Sample records for gearshifts

  1. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting. (United States)

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C; Schindler, Tony D; Nogales, Eva; Bryant, Zev


    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears--speed up, slow down or switch directions--when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport.

  2. The Effects of a Seatbelt-Gearshift Delay Prompt on the Seatbelt Use of Motorists Who Do Not Regularly Wear Seatbelts (United States)

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J.E. Louis; Austin, John; Lebbon, Angie


    A seatbelt-gearshift delay was evaluated in two U.S. and three Canadian vehicles using a reversal design. The seatbelt-gearshift delay required unbelted drivers either to buckle their seatbelts or to wait a specified time before they could put the vehicle in gear. After collecting behavioral prebaseline data, a data logger was installed in all…

  3. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC reaches its boundaries.

  4. AMT gearshift system based on direct-drive technology%基于直接驱动技术的AMT换挡系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常思勤; 林树森; 李波


    In order to reduce the gearshift time of automated mechanical transmissions( AMT) ,a new type of AMT gearshift system based on direct-drive technology is developed with the key component of a two-degree-of-freedom(2-DOF) electromagnetic actuator. The structure and working principle of the actuator is described. A coupling system model including electric circuit, magnetic circuit and mechanical subsystem is built. From the aspects of the application of high performance actuator,the method of gearshift sectional control,the rule of shift force and coordinated control of gearshift,the feasibility of reducing gearshift time is analyzed while good shift quality is assured. Test bench is built and tests are carried out to analyze the result of AMT gearshift system based on direct-drive technology reducing gearshift time. Experimental results prove that the system proposed here can reduce gearshift time while good shift quality is guaranteed.%为减少机械式自动变速器( AMT )换挡时间,研制了一种基于直接驱动技术的AMT换挡系统,核心器件是二自由度电磁执行器。描述了执行器结构和工作原理,并建立执行器电、磁、机耦合的仿真模型。在保证较好的换挡品质的前提下,从高性能执行器的应用、换挡分段控制方法、换挡力规律以及换挡重叠协调控制等方面分析了减少AMT换挡时间的可行性。通过台架试验获得了基于直接驱动技术的AMT换挡系统减少换挡时间的定量结果。结果表明在保证较好换挡品质的前提下,该系统是有效的。

  5. GPID:变速PID主动队列管理算法%Gearshift PID-based Active Queue Management Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳琅; 王万良; 姚信威; 陈伟杰


    Active queue management (AQM) is one of the hot research field in network congestion. In this paper, a congestion control algorithm Gearshift integral PID( GPID) is proposed, which tends to address the problem of overshoot and big jitter of PID in AQM. The algorithm is characteristic of dynamic changes of the integral role on PID in accordance with the deviation of stimutaneous queue length, that is, the larger the deviation in queue length is, the smaller the integral coefficients are, the faster the convergence rate is and the bigger the overshoot is and vice versa. This algorithm can effectively control the deviation of the queue length so that it can attain the expected length. The simulation result shows that GPID has a faster convergence speed, a higher rate of link utilization and that the average queue length is closer to the expected length.%主动队列管理(Active Queue Management,简称AQM)是网络拥塞控制领域的一个热点.针对主动队列管理中PID算法超调量大,抖动大的问题,提出一种GPID(Gearshift PID)的拥塞控制算法.该算法特点是:积分作用大小跟随瞬时队列长度的偏差大小变动而变动,队列长度的偏差越大,则积分系数值越小,收敛速度越慢,超调量越大;反之,偏差越小,积分系数值越大,收敛速度越快,超调量越大.该算法可以有效的控制队列长度的偏差变化,调节瞬时队列长度趋于队列期望值收敛.仿真实验结果表明,该算法收敛速度快,链路利用率高,平均队列长度更趋于期望值.

  6. Model Based Automatic Transmission Gearshift Optimization Strategy%基于模型的自动变速器换挡策略优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Modeling method of vehicle longitudinal dynamics and calculation method of gearshift strategy are introduced in this paper. The fuel consumption for each gear in city driving cycle is analyzed with simulation, and the gearshift curve is optimized from the perspective of vehicle economy. According to the frequent shifting during the city cycle with the throttle pedal changed repeatedly, fuzzy correction method based on human experience is adopted, and the shifting curve is corrected according to the change rate of throttle pedal. The test results show that this method can reduce the frequency of gearshift effectively and improve the vehicle driveability in city cycle.%介绍了整车纵向动力学的建模方法和换挡策略计算方法。通过仿真分析城市工况下各挡位的燃油消耗率,并从整车经济性角度对换挡曲线进行优化。针对城市工况下油门开度反复变化导致的频繁换挡现象,采用基于人工经验的模糊修正方法,根据油门开度变化率对换挡曲线进行修正。测试结果表明,该方法能够有效降低频繁换挡次数,提高整车在城市工况下的驾驶性。

  7. Research on Gearshift Piecewise Control for AMT Based on a 2-DOF Electromagnetic Actuator%应用二自由度电磁执行器的AMT换挡分段控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林树森; 常思勤; 李波


    为提高电控机械式自动变速器(AMT)的换挡品质,研制了一种新型应用二自由度电磁执行器的AMT换挡系统.介绍了执行器结构和工作原理并通过实验分析了其动静态特性.将换挡同步过程分为四个阶段,提出了以PID和模糊控制为主体的分段控制策略,并进行了仿真研究.最后研制了实验台架及控制系统,验证了新型换挡系统的可行性及提出的控制策略的可靠性.实验结果表明,提出的控制策略能够降低换挡同步过程的冲击度和单位面积滑磨功,能够提高换挡品质.%To improve the shifting quality and reduce the shift time of AMT,a new type of AMT gearshift system based on a 2-DOF electromagnetic actuator was developed.The structure and working principle of the actuator was described and the static,dynamic characteristics were investigated through experiments.The shift synchronization process was divided into four stages,and variable structure control strategies based on PID and fuzzy control were proposed and simulated.The test bench was developed and used to verify the gearshift system and the proposed variable structure gearshift control strategy.The results show that the proposed control strategy can improve the shift quality and reduce the impact and friction work per unit of the gearshift process.

  8. 基于人机工程学的中重型卡车变速操纵系统设计%Design on Gear-shift Operation System for heavy truck based on Hum an Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper presents the mechanism and advantage of human engineering in heavy truck,analyze some factors affecting the gear-shift operation system such as human engineering layout,design and calculation,force transmission ratio,static shifting force,machine eficiency etc.This paper detailedly introduces trouble to system,and evaluating human engineering of system ,to increasing operation convenience and manage lightly of heavy truck.%本文阐述了中重型卡车变速操纵系统人机工程运用的重要性,并对系统从人机工程学的布置、设计计算及影响因素、力传动比、静态换挡力及测算方法、力传递的机械效率等进行分析,介绍了变速系统在设计过程中应注意的问题,并对系统的人机工程方面进行评价,以提高整车的操控方便性和操纵轻便性。

  9. Calculating for gear-shift accelerating time of off-road vehicle based on four parameters of engine%基于发动机四参数的轮式越野车换挡加速时间计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商高高; 周燕; 童成前; 何建清


    The gear-shift speed was confirmed with the principle of "the shortest possible total accelerating time"by introducing coefficient of limit speed in the condition of knowing only four parameters of the engine,such as max. Power,max.torque and relative rotating speed;And then off-road vehicle acceleration model was built based on dynamic characteristics model of four parameters of engine, thus equal accelerated speed was ascertained;Meanwhile computational formula for accelerating time of each gear was established without integral operation based on acceleration model;In consideration of time-consuming of each gear-shifting a computation model for gear-shift accelerating time was deducedAfterwards design and computation for equal accelerated speed,gear-shifting speed, acceleration and accelerating time for gear-shifting of one wheel type SUV was done by applying Matlab,which result indicates that the method is easy to achieve with program in Matlab and the computation accuracy is improved.%在只有发动机最大功率、最大扭矩及其对应转速等四大参数的情况下,引入限定车速系数,以“可能的最短总加速时间”为原则确定换挡车速点;以基于发动机四参数的外特性模型为基础建立轮式越野车加速度模型,进而确定等加速度车速;由加速度模型建立不合积分运算的各档加速时间计算公式;考虑每次换挡所耗时间,推导换挡加速时间计算模型.利用Matlab对某轮式越野车等加速度车速、换挡车速、加速度和换挡加速时间进行设计计算,实例结果表明,该方法易于在Matlab中用程序实现,计算精度也有所提高.

  10. Design and evaluation of a virtual gearshift application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, M.; Voort, van der M.C.; Houten, van F.J.A.M.


    When a customer buys a new car, he or she wants it to address personal preferences with respect to its driving behavior. By utilizing virtual reality technology, a virtual prototyping environment (VPE) can be created in which the behavior of a vehicle or part of a vehicle can be evaluated and adjust

  11. Increasing Seat Belt Use in Service Vehicle Drivers with a Gearshift Delay (United States)

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard


    This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of…

  12. The feature and design method of the planetary differential gearshift mechanism%行星差动变速机构的特点与设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨实如; 段钦华



  13. 78 FR 59419 - PACCAR Incorporated, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance (United States)


    ... and the transmission is shifted from neutral into a gear. Because an operator can start the engine... the term ``transmission shift position'' refers to the position of the gear selector (as opposed to... reverse gear, the transmission itself will remain in neutral, and the message ``Gearshift Inhibited''...

  14. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang


    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  15. Control device for underground extension units. Steuereinrichtung fuer untertaegige Ausbaueinheiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.


    The invention concerns a control device for a sliding cap situated on the screwdown cap of an extension frame. The control device situated in the area of the joint axis between the screwdown cap and the roof cap consists of a cylindrical gear-shifting gate and a proximity switch. The control device prevents the sliding cap moving out if a certain angle of the screwdown cap is exceeded.

  16. 10 Billion Yuan Transport-use Aluminum Market Invigorated the Vitality Of the Aluminum Deep Processing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    When the Chinese economy enters a"new normal"status,the aluminum industry is also facing the overlapping pattern of"growth speed gear-shift period,period of structure adjustmen and pains,and early-stage stimulation policy digestion period",rebuilding industria structure and developing mode undoubtedly have become key discussion topics of the aluminum industry.Although China’aluminum industry is temporarily trapped in

  17. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the LAV Mobility and Obsolescence Program by Using U.S. Army Stryker Suspensions (United States)


    performed in two locations: Albany, Georgia and Barstow, California. When it has been determined that an LAV has met the criteria for its cycle in the...Shalt SO<! I $4.65 $3.49 $1.87 5 10501067 Shift Yoke $45.75 $34.31 $5.86 6 10501068 Shoe $29.10 $21.82 $4.67 7 10501069 Gearshift: Col’ar $47.89


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kusyak


    Full Text Available The paper presents a schematic diagram of the powertrain automated control system based on dry friction clutch and manual gearbox. Mechatronic system has a modular configuration and allows to make the vehicle starting-up, low speed maneuvering and command or automatic gearshifting. Diesel engine, clutch and 10-step gearbox control is carried out at all movement modes by electronic modules when affected on mode selector, accelerator pedal and, if necessary, on brake pedal. Data exchange between electronic units is carried by SAE-J1939 protocol with a transmission rate of 250 kbit/s. Change in diesel fuel supply, clutch engagement and gearshifting take place automatically as a result of pneumatic power actuator operation by a signal from the controller to the corresponding solenoid valve or a combination thereof.Presents the results of semi-natural experiment on research of gear shifting process in the command mode of powertrain control. Transient gearshift oscillograms with various control algorithm structure have been given in the paper. The paper contains a ^iT^rative analysis of the oscillograma and a conclusion on expediency of gear shifting automation. A graphic representation of the semi-natural experiment results has been performed with the help of CoDeSys V2.3-visualization facilities.

  19. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin


    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  20. Optimization Design of Double-parameter Shift Schedule of Tracked Vehicle with Hydrodynamic-mechanical Transmission%Optimization Design of Double-parameter Shift Schedule of Tracked Vehicle with Hydrodynamic-mechanical Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武景燕; 魏巍; 曲婧瑶; 闫清东


    A kind of automatic shift schedule optimization method is provided for a tracked vehicle with hydrodynamic-mechanical transmission in order to improve its dynamic performance. A dynamic model of integrated hydrodynamic-mechanical transmission is built in MATLAB/Simdriveline environment, and an optimum shift schedule is derived by using iSight software to call the dynamic model above, then the shift schedule is achieved after optimization. The simulation results show that the method is significant to improve the dynamic performance and gear-shifting smoothness theoretically and practically.

  1. Electromagnetic Design of a New Electrically Controlled Magnetic Variable-Speed Gearing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Liu


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new electrically controlled magnetic variable-speed gearing (EC-MVSG machine, which is capable of providing controllable gear ratios for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV applications. The key design feature involves the adoption of a magnetic gearing structure and acceptance of the memory machine flux-mnemonic concept. Hence, the proposed machine can not only offer a gear-shifting mechanism for torque and speed transmission, but also provide variable gear ratios for torque and speed variation. The electromagnetic design is studied and discussed. The finite-element method is developed with the hysteresis model to verify the validity of the machine design.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yanchun; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu


    In parallel hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) equipped with automatic mechanical transmission (AMT), the driving smoothness and the clutch abrasion are the primary considerations for powertrain control during gearshift and clutch operation. To improve these performance indexes of PHEV, a coordinated control system is proposed through the analyzing of HEV powertrain dynamic characteristics. Using the method of minimum principle, the input torque of transmission is optimized to improve the driving sinoothness of vehicle. Using the methods of fuzzy logic and fuzzy-PID, the engaging speed of clutch and the throttle opening of engine are manipulated to ensure the smoothness of clutch engagement and reduce the abrasion of clutch friction plates. The motor provides the difference between the required input torque of transmission and the torque transmitted through clutch plates. Results of simulation and experiments show that the proposed control strategy performs better than the contrastive control system, the smoothness of driving and the abrasion of clutch can be improved simultaneously.

  3. Free Hand Insertion Technique of S2 Sacral Alar-Iliac Screws for Spino-Pelvic Fixation: Technical Note, Acadaveric Study (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn


    A rigid spino-pelvic fixation to anchor long constructs is crucial to maintain the stability of long fusion in spinal deformity surgery. Besides obtaining immediate stability and proper biomechanical strength of constructs, the S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screws have some more advantages. Four Korean fresh-frozen human cadavers were procured. Free hand S2AI screw placement is performed using anatomic landmarks. The starting point of the S2AI screw is located at the midpoint between the S1 and S2 foramen and 2 mm medial to the lateral sacral crest. Gearshift was advanced from the desired starting point toward the sacro-iliac joint directing approximately 20° angulation caudally in sagittal plane and 30° angulation horizontally in the coronal plane connecting the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). We made a S2AI screw trajectory through the cancellous channel using the gearshift. We measured caudal angle in the sagittal plane and horizontal angle in the coronal plane. A total of eight S2AI screws were inserted in four cadavers. All screws inserted into the iliac crest were evaluated by C-arm and naked eye examination by two spine surgeons. Among 8 S2AI screws, all screws were accurately placed (100%). The average caudal angle in the sagittal plane was 17.3±5.4°. The average horizontal angle in the coronal plane connecting the PSIS was 32.0±1.8°. The placement of S2AI screws using the free hand technique without any radiographic guidance appears to an acceptable method of insertion without more radiation or time consuming. PMID:26819698

  4. Design and Test of Pneumatic AMT Control Device for Tracked Armored Vehicle%履带式装甲车气动 AMT 机构设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 王兴野; 张进秋; 张磊


    针对某型履带式装甲车换挡操纵费力、驾驶员劳动强度大等问题,分析了该型装甲车变速操纵装置的结构和原理,根据该型车辆的结构特点和换挡过程中对换挡机构的要求,设计了气动 AMT 操纵机构,给出了关键元件的确定原则。对该型装甲车进行了实车改装与试验,试验结果表明:该气动 AMT 操纵机构工作稳定可靠,能够快速实现平稳、准确换挡,满足了车辆自动变速系统的要求。%In allusion to that it is strenuous to shift gears for a certain type of tracked armored vehicle, and the labor intensity is high for the drivers,the structure and work principle of the vehicle’s gearshift control device is analyzed.According to its structure characteristics and the request in the process of gearshift,a pneumatic AMT control device is designed and the designating principle of the key component is presented.After having a modification on the tracked armored vehicle and conducting a test,it is veri-fied that the new designed device works stably and reliably,achieves the target to shift gears stably and precisely,satisfies the request of the vehicle’s automatic transmission system.

  5. Accelerating the three dimensions of E and P clockspeed - A novel strategy for optimizing utility in the Oil and Gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijermars, Ruud [Department of Geotechnology, Delft University of Technology and Energy Delta Institute, P.O. Box 5048, 2600GA Delft (Netherlands)


    As the global Oil and Gas Industry enters its third, late lifecycle stage (outlined in the introduction of this study), new strategies and conceptual tools are needed to postpone - or reverse - the decline of the E and P industry. The problem is this: the late lifecycle is principally heralded by limited supply due to finite hydrocarbon reserves, while energy demand soars as world population and the global economy continue to grow. This study therefore proposes a framework through which an E and P company can critically assess its capability in accelerating lag-time between exploration and production. In the first part of this paper (Sections 1-3), the need for a phase-shift toward faster clockspeeds for the Oil and Gas industry is argued to be an important step to close the energy supply gap. In the second part of this paper (Sections 4-6), the strategy concept of clockspeed acceleration is further elaborated and optimization methods for the three principal dimensions of E and P clockspeed acceleration are discussed. The three Clockspeed Accelerators trademark are: workflow speed, improvement rate of Uncertainty Mitigation and accrual speed of portfolio value. The third part of this paper (Sections 7-11) presents the empirical analysis of E and P clockspeed performance for two peer groups (IOC supermajors and public private partnership NOCs) comprising six companies each. The acceleration of E and P clockspeed can help to optimize production levels of conventional and unconventional oil, and includes diversification strategies that replace non-renewables with renewables. In summary, E and P Clockspeed Accelerators provide the gearshift instruments that enable the energy industry to better meet the required demand/supply ratios. The results of this study translate into the following deliverables for practical use by Oil and Gas professionals:-insight into the concept of clockspeed in E and P industry setting, -use of Clockspeed Accelerators trademark as gearshift

  6. Control of a haptic gear shifting assistance device utilizing a magnetorheological clutch (United States)

    Han, Young-Min; Choi, Seung-Bok


    This paper proposes a haptic clutch driven gear shifting assistance device that can help when the driver shifts the gear of a transmission system. In order to achieve this goal, a magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based clutch is devised to be capable of the rotary motion of an accelerator pedal to which the MR clutch is integrated. The proposed MR clutch is then manufactured, and its transmission torque is experimentally evaluated according to the magnetic field intensity. The manufactured MR clutch is integrated with the accelerator pedal to transmit a haptic cue signal to the driver. The impending control issue is to cue the driver to shift the gear via the haptic force. Therefore, a gear-shifting decision algorithm is constructed by considering the vehicle engine speed concerned with engine combustion dynamics, vehicle dynamics and driving resistance. Then, the algorithm is integrated with a compensation strategy for attaining the desired haptic force. In this work, the compensator is also developed and implemented through the discrete version of the inverse hysteretic model. The control performances, such as the haptic force tracking responses and fuel consumption, are experimentally evaluated.

  7. Design and control of a novel two-speed Uninterrupted Mechanical Transmission for electric vehicles (United States)

    Fang, Shengnan; Song, Jian; Song, Haijun; Tai, Yuzhuo; Li, Fei; Sinh Nguyen, Truong


    Conventional all-electric vehicles (EV) adopt single-speed transmission due to its low cost and simple construction. However, with the adoption of this type of driveline system, development of EV technology leads to the growing performance requirements of drive motor. Introducing a multi-speed or two-speed transmission to EV offers the possibility of efficiency improvement of the whole powertrain. This paper presents an innovative two-speed Uninterrupted Mechanical Transmission (UMT), which consists of an epicyclic gearing system, a centrifugal clutch and a brake band, allowing the seamless shifting between two gears. Besides, driver's intention is recognized by the control system which is based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC), utilizing the signals of vehicle velocity and accelerator pedal position. The novel UMT shows better dynamic and comfort performance in compare with the optimized AMT with the same gear ratios. Comparison between the control strategy with recognition of driver intention and the conventional two-parameter gear shifting strategy is presented. And the simulation and analysis of the middle layer of optimal gearshift control algorithm is detailed. The results indicate that the UMT adopting FLC and optimal control method provides a significant improvement of energy efficiency, dynamic performance and shifting comfort for EV.

  8. The Development and Verification of a Novel ECMS of Hybrid Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang


    Full Text Available This paper presents the system modeling, control strategy design, and hardware-in-the-loop test for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus. First, the powertrain mathematical models and the system architecture were proposed. Then an adaptive ECMS is developed for the real-time control of a hybrid electric bus, which is investigated and verified in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. The ECMS through driving cycle recognition results in updating the equivalent charge and discharge coefficients and extracting optimized rules for real-time control. This method not only solves the problems of mode transition frequently and improves the fuel economy, but also simplifies the complexity of control strategy design and provides new design ideas for the energy management strategy and gear-shifting rules designed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed real-time A-ECMS can coordinate the overall hybrid electric powertrain to optimize fuel economy and sustain the battery SOC level.

  9. A Control Strategy for Mode Transition with Gear Shifting in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuhyun Sim


    Full Text Available The mode transition from electric propulsion mode to hybrid propulsion mode is important with regard to the power management strategy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This is because mode transitions can occur frequently depending on the power management strategies and driving cycles, and because inadequate mode transitions worsen the fuel efficiency and drivability. A pre-transmission parallel PHEV uses a clutch between the internal combustion engine (ICE and the electric motor (EM to connect or disconnect the power source of the ICE for a mode transition. The mode transition requires additional energy consumption for clutch speed synchronization, and is accompanied by a drivetrain shock due to clutch engagement. This paper proposes a control strategy for the mode transition with gear-shifting to resolve the problems of energy consumption and drivetrain shock. Through the development of a PHEV performance simulator, we analyze the mode transition characteristics and propose a control strategy considering the vehicle acceleration and gear state. The control strategy reduces the duration required for the mode transition by moving the start time of the mode transition. This helps to improve energy efficiency while maintaining adequate drivability.

  10. Determination of total chromium in tanned leather samples used in car industry. (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Rezić, Iva; Ujević, Darko; Steffan, Ilse


    Despite the high competition of synthetic fibers leather is nowadays still widely used for many applications. In order to ensure a sufficient stability of the skin matrix against many factors, such as microbial degradation, heat and sweat, a tanning process is indispensable. Using chromium (III) for this purpose offers a multitude of advantages, thus this way of tanning is widely applied. During the use of chromium tanned leather as clothing material as well as for decoration/covering purposes, chromium is extracted from the leather and may then cause nocuous effects to human skin, e.g. allergic reactions. Thus the knowledge of the total chromium content of leather samples expected to come into prolonged touch with human skin is very important. In car industry leather is used as cover for seats, steering wheel and gearshift lever The chromium contents often chromium tanned leather samples used in car industry were determined. First all samples were dried at 65 degrees C overnight and then cut in small pieces using a ceramic knife, weighed and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acidic microwave assisted digestion. The total chromium amounts found were in the range from 19 mg/g up to 32 mg/g. The extraction yield of chromium from leather samples in sweat is approximately 2-7%. Thus especially during long journeys in summer chromium can be extracted in amounts which may cause nocuous effects for example on the palm of the hands or on the back.

  11. Analysis of operational comfort in manual tasks using human force manipulability measure. (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Kazuo; Yamada, Naoki; Tsuji, Toshio


    This paper proposes a scheme for human force manipulability (HFM) based on the use of isometric joint torque properties to simulate the spatial characteristics of human operation forces at an end-point of a limb with feasible magnitudes for a specified limb posture. This is also applied to the evaluation/prediction of operational comfort (OC) when manually operating a human-machine interface. The effectiveness of HFM is investigated through two experiments and computer simulations of humans generating forces by using their upper extremities. Operation force generation with maximum isometric effort can be roughly estimated with an HFM measure computed from information on the arm posture during a maintained posture. The layout of a human-machine interface is then discussed based on the results of operational experiments using an electric gear-shifting system originally developed for robotic devices. The results indicate a strong relationship between the spatial characteristics of the HFM and OC levels when shifting, and the OC is predicted by using a multiple regression model with HFM measures.

  12. Dynamic Shift Coordinated Control Based on Motor Active Speed Synchronization with the New Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yan


    Full Text Available Considering the inherent disadvantages that severely affect driving comfortability during the shift process in HEVs, a dynamic shift coordinated control based on motor active speed synchronization is proposed to improve shift quality by reduction of shift vibration. The whole control scheme is comprised of three phases, preparatory phase, speed regulation phase, and synchronization phase, which are implemented consecutively in order. The key to inhibiting impact and jerk depends on the speed regulation phase, where motor active speed synchronization is utilized to reach the minimum speed difference between the two ends of synchronizer. A new hybrid system with superior performances is applied to present the validity of the adopted control algorithm during upshift or downshift, which can represent planetary gear system and conventional AMT shift procedure, respectively. Bench test, simulation, and road test results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed dynamic coordinated control can achieve shifting control in real time to effectively improve gear-shift comfort and shorten power interruption transients, with robustness in both conventional AMT and planetary gear train.

  13. A Digital DLL-Based Delay Management Circuit for FPGA's IO Cell%基于数字延时锁相环的FPGA IO延时管理电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏翔; 周灏; 来金梅


    本文提出了一种基于过采样量化器和换挡(Gear-Shift)控制机制的新颖的数字延时锁相环(DDLL),可以嵌入于FPGA芯片IO单元的延时管理系统,实现了IO单元数据通路延时的精确校正,分辨率达到78 ps,可调节范围达4 ns,满足FPGA芯片对高速串行接口协议复杂时序的兼容.DDLL使用独具特色的过采样量化器,仅使用1 bit时间数字转换器(TDC)达到了98 dB SNR,等效理论分辨率达16位,并引入了全新的Gear-Shift控制机制,对误差信息合理的加权实现快速精确的锁入,结合2阶巴特沃斯衰减的数字环路滤波器,实现全数字环路控制,较传统模拟延时锁相环,节省了芯片面积和功耗,同时对数字电路所产生的衬底噪声具有更好耐受.DDLL采用65 nm数字工艺,嵌入复旦大学自主研发的FPGA芯片,经过后仿验证,锁定时间小于50 cycles.%A novel digital DLL based on over-sample quantization and Gear-Shift mechanism is proposed.It was embedded in the FPGA's IO cell for delay management and achieved precisely controlled delay length.The resolution is 78 ps and the adjustable range is 4 ns,thus the FPGA chip is compatible with high-speed serial interface protocol.The unique over sample quantization using 1 bit TDC achieves 98 dB SNR and equivalent resolution of 16 bits.The novel Gear-Shift control mechanism,processing the phase error information in reasonably weight,achieves fast and accurate locking-in.Combined with a 2-order Butterworth digital loop filter for attenuation,a fully digital control loop is accomplished.The locking-in process is speeded up with better tolerance to the sub-coupling noise generated by the digital circuits around.Fabricated in 65 nm digital process and embedded in the FPGA chip developed by Fudan University,simulation of the DLL demonstrates a lock time of less than 50 cycles.

  14. Performance and efficiency. The flat-six engines in the new Porsche 911 Carrera; Performance und Effizienz. Die Boxermotoren im neuen Porsche 911 Carrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserbaech, Thomas; Kerkau, Martin; Bofinger, Gerd; Baumann, Markus; Kerner, Joerg; Neusser, Heinz-Jakob [Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, Weissach (Germany)


    At 48 years of age, the new Porsche 911 Carrera is younger than ever. The completely redeveloped generation of the Sports Car icon has raised the bar for performance and efficiency even higher. All versions boast fuel consumption of less than ten litres per 100 kilometres. Fuel consumption and emissions are reduced by up to 16 percent compared with the predecessor. A significant contribution to this is made by the extensively optimised flat-six engines. The performance of the 3.8-litre engine in the 911 Carrera S was increased to 400 hp through further dethrottling of the intake section and the exhaust system in conjunction with optimisation of the combustion process, while consumption was reduced by 15 percent through use of the Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK). The displacement of the 3.4-litre engine of the 911 Carrera was reduced compared with its predecessor. In this case also, engine power and acceleration values were further increased while reducing fuel consumption by 16 percent. To enhance the emotiveness of the driving experience, the revving ability of the flat engines was further improved by reducing the rotating masses and the maximum engine speed was increased to 7,800 rpm. In combination with the new 7-speed manual transmission and the Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK), specific functions were developed which acoustically highlight the spontaneous response of the engine to the accelerator pedal and gearshift command, making the new 911 Carrera much more emotive. Auto Start Stop, coasting, thermal management, vehicle electrical system recuperation and friction-reduction measures simultaneously improve efficiency. (orig.)

  15. Learning to read and write in evolution: from static pseudoenzymes and pseudosignalers to dynamic gear shifters. (United States)

    Abudukelimu, Abulikemu; Mondeel, Thierry D G A; Barberis, Matteo; Westerhoff, Hans V


    We present a systems biology view on pseudoenzymes that acknowledges that genes are not selfish: the genome is. With network function as the selectable unit, there has been an evolutionary bonus for recombination of functions of and within proteins. Many proteins house a functionality by which they 'read' the cell's state, and one by which they 'write' and thereby change that state. Should the writer domain lose its cognate function, a 'pseudoenzyme' or 'pseudosignaler' arises. GlnK involved in Escherichia coli ammonia assimilation may well be a pseudosignaler, associating 'reading' the nitrogen state of the cell to 'writing' the ammonium uptake activity. We identify functional pseudosignalers in the cyclin-dependent kinase complexes regulating cell-cycle progression. For the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we illustrate how a 'dead' pseudosignaler could produce potentially selectable functionalities. Four billion years ago, bioenergetics may have shuffled 'electron-writers', producing various networks that all served the same function of anaerobic ATP synthesis and carbon assimilation from hydrogen and carbon dioxide, but at different ATP/acetate ratios. This would have enabled organisms to deal with variable challenges of energy need and substrate supply. The same principle might enable 'gear-shifting' in real time, by dynamically generating different pseudo-redox enzymes, reshuffling their coenzymes, and rerouting network fluxes. Non-stationary pH gradients in thermal vents together with similar such shuffling mechanisms may have produced a first selectable proton-motivated pyrophosphate synthase and subsequent ATP synthase. A combination of functionalities into enzymes, signalers, and the pseudo-versions thereof may offer fitness in terms of plasticity, both in real time and in evolution. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. The carboxyl terminus of the Galpha-subunit is the latch for triggered activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. (United States)

    Nanoff, Christian; Koppensteiner, Romana; Yang, Qiong; Fuerst, Elisabeth; Ahorn, Horst; Freissmuth, Michael


    The receptor-mimetic peptide D2N, derived from the cytoplasmic domain of the D(2) dopamine receptor, activates G protein alpha-subunits (G(i) and G(o)) directly. Using D2N, we tested the current hypotheses on the mechanism of receptor-mediated G protein activation, which differ by the role assigned to the Gbetagamma-subunit: 1) a receptor-prompted movement of Gbetagamma is needed to open up the nucleotide exit pathway ("gear-shift" and "lever-arm" model) or 2) the receptor first engages Gbetagamma and then triggers GDP release by interacting with the carboxyl (C) terminus of Galpha (the "sequential-fit" model). Our results with D2N were compatible with the latter hypothesis. D2N bound to the extreme C terminus of the alpha-subunit and caused a conformational change that was transmitted to the switch regions. Hence, D2N led to a decline in the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, increased the guanine nucleotide exchange rate, and modulated the Mg(2+) control of nucleotide binding. A structural alteration in the outer portion of helix alpha5 (substitution of an isoleucine by proline) blunted the stimulatory action of D2N. This confirms that helix alpha5 links the guanine nucleotide binding pocket to the receptor contact site on the G protein. However, neither the alpha-subunit amino terminus (as a lever-arm) nor Gbetagamma was required for D2N-mediated activation; conversely, assembly of the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer stabilized the GDP-bound species and required an increased D2N concentration for activation. We propose that the receptor can engage the C terminus of the alpha-subunit to destabilize nucleotide binding from the "back side" of the nucleotide binding pocket.

  17. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  18. Transmissões presentes em tratores agrícolas no Brasil Transmissions present in agricultural tractors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lampert Ribas


    Full Text Available O sistema de transmissão de um trator agrícola tem por principal finalidade transmitir a potência gerada no motor ao sistema hidráulico, à tomada de potência e às rodas motrizes. A caixa de câmbio é formada por uma série de engrenagens que permitem a correta seleção da velocidade e do torque mais adequados a uma determinada operação. Assim, as transmissões podem ser classificadas, basicamente, em três categorias: mecânicas, hidrostáticas e hidrodinâmicas, sendo as transmissões mecânicas subdivididas em engrenagens deslizantes e sincronizadas. Este trabalho objetivou analisar os diferentes tipos de transmissões disponibilizados em 169 modelos de tratores fabricados no Brasil, com a finalidade de avaliar a real distribuição nas diferentes faixas de potência e estabelecer possíveis relações entre esses parâmetros. Como resultado, evidencia-se uma forte tendência de tratores agrícolas com potência menor que 111,8kW possuírem transmissão do tipo mecânica, e tratores acima de 111,8kW, do tipo hidrostática.The transmission system of an agricultural tractor has a main purpose to transmit the power generated in the hydraulic motor, the power take off and the drive wheels. The gearshift consists of a series of gears that allows the correct selection of speed and torque more appropriate to a particular operation. Then, the transmissions can be classified, basically, in three categories: mechanical, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic, being the mechanical transmissions subdivided in sliding gear and synchronized. Then, the objective of this research was to analyze the different types of transmissions available in 169 models of tractors made in Brazil in order to evaluate the real distribution of them in different power ranges and establish possible correlations. As a result, it was shown a strong tendency for agricultural tractors with power less than 111.8kW possessing mechanical transmission and tractors above 111.8k

  19. 基于迭代学习的变风量空调系统全局优化控制实验研究%Global optimal control of variable air volume air-conditioning system with iterative learning:an experimental case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-long MENG; Xiu-ying YAN; Qing-chang REN


    The air-conditioning system in a large commercial or high-rise building is a complex multi-variable system influ-enced by many factors. The energy saving potential from the optimal operation and control of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can be large, even when they are properly designed. The ultimate goal of optimization is to use the minimum amount of energy needed to improve system efficiency while meeting comfort requirements. In this study, a multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) and variable water volume (VWV) air-conditioning system is developed. The steady state modes and dynamic models of the HVAC subsystems are constructed. Optimal control based on large scale system theory for system-level energy-saving of HVAC is introduced. Control strategies such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller (gearshift integral PID and self-tuning PID) and iterative learning control (ILC) are studied in the platform to improve the dy-namic characteristics. The system performance is improved. An 18.2% energy saving is achieved with the integration of ILC and sequential quadratic programming based on a steady-state hierarchical optimization control scheme.%目的:采用实验方法研究变风量全局优化问题,利用迭代学习控制策略优化动态控制性能,获得变风量系统在系统层次的最优。创新点:1.采用全新的兼有变风量和变水量功能的实验平台;2.引入递阶优化控制理论,建立变风量系统的动态和稳态模型;3.采用先进控制策略,如自校正比例积分微分(PID)控制和迭代学习控制等。方法:1.将系统进行分解(图4),并建立系统稳态模型(公式6–11)、动态模型(公式12–15)和能耗模型(公式16);2.在此基础上采用变速积分 PID、自校正 PID 和迭代学习控制对系统底层进行动态控制,在系统整体优化中引入迭代学习。结论:1.先进控制策略的引入有利于优

  20. Optimal Robust Control of Shifting Process for Hybrid Electric Car with Dry Dual Clutch Transmission%干式DCT变速HEV换档过程鲁棒优化控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵治国; 吴朝春; 杨云云; 陈海军


    Taking the hybrid electric vehicle equipped with dual clutch transmission(DCT) as the object and considering the characteristics of fast responding and high accuracy of integrated starter and generator(ISG) motor speed and torque, the robust control issue of torque coordination between twin clutches and power sources when ISG intervene with the gear-shifting process are investigated. The different dynamics models in the different phases of whole shifting process are established; Then, the power sources' synthesizing torque is optimally determined under the consideration of the responding characteristic of clutch actuators in the torque phase and the model uncertainty & external disturbance(measurement noise and engine torque’s lag) in the inertia phase; Afterwards, in the torque transition phase, the engine torque is switched into the level of driver demand and ISG torque is slowly come down. Finally, the torques of the power sources are distributed based on the optimization of system efficiency. The simulation results on the Simulink software platform illustrate that the proposed control strategies possess the capabilities of strong anti-uncertainty and anti-disturbance. And the following bench test results further show that it can also effectively address the coordinating control problems between the twin clutches and power sources, ensure that the vehicle has good quality in shift.%针对双离合器自动变速器(Dual clutch transmission,DCT)变速弱混合动力轿车,考虑到起动发电一体化电机(Integrated starter and generator,ISG)转矩响应特性较快、转速/转矩控制精度高等特点,对其介入到换档过程时不同动力源输出转矩和离合器传递转矩协调鲁棒控制问题进行研究。建立体现DCT换档切换过程阶段差异性的动力学模型;考虑转矩相的离合器执行机构的响应能力和惯性相的模型不确定性和外界干扰(转速量测噪声和发动机转矩响应滞后),优化