry C; Koo, David C; Primack, Joel R; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Rafelski, Marc; Simons, Raymond C; Barro, Guillermo; Croton, Darren J; Dave, Romeel; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lee, Seong-Kook; Salmon, Brett; Somerville, Rachel; Behroozi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been much progress in understanding how galaxies evolve, we still do not understand how and when they stop forming stars and become quiescent. We address this by applying our galaxy spectral energy distribution models, which incorporate physically motivated star formation histories (SFHs) from cosmological simulations, to a sample of quiescent galaxies at $0.2galaxies with multi-band photometry spanning rest-frame ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths are selected from the CANDELS dataset. We compute median SFHs of these galaxies in bins of stellar mass and redshift. At all redshifts and stellar masses, the median SFHs rise, reach a peak, and then decline to reach quiescence. At high redshift, we find that the rise and decline are fast, as expected because the Universe is young. At low redshift, the duration of these phases depends strongly on stellar mass. Low-mass galaxies ($\\log(M_{\\ast}/M_{\\odot})\\sim9.5$) grow on average slowly, take a lo...

  8. H I-selected galaxies in hierarchical models of galaxy formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoldan, Anna; De Lucia, Gabriella; Xie, Lizhi; Fontanot, Fabio; Hirschmann, Michaela

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we study the basic statistical properties of H I-selected galaxies extracted from six different semi-analytic models, all run on the same cosmological N-body simulation. One model includes an explicit treatment for the partition of cold gas into atomic and molecular hydrogen. All models considered agree nicely with the measured H I mass function in the local Universe, with the measured scaling relations between H I and galaxy stellar mass, and with the predicted two-point correlation function for H I-rich galaxies. One exception is given by one model that predicts very little H I associated with galaxies in haloes above ∼1012 M⊙: we argue this is due to a too efficient radio-mode feedback for central galaxies, and to a combination of efficient stellar feedback and instantaneous stripping of hot gas for satellites. We demonstrate that treatment of satellite galaxies introduces large uncertainties at low H I masses. While models assuming non-instantaneous stripping of hot gas tend to form satellite galaxies with H I masses slightly smaller than those of centrals with the same stellar mass, instantaneous gas stripping does not translate necessarily in lower H I masses. In fact, the adopted stellar feedback and star formation affect the satellites too. We analyse the relation between H I content and spin of simulated haloes: low-spin haloes tend to host H I-poor galaxies, while high-spin haloes are populated by galaxies in a wide range of H I mass. In our simulations, this is due to a correlation between the initial gas disc size and the halo spin.

  9. Supermassive Black Hole Binary Evolution in Axisymmetric Galaxies: the final parsec problem is not a problem

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Fazeel

    2013-01-01

    During a galaxy merger, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy is thought to sink to the center of the potential and form a supermassive black hole binary; this binary can eject stars via 3-body scattering, bringing the SMBHs ever closer. In a static spherical galaxy model, the binary stalls at a separation of about a parsec after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone -- this is the well-known final parsec problem. Earlier work has shown that the centrophilic orbits in triaxial galaxy models are key in refilling the loss cone at a high enough rate to prevent the black holes from stalling. However, the evolution of binary SMBHs has never been explored in axisymmetric galaxies, so it is not clear if the final parsec problem persists in these systems. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in galaxy models with a range of ellipticity. For the first time, we show that mere axisymmetry can solve the final parsec problem; we find the the SMBH evolution is indep...

  10. Supermassive Black Hole Binary Evolution in Axisymmetric Galaxies: The Final Parsec Problem is Not a Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    During a galaxy merger, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy is thought to sink to the center of the potential and form an SMBH binary; this binary can eject stars via three-body scattering, bringing the SMBHs ever closer. In a static spherical galaxy model, the binary stalls at a separation of about a parsec after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. Earlier work has shown that the centrophilic orbits in triaxial galaxy models are key in refilling the loss cone at a high enough rate to prevent the black holes from stalling. However, the evolution of binary SMBHs has never been explored in axisymmetric galaxies, so it is not clear if the final parsec problem persists in these systems. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in galaxy models with a range of ellipticity. For the first time, we show that mere axisymmetry can solve the final parsec problem; we find the SMBH evolution is independent of N for an axis ratio of c/a = 0.8, and that the SMBH binary separation reaches the gravitational radiation regime for c/a = 0.75.

  11. Evolution of star cluster systems in isolated galaxies: first results from direct N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L. J.; Bekki, K.; Hurley, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    The evolution of star clusters is largely affected by the tidal field generated by the host galaxy. It is thus in principle expected that under the assumption of a `universal' initial cluster mass function the properties of the evolved present-day mass function of star cluster systems should show a dependence on the properties of the galactic environment in which they evolve. To explore this expectation, a sophisticated model of the tidal field is required in order to study the evolution of star cluster systems in realistic galaxies. Along these lines, in this work we first describe a method developed for coupling N-body simulations of galaxies and star clusters. We then generate a data base of galaxy models along the Hubble sequence and calibrate evolutionary equations to the results of direct N-body simulations of star clusters in order to predict the clusters' mass evolution as function of the galactic environment. We finally apply our methods to explore the properties of evolved `universal' initial cluster mass functions and any dependence on the host galaxy morphology and mass distribution. The preliminary results show that an initial power-law distribution of the masses `universally' evolves into a lognormal distribution, with the properties correlated with the stellar mass and stellar mass density of the host galaxy.

  12. PRIMUS: Effect of Galaxy Environment on the Quiescent Fraction Evolution at z < 0.8

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, ChangHoon; Moustakas, John; Coil, Alison L; Cool, Richard J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Skibba, Ramin A; Wong, Kenneth C; Zhu, Guangtun

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effects of galaxy environment on the evolution of the quiescent fraction ($f_\\mathrm{Q}$) from z =0.8 to 0.0 using spectroscopic redshifts and multi-wavelength imaging data from the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) and the Sloan Digitial Sky Survey (SDSS). Our stellar mass limited galaxy sample consists of ~14,000 PRIMUS galaxies within z = 0.2-0.8 and ~64,000 SDSS galaxies within z = 0.05-0.12. We classify the galaxies as quiescent or star-forming based on an evolving specific star formation cut, and as low or high density environments based on fixed cylindrical aperture environment measurements on a volume-limited environment defining population. For quiescent and star-forming galaxies in low or high density environments, we examine the evolution of their stellar mass function (SMF). Then using the SMFs we compute $f_\\mathrm{Q}(M_{*})$ and quantify its evolution within our redshift range. We find that the quiescent fraction is higher at higher masses and in denser environments. The quie...

  13. The evolution of galaxy metallicity scaling relations in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria E; Font, Andreea S; McCarthy, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the metal content of galaxies and its relations to other global properties [such as total stellar mass (M*), circular velocity, star formation rate (SFR), halo mass, etc.] provides important constraints on models of galaxy formation. Here we examine the evolution of metallicity scaling relations of simulated galaxies in the Galaxies-Intergalactic Medium Interaction Calculation suite of cosmological simulations. We make comparisons to observations of the correlation of gas-phase abundances with M* (the mass-metallicity relation, MZR), as well as with both M* and SFR or gas mass fraction (the so-called 3D fundamental metallicity relations, FMRs). The simulated galaxies follow the observed local MZR and FMRs over an order of magnitude in M*, but overpredict the metallicity of massive galaxies (log M* > 10.5), plausibly due to inefficient feedback in this regime. We discuss the origin of the MZR and FMRs in the context of galactic outflows and gas accretion. We examine the evolution of mass-metal...

  14. Starbursts Lessons for the Origin and Evolution of Galaxies and the Inter-Galactic Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, T M

    1997-01-01

    Starbursts are episodes of intense star-formation that occur in the central regions of galaxies, and dominate the integrated emission from the galaxy. They are a significant component of the present- day universe, being the site of for testing our ideas about star-formation, the evolution of high-mass stars, and the physics of the interstellar medium. They serve as local analogs of the processes that were important in the origin and early evolution of galaxies and in the heating and chemical enrichment of the inter-galactic medium. In this contribution I review starbursts from this broad cosmogonical perspective, stressing several key lessons we have learned from starbursts: 1) Violent, transient events play a significant role in the origin and evolution of galaxies. 2) Galaxies do not evolve as `Island Universes': starbursts are triggered by galaxy interactions and produce outflows of hot chemically-enriched gas that `pollute' the inter- galactic medium. 3) Dust dramatically affects of view of high-mass star...

  15. Autofib Redshift Survey; 2, The Evolution of the Galaxy Luminosity Function by Spectral Type

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, J S; Ellis, Richard S; Broadhurst, T J; Heyl, Jeremy; Colless, Matthew; Ellis, Richard S.; Broadhurst, Tom

    1996-01-01

    We determine the evolution of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) as a function of spectral type using the Autofib redshift survey, a compendium of over 1700 galaxy redshifts in various magnitude-limited samples spanning b_J=11.5-24.0. To carry out this analysis we have developed a cross-correlation technique which classifies faint galaxy spectra into one of six types based on local galaxy templates. Tests and simulations show that this technique yields classifications correct to within one type for more than 90% of the galaxies in our sample. We have also developed extensions of the step-wise maximum likelihood method and the STY parametric method for estimating LFs which are applicable to recovering an evolving LF from multiple samples. We find that: (i) The spectra and LF of E/S0 galaxies show no appreciable evolution out to at least z ~ 0.5. (ii) Early-type spirals show modest evolution, characterised by a gradual steepening of the faint end of their LF with redshift. (iii) Out to z ~ 0.5, the overall evo...

  16. Bulges versus disks: the evolution of angular momentum in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Zavala, J; Frenk, Carlos S

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of angular momentum in simulations of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter universe. We analyse two model galaxies produced in the N-body/hydrodynamic simulations of Okamoto et al. Starting from identical initial conditions, but using different assumptions for the baryonic physics, one of the simulations produced a bulge-dominated galaxy and the other one a disk-dominated galaxy. The main difference is the treatment of star formation and feedback, both of which were designed to be more efficient in the disk-dominated object. We find that the specific angular momentum of the disk-dominated galaxy tracks the evolution of the angular momentum of the dark matter halo very closely: the angular momentum grows as predicted by linear theory until the epoch of maximum expansion and remains constant thereafter. By contrast, the evolution of the angular momentum of the bulge-dominated galaxy resembles that of the central, most bound halo material: it also grows at first according to linear...

  17. SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARY EVOLUTION IN AXISYMMETRIC GALAXIES: THE FINAL PARSEC PROBLEM IS NOT A PROBLEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood [Department of Space Science, Institute of Space Technology, P.O. Box 2750 Islamabad (Pakistan); Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas, E-mail: khan@ari.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: just@ari.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: berczik@ari.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie, University of Heidelberg, Moenchhof-Strasse 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-20

    During a galaxy merger, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy is thought to sink to the center of the potential and form an SMBH binary; this binary can eject stars via three-body scattering, bringing the SMBHs ever closer. In a static spherical galaxy model, the binary stalls at a separation of about a parsec after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone-this is the well-known final parsec problem. Earlier work has shown that the centrophilic orbits in triaxial galaxy models are key in refilling the loss cone at a high enough rate to prevent the black holes from stalling. However, the evolution of binary SMBHs has never been explored in axisymmetric galaxies, so it is not clear if the final parsec problem persists in these systems. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in galaxy models with a range of ellipticity. For the first time, we show that mere axisymmetry can solve the final parsec problem; we find the SMBH evolution is independent of N for an axis ratio of c/a = 0.8, and that the SMBH binary separation reaches the gravitational radiation regime for c/a = 0.75.

  18. Observing Evolution in Star-Forming Galaxies in X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra Deep Fields (CDFs) have reached flux limits where normal/starburst galaxies are significant contributors to the X-ray number counts (approximately 40% at F _{0.5-2.0} = 1 x 10(^)-17). Based on these results and current theoretical models of X-ray binary evolution we will discuss expectations for observing galaxy evolution in X-rays in IXO deep surveys. With the high sensitivity of IXO (particularly approximately 5" resolution constant across the WFI FOV and high effective area) IXO surveys should detect large numbers of galaxies which will allow evolution to be studied in multiple redshift bins. High spatial resolution will also drive the need to minimize source confusion below F _{0.5-2.0 keV} = 10^{-17} ergs/s/cm^2. In addition to detecting starburst galaxies individually, stacking will be used to constrain their properties on average, particularly Lyman-break galaxies at z greater than 2. We will also discuss challenges in segregating galaxies from obscured AGN in IXO deep fields and expectations proposed survey X-ray missions.

  19. The Effects of Cluster Environment on the Chemical Evolution of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Ferrini, F.

    The values of oxygen deficiency have been derived for nine Virgo cluster spiral galaxies from the sample of Skillman et al (1996) which ranges from HI deficient spirals (three galaxies near the center of cluster) to spirals with normal HI contents (three galaxies at the periphery of cluster). The chemical properties of Virgo cluster spiral galaxies have been compared with chemical properties of field spiral galaxies considered by Pilyugin and Ferrini (1998). It has been found that the sample of spirals at the periphery of the cluster is a mixture of objects without, with moderate, and with significant oxygen abundance deficiency. It confirms the conclusion of Skillman et al (1996) that spirals at the periphery of the cluster are indistinguishable from field galaxies. All the spirals near the center of the cluster, within the limited sample here considered, have no oxygen deficiency, and are more advanced in evolution than spirals at the periphery of the cluster or than field spirals. These facts can be considered as a hint that, in the case of spiral galaxies near the center of a cluster, the cluster environment inhibits gas exchange between the galaxy and its surroundings at the present epoch and can slightly enhance the efficiency of star formation. The positions of Virgo spirals without oxygen abundance deficiency in the gas mass fraction μ -- O/H diagram agree closely with the positions of field spiral galaxies without oxygen abundance deficiency and are in agreement with the location of one-zone closed-box models. This is strong evidence in favour that the oxygen yield (or, in consequence, the initial mass function) in cluster spiral galaxies does not differ from that in spiral galaxies in the field.

  20. Evolution of oxygen and nitrogen abundances and nitrogen production mechanism in massive star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yu-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing the observational data of 55,318 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) selected from the catalog of MPA-JHU emission-line measurements for the SDSS DR8, we investigate the galaxy downsizing effect of their O and N enrichments, and the nitrogen production mechanism in them. We show the redshift evolution of O and N abundances and specific star formation rates for different galaxy mass ranges, demonstrating the galaxy downsizing effect caused by less massive progenitors of less massive galaxies. The O and N abundances do not remain constant for different galaxy mass ranges, and the enrichment (and hence star formation) decreases with increasing galaxy stellar mass. We find evidence of the O enrichment for galaxies with stellar masses $M_{*}>10^{11.0} $ (in units of $M_{\\odot}$), i.e. $\\Delta({\\log}({\\rm O/H})) \\sim 0.10$ and $\\Delta({\\log}({\\rm N/H})) \\sim 0.28$ from redshift 0.023 to 0.30. Based on the evolutionary schematic model of N/O ratios in Coziol et al., who proposed the scheme that the production of ...

  1. It's not easy being green: The evolution of galaxy colour in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Trayford, James W; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Lagos, Claudia del P; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    We examine the evolution of intrinsic u-r colours of galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which has been shown to reproduce the observed redshift z=0.1 colour-magnitude distribution well. The median u-r of star-forming ('blue cloud') galaxies reddens by 1 mag from z=2 to 0 at fixed stellar mass, as their specific star formation rates decrease with time. A red sequence starts to build-up around z=1, due to the quenching of low-mass satellite galaxies at the faint end, and due to the quenching of more massive central galaxies by their active galactic nuclei (AGN) at the bright end. This leaves a dearth of intermediate-mass red sequence galaxies at z=1, which is mostly filled in by z=0. We quantify the time-scales of colour transition due to satellite and AGN quenching, finding that most galaxies spend less than 2 Gyr in the 'green valley'. On examining the trajectories of galaxies in a colour-stellar mass diagram, we identify three characteristic tracks that galaxies follow (quiescentl...

  2. The Origin and Evolution of (Ultra)Luminous Infrared Galaxies Over Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR>10^12 L_sun) are all interacting and merging systems. To date, studies of ULIRGs at high redshift have found a variety of results due to their varying selection effects and small sample sizes. Some studies have found that mergers still dominate the galaxy morphology while others have found a high fraction of morphologically normal or clumpy star forming disks. Near-infrared imaging is crucial for interpreting galaxy structure at high redshift since it probes the rest frame optical light of a galaxy and thus we can compare directly to studies in the local universe. We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy's position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  3. The properties, origin and evolution of stellar clusters in galaxy simulations and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, C L; Few, C G; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Elmegreen, B G; Evans, A S; Gouliermis, D A; Grasha, K; Grebel, E K; Johnson, K E; Kim, H; Lee, J C; Messa, M; Ryon, J E; Smith, L J; Thilker, D A; Ubeda, L; Whitmore, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties and evolution of star particles in two simulations of isolated spiral galaxies, and two galaxies from cosmological simulations. Unlike previous numerical work, where typically each star particle represents one `cluster', for the isolated galaxies we are able to model features we term `clusters' with groups of particles. We compute the spatial distribution of stars with different ages, and cluster mass distributions, comparing our findings with observations including the recent LEGUS survey. We find that spiral structure tends to be present in older (100s Myrs) stars and clusters in the simulations compared to the observations. This likely reflects differences in the numbers of stars or clusters, the strength of spiral arms, and whether the clusters are allowed to evolve. Where we model clusters with multiple particles, we are able to study their evolution. The evolution of simulated clusters tends to follow that of their natal gas clouds. Massive, dense, long-lived clouds host ma...

  4. HI-selected Galaxies in Hierarchical Models of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Zoldan, Anna; Xie, Lizhi; Fontanot, Fabio; Hirschmann, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the basic statistical properties of HI-selected galaxies extracted from six different semi-analytic models, all run on the same cosmological N-body simulation. One model includes an explicit treatment for the partition of cold gas into atomic and molecular hydrogen. All models considered agree nicely with the measured HI mass function in the local Universe, with the measured scaling relations between HI and galaxy stellar mass, and with the predicted 2-point correlation function for HI rich galaxies. One exception is given by one model that predicts very little HI associated with galaxies in haloes above 10^12 Msun: we argue this is due to a too efficient radio-mode feedback for central galaxies, and to a combination of efficient stellar feedback and instantaneous stripping of hot gas for satellites. We demonstrate that treatment of satellite galaxies introduces large uncertainties at low HI masses. While models assuming non instantaneous stripping of hot gas tend to form satellite gala...

  5. The Stellar Populations and Evolution of Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, C; Ferguson, H C; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2001-01-01

    Using deep near-IR and optical observations of the HDF-N from the HST NICMOS and WFPC2 and from the ground, we examine the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 2.0 < z < 3.5. The UV-to-optical rest-frame SEDs of the galaxies are much bluer than those of present-day spiral and elliptical galaxies, and are generally similar to those of local starburst galaxies with modest amounts of reddening. We use stellar population synthesis models to study the properties of the stars that dominate the light from LBGs. Under the assumption that the star-formation rate is continuous or decreasing with time, the best-fitting models provide a lower bound on the LBG mass estimates. LBGs with ``L*'' UV luminosities are estimated to have minimum stellar masses ~ 10^10 solar masses, or roughly 1/10th that of a present-day L* galaxy. By considering the effects of a second component of maximally-old stars, we set an upper bound on the stellar masses that is ~ 3-8 times the minimum estimate. We...

  6. Charting the evolution of the ages and metallicities of massive galaxies since z = 0.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallazzi, Anna; Zibetti, Stefano [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2300RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Kelson, Daniel D., E-mail: gallazzi@arcetri.astro.it [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Detailed studies of the stellar populations of intermediate-redshift galaxies can shed light onto the processes responsible for the growth of the massive galaxy population in the last 8 billion years. We here take a step toward this goal by means of deep, multiobject rest-frame optical spectroscopy, performed with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on the Magellan telescope, of a sample of ∼70 galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South survey with redshift 0.65 ≤ z ≤ 0.75, apparent R > 22.7 mag{sub Vega}, and stellar mass >10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. We measure velocity dispersion and stellar absorption features for individual sources. We interpret them by means of a large Monte Carlo library of star formation histories, following the Bayesian approach adopted for previous low redshift studies, and derive constraints on the stellar mass, mean stellar age, and stellar metallicity of these galaxies. We characterize for the first time the relations between stellar age and stellar mass and between stellar metallicity and stellar mass at z ∼ 0.7 for the galaxy population as a whole and for quiescent and star-forming galaxies separately. These relations of increasing age and metallicity with galaxy mass for the galaxy population as a whole have a similar shape as the z ∼ 0.1 analog derived for Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies but are shifted by –0.28 dex in age and by –0.13 dex in metallicity, at odds with simple passive evolution. Considering z = 0.7 quiescent galaxies alone, we find that no additional star formation and chemical enrichment are required for them to evolve into the present-day quiescent population. However, other observations require the quiescent population to grow from z = 0.7 to the present day. This growth could be supplied by the quenching of a fraction of z = 0.7 M {sub *} > 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} star-forming galaxies with metallicities already comparable to those of quiescent galaxies, thus leading to the

  7. Excursions into the Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies in Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    López-Cruz, O; Barrientos, L F; Gladders, M D; Yee, H K C; Kodama, T; Lopez-Cruz, Omar; Schade, David; Gladders, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    Recent observations have revealed that early-type galaxies (ETG) in clusters comprise an old galaxy population that is evolving passively. We review some recent observations from the ground and from HST that show that ETG have undergone a significant amount of luminosity evolution. This evolution is traced by two projections of the fundamental plane (FP): the size-magnitude relation (SMR) and the color-magnitude relation (CMR). We will briefly discuss the relevance of all these results in the context of the universality of the IMF.

  8. Redshift and luminosity evolution of the intrinsic alignments of galaxies in Horizon-AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, N.; Laigle, C.; Codis, S.; Dubois, Y.; Devriendt, J.; Miller, L.; Benabed, K.; Slyz, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Pichon, C.

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsic galaxy shape and angular momentum alignments can arise in cosmological large-scale structure due to tidal interactions or galaxy formation processes. Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations have recently come of age as a tool to study these alignments and their contamination to weak gravitational lensing. We probe the redshift and luminosity evolution of intrinsic alignments in Horizon-AGN between z = 0 and 3 for galaxies with an r-band absolute magnitude of Mr ≤ -20. Alignments transition from being radial at low redshifts and high luminosities, dominated by the contribution of ellipticals, to being tangential at high redshift and low luminosities, where discs dominate the signal. This cannot be explained by the evolution of the fraction of ellipticals and discs alone: intrinsic evolution in the amplitude of alignments is necessary. The alignment amplitude of elliptical galaxies alone is smaller in amplitude by a factor of ≃2, but has similar luminosity and redshift evolution as in current observations and in the non-linear tidal alignment model at projected separations of ≳1 Mpc. Alignments of discs are null in projection and consistent with current low-redshift observations. The combination of the two populations yields an overall amplitude a factor of ≃4 lower than observed alignments of luminous red galaxies with a steeper luminosity dependence. The restriction on accurate galaxy shapes implies that the galaxy population in the simulation is complete only to Mr ≤ -20. Higher resolution simulations will be necessary to avoid extrapolation of the intrinsic alignment predictions to the range of luminosities probed by future surveys.

  9. Scaling relations for galaxy clusters: properties and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Giodini, S; Pointecouteau, E; Ettori, S; Reiprich, T H; Hoekstra, H

    2013-01-01

    Well-calibrated scaling relations between the observable properties and the total masses of clusters of galaxies are important for understanding the physical processes that give rise to these relations. They are also a critical ingredient for studies that aim to constrain cosmological parameters using galaxy clusters. For this reason much effort has been spent during the last decade to better understand and interpret relations of the properties of the intra-cluster medium. Improved X-ray data have expanded the mass range down to galaxy groups, whereas SZ surveys have openened a new observational window on the intracluster medium. In addition,continued progress in the performance of cosmological simulations has allowed a better understanding of the physical processes and selection effects affecting the observed scaling relations. Here we review the recent literature on various scaling relations, focussing on the latest observational measurements and the progress in our understanding of the deviations from self...

  10. Evolution of central dark matter of early-type galaxies up to z ~ 0.8

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Saglia, R P; Romanowsky, A J; Covone, G; Capaccioli, M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of dark and luminous matter in the central regions of early-type galaxies (ETGs) up to z ~ 0.8. We use a spectroscopically selected sample of 154 cluster and field galaxies from the EDisCS survey, covering a wide range in redshifts (z ~ 0.4-0.8), stellar masses ($\\log M_{\\star}/ M_{\\odot}$ ~ 10.5-11.5 dex) and velocity dispersions ($\\sigma_{\\star}$ ~ 100-300 \\, km/s). We obtain central dark matter (DM) fractions by determining the dynamical masses from Jeans modelling of galaxy aperture velocity dispersions and the $M_{\\star}$ from galaxy colours, and compare the results with local samples. We discuss how the correlations of central DM with galaxy size (i.e. the effective radius, $R_{\\rm e}$), $M_{\\star}$ and $\\sigma_{\\star}$ evolve as a function of redshift, finding clear indications that local galaxies are, on average, more DM dominated than their counterparts at larger redshift. This DM fraction evolution with $z$ can be only partially interpreted as a consequence of the size-r...

  11. Galaxy Evolution Over the Past Eleven Billion Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, Wing Shan

    in the deepest Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical surveys. Their stellar populations, characterized using deep near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations, reveal that they are the most massive and evolved galaxies at early epochs. This suggests that they have undergone a rapid build-up of stellar...

  12. Scaling relations for galaxy clusters: Properties and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giodini, S.; Lovisari, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ettori, S.; Reiprich, T.H.; Hoekstra, H.

    2013-01-01

    Well-calibrated scaling relations between the observable properties and the total masses of clusters of galaxies are important for understanding the physical processes that give rise to these relations. They are also a critical ingredient for studies that aim to constrain cosmological parameters usi

  13. Galaxy Evolution Over the Past Eleven Billion Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, Wing Shan

    mass followed by a short-lived, effective phase of star formation quenching. Curiously, their stellar densities are an order of magnitude higher than their local counterparts, containing 1011 solar masses within a radius of only 1.5 kpc. No similar galaxies exist in the local Universe, therefore...

  14. The structural and size evolution of star-forming galaxies over the last 11 Gyrs

    CERN Document Server

    Paulino-Afonso, Ana; Buitrago, Fernando; Afonso, Jose

    2016-01-01

    We present new results on the evolution of rest-frame blue/UV sizes and Sersic indices of H$\\alpha$-selected star-forming galaxies over the last 11 Gyrs. We investigate how the perceived evolution can be affected by a range of biases and systematics such as cosmological dimming and resolution effects. We use GALFIT and an artificial redshifting technique, which includes the luminosity evolution of H$\\alpha$-selected galaxies, to quantify the change on the measured structural parameters with redshift. We find typical sizes of 2 to 3 kpc and Sersic indices of n~1.2, close to pure exponential disks all the way from z=2.23 to z=0.4. At z=0 we find typical sizes of 4-5 kpc. Our results show that, when using GALFIT, cosmological dimming has a negligible impact on the derived effective radius for galaxies with <10 kpc, but we find a ~20% bias on the estimate of the median Sersic indices, rendering galaxies more disk-like. Star-forming galaxies have grown on average by a factor of 2-3 in the last 11 Gyrs with $r_e...

  15. Cosmological Galaxy Evolution with Superbubble Feedback I: Realistic Galaxies with Moderate Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, B W; Couchman, H M P

    2015-01-01

    We present the first cosmological galaxy evolved using the modern smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GASOLINE2 with superbubble feedback. We show that superbubble-driven galactic outflows powered by Type II supernovae alone can produce $\\rm{L^*}$ galaxies with flat rotation curves with circular velocities $\\sim 200\\; \\rm{km/s}$, low bulge-to-disc ratios, and stellar mass fractions that match observed values from high redshift to the present. These features are made possible by the high mass loadings generated by the evaporative growth of superbubbles. Outflows are driven extremely effectively at high redshift, expelling gas at early times and preventing overproduction of stars before $z=2$. Centrally concentrated gas in previous simulations has often lead to unrealistically high bulge to total ratios and strongly peaked rotation curves. We show that supernova-powered superbubbles alone can produce galaxies that agree well with observed properties without the need for additional feedback mechanisms or ...

  16. Galaxy Evolution in Cosmological Simulations With Outflows I: Stellar Masses and Star Formation Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    We examine the growth of the stellar content of galaxies from z=3-0 in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations incorporating parameterised galactic outflows. Without outflows, galaxies overproduce stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) compared to observations. Winds introduce a three-tier form for the galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate functions, where the middle tier depends on differential (i.e. mass-dependent) recycling of ejected wind material back into galaxies. A tight M*-SFR relation is a generic outcome of all these simulations, and its evolution is well-described as being powered by cold accretion, although current observations at z>2 suggest that star formation in small early galaxies must be highly suppressed. Roughly one-third of z=0 galaxies at masses below M^* are satellites, and star formation in satellites is not much burstier than in centrals. All models fail to suppress star formation and stellar mass growth in massive galaxies at z<2, indicating the need for an exter...

  17. Clustering of Galaxies in a Hierarchical Universe 2 evolution to High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffmann, G; Diaferio, A; White, S D M; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Colberg, Joerg M.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; White, Simon D.M.

    1998-01-01

    In hierarchical cosmologies the evolution of galaxy clustering depends both on cosmological quantities such as Omega and Lambda, which determine how dark matter halos form and evolve, and on the physical processes - cooling, star formation and feedback - which drive the formation of galaxies within these merging halos. In this paper, we combine dissipationless cosmological N-body simulations and semi-analytic models of galaxy formation in order to study how these two aspects interact. We focus on the differences in clustering predicted for galaxies of differing luminosity, colour, morphology and star formation rate and on what these differences can teach us about the galaxy formation process. We show that a "dip" in the amplitude of galaxy correlations between z=0 and z=1 can be an important diagnostic. Such a dip occurs in low-density CDM models because structure forms early and dark matter halos of 10**12 solar masses, containing galaxies with luminosities around L*, are unbiased tracers of the dark matter ...

  18. Galaxy Zoo Hubble: First results of the redshift evolution of disk fraction in the red sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Melanie; Willett, Kyle; Fortson, Lucy; Scarlata, Claudia; Beck, Melanie; Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The transition of galaxies from the blue cloud to the red sequence is commonly linked to a morphological transformation from disk to elliptical structure. However, the correlation between color and morphology is not one-to-one, as evidenced by the existence of a significant population of red disks. As this stage in a galaxy's evolution is likely to be transitory, the mechanism by which red disks are formed offers insight to the processes that trigger quenching of star formation and the galaxy's position on the star-forming sequence. To study the population of disk galaxies in the red sequence as a function of cosmic time, we utilize data from the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble project, which uses crowdsourced visual classifications of images of galaxies selected from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. We construct a large sample of over 10,000 disk galaxies spanning a wide (0 < z < 1.0) redshift range. We use this sample to examine the change in the fraction of disks in the red sequence with respect to all disks from z˜1 to the present day. Preliminary results confirm that the fraction of disks in the red sequence decreases as the Universe evolves. We discuss the quenching processes which may explain this trend, and which morphological transformations are most affected by it.

  19. The evolution of the galaxy Red Sequence in simulated clusters and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Romeo, Alessio D; Covone, G; Sommer-Larsen, J; Antonuccio-Delogu, V; Capaccioli, M

    2008-01-01

    N-body + hydrodynamical simulations of the formation and evolution of galaxy groups and clusters in a LambdaCDM cosmology are used in order to follow the building-up of the colour-magnitude relation in two clusters and in 12 groups. We have found that galaxies, starting from the more massive, move to the Red Sequence (RS) as they get aged over times and eventually set upon a ``dead sequence'' (DS) once they have stopped their bulk star formation activity. Fainter galaxies keep having significant star formation out to very recent epochs and lie broader around the RS. Environment plays a role as galaxies in groups and cluster outskirts hold star formation activity longer than the central cluster regions. However galaxies experiencing infall from the outskirts to the central parts keep star formation on until they settle on to the DS of the core galaxies. Merging contributes to mass assembly until z~1, after which major events only involve the brightest cluster galaxies. The emerging scenario is that the evoluti...

  20. Molecular gas content of H I monsters and implications to cold gas content evolution in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheoljong; Chung, Aeree; Yun, Min S.; Cybulski, Ryan; Narayanan, G.; Erickson, N.

    2014-06-01

    We present 12CO (J = 1 → 0) observations of a sample of local galaxies (0.04 monsters'. The data were obtained using the redshift search receiver on the five college radio astronomy observatory (FCRAO) 14 m telescope. The sample consists of 20 H I-massive galaxies with MH I > 3 × 1010 M⊙ from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey and 8 low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs) with a comparable MH I(>1.5 × 1010 M⊙). Our sample selection is purely based on the amount of neutral hydrogen, thereby providing a chance to study how atomic and molecular gas relate to each other in these H I-massive systems. We have detected CO in 15 out of 20 ALFALFA selected galaxies and 4 out of 8 LSBs with molecular gas mass MH2 of (1-11)× 109 M⊙. Their total cold gas masses of (2-7) × 1010 M⊙ make them some of the most gas-massive galaxies identified to date in the Local Universe. Observed trends associated with H I, H2, and stellar properties of the H I massive galaxies and the field comparison sample are analysed in the context of theoretical models of galaxy cold gas content and evolution, and the importance of total gas content and improved recipes for handling spatially differentiated behaviours of disc and halo gas are identified as potential areas of improvement for the modelling.

  1. The GaLAxy Cluster Evolution Survey (GLACE): introduction and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Portal, M; Pintos-Castro, I; Pérez-Martínez, R; Smail, I; Alfaro, E; Altieri, B; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Balkowski, C; Balogh, M; Biviano, A; Bongiovanni, A; Bremer, M; Castander, F; Castañeda, H; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Coia, D; Duc, P A; Geach, J; González-Serrano, I; Haines, C; McBreen, B; Metcalfe, L; Pérez-Fournón, I; García, A M Pérez; Poggianti, B; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J M; Smith, G P; Temporin, S; Valtchanov, I

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at understanding the evolution of galaxies in clusters, the GLACE survey is mapping a set of optical lines ([OII]3727, [OIII]5007, Hbeta and Halpha/[NII] when possible) in several galaxy clusters at redshift around 0.40, 0.63 and 0.86, using the Tuneable Filters (TF) of the OSIRIS instrument (Cepa et al. 2005) at the 10.4m GTC telescope. This study will address key questions about the physical processes acting upon the infalling galaxies during the course of hierarchical growth of clusters. GLACE is already ongoing: we present some preliminary results on our observations of the galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 at z = 0.395; on the other hand, GLACE@0.86 has been approved as ESO/GTC large project to be started in 2011.

  2. Origin and evolution of galactic spin from looking at galaxy pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Park, Changbom

    2009-01-01

    To study if the angular momentum gain for each member of a galaxy pair was the result of tidal torques imprinted by the same tidal field, we search for correlations between the spin in pairs of spiral galaxies identified using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find a weak, but statistically significant correlation between the spin magnitude of neighbouring galaxies. We show that events such as close interactions with neighbours play an important role in the value of the spin for the final configuration, as we find these interactions tend to reduce the value of the $\\lambda$ spin parameter of late-type galaxies considerably. This implies that the original tidal field for each pair could have been similar, but the redistribution of angular momentum at later stages of evolution is important

  3. The evolution of post-starburst galaxies from z=2 to z= 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Vivienne; Dunlop, Jim; Simpson, Chris; Rowlands, Kate; Bowler, Rebecca; Maltby, David; McLure, Ross

    2016-01-01

    We present the evolution in the number density and stellar mass functions of photometrically selected post-starburst galaxies in the UKIDSS Deep Survey (UDS), with redshifts of 0.510. We find that this transitionary species of galaxy is rare at all redshifts, contributing ~5% of the total population at z~2, to 2 they are exclusively massive galaxies that have formed the bulk of their stars during a rapid assembly period, followed by complete quenching of further star formation, (2) at z<1 they are caused by the rapid quenching of gas-rich star-forming galaxies, independent of stellar mass, possibly due to environment and/or gas-rich major mergers.

  4. Gravitational torques in spiral galaxies gas accretion as a driving mechanism of galactic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Block, D L; Combes, F; Puerari, I; Buta, R J; Block, David L.; Bournaud, Frederic; Combes, Francoise; Puerari, Ivanio; Buta, Ron

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of gravitational torques and bar strengths in the local Universe is derived from a detailed study of 163 galaxies observed in the near-infrared. The results are compared with numerical models for spiral galaxy evolution. It is found that the observed distribution of torques can be accounted for only with external accretion of gas onto spiral disks. Accretion is responsible for bar renewal - after the dissolution of primordial bars - as well as the maintenance of spiral structures. Models of isolated, non-accreting galaxies are ruled out. Moderate accretion rates do not explain the observational results: it is shown that galactic disks should double their mass in less than the Hubble time. The best fit is obtained if spiral galaxies are open systems, still forming today by continuous gas accretion, doubling their mass every 10 billion years.

  5. A HYBRID MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Zhenyi; Lapi, Andrea; Xia Junqing; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Danese, Luigi [Astrophysics Sector, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Negrello, Mattia [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Gruppioni, Carlotta [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Rigby, Emma [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Castex, Guillaume; Delabrouille, Jacques, E-mail: zcai@sissa.it [APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2013-05-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the cosmological evolution of the luminosity function of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the infrared (IR). Based on the observed dichotomy in the ages of stellar populations of early-type galaxies on one side and late-type galaxies on the other, the model interprets the epoch-dependent luminosity functions at z {>=} 1.5 using a physical approach for the evolution of proto-spheroidal galaxies and of the associated AGNs, while IR galaxies at z < 1.5 are interpreted as being mostly late-type ''cold'' (normal) and ''warm'' (starburst) galaxies. As for proto-spheroids, in addition to the epoch-dependent luminosity functions of stellar and AGN components separately, we have worked out, for the first time, the evolving luminosity functions of these objects as a whole (stellar plus AGN component), taking into account in a self-consistent way the variation with galactic age of the global spectral energy distribution. The model provides a physical explanation for the observed positive evolution of both galaxies and AGNs up to z {approx_equal} 2.5 and for the negative evolution at higher redshifts, for the sharp transition from Euclidean to extremely steep counts at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths, as well as the (sub-)millimeter counts of strongly lensed galaxies that are hard to account for by alternative, physical or phenomenological, approaches. The evolution of late-type galaxies and z < 1.5 AGNs is described using a parametric phenomenological approach. The modeled AGN contributions to the counts and to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) are always sub-dominant. They are maximal at mid-IR wavelengths: the contribution to the 15 and 24 {mu}m counts reaches 20% above 10 and 2 mJy, respectively, while the contributions to the CIB are of 8.6% and of 8.1% at 15 {mu}m and 24 {mu}m, respectively. The model provides a good fit to the multi-wavelength (from the mid-IR to millimeter

  6. A Hybrid Model for the Evolution of Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhen-Yi; Lapi, Andrea; Xia, Jun-Qing; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Negrello, Mattia; Gruppioni, Carlotta; Rigby, Emma; Castex, Guillaume; Delabrouille, Jacques; Danese, Luigi

    2013-05-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the cosmological evolution of the luminosity function of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the infrared (IR). Based on the observed dichotomy in the ages of stellar populations of early-type galaxies on one side and late-type galaxies on the other, the model interprets the epoch-dependent luminosity functions at z >= 1.5 using a physical approach for the evolution of proto-spheroidal galaxies and of the associated AGNs, while IR galaxies at z < 1.5 are interpreted as being mostly late-type "cold" (normal) and "warm" (starburst) galaxies. As for proto-spheroids, in addition to the epoch-dependent luminosity functions of stellar and AGN components separately, we have worked out, for the first time, the evolving luminosity functions of these objects as a whole (stellar plus AGN component), taking into account in a self-consistent way the variation with galactic age of the global spectral energy distribution. The model provides a physical explanation for the observed positive evolution of both galaxies and AGNs up to z ~= 2.5 and for the negative evolution at higher redshifts, for the sharp transition from Euclidean to extremely steep counts at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths, as well as the (sub-)millimeter counts of strongly lensed galaxies that are hard to account for by alternative, physical or phenomenological, approaches. The evolution of late-type galaxies and z < 1.5 AGNs is described using a parametric phenomenological approach. The modeled AGN contributions to the counts and to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) are always sub-dominant. They are maximal at mid-IR wavelengths: the contribution to the 15 and 24 μm counts reaches 20% above 10 and 2 mJy, respectively, while the contributions to the CIB are of 8.6% and of 8.1% at 15 μm and 24 μm, respectively. The model provides a good fit to the multi-wavelength (from the mid-IR to millimeter waves) data on luminosity functions at different redshifts and

  7. A Comparative Study of Density Field Estimation for Galaxies: New Insights into the Evolution of Galaxies with Environment in COSMOS out to z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Darvish, Behnam; Sobral, David; Scoville, Nicholas; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that galaxy environment has a fundamental effect in shaping its properties. We study the environmental effects on galaxy evolution, with an emphasis on the environment defined as the local number density of galaxies. The density field is estimated with different estimators (weighted adaptive kernel smoothing, 10$^{th}$ and 5$^{th}$ nearest neighbors, Voronoi and Delaunay tessellation) for a K$_{s}$10$^{11}$M$_{\\odot}$) star-forming galaxies have not significantly changed since z$\\sim$3, regardless of their environment. However, for massive quiescent systems at lower redshifts (z$\\lesssim$1.3), we find a significant evolution in the number and stellar mass densities in denser environments compared to lower density regions. Our results suggest that the relation between stellar mass and local density is more fundamental than the color-density relation and that environment plays a significant role in quenching star formation activity in galaxies at z$\\lesssim$1.

  8. Morphological classification of radio sources for galaxy evolution and cosmology with SKA-MID

    CERN Document Server

    Makhathini, Sphesihle; Jarvis, Matt; Heywood, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically classifying radio sources in continuum images with the SKA has the potential to address some of the key questions in cosmology and galaxy evolution. In particular, we may use different classes of radio sources as independent tracers of the dark-matter density field, and thus overcome cosmic variance in measuring large-scale structure, while on the galaxy evolution side we could measure the mechanical feedback from FRII and FRI jets. This work makes use of a \\texttt{MeqTrees}-based simulations framework to forecast the ability of the SKA to recover true source morphologies at high redshifts. A suite of high resolution images containing realistic continuum source distributions with different morphologies (FRI, FRII, starburst galaxies) is fed through an SKA Phase 1 simulator, then analysed to determine the sensitivity limits at which the morphologies can still be distinguished. We also explore how changing the antenna distribution affects these results.

  9. The extreme flare in III Zw 2: evolution of a radio jet in a Seyfert galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunthaler, A.; Falcke, H.D.E.; Bower, G.C.; Aller, M.F.; Aller, H.D.; Teräsranta, H.

    2005-01-01

    A very detailed monitoring of a radio flare in the Seyfert I galaxy III Zw 2 with the VLA and the VLBA is presented. The relative astrometry in the VLBA observations was precise to a few muas. The spectral and spatial evolutions of the source are closely linked, and these observations allowed us to

  10. The extreme flare in III Zw 2: evolution of a radio jet in a Seyfert galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunthaler, A.; Falcke, H.D.E.; Bower, G.C.; Aller, M.F.; Aller, H.D.; Teräsranta, H.

    2005-01-01

    A very detailed monitoring of a radio flare in the Seyfert I galaxy III Zw 2 with the VLA and the VLBA is presented. The relative astrometry in the VLBA observations was precise on a level of a few microarcseconds. Spectral and spatial evolution of the source are closely linked and these observation

  11. A new galactic chemical evolution model with dust: results for dwarf irregular galaxies and DLA systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gioannini, Lorenzo; Vladilo, Giovanni; Calura, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We present a galactic chemical evolution model which adopts updated prescriptions for all the main processes governing the dust cycle. We follow in detail the evolution of the abundances of several chemical species (C, O, S, Si, Fe and Zn) in the gas and dust of a typical dwarf irregular galaxy. The dwarf irregular galaxy is assumed to evolve with a low but continuous level of star formation and experience galactic winds triggered by supernova explosions. We predict the evolution of the gas to dust ratio in such a galaxy and discuss critically the main processes involving dust, such as dust production by AGB stars and Type II SNe, destruction and accretion (gas condensation in clouds). We then apply our model to Damped Lyman-Alpha systems which are believed to be dwarf irregulars, as witnessed by their abundance patterns. Our main conclusions are: i) we can reproduce the observed gas to dust ratio in dwarf galaxies. ii) We find that the process of dust accretion plays a fundamental role in the evolution of du...

  12. The Hot and Energetic Universe: The evolution of galaxy groups and clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pointecouteau, E; Adami, C; Arnaud, M; Biffi, V; Borgani, S; Borm, K; Bourdin, H; Brueggen, M; Bulbul, E; Clerc, N; Croston, J H; Dolag, K; Ettori, S; Finoguenov, A; Kaastra, J; Lovisari, L; Maughan, B; Mazzotta, P; Pacaud, F; de Plaa, J; Pratt, G W; Ramos-Ceja, M; Rasia, E; Sanders, J; Zhang, Y -Y; Allen, S; Boehringer, H; Brunetti, G; Elbaz, D; Fassbender, R; Hoekstra, H; Hildebrandt, H; Lamer, G; Marrone, D; Mohr, J; Molendi, S; Nevalainen, J; Ohashi, T; Ota, N; Pierre, M; Romer, K; Schindler, S; Schrabback, T; Schwope, A; Smith, R; Springel, V; von der Linden, A

    2013-01-01

    Major astrophysical questions related to the formation and evolution of structures, and more specifically of galaxy groups and clusters, will still be open in the coming decade and beyond: what is the interplay of galaxy, supermassive black hole, and intergalactic gas evolution in the most massive objects in the Universe - galaxy groups and clusters? What are the processes driving the evolution of chemical enrichment of the hot diffuse gas in large-scale structures? How and when did the first galaxy groups in the Universe, massive enough to bind more than 10^7 K gas, form? Focussing on the period when groups and clusters assembled (0.5evolution acros...

  13. The evolution of galaxies in the mirror of the coagulation equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorovich, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Smoluchowski equation and its generalizations, describing the merger of the particles, allow us to understand the main stages of the formation of galaxy mass functions, established as a result of mergers, and their evolution and thus provides an explanation for the results of long-term observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and large ground-based telescopes.

  14. The evolution of K-S-selected galaxies in the GOODS/CDFS deep ISAAC field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, KI; Dunlop, JS; McLure, RJ; Roche, ND

    2005-01-01

    We present estimated redshifts and derived properties of a sample of 1663 galaxies with K-s = 2.5, the bright end of the K-s-band LF shows no sign of decline, and is progressively well reproduced by the ERGs with increasing redshift. We also explore the evolution of massive systems present in our sa

  15. Active galactic nuclei and their role in galaxy evolution: The infrared perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable progress made in infrared (IR) astronomical instruments over the last 10-15 years has radically changed our vision of the extragalactic IR sky, and overall understanding of galaxy evolution. In particular, this has been the case for the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN), for which

  16. A New Picture for the Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy: the Two Infall Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Chiappini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a chemical evolution model for the Galaxy which assumes that the evolution of the halo and thick disk is completely disentangled from the thin disk. The Galaxy formed by two main infall episodes which formed the halo-thick disk and thin disk, respectively. The model predicts the evolution of the gas mass, the star formation rate, the supernova rates and the abundances of 16 chemical elements as functions of time and galactocentric distance. Our results , strongly suggest that the previous picture for the Galaxy formation in which the gas shed from the halo was the main contributor to the thin disk formation, is not valid. We conclude a timescale of 8 Gyr for the thin-disk formation in the solar vicinity is required, implying that the infalling gas forming the thin-disk comes not only from the thick disk but mainly from the intergalactic medium. We constrain the IMF variation, Deuterium primordial value and earliest phases of Galaxy evolution.

  17. Active galactic nuclei and their role in galaxy evolution : The infrared perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable progress made in infrared (IR) astronomical instruments over the last 10-15 years has radically changed our vision of the extragalactic IR sky, and overall understanding of galaxy evolution. In particular, this has been the case for the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN), for which

  18. Star formation and aging at cosmic noon : the spectral evolution of galaxies from z=2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fumagalli, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    Ten billion years ago the Universe was at the peak of its star formation activity, which has been declining since then. This thesis investigates, with novel spectroscopic data from Hubble Space Telescope, the evolution of the galaxy population from that particular period, the so-called "Cosmic Noon"

  19. A New Perspective on Galaxy Evolution from the Low Density Outskirts of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery Watkins, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the nature of galaxy outskirts, we carried out a deep imaging campaign of several nearby ($D\\lesssim$10Mpc) galaxies, across a range of environments. We found that most of the galaxies we imaged show red and non-star-forming outer disks, implying evolved stellar populations. Such populations in outer disks are expected as the result of radial migration, yet through Fourier analysis we found no evidence of extended spiral structure in these galaxies. Without star formation or outer spiral structure, it is difficult to determine how these outer disks formed. To investigate the effects of interactions on outer disks, we also observed the Leo I Group; however, while group environments are expected to promote frequent interactions, we found only three extremely faint tidal streams, implying a calm interaction history. As Leo I is fairly low density, this implies that loose groups are ineffective at producing intragroup light (IGL). In the famous interacting system M51, we found that its extended tidal features show similarly red colors as the typical outer disks we observed, implying that M51 had a similar outer disk prior to the interaction, and that the interaction induced no extended star formation, including in the system's HI tail. Therefore, to investigate the nature of star formation in low-density environments, we carried out deep narrow-band H$\\alpha$ imaging of M101 and M51.

  20. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. II. Implications for understanding galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Venn, KA; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T

    2003-01-01

    We have used the Ultraviolet Visual-Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giant stars in the centers of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's) : Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I. We measure the abundance variations of

  1. When galaxy clusters collide : the impact of merger shocks on cluster gas and galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroe, Andra

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy clusters mainly grow through mergers with other clusters and groups. Major mergers give rise to cluster-wide traveling shocks, which can be detected at radio wavelengths as relics: elongated, diffuse synchrotron emitting areas located at the periphery of merging clusters. The 'Sausage' cluste

  2. Dust evolution processes in normal galaxies at z > 6 detected by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chen; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Hou, Kuan-Chou

    2017-03-01

    Recent Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) observations of high-redshift normal galaxies have been providing a great opportunity to clarify the general origin of dust in the Universe, not biased to very bright special objects even at z > 6. To clarify what constraint we can get for the dust enrichment in normal galaxies detected by ALMA, we use a theoretical model that includes major processes driving dust evolution in a galaxy; that is, dust condensation in stellar ejecta, dust growth by the accretion of gas-phase metals and supernova destruction. Using the dust emission fluxes detected in two normal galaxies at z > 6 by ALMA as a constraint, we can get the range of the time-scales (or efficiencies) of the above mentioned processes. We find that if we assume extremely high-condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta (fin ≳ 0.5), rapid dust enrichment by stellar sources in the early phase may be enough to explain the observed ALMA flux, unless dust destruction by supernovae in those galaxies is stronger than that in nearby galaxies. If we assume a condensation efficiency expected from theoretical calculations (fin ≲ 0.1), strong dust growth (even stronger than assumed for nearby galaxies if they are metal-poor galaxies) is required. These results indicate that the normal galaxies detected by ALMA at z > 6 are biased to objects (i) with high dust condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta, (ii) with strong dust growth in very dense molecular clouds or (iii) with efficient dust growth because of fast metal enrichment up to solar metallicity. A measurement of metallicity is crucial to distinguish among these possibilities.

  3. Modeling X-Ray Binary Evolution in Normal Galaxies: Insights from SINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Fragos, T.; Tremmel, M.; Jenkins, L.; Zezas, A.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A.; Kalogera, V.; Ptak, A; Basu-Zych, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the largest-scale comparison to date between observed extragalactic X-ray binary (XRB) populations and theoretical models of their production. We construct observational X-ray luminosity functions (oXLFs) using Chandra observations of 12 late-type galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (SINGS). For each galaxy, we obtain theoretical XLFs (tXLFs) by combining XRB synthetic models, constructed with the population synthesis code StarTrack, with observational star formation histories (SFHs). We identify highest-likelihood models both for individual galaxies and globally, averaged over the full galaxy sample. Individual tXLFs successfully reproduce about half of oXLFs, but for some galaxies we are unable to find underlying source populations, indicating that galaxy SFHs and metallicities are not well matched and/or XRB modeling requires calibration on larger observational samples. Given these limitations, we find that best models are consistent with a product of common envelope ejection efficiency and central donor concentration approx.. = 0.1, and a 50% uniform - 50% "twins" initial mass-ratio distribution. We present and discuss constituent subpopulations of tXLFs according to donor, accretor and stellar population characteristics. The galaxy-wide X-ray luminosity due to low-mass and high-mass XRBs, estimated via our best global model tXLF, follows the general trend expected from the L(sub X) - star formation rate and L(sub X) - stellar mass relations of Lehmer et al. Our best models are also in agreement with modeling of the evolution both of XRBs over cosmic time and of the galaxy X-ray luminosity with redshift.

  4. The Chemical Evolution of Narrow Emission Line Galaxies: the Key to their Formation Processes The Chemical Evolution of Narrow Emission Line Galaxies: the Key to their Formation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ortega-Minakata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando la mayor muestra de galaxias con líneas de emisión angostas disponible hasta el momento, se muestra que sus características espectrales están correlacionadas con diferentes parámetros físicos, como las abundancias químicas, las morfologías, las masas del bulbo, y la edad estelar promedio de las poblaciones estelares de la galaxia anfitriona. Por lo tanto, se sugiere que las variaciones espectrales observadas en diagramas de diagnóstico estándares no se deben únicamente a las variaciones de los parámetros o las estructuras de ionización, sino que reflejan también la evolución química de las galaxias, relacionada con diferentes procesos de formación.  Using the largest sample of narrow emission line galaxies available so far, we show that their spectral characteristics are correlated with different physical parameters, like the chemical abundances, the morphologies, the masses of the bulge and the mean stellar age of the stellar populations of the host galaxies. It suggests that the spectral variations observed in standard spectroscopic diagnostic diagrams are not due solely to variations of ionization parameters or structures but reflect also the chemical evolution of the galaxies, which in turn can be explained by different galaxy formation processes.

  5. THERMAL AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Sato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM of galaxy clusters to outer regions observed with Suzaku. The observed temperature dropped by about ~30% from the central region to the virial radius of the clusters. The derived entropy profile agreed with the expectation from simulations within r500, while the entropy profile in r > r500 indicated a flatter slope than the simulations. This would suggest that the cluster outskirts were out of hydrostatic equilibrium. As for the metallicity, we studied the metal abundances from O to Fe up to ~0.5 times the virial radius of galaxy groups and clusters. Comparing the results with supernova nucleosynthesis models, the number ratio of type II to Ia supernovae is estimated to be ~3.5. We also calculated not only Fe, but also O and Mg mass-to-light ratios (MLRs with K-band luminosity. The MLRs in the clusters had a similar feature.

  6. Evolution of growing black holes in axisymmetric galaxy cores

    CERN Document Server

    Fiestas, Jose; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    NBody realizations of axisymmetric collisional galaxy cores (e.g. M32, M33, NGC205, Milky Way) with embedded growing black holes are presented. Stars which approach the disruption sphere are disrupted and accreted to the black hole. We measure the zone of influence of the black hole and disruption rates in relaxation time scales. We show that secular gravitational instabilities dominate the initial core dynamics, while the black hole is small and growing due to consumption of stars. Later, the black hole potential dominates the core, and loss cone theory can be applied. Our simulations show that central rotation in galaxies can not be neglected for relaxed systems, and compare and discuss our results with the standard theory of spherically symmetric systems.

  7. Recent Structural Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies: Size Growth from z=1 to z=0

    CERN Document Server

    van der Wel, Arjen; Zirm, Andrew W; Franx, Marijn; Rettura, Alessandro; Illingworth, Garth D; Ford, Holland C

    2008-01-01

    Strong size and internal density evolution of early-type galaxies between z~2 and the present has been reported by several authors. Here we analyze samples of nearby and distant (z~1) galaxies with dynamically measured masses in order to confirm the previous, model-dependent results and constrain the uncertainties that may play a role. Velocity dispersion measurements are taken from the literature for 50 morphologically selected 0.8galaxies with typical masses 2e11 Msol. Sizes are determined with ACS imaging. We compare the distant sample with a large sample of nearby (0.04galaxies extracted from the SDSSfor which we determine sizes, masses, and densities in a consistent manner, using simulations to quantify systematic differences between the size measurements of nearby and distant galaxies. We find a highly significant structural difference between the nearby and distant samples, regardless of sample selection effects. The implied evolution ...

  8. Galaxy Evolution and Star Formation Efficiency at 0.2 < z < 0.6

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F; Braine, J; Schinnerer, E; Walter, F; Colina, L

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a CO line survey of 30 galaxies at moderate redshift (z ~ 0.2-0.6), with the IRAM 30m telescope, with the goal to follow galaxy evolution and in particular the star formation efficiency (SFE) as defined by the ratio between far-infrared luminosity and molecular gas mass (L_FIR/M(H2)). The sources are selected to be ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), with L_ FIR larger than 2.8 10^{12} Lo, experiencing starbursts: their gas consumption time-scale is lower than 10^8 yr. To date only very few CO observations exist in this redshift range that spans nearly 25\\% of the universe's age. In addition, considerable evolution of the star formation rate is already observed during this period. 18 galaxies out of our sample of 30 are detected (of which 16 are new detections), corresponding to a detection rate of 60\\%. The average CO luminosity for the 18 galaxies detected is L'_CO = 2 10^{10} Lo, corresponding to an average H2 mass of 1.6 10^{10} Mo. The FIR luminosity correlates well with ...

  9. Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE): Model Calibration and Basic Results

    CERN Document Server

    Croton, Darren J; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J; Poole, Gregory B; Shattow, Genevieve M

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modelling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the "Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution" model, or SAGE for short. SAGE is a significant update to that used in Croton et al. (2006) and has been rebuilt to be modular and customisable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organised in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in SAGE to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling--radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of ...

  10. The Intricate Role of Cold Gas and Dust in Galaxy Evolution at Early Cosmic Epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik Alexander; Capak, Peter; Carilli, Christopher; Walter, Fabian

    2015-08-01

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We will discuss the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies out to the highest redshifts through detailed investigations with the most powerful facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum, with a particular focus on new observations obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array (ALMA). These studies cover a broad range in galaxy properties, and provide a detailed comparison of the physical conditions in massive, dust-obscured starburst galaxies and star-forming active galactic nuclei hosts within the first billion years of cosmic time. Facilitating the impressive sensitivity of ALMA, this investigation also includes the first direct, systematic study of the star-forming interstellar medium, gas dynamics, and dust obscuration in (much less luminous and massive) "typical" galaxies at such early epochs. These new results show that "typical" z>5 galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, consistent with a decreasing contribution of dust-obscured star formation to the star formation history of the universe towards the earliest cosmic epochs.

  11. The Evolution of Main-Sequence and Starburst Galaxies Across Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in the understanding of the evolution of star formation in galaxies as a function of redshift. Its is now clear that the majority of galaxies at zform a nearly linear correlation between their stellar mass and star formation rates and appear to create most of their stars in timescales of ~1 Gyr. At the highest luminosities, a significant fraction of galaxies deviate from this ‘main-sequence’, showing short duty cycles and thus producing most of their stars in a single burst of star formation (‘starburst’) within a few 100 Myr, being likely driven by major merger activity. Despite the large luminosities of starbursts, main-sequence galaxies appear to dominate the star formation density of the Universe at its peak.While progress has been impressive, a number of questions are still unanswered. In this talk, I will review our current observational understanding of this ‘main-sequence’ vs ‘starburst’ galaxy paradigm, and will address how future observations (e.g. with ALMA) will help us to have better insights into the fundamental properties of these galaxies.

  12. Shape Evolution of Massive Early-Type Galaxies: Confirmation of Increased Disk Prevalence at z>1

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Wuyts, Stijn; Zibetti, Stefano; Ramkumar, Balasubramanian; Holden, Bradford P

    2012-01-01

    We use high-resolution K-band VLT/HAWK-I imaging over 0.25 square degrees to study the structural evolution of massive early-type galaxies since z~1. Mass-selected samples, complete down to log(M/M_sun)~10.7 such that `typical' L* galaxies are included at all redshifts, are drawn from pre-existing photometric redshift surveys. We then separated the samples into different redshift slices and classify them as late- or early-type galaxies on the basis of their specific star-formation rate. Axis-ratio measurements for the ~400 early-type galaxies in the redshift range 0.61 are, on average, flatter than at z11.3) are the roundest, with a pronounced lack among them of galaxies that are flat in projection. Merging is a plausible mechanism that can explain both results: at all epochs merging is required for early-type galaxies to grow beyond log(M/M_sun)~11.3, and all early types over time gradually and partially loose their disk-like characteristics.

  13. The Illustris Simulation: the evolution of galaxy populations across cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Genel, Shy; Springel, Volker; Sijacki, Debora; Nelson, Dylan; Snyder, Greg; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Torrey, Paul; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of galaxy evolution across cosmic time in the Illustris Simulation. Illustris is an N-body/hydrodynamical simulation that evolves 2*1820^3 resolution elements in a (106.5Mpc)^3 box from cosmological initial conditions down to z=0 using the AREPO moving-mesh code. The simulation uses a state-of-the-art set of physical models for galaxy formation that was tuned to reproduce the z=0 stellar mass function and the history of the cosmic star-formation rate density. We find that Illustris successfully reproduces a plethora of observations of galaxy populations at various redshifts, for which no tuning was performed, and provide predictions for future observations. In particular, we discuss (a) the buildup of galactic mass, showing stellar mass functions and the relations between stellar mass and halo mass from z=7 to z=0, (b) galaxy number density profiles around massive central galaxies out to z=4, (c) the gas and total baryon content of both galaxies and their halos for different redshifts, ...

  14. SEMI-ANALYTIC GALAXY EVOLUTION (SAGE): MODEL CALIBRATION AND BASIC RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the “Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution” model, or sage for short.{sup 5} sage is a significant update to the 2006 model of Croton et al. and has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work, we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in sage to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include the following: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling–radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population.

  15. Intensity Mapping Cross-Correlations: Connecting the Largest Scales to Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wolz, L; Blake, C; Wyithe, J S B

    2015-01-01

    Intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen (HI) is a new observational tool that can be used to efficiently map the large-scale structure of the Universe over wide redshift ranges. The power spectrum of the intensity maps contains cosmological information on the matter distribution and probes galaxy evolution by tracing the HI content of galaxies at different redshifts and the scale-dependence of HI clustering. The cross-correlation of intensity maps with galaxy surveys is a robust measure of the power spectrum which diminishes systematics caused by instrumental effects and foreground removal. We examine the cross-correlation signature at redshift z=0.9 using a variant of the semi-analytical galaxy formation model SAGE (Croton et al. 2016) applied to the Millennium simulation in order to model the HI gas of galaxies as well as their optical magnitudes based on their star-formation history. We determine the clustering of the cross-correlation power for different types of galaxies determined by their colours, ac...

  16. Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE): Model Calibration and Basic Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the “Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution” model, or sage for short.5 sage is a significant update to the 2006 model of Croton et al. and has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work, we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in sage to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include the following: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling-radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population.

  17. GECoRe: A New Geometrically Exact Remapping Scheme on the Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, P. A.; Lauritzen, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    Land, ocean and atmospheric models are often implemented using different grid schemes, individually designed to enhance the accuracy or capture features unique to their respective model. However, coupling between these models requires accurate remapping of quantities between grids, and so efficient algorithms are often needed to handle these computations. Two grids where remapping is particularly important are the so-called cubed sphere grid and the regular latitude-longitude (RLL) grid. Notably, modern dynamical cores have moved towards implementing climate models on the cubed sphere, since it does not possess the polar singularity problems present in the RLL grid. Most existing schemes fail to take advantage of geometrical symmetries between these grids when performing remapping, and hence accuracy of the calculations is lost. Hence, a new geometrically exact conservative remapping scheme (GECoRe) is proposed and compared against the existing CaRS (Cascade Remapping between Spherical grids) and SCRIP (Spherical Coordinate Remapping and Interpolation Package) schemes. In our idealized comparison, we find that the new geometrically exact conservative remapping scheme greatly improves the accuracy of previous remapping schemes by several orders of magnitude while maintaining a practically identical computational cost.

  18. Major Fault Patterns in Zanjan State of Iran Based of GECO Global Geoid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshty, Sayyed Amir Hossein; Abrari Vajari, Mohammad; Raoufikelachayeh, SeyedehSusan

    2016-04-01

    A new Earth Gravitational Model (GECO) to degree 2190 has been developed incorporates EGM2008 and the latest GOCE based satellite solutions. Satellite gradiometry data are more sensitive information of the long- and medium- wavelengths of the gravity field than the conventional satellite tracking data. Hence, by utilizing this new technique, more accurate, reliable and higher degrees/orders of the spherical harmonic expansion of the gravity field can be achieved. Gravity gradients can also be useful in geophysical interpretation and prospecting. We have presented the concept of gravity gradients with some simple interpretations. A MATLAB based computer programs were developed and utilized for determining the gravity and gradient components of the gravity field using the GGMs, followed by a case study in Zanjan State of Iran. Our numerical studies show strong (more than 72%) correlations between gravity anomalies and the diagonal elements of the gradient tensor. Also, strong correlations were revealed between the components of the deflection of vertical and the off-diagonal elements as well as between the horizontal gradient and magnitude of the deflection of vertical. We clearly distinguished two big faults in North and South of Zanjan city based on the current information. Also, several minor faults were detected in the study area. Therefore, the same geophysical interpretation can be stated for gravity gradient components too. Our mathematical derivations support some of these correlations.

  19. The stellar evolution of Luminous Red Galaxies, and its dependence on colour, redshift, luminosity and modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Tojeiro, Rita; Heavens, Alan F; Jimenez, Raul

    2010-01-01

    We present a series of colour evolution models for Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) in the 7th spectroscopic data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), computed using the full-spectrum fitting code VESPA on high signal-to-noise stacked spectra. The colour-evolution models are computed as a function of colour, luminosity and redshift, and we do not a-priori assume that LRGs constitute a uniform population of galaxies in terms of stellar evolution. By computing star-formation histories from the fossil record, the measured stellar evolution of the galaxies is decoupled from the survey's selection function, which also evolves with redshift. We present these evolutionary models computed using three different sets of Stellar Population Synthesis (SPS) codes. We show that the traditional fiducial model of purely passive stellar evolution of LRGs is broadly correct, but it is not sufficient to explain the full spectral signature. We also find that higher-order corrections to this model are dependent on the SPS ...

  20. Cosmological galaxy evolution with superbubble feedback - I. Realistic galaxies with moderate feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, B. W.; Wadsley, J.; Couchman, H. M. P.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first cosmological galaxy evolved using the modern smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GASOLINE2 with superbubble feedback. We show that superbubble-driven galactic outflows powered by Type II supernovae alone can produce L* galaxies with flat rotation curves with circular velocities ˜ 200 km s- 1, low bulge-to-disc ratios, and stellar mass fractions that match observed values from high redshift to the present. These features are made possible by the high mass loadings generated by the evaporative growth of superbubbles. Outflows are driven extremely effectively at high redshift, expelling gas at early times and preventing overproduction of stars before z = 2. Centrally concentrated gas in previous simulations has often lead to unrealistically high bulge to total ratios and strongly peaked rotation curves. We show that supernova-powered superbubbles alone can produce galaxies that agree well with observed properties without the need for additional feedback mechanisms or increased feedback energy. We present additional results arising from properly modelled hot feedback.

  1. Stellar Ages and Metallicities of Central and Satellite Galaxies: Implications for Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Anna; Fontanot, Fabio; Bosch, Frank C van den; De Lucia, Gabriella; Mo, H J; Yang, Xiaohu

    2009-01-01

    Using a large SDSS galaxy group catalogue, we study how the stellar ages and metallicities of central and satellite galaxies depend on stellar mass and halo mass. We find that satellites are older and metal-richer than centrals of the same stellar mass. In addition, the slopes of the age-stellar mass and metallicity-stellar mass relations are found to become shallower in denser environments. This is due to the fact that the average age and metallicity of low mass satellite galaxies increase with the mass of the halo in which they reside. A comparison with the semi-analytical model of Wang et al. (2008) shows that it succesfully reproduces the fact that satellites are older than centrals of the same stellar mass and that the age difference increases with the halo mass of the satellite. This is a consequence of strangulation, which leaves the stellar populations of satellites to evolve passively, while the prolonged star formation activity of centrals keeps their average ages younger. The resulting age offset i...

  2. The Reionization and Galaxy Evolution Probed by z=7 Lyman Alpha Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Kazuaki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R; Totani, Tomonori; Nagashima, Masahiro; Morokuma, Tomoki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hattori, Takashi; Matsuda, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Tetsuya; Ouchi, Masami

    2007-01-01

    We made a narrowband NB973 (bandwidth of 200A at 9755A) imaging of the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) and found two z=7 Lyman alpha emitter (LAE) candidates down to NB973=24.9. Carrying out deep follow-up spectroscopy, we identified one of them as a real z=6.96 LAE. This has shown that galaxy formation was in progress just 750 Myr after the Big Bang. Meanwhile, the Lyman alpha line luminosity function of LAE is known to decline from z=5.7 to 6.6 in the SDF. L* at z=6.6 is 40-60% of that at z=5.7. We also confirm that the number density of z=7 LAE is only 17% of the density at z=6.6 comparing the latest SDF LAE samples. This series of significant decreases in LAE density with increasing redshift can be the result of galaxy evolution during these epochs. However, using the UV continuum luminosity functions of LAEs, those of Lyman break galaxies, and a LAE evolution model based on the hierarchical clustering, we find that galaxy evolution alone cannot explain all the decrease in density. This extra density deficit can ...

  3. The Evolution of the Hubble Sequence: morpho-kinematics of distant galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Serrano, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of my thesis was to provide us, for the first time, with a reliable view of the distant Hubble sequence, and its evolution over the past 6 Gyr. To achieve this goal, we have created a new morphological classification method which (1) includes all the available observational data, (2) can be easily reproduced, and (3) presents a negligible subjectivity. This method allows us to study homogeneously the morphology of local and distant galaxies. The first step has been to study the evolution of galaxies using the IMAGES survey. This survey allowed us to establish the kinematic state of distant galaxies, to study the chemical evolution of galaxies over the past 8 Gyr, and to test important dynamical relations such as the Tully-Fisher relation. The information gained from kinematics is, indeed, crucial to guarantee a robust understanding of the different physical processes leading to the present day Hubble sequence. Using Integral Field Spectroscopy, we have been able to test our new morphologica...

  4. The DEEP Groth Strip Survey IX: Evolution of the Fundamental Plane of Field Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gebhardt, K; Koo, D C; Im, M; Simard, L C; Illingworth, G D; Phillips, A C; Sarajedini, V L; Vogt, N P; Weiner, B; Willmer, C N A; Gebhardt, Karl; Koo, David C.; Im, Myungshin; Simard, Luc; Illingworth, Garth D.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Sarajedini, Vicki L.; Vogt, Nicole P.; Weiner, Benjamin; Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental Plane studies provide an excellent means of understanding the evolutionary history of early-type galaxies. Using the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on the Keck telescope, we obtained internal stellar kinematic information for 36 field galaxies in the Groth Strip--21 early-type and 15 disk galaxies. Their redshifts range from 0.3--1.0, with a median redshift 0.8. The slope of the relation shows no difference compared with the local slope. However, there is significant evolution in the zero-point offset; an offset due to evolution in magnitude requires a 2.4 magnitude luminosity brightening at z=1. We see little differences of the offset with bulge fraction, which is a good surrogate for galaxy type. Correcting for the luminosity evolution reduces the orthogonal scatter in the Fundamental Plane to 8%, consistent with the local scatter. This scatter is measured for our sample, and does not include results from other studies which may have different selection effects. The difference in the degree...

  5. Some effects of dust on photometry of high-z galaxies: Confounding the effects of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Witt, A. N.; Capuano, J.

    1993-01-01

    Photometric observations of very distant galaxies--e.g., color vs. z or magnitude vs. z, have been used over the past decade or so in investigations into the evolution of the stellar component. Numerous studies have predicted significant color variations as a result of evolution, in addition to the shifting of different rest wavelengths into the band of observation. Although there is significant scatter, the data can be fit with relatively straightforward, plausible models for galaxian evolution. In very few cases are the effects of dust extinction included in the models. This is due in a large part to the uncertainty about the distribution and optical properties of the grains, and even whether or not they are present in significant numbers in some types of galaxies such as ellipticals. It is likely that the effects of dust on broadband observations are the greatest uncertainty in studies of very distant galaxies. We use a detailed Monte Carlo radiative transfer model within a spherical geometry for different star/dust distributions to examine the effects of dust on the broadband colors of galaxies as a function of redshift. The model fully accounts for absorption and angular redistribution in scattering. In this summary, we consider only the effects on color vs. redshift for three simple geometries each with the same total dust optical depth. Elsewhere at this conference, Capuano, Thronson, & Witt consider other effects of altering the relative dust/star distribution.

  6. Co-evolution of nuclear star clusters, massive black holes and their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Antonini, Fabio; Silk, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Studying how nuclear star clusters (NSCs) form and how they are related to the growth of the central massive black holes (MBHs) and their host galaxies is fundamental for our understanding of the evolution of galaxies and the processes that have shaped their central structures. We present the results of a semi-analytical galaxy formation model that follows the evolution of dark matter halos along merger trees, as well as that of the baryonic components. This model allows us to study the evolution of NSCs in a cosmological context, by taking into account the growth of NSCs due to both dynamical friction-driven migration of stellar clusters and star formation triggered by infalling gas, while also accounting for dynamical heating from (binary) MBHs. We find that in-situ star formation contributes a significant fraction (up to ~40%) of the total mass of NSCs in our model. Both NSC growth through in-situ star formation and through star cluster migration are found to generate NSC -- host galaxy scaling correlation...

  7. The structural and size evolution of star-forming galaxies over the last 11 Gyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino-Afonso, Ana; Sobral, David; Buitrago, Fernando; Afonso, José

    2017-03-01

    We present new results on the evolution of rest-frame blue/UV sizes and Sérsic indices of Hα-selected star-forming galaxies over the last 11 Gyr. We investigate how the perceived evolution can be affected by a range of biases and systematics such as cosmological dimming and resolution effects. We use GALFIT and an artificial redshifting technique, which includes the luminosity evolution of Hα-selected galaxies, to quantify the change on the measured structural parameters with redshift. We find typical sizes of 2-3 kpc and Sérsic indices of n ∼ 1.2, close to pure exponential discs all the way from z = 2.23 to z = 0.4. At z = 0, we find typical sizes of 4-5 kpc. Our results show that, when using GALFIT, cosmological dimming has a negligible impact on the derived effective radius for galaxies with growth of discs where star formation is ongoing in galaxies while their profiles remain close to exponential discs, n ≲ 1.5, across the same period.

  8. Evolution of Galaxies and the Star Formation Rate in the Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahre, Michael A.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    A central goal of extragalactic observational astronomy is to understand how normal galaxies evolve with redshift, and particularly when galaxies formed their stars. While optical and rest-frame UV observations have begun to address these issues, the interpretation of such data is particularly challenging because of the sensitivity to dust obscuration (at optical and UV wavelengths). The absorbed light is re-radiated at IR wavelengths, hence the optimal indicators of the star formation rate (SFR) is at a rest-frame wavelength of approx. 60 microns. The Spitzer Space Telescope mission is revolutionizing the study of the global properties and evolution of galaxies. Spitzer reaches nearly two orders of magnitude more sensitivity than previous IR space missions. This research program is to study the SFR using statistical samples of galaxies in the local universe, at intermediate redshifts, and set the stage for continuing studies up to z=5. The overall research program is divided into three main investigations: A Mid-IR Hubble Atlas and SFR estimators in the local universe, Evolution of the SFR at 0 formation and evolution at 1 < z < 5. The first papers from Spitzer were published during the last year, including ten refereed journal papers where the PI was first or co-author.

  9. The Size Evolution of Passive Galaxies: Observations from the Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science Program

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, R E; Cohen, S H; Yan, H; Hathi, N P; Koekemoer, A M; Rutkowski, M J; Mechtley, M R; Windhorst, R A; O'Connell, R W; Balick, B; Bond, H E; Bushouse, H; Calzetti, D; Crockett, R M; Disney, M; Dopita, M A; Frogel, J A; Hall, D N B; Holtzman, J A; Kaviraj, S; Kimble, R A; MacKenty, J; Mutchler, M; Paresce, F; Saha, A; Silk, J I; Trauger, J; Walker, A R; Whitmore, B C; Young, E

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies at 11.5. We identify 30 galaxies in ~40 square arcmin to H<25 mag. We supplement spectroscopic redshifts from the literature with photometric redshifts determined from the 15-band photometry from 0.22-8 micron. We determine effective radii from Sersic profile fits to the H-band image using an empirical PSF. We find that size evolution is a strong function of stellar mass, with the most massive (M* ~ 10^11 Msol) galaxies undergoing the most rapid evolution from z~2 to the present. Parameterizing the size evolution as (1+z)^{-alpha}, we find a tentative scaling between alpha and stellar mass of alpha ~ -1.8+1.4 log(M*/10^9 Msol). We briefly discuss the implications of this result for our understanding of the dynamical evolution of the red galaxies.

  10. The evolution of superbubbles and the detection of Lyman $\\alpha$ in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Kunth, D; Terlevich, E; Terlevich, R J; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergey A.; Kunth, Daniel; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The detection of Ly alpha emission in star-forming galaxies in different shapes and intensities (always smaller than predicted for case B recombination) has puzzled the astronomical community for more than a decade. Here we use two dimensional calculations to follow the evolution of superbubbles and of the H II regions generated by the output of UV photons from massive stars. We show the impact caused by massive star formation in the ISM of different galaxies and we look at the conditions required to detect Ly alpha emission from a nuclear H II region, and the variety of profiles that may be expected as a function of time.

  11. Mass and Environment as Drivers of Galaxy Evolution: Simplicity and its Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yingjie

    2012-01-01

    The galaxy population appears to be composed of infinitely complex different types and properties at first sight, however, when large samples of galaxies are studied, it appears that the vast majority of galaxies just follow simple scaling relations and similar evolutional modes while the outliers represent some minority. The underlying simplicities of the interrelationships among stellar mass, star formation rate and environment are seen in SDSS and zCOSMOS. We demonstrate that the differential effects of mass and environment are completely separable to z 1, indicating that two distinct physical processes are operating, namely the "mass quenching" and "environment quenching". These two simple quenching processes, plus some additional quenching due to merging, then naturally produce the Schechter form of the galaxy stellar mass functions and make quantitative predictions for the inter-relationships between the Schechter parameters of star-forming and passive galaxies in different environments. All of these detailed quantitative relationships are indeed seen, to very high precision, in SDSS, lending strong support to our simple empirically-based model. The model also offers qualitative explanations for the "anti-hierarchical" age-mass relation and the alpha-enrichment patterns for passive galaxies and makes some other testable predictions such as the mass function of the population of transitory objects that are in the process of being quenched, the galaxy major- and minor-merger rates, the galaxy stellar mass assembly history, star formation history and etc. Although still purely phenomenological, the model makes clear what the evolutionary characteristics of the relevant physical processes must in fact be.

  12. ZFOURGE/CANDELS: On the Evolution of M* Galaxy Progenitors from z = 3 to 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, C.; Labbé, I.; Quadri, R.; Tilvi, V.; Behroozi, P.; Bell, E. F.; Glazebrook, K.; Spitler, L.; Straatman, C. M. S.; Tran, K.-V.; Cowley, M.; Davé, R.; Dekel, A.; Dickinson, M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Gawiser, E.; Inami, H.; Faber, S. M.; Kacprzak, G. G.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Kocevski, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Koo, D. C.; Kurczynski, P.; Lotz, J. M.; Lu, Y.; Lucas, R. A.; McIntosh, D.; Mehrtens, N.; Mobasher, B.; Monson, A.; Morrison, G.; Nanayakkara, T.; Persson, S. E.; Salmon, B.; Simons, R.; Tomczak, A.; van Dokkum, P.; Weiner, B.; Willner, S. P.

    2015-04-01

    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M*, at 5 × 1010 M ⊙ (defined here to be MW-mass) and 1011 M ⊙ (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z ~ 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M* galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z ~ 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the Sérsic index. Therefore, the growth

  13. ZFOURGE/CANDELS: ON THE EVOLUTION OF M* GALAXY PROGENITORS FROM z = 3 TO 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papovich, C.; Quadri, R.; Tilvi, V.; Tran, K.-V. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Labbé, I.; Straatman, C. M. S. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Behroozi, P.; Ferguson, H. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Glazebrook, K.; Kacprzak, G. G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Spitler, L.; Cowley, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Davé, R. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Dekel, A. [Center of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Dickinson, M.; Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gawiser, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Faber, S. M., E-mail: papovich@tamu.edu [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2015-04-10

    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M*, at 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} (defined here to be MW-mass) and 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z ∼ 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M* galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z ∼ 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the S

  14. Tidal torques and the clusters of galaxies evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Popolo, A D

    1998-01-01

    We study the effect of tidal torques on the collapse of density peaks through the equations of motion of a shell of barionic matter falling into the central regions of a cluster of galaxies. We calculate the time of collapse of the perturbation taking into account the gravitational interaction of the quadrupole moment of the system with the tidal field of the matter of the neighbouring proto-clusters. We show that within high-density environments, such as rich clusters of galaxies, tidal torques slow down the collapse of low shell and, as a consequence, a reduction in the mass bound to the collapsed perturbation. Moreover, the delay of the collapse produces a tendency for less dense regions to accrete less mass, with respect to a classical spherical model, inducing a biasing of over-dense regions toward higher mass. Finally we calculate the bias coefficient using a selection function properly defined showing that for a Standard Cold Dark Matter (SCDM) model this bias can account for a substantial part of the ...

  15. Evolution of the ISM in Luminous IR Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Baan, W A; Spaans, M

    2010-01-01

    Molecules that trace the high-density regions of the interstellar medium may be used to evaluate the changing physical and chemical environment during the ongoing nuclear activity in (Ultra-)Luminous Infrared Galaxies. The changing ratios of the HCN(1-0), HNC(1-0), HCO+(1-0), CN(1-0) and CN(2-1), and CS(3-2) transitions were compared with the HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) ratio, which is proposed to represent the progression time scale of the starburst. These diagnostic diagrams were interpreted using the results of theoretical modeling using a large physical and chemical network to describe the state of the nuclear ISM in the evolving galaxies. Systematic changes are seen in the line ratios as the sources evolve from early stage for the nuclear starburst (ULIRGs) to later stages. These changes result from changing environmental conditions and particularly from the lowering of the average density of the medium. A temperature rise due to mechanical heating of the medium by feedback explains the lowering of the ratios at la...

  16. Properties and short-time evolution of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chuprikov, A

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the results of processing of data of observations which had been carried out with the VLBA during 10 last years. All the data have been retrieved from archive of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (USA NRAO, Socorro, New Mexico). Particularly, we examine data of VLBA observational sessions titled BK068, BL111, BL137, BL149, and BD086. Objects of our interest are near galaxies with z < 0.02. The radio maps of compact structure around the active galactic nuclei (AGN) reconstructed for two such galaxies (NGC315 and 3C274) in U frequency band (15 GHz) are presented. Some parameters of these sources are shown in Table 1. We have to perform the careful amplitude and phase calibration for all the data. Particularly, a correction of the delay caused by the Earth atmosphere has been made because it is necessary in this frequency range. Bright quasars close to the target sources (for instance, J0136+4751 and 3C279 correspondingly) are used as atmosphere calibrators. Secondly, the Multi Frequency Syn...

  17. Galaxy evolution. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, E; Reeves, J N; Gofford, J; Harrison, F A; Risaliti, G; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Matzeu, G A; Walton, D J; Behar, E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Matt, G; Miller, J M; O'Brien, P T; Stern, D; Turner, T J; Ward, M J

    2015-02-20

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution.

  18. Structure, dynamics and evolution of disk galaxies in a hierarchical formation scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Firmani, C

    1999-01-01

    Using galaxy evolutionary models in a hierarchical formation scenario, we predict the structure, dynamics and evolution of disk galaxies in a LCDM universe. Our models include star formation and hydrodynamics of the ISM. We find that the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) in the I and H bands is an imprint of the mass-velocity relation of the cosmological dark halos. The scatter of the TFR originates mainly from the scatter in the dark halo structure and, to a minor extension, from the dispersion of the primordial spin parameter lambda. Our models allow us to explain why low and high surface brightness galaxies have the same TFR. The disk gas fractions predicted agree with the observations. The disks formed within the growing halos have nearly exponential surface brightness and flat rotation curves. Towards high redshifts, the zero-point of the TFR in the H band increases while in the B-band it slightly decreases.

  19. Disentangling Morphology, Star Formation, Stellar Mass, and Environment in Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Christlein, D; Christlein, Daniel; Zabludoff, Ann

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the spectroscopic and photometric properties of galaxies in six nearby clusters. We perform a partial correlation analysis on our dataset to investigate whether the correlation between star formation rates in galaxies and their environment is merely another aspect of correlations of morphology, stellar mass, or mean stellar age with environment, or whether star formation rates vary independently of these other correlations. We find a residual correlation of ongoing star formation with environment, indicating that even galaxies with similar morphologies, stellar masses, and mean stellar ages have lower star formation rates in denser environments. Thus, the current star formation gradient in clusters is not just another aspect of the morphology-density, stellar mass-density, or mean stellar age-density relations. Furthermore, the star formation gradient cannot be solely the result of initial conditions, but must partly be due to subsequent evolution through a mechanism (or mechanisms) sens...

  20. The evolution of galaxies at constant number density: a less biased view of star formation, quenching, and structural formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownsworth, Jamie R.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Mundy, Carl J.; Mortlock, Alice; Hartley, William G.; Duncan, Kenneth; Almaini, Omar

    2016-09-01

    Due to significant galaxy contamination and impurity in stellar mass selected samples (up to 95 per cent from z = 0-3), we examine the star formation history, quenching time-scales, and structural evolution of galaxies using a constant number density selection with data from the United Kingdom Infra-Red Deep Sky Survey Ultra-Deep Survey field. Using this methodology, we investigate the evolution of galaxies at a variety of number densities from z = 0-3. We find that samples chosen at number densities ranging from 3 × 10-4 to 10-5 galaxies Mpc-3 (corresponding to z ˜ 0.5 stellar masses of M* = 1010.95-11.6 M0) have a star-forming blue fraction of ˜50 per cent at z ˜ 2.5, which evolves to a nearly 100 per cent quenched red and dead population by z ˜ 1. We also see evidence for number density downsizing, such that the galaxies selected at the lowest densities (highest masses) become a homogeneous red population before those at higher number densities. Examining the evolution of the colours for these systems furthermore shows that the formation redshift of galaxies selected at these number densities is zform > 3. The structural evolution through size and Sérsic index fits reveal that while there remains evolution in terms of galaxies becoming larger and more concentrated in stellar mass at lower redshifts, the magnitude of the change is significantly smaller than for a mass-selected sample. We also find that changes in size and structure continues at z < 1, and is coupled strongly to passivity evolution. We conclude that galaxy structure is driving the quenching of galaxies, such that galaxies become concentrated before they become passive.

  1. A new galactic chemical evolution model with dust: results for dwarf irregular galaxies and DLA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, L.; Matteucci, F.; Vladilo, G.; Calura, F.

    2016-09-01

    We present a galactic chemical evolution model which adopts updated prescriptions for all the main processes governing the dust cycle. We follow in detail the evolution of the abundances of several chemical species (C, O, S, Si, Fe and Zn) in the gas and dust of a typical dwarf irregular galaxy. The dwarf irregular galaxy is assumed to evolve with a low but continuous level of star formation and experience galactic winds triggered by supernova explosions. We predict the evolution of the gas to dust ratio in such a galaxy and discuss critically the main processes involving dust, such as dust production by AGB stars and Type II SNe, destruction and accretion (gas condensation in clouds). We then apply our model to Damped Lyman-α systems which are believed to be dwarf irregulars, as witnessed by their abundance patterns. Our main conclusions are: i) we can reproduce the observed gas to dust ratio in dwarf galaxies. ii) We find that the process of dust accretion plays a fundamental role in the evolution of dust and in certain cases it becomes the dominant process in the dust cycle. On the other hand, dust destruction seems to be a negligible process in irregulars. iii) Concerning Damped Lyman-α systems, we show that the observed gas-phase abundances of silicon, normalized to volatile elements (zinc and sulfur), are in agreement with our model. iv) The abundances of iron and silicon in DLA systems suggest that the two elements undergo a different history of dust formation and evolution. Our work casts light on the nature of iron-rich dust: the observed depletion pattern of iron is well reproduced only when an additional source of iron dust is considered. Here we explore the possibility of a contribution from Type Ia SNe as well as an efficient accretion of iron nano-particles.

  2. A new galactic chemical evolution model with dust: results for dwarf irregular galaxies and DLA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, L.; Matteucci, F.; Vladilo, G.; Calura, F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a galactic chemical evolution model which adopts updated prescriptions for all the main processes governing the dust cycle. We follow in detail the evolution of the abundances of several chemical species (C, O, S, Si, Fe and Zn) in the gas and dust of a typical dwarf irregular galaxy. The dwarf irregular galaxy is assumed to evolve with a low but continuous level of star formation and experience galactic winds triggered by supernova (SN) explosions. We predict the evolution of the gas to dust ratio in such a galaxy and discuss critically the main processes involving dust, such as dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars and Type II SNe, destruction and accretion (gas condensation in clouds). We then apply our model to damped Lyman α (DLA) systems which are believed to be dwarf irregulars, as witnessed by their abundance patterns. Our main conclusions are the following. (i) We can reproduce the observed gas to dust ratio in dwarf galaxies. (ii) We find that the process of dust accretion plays a fundamental role in the evolution of dust and in certain cases it becomes the dominant process in the dust cycle. On the other hand, dust destruction seems to be a negligible process in irregulars. (iii) Concerning DLA systems, we show that the observed gas-phase abundances of silicon, normalized to volatile elements (zinc and sulfur), are in agreement with our model. (iv) The abundances of iron and silicon in DLA systems suggest that the two elements undergo a different history of dust formation and evolution. Our work casts light on the nature of iron-rich dust: the observed depletion pattern of iron is well reproduced only when an additional source of iron dust is considered. Here we explore the possibility of a contribution from Type Ia SNe as well as an efficient accretion of iron nanoparticles.

  3. Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution : an EMIR survey I. Presentation of the data and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costagliola, F.; Aalto, S.; Rodriguez, M. I.; Muller, S.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Martin, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lindberg, J. E.; Batejat, F.; Juette, E.; Lahuis, F.; van der Werf, Paul P.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the molecular gas properties of a sample of 23 galaxies in order to find and test chemical signatures of galaxy evolution and to compare them to IR evolutionary tracers. Methods. Observation at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the EMIR broadband receiver, mounted on the IRAM

  4. Further constraints on the evolution of K-s-selected galaxies in the GOODS/CDFS field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, KI; McLure, RJ; Dunlop, JS; Cirasuolo, M; Schael, AM

    2006-01-01

    We have selected and analysed the properties of a sample of 2905 K-s <21.5 galaxies in similar to 131 arcmin(2) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS), to obtain further constraints on the evolution of K-s-selected galaxies with respect to the results

  5. Low-ionization galaxies and evolution in a pilot survey up to z=1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edmond Giraud; Qiu-Sheng Gu; Jorge Melnick; Hernan Quintana; Fernando Selman; Ignacio Toledo; Paula Zelaya

    2011-01-01

    We present galactic spectroscopic data from a pencil beam of 10.75' × 7.5'centered on the X-ray cluster RXJ0054.0-2823 at z = 0.29.We study the spectral evolution of galaxies from z = 1 down to the cluster redshift in a magnitude-limited sample at R ≤ 23, for which the statistical properties of the sample are well understood.We divide emission-line galaxies into star-forming galaxies, Low Ionization Nuclear Emission line Regions (LINERs), and Seyferts by using emission-line ratios of [OⅡ], Hβ, and [OⅢ], and derive stellar fractions from population synthesis models.We focus our analysis on absorption and low-ionization galaxies.For absorption-line galaxies, we recover the well-known result that these galaxies have had no detectable evolution since z ~ 0.6 - 0.7, but we also find that in the range z = 0.65 - 1, at least 50% of the stars in bright absorption systems are younger than 2.5 Gyr.Faint absorption-line galaxies in the cluster at z = 0.29 also had significant star formation during the previous 2 - 3 Gyr, but their brighter counterparts seem to be only composed of old stars.At z ~ 0.8, our dynamically young cluster had a truncated red-sequence.This result seems to be consistent with a scenario where the final assembly of E/S0 took place at z < 1.In the volume-limited range 0.35 ≤ z ≤ 0.65,we find that 23% of the early-type galaxies have LINER-like spectra with Hβ in absorption and have a significant component of A stars.The vast majority of LINERs in our sample have significant populations of young and intermediate-aged stars and are thus not related to AGNs, but to the population of ‘retired galaxies’ recently identified by Cid Fernandes et al.in the Sioan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS).Early-type LINERs with various fractions of A stars and E+A galaxies appear to play an important role in the formation of the red sequence.

  6. Galaxy evolution in cosmological simulations with outflows - II. Metallicities and gas fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.

    2011-09-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to investigate how inflows, star formation and outflows govern the gaseous and metal content of galaxies within a hierarchical structure formation context. In our simulations, galaxy metallicities are established by a balance between inflows and outflows as governed by the mass outflow rate, implying that the mass-metallicity relation reflects how the outflow rate varies with stellar mass. Gas content, meanwhile, is set by a competition between inflow into and gas consumption within the interstellar medium, the latter being governed by the star formation law, while the former is impacted by both wind recycling and preventive feedback. Stochastic variations in the inflow rate move galaxies off the equilibrium mass-metallicity and mass-gas fraction relations in a manner correlated with the star formation rate, and the scatter is set by the time-scale to re-equilibrate. The evolution of both relations from z= 3 → 0 is slow, as individual galaxies tend to evolve mostly along the relations. Gas fractions at a given stellar mass slowly decrease with time because the cosmic inflow rate diminishes faster than the consumption rate, while metallicities slowly increase as infalling gas becomes more enriched. Observations from z˜ 3 → 0 are better matched by simulations employing momentum-driven wind scalings rather than constant wind speeds, but all models predict too low gas fractions at low masses and too high metallicities at high masses. All our models reproduce observed second-parameter trends of the mass-metallicity relation with the star formation rate and environment, indicating that these are a consequence of equilibrium and not feedback. Overall, the analytical framework of our equilibrium scenario broadly captures the relevant physics establishing the galaxy gas and metal content in simulations, which suggests that the cycle of baryonic inflows and outflows centrally governs the cosmic evolution of these properties

  7. Constraint on dust evolution processes in normal galaxies at $z>6$ detected by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W -C; Hou, K -C

    2016-01-01

    Recent ALMA observations of high-redshift normal galaxies have been providing a great opportunity to clarify the general origin of dust in the Universe, not biased to very bright special objects even at $z>6$. To clarify what constraint we can get for the dust enrichment in normal galaxies detected by ALMA, we use a theoretical model that includes major processes driving dust evolution in a galaxy; that is, dust condensation in stellar ejecta, dust growth by the accretion of gas-phase metals, and supernova destruction. Using the dust emission fluxes detected in two normal galaxies at $z>6$ by ALMA as a constraint, we can get the range of the time-scales (or efficiencies) of the above mentioned processes. We find that if we assume extremely high condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta ($f_{\\mathrm{in}} \\ga 0.5$), rapid dust enrichment by stellar sources in the early phase may be enough to explain the observed ALMA flux, unless dust destruction by supernovae in those galaxies is stronger than that in nearby g...

  8. CFHTLenS: Co-evolution of galaxies and their dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Michael J; Coupon, Jean; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hoekstra, Henk; Kitching, Thomas D; Mellier, Yannick; Miller, Lance; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Bonnett, Christopher; Fu, Liping; Kuijken, Konrad; Rowe, Barnaby; Schrabback, Tim; Semboloni, Elisabetta; van Uitert, Edo; Velander, Malin

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy weak lensing is a direct probe of the mean matter distribution around galaxies. The depth and sky coverage of the CFHT Legacy Survey yield statistically significant galaxy halo mass measurements over a much wider range of stellar masses ($10^{8.75}$ to $10^{11.3} M_{\\odot}$) and redshifts ($0.2 < z < 0.8$) than previous weak lensing studies. The stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR) reaches a maximum of $3.4\\pm0.2$ percent as a function of halo mass at $\\sim 10^{12.25} M_{\\odot}$ (at redshift $z =0.5$). We find, for the first time from weak lensing alone, evidence for significant evolution in the SHMR: the peak ratio falls as a function of cosmic time from $3.8 \\pm 0.3$ percent at $z \\sim 0.7$ to $3.0 \\pm 0.2$ percent at $z \\sim 0.3$, and shifts to lower stellar mass haloes. These evolutionary trends are dominated by red galaxies, and are consistent with a model in which the stellar mass above which star formation is quenched "downsizes" with cosmic time. In contrast, the SHMR of blue, star-fo...

  9. The Evolution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Clusters of Galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bufanda, E; Jeltema, T E; Rykoff, E S; Rozo, E; Martini, P; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Banerji, M; Benoit-Levy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Goldstein, D A; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; Marshall, J L; Melchior, P; Miquel, R; Mohr, J J; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Rooney, P; Sanchez, E; Santiago, B; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Tucker, D L; Walker, A R

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and environment provides important clues to AGN fueling and the relationship of black hole growth to galaxy evolution. In this paper, we analyze the fraction of galaxies in clusters hosting AGN as a function of redshift and cluster richness for X-ray detected AGN associated with clusters of galaxies in Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. The present sample includes 33 AGN with L_X > 10^43 ergs s^-1 in non-central, host galaxies with luminosity greater than 0.5 L* from a total sample of 432 clusters in the redshift range of 0.10.7. This result is in good agreement with previous work and parallels the increase in star formation in cluster galaxies over the same redshift range. However, the AGN fraction in clusters is observed to have no significant correlation with cluster mass. Future analyses with DES Year 1 and 2 data will be able to clarify whether AGN activity is correlated to cluster mass and will tightly constrain the relationship betwe...

  10. Simulation of the Cosmic Evolution of Atomic and Molecular Hydrogen in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Obreschkow, D; De Lucia, G; Khochfar, S; Rawlings, S

    2009-01-01

    We present a simulation of the cosmic evolution of the atomic and molecular phases of the cold hydrogen gas in about 3e7 galaxies, obtained by post-processing the virtual galaxy catalog produced by (De Lucia et al. 2007) on the Millennium Simulation of cosmic structure (Springel et al. 2005). Our method uses a set of physical prescriptions to assign neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) and molecular hydrogen (H2) to galaxies, based on their total cold gas masses and a few additional galaxy properties. These prescriptions are specially designed for large cosmological simulations, where, given current computational limitations, individual galaxies can only be represented by simplistic model-objects with a few global properties. Our recipes allow us to (i) split total cold gas masses between HI, H2, and Helium, (ii) assign realistic sizes to both the HI- and H2-disks, and (iii) evaluate the corresponding velocity profiles and shapes of the characteristic radio emission lines. The results presented in this paper include ...

  11. Molecular Gas Content of HI Monsters and Implications to Cold Gas Content Evolution in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Cheoljong; Yun, Min S; Cybulski, Ryan; Narayanan, G; Erickson, N

    2014-01-01

    We present 12CO (J=1-0) observations of a sample of local galaxies (0.043e10Msun from the ALFALFA survey and 8 LSBs with a comparable M(HI) (>1.5e10Msun). Our sample selection is purely based on the amount of neutral hydrogen, thereby providing a chance to study how atomic and molecular gas relate to each other in these HI-massive systems. We have detected CO in 15 out of 20 ALFALFA selected galaxies and 4 out of 8 LSBs with molecular gas mass M(H2) of (1-11)e9Msun. Their total cold gas masses of (2-7e10Msun make them some of the most gas-massive galaxies identified to date in the Local Universe. Observed trends associated with HI, H2, and stellar properties of the HI massive galaxies and the field comparison sample are analyzed in the context of theoretical models of galaxy cold gas content and evolution, and the importance of total gas content and improved recipes for handling spatially differentiated behaviors of disk and halo gas are identified as potential areas of improvement for the modeling.

  12. The evolution of active galactic nuclei in clusters of galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufanda, E.; Hollowood, D.; Jeltema, T. E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Rozo, E.; Martini, P.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rooney, P.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The correlation between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and environment provides important clues to AGN fuelling and the relationship of black hole growth to galaxy evolution. In this paper, we analyse the fraction of galaxies in clusters hosting AGN as a function of redshift and cluster richness for X-ray-detected AGN associated with clusters of galaxies in Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. The present sample includes 33 AGNs with LX > 1043 erg s-1 in non-central, host galaxies with luminosity greater than 0.5L* from a total sample of 432 clusters in the redshift range of 0.1 0.7. This result is in good agreement with previous work and parallels the increase in star formation in cluster galaxies over the same redshift range. However, the AGN fraction in clusters is observed to have no significant correlation with cluster mass. Future analyses with DES Year 1 through Year 3 data will be able to clarify whether AGN activity is correlated to cluster mass and will tightly constrain the relationship between cluster AGN populations and redshift.

  13. The Horizon-AGN simulation: evolution of galaxy properties over cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, S.; Laigle, C.; Kimm, T.; Devriendt, J. E. G.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Slyz, A.; Chisari, E.; Peirani, S.

    2017-01-01

    We compare the predictions of Horizon-AGN, a hydro-dynamical cosmological simulation that uses an adaptive mesh refinement code, to observational data in the redshift range 0 formation main sequence, rest-frame UV-optical-near infrared colours and the cosmic star-formation history. We show that Horizon-AGN, which is not tuned to reproduce the local Universe, produces good overall agreement with these quantities, from the present day to the epoch when the Universe was 5% of its current age. By comparison to Horizon-noAGN, a twin simulation without AGN feedback, we quantify how feedback from black holes is likely to help shape galaxy stellar-mass growth in the redshift range 0 < z < 6, particularly in the most massive galaxies. Our results demonstrate that Horizon-AGN successfully captures the evolutionary trends of observed galaxies over the lifetime of the Universe, making it an excellent tool for studying the processes that drive galaxy evolution and making predictions for the next generation of galaxy surveys.

  14. THE METALLICITY EVOLUTION OF BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES FROM THE INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT TO THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianhui; Hu, Ning; Ye, Chengyun; Kong, Xu [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Fang, Guanwen, E-mail: ljhhw@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [Institute for Astronomy and History of Science and Technology, Dali University, Dali 671003 (China)

    2016-03-01

    We present oxygen abundance measurements for 74 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies in the redshift range of [0.2, 0.5] using the strong-line method. The spectra of these objects are taken using Hectospec on the Multiple Mirror Telescope. More than half of these BCDs had dust attenuation corrected using the Balmer decrement method. For comparison, we also selected a sample of 2023 local BCDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. Based on the local and intermediate-z BCD samples, we investigated the cosmic evolution of the metallicity, star formation rate (SFR), and D{sub n}(4000) index. Compared with local BCDs, the intermediate-z BCDs had a systematically higher R23 ratio but a similar O32 ratio. Interestingly, no significant deviation in the mass–metallicity (MZ) relation was found between the intermediate-z and local BCDs. Besides the metallicity, the intermediate-z BCDs also exhibited an SFR distribution that was consistent with local BCDs, suggesting a weak dependence on redshift. The intermediate-z BCDs seemed to be younger than the local BCDs with lower D{sub n}(4000) index values. The insignificant deviation in the mass–metallicity and mass–SFR relations between intermediate-z and local BCDs indicates that the relations between the global parameters of low-mass compact galaxies may be universal. These results from low-mass compact galaxies could be used to place important observational constraints on galaxy formation and evolution models.

  15. On the Origin and Evolution of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Kelson, Daniel D; Abramson, Louis E

    2016-01-01

    Here we explore the evolution of galaxy ensembles at early times by writing the in situ stellar mass growth of galaxies purely as a stationary stochastic (e.g., quasi-steady state) process. By combining the mathematics of such processes with Newtonian gravity and a mean local star formation efficiency, we show that the stellar mass evolution of galaxy ensembles is directly related to the average acceleration of baryons onto dark matter halos at the onset of star formation, with explicit dependencies on initial local matter densities and halo mass. The density term specifically implies more rapid average rates of growth in higher density regions of the universe compared to low density regions, i.e., assembly bias. With this framework, using standard cosmological parameters, a mean star formation efficiency derived by other authors, and knowledge of the shape of the cosmological matter power spectrum at small scales, we analytically derive (1) the characteristic stellar masses of galaxies (M*), (2) the power-la...

  16. The role of gas infall in the evolution of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollá, Mercedes; Díaz, Ángeles I.; Gibson, Brad K.; Cavichia, Oscar; López-Sánchez, Ángel-R.

    2016-10-01

    Spiral galaxies are thought to acquire their gas through a protracted infall phase resulting in the inside-out growth of their associated discs. For field spirals, this infall occurs in the lower density environments of the cosmic web. The overall infall rate, as well as the galactocentric radius at which this infall is incorporated into the star-forming disc, plays a pivotal role in shaping the characteristics observed today. Indeed, characterizing the functional form of this spatio-temporal infall in situ is exceedingly difficult, and one is forced to constrain these forms using the present day state of galaxies with model or simulation predictions. We present the infall rates used as input to a grid of chemical evolution models spanning the mass spectrum of discs observed today. We provide a systematic comparison with alternate analytical infall schemes in the literature, including a first comparison with cosmological simulations. Identifying the degeneracies associated with the adopted infall rate prescriptions in galaxy models is an important step in the development of a consistent picture of disc galaxy formation and evolution.

  17. The growth of disks and bulges during hierarchical galaxy formation. I: fast evolution vs secular processes

    CERN Document Server

    Tonini, Chiara; Croton, Darren J; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the evolution of mass, angular momentum and size of galaxy disks and bulges, and we implement it into the semi-analytic galaxy formation code SAGE. The model follows both secular and violent evolutionary channels, including smooth accretion, disk instabilities, minor and major mergers. We find that the combination of our recipe with hierarchical clustering produces two distinct populations of bulges: merger-driven bulges, akin to classical bulges and ellipticals, and instability-driven bulges, akin to secular (or pseudo-)bulges. The model can successfully reproduce the mass-size relation of gaseous and stellar disks, the evolution of the mass-size relation of ellipticals, the Faber-Jackson relation, and the magnitude-colour diagram of classical and secular bulges. The model predicts only a small overlap of merger-driven and instability-driven components in the same galaxy, and predicts different bulge types as a function of galaxy mass and disk fraction. Bulge type also affe...

  18. Star cluster evolution in dark matter dominated galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praagman, Anneke; Hurley, Jarrod; Power, Chris

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the external tidal field of a dark matter halo on the dynamical evolution of star clusters using direct N-body simulations, where we assume that the halo is described by a Navarro, Frenk and White mass profile which has an inner density cusp. We assess how varying the

  19. Spin-orbit dilution effects on the magnetism of frustrated spinel Ge(Co1-xMgx)2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Ryotaro; Takita, Shota; Ishikawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Tadataka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated magnetic properties of spinel oxides Ge(Co1-xMgx)2O4 with x = 0 ~ 0.5 to study the spin-orbit dilution effects on the magnetism of spin-orbit frustrated spinel GeCo2O4. We discovered that the magnetic moment per single Co2+ ion is decreased with increasing nonmagnetic Mg2+ concentration, which indicates the spin-orbit decoupling caused by the spin-orbit dilution. Additionally, small-amount substitution of Mg2+ for Co2+ causes the rapid increase of the positive Weiss temperature indicating the enhancement of ferromagnetic interactions, while the Mg2+ substitution suppresses the antiferromagnetic ordering resulting in the appearance of spin glass behavior. The present results suggest that the spin-orbit dilution causes the spin-orbit decoupling and the reinforcement of ferromagnetic frustration in GeCo2O4.

  20. Cosmic Star Formation History from Local Observations and an Outline for Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Hartwick, F D A

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to reconstruct the cosmic star formation rate density history from local observations and in doing so to gain insight into how galaxies might have formed and evolved. A new chemical evolution model is described which accounts for the formation of globular clusters as well as the accompanying field stars. When this model is used in conjunction with the observed age metallicity relations for the clusters and with input which allows for the formation of the nearly universally observed bimodal distribution of globular clusters, star formation rates are obtained. By confining attention to a representative volume of the local universe, these rates allow a successful reconstruction of the Madau plot while complementary results similtaneously satisfy many local cosmological constraints. A physical framework for galaxy formation is presented which incorporates the results from this chemical evolution model and assumes an anisotropic collapse. In addition to providing the `classical' h...

  1. Morphologies of ~190,000 Galaxies at z=0-10 Revealed with HST Legacy Data II. Evolution of Clumpy Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shibuya, Takatoshi; Kubo, Mariko; Harikane, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate evolution of clumpy galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) samples of ~190,000 photo-z and Lyman break galaxies at z~0-8. We detect clumpy galaxies with off-center clumps in a self-consistent algorithm that is well tested with previous study results, and measure the number fraction of clumpy galaxies at the rest-frame UV, f_clumpy^UV. We identify an evolutionary trend of f_clumpy^UV over z~0-8 for the first time: f_clumpy^UV increases from z~8 to z~1-3 and subsequently decreases from z~1 to z~0, which follows the trend of Madau-Lilly plot. A low average Sersic index of n~1 is found in the underlining components of our clumpy galaxies at z~0-2, indicating that typical clumpy galaxies have disk-like surface brightness profiles. Our f_clumpy^UV values correlate with physical quantities related to star formation activities for star-forming galaxies at z~0-7. We find that clump colors tend to be red at a small galactocentric distance for massive galaxies with log(M_*/M_sun)>~11. All of these...

  2. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Terrestrial Ecosystem Project (Geco) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Kolby [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility GoAmazon campaign, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES)-funded Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) terrestrial ecosystem project (Geco) was designed to: • evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of leaf-level algorithms for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Amazon forests near Manaus, Brazil, and • conduct mechanistic field studies to characterize biochemical and physiological processes governing leaf- and landscape-scale tropical forest BVOC emissions, and the influence of environmental drivers that are expected to change with a warming climate. Through a close interaction between modeling and observational activities, including the training of MS and PhD graduate students, post-doctoral students, and technicians at the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), the study aimed at improving the representation of BVOC-mediated biosphere-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks under a warming climate. BVOCs can form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that influence precipitation dynamics and modify the quality of down welling radiation for photosynthesis. However, our ability to represent these coupled biosphere-atmosphere processes in Earth system models suffers from poor understanding of the functions, identities, quantities, and seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from tropical forests as well as their biological and environmental controls. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), the current BVOC sub-model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), was evaluated to explore mechanistic controls over BVOC emissions. Based on that analysis, a combination of observations and experiments were studied in forests near Manaus, Brazil, to test existing parameterizations and algorithm structures in MEGAN. The model was actively modified as needed to improve tropical BVOC emission simulations on

  3. Elastic instabilities in an antiferromagnetically ordered phase of the orbitally frustrated spinel GeCo2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadataka; Hara, Shigeo; Ikeda, Shin-Ichi; Tomiyasu, Keisuke

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasound velocity measurements of the orbitally frustrated spinel GeCo2O4 reveal unique elastic anomalies within the antiferromagnetic phase. Temperature dependence of shear moduli exhibits a minimum within the antiferromagnetic phase, suggesting the coupling of shear acoustic phonons to molecular spin-orbit excitations. Magnetic-field dependence of elastic moduli exhibits diplike anomalies, being interpreted as magnetic-field-induced metamagnetic and structural transitions. These elastic anomalies suggest that the survival of geometrical frustration, and the interplay of spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom evoke a set of phenomena in the antiferromagnetic phase.

  4. The MUSIC of Galaxy Clusters - III. Properties, evolution and Y-M scaling relation of protoclusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembolini, Federico; De Petris, Marco; Yepes, Gustavo; Foschi, Emma; Lamagna, Luca; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we study the properties of protoclusters of galaxies by employing the MultiDark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) set of hydrodynamical simulations, featuring a sample of 282 resimulated clusters with available merger trees up to z = 4. We study the characteristics and redshift evolution of the mass and the spatial distribution for all the protoclusters, which we define as the most massive progenitors of the clusters identified at z = 0. We extend the study of the baryon content to redshifts larger than 1 also in terms of gas and stars budgets: no remarkable variations with redshift are discovered. Furthermore, motivated by the proven potential of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich surveys to blindly search for faint distant objects, we compute the scaling relation between total object mass and integrated Compton y-parameter. We find that the slope of this scaling law is steeper than what expected for a self-similarity assumption among these objects, and it increases with redshift mainly when radiative processes are included. We use three different criteria to account for the dynamical state of the protoclusters, and find no significant dependence of the scaling parameters on the level of relaxation. We exclude the dynamical state as the cause of the observed deviations from self-similarity in protoclusters.

  5. Astrophysical crises in the evolution of life in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, W. H.

    As a result of an analysis of the radiation emitted by a star during the various phases of its life, it is found that conditions for the evolution of life can only be provided on planets with parent stars having masses in the range from 0.8 to 1.2 solar masses. The effects of various cosmic phenomena on life are considered, taking into account evolutionary processes involving nearby stars, supernovae, explosions in the galactic nucleus, large solar flares, and interstellar dust clouds. Supernova explosions occurring within 30 light years of the sun appear, in particular, to be able to cause a mass extinction of life on earth. Thus, a supernova explosion that occurred 60 million years ago might have been responsible for the disappearance of the dinosaurs. The galactic nucleus is found to be an inhospitable place for the evolution of life. The implications of the considered investigation for the search for extraterrestrial life are discussed.

  6. The effects of ionizing radiation on the evolution of SPH-simulated galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, David Clay

    2010-12-01

    Since its beginning some fifteen years ago, the simulation of galaxies using smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) codes has become a crucial tool to understand the physics which shapes the evolution of galaxies from their origins in the early Universe to what we observe in the local Universe today. However, one piece of this physics has been relatively understudied: namely, the ionizing radiation---ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray---which is emitted by early stars, supernovae, and the accretion regions of massive black holes (BHs), and which permeates the Universe from the epoch of reionization to the present day. Therefore I perform my own SPH simulations of galaxies to study in detail the influence of this radiation. In the first chapter of this work I find that the UV background used by most simulations to date may not fit observations constraining it at high redshift, and furthermore the details of the UV background at those redshifts, as well as the presence of an X-ray component, can strongly affect galaxy formation and evolution, specifically the gas dynamics and the amount and location of star formation. In the second chapter I consider why, even though the dark-matter power spectrum and dark-matter simulations predict a large number of small satellite galaxies, hydrodynamic simulations have typically produced fewer satellites, consistent with observations. Performing simulations with various UV and X-ray backgrounds, I show that the number of small galaxies at the present is dependent primarily on the mean gas temperature at the epoch when low-mass systems form their stars, and this temperature is significantly determined by the ionizing radiation background. In the third and final chapter I leave the ionizing background and turn to X-rays emitted by local active galactic nuclei (AGN)---which are massive, accreting BHs. I perform simulations with this new mode of feedback added to the standard mode (the injection of energy to adjacent gas), and find that the X

  7. Diverse Structural Evolution at z > 1 in Cosmologically Simulated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Gregory F; Moody, Christopher; Peth, Michael; Freeman, Peter; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai

    2014-01-01

    From mock Hubble Space Telescope images, we quantify non-parametric statistics of galaxy morphology, thereby predicting the emergence of relationships among stellar mass, star formation, and observed rest-frame optical structure at 1 10^10 M_sun contain relatively more disc-dominated light profiles than those with lower mass, reflecting significant disc brightening in some haloes at 1 10^10 M_sun. We analyze a cosmological major merger at z~1.5 and find that the newly proposed MID morphology diagnostics trace later stages while G-M20 trace earlier ones. MID is sensitive also to clumpy star-forming discs. The observability time of typical MID-enhanced events in our simulation sample is less than 100 Myr. A larger sample of cosmological assembly histories may be required to calibrate such diagnostics in the face of their sensitivity to viewing angle, segmentation algorithm, and various phenomena such as clumpy star formation and minor mergers.

  8. New analytical solutions for chemical evolution models: characterizing the population of star-forming and passive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitoni, E.; Vincenzo, F.; Matteucci, F.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Analytical models of chemical evolution, including inflow and outflow of gas, are important tools for studying how the metal content in galaxies evolves as a function of time. Aims: We present new analytical solutions for the evolution of the gas mass, total mass, and metallicity of a galactic system when a decaying exponential infall rate of gas and galactic winds are assumed. We apply our model to characterize a sample of local star-forming and passive galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, with the aim of reproducing their observed mass-metallicity relation. Methods: We derived how the two populations of star-forming and passive galaxies differ in their particular distribution of ages, formation timescales, infall masses, and mass loading factors. Results: We find that the local passive galaxies are, on average, older and assembled on shorter typical timescales than the local star-forming galaxies; on the other hand, the star-forming galaxies with higher masses generally show older ages and longer typical formation timescales compared than star-forming galaxies with lower masses. The local star-forming galaxies experience stronger galactic winds than the passive galaxy population. Exploring the effect of assuming different initial mass functions in our model, we show that to reproduce the observed mass-metallicity relation, stronger winds are requested if the initial mass function is top-heavy. Finally, our analytical models predict the assumed sample of local galaxies to lie on a tight surface in the 3D space defined by stellar metallicity, star formation rate, and stellar mass, in agreement with the well-known fundamental relation from adopting gas-phase metallicity. Conclusions: By using a new analytical model of chemical evolution, we characterize an ensemble of SDSS galaxies in terms of their infall timescales, infall masses, and mass loading factors. Local passive galaxies are, on average, older and assembled on shorter typical

  9. The Origin and Evolution of the Galaxy Mass-Metallicity Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xiangcheng; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Zolman, Nick; Muratov, Alexander L; Keres, Dusan; Quataert, Eliot

    2015-01-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE) project to study the galaxy mass-metallicity relations (MZR) from z=0-6. These simulations include explicit models of the multi-phase ISM, star formation, and stellar feedback. The simulations cover halo masses Mhalo=10^9-10^13 Msun and stellar mass Mstar=10^4-10^11 Msun at z=0 and have been shown to produce many observed galaxy properties from z=0-6. For the first time, our simulations agree reasonably well with the observed mass-metallicity relations at z=0-3 for a broad range of galaxy masses. We predict the evolution of the MZR from z=0-6 as log(Zgas/Zsun)=12+log(O/H)-9.0=0.35[log(Mstar/Msun)-10]+0.93 exp(-0.43 z)-1.05 and log(Zstar/Zsun)=[Fe/H]-0.2=0.40[log(Mstar/Msun)-10]+0.67 exp(-0.50 z)-1.04, for gas-phase and stellar metallicity, respectively. Our simulations suggest that the evolution of MZR is associated with the evolution of stellar/gas mass fractions at different redshifts, indicating the ex...

  10. Morphological evolution of cluster red sequence galaxies in the past 9 Gyr

    CERN Document Server

    De Propris, Roberto; Phillipps, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies arrive on the red sequences of clusters at high redshift ($z>1$) once their star formation is quenched and evolve passively thereafter. However, we have previously found that cluster red sequence galaxies (CRSGs) undergo significant morphological evolution subsequent to the cessation of star formation, at some point in the past 9-10~Gyr. Through a detailed study of a large sample of cluster red sequence galaxies spanning $0.2evolution. Below $z \\sim 0.5-0.6$ (in the last 5-6 Gyr) there is little or no morphological evolution in the population as a whole, unlike in the previous 4-5 Gyrs. Over this earlier time (i) disk-like systems with S{\\'e}rsic $n < 2$ progressively disappear, as (ii) the range of their axial ratios similarly decreases, removing the most elongated systems (those consistent with thin disks seen at an appreciable inclination angle), and (iii) radial colour gradients (bluer outwards) decrease in an absolute sense from significant age-r...

  11. The properties, origin and evolution of stellar clusters in galaxy simulations and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, C. L.; Adamo, A.; Few, C. G.; Calzetti, D.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Evans, A. S.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Kim, H.; Johnson, K. E.; Lee, J. C.; Messa, M.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Ubeda, L.; Whitmore, B.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the properties and evolution of star particles in two simulations of isolated spiral galaxies, and two galaxies from cosmological simulations. Unlike previous numerical work, where typically each star particle represents one `cluster', for the isolated galaxies we are able to model features we term `clusters' with groups of particles. We compute the spatial distribution of stars with different ages, and cluster mass distributions, comparing our findings with observations including the recent LEGUS survey. We find that spiral structure tends to be present in older (100s Myrs) stars and clusters in the simulations compared to the observations. This likely reflects differences in the numbers of stars or clusters, the strength of spiral arms, and whether the clusters are allowed to evolve. Where we model clusters with multiple particles, we are able to study their evolution. The evolution of simulated clusters tends to follow that of their natal gas clouds. Massive, dense, long-lived clouds host massive clusters, whilst short-lived clouds host smaller clusters which readily disperse. Most clusters appear to disperse fairly quickly, in basic agreement with observational findings. We note that embedded clusters may be less inclined to disperse in simulations in a galactic environment with continuous accretion of gas onto the clouds than isolated clouds and correspondingly, massive young clusters which are no longer associated with gas tend not to occur in the simulations. Caveats of our models include that the cluster densities are lower than realistic clusters, and the simplistic implementation of stellar feedback.

  12. Dust evolution processes constrained by extinction curves in nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Kuan-Chou; Michałowski, Michał J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction curves, especially those in the Milky Way (MW), the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), have provided us with a clue to the dust properties in the nearby Universe. We examine whether or not these extinction curves can be explained by well known dust evolution processes. We treat the dust production in stellar ejecta, destruction in supernova shocks, dust growth by accretion and coagulation, and dust disruption by shattering. To make a survey of the large parameter space possible, we simplify the treatment of the grain size distribution evolution by adopting the `two-size approximation', in which we divide the grain population into small ($\\lesssim 0.03~\\mu$m) and large ($\\gtrsim 0.03~\\mu$m) grains. It is confirmed that the MW extinction curve can be reproduced in reasonable ranges for the time-scale of the above processes with a silicate-graphite mixture. This indicates that the MW extinction curve is a natural consequence of the dust evolution through the above proc...

  13. Galaxy evolution from deep multi-wavelength infrared surveys: a prelude to Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Vaccari, M.; Berta, S.; Marchetti, L.; Mainetti, G.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Studies of the generation and assembly of stellar populations in galaxies largely benefit from far-IR observations, considering that the IR flux is a close prior to the rate of star formation (the bulk of which happens in dust-obscured environments). At the same time, major episodes of nuclear AGN accretion are also dust-obscured and visible in the IR. Aims: At the end of the Spitzer cryogenic mission and the onset of the Herschel era, we review our current knowledge of galaxy evolution at IR wavelengths, and model it to achieve as far as a complete view of the evolution of cosmic sources. We also develop new tools for the analysis of background fluctuations to constrain source counts in regimes of high confusion, as it happens for the Herschel sub-mm surveys. Methods: We analysed a wide variety of new data on galaxy evolution and high-redshift source populations from Spitzer cosmological surveys, and confront them with complementary data from mm ground-based observations and constraints from the far-IR diffuse radiation, as well as preliminary results from Herschel surveys. Results: These data confirm earlier indications about a very rapid increase in galaxy volume emissivity with redshift up to z ≃ 1 [ ρ(z) ∝ (1+z)4] , the fastest evolution rate observed for galaxies at any wavelengths. The observed Spitzer counts require a combination of fast evolution for the dominant population and a bumpy spectrum with substantial PAH emission at z ~ 1 to 2. Number counts at long wavelengths (70 through 1100 μm) confirm these results. All the present data require that the fast observed evolution from z = 0 to 1 flattens around redshift 1 and then keeps approximately constant up to z ≃ 2.5 at least. Our estimated redshift-dependent bolometric comoving energy density keeps lower at z ⪆ 1.5 than some previously published results based on either large extinction corrections, or large spectral extrapolations. Conclusions: The present-day IR/sub-mm data provide

  14. Exploring Quenching, Morphological Transformation and AGN-Driven Winds with Simulations of Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Ryan; CANDELS

    2017-01-01

    We present an examination of the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies since z~3 by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS and GAMA surveys. We compare these fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disk instabilities. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR)-Sersic index plane. We find that the fraction of star forming disks declines steadily while the fraction of quiescent spheroids increases with cosmic time. The fraction of star-forming spheroids and quiescent disks are both non-negligible and remain nearly constant. Our model is qualitatively successful at reproducing these fractions, suggesting a plausible explanation for the observed correlations between star formation activity and galaxy structure.Next, we study the correlation of galaxy structural properties with their location relative to the star-formation rate-stellar mass correlation, or the star forming main sequence. We find that as we move from observed galaxies above the main sequence to those below it, we see a nearly monotonic trend towards higher median Sersic index, smaller radius, lower SFR density and higher stellar mass density. Our model again qualitatively reproduces these trends, supporting a picture in which bulges and black holes co-evolve and AGN feedback plays a critical role in galaxy quenching.Finally, we examine AGN-driven winds in a suite of cosmological zoom simulations including a novel mechanical and radiation-driven AGN feedback prescription and compare the gas cycle with a matched suite of zoom simulations that include only feedback from supernovae and young stars. We find that while stellar feedback can drive mass out of galaxies, it is unlikely to be able to keep the gas from re-accreting, whereas in our AGN runs it

  15. The evolution of active galactic nuclei in clusters of galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufanda, E.; Hollowood, D.; Jeltema, T. E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Rozo, E.; Martini, P.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rooney, P.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-12-13

    The correlation between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and environment provides important clues to AGN fueling and the relationship of black hole growth to galaxy evolution. In this paper, we analyze the fraction of galaxies in clusters hosting AGN as a function of redshift and cluster richness for X-ray detected AGN associated with clusters of galaxies in Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. The present sample includes 33 AGN with L_X > 1043 ergs s-1 in non-central, host galaxies with luminosity greater than 0.5 L* from a total sample of 432 clusters in the redshift range of 0.1galaxies hosting AGN at high redshifts is greater than the low-redshift fraction at 3.6 sigma. In particular, the AGN fraction increases steeply at the highest redshifts in our sample at z>0.7. This result is in good agreement with previous work and parallels the increase in star formation in cluster galaxies over the same redshift range. However, the AGN fraction in clusters is observed to have no significant correlation with cluster mass. Future analyses with DES Year 1 through Year 3 data will be able to clarify whether AGN activity is correlated to cluster mass and will tightly constrain the relationship between cluster AGN populations and redshift.

  16. Evolution of the major merger galaxy pair fraction at z < 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, R. C.; Hsieh, B. C.; Lin, L.; Chou, R. C. Y.; Huang, S.; Lin, J. H.; Chang, K. H. [Academia Sinica Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Foucaud, S. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); De Propris, R. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2014-11-10

    We present a study of the largest available sample of near-infrared selected (i.e., stellar mass selected) dynamically close pairs of galaxies at low redshifts (z < 0.3). We combine this sample with new estimates of the major merger pair fraction for stellar mass selected galaxies at z < 0.8, from the Red Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1). We construct our low-redshift K-band selected sample using photometry from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the K band (∼2.2 μm). Combined with all available spectroscopy, our K-band selected sample contains ∼250, 000 galaxies and is >90% spectroscopically complete. The depth and large volume of this sample allow us to investigate the low-redshift pair fraction and merger rate of galaxies over a wide range in K-band luminosity. We find the major merger pair fraction to be flat at ∼2% as a function of K-band luminosity for galaxies in the range 10{sup 8}-10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}, in contrast to recent results from studies in the local group that find a substantially higher low-mass pair fraction. This low-redshift major merger pair fraction is ∼40%-50% higher than previous estimates drawn from K-band samples, which were based on 2MASS photometry alone. Combining with the RCS1 sample, we find a much flatter evolution (m = 0.7 ± 0.1) in the relation f {sub pair}∝(1 + z) {sup m} than indicated in many previous studies. These results indicate that a typical L ∼ L* galaxy has undergone ∼0.2-0.8 major mergers since z = 1 (depending on the assumptions of merger timescale and percentage of pairs that actually merge).

  17. The DEEP3 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The Impact of Environment on the Size Evolution of Massive Early-type Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Michael C; Newman, Jeffrey A; Coil, Alison L; Davis, Marc; Dutton, Aaron A; Faber, S M; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C; Lotz, Jennifer M; Weiner, Benjamin J; Willmer, Christopher N A; Yan, Renbin

    2011-01-01

    Using data drawn from the DEEP2 and DEEP3 Galaxy Redshift Surveys, we investigate the relationship between the environment and the structure of galaxies residing on the red sequence at intermediate redshift. Within the massive (10 < log(M*/Msun) < 11) early-type population at 0.4 < z <1.2, we find a significant correlation between local galaxy overdensity (or environment) and galaxy size, such that early-type systems in higher-density regions tend to have larger effective radii (by ~0.5 kpc or 25% larger) than their counterparts of equal stellar mass and Sersic index in lower-density environments. This observed size-density relation is consistent with a model of galaxy formation in which the evolution of early-type systems at z < 2 is accelerated in high-density environments such as groups and clusters and in which dry, minor mergers (versus mechanisms such as quasar feedback) play a central role in the structural evolution of the massive, early-type galaxy population.

  18. Radial metallicity gradients in spiral galaxies from H II regions and planetary nebulae: probing galactic chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Letizia

    2015-08-01

    Radial metallicity gradients, typically observed in spiral galaxies, are excellent constraints for chemical evolution models. The contemporary studies of the two stellar populations, whose progenitors have formed at different times, yield to the chemical and time constraining of the models. In this context, planetary nebula and HII region analysis proved to be ideal two-epochs test populations. We present an assortment of galaxies whose oxygen abundances have been determined both with weak- and strong-line methods, and whose radial metallicity gradients and their evolution in time have disclosed very interesting correlations with the galaxy characteristics. New results from our Gemini/GMOS observations, and a review of the best literature data, set the stage for a better understanding of spiral galaxy evolution.

  19. Inferring the photometric and size evolution of galaxies from image simulations. I. Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassou, Sébastien; de Lapparent, Valérie; Bertin, Emmanuel; Le Borgne, Damien

    2017-09-01

    Context. Current constraints on models of galaxy evolution rely on morphometric catalogs extracted from multi-band photometric surveys. However, these catalogs are altered by selection effects that are difficult to model, that correlate in non trivial ways, and that can lead to contradictory predictions if not taken into account carefully. Aims: To address this issue, we have developed a new approach combining parametric Bayesian indirect likelihood (pBIL) techniques and empirical modeling with realistic image simulations that reproduce a large fraction of these selection effects. This allows us to perform a direct comparison between observed and simulated images and to infer robust constraints on model parameters. Methods: We use a semi-empirical forward model to generate a distribution of mock galaxies from a set of physical parameters. These galaxies are passed through an image simulator reproducing the instrumental characteristics of any survey and are then extracted in the same way as the observed data. The discrepancy between the simulated and observed data is quantified, and minimized with a custom sampling process based on adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Results: Using synthetic data matching most of the properties of a Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Deep field, we demonstrate the robustness and internal consistency of our approach by inferring the parameters governing the size and luminosity functions and their evolutions for different realistic populations of galaxies. We also compare the results of our approach with those obtained from the classical spectral energy distribution fitting and photometric redshift approach. Conclusions: Our pipeline infers efficiently the luminosity and size distribution and evolution parameters with a very limited number of observables (three photometric bands). When compared to SED fitting based on the same set of observables, our method yields results that are more accurate and free from

  20. Structure and Evolution of Interstellar Gas in Flattened, Rotating Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    1996-10-01

    We study the time-dependent evolution of interstellar gas in a family of elliptical galaxies having identical masses and central densities but various ellipticities and total angular momenta. Dark halos are assumed to be flattened in the same manner as the stars. Normal mass loss from evolving galactic stars is sufficient to account for the amount of hot interstellar gas observed. Gas ejected from stars shares the random motions of the stars and the bulk stellar velocity relative to the local interstellar medium; the ejected gas thermalizes to a temperature similar to the virial temperature of the stellar system. The random stellar motions and galactic rotation are found by solving Jeans's equations in cylindrical geometry. For a sequence of galaxies differing only in degree of flattening-E0, E2, and E4-we find that the X-ray images and luminosities are not very different. As the hot interstellar gas loses energy by radiation, it cools to the very center of these nonrotating galaxies regardless of flattening. The X-ray surface brightness is generally slightly steeper than the optical surface brightness of starlight. However, when a small but typical galactic rotation is introduced, the evolution of the interstellar medium is radically altered. The average X- ray surface brightness {SIGMA}_X_ is lower in the galactic center compared to nonrotating galaxies. This lower {SIGMA}_X_ can be achieved without invoking an ad hoc mass dropout from the hot gas. As the gas cools in rotating galaxies, it is deposited in a large disk comparable in size to the effective radius. Alter evolving for several gigayears, most of the new gas in the cooling flow is constrained by angular momentum conservation to arrive at the outer edge of the disk, Causing a local enhancement in the X-ray surface brightness. This results in flattened inner X-ray surface brightness contours that have peanut shapes when viewed nearly perpendicular to the axis of galactic rotation. As gas approaches the

  1. The Evolution Of Dusty Galaxies As Seen Through Their Spectral Energy Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajina, Anna

    Most of the build-up of stellar and black hole mass in the Universe occurs ~2-10 billion years after the Big Bang in dusty, gas-rich galaxies. Studying the physical properties of these galaxies is non-trivial as most of the light from stars or accretion onto supermassive black holes (i.e. AGN) is absorbed by dust and re-emitted in the infrared. The exact shape of the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) provides clues as to the relative roles of star-formation and AGN, as well as the geometric distribution of the dust (i.e. is it a compact post-merger source or an extended disk similar to the Milky Way). Understanding how the infrared SEDs evolve with redshift and luminosity (power output) across this key epoch in galaxy formation leads to an understanding of how supermassive black holes and their host galaxies co-evolved, and ultimately how and when the stars we observe in the local Universe were formed. Our key objectives are: Objective 1: Constrain the redshift and luminosity evolution of IR SEDs- We will use an unprecedented sample of 342 galaxies with varying levels of star formation and black hole activity covering the peak epoch of star-formation and black hole build-up. Our sample is ideally suited to the purpose with excellent coverage across the infrared spectrum in particular including mid-IR spectra which are crucial for AGN strength diagnostics. We will also produce an SED template library defined in different bins of redshift and luminosity. Objective 2: Constrain the role of AGN: We will compare several observed diagnostics of the presence and strength of an AGN, including mid-IR spectral diagnostics, SED model-fitting, and X-ray luminosity. We will also use state-of-the-art merger and isolated galaxy simulations, which predict observed SEDs as a function of time and for a wide range of underlying physical conditions (including the strength of the AGN). This comparison is especially important, as our preliminary work indicates, the AGN

  2. Jahn-Teller inactivity and magnetic frustration in GeCo2O4 probed by ultrasound velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadataka; Hara, Shigeo; Ikeda, Shin-Ichi

    2008-09-01

    Ultrasound velocity measurements of cubic spinel GeCo2O4 in single crystal were performed for the investigation of shear and compression moduli. The shear moduli in the paramagnetic state reveal the absence of Jahn-Teller activity despite the presence of orbital degeneracy in the Co2+ ions. Such a Jahn-Teller inactivity indicates that the intersite orbital-orbital interaction is much stronger than the Jahn-Teller coupling. The compression moduli in the paramagnetic state near the Néel temperature TN reveal that the most relevant exchange path for the antiferromagnetic transition lies in the [111] direction. This exchange-path anisotropy is consistent with the antiferromagnetic structure with the wave vector q∥[111] , suggesting the presence of bond frustration due to competition among a direct ferromagnetic interaction and several distant-neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions. In the Jahn-Teller-inactive condition, the bond frustration can be induced by geometrical orbital frustration of t2g-t2g interaction between the Co2+ ions, which can be realized in the pyrochlore lattice of the high-spin Co2+ with t2g -orbital degeneracy. In GeCo2O4 , the tetragonal elongation below TN releases the orbital frustration by quenching the orbital degeneracy.

  3. The Influence of Environment on the Chemical Evolution in Low-mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yiqing; Peng, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The mean alpha-to-iron abundance ratio ([$\\alpha$/Fe]) of galaxies is sensitive to the chemical evolution processes at early time, and it is an indicator of star formation timescale ($\\tau_{{\\rm SF}}$). Although the physical reason remains ambiguous, there is a tight relation between [$\\alpha$/Fe] and stellar velocity dispersion ($\\sigma$) among massive early-type galaxies (ETGs). However, no work has shown convincing results as to how this relation behaves at low masses. We assemble 15 data sets from the literature and build a large sample that includes 192 nearby low-mass ($18<\\sigma<80$~\\kms) ETGs. We find that the [$\\alpha$/Fe]-$\\sigma$ relation generally holds for low-mass ETGs, except in extreme environments. Specifically, in normal galaxy cluster environments, the [$\\alpha$/Fe]-$\\sigma$ relation and its intrinsic scatter are, within uncertainties, similar for low-mass and high-mass ETGs. However, in the most massive relaxed galaxy cluster in our sample, the zero point of the relation is higher an...

  4. CHILES Con Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES Con Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES Con Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES Con Pol radio data.

  5. Dynamical response of dark matter to galaxy evolution affects direct-detection experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael S.; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, Martin D.

    2016-12-01

    Over a handful of rotation periods, dynamical processes in barred galaxies induce nonaxisymmetric structure in dark matter halos. Using n -body simulations of a Milky Way-like barred galaxy, we identify both a trapped dark matter component, a shadow bar, and a strong response wake in the dark matter distribution that affects the predicted dark matter detection rates for current experiments. The presence of a baryonic disk, together with well-known dynamical processes (e.g. spiral structure and bar instabilities), increases the dark matter density in the disk plane. We find that the magnitude of the combined stellar and shadow bar evolution, when isolated from the effect of the axisymmetric gravitational potential of the disk, accounts for >30 % of this overall increase in disk-plane density. This is significantly larger than that of previously claimed deviations from the standard halo model. The dark matter density and kinematic wakes driven by the Milky Way bar increase the detectability of dark matter overall, especially for the experiments with higher vmin . These astrophysical features increase the detection rate by more than a factor of 2 when compared to the standard halo model and by a factor of 10 for experiments with high minimum recoil energy thresholds. These same features increase (decrease) the annual modulation for low (high) minimum recoil energy experiments. We present physical arguments for why these dynamics are generic for barred galaxies such as the Milky Way rather than contingent on a specific galaxy model.

  6. The evolution of Balmer jump selected galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, P Troncoso; Padilla, N; Lacerna, I; Garcia, S; Orsi, A; Arancibia, A Muñoz; Moustakas, J; Cristóbal-Hornillos, J; Moles, M; Fernández-Soto, A; Martínez, V J; Cerviño, M; Alfaro, E J; Ascaso, B; Arnalte-Mur, P; Nieves-Seoane, L; Benítez, N

    2016-01-01

    We present a new color-selection technique, based on the Bruzual & Charlot models convolved with the bands of the ALHAMBRA survey, and the redshifted position of the Balmer jump to select star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.5. These galaxies are dubbed Balmer jump Galaxies BJGs. We apply the iSEDfit Bayesian approach to fit each detailed SED and determine star-formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, age and absolute magnitudes. The mass of the haloes where these samples reside are found via a clustering analysis. Five volume-limited BJG sub-samples with different mean redshifts are found to reside in haloes of median masses $\\sim 10^{12.5 \\pm 0.2} M_\\odot$ slightly increasing toward z=0.5. This increment is similar to numerical simulations results which suggests that we are tracing the evolution of an evolving population of haloes as they grow to reach a mass of $\\sim 10^{12.7 \\pm 0.1} M_\\odot$ at z=0.5. The likely progenitors of our samples at z$\\sim$3 are Lyman Break Galaxies, whic...

  7. The size evolution of galaxy discs formed within Lambda Cold Dark Matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Firmani, C

    2009-01-01

    By means of galaxy evolutionary models, we explore the direct consequences of the LCDM cosmogony on the size evolution of galactic discs, avoiding intentionally the introduction of intermediate (uncertain) astrophysical processes. Based on the shape of the rotation curves and guided by a simplicity criterion, we adopt an average galaxy mass baryon fraction of 0.03. In order to study general behaviors, only models with the average initial conditions are analyzed. The stellar and B-band effective radii, R* and RB, of individual galaxies grow significantly with time (inside-out disc formation) with laws that are weakly dependent on mass, M*,or luminosity, LB. However, the change of R* with z at fixed M* is slow; for z0.75. We find also that at z=0, R* ~ M*^0.38 and RB ~ LB^0.40, remaining the slopes of these relations almost the same up to z ~ 3. Our predictions are in reasonable agreement with observational inferences on the typical radius change with z of late-type galaxies more luminous (massive) than high va...

  8. Evolution in the Disks and Bulges of Group Galaxies since z=0.4

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, Sean L; Henderson, Robert D E; Wilman, David J; Bower, Richard G; Mulchaey, John S; Oemler, Augustus

    2008-01-01

    We present quantitative morphology measurements of a sample of optically selected group galaxies at 0.3 < z < 0.55 using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the GIM2D surface brightness--fitting software package. The group sample is derived from the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Redshift survey (CNOC2) and follow-up Magellan spectroscopy. We compare these measurements to a similarly selected group sample from the Millennium Galaxy Catalogue (MGC) at 0.05 < z < 0.12. We find that, at both epochs, the group and field fractional bulge luminosity (B/T) distributions differ significantly, with the dominant difference being a deficit of disk--dominated (B/T < 0.2) galaxies in the group samples. At fixed luminosity, z=0.4 groups have ~ 5.5 +/- 2 % fewer disk--dominated galaxies than the field, while by z=0.1 this difference has increased to ~ 19 +/- 6 %. Despite the morphological evolution we see no evidence that the group environment is actively...

  9. A complete view of galaxy evolution: panchromatic luminosity functions and the generation of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Blain, Andrew W; Bertoldi, Frank; Bock, James; Bradford, Matt; Dowell, C Darren; Glenn, Jason; Goldsmith, Paul; Harwit, Martin; Helou, George; Smith, J D; Soifer, B T; Stacey, Gordon; Vieira, Joaquin; Yun, Min; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    When and how did galaxies form and their metals accumulate? Over the last decade, this has moved from an archeological question to a live investigation: there is now a broad picture of the evolution of galaxies in dark matter halos: their masses, stars, metals and supermassive blackholes. Galaxies have been found and studied in which these formation processes are taking place most vigorously, all the way back in cosmic time to when the intergalactic medium (IGM) was still largely neutral. However, the details of how and why the interstellar medium (ISM) in distant galaxies cools, is processed, recycled and enriched in metals by stars, and fuels active galactic nuclei (AGNs) remain uncertain. In particular, the cooling of gas to fuel star formation, and the chemistry and physics of the most intensely active regions is hidden from view at optical wavelengths, but can be seen and diagnosed at mid- & far-infrared (IR) wavelengths. Rest-frame IR observations are important first to identify the most luminous, i...

  10. Galaxy Evolution in Cosmological Simulations with Outflows II: Metallicities and Gas Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2011-01-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to investigate how inflows, star formation, and outflows govern the the gaseous and metal content of galaxies. In our simulations, galaxy metallicities are established by a balance between inflows and outflows as governed by the mass outflow rate, implying that the mass-metallicity relation reflects how the outflow rate varies with stellar mass. Gas content is set by a competition between inflow into and gas consumption within the ISM, the latter being governed by the star formation law, while the former is impacted by both wind recycling and preventive feedback. Stochasticity in the inflow rate moves galaxies off the equilibrium mass-metallicity and mass-gas fraction relations in a manner correlated with the SFR, and the scatter is set by the timescale to re-equilibrate. The evolution of both relations from z=3-0 is slow, as individual galaxies tend to evolve mostly along the relations. Gas fractions at a given stellar mass slowly decrease with time because the co...

  11. Reconstructing the redshift evolution of escaped ionizing flux from early galaxies with Planck and HST observations

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Layne C; Cen, Renyue

    2016-01-01

    While galaxies at $6 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 10$ are believed to dominate the epoch of cosmic reionization, the escape fraction of ionizing flux $f_\\mathrm{esc}$ and the photon production rate $\\dot n_\\gamma$ from these galaxies must vary with redshift to simultaneously match CMB and low-redshift observations. We constrain $f_\\mathrm{esc}(z)$ and $\\dot n_\\gamma(z)$ with Planck 2015 measurements of the Thomson optical depth $\\tau$, recent low multipole E-mode polarization measurements from Planck 2016, SDSS BAO data, and $3 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 10$ galaxy observations. We compare different galaxy luminosity functions that are calibrated to HST observations, using both parametric and non-parametric statistical methods that marginalize over the effective clumping factor $C_\\mathrm{HII}$, the LyC production efficiency $\\xi_\\mathrm{ion}$, and the time-evolution of the UV limiting magnitude $dM_\\mathrm{SF}/dz$. Using a power-law model, we find $f_\\mathrm{esc} \\lesssim 0.5$ at $z=8$ with slope $\\beta \\gtrsim 2.0$ at $68\\...

  12. Anomalous Evolution of the Dwarf Galaxy HIPASS J1321-31

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzl, B J; Grossi, M; Disney, M J; Minchin, R F; Freeman, K C; Tolstoy, E; Saha, A; Pritzl, Barton J.; Knezek, Patricia M.; III, John S. Gallagher; Grossi, Marco; Disney, Mike J.; Minchin, Robert F.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Tolstoy, Eline; Saha, Abi

    2003-01-01

    We present HST/WFPC2 observations of the dwarf galaxy HIPASS J1321-31. This unusual galaxy lies in the direction of the Centaurus A group of galaxies, and has a color-magnitude diagram with a distinctive red plume of luminous stars. This feature could arise from (a) a red giant branch if the galaxy were much nearer than previously recognized, (b) a peculiar asymptotic giant branch, or, (c) an ~1 Gigayear old population of intermediate mass red supergiants, which we find to be the most likely explanation. However, the lack of equally luminous blue stars requires that the star formation has dropped substantially since these stars were formed. Evidently HIPASS J1321-31 experienced an episode of enhanced star formation rather recently in its star formation history followed by a period of relative quiescence which has led to the evolution of the main sequence stars into the red supergiant branch. The stellar populations in HIPASS J1321-31 reflect a star formation history that is uncommon in star forming dwarf gala...

  13. The Post-Starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    French, K Decker; Zabludoff, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) favor quiescent host galaxies with strong Balmer absorption lines. Here we study eight hosts of optical/UV-detected TDEs to determine the duration of the recent star formation episode, the time elapsed since it ended, and the fraction of stellar mass produced. Most hosts (6/8) have had short recent starbursts of <200 Myr as opposed to a slower decline in star formation. TDE host galaxies span a wide range of post-starburst ages (60-600 Myr for 6/8 galaxies), indicating that TDEs are not limited to a specific time in their hosts' post-starburst evolution. If the disrupted star was a main sequence star that formed in the burst or before, the post-burst ages provide an independent constraint on its likely mass, excluding O, B and the most massive A stars. If the starburst arose from a galaxy merger, the time elapsed since the starburst began constrains the coalescence timescale and thus limits the merger mass ratio to more equal than 12:1 in most (7/8) TDE hosts. This uncommon r...

  14. The evolution of the cold interstellar medium in galaxies following a starburst

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlands, K; Nesvadba, N; Sibthorpe, B; Mortier, A; Lehnert, M; da Cunha, E

    2014-01-01

    We present the evolution of dust and molecular gas properties in a sample of 11 $z\\sim0.03$ starburst to post-starburst (PSB) galaxies selected to span an age sequence from ongoing starburst to 1 Gyr after the starburst ended. All PSBs harbour significant molecular gas and dust reservoirs and residual star formation, indicating that complete quenching of the starburst due to exhaustion or expulsion of gas has not occurred during this timespan. As the starburst ages, we observe a clear decrease in the star-formation efficiency, molecular gas and SFR surface density, and effective dust temperature, from levels coincident with starburst galaxies to those of normal star-forming galaxies. These trends are consistent with a natural decrease in the SFR following consumption of molecular gas by the starburst, and corresponding decrease in the interstellar radiation field strength as the starburst ages. The gas and dust contents of the PSBs are coincident with those of star-forming galaxies and molecular gas-rich earl...

  15. Galaxy evolution in a complex environment: a multi-wavelength study of HCG 7

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, I S; Fedotov, K; Durrell, P R; Heiderman, A; Elmegreen, D M; Charlton, J C; Hibbard, J E; Tzanavaris, P; Chandar, R; Johnson, K E; Maybhate, A; Zabludoff, A E; Gronwall, C; Szathmary, D; Hornschemeier, A E; English, J; Whitmore, B; de Oliveira, C Mendes; Mulchaey, J S

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged] The environment where galaxies are found heavily influences their evolution. Close groupings, like the cores of galaxy clusters or compact groups, evolve in ways far more dramatic than their isolated counterparts. We have conducted a multiwavelength study of HCG7, consisting of four giant galaxies: 3 spirals and 1 lenticular. We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging to identify and characterize the young and old star cluster populations. We find young massive clusters (YMC) mostly in the three spirals, while the lenticular features a large, unimodal population of globular clusters (GC) but no detectable clusters with ages less than ~Gyr. The spatial and approximate age distributions of the ~300 YMCs and ~150 GCs thus hint at a regular star formation history in the group over a Hubble time. While at first glance the HST data show the galaxies as undisturbed, our deep ground-based, wide-field imaging that extends the HST coverage reveals faint signatures of stellar material in the intra-group medi...

  16. The Cosmic Evolution of Galaxies: The Hunt for Hot Gas (and Winds!) at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann; Kilbourne, Caroline; Lehmer, Bret; Yukita, Mihoko; Smith, Randall; Basu-Zych, Antara; Ptak, Andrew; Tatum, Malachi

    Deep surveys with current missions have revealed a population of high-redshift normal galaxies whose X-ray emission is dominated not by accretion onto supermassive black holes, but by the hot interstellar medium and accreting neutron star and black hole binary populations. Enormous progress has been made on the evolution of galaxies in the X-ray band, however there are some glaring holes in our understanding. For one, it is very difficult to measure the properties of the hot phase of the interstellar medium at high redshift, which in many galaxies is tremendously important component. Also, we know from optical, IR and UV studies that outflows from starburst galaxies appear to be relatively ubiquitous; such outflows are thought to be superwinds from the combination of many supernova explosions and stellar winds. Only with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy will we have the capability of catching the hot phase of these outflows. The outflows remove fuel for subsequent generations of star formation and pollute the Intergalactic Medium with metals. Prospects for observations by next-generation X-ray spectroscopic instruments will be discussed.

  17. Cosmic Evolution of Size and Velocity Dispersion for Early Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, L; Bressan, A; Bernardi, M; De Zotti, G; Danese, L

    2010-01-01

    [abridged] Massive, passively evolving galaxies at redshifts z>1 exhibit on the average physical sizes smaller by factors ~3 than local early type galaxies (ETGs) endowed with the same stellar mass. Small sizes are in fact expected on theoretical grounds, if dissipative collapse occurs. Recent results show that the size evolution at z1, where both compact and already extended galaxies are observed and the scatter in size is remarkably larger than locally. The presence at high z of a significant number of ETGs with the same size as their local counterparts as well as of ETGs with quite small size, points to a timescale to reach the new, expanded equilibrium configuration of less than the Hubble time. We demonstrate that the projected mass of compact, high-z galaxies and that of local ETGs within the *same physical radius*, the nominal half-luminosity radius of high-z ETGs, differ substantially, in that the high-z ETGs are on the average significantly denser. We propose that quasar activity, which peaks at z~2,...

  18. Scalar Field Dark Matter mass model and evolution of rotation curves for Lsb galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of gas rotation curves within the scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model. In this model the galactic haloes are astronomical Bose-Einstein Condensate drops of scalar field. These haloes are characterized by a constant-density core and are consistent with observed rotation curves of dark matter dominated galaxies, a missing feature in CDM haloes resulting from DM-only simulations. We add the baryonic component to the SFDM haloes and simulate the evolution of the dark matter tracer in a set of grid-based hydrodynamic simulations aimed to analyse the evolution of the rotation curves and the gas density distribution in the case of dark matter dominated galaxies. Previous works had found that when considering an exact analytic solution for a static SF configuration, the free parameters of the model allows for good fits to the rotation curves, we confirm that in our simulations but now taking into account the evolution of the baryonic component in a static dark matter and stellar disk potentia...

  19. STAGES: the Space Telescope A901/2 Galaxy Evolution Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, M E; Barden, Marco; Peng, Chien Y; Haeussler, Boris; Bell, Eric F; McIntosh, Daniel H; Guo, Yicheng; Caldwell, John A R; Bacon, David; Balogh, Michael; Barazza, Fabio D; Boehm, Asmus; Heymans, Catherine; Jahnke, Knud; Jogee, Shardha; van Kampen, Eelco; Lane, Kyle; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Sánchez, Sebastian F; Taylor, Andy; Wisotzki, Lutz; Zheng, Xianzhong; Green, David A; Beswick, R J; Saikia, D J; Gilmour, Rachel; Johnson, Benjamin D; Papovich, Casey

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of the Space Telescope A901/2 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES). STAGES is a multiwavelength project designed to probe physical drivers of galaxy evolution across a wide range of environments and luminosity. A complex multi-cluster system at z~0.165 has been the subject of an 80-orbit F606W HST/ACS mosaic covering the full 0.5x0.5 (~5x5 Mpc^2) span of the supercluster. Extensive multiwavelength observations with XMM-Newton, GALEX, Spitzer, 2dF, GMRT, and the 17-band COMBO-17 photometric redshift survey complement the HST imaging. Our survey goals include simultaneously linking galaxy morphology with other observables such as age, star-formation rate, nuclear activity, and stellar mass. In addition, with the multiwavelength dataset and new high resolution mass maps from gravitational lensing, we are able to disentangle the large-scale structure of the system. By examining all aspects of environment we will be able to evaluate the relative importance of the dark matter halos, the local gal...

  20. The Clustering Evolution of Distant Red Galaxies in the GOODS-MUSIC Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Grazian, A; De Santis, C; Fontana, A; Gallozzi, S; Giallongo, E; Menci, N; Moscardini, L; Nonino, M; Salimbeni, S; Vanzella, E

    2006-01-01

    We use the GOODS-MUSIC sample, a catalog of ~3000 Ks-selected galaxies based on VLT and HST observation of the GOODS-South field with extended multi-wavelength coverage (from 0.3 to 8 micron) and accurate estimates of the photometric redshifts to select 179 DRGs with J-Ks>1.3 in an area of 135 sq. arcmin. We first show that the J-Ks>1.3 criterion selects a rather heterogeneous sample of galaxies, going from the targeted high-redshift luminous evolved systems, to a significant fraction of lower redshift (1evolution we show that it is unlikely that the two samples are drawn from the same population observed at two different stages of evolution. High-z DRGs likely represent the progenitors of the more massive and more luminous galaxies in the local Universe and might mark the regions that will later evolve into structu...

  1. Computational issues in chemo-dynamical modelling of the formation and evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Revaz, Yves; Nichols, Matthew; Bonvin, Vivien; Jablonka, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Chemo-dynamical N-body simulations are an essential tool for understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. As the number of observationally determined stellar abundances continues to climb, these simulations are able to provide new constraints on the early star formaton history and chemical evolution inside both the Milky Way and Local Group dwarf galaxies. Here, we aim to reproduce the low $\\alpha$-element scatter observed in metal-poor stars. We first demonstrate that as stellar particles inside simulations drop below a mass threshold, increases in the resolution produce an unacceptably large scatter as one particle is no longer a good approximation of an entire stellar population. This threshold occurs at around $10^3\\,\\rm{M_\\odot}$, a mass limit easily reached in current (and future) simulations. By simulating the Sextans and Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxies we show that this increase in scatter at high resolutions arises from stochastic supernovae explosions. In order to reduce this scatter down...

  2. The evolution of disc galaxies with and without classical bulges since z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdeva, Sonali; Saha, Kanak; Singh, Harinder P

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the relative role of internally and externally driven mechanisms responsible for disc and bulge growth is essential to understand the evolution of disc galaxies. In this context, we have studied the physical properties of disc galaxies without classical bulges in comparison to those with classical bulges since z~0.9. Using images from the Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have computed both parametric and non-parametric measures, and examined the evolution in size, concentration, stellar mass, effective stellar mass density and asymmetry. We find that both disc galaxies with and without classical bulges have gained more than 50% of their present stellar mass over the last ~8 Gyrs. Also, the increase in disc size is found to be peripheral. While the average total (Petrosian) radius almost doubles from z~0.9 to z~0, the average effective radius undergoes a marginal increase in comparison. Additionally, increase in the density of the inner region is evident through the evolutio...

  3. Metallicity gradients in Local Universe galaxies: time evolution and effects of radial migration

    CERN Document Server

    Magrini, L; Stanghellini, L; Casasola, V; Galli, D

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the shape of radial metallicity gradients in disc galaxies has recently improved. Conversely, the understanding of their time evolution is more complex, since it requires analysis of stellar populations with different ages, or systematic studies of galaxies at different redshifts. In the Local Universe, Hii regions and planetary nebulae (PNe) are important tools to investigate it. We present an in-depth study of all nearby spiral galaxies (M33, M31, NGC300, and M81) with direct-method nebular abundances of both populations. For the first time, we also evaluate the radial migration of PN populations. We analyse Hii region and PN properties to: determine whether oxygen in PNe is a reliable tracer for past interstellar medium (ISM) composition; homogenise the published datasets; estimate the migration of the oldest stellar populations; determine the overall chemical enrichment and slope evolution. We confirm that oxygen in PNe is a reliable tracer for the past ISM metallicity. We find that PN gr...

  4. HST images of FeLoBAL quasars: Testing quasar-galaxy evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Hanna; Hamann, Fred; Villforth, Carolin; Caselli, Paola; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results from an HST imaging study of FeLoBAL quasars, which have extremely low-ionization Broad Absorption Line (BAL) outflows and might be a young quasar population based on their red colors, large far-IR luminosities (suggesting high star formation rates), and powerful outflows. Some models of quasar - host galaxy evolution propose a triggering event, such as a merger, to fuel both a burst of star formation and the quasar/AGN activity. These models suggest young quasars are initially obscured inside the dusty starburst until a "blowout" phase, driven by the starburst or quasar outflows like FeLoBALs, ends the star formation and reveals the visibly luminous quasar. Despite the popularity of this evolution scheme, there is little observational evidence to support the role of mergers in triggering AGN or the youth of dust-reddened quasars (such as FeLoBALs) compared to normal blue quasars.Our Cycle 22 HST program is designed to test the youth of FeLoBAL quasars and the connection of FeLoBALs to mergers. We obtain WFC3/IR F160W images of 10 FeLoBAL quasars at redshift z~0.9 (covering ~8500A in the quasar rest frame). We will compare the host galaxy morphologies and merger signatures of FeLoBALs with normal blue quasars (which are older according to the evolution model) and non-AGN galaxies matched in redshift and stellar mass. If FeLoBAL quasars are indeed in a young evolutionary state, close in time to the initial merging event, they should have stronger merger features compared to blue quasars and non-AGN galaxies. Preliminary results suggest that this is not the case - FeLoBAL quasars appear to reside in faint, compact hosts with weak or absent merger signatures. We discuss the implications of these results for galaxy evolution models and other studies of dust-reddened quasar populations.

  5. On the Origin and Evolution of Life in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, Michael; 10.1017/S1473550410000340

    2011-01-01

    A simple stochastic model for evolution, based upon the need to pass a sequence of n critical steps (Carter 1983, Watson 2008) is applied to both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origins of life. In the former case, the time at which humans have emerged during the habitable period of the Earth suggests a value of n = 4. Progressively adding earlier evolutionary transitions (Maynard Smith and Szathmary, 1995) gives an optimum fit when n = 5, implying either that their initial transitions are not critical or that habitability began around 6 Ga ago. The origin of life on Mars or elsewhere within the Solar System is excluded by the latter case and the simple anthropic argument is that extraterrestrial life is scarce in the Universe because it does not have time to evolve. Alternatively, the timescale can be extended if the migration of basic progenotic material to Earth is possible. If extra transitions are included in the model to allow for Earth migration, then the start of habitability needs to be even earlier...

  6. Evolution of star-forming dwarf galaxies: characterizing the star formation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Manjón, M. L.; Mollá, M.; Díaz, A. I.; Terlevich, R.

    2012-02-01

    We use the self-consistent model technique developed by Martín-Manjón et al. that combines the chemical evolution with stellar population synthesis and photoionization codes, to study the star formation scenarios capable of reproducing the observed properties of star-forming galaxies. The comparison of our model results with a data base of H II galaxies shows that the observed spectra and colours of the present burst and the older underlying population are reproduced by models in a bursting scenario with star formation efficiency involving close to 20 per cent of the total mass of gas, and interburst times longer than 100 Myr, and more probably around 1 Gyr. Other modes like gasping and continuous star formation are not favoured.

  7. The role of gas infall in the evolution of disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mollá, Mercedes; Gibson, Brad K; Cavichia, Oscar; López-Sánchez, Ángel R

    2016-01-01

    Spiral galaxies are thought to acquire their gas through a protracted infall phase resulting in the inside-out growth of their associated discs. For field spirals, this infall occurs in the lower density environments of the cosmic web. The overall infall rate, as well as the galactocentric radius at which this infall is incorporated into the star-forming disc, plays a pivotal role in shaping the characteristics observed today. Indeed, characterising the functional form of this spatio-temporal infall in-situ is exceedingly difficult, and one is forced to constrain these forms using the present day state of galaxies with model or simulation predictions. We present the infall rates used as input to a grid of chemical evolution models spanning the mass spectrum of discs observed today. We provide a systematic comparison with alternate analytical infall schemes in the literature, including a first comparison with cosmological simulations. Identifying the degeneracies associated with the adopted infall rate prescri...

  8. The Evolution of Stellar Populations in the Outer Disks of Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Stacey; Dong, Hui; Johnson, L C; Dale, Daniel A; Bianchi, Luciana; Chandar, Rupali; Kennicutt, Robert C; Meurer, Gerhardt R; Regan, Michael; Thilker, David

    2011-01-01

    We investigate recent star formation in the extended ultraviolet (XUV) disks of five nearby galaxies (NGC 0628, NGC 2090, NGC 2841, NGC 3621, and NGC 5055) using a long wavelength baseline comprised of ultraviolet and mid-infrared imaging from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera. We identify 229 unresolved stellar complexes across targeted portions of their XUV disks and utilize spectral energy distribution fitting to measure their stellar ages and masses through comparison with Starburst99 population synthesis models of instantaneous burst populations. We find that the median age of outer disk associations in our sample is ~100 Myr with a large dispersion that spans the entire range of our models (1 Myr-1 Gyr). This relatively evolved state for most associations addresses the observed dearth of Halpha emission in some outer disks, as Halpha can only be observed in star forming regions younger than ~10 Myr. The large age dispersion is robust against variations in extinction (in...

  9. THE SIZE EVOLUTION OF PASSIVE GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cohen, S. H.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Mechtley, M. R.; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Yan, H. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Bushouse, H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Crockett, R. M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Disney, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, J. A. [Galaxies Unlimited, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, J. A., E-mail: rryan@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2012-04-10

    We present the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies at z {approx} 2 identified in Wide-Field Camera 3 imaging from the Early Release Science program. Our sample was constructed using an analog to the passive BzK galaxy selection criterion, which isolates galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation at z {approx}> 1.5. We identify 30 galaxies in {approx}40 arcmin{sup 2} to H < 25 mag. By fitting the 10-band Hubble Space Telescope photometry from 0.22 {mu}m {approx}< {lambda}{sub obs} {approx}< 1.6 {mu}m with stellar population synthesis models, we simultaneously determine photometric redshift, stellar mass, and a bevy of other population parameters. Based on the six galaxies with published spectroscopic redshifts, we estimate a typical redshift uncertainty of {approx}0.033(1 + z). We determine effective radii from Sersic profile fits to the H-band image using an empirical point-spread function. By supplementing our data with published samples, we propose a mass-dependent size evolution model for passively evolving galaxies, where the most massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) undergo the strongest evolution from z {approx} 2 to the present. Parameterizing the size evolution as (1 + z){sup -{alpha}}, we find a tentative scaling of {alpha} Almost-Equal-To (- 0.6 {+-} 0.7) + (0.9 {+-} 0.4)log (M{sub *}/10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }), where the relatively large uncertainties reflect the poor sampling in stellar mass due to the low numbers of high-redshift systems. We discuss the implications of this result for the redshift evolution of the M{sub *}-R{sub e} relation for red galaxies.

  10. Chemo-Dynamical Evolution of Disk Galaxies, Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczik, P.

    In this paper I present, the new Chemo-Dynamical code, incorporated to the standard Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (CD-SPH). This code used to modelling the complex evolution of disk galaxy systems. The more detailed description of SPH code and the Star Formation (SF) and Super Novae (SN) algorithms you can find in our earlier work Berczik P. & Kravchuk S.G., 1996, ApSpSci, 245, 27. The galaxy presented via tree component system. The Dark Matter Halo described as an external gravitational potential with distribution of Dark Matter density (Burkert A. 1995, ApJ, 447, L25): ρDM (r) = frac ρ0 (1 + r / r0) cdot (1 + r / r0)2. The total mass of Dark Matter Halo is 1012 Modot. The second component is a hot coronal gas, with Thot ~106 K. This component presented as a uniformly distributed SPH gas with initial solid body rotation and with additisional random velocity component Δ V ~100 km/sec. The total mass of this component is 5 cdot 1010 Modot. The last component is a cold gas (Tcold ~104 K). This component presented also as a uniformly distributed SPH gas with initial solid body rotation and with additional random velocity component Δ V ~10 km/sec. The total mass of this component also is 5 cdot 1010 Modot. In the paper presented a more complex and may be more realistic incorporation of SF & SN in the SPH code. The presented calculation is clearly show, what the some interestiong and important properties of isolated disk galaxies we can explain using this simple, tree component "collapsing" model. In the frame of this approach we are able to reproduce the presently observed kinematics of star and gaseous components as well as their distributions and heavy element abundances. The developed model provide the realystic description of dynamics and chemical evolution of typical disk galaxies over the Hubble timescale.

  11. Black hole starvation and bulge evolution in a Milky Way-like galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, Silvia; Mayer, Lucio; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Madau, Piero; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    We present a new zoom-in hydrodynamical simulation, `ErisBH', which features the same initial conditions, resolution, and sub-grid physics as the close Milky Way-analogue `Eris' (Guedes et al. 2011), but it also includes prescriptions for the formation, growth and feedback of supermassive black holes. This enables a detailed study of black hole evolution and the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback in a late-type galaxy. At z = 0, the main galaxy of ErisBH hosts a central black hole of 2.6 × 106 M⊙, which correlates to the bulge mass and the galaxy's central velocity dispersion similarly to what is observed in the Milky Way and in pseudobulges. During its evolution, the black hole grows mostly through mergers with black holes brought in by accreted satellite galaxies and very little by gas accretion (due to the modest amount of gas that reaches the central regions). AGN feedback is weak and it affects only the central 1-2 kpc. Yet, it limits the growth of the bulge, which results in a rotation curve that, in the inner ˜ 10 kpc, is flatter than that of Eris. We find that ErisBH is more prone to instabilities than Eris, due to its smaller bulge and larger disc. At z ˜ 0.3, an initially small bar grows to be of a few disc scalelengths in size. The formation of the bar causes a small burst of star formation in the inner few hundred pc, provides new gas to the central black hole and causes the bulge to have a boxy/peanut morphology by z = 0.

  12. 3D-HST+CANDELS: The evolution of the galaxy size-mass distribution since z = 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wel, A.; Rix, H.-W.; Chang, Yu-Yen [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Franx, M.; Fumagalli, M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 AA Leiden (Netherlands); Van Dokkum, P. G.; Momcheva, I. G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Skelton, R. E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Whitaker, K. E. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brammer, G. B.; Ferguson, H. C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Behroozi, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wuyts, S. [Max-Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Holden, B. P.; Barro, G. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); McGrath, E. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, ME 0490 (United States); Häussler, B. [Physics Department, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Dekel, A., E-mail: vdwel@mpia.de [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); and others

    2014-06-10

    Spectroscopic+photometric redshifts, stellar mass estimates, and rest-frame colors from the 3D-HST survey are combined with structural parameter measurements from CANDELS imaging to determine the galaxy size-mass distribution over the redshift range 0 < z < 3. Separating early- and late-type galaxies on the basis of star-formation activity, we confirm that early-type galaxies are on average smaller than late-type galaxies at all redshifts, and we find a significantly different rate of average size evolution at fixed galaxy mass, with fast evolution for the early-type population, R {sub eff}∝(1 + z){sup –1.48}, and moderate evolution for the late-type population, R {sub eff}∝(1 + z){sup –0.75}. The large sample size and dynamic range in both galaxy mass and redshift, in combination with the high fidelity of our measurements due to the extensive use of spectroscopic data, not only fortify previous results but also enable us to probe beyond simple average galaxy size measurements. At all redshifts the slope of the size-mass relation is shallow, R{sub eff}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 0.22}, for late-type galaxies with stellar mass >3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, and steep, R{sub eff}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 0.75}, for early-type galaxies with stellar mass >2 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. The intrinsic scatter is ≲0.2 dex for all galaxy types and redshifts. For late-type galaxies, the logarithmic size distribution is not symmetric but is skewed toward small sizes: at all redshifts and masses, a tail of small late-type galaxies exists that overlaps in size with the early-type galaxy population. The number density of massive (∼10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}), compact (R {sub eff} < 2 kpc) early-type galaxies increases from z = 3 to z = 1.5-2 and then strongly decreases at later cosmic times.

  13. PEP: first Herschel probe of dusty galaxy evolution up to z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Gruppioni, C; Andreani, P; Rodighiero, G; Cimatti, A; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Berta, S; Bongiovanni, A; Brisbin, D; Cava, A; Cepa, J; Daddi, E; Dominguez-Sanchez, H; Elbaz, D; Schreiber, N Forster; Genzel, R; Le Floc'h, E; Lutz, D; Magdis, G; Magliocchetti, M; Magnelli, B; Maiolino, R; Nordon, R; Per'ez-García, A M; Poglitsch, A; Popesso, P; Riguccini, L; Saintonge, A; Sanchez-Portal, M; Santini, P; Shao, L; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L; Valtchanov, I

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the deepest existing far-infrared (FIR) data obtained so far by Herschel at 100 and 160 um in the GOODS-N, as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) survey, to derive for the first time the evolution of the rest-frame 60-um, 90-um, and total IR luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies and AGNs from z=0 to unprecedented high redshifts (z∼2-3). The PEP LFs were computed using the 1/Vmax method. The FIR sources were classified by means of a detailed broad- band SED-fitting analysis and spectral characterisation. Based on the best-fit model results, k-correction and total IR (8-1000 um) luminosity were obtained for each source. LFs (monochromatic and total) were then derived for various IR populations separately in different redshift bins and compared to backward evolution model predictions. We detect strong evolution in the LF to at least z~2. Objects with SEDs similar to local spiral galaxies are the major contributors to the star formation density (SFD) at z1.5 the SFD is dominated by the cont...

  14. An Empirical Model for Halo Evolution and Global Gas Dynamics of the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Zhen; Jing, Y P

    2015-01-01

    We present an empirical model for the halo evolution and global gas dynamics of Fornax, the brightest Milky Way (MW) dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). Assuming a global star formation rate psi(t)=lambda_*[M_g(t)/M_sun]^alpha consistent with observations of star formation in nearby galaxies and using the data on Fornax's psi(t), we derive the evolution of the total mass M_g(t) for cold gas in Fornax's star-forming disk and the rate Delta F(t) of net gas flow to or from the disk. We identify the onset of the transition in Delta F(t) from a net inflow to a net outflow as the time t_sat at which the Fornax halo became an MW satellite and estimate the evolution of its total mass M_h(t) at t

  15. The CoNFIG FRI sample: evolution of FRI galaxies and their role in AGN feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendre, Melanie; Ricci, Roberto; Wall, Jasper; Feain, Ilana; Best, Philip; Dunlop, James; Grant, Julie; Taylor, Russ; Stil, Jeroen

    2008-10-01

    The proposal is to examine two major AGN aspects: (1) detailed testing and analysis of the FRI-galaxy space density evolution, (2) to study the polarization properties of AGN cores as a function of flux and redshift and (3) a precise history of cosmic downsizing ('differential evolution') in radio AGN to examine the importance of FRI versus FRII sources in the AGN feedback process now appearing to govern galaxy formation. The investigation is based on the CoNFIG FRI sub-samples (obtained from the 1.4-GHz NVSS in regions of FIRST) and the CENSORS sample (obtained from the NVSS and the deep EIS optical survey in a small region of southern sky). From these we have a total of 206 extragalactic sources for which we desire unambiguous morphologies and FRI/FRII classification in particular. Of the 206 sources, we request ATCA 6km array observations at 3 cm for 40 sources which, from our previous observations and analysis, remain ambiguous in classification. This sample can at last define the detailed cosmic evolution of FRI radio sources together with the 'transition region' to FRII sources.

  16. Catalog of Galaxy Morphology in Four Rich Clusters: Luminosity Evolution of Disk Galaxies at 0.33

    CERN Document Server

    Saintonge, A; Ellingson, E; Yee, H K C; Carlberg, R G; Saintonge, Amelie; Schade, David; Ellingson, Erica; Yee, Howard K.C.; Carlberg, Raymond G.

    2005-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of four rich, X-ray luminous, galaxy clusters (0.33galaxies in their fields. Catalogs of these measurements are presented for 1642 galaxies brighter than F814W(AB)=23.0 . Galaxy luminosity profiles are fitted with three models: exponential disk, de Vaucouleurs bulge, and a disk-plus-bulge hybrid model. The best fit is selected and produces a quantitative assessment of the morphology of each galaxy: the principal parameters derived being B/T, the ratio of bulge to total luminosity, the scale lengths and half-light radii, axial ratios, position angles and surface brightnesses of each component. Cluster membership is determined using a statistical correction for field galaxy contamination, and a mass normalization factor (mass within boundaries of the observed fields) is derived for each cluster. In the present paper, this catalog of measurements is used to investigate the luminosity evolution of di...

  17. Constraints on Black Hole/Host Galaxy Co-evolution and Binary Stalling Using Pulsar Timing Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Pulsar timing arrays are now setting increasingly tight limits on the gravitational wave background from binary supermassive black holes. But as upper limits grow more constraining, what can be implied about galaxy evolution? We investigate which astrophysical parameters have the largest impact on strain spectrum predictions and provide a simple framework to directly translate between measured values for the parameters of galaxy evolution and PTA limits on the gravitational wave background of binary supermassive black holes. We find that the most influential observable is the relation between a host galaxy's central bulge and its central black hole, $\\mbox{$M_{\\bullet}$-$M_{\\rm bulge}$}$, which has the largest effect on the mean value of the characteristic strain amplitude. However, the variance of each prediction is dominated by uncertainties in the galaxy stellar mass function. Using this framework with the best published PTA limit, we can set limits on the shape and scatter of the $\\mbox{$M_{\\bullet}$-$M_{...

  18. Formation and evolution of heavy sub-structures in the centre of galaxy clusters: the local effect of dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sedda, Manuel Arca; Merafina, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how the centres of galaxy clusters evolve in time, showing the results of a series of direct N-body simulations. In particular, we followed the evolution of a galaxy cluster with a mass $M_{clus} \\simeq 10^{14} $M$_{\\odot}$ in different configurations. The dynamical evolution of the system leads in all the cases to the formation of dense and massive sub-structures in the cluster centre, that form in consequence of a series of collisions and merging among galaxies travelling in the cluster core. We investigate how the structural properties of the main merging product depends on the characteristics of those galaxies that contributed to its formation.

  19. TRACING THE EVOLUTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES USING STELLAR ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Brian D.; O’Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA—Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tumlinson, Jason, E-mail: crosby.bd@gmail.com [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    This paper presents the first results from a model for chemical evolution that can be applied to N-body cosmological simulations and quantitatively compared to measured stellar abundances from large astronomical surveys. This model convolves the chemical yield sets from a range of stellar nucleosynthesis calculations (including asymptotic giant branch stars, Type Ia and II supernovae, and stellar wind models) with a user-specified stellar initial mass function (IMF) and metallicity to calculate the time-dependent chemical evolution model for a “simple stellar population” (SSP) of uniform metallicity and formation time. These SSP models are combined with a semianalytic model for galaxy formation and evolution that uses merger trees from N-body cosmological simulations to track several α- and iron-peak elements for the stellar and multiphase interstellar medium components of several thousand galaxies in the early (z ≥ 6) universe. The simulated galaxy population is then quantitatively compared to two complementary data sets of abundances in the Milky Way stellar halo and is capable of reproducing many of the observed abundance trends. The observed abundance ratio distributions are best reproduced with a Chabrier IMF, a chemically enriched star formation efficiency of 0.2, and a redshift of reionization of 7. Many abundances are qualitatively well matched by our model, but our model consistently overpredicts the carbon-enhanced fraction of stars at low metallicities, likely owing to incomplete coverage of Population III stellar yields and supernova models and the lack of dust as a component of our model.

  20. A Multi-Phase Chemo-Dynamical SPH Code for Galaxy Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Berczik, P.; Hensler, G.; Theis, Ch.; Spurzem, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present some test results of our newly developed Multi-Phase Chemo-Dynamical Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (MP- CD-SPH) code for galaxy evolution. At first, we present a test of the ``pure'' hydro SPH part of the code. Then we describe and test the multi-phase description of the gaseous components of the interstellar matter. In this second part we also compare our condensation and evaporation description with the results of a previous 2d multi-phase hydrodynamic mesh code.

  1. Radio galaxies radiation transfer, dynamics, stability and evolution of a synchrotron plasmon

    CERN Document Server

    Pacholczyk, A G

    1977-01-01

    Radio Galaxies: Radiation Transfer, Dynamics, Stability and Evolution of a Synchrotron Plasmon deals with the physics of a region in space containing magnetic field and thermal and relativistic particles (a plasmon). The synchrotron emission and absorption of this region are discussed, along with the properties of its spectrum; its linear and circular polarization; transfer of radiation through such a region; its dynamics and expansion; and interaction with external medium.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume explores the stability, turbulence, and acceleration of particles in a synchrotro

  2. Evolution of the Color-Magnitude Relation in Galaxy Clusters at z ~1 from the ACS Intermediate Redshift Cluster Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Simona; Blakeslee, John P; Ford, Holland C; Franx, Marijn; Homeier, Nicole L; Illingworth, Garth D; Jee, Myungkook J; Overzier, Roderik; Postman, Marc; Rosati, Piero; van der Wel, Arjen; Bartlett, James G

    2008-01-01

    We apply detailed observations of the Color-Magnitude Relation (CMR) with the ACS/HST to study galaxy evolution in eight clusters at z~1. The early-type red sequence is well defined and elliptical and lenticular galaxies lie on similar CMRs. We analyze CMR parameters as a function of redshift, galaxy properties and cluster mass. For bright galaxies (M_B < -21mag), the CMR scatter of the elliptical population in cluster cores is smaller than that of the S0 population, although the two become similar at faint magnitudes. While the bright S0 population consistently shows larger scatter than the ellipticals, the scatter of the latter increases in the peripheral cluster regions. If we interpret these results as due to age differences, bright elliptical galaxies in cluster cores are on average older than S0 galaxies and peripheral elliptical galaxies (by about 0.5Gyr). CMR zero point, slope, and scatter in the (U-B)_z=0 rest-frame show no significant evolution out to redshift z~1.3 nor significant dependence on ...

  3. The MUSIC of Galaxy Clusters III: Properties, evolution and Y-M scaling relation of protoclusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sembolini, Federico; Yepes, Gustavo; Foschi, Emma; Lamagna, Luca; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the properties of protoclusters of galaxies by employing the MUSIC set of hydrodynamical simulations, featuring a mass-limited sample of 282 resimulated clusters with available merger trees up to high redshift, and we trace the cluster formation back to $z$ = 1.5, 2.3 and 4. We study the features and redshift evolution of the mass and the spatial distribution for all the cluster progenitors and for the protoclusters, which we define as the most massive progenitors of the clusters identified at $z$ = 0. A natural extension to redshifts larger than 1 is applied to the estimate of the baryon content also in terms of gas and stars budgets: no remarkable variations with redshift are discovered. Furthermore, motivated by the proven potential of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich surveys to blindly search for faint distant objects, we focus on the scaling relation between total object mass and integrated Compton $y$-parameter, and we check for the possibility to extend the mass-observable paradigm to the proto...

  4. ZFOURGE/CANDELS: On the Evolution of M* Galaxy Progenitors from z=3 to 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, Casey; Quadri, R; Tilvi, V; Behroozi, P; Bell, E F; Glazebrook, K; Spitler, L; Straatman, C M S; Tran, K -V; Cowley, M; Davé, R; Dekel, A; Dickinson, M; Ferguson, H; Finkelstein, S L; Gawiser, E; Inami, H; Faber, S M; Kacprzak, G G; Kawinwanchakij, L; Kocevski, D; Koekemoer, A; Koo, D C; Kurczynski, P; Lotz, J M; Lu, Y; Lucas, R A; McIntosh, D; Mehrtens, N; Mobasher, B; Monson, A; Morrison, G; Nanayakkara, T; Perrson, S E; Salmon, B; Simons, R; Tomczak, A; van Dokkum, P; Weiner, B; Willner, S P

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present day stellar masses near M*, at 5x10^10 Msol (MW-mass) and 10^11 Msol (M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using ZFOURGE, a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z~3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star-formation rates combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR HST imaging from CANDELS, and far-IR imaging from GOODS-H and CANDELS-H. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages, to redder dust-obscured IR-lum...

  5. Evolution of Cluster Red-Sequence Galaxies from redshift 0.8 to 0.4: ages, metallicities and morphologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Blazquez, P; Noll, S; Poggianti, B M; Moustakas, J; Milvang-Jensen, B; Halliday, C; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Saglia, R P; Desai, V; De Lucia, G; Clowe, D I; Pellò, R; Rudnick, G; Simard, L; White, S D M; Zaritsky, D

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the stellar population properties (age, metallicity and the alpha-element enhancement [E/Fe]) and morphologies of red-sequence galaxies in 24 clusters and groups from z~0.75 to z~0.45. The dataset, consisting of 215 spectra drawn from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey, constitutes the largest spectroscopic sample at these redshifts for which such an analysis has been conducted. Analysis reveals that the evolution of the stellar population properties of red-sequence galaxies depend on their mass: while the properties of most massive are well described by passive evolution and high-redshift formation, the less massive galaxies require a more extended star formation history. We show that these scenarios reproduce the index-sigma relations as well as the galaxy colours. The two main results of this work are (1) the evolution of the line-strength indices for the red-sequence galaxies can be reproduced if 40% of the galaxies with sigma < 175 km/s entered the red-sequence betwe...

  6. Evolution of galaxy shapes from prolate to oblate through compaction events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Matteo; Dekel, Avishai; Mandelker, Nir; Ceverino, Daniel; Lapiner, Sharon; Faber, Sandra; Kneller, Omer; Primack, Joel; Sai, Tanmayi

    2016-06-01

    We study the evolution of global shapes of galaxies using cosmological simulations. The shapes refer to the components of dark matter (DM), stars and gas at the stellar half-mass radius. Most galaxies undergo a characteristic compaction event into a blue nugget at z ˜ 2-4, which marks the transition from a DM-dominated central body to a self-gravitating baryonic core. We find that in the high-z, DM-dominated phase, the stellar and DM systems tend to be triaxial, preferentially prolate and mutually aligned. The elongation is supported by an anisotropic velocity dispersion that originates from the assembly of the galaxy along a dominant large-scale filament. We estimate that torques by the dominant halo are capable of inducing the elongation of the stellar system and its alignment with the halo. Then, in association with the transition to self-gravity, small-pericentre orbits puff up and the DM and stellar systems evolve into a more spherical and oblate configuration, aligned with the gas disc and associated with rotation. This transition typically occurs when the stellar mass is ˜109 M⊙ and the escape velocity in the core is ˜100 km s-1, indicating that supernova feedback may be effective in keeping the core DM dominated and the system prolate. The early elongated phase itself may be responsible for the compaction event, and the transition to the oblate phase may be associated with the subsequent quenching in the core.

  7. Evolution of Galaxy Shapes from Prolate to Oblate through Compaction Events

    CERN Document Server

    Tomassetti, Matteo; Mandelker, Nir; Ceverino, Daniel; Lapiner, Sharon; Faber, Sandra; Kneller, Omer; Primack, Joel; Sai, Tanmayi

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of global shapes of galaxies using cosmological simulations. The shapes refer to the components of dark matter (DM), stars and gas at the stellar half-mass radius. Most galaxies undergo a characteristic compaction event into a blue nugget at $z\\sim2-4$, which marks the transition from a DM-dominated central body to a self-gravitating baryonic core. We find that in the high-$z$, DM-dominated phase, the stellar and DM systems tend to be triaxial, preferentially prolate and mutually aligned. The elongation is supported by an anisotropic velocity dispersion that originates from the assembly of the galaxy along a dominant large-scale filament. We estimate that torques by the dominant halo are capable of inducing the elongation of the stellar system and its alignment with the halo. Then, in association with the transition to self-gravity, small-pericenter orbits puff up and the DM and stellar systems evolve into a more spherical and oblate configuration, aligned with the gas disc and associat...

  8. The Chemical Evolution Carousel of Spiral Galaxies: Azimuthal Variations of Oxygen Abundance in NGC1365

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, I.-Ting; Seibert, Mark; Meidt, Sharon E.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Groves, Brent A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Madore, Barry F.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Schinnerer, Eva; D’Agostino, Joshua; Poetrodjojo, Henry

    2017-09-01

    The spatial distribution of oxygen in the interstellar medium of galaxies is the key to understanding how efficiently metals that are synthesized in massive stars can be redistributed across a galaxy. We present here a case study in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 1365 using 3D optical data obtained in the TYPHOON Program. We find systematic azimuthal variations of the H ii region oxygen abundance imprinted on a negative radial gradient. The 0.2 dex azimuthal variations occur over a wide radial range of 0.3–0.7 R 25 and peak at the two spiral arms in NGC 1365. We show that the azimuthal variations can be explained by two physical processes: gas undergoes localized, sub-kiloparsec-scale self-enrichment when orbiting in the inter-arm region, and experiences efficient, kiloparsec-scale mixing-induced dilution when spiral density waves pass through. We construct a simple chemical evolution model to quantitatively test this picture and find that our toy model can reproduce the observations. This result suggests that the observed abundance variations in NGC 1365 are a snapshot of the dynamical local enrichment of oxygen modulated by spiral-driven, periodic mixing and dilution.

  9. Using the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor to Study Cluster Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Neal A.; O'Steen, Richard; Yen, Steffi; Kuntz, K. D.; Hammer, Derek

    2012-01-01

    We explore the application of XMM Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) ultraviolet (UV) data to study galaxy evolution. Our sample is constructed as the intersection of all Abell clusters with z < 0.05 and having archival XMM-OM data in either the UVM2 or UVW1 filters, plus optical and UV photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX, respectively. The 11 resulting clusters include 726 galaxies with measured redshifts, 520 of which have redshifts placing them within their parent Abell clusters. We develop procedures for manipulating the XMM-OM images and measuring galaxy photometry from them, and we confirm our results via comparison with published catalogs. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) constructed using the XMM-OM data along with SDSS optical data show promise for evolutionary studies, with good separation between red and blue sequences and real variation in the width of the red sequence that is likely indicative of differences in star formation history. This is particularly true for UVW1 data, as the relative abundance of data collected using this filter and its depth make it an attractive choice. Available tools that use stellar synthesis libraries to fit the UV and optical photometric data may also be used, thereby better describing star formation history within the past billion years and providing estimates of total stellar mass that include contributions from young stars. Finally, color-color diagrams that include XMM-OM UV data appear useful to the photometric identification of both extragalactic and stellar sources.

  10. Black Hole Starvation and Bulge Evolution in a Milky Way-like Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Bonoli, Silvia; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Madau, Piero; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We present a new zoom-in hydrodynamical simulation, "Erisbh", which follows the cosmological evolution and feedback effects of a supermassive black hole at the center of a Milky Way-type galaxy. ErisBH shares the same initial conditions, resolution, recipes of gas cooling, star formation and feedback, as the close Milky Way-analog "Eris", but it also includes prescriptions for the formation, growth and feedback of supermassive black holes. We find that the galaxy's central black hole grows mainly through mergers with other black holes coming from infalling satellite galaxies. The growth by gas accretion is minimal because very little gas reaches the sub-kiloparsec scales. The final black hole is, at z=0, about 2.6 million solar masses and it sits closely to the position of SgrA* on the MBH-MBulge and MBH-sigma planes, in a location consistent with what observed for pseudobulges. Given the limited growth due to gas accretion, we argue that the mass of the central black hole should be above 10^5 solar masses al...

  11. Evolution of the Distribution of Neutron Exposures in the Galaxy Disc: An Analytical Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wenyuan Cui; Weijuan Zhang; Bo Zhang

    2007-03-01

    In this work, based on the analytical model with delayed production approximation developed by Pagel & Tautvaišienė (1995) for the Galaxy, the analytic solutions of the distribution of neutron exposures of the Galaxy (hereafter NEG) are obtained. The present results appear to reasonably reproduce the distribution of neutron exposures of the solar system (hereafter NES). The strong component and the main component of the NES are built up in different epochs. Firstly, the strong component is produced by the s-process nucleosynthesis in the metal-poor AGB stars, starting from [Fe/H] ≈ -1.16 to [Fe/H] ≈ -0.66, corresponding to the time interval 1.06 < < 2.6 Gyr. Secondly, the main component is produced by the s-process in the galactic disk AGB stars, starting from [Fe/H] ≈ -0.66 to [Fe/H] ≈ 0, corresponding to the time interval > 2.6 Gyr. The analytic solutions have the advantage of an understanding of the structure and the properties of the NEG. The NEG is believed to be an effective tool to study the s-process element abundance distributions in the Galaxy at different epochs and the galactic chemical evolution of the neutron-capture elements.

  12. A modified star formation law as a solution to open problems in galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lan; Neistein, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    In order to reproduce the low mass end of the stellar mass function, most current models of galaxy evolution invoke very efficient supernova feedback. This solution seems to suffer from several shortcomings however, like predicting too little star formation in low mass galaxies at z=0. In this work, we explore modifications to the star formation (SF) law as an alternative solution to achieve a match to the stellar mass function. This is done by applying semi-analytic models based on De Lucia & Blaizot, but with varying SF laws, to the Millennium and Millennium-II simulations, within the formalism developed by Neistein & Weinmann. Our best model includes lower SF efficiencies than predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt law at low stellar masses, no sharp threshold of cold gas mass for SF, and a SF law that is independent of cosmic time. These simple modifications result in a model that is more successful than current standard models in reproducing various properties of galaxies less massive than 10^{10}Msu...

  13. Ultrafaint dwarfs—star formation and chemical evolution in the smallest galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, David; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Sutherland, Ralph, E-mail: d.webster@physics.usyd.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    In earlier work, we showed that a dark matter halo with a virial mass of 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} can retain a major part of its baryons in the face of the pre-ionization phase and supernova (SN) explosion from a 25 M {sub ☉} star. Here, we expand on the results of that work, investigating the star formation and chemical evolution of the system beyond the first SN. In a galaxy with a mass M {sub vir} = 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, sufficient gas is retained by the potential for a second period of star formation to occur. The impact of a central explosion is found to be much stronger than that of an off-center explosion both in blowing out the gas and in enriching it, as in the off-center case most of the SN energy and metals escape into the intergalactic medium. We model the star formation and metallicity, given the assumption that stars form for 100, 200, 400, and 600 Myr, and discuss the results in the context of recent observations of very low-mass galaxies. We show that we can account for most features of the observed relationship between [α/Fe] and [Fe/H] in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies with the assumption that the systems formed at a low mass, rather than being remnants of much larger systems.

  14. The unorthodox evolution of major merger remnants into star-forming spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sparre, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy mergers are believed to play a key role in transforming star-forming disk galaxies into quenched ellipticals. Most of our theoretical knowledge about such morphological transformations does, however, rely on idealised simulations where processes such as cooling of hot halo gas into the disk and gas accretion in the post-merger phase are not treated in a self-consistent cosmological fashion. In this paper we study the morphological evolution of the stellar components of four major mergers occurring at z=0.5 in cosmological hydrodynamical zoom-simulations. In all simulations the merger reduces the disk mass-fraction, but all galaxies simulated at our highest resolution regrow a significant disk by z=0 (with a disk fraction larger than 24%). For runs with our default physics model, which includes galactic winds from star formation and black hole feedback, none of the merger remnants are quenched, but in a set of simulations with stronger black hole feedback we find that major mergers can indeed quench gal...

  15. The Composition of the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy and Implications for Nucleosynthesis and Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliam, A; William, Andrew Mc; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2004-01-01

    We outline the results of a study of the chemical composition of 14 stars in the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph). For the Sgr dSph stars with [Fe/H]>-1 the abundances are highly unusual, showing a striking enhancement in heavy s-process elements, increasing with [Fe/H], deficiencies of the alpha- elements (O, Si, Ca, and Ti), deficiencies of Al and Na, and deficiencies of the iron-peak elements Mn and Cu. Our abundances suggest that the composition of the metal-rich Sgr dSph stars is dominated by the ejecta of an old, metal-poor population, including products of AGB stars and type Ia supernovae (SN). We suggest two scenarios to explain the observations: Prolonged chemical evolution in a galaxy experiencing significant mass-loss, and chemical enrichment with episodic bursts of star formation. The Galactic globular cluster Omega Cen, and the Fornax dwarf galaxy show similar abundance patterns, which suggests that those systems evolved similar to the Sgr dSph.

  16. Dark matter distribution and its impact on the evolution of galaxy disks

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2012-01-01

    The role of dark matter halos in galaxy disk evolution is reviewed, in particular the stabilisation of disks through self-gravity reduction, or the bar development through angular momentum exchange. Triaxial dark halos tend to weaken bars. When the dark mass inside the bar region is negligible, the bar develops through angular momentum exchange between inner and outer disk, and between stars and gas. Self-regulating cycles on the bar strength may develop in the presence of external gas accretion. Dynamical friction on dark halos slows down bars, which puts constraints on the dark matter amount inside the inner disk. During galaxy formation, baryons can lose most of their angular momentum if the infall is misaligned with the dark matter axes. Stable disks can form aligned with the minor axis of the dark halo. A sudden change in the infall direction, otherwise steady, can produce the peculiar polar ring galaxies. The dark matter halo can then be aligned along the polar disk. Misaligned infall can also maintain ...

  17. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). Its legacy of UV surveys, and science highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) imaged the sky in the Ultraviolet (UV) for almost a decade, delivering the first sky surveys at these wavelengths. Its database contains far-UV (FUV, $\\lambda$$_{eff}$ $\\sim$ 1528\\AA) and near-UV (NUV, $\\lambda$$_{eff}$ $\\sim$ 2310\\AA) images of most of the sky, including deep UV-mapping of extended galaxies, over 200 million source measurements, and more than 100,000 low-resolution UV spectra. The GALEX archive will remain a long-lasting resource for statistical studies of hot stellar objects, QSOs, star-forming galaxies, nebulae and the interstellar medium. It provides an unprecedented road-map for planning future UV instrumentation and follow-up observing programs in the UV and at other wavelengths. We review the characteristics of the GALEX data, and describe final catalogs and available tools, that facilitate future exploitation of this database. We also recall highlights from the science results uniquely enabled by GALEX data so far.

  18. Cooking a `Sausage': the impact of merger shocks in cluster gas and galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroe, Andra; Sobral, David; Harwood, Jeremy; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Rumsey, Clare; Intema, Huib; Röttgering, Huub; Brüggen, Marcus; Saunders, Richard; Hardcastle, Martin; Hoeft, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy clusters mainly grow through mergers with other clusters and groups. Major mergers give rise to important astrophysical phenomena such as the segregation of dark and luminous matter and the formation of cluster-wide traveling shocks and also drive galaxy evolution. The observable effects of shock waves can be seen at radio wavelengths as relics: elongated, diffuse synchrotron emitting areas located at the periphery of merging clusters. Despite the great interest in relics, candidates with simple geometry, undisturbed morphology and high surface brightness are scarce. The `Sausage' cluster hosts an extraordinary Mpc-wide relic, which enables us to study to study particle acceleration and the effects of shocks on cluster galaxies. We use a unique combination of facilities (INT, WHT, Keck, Subaru, CFHT, GMRT, WSRT, AMI) to obtain the first cluster-wide, multi-wavelength, multi-method analysis aimed at giving a complete picture of a merging cluster with relics. Using the radio data, we derive shock properties and the magnetic field structure for the relic. Using spectral modeling, we test acceleration and electron energy-loss mechanisms and resolve the discrepancy between the Mach number calculated from the radio and X-rays. Our results indicate that particles are shock-accelerated, but turbulent re-acceleration or unusually efficient transport of particles in the downstream area and line-of-sight mixing are important effects. We demonstrate the feasibility of high-frequency observations of radio relics, by presenting a 16 GHz detection of the `Sausage' relic. The radio analysis is complemented by Hα mapping of the cluster volume, aimed at providing the first direct test as to whether the shock drives or prohibits star formation. We find numerous Hα emitting galaxies in close proximity to the radio relic which are extremely massive, metal-rich, mostly star-forming with evidence for gas mass loss though outflows. We speculate that the complex interaction

  19. The Baryon Cycle at High Redshifts: Effects of Galactic Winds on Galaxy Evolution in Overdense and Average Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Sadoun, Raphael; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Romano-Díaz, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations in order to analyze galaxy evolution at redshifts z~6-12 in highly-overdense 5 sigma density peaks. Strong stellar feedback, in the form of galactic winds, is expected to play an important role in the evolution of these regions. We investigate the effects of these winds by comparing different galactic outflow prescriptions, including (i) a constant velocity model (CW), (ii) a variable velocity model scaling with galaxy properties (VW), and (iii) a model with no outflows (NW). The CW model is also applied to a simulation of an average density region to study the impact of environment on galaxy evolution. A direct consequence of the overdensity is a shallow galaxy mass function slope at the low-mass end and an accelerated evolution of dark matter and baryonic structures. The overdensity hosts massive haloes, up to ~10^{12} Msun, with embedded galaxies up to ~10^{11} Msun in stellar mass by z~6, which are absent in the "normal" region. The CW model leads to...

  20. The cosmological co-evolution of supermassive black holes, AGN and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Marulli, F; Branchini, E; Moscardini, L; Springel, V

    2008-01-01

    We model the cosmological co-evolution of galaxies and their central supermassive black holes (BHs) within a semi-analytical framework developed on the outputs of the Millennium Simulation (Croton et al., 2006; De Lucia & Blaizot, 2007). In this work, we analyze the model BH scaling relations, fundamental plane and mass function, and compare them with the most recent observational data. Furthermore, we extend the original code developed by Croton et al. (2006) to follow the evolution of the BH mass accretion and its conversion into radiation, and compare the derived AGN bolometric luminosity function with the observed one. We find, for the most part, a very good agreement between predicted and observed BH properties. Moreover, the model is in good agreement with the observed AGN number density in 0

  1. Galaxy Evolution at High Redshift: Obscured Star Formation, GRB Rates, Cosmic Reionization, and Missing Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Mancuso, C.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a holistic view of galaxy evolution at high redshifts z ≳ 4, which incorporates the constraints from various astrophysical/cosmological probes, including the estimate of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density from UV/IR surveys and long gamma-ray burst (GRBs) rates, the cosmic reionization history following the latest Planck measurements, and the missing satellites issue. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting the SFR functions derived by Mancuso et al. on the basis of an educated extrapolation of the latest UV/far-IR data from HST/Herschel, and already tested against a number of independent observables. Our SFR functions integrated down to a UV magnitude limit MUV ≲ ‑13 (or SFR limit around 10‑2 M⊙ yr‑1) produce a cosmic SFR density in excellent agreement with recent determinations from IR surveys and, taking into account a metallicity ceiling Z ≲ Z⊙/2, with the estimates from long GRB rates. They also yield a cosmic reionization history consistent with that implied by the recent measurements of the Planck mission of the electron scattering optical depth τes ≈ 0.058 remarkably, this result is obtained under a conceivable assumption regarding the average value fesc ≈ 0.1 of the escape fraction for ionizing photons. We demonstrate via the abundance-matching technique that the above constraints concurrently imply galaxy formation becoming inefficient within dark matter halos of mass below a few 108 M⊙ pleasingly, such a limit is also required so as not to run into the missing satellites issue. Finally, we predict a downturn of the Galaxy luminosity function faintward of MUV ≲ ‑12, and stress that its detailed shape, to be plausibly probed in the near future by the JWST, will be extremely informative on the astrophysics of galaxy formation in small halos, or even on the microscopic nature of the dark matter.

  2. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang, Yiping; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of nuclear ~1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 μm PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  3. Horizon Run 4 Simulation: Coupled Evolution of Galaxies and Large-scale Structures of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Juhan; L'Huillier, Benjamin; Hong, Sungwook E

    2015-01-01

    The Horizon Run 4 is a cosmological $N$-body simulation designed for the study of coupled evolution between galaxies and large-scale structures of the Universe, and for the test of galaxy formation models. Using $6300^3$ gravitating particles in a cubic box of $L_{\\rm box} = 3150 ~h^{-1}{\\rm Mpc}$, we build a dense forest of halo merger trees to trace the halo merger history with a halo mass resolution scale down to $M_s = 2.7 \\times 10^{11} h^{-1}{\\rm M_\\odot}$. We build a set of particle and halo data, which can serve as testbeds for comparison of cosmological models and gravitational theories with observations. We find that the FoF halo mass function shows a substantial deviation from the universal form with tangible redshift evolution of amplitude and shape. At higher redshifts, the amplitude of the mass function is lower, and the functional form is shifted toward larger values of $\\ln (1/\\sigma)$. We also find that the baryonic acoustic oscillation feature in the two-point correlation function of mock ga...

  4. Evolution of Density Profiles in High-z Galaxies: Compaction and Quenching Inside-Out

    CERN Document Server

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C Marcella; Ceverino, Daniel; DeGraf, Colin; Lapiner, Sharon; Mandelker, Nir; Primack, Joel R

    2015-01-01

    Using cosmological simulations, we address the interplay between structure and star formation in high-redshift galaxies via the evolution of surface density profiles. Our sample consists of 26 galaxies evolving in the redshift range $z=7-1$, spanning the stellar mass range $(0.2-6.4)\\times 10^{10}M_\\odot$ at $z=2$. We recover the main trends by stacking the profiles in accordance to their evolution phases. Following a wet compaction event that typically occurs when the stellar mass is $\\sim10^{9.5}~M_{\\odot}$ at $z\\sim2-4$, the gas develops a cusp inside the effective radius, associated with a peak in star-formation rate (SFR). The SFR peak and the associated feedback, in the absence of further gas inflow to the centre, marks the onset of gas depletion from the central 1 kpc, leading to quenching of the central SFR. An extended, star-forming ring that forms by fresh gas during the central quenching process shows as a rising specific SFR (sSFR) profile, which is interpreted as inside-out quenching. Before quen...

  5. PEGASE; 2, a metallicity-consistent spectral evolution model of galaxies the documentation and the code

    CERN Document Server

    Fioc, M; Fioc, Michel; Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    1999-01-01

    We provide here the documentation of the new version of the spectral evolution model PEGASE. PEGASE computes synthetic spectra of galaxies in the UV to near-IR range from 0 to 20 Gyr, for a given stellar IMF and evolutionary scenario (star formation law, infall, galactic winds). The radiation emitted by stars from the main sequence to the pre-supernova or white dwarf stage is calculated, as well as the extinction by dust. A simple modeling of the nebular emission (continuum and lines) is also proposed. PEGASE may be used to model starbursts as well as old galaxies. The main improvements of PEGASE.2 relative to PEGASE.1 (Fioc & Rocca-Volmerange 1997) are the following: (1)The stellar evolutionary tracks of the Padova group for metallicities between 0.0001 and 0.1 have been included; (2)The evolution of the metallicity of the interstellar medium (ISM) due to SNII, SNIa and AGB stars is followed. Stars are formed with the same metallicity as the ISM (instead of a solar metallicity in PEGASE.1), providing thu...

  6. The initial conditions and evolution of isolated galaxy models: effects of the hot gas halo

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jeong-Sun; Choi, Jun-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We construct several Milky Way-like galaxy models containing a gas halo (as well as gaseous and stellar disks, a dark matter halo, and a stellar bulge) following either an isothermal or an NFW density profile with varying mass and initial spin. In addition, galactic winds associated with star formation are tested in some of the simulations. We evolve these isolated galaxy models using the GADGET-3 $N$-body/hydrodynamic simulation code, paying particular attention to the effects of the gas halo on the evolution. We find that the evolution of the models is strongly affected by the adopted gas halo component. The model without a gas halo shows an increasing star formation rate (SFR) at the beginning of the simulation for some hundreds of millions of years and then a continuously decreasing rate to the end of the run at 3 Gyr. On the other hand, the SFRs in the models with a gas halo emerge to be either relatively flat throughout the simulations or increasing over a gigayear and then decreasing to the end. The mo...

  7. EVOLUTION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATIONS IN PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM SPH-COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo Velona, A. D.; Gavignaud, I.; Meza, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Sommer-Larsen, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Napolitano, N. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Antonuccio-Delogu, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, v. S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cielo, S., E-mail: aro@oact.inaf.it [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-06-20

    We present results from SPH-cosmological simulations, including self-consistent modeling of supernova feedback and chemical evolution, of galaxies belonging to two clusters and 12 groups. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (ZM) relation of galaxies classified in two samples according to their star-forming (SF) activity, as parameterized by their specific star formation rate (sSFR), across a redshift range up to z = 2. The overall ZM relation for the composite population evolves according to a redshift-dependent quadratic functional form that is consistent with other empirical estimates, provided that the highest mass bin of the brightest central galaxies is excluded. Its slope shows irrelevant evolution in the passive sample, being steeper in groups than in clusters. However, the subsample of high-mass passive galaxies only is characterized by a steep increase of the slope with redshift, from which it can be inferred that the bulk of the slope evolution of the ZM relation is driven by the more massive passive objects. The scatter of the passive sample is dominated by low-mass galaxies at all redshifts and keeps constant over cosmic times. The mean metallicity is highest in cluster cores and lowest in normal groups, following the same environmental sequence as that previously found in the red sequence building. The ZM relation for the SF sample reveals an increasing scatter with redshift, indicating that it is still being built at early epochs. The SF galaxies make up a tight sequence in the SFR-M{sub *} plane at high redshift, whose scatter increases with time alongside the consolidation of the passive sequence. We also confirm the anti-correlation between sSFR and stellar mass, pointing at a key role of the former in determining the galaxy downsizing, as the most significant means of diagnostics of the star formation efficiency. Likewise, an anti-correlation between sSFR and metallicity can be established for the SF galaxies, while on the contrary more active

  8. The zCOSMOS survey : the role of the environment in the evolution of the luminosity function of different galaxy types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucca, E.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Zamorani, G.; Ilbert, O.; Pozzetti, L.; Mignoli, M.; Kovac, K.; Lilly, S.; Tresse, L.; Tasca, L.; Cassata, P.; Halliday, C.; Vergani, D.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Moresco, M.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Capak, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. An unbiased and detailed characterization of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) is a basic requirement in many astrophysical issues: it is of particular interest in assessing the role of the environment in the evolution of the LF of different galaxy types. Methods. We studied the evolution in

  9. Evolution of central dark matter of early-type galaxies up to z ˜ 0.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Saglia, R. P.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Covone, G.; Capaccioli, M.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the evolution of dark and luminous matter in the central regions of early-type galaxies up to z ˜ 0.8. We use a spectroscopically selected sample of 154 cluster and field galaxies from the ESO Distant Clusters Survey (EDisCS), covering a wide range in redshifts (z ˜ 0.4-0.8), stellar masses (log M⋆/M⊙ ˜ 10.5-11.5 dex) and velocity dispersions (σ⋆ ˜ 100-300 km s-1). We obtain central dark matter (DM) fractions by determining the dynamical masses from Jeans modelling of galaxy aperture velocity dispersions and the M⋆ from galaxy colours, and compare the results with local samples. We discuss how the correlations of central DM with galaxy size (i.e. the effective radius, Re), M⋆ and σ⋆ evolve as a function of redshift, finding clear indications that local galaxies are, on average, more DM dominated than their counterparts at larger redshift. This DM fraction evolution with z can be only partially interpreted as a consequence of the size-redshift evolution. We discuss our results within galaxy formation scenarios, and conclude that the growth in size and DM content which we measure within the last 7 Gyr is incompatible with passive evolution, while it is well reproduced in the multiple minor merger scenario. We also discuss the impact of the initial mass function (IMF) on our DM inferences and argue that this can be non-universal with the look-back time. In particular, we find that the Salpeter IMF can be better accommodated by low-redshift systems, while producing stellar masses at high z which are unphysically larger than the estimated dynamical masses (particularly for lower σ⋆ systems).

  10. Reconstructing the galaxy density field with photometric redshifts - II. Environment-dependent galaxy evolution since z ≃ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Nicola; Pozzetti, Lucia; Cucciati, Olga; Bardelli, Sandro; Ilbert, Olivier; Cimatti, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Although extensively investigated, the role of the environment in galaxy formation is still not well understood. In this context, the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) is a powerful tool to understand how environment relates to galaxy mass assembly and the quenching of star formation. In this work, we make use of the high-precision photometric redshifts of the UltraVISTA Survey to study the GSMF in different environments up to z ∼ 3, on physical scales from 0.3 to 2 Mpc, down to masses of M ∼ 1010 M⊙. We witness the appearance of environmental signatures for both quiescent and star-forming galaxies. We find that the shape of the GSMF of quiescent galaxies is different in high- and low-density environments up to z ∼ 2 with the high-mass end (M ≳ 1011 M⊙) being enhanced in high-density environments. On the contrary, for star-forming galaxies, a difference between the GSMF in high- and low-density environments is present for masses M ≲ 1011 M⊙. Star-forming galaxies in this mass range appear to be more frequent in low-density environments up to z 2. Our results, in terms of general trends in the shape of the GSMF, are in agreement with a scenario in which galaxies are quenched when they enter hot gas-dominated massive haloes that are preferentially in high-density environments.

  11. 3D-HST + CANDELS: the Evolution of the Galaxy Size-mass Distribution Since Z=3

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerWel, A.; Franx, M.; vanDokkum, P. G.; Skelton, R. E.; Momcheva, I. G.; Whitaker, K. E.; Brammer, G. B.; Bell, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Wuyts, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Holden, B. P.; Barro, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Chang, Yu-Yen; McGrath, E. J.; Haussler, B.; Dekel, A.; Behroozi, P.; Fumagalli, M.; Leja, J.; Lundgren, B. F.; Maseda, M. V.; Nelson, E. J.; Wake, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric redshifts, stellar mass estimates, and rest-frame colors from the 3D-HST survey are combined with structural parameter measurements from CANDELS imaging to determine the galaxy size-mass distribution over the redshift (z) range 0 z z) (sup -1.48), and moderate evolution for the late-type population, effective radius is in proportion to (1 + z) (sup -0.75). The large sample size and dynamic range in both galaxy mass and redshift, in combination with the high fidelity of our measurements due to the extensive use of spectroscopic data, not only fortify previous results, but also enable us to probe beyond simple average galaxy size measurements. At all redshifts the slope of the size-mass relation is shallow, effective radius in proportion to mass of a black hole (sup 0.22), for late-type galaxies with stellar mass > 3 x 10 (sup 9) solar masses, and steep, effective radius in proportion to mass of a black hole (sup 0.75), for early-type galaxies with stellar mass > 2 x 10 (sup 10) solar masses. The intrinsic scatter is approximately or less than 0.2 decimal exponents for all galaxy types and redshifts. For late-type galaxies, the logarithmic size distribution is not symmetric, but skewed toward small sizes: at all redshifts and masses a tail of small late-type galaxies exists that overlaps in size with the early-type galaxy population. The number density of massive (approximately 10 (sup 11) solar masses), compact (effective radius less than 2 kiloparsecs) early-type galaxies increases from z = 3 to z = 1.5 - 2 and then strongly decreases at later cosmic times.

  12. Chemo-dynamical evolution of the Local Group dwarf galaxies: The origin of r-process elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Y.; Ishimaru, Y.; Saitoh, T. R.; Fujii, M. S.; Hidaka, J.; Kajino, T.

    2016-06-01

    The r-process elements such as Au, Eu, and U are observed in the extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo and the Local Group dwarf galaxies. However, the origin of r-process elements has not yet been identified. The abundance of r-process elements of stars in the Local Group galaxies provides clues to clarify early evolutionary history of galaxies. It is important to understand the chemical evolution of the Local Group dwarf galaxies which would be building blocks of the Milky Way. In this study, we perform a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies. We show that neutron star mergers can reproduce the observation of r-process elements. We find that the effects of gas mixing processes including metals in the star-forming region of a typical scale of giant molecular clouds ¥sim 10-100 pc play significant roles in the early chemical enrichment of dwarf galaxies. We also find that the star formation rate of ˜ 10^{-3} M_{⊙}yr^{-1} in early epoch (<1 Gyr) of galactic halo evolution is necessary for these results. Our results suggest that neutron star mergers are a major site of r-process.

  13. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The evolution of the blue fraction in groups and the field

    CERN Document Server

    Gerke, B F; Faber, S M; Cooper, M C; Croton, D J; Davis, M; Willmer, C N A; Yan, R; Coil, A L; Guhathakurta, P; Koo, D C; Weiner, B J; Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Cooper, Michael C.; Croton, Darren J.; Davis, Marc; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the behavior of the blue galaxy fraction over the redshift range 0.75 <= z <= 1.3 in the DEEP2 Survey, both for field galaxies and for galaxies in groups. The primary aim is to determine the role that groups play in driving the evolution of galaxy colour at high z. The colour segregation observed between local group and field samples is already in place at z ~ 1: DEEP2 groups have a significantly lower blue fraction than the field. At fixed z, there is also a correlation between blue fraction and galaxy magnitude, such that brighter galaxies are more likely to be red, both in groups and in the field. In addition, there is a negative correlation between blue fraction and group richness. In terms of evolution, the blue fraction in groups and the field remains roughly constant from z=0.75 to z ~ 1, but beyond this redshift the blue fraction in groups rises rapidly with z, and the group and field blue fractions become indistinguishable at z ~ 1.3. Careful tests indicate that this effect does not ...

  14. The cosmic background: evolution of infrared galaxies and dust properties. A lecture dedicated to the memory of Mayo Greenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Puget, J L; Dole, H; Puget, Jean-Loup; Lagache, Guilaine; Dole, Herve

    2004-01-01

    In recent years it became clear that a population of galaxies radiating most of their power in the far-infrared contribute an important part of the whole star formation activity in the universe. These galaxies emit up to 99% of their energy output in the infrared by dust. The optical properties of dust in galaxies are thus very important to understand this population. Mayo Greenberg who has brought many of the ideas underlying our understanding of the physics of interstellar dust has been a pioneer in predicting the important role of organic solid material formed on dust grains in molecular clouds and of potential importance of transient heating of very small particles. It appeared with the ISO data on galaxies and even more today with the first Spitzer data that these mechanisms are important globally for the observations of infrared galaxies at significant redshifts. The understanding of their evolution is one of the keys to the understanding of galaxy built up and evolution.

  15. The WARPS Survey. VIII. Evolution of the Galaxy Cluster X-ray Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Koens, L A; Jones, L R; Ebeling, H; Horner, D J; Perlman, E S; Phillipps, S; Scharf, C A

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of the galaxy cluster X-ray Luminosity Function (XLF) from the Wide Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey (WARPS) and quantify its evolution. WARPS is a serendipitous survey of the central region of ROSAT pointed observations and was carried out in two phases (WARPS-I and WARPS-II). The results here are based on a final sample of 124 clusters, complete above a flux limit of 6.5 10E-15 erg/s/cm2, with members out to redshift z ~ 1.05, and a sky coverage of 70.9 deg2. We find significant evidence for negative evolution of the XLF, which complements the majority of X-ray cluster surveys. To quantify the suggested evolution, we perform a maximum likelihood analysis and conclude that the evolution is driven by a decreasing number density of high luminosity clusters with redshift, while the bulk of the cluster population remains nearly unchanged out to redshift z ~ 1.1, as expected in a low density Universe. The results are found to be insensitive to a variety of sources of systematic uncertainty that ...

  16. Implications for Galaxy Evolution from the Cosmic Evolution of Supernova Rate Density

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, T; Yasuda, N; Sumi, T; Morokuma, T; Doi, M; Kosugi, G

    2008-01-01

    We report a comprehensive statistical analysis of the observational data of the cosmic evolution of supernova (SN) rate density, to derive constraints on cosmic star formation history and the nature of type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitor. We use all available information of magnitude, SN type, and redshift information of both type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNe in GOODS and SDF, as well as SN Ia rate densities reported in the literature. Furthermore, we also add 157 SN candidates in the past Subaru/Suprime-Cam data that are newly reported here, to increase the statistics. We find that the current data set of SN rate density evolution already gives a meaningful constraint on the evolution of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) at z <~ 1, though strong constraints cannot be derived for the delay time distribution (DTD) of SNe Ia. We derive a constraint of the evolutionary index of SFR density alpha ~ 3--4 [(1+z)^alpha at z <~ 1] with an evidence for a significant evolution of mean extinction of CC SNe [E...

  17. Morphologies of ˜190,000 Galaxies at z = 0-10 Revealed with HST Legacy Data. I. Size Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ouchi, Masami; Harikane, Yuichi

    2015-08-01

    We present the redshift evolution of the galaxy effective radius re obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) samples of ˜190,000 galaxies at z = 0-10. Our HST samples consist of 176,152 photo-z galaxies at z = 0-6 from the 3D-HST+CANDELS catalog and 10,454 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z = 4-10 identified in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), HUDF 09/12, and HFF parallel fields, providing the largest data set to date for galaxy size evolution studies. We derive re with the same technique over the wide redshift range of z = 0-10, evaluating the optical-to-UV morphological K correction and the selection bias of photo-z galaxies+LBGs as well as the cosmological surface-brightness dimming effect. We find that re values at a given luminosity significantly decrease toward high z, regardless of statistics choices (e.g., {r}{{e}}\\propto {(1+z)}-1.10+/- 0.06 for median). For star-forming galaxies, there is no evolution of the power-law slope of the size-luminosity relation and the median Sérsic index (n˜ 1.5). Moreover, the re distribution is well represented by log-normal functions whose standard deviation {σ }{ln{r}{{e}}} does not show significant evolution within the range of {σ }{ln{r}{{e}}}˜ 0.45-0.75. We calculate the stellar-to-halo size ratio from our re measurements and the dark-matter halo masses estimated from the abundance-matching study, and we obtain a nearly constant value of {r}{{e}}/{r}{vir}=1.0%-3.5% at z = 0-8. The combination of the re-distribution shape+standard deviation, the constant {r}{{e}}/{r}{vir}, and n˜ 1.5 suggests a picture in which typical high-z star-forming galaxies have disk-like stellar components in a sense of dynamics and morphology over cosmic time of z˜ 0-6. If high-z star-forming galaxies are truly dominated by disks, the {r}{{e}}/{r}{vir} value and the disk-formation model indicate that the specific angular momentum of the disk normalized by the host halo is {j

  18. Star Formation at Low Rates: How a Lack of Massive Stars Impacts the Evolution of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In recent years dedicated observations have uncovered star formation at extremely low rates in dwarf galaxies, tidal tails, ram-pressure stripped gas clouds, and the outskirts of galactic disks. At the same time, numerical simulations of galaxy evolution have advanced to higher spatial and mass resolutions, but have yet to account for the underfilling of the uppermost mass bins of stellar initial mass function (IMF) at low star-formation rates. In such situations, simulations may simply scale down the IMF, without realizing that this unrealistically results infractions of massive stars, along with fractions of massive star feedback energy (e.g., radiation and SNII explosions). Not properlyaccounting for such parameters has consequences for the self-regulation of star formation, the energetics of galaxies, as well as for the evolution of chemical abundances.Here we present numerical simulations of dwarf galaxies with low star-formation rates allowing for two extreme cases of the IMF: a "filled" case with fractional massive stars vs. a truncated IMF, at which the IMF is built bottom-up until the gas reservoir allows the formation of a last single star at an uppermost mass. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the different effects on galaxy evolution with respect to self-regulation, feedback, and chemistry. The case of a stochastic sampled IMF is situated somewhere in between these extremes.

  19. The Evolution of the Star Formation Rate of Galaxies at 0.0 < z < 1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rieke, George H; Papovich, Casey; Cool, Richard J; Moustakas, John; Januzzi, Buell T; Kochanek, Christopher S; Rieke, Marcia J; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter; Murray, Steve S; Brown, Michael J I; Floc'h, Emeric Le

    2010-01-01

    We present the 24 micron rest-frame luminosity function (LF) of star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.6 constructed from 4047 spectroscopic redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey of 24 micron selected sources in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. This sample provides the best available combination of large area (9 deg^2), depth, and statistically complete spectroscopic observations, allowing us to probe the evolution of the 24 micron LF of galaxies at low and intermediate redshifts while minimizing the effects of cosmic variance. In order to use the observed 24 micron luminosity as a tracer for star formation, active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that could contribute significantly at 24 micron are identified and excluded from our star-forming galaxy sample based on their mid-IR spectral energy distributions or the detection of X-ray emission. The evolution of the 24 micron LF of star-forming galaxies for redshifts of z < 0.65 is consistent with a pure luminos...

  20. The Evolution of Galaxies at Constant Number Density: A Less Biased View of Star Formation, Quenching, and Structural Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Ownsworth, Jamie R; Mundy, Carl J; Mortlock, Alice; Hartley, William G; Duncan, Kenneth; Almaini, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Due to significant galaxy contamination and impurity in stellar mass selected samples (up to 95% from z=0-3), we examine the star formation history, quenching time-scales, and structural evolution of galaxies using a constant number density selection with data from the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey field. Using this methodology we investigate the evolution of galaxies at a variety of number densities from $z=0-3$. We find that samples chosen at number densities ranging from $3\\times10^{-4}$ to 10$^{-5}$ galaxies Mpc$^{-3}$ (corresponding to $z\\sim0.5$ stellar masses of M$_{*}= 10^{10.95-11.6}$ M$_{0}$) have a star forming blue fraction of $\\sim50$\\% at $z\\sim2.5$, which evolves to a nearly $100$\\% quenched red and dead population by $z\\sim 1$. We also see evidence for number density downsizing, such that the galaxies selected at the lowest densities (highest masses) become a homogeneous red population before those at higher number densities. Examining the evolution of the colours for these systems furthermore show...

  1. Uncovering Additional Clues to Galaxy Evolution. II. The Environmental Impact of the Virgo Cluster on the Evolution of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H; Richer, M G; Lee, Henry; Call, Marshall L. Mc; Richer, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of the cluster environment on the evolution of dwarf galaxies is investigated by comparing the properties of a sample of dwarf irregulars (dIs) in the Virgo Cluster with a control sample of nearby ("field") dIs having oxygen abundances derived from [O III]4363 measurements and measured distances from resolved stellar constituents. Spectroscopic data are obtained for H II regions in 11 Virgo dIs distributed in the central and outer regions of the cluster. To ensure that oxygen abundances are derived in a homogeneous manner, oxygen abundances for field and Virgo dIs are computed using the bright-line method and compared with abundances directly obtained from [O III]4363, where available. They are found to agree to within about 0.2 dex with no systematic offset. At a given optical luminosity, there is no systematic difference in oxygen abundance between the sample of Virgo dIs and the sample of nearby dIs. However, five of the eleven Virgo dIs exhibit much lower baryonic gas fractions than field dIs a...

  2. The impact of a major cluster merger on galaxy evolution in MACS\\,J0025.4-1225

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, C -J; Marshall, P; Schrabback, T

    2010-01-01

    We present results of an extensive morphological, spectroscopic, and photometric study of the galaxy population of MACS J0025.4$-$1225 (z=0.586), a major cluster merger with clear segregation of dark and luminous matter, to examine the impact of mergers on galaxy evolution. Based on 436 galaxy spectra obtained with Keck DEIMOS, we identified 212 cluster members within 4 Mpc of the cluster centre, and classified them using three spectroscopic types; we find 111 absorption-line, 90 emission-line (including 23 e(a) and 11 e(b)), and 6 E+A galaxies. The fraction of absorption(emission)-line galaxies is a monotonically increasing(decreasing) function of both projected galaxy density and radial distance to the cluster center. More importantly, the 6 observed E+A cluster members are all located between the dark-matter peaks of the cluster and within ~0.3Mpc radius of the X-ray flux peak, unlike the E+A galaxies in other intermediate-redshift clusters which are usually found to avoid the core region. In addition, we ...

  3. The Origin and Evolution of the Mass-Metallicity Relationship of Galaxies: Results from Cosmological N-Body Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, A M; Booth, C M; Willman, B; Gardner, J P; Wadsley, J; Stinson, G; Quinn, T

    2006-01-01

    We examine the origin and evolution of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationship for galaxies using high resolution cosmological SPH + N-Body simulations that include a physically motivated description of the effects of supernovae feedback and subsequent metal enrichment. Our simulations allow us to distinguish between two possible sources that contribute to both the origin of the mass-metallicity relationship and to the low chemical yield observed in low galaxy masses: 1) metal loss due to gas outflow, or 2) inefficient star formation at the lowest galaxy masses. Our simulated galaxies are in excellent agreement with the observed M-Z relationship, both at z=0 and z=2. We find that gas mass loss becomes increasingly important at decreasing galaxy masses for our simulations, This mass loss results in a low effective yield for our lowest mass galaxies in good agreement with observational results. By considering all the gas that has ever belonged to a galaxy (back to z=3), we find the metallicity is unchanged from...

  4. RXJ0848.6+4453: The Evolution of Galaxy Sizes and Stellar Populations in a z=1.27 Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Inger; Toft, Sune; Bergmann, Marcel; Zirm, Andrew; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Grutzbauch, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    RXJ0848.6+4453 (Lynx W) at redshift 1.27 is part of the Lynx Supercluster of galaxies. Our analysis of stellar populations and star formation history in the cluster covers 24 members and is based on deep optical spectroscopy from Gemini North and imaging data from HST. Focusing on the 13 bulge-dominated galaxies for which we can determine central velocity dispersions, we find that these show a smaller evolution of sizes and velocity dispersions than reported for field galaxies and galaxies in poorer clusters. The galaxies in RXJ0848.6+4453 populate the Fundamental Plane similar to that found for lower redshift clusters with a zero point offset corresponding to an epoch of last star formation at z_form= 1.95+-0.2. The spectra of the galaxies in RXJ0848.6+4453 are dominated by young stellar populations at all galaxy masses and in many cases show emission indicating low level on-going star formation. The average age of the young stellar populations (estimated from H-zeta) is consistent with a major star formatio...

  5. The clustering of galaxies in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Luminosity and Color Dependence and Redshift Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Hong; Zheng, Zheng; Weinberg, David H; Berlind, Andreas A; Blanton, Michael; Chen, Yanmei; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Ho, Shirley; Kazin, Eyal; Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; McBride, Cameron K; Nuza, Sebastian E; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Parejko, John K; Percival, Will J; Ross, Ashley J; Ross, Nicholas P; Samushia, Lado; Sanchez, Ariel G; Schlegel, David J; Schneider, Donald P; Skibba, Ramin A; Swanson, Molly E C; Tinker, Jeremy L; Tojeiro, Rita; Wake, David A; White, Martin; Bahcall, Neta A; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Bundy, Kevin; da Costa, Luiz N A; Ebelke, Garrett; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Oravetz, Daniel; Rossi, Graziano; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie; Streblyanska, Alina; Thomas, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We measure the luminosity and color dependence and the redshift evolution of galaxy clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Ninth Data Release. We focus on the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of subsets of its CMASS sample, which includes about 260,000 galaxies over ~3,300 sq. deg in the redshift range 0.43galaxy clustering, we construct well-defined luminosity and color subsamples by carefully accounting for the CMASS galaxy selection cuts. The 2PCF of the whole CMASS sample, if approximated by a power-law, has a correlation length of r_0=7.93\\pm0.06Mpc/h and an index of \\gamma=1.85\\pm0.01. Clear dependences on galaxy luminosity and color are found for the projected 2PCF in all redshift bins, with more luminous and redder galaxies generally exhibiting stronger clustering and steeper 2PCF. The color dependence is also clearly seen for galaxies within the red sequence, consistent with the behavior o...

  6. CLASH-VLT: Environment-driven evolution of galaxies in the z=0.209 cluster Abell 209

    CERN Document Server

    Annunziatella, M; Biviano, A; Girardi, M; Nonino, M; Balestra, I; Rosati, P; Caminha, G Bartosch; Brescia, M; Gobat, R; Grillo, C; Lombardi, M; Sartoris, B; De Lucia, G; Demarco, R; Frye, B; Fritz, A; Moustakas, J; Scodeggio, M; Kuchner, U; Maier, C; Ziegler, B

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of galaxy properties and the relations among them and the environment, can be used to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. We study the cluster A209 by using the CLASH-VLT spectroscopic data combined with Subaru photometry, yielding to 1916 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^{8.6} Msun. We determine: i) the stellar mass function of star-forming and passive galaxies; ii) the intra-cluster light and its properties; iii) the orbits of low- and high-mass passive galaxies; and iv) the mass-size relation of ETGs. The stellar mass function of the star-forming galaxies does not depend on the environment, while the slope found for passive galaxies becomes flatter in the densest region. The color distribution of the intra-cluster light is consistent with the color of passive members. The analysis of the dynamical orbits shows that low-mass passive galaxies have tangential orbits, avoiding small pericenters around the BCG. The mass-size relation of low-mass passive ETGs is ...

  7. The growth of disks and bulges during hierarchical galaxy formation. II: metallicity, stellar populations and dynamical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tonini, Chiara; Wyithe, J Stuart B; Croton, Darren J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the stellar populations of model galaxies, using the new semi-analytic model presented in Tonini et al. (2016a). This new model follows the angular momentum evolution of gas and stars, providing the base for a new star formation recipe, and treatment of the effects of mergers that depends on the central galaxy dynamical structure. We find that the new recipes have the effect of boosting the efficiency of the baryonic cycle in producing and recycling metals, as well as preventing minor mergers from diluting the metallicity of bulges and ellipticals. The model reproduces the stellar mass - stellar metallicity relation for galaxies above 1e10 solar masses, including Brightest Cluster Galaxies. Model disks, galaxies dominated by instability-driven components, and merger-driven objects each stem from different evolutionary channels. These model galaxies therefore occupy different loci in the galaxy mass - size relation, which we find to be in accord with the Atlas 3D classification...

  8. A snapshot on galaxy evolution occurring in the Great Wall: the role of Nurture at z=0

    CERN Document Server

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Cucciati, Olga; Boselli, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of quantifying the contribution of the environment on the evolution of galaxies at z=0 we have used the DR7 catalogue of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of 4132 galaxies in 420 square degrees of the Coma supercluster, containing two rich clusters (Coma and A1367), several groups, and many filamentary structures belonging to the "Great Wall", at the approximate distance of 100 Mpc. At this distance the galaxy census is complete to Mi=-17.5 mag, i.e. approx 4 mag fainter than M*. The morphological classification of galaxies into early- (ellipticals) and late-types (spirals) was carried out by inspection of individual SDSS images and spectra. The density around each galaxies was determined in cylinders of 1 Mpc radius and 1000 km s^-1 half length. The color-luminosity relation was derived for galaxies in bins morphological type and in four thresholds of galaxy density-contrast, ranging from delta{1,1000} 20 (UH = the cluster's cores). The fraction of early-ty...

  9. Bar-driven evolution and quenching of spiral galaxies in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoso, Daniele; Bonoli, Silvia; Dotti, Massimo; Mayer, Lucio; Madau, Piero; Bellovary, Jillian

    2017-03-01

    We analyse the outputs of the cosmological 'zoom-in' hydrodynamical simulation ErisBH to study a strong stellar bar which naturally emerges in the late evolution of the simulated Milky Way-type galaxy. We focus on the analysis of the formation and evolution of the bar and on its effects on the galactic structure, the gas distribution and the star formation. A large central region in the ErisBH disc becomes bar unstable after z ∼ 1.4, but a clear bar starts to grow significantly only after z ≃ 0.4, possibly triggered by the interaction with a massive satellite. At z ≃ 0.1, the bar stabilizes and reaches its maximum radial extent of l ≈ 2.2 kpc. As the bar grows, it becomes prone to buckling instability. The actual buckling event, observable at z ≃ 0.1, results in the formation of a boxy-peanut bulge clearly discernible at z = 0. During its early growth, the bar exerts a strong torque on the gas and drives gas inflows that enhance the nuclear star formation on sub-kpc scales. Later on, as the bar reaches its maximum length and strength, the gas within its extent is nearly all consumed into stars, leaving behind a gas-depleted region in the central ∼2 kpc. Observations would more likely identify a prominent, large-scale bar at the stage when the galactic central region has already been gas depleted, giving a hint at the fact that bar-driven quenching may play an important role in the evolution of disc-dominated galaxies.

  10. Evolution of the stellar-to-dark matter relation: Separating star-forming and passive galaxies from z = 1 to 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinker, Jeremy L. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Leauthaud, Alexie; Bundy, Kevin [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); George, Matthew R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Behroozi, Peter; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Massey, Richard [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, Jason, E-mail: jeremy.tinker@nyu.edu [California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We use measurements of the stellar mass function, galaxy clustering, and galaxy-galaxy lensing within the COSMOS survey to constrain the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) of star forming and quiescent galaxies over the redshift range z = [0.2, 1.0]. For massive galaxies, M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 10.6} M {sub ☉}, our results indicate that star-forming galaxies grow proportionately as fast as their dark matter halos while quiescent galaxies are outpaced by dark matter growth. At lower masses, there is minimal difference in the SHMRs, implying that the majority low-mass quiescent galaxies have only recently been quenched of their star formation. Our analysis also affords a breakdown of all COSMOS galaxies into the relative numbers of central and satellite galaxies for both populations. At z = 1, satellite galaxies dominate the red sequence below the knee in the stellar mass function. But the number of quiescent satellites exhibits minimal redshift evolution; all evolution in the red sequence is due to low-mass central galaxies being quenched of their star formation. At M {sub *} ∼ 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the fraction of central galaxies on the red sequence increases by a factor of 10 over our redshift baseline, while the fraction of quenched satellite galaxies at that mass is constant with redshift. We define a 'migration rate' to the red sequence as the time derivative of the passive galaxy abundances. We find that the migration rate of central galaxies to the red sequence increases by nearly an order of magnitude from z = 1 to z = 0. These results imply that the efficiency of quenching star formation for centrals is increasing with cosmic time, while the mechanisms that quench the star formation of satellite galaxies in groups and clusters is losing efficiency.

  11. Evolution of the Stellar-to-Dark Matter Relation: Separating Star-Forming and Passive Galaxies from z=1 to 0

    CERN Document Server

    Tinker, Jeremy L; Bundy, Kevin; George, Matthew R; Behroozi, Peter; Massey, Richard; Rhodes, Jason; Wechsler, Risa

    2013-01-01

    We use measurements of the stellar mass function, galaxy clustering, and galaxy-galaxy lensing within the COSMOS survey to constrain the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) of star forming and quiescent galaxies over the redshift range z=[0.2,1.0]. For massive galaxies, M*>~10^10.6 Msol, our results indicate that star-forming galaxies grow proportionately as fast as their dark matter halos while quiescent galaxies are outpaced by dark matter growth. At lower masses, there is minimal difference in the SHMRs, implying that the majority low-mass quiescent galaxies have only recently been quenched of their star formation. Our analysis also affords a breakdown of all COSMOS galaxies into the relative numbers of central and satellite galaxies for both populations. At z=1, satellite galaxies dominate the red sequence below the knee in the stellar mass function. But the number of quiescent satellites exhibits minimal redshift evolution; all evolution in the red sequence is due to low-mass central galaxies being quen...

  12. Galaxy Assembly and the Evolution of Structure over the First Third of Cosmic Time - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Sandra

    2010-09-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey {CANDELS}is designed to document the |*|rst third of galactic evolution from z =8 to 1.5 via deep imaging of more than 250,000 galaxies with WFC3/IRand ACS. It will also find the first Type Ia SNe beyond z > 1.5 andestablish their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Fivepremier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected from the SpitzerExtragalactic Deep Survey {SEDS} to provide complementary IRAC imagingdata down to 26.5 AB mag, a unique resource for stellar masses at allredshifts. The use of |*|ve widely separated |*|elds mitigates cosmicvariance and yields statistically robust and complete samples ofgalaxies down to 10^9 solar masses out to z 8.The program merges two originally separate MCT proposals. The Faberprogram incorporates a |*|Wide|*| imaging survey in three separate fieldsto 2 orbit depth over 0.2 sq. degrees, plus a |*|Deep|*| imaging surveyto 12 orbit depth in the two GOODS regions over 0.04 sq. degrees.In combination with ultra-deep imaging from the Hubble Ultradeep Fieldprogram {GO 11563}, the result is a three-tiered strategy that ef|*|cientlysamples both bright/rare and faint/common extragalactic objects. TheFerguson program adds an extensive high-redshift Type Ia SNe search,plus ultraviolet "daytime" UVIS exposures in GOODS-N to exploit theCVZ opportunity in that field.This program, GO 12064, is part of the Wide mosaic survey, which has thefollowing field centers and sizes: Field ID RA{2000} Dec{2000} WFC3 Dim. PA on sky UDS 02 17 38 -05 12 02 4x11 270 COSMOS 10 00 31 +02 24 00 4x11 180 EGS 14 19 31 +52 54 10 3x15 41 Science highlights from the Wide program: * Underlying structural properties of galaxies as revealed by WFC3-IR images sensitive to older stars {beyond the 4000-A break} and less affected by dust than ACS. A key redshift is z 2, where star-formation peaks, QSOs are most abundant, and where restframe B-band is still accessible to WFC3. Sample questions include

  13. The redshift evolution of massive galaxy clusters in the MACSIS simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David J.; Kay, Scott T.; Henson, Monique A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Jenkins, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    We present the MAssive ClusterS and Intercluster Structures (MACSIS) project, a suite of 390 clusters simulated with baryonic physics that yields realistic massive galaxy clusters capable of matching a wide range of observed properties. MACSIS extends the recent BAryons and HAloes of MAssive Systems simulation to higher masses, enabling robust predictions for the redshift evolution of cluster properties and an assessment of the effect of selecting only the hottest systems. We study the observable-mass scaling relations and the X-ray luminosity-temperature relation over the complete observed cluster mass range. As expected, we find that the slope of these scaling relations and the evolution of their normalization with redshift depart significantly from the self-similar predictions. However, for a sample of hot clusters with core-excised temperatures kBT ≥ 5 keV, the normalization and the slope of the observable-mass relations and their evolution are significantly closer to self-similar. The exception is the temperature-mass relation, for which the increased importance of non-thermal pressure support and biased X-ray temperatures leads to a greater departure from self-similarity in the hottest systems. As a consequence, these also affect the slope and evolution of the normalization in the luminosity-temperature relation. The median hot gas profiles show good agreement with observational data at z = 0 and z = 1, with their evolution again departing significantly from the self-similar prediction. However, selecting a hot sample of clusters yields profiles that evolve significantly closer to the self-similar prediction. In conclusion, our results show that understanding the selection function is vital for robust calibration of cluster properties with mass and redshift.

  14. Star cluster evolution in barred disc galaxies. I. Planar periodic orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Berentzen, I

    2011-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of stellar clusters is driven to a large extent by their environment. Several studies so far have considered the effect of tidal fields and their variations, such as, e.g., from giant molecular clouds, galactic discs, or spiral arms. In this paper we will concentrate on a tidal field whose effects on star clusters have not yet been studied, namely that of bars. We present a set of direct N-body simulations of star clusters moving in an analytic potential representing a barred galaxy. We compare the evolution of the clusters moving both on different planar periodic orbits in the barred potential and on circular orbits in a potential obtained by axisymmetrising its mass distribution. We show that both the shape of the underlying orbit and its stability have strong impact on the cluster evolution as well as the morphology and orientation of the tidal tails and the sub-structures therein. We find that the dissolution time-scale of the cluster in our simulations is mainly determined by the ...

  15. The redshift evolution of massive galaxy clusters in the MACSIS simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, David J; Henson, Monique A; McCarthy, Ian G; Schaye, Joop; Jenkins, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    We present the MAssive ClusterS and Intercluster Structures (MACSIS) project, a suite of 390 clusters simulated with baryonic physics that yields realistic massive galaxy clusters capable of matching a wide range of observed properties. MACSIS extends the recent BAHAMAS simulation to higher masses, enabling robust predictions for the redshift evolution of cluster properties and an assessment of the effect of selecting only the hottest systems. We study the observable-total mass and X-ray luminosity-temperature scaling relations across the complete observed cluster mass range, finding the slope of the scaling relations and the evolution of their normalization with redshift to depart significantly from self-similar predictions. This is driven by the impact of AGN feedback, the presence of non-thermal pressure support and biased X-ray temperatures. For a sample of hot clusters with core-excised temperatures $k_{\\rm{B}}T\\geq5\\,\\rm{keV}$ the normalization and slope of the observable-mass relations and their evolut...

  16. The scatter and evolution of the global hot gas properties of simulated galaxy cluster populations

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, Amandine M C Le; Schaye, Joop; Ponman, Trevor J

    2016-01-01

    We use the cosmo-OWLS suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the scatter and evolution of the global hot gas properties of large simulated populations of galaxy groups and clusters. Our aim is to compare the predictions of different physical models and to explore the extent to which commonly-adopted assumptions in observational analyses (e.g. self-similar evolution) are violated. We examine the relations between (true) halo mass and the X-ray temperature, X-ray luminosity, gas mass, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) flux, the X-ray analogue of the SZ flux ($Y_X$) and the hydrostatic mass. For the most realistic models, which include AGN feedback, the slopes of the various mass-observable relations deviate substantially from the self-similar ones, particularly at late times and for low-mass clusters. The amplitude of the mass-temperature relation shows negative evolution with respect to the self-similar prediction (i.e. slower than the prediction) for all models, driven by an increase in non-the...

  17. Formation and Evolution of the Dust in Galaxies. III. The Disk of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Piovan, L; Merlin, E; Grassi, T; Tantalo, R; Buonomo, U; Cassarà, L P

    2011-01-01

    Models of chemical evolution of galaxies including the dust are nowadays required to decipher the high-z universe. In a series of three papers we have tackled the problem and set a modern chemical evolution model. In the first paper (Piovan et al., 2011a) we revised the condensation coefficients for the elements that typically are present in the dust. In the second paper (Piovan et al., 2011b) we have implemented the dust into the Padova chemical model and tested it against the observational data for the Solar Neighbourhood. In this paper we extend it to the whole Disk of the Milky Way (MW). The Disk is used as a laboratory to analyze the spatial and temporal behaviour of (i) several dust grain families with the aid of which we can describe the ISM, (ii) the abundances in the gas, dust, and total ISM of the elements present in the dust and (iii) the depletion of the same elements. The temporal evolution of the dust and gas across the Disk is calculated under the effect of radial flows and a central Bar. The g...

  18. Chemo -- dynamical, multi -- fragmented SPH code for evolution of star forming disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczik, P.

    The problem of chemical and dynamical evolution of galaxies is one of the most attracting and complex problems of modern astrophysics. Within the framework of the given paper the standard dynamic Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code (Monaghan J.J. 1992, ARAA, 30, 543) is noticeably expanded. Our work concernes with the changes and incorporation of new ideas into the algorithmic inclusion of Star Formation (SF) and Super Novae (SN) explosions in SPH (Berczik P. & Kravchuk S.G., 1996, ApSpSci, 245, 27). The proposed energy criterion for definition of a place and efficiency of SF results in the successfully explain Star Formation History (SFH) in isolated galaxies of different types. On the base of original ideas we expand a code in a more realistic way of the description of effects of return of a hot, chemical enriched gas in Interstellar Matter (ISM). In addition to the account of SNII, we offer the self-agreed account of SNIa and PN. This allows to describe not only the ISM content of O^16 but also the content of Fe^56 . This model will allow to investigate adequately also a well known G - dwarf problem.

  19. The ALHAMBRA survey: evolution of galaxy clustering since $z \\sim 1$

    CERN Document Server

    Arnalte-Mur, P; Norberg, P; Fernández-Soto, A; Ascaso, B; Merson, A I; Aguerri, J A L; Castander, F J; Hurtado-Gil, L; López-Sanjuan, C; Molino, A; Montero-Dorta, A; Stefanon, M; Alfaro, E; Aparicio-Villegas, T; Benítez, N; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Cepa, J; Cerviño, M; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; del Olmo, A; González-Delgado, R M; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Moles, M; Perea, J; Pović, M; Prada, F; Quintana, J M

    2013-01-01

    We study the clustering of galaxies as function of luminosity and redshift in the range $z \\in [0.35,1.25]$ using data from the Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey. The ALHAMBRA data used in this work covers $2.38 \\,\\mbox{deg}^2$ in 7 independent fields, after applying a detailed angular selection mask, with accurate photometric redshifts, $\\sigma_z \\lesssim 0.014 (1+z)$, down to $I_{AB} < 24$. Given the depth of the survey, we select samples in $B$-band luminosity down to $L^{th} \\simeq 0.16 L^{*}$ at $z = 0.9$. We measure the real-space clustering using the projected correlation function, accounting for photometric redshifts uncertainties. We infer the galaxy bias, and study its evolution with luminosity. We study the effect of sample variance, and confirm earlier results that the COSMOS and ELAIS-N1 fields are dominated by the presence of large structures. For the intermediate and bright samples, $L^{med} \\gtrsim 0.6L^{*}$, we obtain a strong dependence of...

  20. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Rieke, George H; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Wang, Yiping; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3x10^7 M_sun using [NeIII]15.56micron and optical [OIII]5007A gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear ~1.5kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3micron PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios highe...