WorldWideScience

Sample records for gearshifts

  1. Sensor fault-tolerant control for gear-shifting engaging process of automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; He, Kai; Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Yahui

    2018-01-01

    Angular displacement sensor on the actuator of automated manual transmission (AMT) is sensitive to fault, and the sensor fault will disturb its normal control, which affects the entire gear-shifting process of AMT and results in awful riding comfort. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of fault-tolerant control for AMT gear-shifting engaging process. By using the measured current of actuator motor and angular displacement of actuator, the gear-shifting engaging load torque table is built and updated before the occurrence of the sensor fault. Meanwhile, residual between estimated and measured angular displacements is used to detect the sensor fault. Once the residual exceeds a determined fault threshold, the sensor fault is detected. Then, switch control is triggered, and the current observer and load torque table estimates an actual gear-shifting position to replace the measured one to continue controlling the gear-shifting process. Numerical and experiment tests are carried out to evaluate the reliability and feasibility of proposed methods, and the results show that the performance of estimation and control is satisfactory.

  2. Air Compressor Pressure Control System Based On Gearshift Integral PID Controller

    OpenAIRE

    PAN Chunyue

    2017-01-01

    The application of gearshift integral PID controller to air compressor pressure control system is introduced, Its kernel is single chip microcomputer PIC16F877.The design of hardware and solfware are introduced too. Practical application shows that this system has many advantages.

  3. Air Compressor Pressure Control System Based On Gearshift Integral PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Chunyue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of gearshift integral PID controller to air compressor pressure control system is introduced, Its kernel is single chip microcomputer PIC16F877.The design of hardware and solfware are introduced too. Practical application shows that this system has many advantages.

  4. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC reaches its boundaries.

  5. A two-phase control algorithm for gear-shifting in a novel multi-speed transmission for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozegar, M.; Angeles, J.

    2018-05-01

    In light of the current low energy-storage capacity of electric batteries, multi-speed transmissions (MSTs) are being considered for applications in electric vehicles (EVs), since MSTs decrease the energy consumption of the EV via gear-shifting. Nonetheless, swiftness and seamlessness are the major concerns in gear-shifting. This study focuses on developing a gear-shifting control scheme for a novel MST designed for EVs. The main advantages of the proposed MST are simplicity and modularity. Firstly, the dynamics model of the transmission is formulated. Then, a two-phase algorithm is proposed for shifting between each two gear ratios, which guarantees a smooth and swift shift. In other words, a separate control set is applied for shifting between each gear pair, which includes two independent PID controllers, tuned using trial-and-error and a genetic algorithm (GA), for the two steps of the algorithm and a switch. A supervisory controller is also employed to choose the proper PID gains, called PID gain-scheduling. Simulation results for various controllers and conditions are reported and compared, indicating that the proposed scheme is highly promising for a desired gear-shifting even in the presence of an unknown external disturbance.

  6. Nonlinear gearshifts control of dual-clutch transmissions during inertia phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yunfeng; Tian, Lu; Gao, Bingzhao; Chen, Hong

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a model-based nonlinear gearshift controller is designed by the backstepping method to improve the shift quality of vehicles with a dual-clutch transmission (DCT). Considering easy-implementation, the controller is rearranged into a concise structure which contains a feedforward control and a feedback control. Then, robustness of the closed-loop error system is discussed in the framework of the input to state stability (ISS) theory, where model uncertainties are considered as the additive disturbance inputs. Furthermore, due to the application of the backstepping method, the closed-loop error system is ordered as a linear system. Using the linear system theory, a guideline for selecting the controller parameters is deduced which could reduce the workload of parameters tuning. Finally, simulation results and Hardware in the Loop (HiL) simulation are presented to validate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and evaluation of a virtual gearshift application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, Martijn; van der Voort, Mascha C.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    When a customer buys a new car, he or she wants it to address personal preferences with respect to its driving behavior. By utilizing virtual reality technology, a virtual prototyping environment (VPE) can be created in which the behavior of a vehicle or part of a vehicle can be evaluated and

  8. Interplay simulation/testing in the optimisation of gearshift quality for manual transmissions; Zusammenspiel Simulation/Erprobung bezueglich optimierte Schaltqualitaet von Handschaltgetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, S.; Donin, R. [Ricardo Deutschland GmbH, Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany); Kelly, D. [Ricardo DTS, Leamington Spa (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Passenger comfort is an aspect of the development of modern passenger cars that cannot be overlooked. Achieving a high degree of shift comfort, i.e. a combination of shift feeling and low shift forces, is a great challenge, since the mechanical processes taking place are highly non-linear and arbitrary. A purely test-based programme of shift quality development is cost- and time-intensive. Such a programme runs the risk of not delivering the necessary results on time. Therefore it is necessary to develop a methodology that facilitates a complementary interplay between simulation and testing, and in which the vehicle is considered as a complete system. Sub-systems such as shift lever, inner and outer shift mechanism, transmission, clutch and engine must be considered very carefully with regard to the system requirements, which are often conflicting. Over the last 15 years, Ricardo has developed a tool with which shift quality can be objectively assessed-''GSQA - Gear Shift Quality Assessment''. Today, with the help of its detailed dynamic simulation models, Ricardo is in a position to solve complex shift quality problems in the concept phase as well as in series production. (orig.)

  9. Amélioration de l'agrément de conduite via le pilotage du groupe motopropulseur

    OpenAIRE

    Tran , Van Nhu

    2013-01-01

    Dual clutch transmission systems were introduced in vehicles to upgrade the driving comfort, the energy economy, and to minimize the shift time. Dual clutch management is a key point when considering driving comfort, particularly during the gearshift. Thus, the main objective of this work is the synthesis of control laws for dual clutch transmission during launch and gearshift. The first chapter presents an overview about vehicle powertrain, modeling and control. The second chapter focuses on...

  10. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  11. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  12. An energy management system for a directly-driven electric scooter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yee-Pien; Liu, Jieng-Jang; Hu, Tsung-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    An energy management system with an electronic gearshift and regenerative braking is presented to improve the gross efficiency and driving range of an electric scooter, driven directly by a four-phase axial-flux DC brushless wheel motor. The integration of stator windings, batteries, ultracapacitors, and a digital controller constitutes an energy management system, which features smooth electronic gear shifting and regenerative braking. The gross efficiency of the experimental scooter is improved in the drivable range by 20% with respect to that without regenerative braking. The battery-to-wheel efficiency was also above 70% for both low- and high-speed gears.

  13. An energy management system for a directly-driven electric scooter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yee-Pien, E-mail: ypyang@ntu.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Jieng-Jang, E-mail: jjliu@ntu.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hu, Tsung-Hsien, E-mail: elvishu@artc.org.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-15

    An energy management system with an electronic gearshift and regenerative braking is presented to improve the gross efficiency and driving range of an electric scooter, driven directly by a four-phase axial-flux DC brushless wheel motor. The integration of stator windings, batteries, ultracapacitors, and a digital controller constitutes an energy management system, which features smooth electronic gear shifting and regenerative braking. The gross efficiency of the experimental scooter is improved in the drivable range by 20% with respect to that without regenerative braking. The battery-to-wheel efficiency was also above 70% for both low- and high-speed gears.

  14. An energy management system for a directly-driven electric scooter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee-Pien Yang; Jieng-Jang Liu; Tsung-Hsien Hu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei (China)

    2011-01-15

    An energy management system with an electronic gearshift and regenerative braking is presented to improve the gross efficiency and driving range of an electric scooter, driven directly by a four-phase axial-flux DC brushless wheel motor. The integration of stator windings, batteries, ultracapacitors, and a digital controller constitutes an energy management system, which features smooth electronic gear shifting and regenerative braking. The gross efficiency of the experimental scooter is improved in the drivable range by 20% with respect to that without regenerative braking. The battery-to-wheel efficiency was also above 70% for both low- and high-speed gears. (author)

  15. Optimal Energy Control Strategy Design for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled, and its optimal energy control is studied in this paper. The fundamental architecture of the parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled feed-forwardly, together with necessary dynamic features of subsystem or components. Dynamic programming (DP technique is adopted to find the optimal control strategy including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and the motor subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the fuel economy can be achieved in the heavy-duty vehicle cycle from the natural driving statistics.

  16. Accelerating the three dimensions of E and P clockspeed - A novel strategy for optimizing utility in the Oil and Gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud

    2009-01-01

    As the global Oil and Gas Industry enters its third, late lifecycle stage (outlined in the introduction of this study), new strategies and conceptual tools are needed to postpone - or reverse - the decline of the E and P industry. The problem is this: the late lifecycle is principally heralded by limited supply due to finite hydrocarbon reserves, while energy demand soars as world population and the global economy continue to grow. This study therefore proposes a framework through which an E and P company can critically assess its capability in accelerating lag-time between exploration and production. In the first part of this paper (Sections 1-3), the need for a phase-shift toward faster clockspeeds for the Oil and Gas industry is argued to be an important step to close the energy supply gap. In the second part of this paper (Sections 4-6), the strategy concept of clockspeed acceleration is further elaborated and optimization methods for the three principal dimensions of E and P clockspeed acceleration are discussed. The three Clockspeed Accelerators TM are: workflow speed, improvement rate of Uncertainty Mitigation and accrual speed of portfolio value. The third part of this paper (Sections 7-11) presents the empirical analysis of E and P clockspeed performance for two peer groups (IOC supermajors and public private partnership NOCs) comprising six companies each. The acceleration of E and P clockspeed can help to optimize production levels of conventional and unconventional oil, and includes diversification strategies that replace non-renewables with renewables. In summary, E and P Clockspeed Accelerators provide the gearshift instruments that enable the energy industry to better meet the required demand/supply ratios. The results of this study translate into the following deliverables for practical use by Oil and Gas professionals: -insight into the concept of clockspeed in E and P industry setting, -use of Clockspeed Accelerators TM as gearshift lever tools

  17. A Control Strategy for Mode Transition with Gear Shifting in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuhyun Sim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mode transition from electric propulsion mode to hybrid propulsion mode is important with regard to the power management strategy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This is because mode transitions can occur frequently depending on the power management strategies and driving cycles, and because inadequate mode transitions worsen the fuel efficiency and drivability. A pre-transmission parallel PHEV uses a clutch between the internal combustion engine (ICE and the electric motor (EM to connect or disconnect the power source of the ICE for a mode transition. The mode transition requires additional energy consumption for clutch speed synchronization, and is accompanied by a drivetrain shock due to clutch engagement. This paper proposes a control strategy for the mode transition with gear-shifting to resolve the problems of energy consumption and drivetrain shock. Through the development of a PHEV performance simulator, we analyze the mode transition characteristics and propose a control strategy considering the vehicle acceleration and gear state. The control strategy reduces the duration required for the mode transition by moving the start time of the mode transition. This helps to improve energy efficiency while maintaining adequate drivability.

  18. The Development and Verification of a Novel ECMS of Hybrid Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the system modeling, control strategy design, and hardware-in-the-loop test for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus. First, the powertrain mathematical models and the system architecture were proposed. Then an adaptive ECMS is developed for the real-time control of a hybrid electric bus, which is investigated and verified in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. The ECMS through driving cycle recognition results in updating the equivalent charge and discharge coefficients and extracting optimized rules for real-time control. This method not only solves the problems of mode transition frequently and improves the fuel economy, but also simplifies the complexity of control strategy design and provides new design ideas for the energy management strategy and gear-shifting rules designed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed real-time A-ECMS can coordinate the overall hybrid electric powertrain to optimize fuel economy and sustain the battery SOC level.

  19. Dynamic Shift Coordinated Control Based on Motor Active Speed Synchronization with the New Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the inherent disadvantages that severely affect driving comfortability during the shift process in HEVs, a dynamic shift coordinated control based on motor active speed synchronization is proposed to improve shift quality by reduction of shift vibration. The whole control scheme is comprised of three phases, preparatory phase, speed regulation phase, and synchronization phase, which are implemented consecutively in order. The key to inhibiting impact and jerk depends on the speed regulation phase, where motor active speed synchronization is utilized to reach the minimum speed difference between the two ends of synchronizer. A new hybrid system with superior performances is applied to present the validity of the adopted control algorithm during upshift or downshift, which can represent planetary gear system and conventional AMT shift procedure, respectively. Bench test, simulation, and road test results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed dynamic coordinated control can achieve shifting control in real time to effectively improve gear-shift comfort and shorten power interruption transients, with robustness in both conventional AMT and planetary gear train.

  20. Analysis of a planetary gear modelled with a contour graph considering the decision making complexity of game-tree structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deptuła Adam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and synthesis of mechanisms is one of the fundamental tasks of engineering. Mechanisms can suffer from errors due to versatile reasons. Graph-based methods of analysis and synthesis of planetary gears constitute an alternative method for checking their correctness. Previous applications of the graph theory concerned modelling gears for dynamic analysis, kinematic analysis, synthesis, structural analysis, gearshift optimization and automatic design based on so-called graph grammars. Some tasks may be performed only with the methods resulting from the graph theory, e.g. enumeration of structural solutions. The contour plot method consists in distinguishing a series of consecutive rigid units of the analysed mechanism, forming a closed loop (so-called contour. At a later stage, it is possible to analyze the obtained contour graph as a directed graph of dependence. This work presents an example of the application of game-tree structures in describing the contour graph of a planetary gear. In addition, complex parametric tree structures are included.

  1. Determination of total chromium in tanned leather samples used in car industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Rezić, Iva; Ujević, Darko; Steffan, Ilse

    2011-03-01

    Despite the high competition of synthetic fibers leather is nowadays still widely used for many applications. In order to ensure a sufficient stability of the skin matrix against many factors, such as microbial degradation, heat and sweat, a tanning process is indispensable. Using chromium (III) for this purpose offers a multitude of advantages, thus this way of tanning is widely applied. During the use of chromium tanned leather as clothing material as well as for decoration/covering purposes, chromium is extracted from the leather and may then cause nocuous effects to human skin, e.g. allergic reactions. Thus the knowledge of the total chromium content of leather samples expected to come into prolonged touch with human skin is very important. In car industry leather is used as cover for seats, steering wheel and gearshift lever The chromium contents often chromium tanned leather samples used in car industry were determined. First all samples were dried at 65 degrees C overnight and then cut in small pieces using a ceramic knife, weighed and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acidic microwave assisted digestion. The total chromium amounts found were in the range from 19 mg/g up to 32 mg/g. The extraction yield of chromium from leather samples in sweat is approximately 2-7%. Thus especially during long journeys in summer chromium can be extracted in amounts which may cause nocuous effects for example on the palm of the hands or on the back.

  2. EVC EXPO 80. Proceedings of the third international electric vehicle conference, St. Louis, MO, May 20-22, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, L.

    1980-01-01

    Issues and trends in the case of electric vehicles are considered along with vehicle systems, EV fleet user experience, batteries, aspects of vehicle testing, EV commercial market and vehicle potentials, EV cost considerations, the effective utilization of EVs, and modeling, mission analysis, and impact assessment. Attention is given to EV component reliability, automatic gearshift control for an efficient battery vehicle drive system, a brushless DC motor-power conditioner unit designed and built for propulsion of electric passenger vehicles, a roadway powered electric vehicle system, inductively coupled power systems for electric vehicles, a fuel-cell-powered golf cart, electric vehicles in telephone service, electric vehicle use in the U.S. Postal Service, high performance electric commercial vehicles, nickel iron battery design and performance, the development of the nickel-iron-battery system for electric vehicle propulsion, the advancing performance threshold of the lead-acid electric vehicle battery, advances in zinc bromine batteries for motive power, some aspects of battery vehicle evaluation with particular attention to a battery model, and a generic battery model for electric and hybrid vehicle simulation performance prediction.

  3. Performance and efficiency. The flat-six engines in the new Porsche 911 Carrera; Performance und Effizienz. Die Boxermotoren im neuen Porsche 911 Carrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserbaech, Thomas; Kerkau, Martin; Bofinger, Gerd; Baumann, Markus; Kerner, Joerg; Neusser, Heinz-Jakob [Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, Weissach (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    At 48 years of age, the new Porsche 911 Carrera is younger than ever. The completely redeveloped generation of the Sports Car icon has raised the bar for performance and efficiency even higher. All versions boast fuel consumption of less than ten litres per 100 kilometres. Fuel consumption and emissions are reduced by up to 16 percent compared with the predecessor. A significant contribution to this is made by the extensively optimised flat-six engines. The performance of the 3.8-litre engine in the 911 Carrera S was increased to 400 hp through further dethrottling of the intake section and the exhaust system in conjunction with optimisation of the combustion process, while consumption was reduced by 15 percent through use of the Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK). The displacement of the 3.4-litre engine of the 911 Carrera was reduced compared with its predecessor. In this case also, engine power and acceleration values were further increased while reducing fuel consumption by 16 percent. To enhance the emotiveness of the driving experience, the revving ability of the flat engines was further improved by reducing the rotating masses and the maximum engine speed was increased to 7,800 rpm. In combination with the new 7-speed manual transmission and the Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK), specific functions were developed which acoustically highlight the spontaneous response of the engine to the accelerator pedal and gearshift command, making the new 911 Carrera much more emotive. Auto Start Stop, coasting, thermal management, vehicle electrical system recuperation and friction-reduction measures simultaneously improve efficiency. (orig.)

  4. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do.

  5. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do

  6. Learning to read and write in evolution: from static pseudoenzymes and pseudosignalers to dynamic gear shifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudukelimu, Abulikemu; Mondeel, Thierry D G A; Barberis, Matteo; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2017-06-15

    We present a systems biology view on pseudoenzymes that acknowledges that genes are not selfish: the genome is. With network function as the selectable unit, there has been an evolutionary bonus for recombination of functions of and within proteins. Many proteins house a functionality by which they 'read' the cell's state, and one by which they 'write' and thereby change that state. Should the writer domain lose its cognate function, a 'pseudoenzyme' or 'pseudosignaler' arises. GlnK involved in Escherichia coli ammonia assimilation may well be a pseudosignaler, associating 'reading' the nitrogen state of the cell to 'writing' the ammonium uptake activity. We identify functional pseudosignalers in the cyclin-dependent kinase complexes regulating cell-cycle progression. For the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we illustrate how a 'dead' pseudosignaler could produce potentially selectable functionalities. Four billion years ago, bioenergetics may have shuffled 'electron-writers', producing various networks that all served the same function of anaerobic ATP synthesis and carbon assimilation from hydrogen and carbon dioxide, but at different ATP/acetate ratios. This would have enabled organisms to deal with variable challenges of energy need and substrate supply. The same principle might enable 'gear-shifting' in real time, by dynamically generating different pseudo-redox enzymes, reshuffling their coenzymes, and rerouting network fluxes. Non-stationary pH gradients in thermal vents together with similar such shuffling mechanisms may have produced a first selectable proton-motivated pyrophosphate synthase and subsequent ATP synthase. A combination of functionalities into enzymes, signalers, and the pseudo-versions thereof may offer fitness in terms of plasticity, both in real time and in evolution. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  8. Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlholm, Per

    2011-07-01

    torque are combined with observations of the road altitude from a GPS receiver, using vehicle and road models. The operation of the estimators is adjusted during gearshifts, braking, and poor satellite coverage, to account for variations in sensor and model reliability. The estimated error covariances of the road grade estimates are used together with their absolute positions to update a stored road grade map. Highway driving trials show that the proposed estimators produce accurate road grade data. The estimation performance improves as the number of road segment traces increases. A vehicle equipped with the proposed system will rapidly develop a road grade map for its area of operation. Simulations show that collaborative generation of the third dimension for a pre-existing large area two-dimensional map is feasible. The experimental results indicate that road grade estimates from the proposed methods are accurate enough to be used in predictive vehicle control systems to enhance safety, efficiency, and driver comfort in heavy duty vehicles. The grade estimators may also be used for on-line validation of road grade information from other sources. This is important in on-board applications, since the envisioned control applications can degrade vehicle performance if inaccurate data are used