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Sample records for ge sn pb

  1. Comprehensive thermodynamic description of the quasiternary system PbTe-GeTe-SnTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashina, Lada V.; Leute, Volkmar; Shtanov, Vladimir I.; Schmidtke, Heinrich M.; Neudachina, Vera S.

    2006-01-01

    The equilibrium phase diagram of the quasiternary system PbTe-GeTe-SnTe was studied experimentally in the ranges of spinodal demixing and (solid + liquid) equilibrium by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). A model description of the phase diagram was done on the base of composition dependent interaction parameters, which were determined for the solid and the liquid phases. The interaction parameters for the quasibinary systems were recalculated in order to reach better correlation between all experimental data. It was shown that the quasiternary phase diagram can be principally described using the interaction parameters for the quasibinary subsystems, but an additional ternary interaction parameter has also to be considered. The local structure of the quasiternary solid solution is described by a four-particle cluster model. Due to the tendency of the solid solution to demix, the probability of the (GeGeGe)Te cluster was found to be higher and that of the (PbGeGe)Te cluster to be lower than it is expected for the purely statistical distribution of the clusters

  2. Natural SnGeS3 from Radvanice near Trutnov (Czech Republic): its description, crystal structure refinement and solid solution with PbGeS3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejkora, Jiri; Berlepsch, Peter; Makovicky, Emil

    2001-01-01

    geologi, SnGeS3-PbGeS3, Radvanice, Czech Republic, chemical analysis, XRD data, crystal structure......geologi, SnGeS3-PbGeS3, Radvanice, Czech Republic, chemical analysis, XRD data, crystal structure...

  3. The low-lying quartet electronic states of group 14 diatomic borides XB (X = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Marcelo A. P.; de Oliveira, Marcos H.; Fernandes, Gabriel F. S.; Da Motta Neto, Joaquim D.; Ferrão, Luiz F. A.; Machado, Francisco B. C.

    2018-04-01

    The present work focuses in the characterization of the low-lying quartet electronic and spin-orbit states of diatomic borides XB, in which X is an element of group 14 (C, Si, Ge, Sn, PB). The wavefunction was obtained at the CASSCF/MRCI level with a quintuple-ζ quality basis set. Scalar relativistic effects were also taken into account. A systematic and comparative analysis of the spectroscopic properties for the title molecular series was carried out, showing that the (1)4Π→X4Σ- transition band is expected to be measurable by emission spectroscopy to the GeB, SnB and PbB molecules, as already observed for the lighter CB and SiB species.

  4. 73Ge, 119Sn and 207Pb: general cooperative effects of single atom ligands on the NMR signals observed in tetrahedral [MXnY4-n] (M = Ge, Sn, Pb; 1 ≤ n ≤ 4; X, Y = Cl, Br, I) coordination compounds of heavier XIV group elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M; De Castro, F; Fanizzi, F P

    2017-02-28

    An inverse linear relationship between 73 Ge, 119 Sn and 207 Pb NMR chemical shifts and the overall sum of ionic radii of coordinated halido ligands has been discovered in tetrahedral [MX n Y 4-n ] (M = Ge, Sn, Pb; 1 ≤ n ≤ 4; X, Y = Cl, Br, I) coordination compounds. This finding is consistent with a previously reported correlation found in octahedral, pentacoordinate and square planar platinum complexes. The effect of the coordinated halido ligands acting on the metal as shielding conducting rings is therefore confirmed also by 73 Ge, 119 Sn and 207 Pb NMR spectroscopy.

  5. Three new chalcohalides, Ba4Ge2PbS8Br2, Ba4Ge2PbSe8Br2 and Ba4Ge2SnS8Br2: Syntheses, crystal structures, band gaps, and electronic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zuohong; Feng, Kai; Tu, Heng; Kang, Lei; Lin, Zheshuai; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three new chalcohalides: Ba 4 Ge 2 PbS 8 Br 2 , Ba 4 Ge 2 PbSe 8 Br 2 and Ba 4 Ge 2 SnS 8 Br 2 have been synthesized. • The MQ 5 Br octahedra and GeQ 4 tetrahedra form a three-dimensional framework with Ba 2+ in the channels. • Band Gaps and electronic structures of the three compounds were studied. - Abstract: Single crystals of three new chalcohalides: Ba 4 Ge 2 PbS 8 Br 2 , Ba 4 Ge 2 PbSe 8 Br 2 and Ba 4 Ge 2 SnS 8 Br 2 have been synthesized for the first time. These isostructural compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pnma. In the structure, the tetra-valent Ge atom is tetrahedrally coordinated with four Q (Q = S, Se) atoms, while the bi-valent M atom (M = Pb, Sn) is coordinated with an obviously distorted octahedron of five Q (Q = S, Se) atoms and one Br atom, showing the stereochemical activity of the ns 2 lone pair electron. The MQ 5 Br (M = Sn, Pb; Q = S, Se) distorted octahedra and the GeQ 4 (Q = S, Se) tetrahedra are connected to each other to form a three-dimensional framework with channels occupied by Ba 2+ cations. Based on UV–vis–NIR spectroscopy measurements and the electronic structure calculations, Ba 4 Ge 2 PbS 8 Br 2 , Ba 4 Ge 2 PbSe 8 Br 2 and Ba 4 Ge 2 SnS 8 Br 2 have indirect band gaps of 2.054, 1.952, and 2.066 eV respectively, which are mainly determined by the orbitals from the Ge, M and Q atoms (M = Pb, Sn; Q = S, Se)

  6. New members of the A2 M ‧ M2″ structure family (A=Ca, Sr, Yb, La; M ‧ = In , Sn , Pb; M ″ = Si , Ge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Michael; Dürr, Ines; Fink, Saskia; Lang, Britta; Langenmaier, Michael; Steckhan, Julia; Röhr, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The new mixed tetrelides Sr2PbGe2 and Yb2SnGe2, several mixed Ca/Sr (AII) germanides A2II (Sn, Pb)Ge2 and two polymorphs of La2 InSi2 represent new members of the general structure family of ternary alkaline-earth/lanthanoid main group silicides/germanides A2 M ‧ M2″ (M ‧ = In , Sn , Pb ; M ″ = Si , Ge). All compounds were synthesized from melts of the elements and their crystal structures have been determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Sr2PbGe2 (Cmmm, a=402.36(11), b=1542.3(4), c=463.27(10) pm) crystallizes with the Mn2AlB2 -type structure. In exhibiting infinite planar Ge zig-zag chains, it represents one border of the compound series. The other borderline case, where only [Ge2 ] dumbbells are left as Ge building units, is represented by the Ca/Yb tin germanides Ca2SnGe2 and Yb2SnGe2 (Mo2FeB2 -type; P4/mbm, a=748.58(13)/740.27(7), c=445.59(8)/435.26(5) pm). In between these two border structures compounds with variable Si/Ge chain lengths could be obtained by varying the averaged size of the AII cations: Ca0.45Sr1.55PbGe2 (new structure type; Pbam, a=791.64(5), b=2311.2(2), c=458.53(3) pm) contains planar six-membered chain segments [Ge6 ]. Tetrameric pieces [Ge4 ] are the conspicuous structure elements in Ca1.16Sr0.84SnGe2 and La2 InSi2 (La2InNi2 -type; Pbam, a=781.01(2)/762.01(13), b=1477.95(3)/1494.38(6), c=457.004(9)/442.1(3) pm). The tetragonal form of 'La2 In Si2‧ (exact composition: La2In1.07Si1.93, P4/mbm, a=1309.11(12), c=443.32(4) pm) also crystallizes in a new structure type, containing only [Si3 ] trimers as cutouts of the planar chains. In all structures the Si/Ge zig-zag chains/chain segments are connected by In/Sn/Pb atoms to form planar M layers, which are separated by pure A layers. Band structure calculations within the FP-LAPW DFT approach together with the Zintl formalism, extended by the presence of hypervalent bonding of the heavier M ‧ elements, give insight into the chemical bonding of this series of p

  7. L2₁ and XA Ordering Competition in Hafnium-Based Full-Heusler Alloys Hf₂VZ (Z = Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotian; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Wenhong

    2017-10-20

    For theoretical designing of full-Heusler based spintroinc materials, people have long believed in the so-called Site Preference Rule (SPR). Very recently, according to the SPR, there are several studies on XA-type Hafnium-based Heusler alloys X₂YZ, i.e., Hf₂VAl, Hf₂CoZ (Z = Ga, In) and Hf₂CrZ (Z = Al, Ga, In). In this work, a series of Hf₂-based Heusler alloys, Hf₂VZ (Z = Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb), were selected as targets to study the site preferences of their atoms by first-principle calculations. It has been found that all of them are likely to exhibit the L2₁-type structure instead of the XA one. Furthermore, we reveal that the high values of spin-polarization of XA-type Hf₂VZ (Z = Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) alloys have dropped dramatically when they form the L2₁-type structure. Also, we prove that the electronic, magnetic, and physics nature of these alloys are quite different, depending on the L2₁-type or XA-type structures.

  8. The singlet-triplet energy gap in divalent three, five and seven-membered cyclic C2H2M, C4H4M and C6H6M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn AND Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vessally

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Total energy gaps, ∆Et–s, enthalpy gaps, ∆Ht–s, and Gibbs free energy gaps, ∆Gt–s, between singlet (s and triplet (t states were calculated for three, five and seven-membered cyclic C2H2M, C4H4M and C6H6M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn and Pb at B3LYP/6-311++G**. The singlet-triplet free energy gaps, ∆Gt–s, for C2H2M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn and Pb are found to be increased in the order: C2H2Si > C2H2C > C2H2Ge > C2H2Sn > C2H2Pb. The ∆Gt–s of C4H4M are found to be increased in the order: C4H4Pb > C4H4Sn > C4H4Ge > C4H4Si > C4H4C. Also, the ∆Gt–s of C6H6M are determined in the order: C6H6Pb > C6H6Ge ≥ C6H6Sn > C6H6Si > C6H6C. The most stable conformers of C2H2M, C4H4M and C6H6M are proposed for both the singlet and triplet states. Nuclear independent chemical shifts (NICS calculations were carried out for determination of aromatic character. The geometrical parameters are calculated and discussed.

  9. Vacancy-induced brittle to ductile transition of W-M co-doped Al3Ti (M=Si, Ge, Sn and Pb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingke; Wu, Ping; Li, Qiulin; Xu, Ben

    2017-10-25

    We investigated the effect of vacancy formation on brittle (D0 22 ) to ductile (L1 2 -like) transition in Al 3 Ti using DFT calculations. The well-known pseudogap on the density of states of Al 3 Ti migrates towards its Fermi level from far above, via a W - M co-doping strategy, where M is Si, Ge, Sn or Pb respectively. In particular, by a W - M co-doping the underline electronic structure of the pseudogap approaches an octahedral (L1 2 : t 2g , e g ) from the tetragonal (D0 22 : e g , b 2g , a 1g , b 1g ) crystal field. Our calculations demonstrated that (1) a W-doping is responsible for the close up of the energy gap between a 1g and b 1g so that they tend to merge into an e g symmetry, and (2) all M-doping lead to a narrower gap between e g and b 2g (moving towards a t 2g symmetry). Thus, a brittle to ductile transition in Al 3 Ti is possible by adopting this W - M co-doping strategy. We further recommend the use of W-Pb co-doped Al 3 Ti to replace the less anodic Al electrode in Al-battery, due to its improved ductility and high Al diffusivity. Finally this study opens a new field in physics to tailor mechanical properties by manipulating electron energy level(s) towards higher symmetry via vacancy optimization.

  10. Phase stabilities of pyrite-related MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te): A systematic DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachhuber, Frederik; Krach, Alexander; Furtner, Andrea; Söhnel, Tilo; Peter, Philipp; Rothballer, Jan; Weihrich, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Pyrite-type and related systems appear for a wide range of binary and ternary combinations of transition metals and main group elements that form Zintl type dumbbell anion units. Those representatives with 20 valence electrons exhibit an extraordinary structural flexibility and interesting properties as low-gap semiconductors or thermoelectric and electrode materials. This work is devoted to the systematic exploration of novel compounds within the class of MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te) by means of density functional calculations. Their preferred structures are predicted from an extended scheme of colored pyrites and marcasites. To determine their stabilities, competing binary MT 2 and MCh 2 boundary phases are taken into account as well as ternary M 3 T 2 Ch 2 and M 2 T 3 Ch 3 systems. Recently established stability diagrams are presented to account for MTCh ordering phenomena with a focus on a not-yet-reported ordering variant of the NiAs 2 type. Due to the good agreement with experimental data available for several PtTCh systems, the predictions for the residual systems are considered sufficiently accurate. - Graphical abstract: Compositional and structural stability of MTCh compounds is investigated from first principle calculations. A conceptional approach is presented to study and predict novel stable and metastable compounds and structures of low gap semiconductors with TCh dumbbell units that are isoelectronic and structurally related to pyrite (FeS 2 ). - Highlights: • Study of compositional stability of MTCh vs. M 3 T 2 Ch 2 and M 2 T 3 Ch 3 compounds. • Study of structural stability of known and novel MTCh compounds. • Prediction of novel stable and metastable structures and compounds isoelectronic to pyrite, FeS 2

  11. Pseudomorphic GeSiSn, SiSn and Ge layers in strained heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. A.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Tuktamyshev, A. R.; Mashanov, V. I.; Loshkarev, I. D.; Bloshkin, A. A.; Gutakovskii, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    The GeSiSn, SiSn layer growth mechanisms on Si(100) were investigated and the kinetic diagrams of the morphological GeSiSn, SiSn film states in the temperature range of 150 °C-450 °C at the tin content from 0% to 35% were built. The phase diagram of the superstructural change on the surface of Sn grown on Si(100) in the annealing temperature range of 0 °C-850 °C was established. The specular beam oscillations were first obtained during the SiSn film growth from 150 °C to 300 °C at the Sn content up to 35%. The transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry data confirm the crystal perfection and the pseudomorphic GeSiSn, SiSn film state, and also the presence of smooth heterointerfaces between GeSiSn or SiSn and Si. The photoluminescence for the multilayer periodic GeSiSn/Si structures in the range of 0.6-0.8 eV was detected. The blue shift with the excitation power increase is observed suggesting the presence of a type II heterostructure. The creation of tensile strained Ge films, which are pseudomorphic to the underlying GeSn layer, is confirmed by the results of the formation and analysis of the reciprocal space map in the x-ray diffractometry. The tensile strain in the Ge films reached the value in the range of 0.86%-1.5%. The GeSn buffer layer growth in the Sn content range from 8% to 12% was studied. The band structure of heterosystems based on pseudomorphic GeSiSn, SiSn and Ge layers was calculated and the valence and conduction band subband position dependences on the Sn content were built. Based on the calculation, the Sn content range in the GeSiSn, SiSn, and GeSn layers, which corresponds to the direct bandgap GeSiSn, SiSn, and Ge material, was obtained.

  12. Oxidation of Pb-Sn and Pb-Sn-In alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluzewski, D.A.; Chang, Y.A.; Marcotte, V.C.

    1990-01-01

    Air oxidized Pb-Sn and Pb-Sn-In single phase alloys have been studied with scanning Auger microscopy. Line scans across grain boundaries combined with argon ion sputter etching revealed grain boundary oxidation. In the Pb-Sn samples, tin is preferentially oxidized with the grain boundary regions having a much higher percentage of tin oxide than the bulk surface oxide. In the Pb-Sn-In alloys, both tin and indium are preferentially oxidized with the grain boundary regions being enriched with tin and indium oxides

  13. Whisker and Hillock formation on Sn, Sn-Cu and Sn-Pb electrodeposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettinger, W.J.; Johnson, C.E.; Bendersky, L.A.; Moon, K.-W.; Williams, M.E.; Stafford, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    High purity bright Sn, Sn-Cu and Sn-Pb layers, 3, 7 and 16 μm thick were electrodeposited on phosphor bronze cantilever beams in a rotating disk apparatus. Beam deflection measurements within 15 min of plating proved that all electrodeposits had in-plane compressive stress. In several days, the surfaces of the Sn-Cu deposits, which have the highest compressive stress, develop 50 μm contorted hillocks and 200 μm whiskers, pure Sn deposits develop 20 μm compact conical hillocks, and Sn-Pb deposits, which have the lowest compressive stress, remain unchanged. The differences between the initial compressive stresses for each alloy and pure Sn is due to the rapid precipitation of Cu 6 Sn 5 or Pb particles, respectively, within supersaturated Sn grains produced by electrodeposition. Over longer time, analysis of beam deflection measurements indicates that the compressive stress is augmented by the formation of Cu 6 Sn 5 on the bronze/Sn interface, while creep of the electrodeposit tends to decrease the compressive stress. Uniform creep occurs for Sn-Pb because it has an equi-axed grain structure. Localized creep in the form of hillocks and whiskers occurs for Sn and Sn-Cu because both have columnar structures. Compact hillocks form for the Sn deposits because the columnar grain boundaries are mobile. Contorted hillocks and whiskers form for the Sn-Cu deposits because the columnar grain boundary motion is impeded

  14. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chung-Yi; Chang, Chih-Chiang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shih-Hsien [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Liu, C. W., E-mail: chee@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); National Nano Device Labs, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yi-Chiau; Chung, Hua; Chang, Chorng-Ping [Applied Materials Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

    2016-08-29

    Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells are grown on a 300 mm Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The direct bandgap emission from strained GeSn is observed in the photoluminescence spectra and is enhanced by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} passivation due to the field effect. The electroluminescence of the direct bandgap emission of strained GeSn is also observed from the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeSn metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes. Electroluminescence is a good indicator of GeSn material quality, since defects in GeSn layers degrade the electroluminescence intensity significantly. At the accumulation bias, the holes in the Ni gate electrode tunnel to the strained n-type GeSn layer through the ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and recombine radiatively with electrons. The emission wavelength of photoluminescence and electroluminescence can be tuned by the Sn content.

  15. PbSnTe injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oron, M.

    1982-03-01

    Carrier confined homostructure PbSnTe lasers were developed and investigated. In this laser structure good electrical and optical confinement can be achieved by a suitable carrier concentration profile. The advantage of these lasers over PbSnTe heterostructure lasers is the perfect lattice matching between the various layers of the structure. The desired carrier concentration profile was achieved by the growth of several epitaxial layers by the LPE method on a suitable substrate. The performance of these lasers was compared with that of previous homostructure and double heterostructure lasers. (H.K.)

  16. Wetting Behavior of Ternary Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) Alloys on Cu and Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Valenza, F.; Novakovic, R.; Leinenbach, C.

    2013-06-01

    Au-Ge-based alloys are potential substitutes for Pb-rich solders currently used for high-temperature applications. In the present work, the wetting behavior of two Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) ternary alloys, i.e., Au-15Ge-17Sb and Au-13.7 Ge-15.3Sn (at.%), in contact with Cu and Ni substrates has been investigated. Au-13.7Ge-15.3Sn alloy showed complete wetting on both Cu and Ni substrates. Total spreading of Au-15Ge-17Sb alloy on Cu was also observed, while the final contact angle of this alloy on Ni was about 29°. Pronounced dissolution of Cu substrates into the solder alloys investigated was detected, while the formation of Ni-Ge intermetallic compounds at the interface of both solder/Ni systems suppressed the dissolution of Ni into the solder.

  17. Fatigue and thermal fatigue of Pb-Sn solder joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frear, D.; Grivas, D.; McCormack, M.; Tribula, D.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental investigation of the fatigue and thermal fatigue characteristics, with an emphasis on the microstructural development during fatigue, of Sn-Pb solder joints. Fatigue tests were performed in simple shear on both 60Sn-40Pb and 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Isothermal fatigue tests show increasing fatigue life of 60Sn-40Pb solder joints with decreasing strain and temperature. In contrast, such behavior was not observed in the isothermal fatigue of 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Thermal fatigue results on 60Sn-40Pb solder cycled between -55 0 C and 125 0 C show that a coarsened region develops in the center of the joint. Both Pb-rich and Sn-rich phases coarsen, and cracks form within these coarsened regions. The failure mode 60Sn-40Pb solder joints in thermal and isothermal fatigue is similar: cracks form intergranularly through the Sn-rich phase or along Sn/Pb interphase boundaries. Extensive cracking is found throughout the 5Sn-95Pb joint for both thermal and isothermal fatigue. In thermal fatigue the 5Sn-95Pb solder joints failed after fewer cycles than 60Sn-40Pb

  18. Mechanisms for the reactions of group 10 transition metal complexes with metal-group 14 element bonds, Bbt(Br)E═M(PCy3)2 (E = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; M = Pd and Pt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Hung; Ho, Pei-Yun; Su, Ming-Der

    2013-02-04

    The electronic structures of the Bbt(Br)E═M(PCy(3))(2) (E = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb and M = Pt, Pd) complexes and their potential energy surfaces for the formation and water addition reactions were studied using density functional theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ). The theoretical evidence suggests that the bonding character of the E═M double bond between the six valence-electron Bbt(Br)E: species and the 14 valence-electron (PCy(3))(2)M complexes has a predominantly high s-character. That is, on the basis of the NBO, this theoretical study indicates that the σ-donation from the E element to the M atom prevails. Also, theoretical computations suggest that the relative reactivity decreases in the order: Bbt(Br)C═M(PCy(3))(2) > Bbt(Br)Si═M(PCy(3))(2) > Bbt(Br)Ge═M(PCy(3))(2) > Bbt(Br)Sn═M(PCy(3))(2) > Bbt(Br)Pb═M(PCy(3))(2), irrespective of whether M = Pt or M = Pd is chosen. Namely, the greater the atomic weight of the group 14 atom (E), the larger is the atomic radius of E and the more stable is its Bbt(Br)E═M(PCy(3))(2) doubly bonded species toward chemical reactions. The computational results show good agreement with the available experimental observations. The theoretical results obtained in this work allow a number of predictions to be made.

  19. Singlet-triplet energy differences in divalent five membered cyclic conjugated Arduengo-type carbenes XC2HN2M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb; X = F, Cl, Br, and I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessally, Esmail; Dehbandi, Behnam; Ahmadi, Elaheh

    2016-09-01

    Singlet-triplet energy differences in Arduengo-type carbenes XC2HN2C compared and contrasted with their sila, germa, stana and plumba analogues; at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Free Gibbs energy differences between triplet (t) and singlet (s) states (Δ G(t-s)) change in the following order: plumbylenes > stannylenes > germylenes > silylenes > carbenes. The singlet states in XC2HN2C are generally more stable when the electron withdrawing groups such as-F was used at β-position. However, the singlet states in XC2N2HM (M = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) are generally more stable when the withdrawing groups such as-F was placed. The puckering energy is investigated for each the singlet and triplet states. The DFT calculations found the linear correlation to size of the group 14 divalent element (M), the ∠N-M-N angle, and the Δ(LUMO-HOMO) of XC2HN2M.

  20. 70 °C synthesis of high-Sn content (25%) GeSn on insulator by Sn-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K., E-mail: toko@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Oya, N.; Suemasu, T. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Saitoh, N.; Yoshizawa, N. [Electron Microscope Facility, TIA, AIST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    Polycrystalline GeSn thin films are fabricated on insulating substrates at low temperatures by using Sn-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge (a-Ge). The Sn layer stacked on the a-Ge layer (100-nm thickness each) had two roles: lowering the crystallization temperature of a-Ge and composing GeSn. Slow annealing at an extremely low temperature of 70 °C allowed for a large-grained (350 nm) GeSn layer with a lattice constant of 0.590 nm, corresponding to a Sn composition exceeding 25%. The present investigation paves the way for advanced electronic optical devices integrated on a flexible plastic substrate as well as on a Si platform.

  1. Stable and metastable equilibria in PbSe + SnI2=SnSe + PbI2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odin, I.N.; Grin'ko, V.V.; Kozlovskij, V.F.; Demidova, E.D.

    2003-01-01

    T-x-y phase diagrams of the PbSe + SnI 2 =SnSe + PbI 2 mutual system (stable states) are plotted for the first time. It is shown that melt, solid solutions on the base of components of the mutual system and phase on the base of Sn 2 SeI 4 take part in phase equilibria. Transformations in the PbSe + SnI 2 =SnSe + PbI 2 mutual system leading to crystallization of metastable polytype modifications of lead iodides and metastable ternary compound forming in PbSe-PbI 2 system are investigated for the first time [ru

  2. GeSn growth kinetics in reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition from Ge2H6 and SnCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, J.; Hartmann, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the low temperature epitaxy of high Sn content GeSn alloys in a 200 mm industrial Reduced Pressure - Chemical Vapor Deposition tool from Applied Materials. Gaseous digermane (Ge2H6) and liquid tin tetrachloride (SnCl4) were used as the Ge and Sn precursors, respectively. The impact of temperature (in the 300-350 °C range), Ge2H6 and SnCl4 mass-flows on the GeSn growth kinetics at 100 Torr has been thoroughly explored. Be it at 300 °C or 325 °C, a linear GeSn growth rate increase together with a sub-linear Sn concentration increase occurred as the SnCl4 mass-flow increased, irrespective of the Ge2H6 mass flow (fixed or varying). The Sn atoms seemed to catalyze H desorption from the surface, resulting in higher GeSn growth rates for high SnCl4 mass-flows (in the 4-21 nm min-1 range). The evolution of the Sn content x with the F (SnCl4) 2 ·/F (Ge2H6) mass-flow ratio was fitted by x2/(1 - x) = n ·F (SnCl4) 2 ·/F (Ge2H6), with n = 0.25 (325 °C) and 0.60 (300 °C). We have otherwise studied the impact of temperature, in the 300-350 °C range, on the GeSn growth kinetics. The GeSn growth rate exponentially increased with the temperature, from 15 up to 32 nm min-1. The associated activation energy was low, i.e. Ea = 10 kcal mol-1. Meanwhile, the Sn content decreased linearly as the growth temperature increased, from 15% at 300 °C down to 6% at 350 °C.

  3. Preparation, deformation, and failure of functional Al-Sn and Al-Sn-Pb nanocrystalline alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskova, N. I.; Vil'Danova, N. F.; Filippov, Yu. I.; Churbaev, R. V.; Pereturina, I. A.; Korshunov, L. G.; Korznikov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in the structure, hardness, mechanical properties, and friction coefficient of Al-30% Sn, Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb (wt %) alloys subjected to severe plastic deformation by equal-channel angular pressing (with a force of 40 tonne) and by shear at a pressure of 5 GPa have been studied. The transition into the nanocrystalline state was shown to occur at different degrees of plastic deformation. The hardness exhibits nonmonotonic variations, namely, first it increases and subsequently decreases. The friction coefficient of the Al-30% Sn, Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys quenched from the melt was found to be 0.33; the friction coefficients of these alloys in the submicrocrystalline state (after equal-channel angular pressing) equal 0.24, 0.32, and 0.35, respectively. The effect of disintegration into nano-sized powders was found to occur in the Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys after severe plastic deformation to ɛ = 6.4 and subsequent short-time holding.

  4. Strain relaxation of germanium-tin (GeSn) fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuye; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Wei; Lei, Dian; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Dong, Yuan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Shengqiang; Tan, Chuan Seng; Gong, Xiao; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2018-02-01

    Strain relaxation of biaxially strained Ge1-xSnx layer when it is patterned into Ge1-xSnx fin structures is studied. Ge1-xSnx-on-insulator (GeSnOI) substrate was realized using a direct wafer bonding (DWB) technique and Ge1-xSnx fin structures were formed by electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning and dry etching. The strain in the Ge1-xSnx fins having fin widths (WFin) ranging from 1 μm down to 80 nm was characterized using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Raman measurements show that the strain relaxation increases with decreasing WFin. Finite element (FE) simulation shows that the strain component in the transverse direction relaxes with decreasing WFin, while the strain component along the fin direction remains unchanged. For various Ge1-xSnx fin widths, transverse strain relaxation was further extracted using micro-Raman spectroscopy, which is consistent with the simulation results.

  5. Kinetics of plasma oxidation of germanium-tin (GeSn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lei, Dian; Dong, Yuan; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Gong, Xiao; Tok, Eng-Soon; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2017-12-01

    The kinetics of plasma oxidation of GeSn at low temperature is investigated. The oxidation process is described by a power-law model where the oxidation rate decreases rapidly from the initial oxidation rate with increasing time. The oxidation rate of GeSn is higher than that of pure Ge, which can be explained by the higher chemical reaction rate at the GeSn-oxide/GeSn interface. In addition, the Sn atoms at the interface region exchange positions with the underlying Ge atoms during oxidation, leading to a SnO2-rich oxide near the interface. The bandgap of GeSn oxide is extracted to be 5.1 ± 0.2 eV by XPS, and the valence band offset at the GeSn-oxide/GeSn heterojunction is found to be 3.7 ± 0.2 eV. Controlled annealing experiments demonstrate that the GeSn oxide is stable with respect to annealing temperatures up to 400 °C. However, after annealing at 450 °C, the GeO2 is converted to GeO, and desorbs from the GeSn-oxide/GeSn, leaving behind Sn oxide.

  6. Phase Equilibria of the Ternary Sn-Pb-Co System at 250°C and Interfacial Reactions of Co with Sn-Pb Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-hong; Kuo, Chun-yi; Yang, Nian-cih

    2015-11-01

    The isothermal section of the ternary Sn-Pb-Co system at 250°C was experimentally determined through a series of the equilibrated Sn-Pb-Co alloys of various compositions. The equilibrium phases were identified on the basis of compositional analysis. For the Sn-Co intermetallic compounds (IMCs), CoSn3, CoSn2, CoSn and Co3Sn2, the Pb solubility was very limited. There exist five tie-triangle regions. The Co-Pb system involves one monotectic reaction, so the phase separation of liquid alloys near the Co-Pb side occurred prior to solidification. The immiscibility field was also determined. Additionally, interfacial reactions between Co and Sn-Pb alloys were conducted. The reaction phase for the Sn-48 at.%Pb and Sn-58 at.%Pb at 250°C was CoSn3 and CoSn2, respectively. Both of them were simultaneously formed in the Sn-53 at.%Pb/Co. The formed IMCs were closely associated to the phase equilibria relationship of the liquid-CoSn3-CoSn2 tie-triangle. Furthermore, with increasing temperatures, the phase formed in equilibrium with Sn-37 wt.%Pb was found to transit from CoSn3 to CoSn2 at 275°C. We propose a simple method of examining the phase transition temperature in the interfacial reactions to determine the boundaries of the liquid-CoSn3-CoSn2 tie-triangles at different temperatures.

  7. The effect of Ge precursor on the heteroepitaxy of Ge1-x Sn x epilayers on a Si (001) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandar, Pedram; Weisshaupt, David; Colston, Gerard; Allred, Phil; Schulze, Jorg; Myronov, Maksym

    2018-03-01

    The heteroepitaxial growth of Ge1-x Sn x on a Si (001) substrate, via a relaxed Ge buffer, has been studied using two commonly available commercial Ge precursors, Germane (GeH4) and Digermane (Ge2H6), by means of chemical vapour deposition at reduced pressures (RP-CVD). Both precursors demonstrate growth of strained and relaxed Ge1-x Sn x epilayers, however Sn incorporation is significantly higher when using the more reactive Ge2H6 precursor. As Ge2H6 is significantly more expensive, difficult to handle or store than GeH4, developing high Sn content epilayers using the latter precursor is of great interest. This study demonstrates the key differences between the two precursors and offers routes to process optimisation which will enable high Sn content alloys at relatively low cost.

  8. The excess enthalpies of liquid Ge-Pb-Te alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachnik, R.; Binder, J.; Schlieper, A.

    1997-01-01

    The excess enthalpies of liquid alloys in the ternary system Ge-Pb-Te were determined at 1210 K in a heat flow calorimeter for five sections Ge y Pb 1-y -Te with y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8 and at 1153 K for Ge 0.5 Pb 0.5 -Te. The enthalpy surface in the ternary system is determined by a valley of exothermic minima, stretching from an exothermic minimum at the composition GeTe to one at the composition PbTe in the respective binaries. The excess enthalpies in the limiting metallic binary were adapted with the Redlich-Kister formalism. For the description of the thermodynamic functions in the ternary system the equation of Bonnier was taken using ternary coefficients. The calculated curves are in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  9. Critical thickness for strain relaxation of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (x ≤ 0.17) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Ge(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Qian; Dong, Yuan; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2015-06-08

    We investigated the critical thickness (h{sub c}) for plastic relaxation of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} films with various Sn mole fraction x (x ≤ 0.17) and different thicknesses were grown on Ge(001). The strain relaxation of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} films and the h{sub c} were investigated by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and reciprocal space mapping. It demonstrates that the measured h{sub c} values of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers are as much as an order of magnitude larger than that predicted by the Matthews and Blakeslee (M-B) model. The People and Bean (P-B) model was also used to predict the h{sub c} values in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}/Ge system. The measured h{sub c} values for various Sn content follow the trend, but slightly larger than that predicted by the P-B model.

  10. Effect of Sn Composition in Ge1- x Sn x Layers Grown by Using Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Yeon-Ho; Kang, Sukill; Jeong, Tae Soo; Shim, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Jung; Choi, Yong-Dae; Kim, Mi Joung; Kim, Taek Sung

    2018-05-01

    The Ge1- x Sn x layers were grown by using rapid thermal chemical-vapor deposition (RTCVD) on boron-doped p-type Si (100) substrates with Sn compositions up to x = 0.83%. In order to obtain effect of the Sn composition on the structural and the optical characteristics, we utilized highresolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), etch pit density (EPD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and photocurrent (PC) spectra. The Sn compositions in the Ge1- x Sn x layers were found to be of x = 0.00%, 0.51%, 0.65%, and 0.83%. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the surface roughness of the Ge1- x Sn x layer increased from 2.02 nm to 3.40 nm as the Sn composition was increased from 0.51% to 0.83%, and EPD was on the order of 108 cm-2. The Raman spectra consist of only one strong peak near 300 cm-1, which is assigned to the Ge-Ge LO peaks and the Raman peaks shift to the wave number with increasing Sn composition. Photocurrent spectra show near energy band gap peaks and their peak energies decrease with increasing Sn composition due to band-gap bowing in the Ge1- x Sn x layer. An increase in the band gap bowing parameter was observed with increasing Sn composition.

  11. The Low Temperature Epitaxy of Strained GeSn Layers Using RTCVD System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Yeon-Ho; Yuk, Sim-Hoon; Jang, Han-Soo; Lee, Sang-Geul; Choi, Chel-Jong; Shim, Kyu-Hwan

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the low temperature (LT) growth of GeSn-Ge-Si structures using rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition system utilizing Ge2H6 and SnCl4 as the reactive precursors. Due to inappropriate phenomena, such as, Ge etch and Sn segregation, it was hard to achieve high quality GeSn epitaxy at the temperature > 350 °C. On the contrary, we found that the SnCl4 promoted the reaction of Ge2H6 precursors in a certain process condition of LT, 240-360 °C. In return, we could perform the growth of GeSn epi layer with 7.7% of Sn and its remaining compressive strain of 71.7%. The surface propagated defects were increased with increasing the Sn content in the GeSn layer confirmed by TEM analysis. And we could calculate the activation energies at lower GeSn growth temperature regime using by Ge2H6 and SnCl4 precursors about 0.43 eV.

  12. Transverse energy production in 208Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alber, T.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Baechler, J.; Bartke, J.; Bialkowska, H.; Bieser, F.; Bloomer, M.A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Cebra, D.; Chan, P.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Cramer, P.B.; Csato, P.; Derado, I.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Euler, S.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fischer, H.G.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Fuchs, M.; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Guenther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Heck, W.; Hegyi, S.; Hill, L.A.; Huang, I.; Howe, M.A.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kowalski, M.; Kuehmichel, A.; Lasiuk, B.; Margetis, S.; Mitchell, J.W.; Mock, A.; Nelson, J.M.; Odyniec, G.; Palinkas, J.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puehlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Roehrich, D.; Rudolph, H.; Runge, K.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schaefer, E.; Schmitz, N.; Schoenfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Vassiliou, M.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.; Zybert, R.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the forward and the transverse energy in 158 GeV per nucleon 208 Pb+Pb collisions are presented. A total transverse energy of about 1 TeV is created in central collisions. An energy density of about 3GeV/fm 3 is estimated for near head-on collisions. Only statistical fluctuations are seen in the ratio of electromagnetic to hadronic transverse energy. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  13. GeSn-on-insulator substrate formed by direct wafer bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Dian; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao, E-mail: elegong@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: elegong@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Lee, Kwang Hong; Wang, Bing [Low Energy Electronic Systems (LEES), Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), 1 CREATE Way, #10-01 CREATE Tower, Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Bao, Shuyu [Low Energy Electronic Systems (LEES), Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), 1 CREATE Way, #10-01 CREATE Tower, Singapore 138602 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tan, Chuan Seng [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-07-11

    GeSn-on-insulator (GeSnOI) on Silicon (Si) substrate was realized using direct wafer bonding technique. This process involves the growth of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} layer on a first Si (001) substrate (donor wafer) followed by the deposition of SiO{sub 2} on Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}, the bonding of the donor wafer to a second Si (001) substrate (handle wafer), and removal of the Si donor wafer. The GeSnOI material quality is investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), atomic-force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} layer on GeSnOI substrate has a surface roughness of 1.90 nm, which is higher than that of the original Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} epilayer before transfer (surface roughness is 0.528 nm). The compressive strain of the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} film in the GeSnOI is as low as 0.10% as confirmed using HRXRD and Raman spectroscopy.

  14. $\\psi^'$ production in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B.; Arnaldi, R.; Atayan, M.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Borges, G.; Castor, J.; Chaurand, B.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cortese, P.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Fargeix, J.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigoryan, A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkanyan, H.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavicheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Bornec, Y.Le; Lourenco, C.; Cormick, M.Mac; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Monteno, M.; Musso, A.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prino, F.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Santos, H.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Sitta, M.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.L.; Vercellin, E.; Villatte, L.; Willis, N.

    2007-01-01

    \\psi^' production is studied in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon incident momentum. Absolute cross-sections are measured and production rates are investigated as a function of the centrality of the collision. The results are compared with those obtained for lighter colliding systems and also for the J/\\psi meson produced under identical conditions.

  15. Study on the morphology of Pb-Sn eutectics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozio Filho, F.; Gentile, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of factors such as rate of growth of the solid phase, thermal gradient in the liquid and presence of impurities on the solidification of eutectic structures is studied. To emphasize certain aspects of the basic concept, the technique of unidirectional cooling was used in a specially constructed apparatus. Micrographs of the structure obtained with the eutectic Pb-Sn alloy are shown and a purely qualitative analysis of the factors described is given [pt

  16. Natural bond orbital analysis of molecular interactions: Theoretical study of W(CO)5 complexes with E(PH3)2 and NHEMe ligands (E=C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Ai Nhung; Huynh Thi Phuong Loan; Duong Tuan Quang; Pham Van Tat

    2014-01-01

    The complexes with ligands carbodiphosphorane-analogues (called tetrylones) [(CO) 5 W-{E(PH 3 ) 2 }] (W5-EP 2 ) and N-heterocyclic carbene-analogues (called tetrylenes) [(CO) 5 W-{NHE Me }] (W5-NHE Me ) when E=C-Pb have been studied using natural bond orbital (NBO) method. The NBO analysis provides a consistent picture of the chemical bonding is two entire families of transition metal complexes of tetrylone and tetrylene ligands in term of donor-acceptor interactions, showing the correlation of these interactions with Wiberg bond indies (WBI), natural partial charges, and the energetically highest lying occupied molecular orbitals for σ and π orbitals of free ligands E(PH 3 ) 2 and NHE Me . Analysis of the bonding situation reveals that in E(PH 3 ) 2 and NHE Me ligands, the energy level of the π orbital rises, whereas that of the σ orbital decreases as atom E becomes heavier. The complexes with head-on-bonded ligands have (CO) 5 W←E donation which comes from the σ-lone-pair orbital of E(PH 3 ) 2 and NHE Me where E=C for tetrylones and E=C, Si, Ge for tetrylenes, whereas the (CO) 5 W←E donation in the side-on bonded complexes when E becomes heavier arises from the π-lone-pair orbital of E(PH 3 ) 2 and NHE Me ligands which is the HOMO of the free ligands. This makes the heavier adducts of tetrylones and tetrylenes become stronger donors than the lighter systems. The NBO analysis suggests that the E(PH 3 ) 2 ligands are strong σ-donors and strong π-acceptors while the NHE Me ligands are strong σ-donors and weak π-acceptors. This is possible for tetrylones that have two lone-pair orbitals available for donation, whereas the tetrylenes have only one lone-pair orbital available for donation. (author)

  17. Silicon Based Mid Infrared SiGeSn Heterostructure Emitters and Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-16

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0054 Silicon based mid infrared SiGeSn heterostrcture emitters and detectors Greg Sun UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS Final Report... Silicon Based Mid Infrared SiGeSn Heterostructure Emitters and Detectors ” February 10, 2016 Principal Investigator: Greg Sun Engineering...diodes are incompatible with the CMOS process and therefore cannot be easily integrated with Si electronics . The GeSn mid IR detectors developed in

  18. Sn-based Ge/Ge{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}/Ge p-i-n photodetector operated with back-side illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Li, H.; Huang, S. H.; Cheng, H. H., E-mail: hhcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences and Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sun, G.; Soref, R. A. [Department of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (United States)

    2016-04-11

    We report an investigation of a GeSn-based p-i-n photodetector grown on a Ge wafer that collects light signal from the back of the wafer. Temperature dependent absorption measurements performed over a wide temperature range (300 K down to 25 K) show that (a) absorption starts at the indirect bandgap of the active GeSn layer and continues up to the direct bandgap of the Ge wafer, and (b) the peak responsivity increases rapidly at first with decreasing temperature, then increases more slowly, followed by a decrease at the lower temperatures. The maximum responsivity happens at 125 K, which can easily be achieved with the use of liquid nitrogen. The temperature dependence of the photocurrent is analyzed by taking into consideration of the temperature dependence of the electron and hole mobility in the active layer, and the analysis result is in reasonable agreement with the data in the temperature regime where the rapid increase occurs. This investigation demonstrates the feasibility of a GeSn-based photodiode that can be operated with back-side illumination for applications in image sensing systems.

  19. Supergravity separation of Pb and Sn from waste printed circuit boards at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long; Wang, Zhe; Zhong, Yi-wei; Chen, Kui-yuan; Guo, Zhan-cheng

    2018-02-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain many toxic substances as well as valuable metals, e.g., lead (Pb) and tin (Sn). In this study, a novel technology, named supergravity, was used to separate different mass ratios of Pb and Sn from Pb-Sn alloys in PCBs. In a supergravity field, the liquid metal phase can permeate from solid particles. Hence, temperatures of 200, 280, and 400°C were chosen to separate Pb and Sn from PCBs. The results depicted that gravity coefficient only affected the recovery rates of Pb and Sn, whereas it had little effect on the mass ratios of Pb and Sn in the obtained alloys. With an increase in gravity coefficient, the recovery values of Pb and Sn in each step of the separation process increased. In the single-step separation process, the mass ratios of Pb and Sn in Pb-Sn alloys were 0.55, 0.40, and 0.64 at 200, 280, and 400°C, respectively. In the two-step separation process, the mass ratios were 0.12 and 0.55 at 280 and 400°C, respectively. Further, the mass ratio was observed to be 0.76 at 400°C in the three-step separation process. This process provides an innovative approach to the recycling mechanism of Pb and Sn from PCBs.

  20. Amorphous inclusions during Ge and GeSn epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencarelli, F., E-mail: federica.gencarelli@imec.be [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Shimura, Y. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Nuclear and Radiation Physics Section, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kumar, A. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Nuclear and Radiation Physics Section, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vincent, B.; Moussa, A.; Vanhaeren, D.; Richard, O.; Bender, H. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, W. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Nuclear and Radiation Physics Section, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Caymax, M.; Loo, R. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heyns, M. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we discuss the characteristics of particular island-type features with an amorphous core that are developed during the low temperature epitaxial growth of Ge and GeSn layers by means of chemical vapor deposition with Ge{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Although further investigations are needed to unambiguously identify the origin of these features, we suggest that they are originated by the formation of clusters of H and/or contaminants atoms during growth. These would initially cause the formation of pits with crystalline rough facets over them, resulting in ring-shaped islands. Then, when an excess surface energy is overcome, an amorphous phase would nucleate inside the pits and fill them. Reducing the pressure and/or increasing the growth temperature can be effective ways to prevent the formation of these features, likely due to a reduction of the surface passivation from H and/or contaminant atoms. - Highlights: • Island features with amorphous cores develop during low T Ge(Sn) CVD with Ge{sub 2}H{sub 6.} • These features are thoroughly characterized in order to understand their origin. • A model is proposed to describe the possible evolution of these features. • Lower pressures and/or higher temperatures avoid the formation of these features.

  1. Long-range correlations in PbPb collisions at 158 a *GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alt, C; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csato, P; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, A; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Farantatos, G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gal, J; Gazdzicki, M; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Hohne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; van Leeuwen, M; Levai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Meurer, C; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnar, J; Mrowczynski, S; Palla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Puhlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Richard, A; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Sikler, F; Sitar, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Strobele, H; Susa, T; Szentpetery, I; Sziklai, J; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G l; Vesztergombi, G; Vranie, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, l K; Zaranek, J; Zimanyi, J; Feofilov, G; Kolevatov, R; Kondratiev, V; Naumenko, P; Vechernin, V

    2005-01-01

    We present the 1st results of the event-by-event study of long-range correlations between event mean Pt and charged particle multiplicity using NA49 experimental data in two separated rapidity intervals in 158 A *Ge V Pb Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. Noticeable long range correlations are found. The most striking feature is the negative Prn correlation observed for the central PbPb collisions. Results are compared to the predictions of the HIJING event generator and of the String Fusion Model favoring a string fusion hypothesis.

  2. Next Generation, Si-Compatible Materials and Devices in the Si-Ge-Sn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-09

    and conclusions The work initially focused on growth of next generation Ge1-ySny alloys on Ge buffered Si wafers via UHV CVD depositions of Ge3H8...Abstract The work initially focused on growth of next generation Ge1-ySny alloys on Ge buffered Si wafers via UHV CVD depositions of Ge3H8, SnD4. The...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0044 Next generation, Si -compatible materials and devices in the Si - Ge -Sn system John Kouvetakis ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Final

  3. Investigations on the structure of Pb-Ge-Se glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, G.; Upadhyay, M.; Sharma, Y.; Murugavel, S., E-mail: murug@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110007 (India); Abhaya, S.; Amarendra, G. [Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603 102 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Chalcogenide glasses have attracted much attention because of their potential application in various solid state devices. In the present work, we report here the detailed thermal, structural, microstructural studies on Pb{sub x}Ge{sub 42-x}Se{sub 58} with (0 ≤ x ≤ 20) glasses. The influence of Pb content on the glass transition temperature, specific heat, and non-reversing enthalpy is observed and discussed qualitatively The Raman spectroscopic studies on the all the glass compositions are carried out and deconvoluted into different structural units. The positron annihilation life-time spectroscopy (PALS) studies helped to understand the nature of defect states present in the glassy system and its variation with Pb content. The concentration of charged defect centers is found to increase, whereas the open volume defect concentration decreases with Pb content in these glasses.

  4. Investigations on the structure of Pb-Ge-Se glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, G.; Upadhyay, M.; Sharma, Y.; Murugavel, S.; Abhaya, S.; Amarendra, G.

    2016-01-01

    Chalcogenide glasses have attracted much attention because of their potential application in various solid state devices. In the present work, we report here the detailed thermal, structural, microstructural studies on Pb x Ge 42-x Se 58 with (0 ≤ x ≤ 20) glasses. The influence of Pb content on the glass transition temperature, specific heat, and non-reversing enthalpy is observed and discussed qualitatively The Raman spectroscopic studies on the all the glass compositions are carried out and deconvoluted into different structural units. The positron annihilation life-time spectroscopy (PALS) studies helped to understand the nature of defect states present in the glassy system and its variation with Pb content. The concentration of charged defect centers is found to increase, whereas the open volume defect concentration decreases with Pb content in these glasses.

  5. GePb Alloy Growth Using Layer Inversion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Hakimah; Mosleh, Aboozar; Alher, Murtadha; Banihashemian, Seyedeh Fahimeh; Ghetmiri, Seyed Amir; Al-Kabi, Sattar; Du, Wei; Li, Bauhoa; Yu, Shui-Qing; Naseem, Hameed A.

    2018-04-01

    Germanium-lead films have been investigated as a new direct-bandgap group IV alloy. GePb films were deposited on Si via thermal evaporation of Ge and Pb solid sources using the layer inversion metal-induced crystallization method for comparison with the current laser-induced recrystallization method. Material characterization of the films using x-ray diffraction analysis revealed highly oriented crystallinity and Pb incorporation as high as 13.5% before and 5.2% after annealing. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray mapping of the samples revealed uniform incorporation of elements and complete layer inversion. Optical characterization of the GePb films by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence techniques showed that annealing the samples resulted in higher crystalline quality as well as bandgap reduction. The bandgap reduction from 0.67 eV to 0.547 eV observed for the highest-quality material confirms the achievement of a direct-bandgap material.

  6. GePb Alloy Growth Using Layer Inversion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Hakimah; Mosleh, Aboozar; Alher, Murtadha; Banihashemian, Seyedeh Fahimeh; Ghetmiri, Seyed Amir; Al-Kabi, Sattar; Du, Wei; Li, Bauhoa; Yu, Shui-Qing; Naseem, Hameed A.

    2018-07-01

    Germanium-lead films have been investigated as a new direct-bandgap group IV alloy. GePb films were deposited on Si via thermal evaporation of Ge and Pb solid sources using the layer inversion metal-induced crystallization method for comparison with the current laser-induced recrystallization method. Material characterization of the films using x-ray diffraction analysis revealed highly oriented crystallinity and Pb incorporation as high as 13.5% before and 5.2% after annealing. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray mapping of the samples revealed uniform incorporation of elements and complete layer inversion. Optical characterization of the GePb films by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence techniques showed that annealing the samples resulted in higher crystalline quality as well as bandgap reduction. The bandgap reduction from 0.67 eV to 0.547 eV observed for the highest-quality material confirms the achievement of a direct-bandgap material.

  7. $\\Xi$ and $\\overline{\\Xi}$ production in 158 GeV/nucleon Pb + Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshauser, H.; Bailey, S.J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Carr, L.D.; Cebra, D.A.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Cristinziani, M.; Csato, P.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Geist, Walter M.; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Gunther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Hummler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Konashenok, A.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Liu, F.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, John M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puhlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schafer, E.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schonfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Struck, C.; Susa, T.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.Z.; Zybert, R.

    1998-01-01

    We report measurements of Xi and Xi-bar hyperon absolute yields as a function of rapidity in 158 GeV/c Pb+Pb collisions. At midrapidity, dN/dy = 2.29 +/- 0.12 for Xi, and 0.52 +/- 0.05 for Xi-bar, leading to the ratio of Xi-bar/Xi = 0.23 +/- 0.03. Inverse slope parameters fitted to the measured transverse mass spectra are of the order of 300 MeV near mid-rapidity. The estimated total yield of Xi particles in Pb+Pb central interactions amounts to 7.4 +/- 1.0 per collision. Comparison to Xi production in properly scaled p+p reactions at the same energy reveals a dramatic enhancement (about one order of magnitude) of Xi production in Pb+Pb central collisions over elementary hadron interactions.

  8. Photon flow in 158 A GeV Pb+Pb collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, Sergey; Aggarwal, M.M.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefiev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Decowski, M.P.; Delagrange, H.; Donni, P.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Dubey, A.K.; El Chenawi, K.; Enosawa, K.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Glasow, R.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kolb, B.W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kurata, M.; Lebedev, A.; Loehner, H.; Luquin, L.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Manko, V.; Martin, M.; Martinez, G.; Maximov, A.; Miake, Y.; Mishra, G.C.; Mohanty, B.; Mora, M.-J.; Morrison, D.; Mukhanova, T.; Mukhopadhyay, D.S.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nilsson, P.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokonov, P.; Nystrand, J.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Peitzmann, T.; Peressounko, D.; Petracek, V.; Phatak, S.C.; Pinganaud, W.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Roy, C.; Rubio, J.M.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.-R.; Schutz, Y.; Shabratova, G.; Shah, T.H.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soederstroem, K.; Soerensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.; Stefanek, G.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Sumbera, M.; Svensson, T.; Tsvetkov, A.; Tykarski, L.; Pijll, E.C. van der; Eijndhoven, N. van; Nieuwenhuizen, G.J. van; Vinogradov, A.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopianov, A.; Voeroes, S.; Wyslouch, B.; Young, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    Directed and elliptic flow of π 0 - decay photons in 158 A GeV Pb+Pb collisions has been studied near midrapidity in an analysis of data obtained with the photon spectrometer LEDA of the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS. Preliminary results on the rapidity and transverse momentum dependence of the flow have been obtained for various centrality classes for p T > 0.2 GeV/c and 2.3 < y < 2.9. The results are compared with the pion flow

  9. Multifractal moments in heavy ion Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutt, Sunil [Department of Physics, Govt. College for Women GandhiNagar, Jammu - J& K (India)

    2016-05-06

    In present work, we use the method of scaled factorial moments to search for intermittent behavior in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 A GeV. The analysis is done on photon distributions obtained using preshower photon multiplicity detector. Scaled factorial moments are used to study short range fluctuations in pseudorapidity distributions of photons. Scaled factorial moments are calculated using horizontal corrected and vertical analysis. The results are compared with simulation analysis using VENUS event generator.

  10. Directed and Elliptic Flow in 158 GeV/Nucleon Pb + Pb Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshäuser, H; Bailey, S J; Barnby, L S; Bartke, J; Barton, R A; Bialkowska, H; Blyth, C O; Bock, R; Bormann, C; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Buncic, N; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckardt, F; Ferguson, M I; Fischer, H G; Flier, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Freund, P; Friese, V; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Petridis, A; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Rendfort, R; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Semenov, A Yu; Schäfer, E; Scjmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stock, R; Ströbele, H; Szentpétery, I; Sziklay, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalage, S; Ullrich, T; Vassiliou, M; Veztergombi, G; Voloshin, S; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Zimányi, J; Zybert, R

    1998-01-01

    The directed and elliptic flow of protons and charged pions has been observed from the semi-central collisions of a 158 GeV/nucleon Pb beam with a Pb target. The rapidity and transverse momentum dependence of the flow has been measured. The directed flow of the pions is opposite to that of the protons but both exhibit negative flow at low pt. The elliptic flow of both is fairly independent of rapidity but rises with pt.

  11. Densities of Pb-Sn alloys during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Data for the densities and expansion coefficients of solid and liquid alloys of the Pb-Sn system are consolidated in this paper. More importantly, the data are analyzed with the purpose of expressing either the density of the solid or of the liquid as a function of its composition and temperature. In particular, the densities of the solid and of the liquid during dendritic solidification are derived. Finally, the solutal and thermal coefficients of volume expansion for the liquid are given as functions of temperature and composition.

  12. Directional solidification of filamentary shapes of Pb--Cd and Pb--Sn eutectic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhindaw, B.K.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Spencer, C.R.; Gibson, E.D.

    1978-01-01

    Eutectic alloys of Pb--Cd and Pb--Sn were directionally solidified as thin filamentary strips contained in stainless steel and quartz capillaries. As the solidification rate increased the filament width, w, had to be reduced to maintain complete alignment of the lamellae clear across the filament. It was determined that in order to achieve complete alignment the ratio of filament width to lamellar spacing, w/lambda had to be less than about 30. Experiments were carried out at rates of 2-400 μm/s and at temperature gradients of 130 and 320 0 C/cm

  13. Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, B.; Gencarelli, F.; Bender, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we propose an atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition technique to grow metastable GeSn epitaxial layers on Ge. We report the growth of defect free fully strained undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn layers on Ge substrates with Sit contents up to 8%. Those metastable layers stay...

  14. Investigations on the structure of Pb-Ge-Se glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, G.; Upadhyay, M.; Sharma, Y.; Abhaya, S.; Murugavel, S.; Amarendra, G.

    2016-05-01

    Chalcogenide glasses have attracted much attention because of their potential application in various solid state devices. In the present work, we report here the detailed thermal, structural, microstructural studies on PbxGe42-xSe58 with (0 ≤ x ≤ 20) glasses. The influence of Pb content on the glass transition temperature, specific heat, and non-reversing enthalphy is observed and discussed qualitatively The Raman spectroscopic studies on the all the glass compositions are carried out and deconvoluted into different structural units. The positron annihilation life-time spectroscopy (PALS) studies helped to understand the nature of defect states present in the glassy system and its variation with Pb content. The concentration of charged defect centers is found to increase, whereas the open volume defect concentration decreases with Pb content in these glasses.

  15. Temperature varying photoconductivity of GeSn alloys grown by chemical vapor deposition with Sn concentrations from 4% to 11%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Adam, Thomas; Kim, Yihwan; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Reznicek, Alexander; Hazbun, Ramsey; Gupta, Jay; Kolodzey, James

    2016-03-01

    Pseudomorphic GeSn layers with Sn atomic percentages between 4.5% and 11.3% were grown by chemical vapor deposition using digermane and SnCl4 precursors on Ge virtual substrates grown on Si. The layers were characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking curves and reciprocal space maps. Photoconductive devices were fabricated, and the dark current was found to increase with Sn concentration. The responsivity of the photoconductors was measured at a wavelength of 1.55 μm using calibrated laser illumination at room temperature and a maximum value of 2.7 mA/W was measured for a 4.5% Sn device. Moreover, the responsivity for higher Sn concentration was found to increase with decreasing temperature. Spectral photoconductivity was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photoconductive absorption edge continually increased in wavelength with increasing tin percentage, out to approximately 2.4 μm for an 11.3% Sn device. The direct band gap was extracted using Tauc plots and was fit to a bandgap model accounting for layer strain and Sn concentration. This direct bandgap was attributed to absorption from the heavy-hole band to the conduction band. Higher energy absorption was also observed, which was thought to be likely from absorption in the light-hole band. The band gaps for these alloys were plotted as a function of temperature. These experiments show the promise of GeSn alloys for CMOS compatible short wave infrared detectors.

  16. Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn Quantum Cascade Lasers Based on L-Valley Intersubband Transitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soret, R. A; Sun, G; Cheng, H; Menendez, J; Khurgin, J

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a Ge/Ge0.76Si0.19Sn0.05 quantum cascade laser using intersubband transitions at L valleys of the conduction band which has a clean offset of 150 meV situated below other energy valleys Gamma and X...

  17. Synthesis and fundamental properties of stable Ph(3)SnSiH(3) and Ph(3)SnGeH(3) hydrides: model compounds for the design of Si-Ge-Sn photonic alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jesse B; Chizmeshya, Andrew V G; Groy, Thomas L; Kouvetakis, John

    2009-07-06

    The compounds Ph(3)SnSiH(3) and Ph(3)SnGeH(3) (Ph = C(6)H(5)) have been synthesized as colorless solids containing Sn-MH(3) (M = Si, Ge) moieties that are stable in air despite the presence of multiple and highly reactive Si-H and Ge-H bonds. These molecules are of interest since they represent potential model compounds for the design of new classes of IR semiconductors in the Si-Ge-Sn system. Their unexpected stability and high solubility also makes them a safe, convenient, and potentially useful delivery source of -SiH(3) and -GeH(3) ligands in molecular synthesis. The structure and composition of both compounds has been determined by chemical analysis and a range of spectroscopic methods including multinuclear NMR. Single crystal X-ray structures were determined and indicated that both compounds condense in a Z = 2 triclinic (P1) space group with lattice parameters (a = 9.7754(4) A, b = 9.8008(4) A, c = 10.4093(5) A, alpha = 73.35(10)(o), beta = 65.39(10)(o), gamma = 73.18(10)(o)) for Ph(3)SnSiH(3) and (a = 9.7927(2) A, b = 9.8005(2) A, c = 10.4224(2) A, alpha = 74.01(3)(o), beta = 65.48(3)(o), gamma = 73.43(3)(o)) for Ph(3)SnGeH(3). First principles density functional theory simulations are used to corroborate the molecular structures of Ph(3)SnSiH(3) and Ph(3)SnGeH(3), gain valuable insight into the relative stability of the two compounds, and provide correlations between the Si-Sn and Ge-Sn bonds in the molecules and those in tetrahedral Si-Ge-Sn solids.

  18. Microstructural evolution and tensile properties of Sn-Ag-Cu mixed with Sn-Pb solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fengjiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); O' Keefe, Matthew [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States)], E-mail: mjokeefe@mst.edu; Brinkmeyer, Brandon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States)

    2009-05-27

    The effect of incorporating eutectic Sn-Pb solder with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) Pb-free solder on the microstructure and tensile properties of the mixed alloys was investigated. Alloys containing 100, 75, 50, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0 wt% SAC, with the balance being Sn-37Pb eutectic solder alloy, were prepared and characterized. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the microstructures while 'mini-tensile' test specimens were fabricated and tested to determine mechanical properties at the mm length scale, more closely matching that of the solder joints. Microstructural analysis indicated that a Pb-rich phase formed and was uniformly distributed at the boundary between the Sn-rich grains or between the Sn-rich and the intermetallic compounds in the solder. Tensile results showed that mixing of the alloys resulted in an increase in both the yield and the ultimate tensile strength compared to the original solders, with the 50% SAC-50% Sn-Pb mixture having the highest measured strength. Initial investigations indicate the formation and distribution of a Pb-rich phase in the mixed solder alloys as the source of the strengthening mechanism.

  19. Ex situ n+ doping of GeSn alloys via non-equilibrium processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucnal, S.; Berencén, Y.; Wang, M.; Rebohle, L.; Böttger, R.; Fischer, I. A.; Augel, L.; Oehme, M.; Schulze, J.; Voelskow, M.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.; Zhou, S.

    2018-06-01

    Full integration of Ge-based alloys like GeSn with complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology would require the fabrication of p- and n-type doped regions for both planar and tri-dimensional device architectures which is challenging using in situ doping techniques. In this work, we report on the influence of ex situ doping on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GeSn alloys. n-type doping is realized by P implantation into GeSn alloy layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) followed by flash lamp annealing. We show that effective carrier concentration of up to 1 × 1019 cm‑3 can be achieved without affecting the Sn distribution. Sn segregation at the surface accompanied with an Sn diffusion towards the crystalline/amorphous GeSn interface is found at P fluences higher than 3 × 1015 cm‑2 and electron concentration of about 4 × 1019 cm‑3. The optical and structural properties of ion-implanted GeSn layers are comparable with the in situ doped MBE grown layers.

  20. Insulators for Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuo, Y. H.; Sher, A.

    1981-01-01

    Thin films of LaF3 were e-gun and thermally deposited on several substrates. The e-gun deposited films are fluorine deficient, have high ionic conductivities that persist to 77 K, and high effective dielectric constants. The thermally deposited material tends to be closer to stoichiometric, and have higher effective breakdown field strengths. Thermally deposited LaF3 films with resistivities in excess of 10 to the 12th power ohms - cm were deposited on metal coated glass substrates. The LaF3 films were shown to adhere well to PbSnTe, surviving repeated cycles between room temperature and 77 K. The LaF3 films on GaAs were also studied.

  1. Monopole Effect on Isotopes in Sn and Pb Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. KHITER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. When going toward in description of neutron-rich nuclei, the monopole field plays a determining role in the properties of the quasiparticle states and their interactions. Detailed theoretical in shell model calculations of the characteristics of the neutron-rich isotopes in 132Sn and 208Pb regions are performed using the monopole hamiltonien effect. Some modification mentioned in literatures of effectives interactions are introduced for evaluated the effective single-particle energies. Their effect show a successful and consistent description of excitation energies spectra of these nuclei.Keywords:Nuclear Structure, Monopole Hamiltonian, Odd-Odd Nuclei,Three body Effects, Similarity, 21.60.Cs; 27.60. +j; 21.30.Fe

  2. Thermomechanical fatigue of Sn-37 wt.% Pb model solder joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.W.; Plumbridge, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue of Sn-37 wt.% Pb model solder joints has been investigated under thermomechanical and thermal cycling. Based upon an analysis of displacements during thermomechancial cycling, a model solder joint has been designed to simulate actual joints in electronic packages. The strain-stress relationship, characterised by hysteresis loops, was determined during cycling from 30 to 125 deg. C, and the stress-range monitored throughout. The number of cycles to failure, as defined by the fall in stress range, was correlated to strain range and strain energy. The strain hardening exponent, k, varied with the definition of failure and, when a stress-range drop of 50% was used, it was 0.46. Cracks were produced during pure thermal cycling without external strains applied. These arose due to the local strains caused by thermal expansion mismatches between the solder and Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallic layer, between the phases of solder, and due to the anisotropy of the materials. The fatigue life under thermomechanical cycling was significantly inferior to that obtained in isothermal mechanical cycling. A factor contributing to this inferiority is the internal damage produced during temperature cycling

  3. Theoretical calculation of performance enhancement in lattice-matched SiGeSn/GeSn p-channel tunneling field-effect transistor with type-II staggered tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Han, Genquan; Wang, Yibo; Peng, Yue; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hu, Shengdong; Hao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a lattice-matched SiGeSn/GeSn heterostructure p-channel tunneling field-effect transistor (hetero-PTFET) with a type-II staggered tunneling junction (TJ) is investigated theoretically. Lattice matching and type-II band alignment at the Γ-point is obtained at the SiGeSn/GeSn interface by tuning Sn and Si compositions. A steeper subthreshold swing (SS) and a higher on state current (I ON) are demonstrated in SiGeSn/GeSn hetero-PTFET than in GeSn homo-PTFET. Si0.31Ge0.49Sn0.20/Ge0.88Sn0.12 hetero-PTFET achieves a 2.3-fold higher I ON than Ge0.88Sn0.12 homo-PTFET at V DD of 0.3 V. Hetero-PTFET achieves a more abrupt hole profile and a higher carrier density near TJ than the homo-PTFET, which contributes to the significantly enhanced band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) rate and tunneling current in hetero-PTFET.

  4. Deuteron production in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, S V; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Blyth, C O; Boimska, B; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Carr, L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Ferenc, D; Fischer, H G; Fodor, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Hlinka, V; Höhne, C; Igo, G; Ivanov, M; Jacobs, P; Janik, R; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Oldenburg, M; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Poskanzer, A M; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Semenov, A Yu; Schäfer, E; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Snellings, R; Squier, G T A; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Voloshin, S A; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Xu, N; Yates, T A; Yoo, I K; Zimányi, J

    2000-01-01

    Experimental results on deuteron emission from central Pb+Pb collisions (E/sub beam/=158A GeV, fixed target), obtained by NA49 at the CERN SPS accelerator, are presented. The transverse mass m/sub t/ distribution was measured near mid-rapidity (2.0GeV/c/sup 2/ (0

    GeV/c) for the 4% most central collisions. An exponential fit gives an inverse slope T/sub d/=(450+or-30) MeV and a yield dN/sub d//dy=0.34+or-0.03. The coalescence factor B/sub 2/(m/sub t/=m/sub 0/)=(3.5+or-1.0).10 /sup -4/ GeV/sup 2/ and its m/sub t/-dependence are determined and discussed in terms of a model that includes the collective expansion of the source created in a collision. The derived Gaussian size parameter R/sub G/ of the emission volume is consistent with earlier HBT results on the source of pion emission. (28 refs).

  5. Study of GeSn Alloy for Low Cost Monolithic Mid Infrared Quantum Well Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash PAREEK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on theoretical study of Tin incorporated group IV alloys particularly GeSn and design of quantum well sensor for mid infrared sensing applications. Initially, the physics behind the selection of material for midinfrared sensor is explained. The importance of controlling strain in GeSn alloy is also explained. The physical background and motivation for incorporation of Tin(Sn in Germanium is briefly narrated. Eigen energy states for different Sn concentrations are obtained for strain compensated quantum well in G valley conduction band (GCB, heavy hole (HH band and light hole (LH band by solving coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations simultaneously. Sn concentration dependent absorption spectra for HH- GCB transition reveals that significant absorption observed in mid infrared range (3-5 µm. So, Ge1-x Snx quantum well can be used for mid infrared sensing applications.

  6. Effects of Ge- and Sb-doping and annealing on the tunable bandgaps of SnS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsuan-Tai; Chiang, Ming-Hung; Huang, Chen-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Tai, E-mail: wtlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yaw-Shyan [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700, Taiwan (China); Guo, Tzung-Fang [Department of Photonics, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    SnS, Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films with single orthorhombic SnS phase were fabricated via solvothermal routes and subsequent spin-coating, respectively. The substitution solubilities of Ge and Sb in SnS are about 6 and 5 at.%, respectively. The bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films can be tuned in the ranges of 1.25–1.35 and 1.30–1.39 eV, respectively. The possible mechanisms for the tunable bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films are discussed. For the Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films subjected to annealing at 200–350 °C in N{sub 2}, the bandgaps of 200 °C-annealed films remain unchanged, while those of 300 °C- and 350 °C-annealed films decrease with the annealing temperature because of the evaporation of Ge and Sb respectively. - Highlights: • Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films were fabricated via spin-coating. • The solubilities of Ge and Sb in SnS are about 6 and 5 at.%, respectively. • The bandgaps of SnS films can be tuned by Ge and Sb doping respectively. • Annealing above 300 °C reduces the bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films.

  7. Temperature varying photoconductivity of GeSn alloys grown by chemical vapor deposition with Sn concentrations from 4% to 11%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, John; Hazbun, Ramsey; Gupta, Jay; Kolodzey, James [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Delaware, 140 Evans Hall, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Adam, Thomas [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kim, Yihwan; Huang, Yi-Chiau [Applied Materials, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States); Reznicek, Alexander [IBM Research at Albany Nanotech, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Pseudomorphic GeSn layers with Sn atomic percentages between 4.5% and 11.3% were grown by chemical vapor deposition using digermane and SnCl{sub 4} precursors on Ge virtual substrates grown on Si. The layers were characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking curves and reciprocal space maps. Photoconductive devices were fabricated, and the dark current was found to increase with Sn concentration. The responsivity of the photoconductors was measured at a wavelength of 1.55 μm using calibrated laser illumination at room temperature and a maximum value of 2.7 mA/W was measured for a 4.5% Sn device. Moreover, the responsivity for higher Sn concentration was found to increase with decreasing temperature. Spectral photoconductivity was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photoconductive absorption edge continually increased in wavelength with increasing tin percentage, out to approximately 2.4 μm for an 11.3% Sn device. The direct band gap was extracted using Tauc plots and was fit to a bandgap model accounting for layer strain and Sn concentration. This direct bandgap was attributed to absorption from the heavy-hole band to the conduction band. Higher energy absorption was also observed, which was thought to be likely from absorption in the light-hole band. The band gaps for these alloys were plotted as a function of temperature. These experiments show the promise of GeSn alloys for CMOS compatible short wave infrared detectors.

  8. Temperature varying photoconductivity of GeSn alloys grown by chemical vapor deposition with Sn concentrations from 4% to 11%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, John; Hazbun, Ramsey; Gupta, Jay; Kolodzey, James; Adam, Thomas; Kim, Yihwan; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Reznicek, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomorphic GeSn layers with Sn atomic percentages between 4.5% and 11.3% were grown by chemical vapor deposition using digermane and SnCl 4 precursors on Ge virtual substrates grown on Si. The layers were characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking curves and reciprocal space maps. Photoconductive devices were fabricated, and the dark current was found to increase with Sn concentration. The responsivity of the photoconductors was measured at a wavelength of 1.55 μm using calibrated laser illumination at room temperature and a maximum value of 2.7 mA/W was measured for a 4.5% Sn device. Moreover, the responsivity for higher Sn concentration was found to increase with decreasing temperature. Spectral photoconductivity was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photoconductive absorption edge continually increased in wavelength with increasing tin percentage, out to approximately 2.4 μm for an 11.3% Sn device. The direct band gap was extracted using Tauc plots and was fit to a bandgap model accounting for layer strain and Sn concentration. This direct bandgap was attributed to absorption from the heavy-hole band to the conduction band. Higher energy absorption was also observed, which was thought to be likely from absorption in the light-hole band. The band gaps for these alloys were plotted as a function of temperature. These experiments show the promise of GeSn alloys for CMOS compatible short wave infrared detectors.

  9. Enhanced B doping in CVD-grown GeSn:B using B δ-doping layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, David; Vohra, Anurag; Loo, Roger; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Bhargava, Nupur; Margetis, Joe; Tolle, John

    2018-02-01

    Highly doped GeSn material is interesting for both electronic and optical applications. GeSn:B is a candidate for source-drain material in future Ge pMOS device because Sn adds compressive strain with respect to pure Ge, and therefore can boost the Ge channel performances. A high B concentration is required to obtain low contact resistivity between the source-drain material and the metal contact. To achieve high performance, it is therefore highly desirable to maximize both the Sn content and the B concentration. However, it has been shown than CVD-grown GeSn:B shows a trade-off between the Sn incorporation and the B concentration (increasing B doping reduces Sn incorporation). Furthermore, the highest B concentration of CVD-grown GeSn:B process reported in the literature has been limited to below 1 × 1020 cm-3. Here, we demonstrate a CVD process where B δ-doping layers are inserted in the GeSn layer. We studied the influence of the thickness between each δ-doping layers and the δ-doping layers process conditions on the crystalline quality and the doping density of the GeSn:B layers. For the same Sn content, the δ-doping process results in a 4-times higher B doping than the co-flow process. In addition, a B doping concentration of 2 × 1021 cm-3 with an active concentration of 5 × 1020 cm-3 is achieved.

  10. Electrochemical corrosion of Pb-1 wt% Sn and Pb-2.5 wt% Sn alloys for lead-acid battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Wislei R.; Peixoto, Leandro C.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 612, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the electrochemical corrosion behavior of as-cast Pb-1 wt% Sn and Pb-2.5 wt% Sn alloy samples in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. A water-cooled unidirectional solidification system was used to obtain the as-cast samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis were used to evaluate the electrochemical corrosion response. It was found that a coarse cellular array has a better electrochemical corrosion resistance than fine cells. The pre-programming of microstructure cell size of Pb-Sn alloys can be used as an alternative way to produce as-cast components of lead-acid batteries with higher corrosion resistance associated with environmental and economical aspects. (author)

  11. Impact of thickness on the structural properties of high tin content GeSn layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, J.; Hartmann, J. M.; Gassenq, A.; Milord, L.; Pauc, N.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.

    2017-09-01

    We have grown various thicknesses of GeSn layers in a 200 mm industrial Reduced Pressure - Chemical Vapor Deposition cluster tool using digermane (Ge2H6) and tin tetrachloride (SnCl4). The growth pressure (100 Torr) and the F(Ge2H6)/F(SnCl4) mass-flow ratio were kept constant, and incorporation of tin in the range of 10-15% was achieved with a reduction in temperature: 325 °C for 10% to 301 °C for 15% of Sn. The layers were grown on 2.5 μm thick Ge Strain Relaxed Buffers, themselves on Si(0 0 1) substrates. We used X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy to measure the Sn concentration, the strain state, the surface roughness and thickness as a function of growth duration. A dramatic degradation of the film was seen when the Sn concentration and layer thickness were too high resulting in rough/milky surfaces and significant Sn segregation.

  12. Flavor fluctuations in central Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067568; Stock, Reinhard

    1999-01-01

    Das Ziel der Untersuchung von ultra-relativistischen Schwerionenkollisionen ist die Suche nach dem Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), einem Zustand hochdichter stark wechselwirkender Materie in dem der Einschluss von Quarks und Gluonen in Hadronen aufgehoben ist. Die bisher gewonnenen experimentellen Hinweise deuten daraufhin,daß in Schwerionenkollisionen bei den derzeit höchsten zur Verfügung stehenden Energien von 158 GeV/Nukleon in Pb+Pb Reaktionen am CERN-SPS die Rahmenbedingungen für einen Phasenübergang von hadronischer Materie zu einer partonischen Phaseerfüllt sind. Die exakte Phasenstruktur stark wechselwirkender Materie hingegen ist derzeit noch nicht vollständig verstanden. Da inklusive hadronische Observablen und "penetrierende Proben" nicht direkt sensitiv auf die Existenz und Natur des Phasenübergangs sind, wurde die Analyse von Einzelereignis-"event-by-event"-Fluktuationenvorgeschlagen. Das Fluktuationsverhalten von Einzelereignis-Observablen sollte direkt sensitiv auf die Natur des zu beobachte...

  13. Hadronic Expansion Dynamics in Central Pb+Pb Collisions at 158 GeV per Nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshäuser, H; Bailey, S J; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blyth, C O; Bock, R; Bormann, C; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Ferguson, M I; Ferenc, D; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Oldenburg, M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Petridis, A; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Semenov, A Yu; Schäfer, E; Schmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stock, Reinhard; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Vassiliou, Maria; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Xu, N; Zimányi, J; Zhu, X Z; Zybert, R

    1998-01-01

    Two-particle correlation functions of negative hadrons over wide phase space, and transverse mass spectra of negative hadrons and deuterons near mid-rapidity have been measured in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon by the NA49 experiment at the CERN SPS. A novel Coulomb correction procedure for the negative two-particle correlations is employed making use of the measured oppositely charged particle correlation. Within an expanding source scenario these results are used to extract the dynamic characteristics of the hadronic source, resolving the ambiguities between the temperature and transverse expansion velocity of the source, that are unavoidable when single and two particle spectra are analysed separately. The source shape, the total duration of the source expansion, the duration of particle emission, the freeze-out temperature and the longitudinal and transverse expansion velocities are deduced.

  14. Search for strangelets in Pb+Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenescu, R; Baglin, C; Beck, H P; Borer, K; Bussiere, A; Elsener, K; Gorodetzky, Ph; Guillaud, J P; Kabana, S; Klingenberg, R; Lehmann, G; Linden, T; Lohmann, K D; Mommsen, R; Moser, U; Pretzl, K; Schacher, J; Spiwoks, R; Tuominiemi, J; Weber, M

    2002-01-01

    The NA52 experiment at CERN has investigated lead-lead collisions at 158 A GeV/c and searched for long-lived strange quark matter droplets, so-called strangelets, with a unique signature of a high mass-to-charge ratio. This ratio was measured in a focusing spectrometer equipped with a time-of-flight system. A total of 3x10 11 Pb + Pb interactions at positive and 10 13 at negative spectrometer polarities have been recorded. No strangelet has been observed, which sets experimental upper limits (90% CL) for the strangelet production at 3x10 -9 per interaction for positively charged and at 2x10 -10 per interaction for negatively charged strangelets

  15. Comparative thermodynamic analysis of the Pb-Au0.7Sn0.3 section in the Pb-Au-Sn ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumic, B.; Zivkovic, D.; Zivkovic, Z.; Manasijevic, D.

    2005-01-01

    The results of comparative thermodynamic analysis of Pb-Au 0.7 Sn 0.3 section in Pb-Au-Sn system are presented in this paper. Investigation was done comparatively by calorimetric measurements and thermodynamic calculation according to the general solution model. Thermodynamic parameters, such as partial and integral molar quantities, were determined at different temperatures. The comparison between experimental and calculated results showed mutual agreement. Demixing tendency of lead, presented in the positive deviation from ideal behavior, was confirmed through the study of concentration fluctuation in the long-wavelength limit. Also, chosen alloys in the investigated section were characterized using SEM-EDX analysis

  16. Behavior of Sn atoms in GeSn thin films during thermal annealing: Ex-situ and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Ryohei; Ishimaru, Manabu; Uchida, Noriyuki; Maeda, Tatsuro; Sato, Kazuhisa; Lieten, Ruben R.; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Thermally induced crystallization processes for amorphous GeSn thin films with Sn concentrations beyond the solubility limit of the bulk crystal Ge-Sn binary system have been examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. We paid special attention to the behavior of Sn before and after recrystallization. In the as-deposited specimens, Sn atoms were homogeneously distributed in an amorphous matrix. Prior to crystallization, an amorphous-to-amorphous phase transformation associated with the rearrangement of Sn atoms was observed during heat treatment; this transformation is reversible with respect to temperature. Remarkable recrystallization occurred at temperatures above 400 °C, and Sn atoms were ejected from the crystallized GeSn matrix. The segregation of Sn became more pronounced with increasing annealing temperature, and the ejected Sn existed as a liquid phase. It was found that the molten Sn remains as a supercooled liquid below the eutectic temperature of the Ge-Sn binary system during the cooling process, and finally, β-Sn precipitates were formed at ambient temperature.

  17. CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 /GeSe bilayer heterojunction solar cell with high performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guo-Jiao; Wang, Dong-Lin; Ali, Roshan; Zhou, Yu-Rong; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Su, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cells have made significant advances recently. In this paper, we propose a bilayer heterojunction solar cell comprised of a perovskite layer combining with a IV-VI group semiconductor layer, which can give a conversion efficiency even higher than the conventional perovskite solar cell. Such a scheme uses a property that the semiconductor layer with a direct band gap can be better in absorption of long wavelength light and is complementary to the perovskite layer. We studied the semiconducting layers such as GeSe, SnSe, GeS, and SnS, respectively, and found that GeSe is the best, where the optical absorption efficiency in the perovskite/GeSe solar cell is dramatically increased. It turns out that the short circuit current density is enhanced 100% and the power conversion efficiency is promoted 42.7% (to a high value of 23.77%) larger than that in a solar cell with only single perovskite layer. The power conversion efficiency can be further promoted so long as the fill factor and open-circuit voltage are improved. This strategy opens a new way on developing the solar cells with high performance and practical applications.

  18. Determination of a new structure type in the Sc-Fe-Ge-Sn system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brgoch, Jakoah [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ran, Sheng [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Thimmaiah, Srinivasa [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Canfield, Paul C. [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Miller, Gordon J., E-mail: gmiller@iastate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2013-01-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new structure type with the composition Sc{sub 4}Fe{sub 5}Ge{sub 6.10(3)}Sn{sub 1.47(2)}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallizes in the space group Immm (No. 71, oI144). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sample obtained using a reactive Sn flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic structure calculations indicate polar intermetallic bonding network. - Abstract: A new structure type has been discovered in the system Sc-Fe-Ge-Sn by employing Sn as a flux medium. According to single crystal X-ray diffraction, the new structure has a composition of Sc{sub 4}Fe{sub 5}Ge{sub 6.10(3)}Sn{sub 1.47(2)} and crystallizes in the space group Immm (No. 71, oI144) with lattice parameters of a = 5.230(1) A, b = 13.467(3) A, and c = 30.003(6) A. The structure is composed of square anti-prismatic clusters that are condensed into zig-zag chains along the [0 1 0] direction. These chains are further condensed through a split Sn/Ge position, forming a three-dimensional network. Magnetization measurements indicate an antiferromagnetic phase transition near 240 K. Electronic structure calculations identified the most favorable bonding network in this new system. Using crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) curves and their integrated values (ICOHP), a polar intermetallic bonding network involving Sc-Ge as well as Fe-Sn and Fe-Ge contacts can be assigned to this new structure type.

  19. Study of Bi-2212 phase doped Sn(Pb) by means of pat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qingzhu; Huang Xiaoqian; Xiong Xiaotao

    1997-01-01

    Investigation on the effect of Sn/Pb-doped Bi-2212 superconductors has been carried out by the simultaneous measurements of the spectra of positron annihilation lifetime and positron Doppler broadening, together with X-ray diffraction. The results of samples with different doping level show the occupation of Sn atoms on Bi sites. At weak doping level, Sn doping results in a enhancement of cooperation between layers and increment of superconducting transition temperature. At the strong doping level, Sn atoms occupy the sites of Cu-O layers, and at the same time, the other nonsuperconducting phases appear, which results in a decline of the superconducting transition temperature

  20. Thermoelectric prospects of chemically deposited PbSe and SnSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P. K.; Martínez, Ana Karen; Rosa García Angelmo, Ana; Barrios Salgado, Enue; Nair, M. T. S.

    2018-03-01

    Thin films of PbSe of 400-600 nm in thickness, were obtained via chemical deposition from a solution containing lead nitrate, thiourea and selenosufate. SnSe thin films of 90-180 nm in thickness, were also obtained by chemical deposition from a solution containing selenosulfate. Optical and electrical properties of these thin films were significantly altered by heating them in selenium vapor at 300 °C. Thin film PbSe has a bandgap (Eg) of 1.17 eV (direct gap, forbidden transitions), which decreases to 0.77 eV when it has been heated. Its electrical conductivity (σ) is p-type: 0.18 Ω-1 cm-1 (as-prepared), and 6.4 Ω-1 cm-1 when heated. Thin film SnSe is of orthorhombic crystalline structure which remains stable when heated at 300 °C, but its Eg increases from 1.12 eV (indirect) in as-prepared film to 1.5 eV (direct, forbidden transitions) upon heating. Its electrical conductivity is p-type, which increases from 0.3 Ω-1 cm-1 (as-prepared) to 1 Ω-1 cm-1 when heated (without Se-vapor). When SnSe film is heated at 300 °C in the presence of Se-vapor, they transform to SnSe2, with Eg of 1.5 eV (direct, forbidden) with n-type electrical conductivity, 11 Ω-1 cm-1. The Seebeck coefficient for the PbSe films is: +0.55 mV K-1 (as prepared) and +0.275 mV K-1 (heated); for SnSe films it is: +0.3 mV K-1 (as prepared) and +0.20 mV K-1 (heated); and for SnSe2 film, - 0.35 mV K-1. A five-element PbSe-SnSe2-PbSe-SnSe2-PbSe thermoelectric device demonstrated 50 mV for a temperature difference ΔT = 20 °C (2.5 mV K-1). For SnSe-SnSe2-SnSe-SnSe2-SnSe device, the value is 15 mV for ΔT = 20 °C (0.75 mV K-1). Prospect of these thin films in thermoelectric devices of hybrid materials, in which the coatings may be applied on distinct substrate and geometries is attractive.

  1. Oxidation and reduction kinetics of eutectic SnPb, InSn, and AuSn: a knowledge base for fluxless solder bonding applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhmann, Jochen Friedrich; Preuss, A.; Adolphi, B.

    1998-01-01

    : (1) SnPb; (2) InSn; (3) AuSn. The studies of the oxidation kinetics show that the growth of the native oxide, which covers the solder surfaces from the start of all soldering operations is self-limiting. The rate of oxidation on the molten, metallic solder surfaces is significantly reduced...... and reduction kinetics, are applied to flip-chip (FC) bonding experiments in vacuum with and without the injection of H2. Wetting in vacuum is excellent but the self-alignment during flip-chip soldering is restricted. The desired, perfectly self-aligned FC-bonds have been only achieved, using evaporated...

  2. Extreme IR absorption in group IV-SiGeSn core-shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attiaoui, Anis; Wirth, Stephan; Blanchard-Dionne, André-Pierre; Meunier, Michel; Hartmann, J. M.; Buca, Dan; Moutanabbir, Oussama

    2018-06-01

    Sn-containing Si and Ge (Ge1-y-xSixSny) alloys are an emerging family of semiconductors with the potential to impact group IV material-based devices. These semiconductors provide the ability to independently engineer both the lattice parameter and bandgap, which holds the premise to develop enhanced or novel photonic and electronic devices. With this perspective, we present detailed investigations of the influence of Ge1-y-xSixSny layers on the optical properties of Si and Ge based heterostructures and nanowires. We found that by adding a thin Ge1-y-xSixSny capping layer on Si or Ge greatly enhances light absorption especially in the near infrared range, leading to an increase in short-circuit current density. For the Ge1-y-xSixSny structure at thicknesses below 30 nm, a 14-fold increase in the short-circuit current is observed with respect to bare Si. This enhancement decreases by reducing the capping layer thickness. Conversely, decreasing the shell thickness was found to improve the short-circuit current in Si/Ge1-y-xSixSny and Ge/Ge1-y-xSixSny core/shell nanowires. The optical absorption becomes very important by increasing the Sn content. Moreover, by exploiting an optical antenna effect, these nanowires show extreme light absorption, reaching an enhancement factor, with respect to Si or Ge nanowires, on the order of 104 in Si/Ge0.84Si0.04Sn0.12 and 12 in Ge/Ge0.84Si0.04Sn0.12. Furthermore, we analyzed the optical response after the addition of a dielectric layer of Si3N4 to the Si/Ge1-y-xSixSny core-shell nanowire and found approximatively a 50% increase in the short-circuit current density for a dielectric layer of thickness equal to 45 nm and both a core radius and a shell thickness greater than 40 nm. The core-shell optical antenna benefits from a multiplication of enhancements contributed by leaky mode resonances in the semiconductor part and antireflection effects in the dielectric part.

  3. Novel Sn-Based Contact Structure for GeTe Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchi, Hamed; Cooley, Kayla A; Ding, Zelong; Molina, Alex; Mohney, Suzanne E

    2018-05-16

    Germanium telluride (GeTe) is a phase change material (PCM) that has gained recent attention because of its incorporation as an active material for radio frequency (RF) switches, as well as memory and novel optoelectronic devices. Considering PCM-based RF switches, parasitic resistances from Ohmic contacts can be a limiting factor in device performance. Reduction of the contact resistance ( R c ) is therefore critical for reducing the on-state resistance to meet the requirements of high-frequency RF applications. To engineer the Schottky barrier between the metal contact and GeTe, Sn was tested as an interesting candidate to alter the composition of the semiconductor near its surface, potentially forming a narrow band gap (0.2 eV) SnTe or a graded alloy with SnTe in GeTe. For this purpose, a novel contact stack of Sn/Fe/Au was employed and compared to a conventional Ti/Pt/Au stack. Two different premetallization surface treatments of HCl and deionized (DI) H 2 O were employed to make a Te-rich and Ge-rich interface, respectively. Contact resistance values were extracted using the refined transfer length method. The best results were obtained with DI H 2 O for the Sn-based contacts but HCl treatment for the Ti/Pt/Au contacts. The as-deposited contacts had the R c (ρ c ) of 0.006 Ω·mm (8 × 10 -9 Ω·cm 2 ) for Sn/Fe/Au and 0.010 Ω·mm (3 × 10 -8 Ω·cm 2 ) for Ti/Pt/Au. However, the Sn/Fe/Au contacts were thermally stable, and their resistance decreased further to 0.004 Ω·mm (4 × 10 -9 Ω·cm 2 ) after annealing at 200 °C. In contrast, the contact resistance of the Ti/Pt/Au stack increased to 0.012 Ω·mm (4 × 10 -8 Ω·cm 2 ). Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the interfacial reactions between the metals and GeTe. It was found that formation of SnTe at the interface, in addition to Fe diffusion (doping) into GeTe, is likely responsible for the superior performance of Sn/Fe/Au contacts, resulting in one of the lowest reported

  4. THREE-VALENCE-PARTICE NUCLEI IN THE 132Sn and 208 Pb REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchikh, L.; Draoui, B.; Latfaoui, M.; Aissaoui, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Among the nuclei of the nuclear charter, the nuclei around closed shells play a key role in understanding the effective interaction properties between nucleons far from the valley of stability; particulary, the nuclei of a few valence nucleons around doubly magic 208 28Pb126 and 132 50Sn82 nuclei. The interest of both regions 208Pb and 132Sn lies in the fact that there is a great similarity between their nuclear spectroscopic properties. The single energy gaps in both cases are comparable and the orbitals above and below these gaps are similarly ordered. Each single state in the region of 132Sn has its counterpart in that of 208Pb. An interesting predictive consequence, the interactions of the Sn region, difficult region to reach experimentally, can be estimated from their corresponding ones constructed to describe the nuclei of the Pb region. Because of the importance of the similarity existing between the spectroscopy of these two regions, we are interested in nuclei with three valence nucleons in the lead and Tin regions on the basis of experimental data (spin, parity and energy states). In this context, the theoretical study is conducted within the shell model using the MSDI interaction for the energy spectra calculations of the studied nuclei. The calculated results are in good agreement with the available experimental data and show evidence that a close resemblance between the spectroscopy of these two regions persists when moving away from the immediate neighbours of doubly magic 132Sn and 208Pb.

  5. Large linear magnetoresistance in topological crystalline insulator Pb_0_._6Sn_0_._4Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roychowdhury, Subhajit; Ghara, Somnath; Guin, Satya N.; Sundaresan, A.; Biswas, Kanishka

    2016-01-01

    Classical magnetoresistance generally follows the quadratic dependence of the magnetic field at lower field and finally saturates when field is larger. Here, we report the large positive non-saturating linear magnetoresistance in topological crystalline insulator, Pb_0_._6Sn_0_._4Te, at different temperatures between 3 K and 300 K in magnetic field up to 9 T. Magnetoresistance value as high as ∼200% was achieved at 3 K at magnetic field of 9 T. Linear magnetoresistance observed in Pb_0_._6Sn_0_._4Te is mainly governed by the spatial fluctuation carrier mobility due to distortions in the current paths in inhomogeneous conductor. - Graphical abstract: Large non-saturating linear magnetoresistance has been evidenced in topological crystalline insulator, Pb_0_._6Sn_0_._4Te, at different temperatures between 3 K and 300 K in magnetic field up to 9 T. - Highlights: • Large non-saturating linear magnetoresistance was achieved in the topological crystalline insulator, Pb_0_._6Sn_0_._4Te. • Highest magnetoresistance value as high as ~200% was achieved at 3 K at magnetic field of 9 T. • Linear magnetoresistance in Pb_0_._6Sn_0_._4Te is mainly governed by the spatial fluctuation of the carrier mobility.

  6. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  7. Production of $\\phi$ -mesons in p+p, p+Pb and central Pb+Pb collisions at $E_{beam}$=158 A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, S V; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Blyth, C O; Boimska, B; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Carr, L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Ferenc, D; Fischer, H G; Fodor, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Hlinka, V; Höhne, C; Igo, G; Ivanov, M; Jacobs, P; Janik, R; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Oldenburg, M; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Poskanzer, A M; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Semenov, A Yu; Schäfer, E; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Snellings, R; Squier, G T A; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Voloshin, S A; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Xu, N; Yates, T A; Yoo, I K; Zimányi, J

    2000-01-01

    Yields and phase space distributions of phi -mesons emitted from p+p (minimum bias trigger), p+Pb (at various centralities) and central Pb +Pb collisions are reported (E/sub beam/=158 A GeV). The decay phi to K/sup +/K/sup -/ was used for identification. The phi / pi ratio is found to increase by a factor of 3.0+or-0.7 from inelastic p+p to central Pb+Pb. Significant enhancement in this ratio is also observed in subclasses of p+p events (characterized by high charged-particle multiplicity) as well as in the forward hemisphere of central p+Pb collisions. In Pb+Pb no shift or significant broadening of the phi - peak is seen. (28 refs).

  8. Thick-film processing of Pb5Ge3O11-based ferroelectric glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, I.A.; Haun, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Processing techniques were investigated to produce c-axis orientation, or texture, of ferroelectric Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 -based glass-ceramic compositions during crystallization of amorphous thick-film printed samples from the Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 -PbTiO 3 (PG-PT) and Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 -Pb(Zr 1/2 Ti 1/2 )O 3 (PG-PZT) systems. In these systems the PG crystallized into a ferroelectric phase, producing a multiple ferroelectric phase composite at low temperatures, PG-PT or PG-PZT. In this way the non-ferroelectric component of traditional ferroelectric glass-ceramics was eliminated

  9. A new measurement of $J/\\psi$ suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074992; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; MacCormick, M; Macciotta, P; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu, T

    2005-01-01

    We present a new measurement of J/psi production in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon, from the data sample collected in year 2000 by the NA50 Collaboration, under improved experimental conditions with respect to previous years. With the target system placed in vacuum, the setup was better adapted to study, in particular, the most peripheral nuclear collisions with unprecedented accuracy. The analysis of this data sample shows that the (J/psi)/Drell-Yan cross-sections ratio measured in the most peripheral Pb-Pb interactions is in good agreement with the nuclear absorption pattern extrapolated from the studies of proton-nucleus collisions. Furthermore, this new measurement confirms our previous observations that the (J/psi)/Drell-Yan cross-sections ratio departs from the normal nuclear absorption pattern for semi-central Pb-Pb collisions and that this ratio persistently decreases up to the most central collisions.

  10. Defect properties of Sn- and Ge-doped ZnTe: suitability for intermediate-band solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mauricio A.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and defect properties of Sn- and Ge- doped ZnTe by first-principles calculations within the DFT+GW formalism. We find that ({{{Sn}}}{{Zn}}) and ({{{Ge}}}{{Zn}}) introduce isolated energy levels deep in the band gap of ZnTe, derived from Sn-5s and Ge-4s states, respectively. Moreover, the incorporation of Sn and Ge on the Zn site is favored in p-type ZnTe, in both Zn-rich and Te-rich environments. The optical absorption spectra obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation reveals that sub-bandgap absorptance is greatly enhanced due to the formation of the intermediate band. Our results suggest that Sn- and Ge-doped ZnTe would be a suitable material for the development of intermediate-band solar cells, which have the potential to achieve efficiencies beyond the single-junction limit.

  11. Phase transitions in two dimensions: The case of Sn adsorbed on Ge (111) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, O.; Zeysing, J.H.; Falkenberg, G.

    1999-01-01

    . In the low-temperature phase one of the three Sn atoms per ( 3×3) unit cell is displaced outwards by 0.26±0.04Å relative to the other two. This displacement is accompanied by an increase in the first to second double-layer spacing in the Ge substrate. © 1999 The American Physical Society...

  12. Continuous, flexible, and high-strength superconducting Nb3Ge and Nb3Sn filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Heffernan, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Fabrication of continuous, flexible, and high-strength (1600 MN/m 2 ) composite filaments of Nb 3 Ge (T/subc/ 18 0 K) and Nb 3 Sn is reported, involving chemical vapor deposition of these compounds on Nb-coated high-strength W--1% ThO 2 filaments

  13. Syntheses, structural variants and characterization of AInM′S4 (A=alkali metals, Tl; M′ = Ge, Sn) compounds; facile ion-exchange reactions of layered NaInSnS4 and KInSnS4 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2016-01-01

    Ten AInM′S 4 (A=alkali metals, Tl; M′= Ge, Sn) compounds with diverse structure types have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and a variety of spectroscopic methods. They are wide band gap semiconductors. KInGeS 4 (1-β), RbInGeS 4 (2), CsInGeS 4 (3-β), TlInGeS 4 (4-β), RbInSnS 4 (8-β) and CsInSnS 4 (9) compounds with three-dimensional BaGa 2 S 4 structure and CsInGeS 4 (3-α) and TlInGeS 4 (4-α) compounds with a layered TlInSiS 4 structure have tetrahedral [InM′S 4 ] − frameworks. On the other hand, LiInSnS 4 (5) with spinel structure and NaInSnS 4 (6), KInSnS 4 (7), RbInSnS 4 (8-α) and TlInSnS 4 (10) compounds with layered structure have octahedral [InM′S 4 ] − frameworks. NaInSnS 4 (6) and KInSnS 4 (7) compounds undergo facile topotactic ion-exchange, at room temperature, with various mono-, di- and tri-valent cations in aqueous medium to give rise to metastable layered phases. - Graphical abstract: NaInSnS 4 and KInSnS 4 compounds undergo, in aqueous medium at room temperature, facile topotactic ion-exchange with mono, di and trivalent cations. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Ten AInM′S 4 compounds with diverse structure types were synthesized. • They are wide band gap semiconductors. • NaInSnS 4 and KInSnS 4 compounds undergo facile topotactic ion-exchange at room temperature.

  14. Synthesis of bulk nanocrystalline Pb-Sn-Te alloy under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, P W; Chen, L X; Jia, X; Ma, H A; Ren, G Z; Guo, W L; Liu, H J; Zou, G T

    2002-01-01

    Pb-Sn-Te bulk nanocrystalline (NC) materials are prepared successfully by quenching melts under high pressure. The mean particle size is about 100 nm and the crystal structure is NaCl type. The mechanism of formation of the bulk NC alloy is explained: there is an increasing of the nucleation rate and a decrease in the growth rate of nuclei with increase of pressure during the solidification processes. The thermoelectric properties of Pb-Sn-Te bulk NC alloy are enhanced. This method is promising for producing thermoelectric materials with improved high-energy conversion efficiency

  15. Oxidation and Reduction of Liquid SnPb (60/40) under Ambient and Vacuum Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhmann, Jochen Friedrich; Maly, K.; Preuss, A.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most straightforward approaches to fluxless solder bonding is using vacuum conditions to prevent further oxidation and, where needed, to reduce solder oxides by the use of molecular hydrogen (H-2).(1-3) This study On oxidation and reduction of solder oxides on SnPb (60/40) is aimed...... to provide a better understanding for fluxless solder bonding applications under controlled atmospheric conditions; By means of scanning Auger spectroscopy it is shown, that growth of oxide films on metallic SnPb above the eutectic temperature can be significantly reduced by decreasing the O-2 partial...

  16. Sensitivity of PbSnTe:In films to the radiation of free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, A. N.; Epov, V. S.; Klimov, A. E.; Kubarev, V. V.; Paschin, N. S.

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of experimental data on the observation of photoresponse in narrow gap semiconductor Pb1-x Sn x Te:In films grown by the method of molecular beam epitaxy, exposing samples to the powerful radiation of the Novosibirsk free electron laser (wavelength range of about 70-240 μm) under different measurement conditions, is presented in the paper. Both the positive and negative photoconductivities were detected. In a magnetic field, the resonance-type photoconductivity was observed. The results are discussed within the framework of the model taking into account the existence of different capture levels in PbSnTe.

  17. Magnetic and transport behaviour in Pr3X(X=In,Sn,Ga,Ge,Ni,Co,Ru,Ir) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, C.S.; Ray, J.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic and transport studies on Pr 3 X (X=In, Sn, Ga, Ge, Ni, Co, Ru, Ir) systems gave evidence for complex magnetic behaviour. All the systems, except X=Sn, exhibit ferromagnetic ordering. The X=Sn system exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering. For X=Ga and Sn, metamagnetic behaviour has been observed. Crystal field effects are found to play an important role in influencing magnetic behaviour. The strength of the crystal field term has also been estimated. (orig.)

  18. GeSn Based Near and Mid Infrared Heterostructure Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-07

    prestigious journals. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS Plasmonic Enhancement, Metal Nanostructures, CMOS, Photodetectors, Germanium-Tin Diode, IR Focal Plane Array...following features: (1) ease of manufacture in a foundry via a simple epitaxial structure, (2) end- fire coupling into on-chip transparent Ge or Si

  19. Magnetic anisotropy in Pb_{1-x-y}Sn_{y}Mn_{x}Te studied by ferromagnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenkamp, P.J.T.; Story, T.; Swüste, C.H.W.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Jonge, de W.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the XXII International School of Semiconducting Compounds, Jaszowiec 1993 We will report on the anisotropy in (Pb)SnMnTe, studied by ferromagnetic resonance. We have found a cubic anisotropy with a = 73 × 10-4 cm-1 for Sn1-xMnxTe and a = 200 × 10-4 cm-1 for Pb0.28-xSn0.72MnxTe. We

  20. The effects of Sn addition on properties and structure in Ge-Se chalcogenide glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayek, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    Far infrared transmission spectra of homogeneous compositions in the glassy alloy system Ge 1- xSn xSe 2.5 0⩽ x⩽0.6 have been observed in the spectral range 200-500 cm -1 at room temperature. The infrared absorption spectra show strong bands around 231, 284 and 311 cm -1 which were assigned to GeSe, SeSn, Se-Se. Tin atoms appear to substitute for the germanium atoms in the outrigger sites of Ge(Se 1/2) 4 tetrahedra up to 0.4. For x>0.5, the glasses show a new vibrational band of an isolated F 2 mode of the Ge-centered tetrahedra outside the clusters. A pronounced peculiarity (maximum or minimum) appeared at around the same value of the average coordination number at Z=2.65 for all composition dependence topological phase transition from two-dimensional (2D) layer type to three- dimensional (3D) cross-linked network structures in the glass. It is clear that the theoretical ν-values for Se-Se bond is less than the experimental one and that for Se-Ge is greater than the experimental one. This difference may be due to the existence of more close lying modes which tends to broaden the absorption bands. Quantitative justification of the absorption bands shows that theoretical wave numbers agree with its experimental values for Ge-Se stretching vibration bond.

  1. Exploring As-Cast PbCaSn-Mg Anodes for Improved Performance in Copper Electrowinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Jodie A.; Clancy, Marie; Chen, Xiaobo; Birbilis, Nick

    2018-06-01

    Lead calcium tin (PbCaSn) alloys are the common anodes used in copper electrowinning (Cu EW). Given a large amount of energy consumed in Cu EW process, anodes with controlled oxygen evolution reaction (OER) kinetics and a lower OER overpotential are advantageous for reducing the energy consumption. To date, magnesium (Mg) has never been studied as an alloying element for EW anodes. As-cast PbCaSn anodes with the addition of Mg were examined herein, revealing an improved performance compared to that of the industrial standard PbCaSn anode. The alloy performances in the early stages of anode life and passivation were established from electrochemical studies which were designed to simulate industrial Cu EW process. The 24-hour polarization testing revealed that the Mg alloying depolarizes the anode potential up to 80 mV; thus, resulting in a higher Cu EW efficiency. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the alteration of the alloy microstructure and the corresponding interfacial reactions contribute to the changes of the anode electrochemical performances. The present study reveals for the first time the potency of Mg alloying in reducing the overpotential of PbCaSn anode.

  2. The ‘sub’ metallide oxide hydrides Sr{sub 21}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}H{sub 12+x} and Ba{sub 21}M{sub 2}O{sub 5}H{sub 12+x} (M = Zn, Cd, Hg, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehle, Michael; Hoffmann, Anke [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Albertstr. 21, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kohlmann, Holger [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Leipzig, Johannisallee 29, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Scherer, Harald [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Albertstr. 21, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Röhr, Caroline, E-mail: caroline@ruby.chemie.uni-freiburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Albertstr. 21, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-02-25

    Highlights: • The sub metallide oxide hydrides (Sr/Ba){sub 21}M{sub 2}O{sub 5}H{sub 12+x} were prepared for 14 M elements. • M covers a wide range of elements, from the Zn group to the pentels. • The ionic partial structure contains isolated M anions and suboxide clusters [O{sub 5}A{sub 18}]. • The H-content was determined by neutron diffraction and {sup 1}H/{sup 2}D MAS-NMR spectroscopy. • Band structure calculations support the H/D content and distribution. - Abstract: The title compounds sporting a great variety of anions M of different formal charges have been synthesized from melts of the composition A:M:O:H/D = 21:2:5:24, using BaH{sub 2}/SrH{sub 2} as hydrogen sources. All phases were characterized by means of single crystal X-ray data [cubic, space group Fd3{sup ¯}m; Sr{sub 21}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}H{sub 12+x}: a = 1911.90(1) pm, R1 = 0.0201; for the barium phases with Zn (a = 2041.7(3) pm, R1 = 0.077), Cd (a = 2063.3(1) pm, R1 = 0.051), Hg (a = 2050.7(1) pm, R1 = 0.059), In (a = 2060.7(1) pm, R1 = 0.101), Tl (a = 2068.1(10) pm, R1 = 0.0485), Si (a = 2033.6(1) pm, R1 = 0.045), Ge (a = 2035.6(1) pm, R1 = 0.037), Sn (a = 2053.2(2) pm, R1 = 0.054), Pb (a = 2059.7(1) pm, R1 = 0.056), As (a = 2023.0(3) pm, R1 = 0.087), Sb (a = 2041.9(1) pm, R1 = 0.067) and Bi (a = 2045.9(1) pm, R1 = 0.075)]. Neutron powder diffraction data collected for the Ba silicide (both H and D compound) were refined by the Rietveld method (a = 2037.0(1), R{sub p} = 0.0173; wR{sub p} = 0.0304, R(F{sup 2}) = 0.086). The statistically occupied (H/D)(1) site 96g, which corresponds to the carbon position inSr{sub 21}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}C{sub 6}, together with two further sparsely occupied sites (H/D)(2,3), yields the overall composition Ba{sub 21}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}D{sub 14}. The hydrogen content, its chemical character and the distribution among the three H/D positions was evaluated by {sup 1}H/{sup 2}H MAS NMR spectroscopy for the Si, Ge and Sb compound. The crystal structure exhibits two

  3. Multistrange Hyperon Production in Pb+Pb collisions at 30, 40, 80 and 158 A$\\cdot$GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrovski, Michael; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, Jerzy; Behler, M; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, A; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Filip, P; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Markert, C; Mateev, M; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Meurer, C; Mischke, A; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Perl, K; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Pühlhofer, F; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Richard, A; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Trainor, T A; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wenig, S; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, I K; Zaranek, J; Zimányi, J; Mitrovski, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A non-monotonic energy dependence of the $K^{+} / \\pi^{+}$ ratio with a sharp maximum close to 30 A$\\cdot$GeV is observed in central Pb+Pb collisions. Within a statistical model of the early stage, this is interpreted as a sign of the phase transition to a QGP, which causes a sharp change in the energy dependence of the strangeness to entropy ratio. This observation naturally motivates us to study the production of multistrange hyperons ($\\Xi$, $\\Omega$) as a function of the beam energy. Furthermore it was suggested that the kinematic freeze-out of $\\Omega$ takes place directly at QGP hadronization. If this is indeed the case, the transverse momentum spectra of the $\\Omega$ directly reflect the transverse expansion velocity of a hadronizing QGP. In this report we show preliminary NA49 results on $\\Omega^{-}$ and $\\bar{\\Omega}^{+}$ production in central Pb+Pb collisions at 40 and 158 A$\\cdot$GeV and compare them to measurements of $\\Xi^{-}$ and $\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$ production in central Pb+Pb collisions at 30, 40, ...

  4. Alleviation of Fermi level pinning at metal/n-Ge interface with lattice-matched Si x Ge1‑ x ‑ y Sn y ternary alloy interlayer on Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2018-06-01

    The impact of a silicon germanium tin (Si x Ge1‑ x ‑ y Sn y ) ternary alloy interlayer on the Schottky barrier height (SBH) of metal/Ge contacts with various metal work functions has been investigated. Lattice matching at the Si x Ge1‑ x ‑ y Sn y /Ge heterointerface is a key factor for controlling Fermi level pinning (FLP) at the metal/Ge interface. The Si x Ge1‑ x ‑ y Sn y ternary alloy interlayer having a small lattice mismatch with the Ge substrate can alleviate FLP at the metal/Ge interface significantly. A Si0.11Ge0.86Sn0.03 interlayer increases the slope parameter for the work function dependence of the SBH to 0.4. An ohmic behavior with an SBH below 0.15 eV can be obtained with Zr and Al/Si0.11Ge0.86Sn0.03/n-Ge contacts at room temperature.

  5. The phases of Pb/Ge(111): A surface X-ray diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, F.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the results of several surface X-ray diffraction measurements of a chemisorbed overlayer of Pb on the Ge(111) surface. Three phases of Pb/Ge(111) exist in the monolayer regime: the α- and β-phases with a √3x√3R30 0 unit cell, and a high-temperature 1x1 phase. In the 1x1 phase of Pb/Ge(111), isotropic X-ray scattering is observed consistent with a two-dimensional liquid phase. Measurements of the integer-order Bragg reflections through the √3x√3R30 0 →1x1 transition confirm the liquid-like nature of the 1x1 phase, and show that the liquid layer is modulated by the periodic potential of the substrate. By measuring variations of the (2/3,2/3) surface Bragg reflection from the √3x√3R30 0 phase as a function of temperature and coverage, a simple phase diagram for Pb/Ge(111) is deduced. Below 1/3ML (where 1 ML is one Pb atom per Ge surface atom) the α-phase coexists with the 1x1 phase. Between 1/3ML and 4/3ML, α- and β-phases form a two-phase system displaying phase separation. Analogies with simple theoretical phase diagrams are emphasized. (orig.) With 11 tabs., 40 figs., 67 refs

  6. GeSn/Si Avalanche Photodetectors on Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    National Academy Member Shui-Qing Yu 0.00 Hameed Naseem 0.00 0.00 2 PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: Sub Contractors (DD882) Names of...second step is a high temperature ( HT ) growth above 500-650 °C. The two-step (LT:HT) growth method adopted for the growth of Ge and the role of pressure...a) (b) Fig. 16. (a) Raman spectroscopy measurements of the two-step (LT:HT) at 400:600 °C and the single-step ( HT ) at 600 °C growth shows

  7. Superconducting properties, chemical compositions, and lattice parameters of Pb-, Sn- and (Pb1-xSnx)Mo6S8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadakata, N.; Corderman, R.; Asano, T.; Cox, D.; Suenaga, M.; Foner, S.; McNiff, E.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The values of critical temperatures for alloys of Pb- and SnMo 6 S 8 were shown to be lower than those of the respective pure Chevrel phases. Chemical compositional analysis of the compounds revealed that the decreased T c in the alloys are due to the off-stoichiometric compositions in the alloys. Although alloying slightly increased the values of the upper critical field H c2 over that for PbMo 6 S 8 , the H c2 values for these specimens were substantially lower than those which have been reported for PbMo 6 S 8 . Possible causes for these depressed values of H c2 are discussed

  8. Molecular beam deposition of Al2O3 on p-Ge(001)/Ge0.95Sn0.05 heterostructure and impact of a Ge-cap interfacial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merckling, C.; Franquet, A.; Vincent, B.; Vandervorst, W.; Loo, R.; Caymax, M.; Sun, X.; Shimura, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Nakatsuka, O.; Zaima, S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the molecular beam deposition of Al 2 O 3 on Ge 0.95 Sn 0.05 surface with and without an ultra thin Ge cap layer in between. We first studied the atomic configuration of both Ge 1-x Sn x and Ge/Ge 1-x Sn x surfaces after deoxidation by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and resulted, respectively, in a c(4x2) and (2x1) surface reconstructions. After in situ deposition of an Al 2 O 3 high-κ gate dielectric we evidenced using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analyses that Sn diffusion was at the origin of high leakage current densities in the Ge 1-x Sn x /Al 2 O 3 gate stack. This damage could be avoided by inserting a thin 5-nm-thick Ge cap between the oxide and the Ge 1-x Sn x layer. Finally, metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors on the Ge capped sample showed well-behaved capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics with interface trap density (D it ) in the range of 10 12 eV -1 cm -2 in mid gap and higher close to the valence band edge.

  9. Near-bandgap optical properties of pseudomorphic GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Costa, Vijay Richard, E-mail: vdcosta@asu.edu; Wang, Wei; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: eleyeoyc@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-08-14

    We investigated the compositional dependence of the near-bandgap dielectric function and the E{sub 0} critical point in pseudomorphic Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} alloys grown on Ge (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The complex dielectric functions were obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 0.5 to 4.5 eV at room temperature. Analogous to the E{sub 1} and E{sub 1}+Δ{sub 1} transitions, a model consisting of the compositional dependence of relaxed alloys along with the strain contribution predicted by the deformation potential theory fully accounts for the observed compositional dependence in pseudomorphic alloys.

  10. Comparison of electrochemical performance of as-cast Pb-1 wt.% Sn and Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloys for lead-acid battery components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Wislei R.; Peixoto, Leandro C.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 612, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    A comparative experimental study of the electrochemical features of as-cast Pb-1 wt.% Sn and Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloys is carried out with a view to applications in the manufacture of lead-acid battery components. The as-cast samples are obtained using a water-cooled unidirectional solidification system. Pb-Sn and Pb-Sb alloy samples having similar coarse cell arrays are subjected to corrosion tests in order to assess the effect of Sn or Sb segregation in the cell boundary on the electrochemical performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis are used to evaluate the electrochemical parameters in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. Both the experimental and simulated EIS parameters evidence different kinetics of corrosion. The Pb-1 wt.% Sn alloy is found to have a current density which is of about three times lower than that of the Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloy which indicates that dilute Pb-Sn alloys have higher potential for application as positive grid material in maintenance-free Pb-acid batteries. (author)

  11. Characterization of crystallinity of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layers grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inuzuka, Yuki [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ike, Shinichi; Asano, Takanori [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Takeuchi, Wakana [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Nakatsuka, Osamu, E-mail: nakatuka@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Zaima, Shigeaki [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-03-01

    The epitaxial growth of a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer was examined using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with two types of Ge precursors; tetra-ethyl-germane (TEGe) and tertiary-butyl-germane (TBGe); and the Sn precursor tri-butyl-vinyl-tin (TBVSn). Though the growth of a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer on a Ge(001) substrate by MOCVD has been reported, a high-Sn-content Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer and the exploration of MO material combinations for Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} growth have not been reported. Therefore, the epitaxial growth of a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer on Ge(001) and Si(001) substrates was examined using these precursors. The Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers were pseudomorphically grown on a Ge(001) substrate, while the Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer with a high degree of strain relaxation was obtained on a Si(001) substrate. Additionally, it was found that the two Ge precursors have different growth temperature ranges, where the TBGe could realize a higher growth rate at a lower growth temperature than the TEGe. The Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers grown using a combination of TBGe and TBVSn exhibited a higher crystalline quality and a smoother surface compared with the Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer prepared by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. In this study, a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layer with a Sn content as high as 5.1% on a Ge(001) substrate was achieved by MOCVD at 300 °C. - Highlights: • Tertiary-butyl-germane and tri-butyl-vinyl-tin are suitable for Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} MOCVD growth. • We achieved a Sn content of 5.1% in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layer on Ge(001). • The Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers grown on Ge and Si by MOCVD have high crystalline quality.

  12. Tuning direct bandgap GeSn/Ge quantum dots' interband and intraband useful emission wavelength: Towards CMOS compatible infrared optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baira, Mourad; Salem, Bassem; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Ilahi, Bouraoui

    2018-05-01

    In this work, interband and intraband optical transitions from direct bandgap strained GeSn/Ge quantum dots are numerically tuned by evaluating the confined energies for heavy holes and electrons in D- and L-valley. The practically exploitable emission wavelength ranges for efficient use in light emission and sensing should fulfill specific criteria imposing the electrons confined states in D-valley to be sufficiently below those in L-valley. This study shows that GeSn quantum dots offer promising opportunity towards high efficient group IV based infrared optical devices operating in the mid-IR and far-IR wavelength regions.

  13. One-, two- and three-particle distributions from central Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Rosselet, L; Agnihotri, A; Ahammed, Z; Angelis, Aris L S; Antonenko, V G; Arefev, V; Astakhov, V A; Avdeichikov, V; Awes, T C; Baba, P V K S; Badyal, S K; Barlag, C; Bathe, S; Batyunya, B; Bernier, T; Bhalla, K B; Bhatia, V S; Blume, C; Bock, R; Bohne, E M; Böröcz, Z K; Bucher, D; Buijs, A; Büsching, H; Carlén, L; Chalyshev, V; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherbachev, R; Chujo, T; Claussen, A; Das, A C; Decowski, M P; Delagrange, H; Dzhordzhadze, V; Dönni, P; Dubovik, I; Dutt, S; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; El-Chenawi, K F; Eliseev, S; Enosawa, K; Foka, P Y; Fokin, S L; Ganti, M S; Garpman, S; Gavrishchuk, O P; Geurts, F J M; Ghosh, T K; Glasow, R; Gupta, S K; Guskov, B; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Gutbrod, H H; Higuchi, R; Hrivnacova, I; Ippolitov, M S; Kalechofsky, H; Kamermans, R; Kampert, K H; Karadzhev, K; Karpio, K; Kato, S; Kees, S; Klein-Bösing, C; Knoche, S; Kolb, B W; Kosarev, I G; Kucheryaev, I; Krümpel, T; Kugler, A; Kulinich, P A; Kurata, M; Kurita, K; Kuzmin, N A; Langbein, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, Y Y; Löhner, H; Luquin, Lionel; Mahapatra, D P; Man'ko, V I; Martin, M; Martínez, G; Maksimov, A; Mgebrishvili, G; Miake, Y; Mir, M F; Mishra, G C; Miyamoto, Y; Mohanty, B; Mora, M J; Morrison, D; Mukhopadhyay, D S; Naef, H; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Neumaier, S; Nyanin, A; Nikitin, V A; Nikolaev, S; Nilsson, P O; Nishimura, S; Nomokonov, V P; Nystrand, J; Obenshain, F E; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Pachr, M; Pavlyuk, S; Peitzmann, Thomas; Petracek, V; Pinganaud, W; Plasil, F; Von Poblotzki, U; Purschke, M L; Rak, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ramamurthy, V S; Rao, N K; Retière, F; Reygers, K; Roland, G; Rufanov, I A; Roy, C; Rubio, J M; Sako, H; Sambyal, S S; Santo, R; Sato, S; Schlagheck, H; Schmidt, H R; Schutz, Y; Shabratova, G; Shah, T H; Sibiryak, Yu; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Sinha, B C; Slavin, N V; Söderström, K; Solomey, Nickolas; Sørensen, S P; Stankus, P; Stefanek, G; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stüken, D; Sumbera, M; Svensson, T; Trivedi, M D; Tsvetkov, A A; Tykarski, L; Urbahn, J; Van den Pijll, E C; van Eijndhoven, N; van Nieuwenhuizen, G J; Vinogradov, A; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A S; Vörös, S; Wyslouch, B; Yagi, K; Yokota, Y; Young, G R

    2002-01-01

    The WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS combines large acceptance photon detectors with a two-arm charged particle tracking spectrometer to study 158A GeV Pb+Pb collisions.We present results from one-, two- and three-particle analyses for charged particles identified with a time of flight system. The rapidity acceptance for pions in the first (second) arm ranged from y=2.1 (2.6) to 3.1 (3.8) with an average at 2.7 (3.2), close to mid-rapidity which was 2.9. (11 refs).

  14. Low-temperature thermoelectric properties of Pb doped Cu2SnSe3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad K, Shyam; Rao, Ashok; Gahtori, Bhasker; Bathula, Sivaiah; Dhar, Ajay; Chang, Chia-Chi; Kuo, Yung-Kang

    2017-09-01

    A series of Cu2Sn1-xPbxSe3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) compounds was prepared by solid state synthesis technique. The electrical resistivity (ρ) decreased with increase in Pb content up to x = 0.01, thereafter it increased with further increase in x (till x = 0.03). However, the lowest value of electrical resistivity is observed for Cu2Sn0.96Pb0.04Se3. Analysis of electrical resistivity of all the samples suggests that small poloron hoping model is operative in the high temperature regime while variable range hopping is effective in the low temperature regime. The positive Seebeck coefficient (S) for pristine and doped samples in the entire temperature range indicates that the majority charge carriers are holes. The electronic thermal conductivity (κe) of the Cu2Sn1-xPbxSe3 compounds was estimated by the Wiedemann-Franz law and found that the contribution from κe is less than 1% of the total thermal conductivity (κ). The highest ZT 0.013 was achieved at 400 K for the sample Cu2Sn0.98Pb0.02Se3, about 30% enhancement as compared to the pristine sample.

  15. Energy band alignment of antiferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Sn,Ti)O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Andreas, E-mail: aklein@surface.tu-darmstadt.de [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institute of Materials Science, Surface Science Division, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Lohaus, Christian [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institute of Materials Science, Surface Science Division, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Reiser, Patrick [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institute of Materials Science, Surface Science Division, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); InnovationLab GmbH, Speyerer Straße 4, 69115 Heidelberg (Germany); Dimesso, Lucangelo [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institute of Materials Science, Surface Science Division, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Wang, Xiucai; Yang, Tongqing [Tongji University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials (Ministry of Education), Functional Materials Research Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Cao’an Road 4800, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Energy band alignment of antiferroelectric PLZST studied by XPS. • A deconvolution procedure is applied to study band alignment of insulating materials. • Contribution of Pb 6s orbitals leads to higher valence band maximum. • Ferroelectric polarization does not contribute to valence band maximum energy. • The variation of Schottky barrier heights indicates no Fermi level pinning in PLZST. - Abstract: The energy band alignment of antiferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Sn,Ti)O{sub 3} is studied with photoelectron spectroscopy using interfaces with high work function RuO{sub 2} and low work function Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO). It is demonstrated how spectral deconvolution can be used to determine absolute Schottky barrier heights for insulating materials with a high accuracy. Using this approach it is found that the valence band maximum energy of (Pb,La)(Zr,Sn,Ti)O{sub 3} is found to be comparable to that of Pb- and Bi-containing ferroelectric materials, which is ∼1 eV higher than that of BaTiO{sub 3}. The results provide additional evidence for the occupation of the 6s orbitals as origin of the higher valence band maximum, which is directly related to the electrical properties of such compounds. The results also verify that the energy band alignment determined by photoelectron spectroscopy of as-deposited electrodes is not influenced by polarisation. The electronic structure of (Pb,La)(Zr,Sn,Ti)O{sub 3} should enable doping of the material without strongly modifying its insulating properties, which is crucial for high energy density capacitors. Moreover, the position of the energy bands should result in a great freedom of selecting electrode materials in terms of avoiding charge injection.

  16. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of (Pb, Sn)Te Thermoelectric Modules with Cu Electrodes Using a Thin-Film Sn Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. H.; Lin, H. J.; Chuang, C. H.; Yeh, W. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    A (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element plated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer has been joined with a Cu electrode coated with Ag and Sn thin films using a solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding method. This method allows the interfacial reaction between Ag and Sn such that Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds form at low temperature and are stable at high temperature. In this study, the bonding strength was about 6.6 MPa, and the specimens fractured along the interface between the (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element and the Ni barrier layer. Pre-electroplating a film of Sn with a thickness of about 1 μm on the thermoelectric element and pre-heating at 250°C for 3 min ensures the adhesion between the thermoelectric material and the Ni barrier layer. The bonding strength is thus increased to a maximal value of 12.2 MPa, and most of the fractures occur inside the thermoelectric material. During the bonding process, not only the Ag3Sn intermetallics but also Cu6Sn5 forms at the Ag3Sn/Cu interface, which transforms into Cu3Sn with increases in the bonding temperature or bonding time.

  17. Core-level photoelectron study of Si(1 1 1) sq root 7x sq root 3-(Pb, Sn) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Soda, K; Takada, T; Yoshimoto, O; Kato, M; Yagi, S; Morita, K; Kamada, M

    2003-01-01

    The Sn 4d and Pb 5d core-level photoelectron spectra have been studied in order to clarify their bonding properties and atomic arrangement on a Si(1 1 1) sq root 7x sq root 3-(Pb, Sn) surface, which is formed by the coadsorption of 0.4 ML Pb and 0.4 ML Sn and shows two kinds of bright spots in the scanning tunneling microscopic (STM) images: (A) those aligned zigzag on the T sub 1 site and (B) those on the T sub 1 and H sub 3 sites along the [1 1 -2] direction. The Pb 5d spectrum shows a single spin-orbit-split feature with weak tailing towards the high binding energy side, while the Sn 4d spectrum exhibits shoulder structures at the high binding energy side of the main peaks. This definitely indicates at least two different Sn-Si bonds or inequivalent Sn adsorbing sites and single bond or site for Pb. Thus the spots A at the T sub 1 site and those B at the T sub 1 and H sub 3 sites in the STM images are ascribed to Pb and Sn adatoms, respectively. The formation process of this surface will be also discussed ...

  18. Raman scattering from Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} (x ≤ 0.14) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro C, H.; Rodriguez, A. G.; Vidal, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion para la Innovacion y la Aplicacion de la Ciencia y la Tecnologia, Alvaro Obregon No. 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S. L. P. (Mexico); Perez Ladron de G, H. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Av. Enrique Diaz de Leon No. 1144, Col. Paseos de la Montana, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} alloys with x concentration up to 0.14 were grown on Ge(001) and GaAs(001) substrates in a conventional R. F. Magnetron Sputtering system at low substrate temperatures. The structural characteristics of these alloys were studied for different Sn concentrations between 1 to 14% by high resolution X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Contrasting characteristics of the grown layers are observed if the Sn concentration is larger or smaller than 6% as revealed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. (Author)

  19. Precise measurement of the densities of liquid Bi, Sn, Pb and Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lianwen; Wang Qiang; Xian Aiping; Lu Kunquan

    2003-01-01

    The densities of liquid Bi, Sn, Pb and Sb have been precisely measured from the melting point up to about 1100 K using an improved Archimedean method. The densities at the melting point for liquid Bi, Sn, Pb and Sb are 10.042 x 10 3 , 6.983 x 10 3 , 10.635 x 10 3 and 6.454 x 10 3 kg m -3 , respectively. Comparisons between our data and those from the literature have been made and they show the present results to be more reliable. Rather than a linear fit for the temperature dependence of the density, a slight deviation from linearity in the temperature dependence of the densities has been observed

  20. Calorimetric investigation on the Pb-Sm and Sn-Sm alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrada, A.-E.-A.; Claire, Y.; Chafik el Idrissi, M.; Castanet, R.

    1997-01-01

    The integral enthalpy of formation of the Sm-Pb and Sm-Sn melts at 1203 K, h f , was determined by direct reaction calorimetry (drop method) in the Pb and Sn rich sides with the help of a high-temperature Tian-Calvet calorimeter. The results can be fitted respectively with reference to the mole fraction of samarium, x, as follows: f /kJmol -1 =x(1-x)(-109.8 -372.0.7x) with 0 Sm f /kJmol -1 =x(1- x)(-277.0+105.4x) with 0 Sm -1 respectively. Such negative values suggest the existence of a strong short-range order in the liquid state. The stoichiometry and the thermal stability of these associations needs additional thermodynamic determinations concerning mainly the free enthalpy of formation. It will be determined by Knudsen-effusion combined with mass spetrometry in a further work. (orig.)

  1. Migration of Sn and Pb from Solder Ribbon onto Ag Fingers in Field-Aged Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonwook Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the migration of Sn and Pb onto the Ag fingers of crystalline Si solar cells in photovoltaic modules aged in field for 6 years. Layers of Sn and Pb were found on the Ag fingers down to the edge of the solar cells. This phenomenon is not observed in a standard acceleration test condition for PV modules. In contrast to the acceleration test conditions, field aging subjects the PV modules to solar irradiation and moisture condensation at the interface between the solar cells and the encapsulant. The solder ribbon releases Sn and Pb via repeated galvanic corrosion and the Sn and Pb precipitate on Ag fingers due to the light-induced plating under solar irradiation.

  2. Target fragmentation in 1 A GeV Au + Pb reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Grabez, B

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the production of target fragments in interaction of 1 A GeV Au projectile with Pb. The behaviour of the atomic numbers of fragments and of the relative velocities has been examined in dependence of the centrality of collision. The results have been compared with the data of other authors obtained for projectile fragmentation.

  3. The influence of high gravity in PbSn eutectic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, F.E.; Toledo, R.C.; Poli, A.K.S.; An, C.Y.; Bandeira, I.N., E-mail: filipe.estevao@gmail.com, E-mail: chen@las.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The study of materials processed in centrifuges improves the understanding of the acceleration influence in the convection behavior in materials processing. This work aims to study the influence of high gravity in PbSn eutectic alloy solidification using a small centrifuge designed and built in the Associate Laboratory of Sensors and Materials of the Brazilian Space Research Institute (LAS/INPE). The samples were analyzed by densitometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (author)

  4. Determination of Cr, Cd, Sn, and Pb in Selected Herbal Products Available in Philippine Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan S. De Vera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of herbal products in the Philippines makes it imperative to monitor and ensure safety of consumers from metal contaminants. In this study, trace concentrations of Cr, Cd, Sn, and Pb in herbal products were simultaneously measured using a microwaveassisted digestion as sample pre-treatment and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS for elemental detection. Using the optimized method, recoveries of ERM CD281, the primary cer t i f ied reference material (CRM used, were found to be between 80-89%, and the method detection limits (MDL for Cr, Cd, Sn, and Pb were 0.15, 0.07, 0.3, and 0.14 μg/L, respectively. The linear ranges for Cr and other elements (Cd, Sn, and Pb were 0.01-500 and 0.01-50 μg/L, respectively. All correlation coeff icients were 0.9999 or better. Most of the products tested had measurable trace metal concentrations, which were below the suggested maximum limits in herbal products. However, one product derived from mangosteen exceeded the limit for Cd (0.42 mg/kg. Subsequent analysis of metal content in tea infusions showed that only a small fraction of metals may leach out, suggesting that consumption of tea infusions pose lesser risks. The order of abundance of metals found in herbal products was Cr>Pb>Cd>Sn. The variability of metal concentrations in herbal products underlines the fact that many plant ingredients are susceptible to contamination, and quality control during processing must be improved to minimize the possibility of contamination. The results of this study suggest that vigilant monitoring of herbal products is imperative to avoid exposure to trace metal contamination.

  5. Nuclear structure from N ≅ Z to N > Z - 100Sn, 78Ni, 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, H.; Gorska, M.; Rejmund, M.; Pfuetzner, M.; Brown, B.A.; Maier, K.H.

    1998-07-01

    The single particle (hole) energies in 100 Sn, as extrapolated by a shell model analysis of the neighbouring nuclei, show a remarkable similarity to those in 56 Ni, one major shell lower. This is borne out in nearly identical I π =2 + excitation energies, implying E(2 + )≅3 MeV in 100 Sn, and a large neutron effective E2 charge e≥1.6e. In contrast a small proton polarisation charge δe≤0.3e is found, pointing to a large isovector charge. In 104 Sn for the first time in this region strong E3 transitions with B(E3)≥17 Wu were identified, indicating E(3 - )≅3 MeV in 100 Sn. Isomer spectroscopy beyond 68 Ni following fragmentation of a 60.3 A MeV 86 Kr beam has provided first evidence on the neutron polarisation charge and the occupation of the νg 9/2 orbital beyond N=40, which is at variance with shell model calculations using realistic interactions. The N=40 subshell effect seen in E(2 + ) is not borne out in 2n separation energies. On the other hand the νg 9/2 -f 5/2 splitting of single quasiparticle energies in Ni, Fe and Cr isotopes, as deduced from M2 isomers, give no hint for deformation at Z 208 Pb a number of new isomers were observed in the fragmentation of a 1000 A MeV 238 U beam, while 3 - excitations on high spin configurations in and adjacent to 208 Pb were identified in inelastic collisions of 208 Pb+ 208 Pb. E2 and E3 strengths from stretched configurations are compared to model expectations. (orig.)

  6. Systematic study of GeSn heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes towards mid-infrared applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yiyin; Dou, Wei; Pham, Thach; Ghetmiri, Seyed Amir; Mosleh, Aboozar; Alher, Murtadha; Naseem, Hameed; Yu, Shui-Qing [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Du, Wei, E-mail: weidu@uark.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, Arkansas 71601 (United States); Al-Kabi, Sattar [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Department of Physics, Wasit University, Kut 52001 (Iraq); Margetis, Joe; Tolle, John [ASM, 3440 East University Drive, Phoenix, Arizona 85034 (United States); Sun, Greg; Soref, Richard [Department of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (United States); Li, Baohua [Arktonics, LLC, 1339 South Pinnacle Drive, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Mortazavi, Mansour [Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, Arkansas 71601 (United States)

    2016-07-14

    Temperature-dependent characteristics of GeSn light-emitting diodes with Sn composition up to 9.2% have been systematically studied. Such diodes were based on Ge/GeSn/Ge double heterostructures (DHS) that were grown directly on a Si substrate via a chemical vapor deposition system. Both photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra have been characterized at temperatures from 300 to 77 K. Based on our theoretical calculation, all GeSn alloys in this study are indirect bandgap materials. However, due to the small energy separation between direct and indirect bandgap, and the fact that radiative recombination rate greater than non-radiative, the emissions are mainly from the direct Γ-valley to valence band transitions. The electroluminescence emissions under current injection levels from 102 to 357 A/cm{sup 2} were investigated at 300 K. The monotonic increase of the integrated electroluminescence intensity was observed for each sample. Moreover, the electronic band structures of the DHS were discussed. Despite the indirect GeSn bandgap owing to the compressive strain, type-I band alignment was achieved with the barrier heights ranging from 11 to 47 meV.

  7. Study of projectile fragmentation in the reaction (158 A GeV) Pb + Pb using CR-39

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, I E; Javed, M T; Manzoor, S; Sher, G; Aleem, F; Khan, H A

    2005-01-01

    The fragmentation of Pb ions at 158 A GeV energy produced in the interaction with Pb target has been studied using a CR-39 track detector. A stack comprising of 64 detectors was prepared such that a target of 1 cm thickness was sandwiched between the sheets of CR-39. The purpose of this exposure geometry was to calibrate CR-39 with respect to relativistic heavy ions as well as to study the fragmentation of Pb ions at 158 A GeV energy. The exposure was carried out at the SPS beam facility of CERN at normal incidence with a fluence of . Two detectors from the exposed stack have been selected for this study: one before and the other after the target material. After etching, the detectors were scanned using an optical microscope and the etched track lengths and the diameters of the track openings were measured manually. Considering that the lengths of tracks provide the best charge resolution for Z>65, we have measured track lengths for a sufficiently large number of fragments to identify individual charge states...

  8. Phonon dynamics of the Sn/Ge(111)-(3 x 3) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, D.; Kaminski, W.; Lobo, J.; Ortega, J.; Hulpke, E.; Perez, R.; Flores, F.; Michel, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study on the phonon dynamics of the low-temperature Sn/Ge(111)-(3 x 3) structure. High-resolution helium atom scattering (HAS) data show that, besides the Rayleigh wave, there are three surface phonon branches with low dispersion related to the (3 x 3) surface phase. Their energies are approximately 6.5, 4, and 3meV at the Γ-bar point. In addition, we detect phonon peaks in the Q range 0.4-0.5A -1 at ∼2meV, which correspond to (3 x 3) folding of the Rayleigh wave. Ab initio DFT-GGA total energy calculations have been performed to determine the frequencies associated with the vertical displacements of the three Sn atoms in the unit cell. The values obtained are in good agreement with the experiment

  9. Selective growth of Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on patterned SiO2/Si substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Wakana; Washizu, Tomoya; Ike, Shinichi; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the selective growth of a Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on a line/space-patterned SiO2/Si substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. We examined the behavior of a Sn precursor of tributyl(vinyl)tin (TBVSn) during the growth on Si and SiO2 substrates and investigated the effect of the Sn precursor on the selective growth. The selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer was performed under various total pressures and growth temperatures of 300 and 350 °C. The selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on the patterned Si region is achieved at a low total pressure without Ge1- x Sn x growth on the SiO2 region. In addition, we found that the Sn content in the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer increases with width of the SiO2 region for a fixed Si width even with low total pressure. To control the Sn content in the selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer, it is important to suppress the decomposition and migration of Sn and Ge precursors.

  10. Single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) zinc nitrides as promising photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yujie; Luo, Gaixia; Meng, Lijuan; Zhang, Qinfang; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Haiyang; Wu, Xiuqiang; Kong, Fanjie; Wang, Baolin

    2018-05-30

    Searching for two-dimensional semiconductor materials that are suitable for visible-light photocatalytic water splitting provides a sustainable solution to deal with the future energy crisis and environmental problems. Herein, based on first-principles calculations, single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) zinc nitrides are proposed as efficient photocatalysts for water splitting. Stability analyses show that the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides exhibit energetic and dynamical stability. The electronic properties reveal that all of the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides are semiconductors. Interestingly, single-layer ZnSnN2 is a direct band gap semiconductor with a desirable band gap (1.74 eV), and the optical adsorption spectrum confirms its optical absorption in the visible light region. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) calculations show that the catalytic activity for single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Ge, Sn) is better than that of single-layer ZnSiN2. Furthermore, the band gaps and band edge positions for the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides can be effectively tuned by biaxial strain. Especially, single-layer ZnGeN2 can be effectively tuned to match better with the redox potentials of water and enhance the light absorption in the visible light region at a tensile strain of 5%, which is confirmed by the corresponding optical absorption spectrum. Our results provide guidance for experimental synthesis efforts and future searches for single-layer materials suitable for photocatalytic water splitting.

  11. Study of Sn and Mg doping effects on TiO2/Ge stack structure by combinatorial synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ogura, Atsushi; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2018-04-01

    The effects of Sn and Mg doping of a TiO2 film on a Ge substrate were investigated to improve leakage current properties and Ge diffusion into the TiO2 film. For systematic analysis, dopant-composition-spread TiO2 samples with dopant concentrations of up to 20.0 at. % were fabricated by RF sputtering and a combinatorial method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the instability of Mg doping of TiO2 at dopant concentrations above 10.5 at. %. Both Sn and Mg dopants reduced Ge diffusion into TiO2. Sn doping enhanced the crystallization of the rutile phase, which is a high-dielectric-constant phase, although the Mg-doped TiO2 film indicated an amorphous structure. Sn-doping indicated systematic leakage current reduction with increasing dopant concentration. Doping at Sn concentrations higher than 16.8 at. % improved the leakage properties (˜10-7 A/cm2 at -3.0 V) and capacitance-voltage properties of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) operation. The Sn doping of TiO2 may be useful for interface control and as a dielectric material for Ge-based MIS capacitors.

  12. Energies, wavelengths, and transition probabilities for Ge-like Kr, Mo, Sn, and Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, O.; El Sayed, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths have been calculated for Ge-like Kr, Mo, Sn, and Xe ions among the fine-structure levels of terms belonging to the ([Ar] 3d 10 )4s 2 4p 2 , ([Ar] 3d 10 )4s 4p 3 , ([Ar] 3d 10 )4s 2 4p 4d, and ([Ar] 3d 10 )4p 4 configurations. The fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock method, taking both correlations within the n=4 complex and the quantum electrodynamic effects into account, have been used in the calculations. The results are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical results.

  13. Above-bandgap optical properties of biaxially strained GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D’Costa, Vijay, E-mail: elevrd@nus.edu.sg; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Qian; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: eleyeoyc@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Soon Tok, Eng [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2014-01-13

    The complex dielectric function of biaxially strained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.17) alloys grown on Ge (100) has been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry from 1.2 to 4.7 eV. The effect of substitutional Sn incorporation and the epitaxial strain on the energy transitions E{sub 1}, E{sub 1} + Δ{sub 1}, E{sub 0}′, and E{sub 2} of GeSn alloys is investigated. Our results indicate that the strained GeSn alloys show Ge-like electronic bandstructure with all the transitions shifted downward due to the alloying of Sn. The strain dependence of E{sub 1} and E{sub 1} + Δ{sub 1} transitions is explained using the deformation potential theory, and values of −5.4 ± 0.4 eV and 3.8 ± 0.5 eV are obtained for the hydrostatic and shear deformation potentials, respectively.

  14. The Effect of Wetting Gravity Regime on Shear Strength of SAC and Sn-Pb Solder Lap Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sona, Mrunali; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2017-09-01

    The failure of solder joints due to imposed stresses in an electronic assembly is governed by shear bond strength. In the present study, the effect of wetting gravity regime on single-lap shear strength of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu solder alloys reflowed between bare copper substrates as well as Ni-coated Cu substrates was investigated. Samples were reflowed for 10 s, T gz (time corresponding to the end of gravity regime) and 100 s individually and tested for single-lap shear strength. The single-lap shear test was also carried out on eutectic Sn-Pb/Cu- and Sn-Pb/Ni-coated Cu specimens to compare the shear strength values obtained with those of lead-free alloys. The eutectic Sn-Pb showed significantly higher ultimate shear strength on bare Cu substrates when compared to Sn-Ag-Cu alloys. However, SAC alloys reflowed on nickel-coated copper substrate exhibited higher shear strength when compared to eutectic Sn-Pb/Ni-coated Cu specimens. All the substrate/solder/substrate lap joint specimens that were reflowed for the time corresponding to the end of gravity regime exhibited maximum ultimate shear strength.

  15. Tin surface segregation, desorption, and island formation during post-growth annealing of strained epitaxial Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer on Ge(0 0 1) substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzi; Zhou, Qian [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Pan, Jisheng; Zhang, Zheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Ge{sub 0.915}Sn{sub 0.085} was grown on Ge (0 0 1) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). • The impact of annealing on surface morphology and Sn composition was studied. • Sn is found to preferentially segregate towards the surface at 200 °C. • A Sn-rich layer would form on the Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} surface after annealing at 300 °C. • Sn desorption and formation of Sn-rich islands were found when T > 300 °C. - Abstract: Annealing of strained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layers grown on Ge(0 0 1) substrate results in two distinctive regimes marked by changes in composition and morphology. Annealing at low temperatures (200–300 °C or Regime-I) leads to surface enrichment of Sn due to Sn segregation, as indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, while the bulk Sn composition (from X-ray diffraction (XRD)) and the surface morphology (from atomic force microscopy (AFM)) do not show discernible changes as compared to the as-grown sample. Annealing at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 500 °C (Regime-II) leads to a decrease in the surface Sn composition. While the Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer remains fully strained, a reduction in the bulk Sn composition is observed when the annealing temperature reaches 500 °C. At this stage, surface roughening also occurs with formation of 3D islands. The island size increases as the annealing temperature is raised to 600 °C. The decrease in the Sn composition at the surface and in the bulk in Regime-II is attributed to additional thermally activated kinetic processes associated with Sn desorption and formation of Sn-rich 3D islands on the surface.

  16. Two-proton correlations from 158 A GeV Pb + Pb central collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshauser, H.; Bailey, S.J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Boimska, B.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Carr, L.D.; Cebra, D.A.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Cristinziani, M.; Csato, P.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Geist, Walter M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Gunther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Hummler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Lednicky, R.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, John M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puhlhofer, F.; Susa, T.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schafer, E.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schonfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Struck, Chr.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wood, L.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.Z.; Zybert, R.

    1999-01-01

    The two-proton correlation function at midrapidity from Pb+Pb central collisions at 158 AGeV has been measured by the NA49 experiment. The results are compared to model predictions from static thermal Gaussian proton source distributions and transport models RQMD and VENUS. An effective proton source size is determined by minimizing CHI-square/ndf between the correlation functions of the data and those calculated for the Gaussian sources, yielding 3.85 +- 0.15 (stat.) +- 0.15 (syst.) fm. The RQMD model overpredicts the effective source size, while the VENUS model underpredicts the effective source size.

  17. N-MOSFETs Formed on Solid Phase Epitaxially Grown GeSn Film with Passivation by Oxygen Plasma Featuring High Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yung-Chin; Chen, Kuen-Yi; Hsieh, Ching-Heng; Su, Chang-Chia; Wu, Yung-Hsien

    2015-12-09

    Solid phase epitaxially grown GeSn was employed as the platform to assess the eligibility of direct O2 plasma treatment on GeSn surface for passivation of GeSn N-MOSFETs. It has been confirmed that O2 plasma treatment forms a GeSnO(x) film on the surface and the GeSnO(x) topped by in situ Al2O3 constitutes the gate stack of GeSn MOS devices. The capability of the surface passivation was evidenced by the low interface trap density (D(it)) of 1.62 × 10(11) cm(-2) eV(-1), which is primarily due to the formation of Ge-O and Sn-O bonds at the surface by high density/reactivity oxygen radicals that effectively suppress dangling bonds and decrease gap states. The good D(it) not only makes tiny frequency dispersion in the characterization of GeSn MOS capacitors, but results in GeSn N-MOSFETs with outstanding peak electron mobility as high as 518 cm(2)/(V s) which outperforms other devices reported in the literature due to reduced undesirable carrier scattering. In addition, the GeSn N-MOSFETs also exhibit promising characteristics in terms of acceptable subthreshold swing of 156 mV/dec and relatively large I(ON)/I(OFF) ratio more than 4 orders. Moreover, the robust reliability in terms small V(t) variation against high field stress attests the feasibility of using the O2 plasma-treated passivation to advanced GeSn technology.

  18. Whisker-Like Formations in Sn-3.0Ag-Pb Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koncz-Horváth D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, different types of whisker-like formations of Sn-3.0Ag based alloy were presented. In the experimental process the amount of Pb element was changed between 1000 and 2000 ppm, and the furnace atmosphere and cooling rate were also modified. The novelty of this work was that whisker-like formations in macro scale size were experienced after an exothermic reaction. The whiskers of larger sizes than general provided opportunities to investigate the microstructure and the concentration nearby the whiskers. In addition, the whisker-like formations from Sn-Ag based bulk material did not only consist of pure tin but tin and silver phases. The whisker-like growth appeared in several forms including hillock, spire and nodule shaped formations in accordance with parameters. It was observed that the compound phases were clustered in many cases mainly at hillocks.

  19. Strangeness production in p+Pb reactions at 200 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.E.; Andersen, E.; Blaes, R.; Cherney, M.; Cruz, B. de la; Fernandez, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garzon, J.A.; Geist, W.M.; Gruhn, C.R.; Hafidouni, M.; Hrubec, J.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kuipers, J.P.M.; Ladrem, M.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Loevhoeiden, G.; MacNaughton, J.; Mosquera, J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nelson, J.M.; Neuhofer, G.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Plo, M.; Porth, P.; Powell, B.; Ramil, A.; Rohringer, H.; Sakrejda, I.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.; Traxler, J.; Voltolini, C.; Wozniak, K.; Yanez, A.; Zybert, R.

    1994-01-01

    The production of the strange particles Λ, anti Λ and K S 0 in p+Pb collisions at 200 GeV/c has been measured using the NA36 TPC. Rapidity distributions and multiplicity dependences are presented and compared to model calculations. Reinteractions in the target are important to describe the observed spectra. Inverse slopes T∼200 MeV are extracted from the transverse mass distributions. (orig.)

  20. Diffusion barrier characteristics and shear fracture behaviors of eutectic PbSn solder/electroless Co(W,P) samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Hung-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Diffusion barrier features, activation energies of IMC growth and mechanical behaviors of electroless Co(W,P)/PbSn joints. ► Amorphous Co(W,P) is a sacrificial- plus stuffed-type barrier while polycrystalline Co(W,P) is a sacrificial-type barrier. ► Ductile mode dominates the failure of Co(W,P)/PbSn joints. ► Phosphorus content of Co(W,P) is crucial to the barrier capability and microstructure evolution at Co(W,P)/PbSn interface. ► Diffusion barrier capability is governed by the nature of chemical bonds, rather than the crystallinity of materials. - Abstract: Diffusion barrier characteristics, activation energy (E a ) of IMC growth and bonding properties of amorphous and polycrystalline electroless Co(W,P) (termed as α-Co(W,P) and poly-Co(W,P)) to eutectic PbSn solder are presented. Intermetallic compound (IMC) spallation and an nano-crystalline P-rich layer were observed in PbSn/α-Co(W,P) samples subjected to liquid-state aging at 250 °C. In contrast, IMCs resided on the P-rich layer in PbSn/α-Co(W,P) samples subjected to solid-state aging at 150 °C. Thick IMCs neighboring to an amorphous W-rich layer was seen in PbSn/poly-Co(W,P) samples regardless of the aging type. α-Co(W,P) was found to be a sacrificial- plus stuffed-type barrier while poly-Co(W,P) is mainly a sacrificial-type barrier. The values of E a 's for PbSn/α-Co(W,P) and PbSn/poly-Co(W,P) systems were 338.6 and 167.5 kJ/mol, respectively. Shear test revealed the ductile mode dominates the failure in both α- and poly-Co(W,P) samples. Analytical results indicated the high P content in electroless layer might enhance the barrier capability but degrade the bonding strength.

  1. Hyperon production in Pb + Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andersen, E.; Andrighetto, A.; Antinori, F.; Böhm, Jan; Píška, Karel; Staroba, Pavel; Šťastný, Jan; Vaníčková, Marcela; Závada, Petr

    1996-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (1996), s. 97-103 ISSN 1219-7580. [Workshop on strangeness in Hadronic Matter ( Strangeness 96). Budapest, 15.05.1996-17.05.1996] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/95/0217 Keywords : heavy ion collision * lead-lead * hyperon * antihyperon production * yield * (Omega- Xi- Lambda) * enhancement * (Omega- Xi-) * mass spectrum * magnetic spectrometer * OMEGA * CERN SPS * 158 GeV/c/nucleon Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  2. Thermodynamics of superconducting Nb3Al, Nb3Ge, Nb3Sn, and V3Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrovic, B.; Schachinger, E.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    We have calculated the superconducting thermodynamic properties for several high-transition-temperature A15 compounds: Nb-Al, Nb-Ge, Nb-Sn, and V-Ga. In our calculations we have used the tunneling electron-phonon--coupling spectra α 2 F for all four systems considered, and in the case of Nb-Al and Nb-Ge we have also used α 2 F = CG, where G is the measured generalized phonon density of states and C is a constant. We find that all Nb-based A15 compounds display similar thermodynamic properties, which do not depend explicitly on the band density of states: 2Δ 0 /k/sub B/T/sub c/approx. =4.6, ΔC/γT/sub c/approx. =2.5--2.6, -T/sub c/[dH/sub c/(T)/dT]c/ H/sub c/(0)approx. =2.1, γ[T/sub c//H/sub c/(0)] 2 approx. =0.134, and positive D(t)'s with the maximum value around 0.02. For Nb 3 Sn we find good agreement between the calculated properties and the old specific-heat experimental results (γapprox. =52 mJ/mol K 2 ). The same applies to V 3 Ga, where the theoretical results have been compared with the experiments of Junod et al. However, we do not find good agreement between calculated ΔC/γT/sub c/, -T/sub c/[dH/sub c/(T)/dT]c/H/sub c/(0), γ[T/sub c//H/sub c/(0)] 2 , and experimental values for Nb 3 Al and Nb 3 Ge, presumably due to broadened transitions. It is argued that the tunneling experiments underestimate the value of the gap which should be associated with the inverted α 2 F

  3. Thermodynamics of superconducting Nb3Al, Nb3Ge, Nb3Sn, and V3Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, B.; Schachinger, E.; Carbotte, J. P.

    1984-06-01

    We have calculated the superconducting thermodynamic properties for several high-transition-temperature A15 compounds: Nb-Al, Nb-Ge, Nb-Sn, and V-Ga. In our calculations we have used the tunneling electron-phonon-coupling spectra α2F for all four systems considered, and in the case of Nb-Al and Nb-Ge we have also used α2F=CG, where G is the measured generalized phonon density of states and C is a constant. We find that all Nb-based A15 compounds display similar thermodynamic properties, which do not depend explicitly on the band density of states: 2Δ0κBTc≅4.6, ΔCγTc≅2.5-2.6,-Tc[dHc(T)dT]TcHc(0)≅2.1, γ[TcHc(0)]2≅0.134, and positive D(t)'s with the maximum value around 0.02. For Nb3Sn we find good agreement between the calculated properties and the old specific-heat experimental results (γ≅52 mJ/mol K2). The same applies to V3Ga, where the theoretical results have been compared with the experiments of Junod et al. However, we do not find good agreement between calculated ΔCγTc, - Tc[dHc(T)dT]TcHc(0), γ[TcHc(0)]2, and experimental values for Nb3Al and Nb3Ge, presumably due to broadened transitions. It is argued that the tunneling experiments underestimate the value of the gap which should be associated with the inverted α2F.

  4. Study of Various Processes with 160 A GeV Pb Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % WA101 \\\\ \\\\ Ten modules of BP-1 glass detectors interleaved with various targets ranging from C to Pb were exposed to the 160~A~GeV~Pb beam in the November-December run of 1994 at CERN SPS. The experiment was carried out at normal incidence at a beam density of $\\sim$~600~cm$ ^- ^{2} $. The dimension of each plate of BP-1 glass was 50~mm~x~50~mm~x~1~mm. We etched the glass in 70\\% CH$ _{3} $SO$ _{3} $H at 50 $^{0}$C or in 48\\%~HF at room temperature. The charge threshold is found to be Z$ _{t} _{h} $ $\\sim$ 68 and 70 respectively. Using the automated scanning and measurement system developed at Berkeley, we have demonstrated that the charge resolution for Pb ions is $\\sigma _{Z} $~=~0.14 charge unit from a single measurement within a distance of 30~$\\mu$m. This excellent charge resolution allows us to make the proposed measurements of cross-sections for various processes. \\\\ \\\\We use this detector system to measure cross-sections for various processes in heavy ion collisions of 160~A~GeV~Pb with different t...

  5. Study of the thermoelectric properties of Pb{sub (1-x)} Sn{sub x} Te; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes thermoelectriques de solutions Pb{sub (1-x)}Sn{sub x} Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-15

    The present work concerns the study of the electrical properties (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient) of PbTe and SnTe crystals and of solid polycrystalline solutions of Pb{sub 1-x} Sn{sub x} Te (0.1 < x < 0.6) between 80 and 800 deg. K. From the temperature dependence of these properties and the effect of the addition, it has been possible to characterize the semiconductor nature of these solutions, and to approach their band structure; in particular the forbidden gap behaviour in these solutions has been analyzed and evidence for the existence of a double valence band has been obtained. (author) [French] Le present travail est relatif a l'etude des proprietes electriques, en particulier du pouvoir thermoelectrique de la resistivite electrique et du coefficient de Hall, de cristaux PbTe et SnTe, et de solutions solides polycristallines Pb{sub 1-x} Sn{sub x} Te (0,1 {<=} x {<=} 0,6) entre 80 et 800 deg. K. La variation de ces proprietes avec la temperature, ainsi que l'effet de l'addition de Sn sur celles-ci, ont permis de preciser le caractere semiconducteur de ces solutions, et contribue a la determination de leur structure de bandes, en particulier le comportement de la bande interdite dans ces solutions a ete analyse et l'existence d'une double bande de valence mise en evidence. (auteur)

  6. Phase Transitions in CsSnCl3 and CsPbBr3 An NMR and NQR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra; Weiden, Norbert; Weiss, Alarich

    1991-04-01

    The phase transitions in CsSnCl3 and CsPbBr3 have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction, by 81Br-NQR and by 'H-, 119Sn-, and 113Cs-NMR. At room temperature in air CsSnCl3 forms a hydrate which can be dehydrated to the monoclinic phase II of CsSnCl3. The high temperature phase I has the Perovskite structure, as the X-ray and NMR experiments show. The three phases of CsPbBr3, known from literature, have been corroborated. The results are discussed in the framework of the group ABX3, A = alkalimetal ion, B = IV main group ion, and X = Halogen ion

  7. Aging effects on the microstructure, surface characteristics and wettability of Cu pretinned with Sn-Pb solders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linch, Heidi Sue [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study investigates effects of aging in air and argon at 170 C on Cu coupons which were pretinned with 75Sn-25Pb, 8Sn-92Pb, and 5Sn-95Pb solders. Coatings were applied using electroplating or hot dipping techniques. The coating thickness was controlled between 3 to 3μm and the specimens were aged for 0 hours, 2 hours, 24 hours and 2 weeks. Wetting balance tests were used to evaluate the wettability of the test specimens. Microstructural development was evaluated using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and Auger spectroscopy, as well as optical and scanning electron microscopy. The wetting behavior of the test specimens is interpreted with respect to observed microstructural changes and as a function of aging time, solder composition, and processing conditions.

  8. Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2Pb, Ae2Sn, Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba, as thermoelectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parker and David J Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2Sn, Sr2Sn and Ba2Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli—roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature.

  9. Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2Pb, Ae2Sn, Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba, as thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Singh, David J

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2Sn, Sr2Sn and Ba2Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli—roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature. PMID:27877610

  10. Conditional entropy and mutual information in Pb+Pb interactions at 158 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, T.H.

    2017-01-01

    Many models have been proposed to explain the phenomenon, usually called intermittency. Most of them contain essentially a kind of self-similar cascading process. In this context, self-similar random cascading is the most natural and hopeful mechanism that can reproduce the intermittency phenomena in multiparticle production. Wu Yuanfang and Liu Lianshou developed a method for observing and examining this mechanism of self- similar random cascading, making use of the concepts of conditional entropy and mutual information. In the study we examine the data on photon multiplicity produced in Lead - Lead central collisions at 158 A GeV for the existence of self-similar random cascading using conditional entropy and mutual information variables. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation studies using VENUS event generator and GEANT detector simulation software. The experiment is also compared with predictions from Alpha-Model

  11. Structure and stability of M6N8 clusters (M = Si, Ge, Sn, Ti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, Elena I; Timoshkin, Alexey Y; Frenking, Gernot

    2010-06-10

    The structures and stabilities of the M(6)N(8) clusters (M = Si, Ge, Sn, Ti) have been theoretically studied at DFT and ab initio levels of theory. Two new isomers have been considered: cage-like molecules and propeller-like molecules. It is shown that only for M = Si are both isomers true minima on the potential energy surface. The thermodynamics of the dissociation process (1/6)M(6)N(8) --> (1/3)M(3)N(4) is discussed. For each M(3)N(4) molecule, four structures with different multiplicity are considered. The thermodynamic analysis shows that independently of the multiplicity of M(3)N(4) nitrides all M(6)N(8) clusters are stable in the gas phase in a wide temperature range and could be potential intermediates in chemical vapor deposition of the nitride materials.

  12. Disorder-induced enhancement of indirect absorption in a GeSn photodetector grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Chang, C.; Cheng, H. H.; Sun, G.; Soref, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    We report an investigation on the absorption mechanism of a GeSn photodetector with 2.4% Sn composition in the active region. Responsivity is measured and absorption coefficient is calculated. Square root of absorption coefficient linearly depends on photon energy indicating an indirect transition. However, the absorption coefficient is found to be at least one order of magnitude higher than that of most other indirect materials, suggesting that the indirect optical absorption transition cannot be assisted only by phonon. Our analysis of absorption measurements by other groups on the same material system showed the values of absorption coefficient on the same order of magnitude. Our study reveals that the strong enhancement of absorption for the indirect optical transition is the result of alloy disorder from the incorporation of the much larger Sn atoms into the Ge lattice that are randomly distributed.

  13. Formation of stable and metastable phases in reciprocal systems PbSe + MI2 = MSe + PbI2 (M = Hg, Mn, Sn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odin, I.N.; Grin'ko, V.V.; Kozlovskij, V.F.; Safronov, E.V.; Gapanovich, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    Using data of differential thermal, X-ray phase and microstructural analyses, phase diagrams of reciprocal systems PbSe + MI 2 = MSe + PbI 2 (M=Hg (1), Mn (2), Sn (3)) were constructed. It was ascertained that the HgSe-PbI 2 diagonal in system 1 is stable. Transformations leading to crystallization of metastable ternary compound formed in the system PbSe-PbI 2 and metastable polytypes of lead iodide in systems 1 and 2 in the range of temperatures from 620 to 685 K were studied. New intermediate metastable phases in systems 1, 2 and 3 were prepared by melt quenching. Crystal lattice parameters of the phases crystallizing in the CdCl 2 structural type were defined [ru

  14. Subgrain Rotation Behavior in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu-Sn37Pb Solder Joints During Thermal Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Tan, Shihai; Guo, Fu

    2018-01-01

    Ball grid array (BGA) samples were soldered on a printed circuit board with Sn37Pb solder paste to investigate the recrystallization induced by subgrain rotation during thermal shock. The composition of the solder balls was Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu-Sn37Pb, which comprised mixed solder joints. The BGA component was cross-sectioned before thermal shock. The microstructure and grain orientations were obtained by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron back-scattered diffraction system. Two mixed solder joints at corners of the BGA component were selected as the subjects. The results showed that recrystallization occurred at the corner of the solder joints after 200 thermal shock cycles. The recrystallized subgrains had various new grain orientations. The newly generated grain orientations were closely related to the initial grain orientations, which indicated that different subgrain rotation behaviors could occur in one mixed solder joint with the same initial grain orientation. When the misorientation angles were very small, the rotation axes were about Sn [100], [010] and [001], as shown by analyzing the misorientation angles and subgrain rotation axes, while the subgrain rotation behavior with large misorientation angles in the solder joints was much more complicated. As Pb was contained in the solder joints and the stress was concentrated on the corner of the mixed solder joints, concaves and cracks were formed. When the adjacent recrystallized subgrains were separated, and the process of the continuous recrystallization was limited.

  15. $\\phi$ production in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon incident momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Arnaldi, R; Astruc, J; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Caponi, V; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigoryanm, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Da Silva, W; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2003-01-01

    The production of vector mesons phi , rho and omega has been measured in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon incident momentum at the CERN/SPS. The muon spectrometer of experiment NA50 detects phi , rho and omega mesons via their mu /sup +/ mu /sup -/ decay channel in the collision center of mass rapidity range 0

  16. $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ Production in Central Pb-Pb Collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A$\\cdot$GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Anticic, T; Collins, J; Dokshitzer, Y; Görlich, L; Grindhammer, G; Gustafson, G; Jönsson, L B; Jun, H; Kwiecinski, J; Levin, E; Lipatov, A V; Lönnblad, L; Lublinsk, M; Maul, M; Milcewicz, I; Miu, G; Nowak, G; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Stasto, A M; Timneanu, N; Turnau, J; Zotov, N P

    2003-01-01

    Production of Lambda and Antilambda hyperons was measured in central Pb-Pb collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A$\\cdot$GeV beam energy on a fixed target. Transverse mass spectra and rapidity distributions are given for all three energies. The $\\Lambda/\\pi$ ratio at mid-rapidity and in full phase space shows a pronounced maximum between the highest AGS and 40 A$\\cdot$GeV SPS energies, whereas the $\\bar{\\Lambda}/\\pi$ ratio exhibits a monotonic increase.

  17. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles as a function of centrality in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 and 40 GeV per nucleon incident energy

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2002-01-01

    The charged particle distributions $dN_{ch}/d\\eta$ have been measured by the NA50 experiment in Pb--Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. Measurements have been done at incident energies of 158 and 40 GeV per nucleon over a broad impact parameter range. Results obtained with two independent centrality estimators, namely the neutral transverse energy $E_T$ and the forward energy $E_{ZDC}$, are reported.}

  18. Study of the transverse mass spectra of strange particles in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antinori, F.; Bacon, P. A.; Badala, A.; Staroba, Pavel; Závada, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 30, - (2004), s. 823-840 ISSN 0954-3899 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Keywords : NA57 experiment * K o s, .XI. and .OMEGA. hyperons * Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c * ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions * transverse mass spectra * excited nuclear matter * phase transition Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2004

  19. Temperature dependence of differential conductance in Co-based Heusler alloy Co2TiSn and superconductor Pb junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooka, Ryutaro; Shigeta, Iduru; Umetsu, Rie Y.; Nomura, Akiko; Yubuta, Kunio; Yamauchi, Touru; Kanomata, Takeshi; Hiroi, Masahiko

    2018-05-01

    We investigated temperature dependence of differential conductance G (V) in planar junctions consisting of Co-based Heusler alloy Co2TiSn and superconductor Pb. Ferromagnetic Co2TiSn was predicted to be half-metal by first-principles band calculations. The spin polarization P of Co2TiSn was deduced to be 60.0% at 1.4 K by the Andreev reflection spectroscopy. The G (V) spectral shape was smeared gradually with increasing temperature and its structure was disappeared above the superconducting transition temperature Tc. Theoretical model analysis revealed that the superconducting energy gap Δ was 1.06 meV at 1.4 K and the Tc was 6.8 K , indicating that both values were suppressed from bulk values. However, the temperature dependent Δ (T) behavior was in good agreement with that of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. The experimental results exhibit that the superconductivity of Pb attached to half-metallic Co2TiSn was kept the conventional BCS mechanism characterized strong-coupling superconductors while its superconductivity was slightly suppressed by the superconducting proximity effect at the Co2TiSn/Pb interface.

  20. Assessing the toxicity of Pb- and Sn-based perovskite solar cells in model organism Danio rerio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Aslihan; Duy Thanh, Dinh; Ethirajan, Anitha; Manca, Jean; Muller, Marc; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Conings, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Intensive development of organometal halide perovskite solar cells has lead to a dramatic surge in power conversion efficiency up to 20%. Unfortunately, the most efficient perovskite solar cells all contain lead (Pb), which is an unsettling flaw that leads to severe environmental concerns and is therefore a stumbling block envisioning their large-scale application. Aiming for the retention of favorable electro-optical properties, tin (Sn) has been considered the most likely substitute. Preliminary studies have however shown that Sn-based perovskites are highly unstable and, moreover, Sn is also enlisted as a harmful chemical, with similar concerns regarding environment and health. To bring more clarity into the appropriateness of both metals in perovskite solar cells, we provide a case study with systematic comparison regarding the environmental impact of Pb- and Sn-based perovskites, using zebrafish (Danio Rerio) as model organism. Uncovering an unexpected route of intoxication in the form of acidification, it is shown that Sn based perovskite may not be the ideal Pb surrogate.

  1. Assessing the toxicity of Pb- and Sn-based perovskite solar cells in model organism Danio rerio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Aslihan; Duy Thanh, Dinh; Ethirajan, Anitha; Manca, Jean; Muller, Marc; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Conings, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Intensive development of organometal halide perovskite solar cells has lead to a dramatic surge in power conversion efficiency up to 20%. Unfortunately, the most efficient perovskite solar cells all contain lead (Pb), which is an unsettling flaw that leads to severe environmental concerns and is therefore a stumbling block envisioning their large-scale application. Aiming for the retention of favorable electro-optical properties, tin (Sn) has been considered the most likely substitute. Preliminary studies have however shown that Sn-based perovskites are highly unstable and, moreover, Sn is also enlisted as a harmful chemical, with similar concerns regarding environment and health. To bring more clarity into the appropriateness of both metals in perovskite solar cells, we provide a case study with systematic comparison regarding the environmental impact of Pb- and Sn-based perovskites, using zebrafish (Danio Rerio) as model organism. Uncovering an unexpected route of intoxication in the form of acidification, it is shown that Sn based perovskite may not be the ideal Pb surrogate. PMID:26759068

  2. Synthesis of compositionally controllable Cu{sub 2}(Sn{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x})S{sub 3} nanocrystals with tunable band gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Qingshuang, E-mail: lqs671@163.com [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry (China)

    2016-06-15

    In this work, we show that compositionally controlled Cu{sub 2}(Sn{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x})S{sub 3} nanocrystals can be successfully synthesized by the hot-injection method through careful tuning the Ge/(Sn+Ge) precursor ratio. The band gaps of the resultant nanocrystals are demonstrated to be linearly tuned from 1.45 to 2.33 eV by adjusting the composition parameter x of the Ge/(Sn+Ge) ratio from 0.0 to 1.0. The crystalline structures of the resultant NCs have been studied by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), select area electron diffraction (SAED), and Raman spectroscopy. A ligand exchange procedure is further performed to replace the native ligands on the surface of the NCs with sulfur ions. The photoresponsive behavior indicates the potential use of as-prepared Cu{sub 2}(Sn{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x})S{sub 3} nanocrystals in solar energy conversion systems. The synthesis of compositionally controlled Cu{sub 2}(Sn{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x})S{sub 3} nanocrystals reported herein provides a way for probing the effect of Ge inclusion in the Cu-Sn-S system thin films.

  3. First principles study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of SnGe n (0, ±1) ( n = 1–17) clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaadi, Soumaia; Eddine Aiadi, Kamal; Mahtout, Sofiane

    2018-04-01

    The structures, relative stability and magnetic properties of pure Ge n +1, neutral cationic and anionic SnGe n (n = 1–17) clusters have been investigated by using the first principles density functional theory implemented in SIESTA packages. We find that with the increasing of cluster size, the Ge n +1 and SnGe n (0, ±1) clusters tend to adopt compact structures. It has been also found that the Sn atom occupied a peripheral position for SnGe n clusters when n 12. The structural and electronic properties such as optimized geometries, fragmentation energy, binding energy per atom, HOMO–LUMO gaps and second-order differences in energy of the pure Ge n +1 and SnGe n clusters in their ground state are calculated and analyzed. All isomers of neutral SnGe n clusters are generally nonmagnetic except for n = 1 and 4, where the total spin magnetic moments is 2μ b. The total (DOS) and partial density of states of these clusters have been calculated to understand the origin of peculiar magnetic properties. The cluster size dependence of vertical ionization potentials, vertical electronic affinities, chemical hardness, adiabatic electron affinities and adiabatic ionization potentials have been calculated and discussed.

  4. Development of heat resistant Pb-free joints by TLPS process of Ag and Sn-Bi-Ag alloy powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuma I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TLPS (Transient Liquid Phase Sintering process is a candidate method of heat-resistant bonding, which makes use of the reaction between low-melting temperature powder of Sn-Bi base alloys and reactive powder of Ag. During heat treatment above the melting temperature of a Sn-Bi base alloy, the molten Sn-Bi reacts rapidly with solid Ag particles, which results in the formation of heat-resistant intermetallic compound (IMC. In this study, the TLPS properties between Sn-17Bi-1Ag (at.% powder with its liquidus temperature of 200°C and pure Ag powder were investigated. During differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurement, an exothermic reaction and an endothermic reaction occurred, which correspond to the formation of the e-Ag3Sn IMC phase and the melting of the Sn-17Bi-1Ag alloy, respectively. After the overall measurement, the obtained reactant consists of the Ag3Sn-IMC and Bi-rich phases, both of which start melting above 250°C, with a small amount of the residual Sn-Bi eutectic phase. These results suggest that the TLPS process can be applied for Pb-free heatresistant bonding.

  5. Kinetics of heterogeneous nucleation of gas-atomized Sn-5 mass%Pb droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shu; Wu Ping; Zhou Wei; Ando, Teiichi

    2008-01-01

    A method for predicting the nucleation kinetics of gas-atomized droplets has been developed by combining models predicting the nucleation temperature of cooling droplets with a model simulating the droplet motion and cooling in gas atomization. Application to a Sn-5 mass%Pb alloy has yielded continuous-cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for the heterogeneous droplet nucleation in helium gas atomization. Both internal nucleation caused by a catalyst present in the melt and surface nucleation caused by oxidation are considered. Droplets atomized at a high atomizing gas velocity get around surface oxidation and nucleate internally at high supercoolings. Low atomization gas velocities promote oxidation-catalyzed nucleation which leads to lower supercoolings. The developed method enables improved screening of atomized powders for critical applications where stringent control of powder microstructure is required

  6. PbSnTe:In compound: Electron capture levels, galvanomagnetic properties, and THz sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishchenko, D. V., E-mail: miracle4348@gmail.com; Klimov, A. E.; Shumsky, V. N.; Epov, V. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A model of the Pb{sub 1–x}Sn{sub x}Te:In compound, based on concepts of the theory of disordered systems is considered. The temperature dependences of the Fermi-level position and carrier concentration are calculated depending on the indium doping level and are compared with experimental data. The transient current–voltage characteristics are calculated in the mode of injection from the contact and current limitation by space charge at various voltage-variation rates. The data obtained are compared with the experiments. It is demonstrated that the shape of the characteristics is controlled by the parameters of electron capture at localized states. Photocurrent relaxation in a magnetic field is studied, and the mechanism of such relaxation is discussed under the assumption of the magnetic freezing of carriers.

  7. Instantaneous fluxless bonding of Au with Pb-Sn solder in ambient atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.K.; Zhang, Sam; Wong, C.C.; Tan, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A fluxless bonding technique has been developed as a method of flip-chip bonding for microelectronic packaging. The fluxless bonding technique can be achieved instantaneously in an ambient environment between metallic stud bumps and predefined molten solder. This paper describes the mechanics of the bonding action and verifies the effectiveness of this bonding method through wetting balance tests and scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. This technique has been demonstrated by using a gold stud bump to break the tin oxide layer over molten solder. This allows for a fast, solid liquid interdiffusion between gold (Au) and the fresh molten eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solder for joint formation during solidification. This bonding method has been successfully tested with 130-μm-pitch flip-chip bond pads on a joint-in-via flex substrate architecture

  8. Experimental test of proximity effect theories by surface impedance measurements on the Pb-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, J.R.; Battilana, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The proximity effect in the Pb-Sn system in zero magnetic field has been studied by measuring the surface impedance at 3 GHz of a thin film of tin evaporated on to a bulk lead substrate. The results are compared with the predictions of theories of the proximity effect. It is found that good agreement can be obtained by using a theory due to Hook and Waldram of the spatial variation of the superconducting order parameter Δ inside each metal together with suitable boundary conditions on Δ at the interface between the metals. The required boundary conditions are a generalization to the case of non-zero electron reflection at the interface of the boundary conditions given by Zaitsev for the Ginsburg-Landau equation. (author)

  9. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of GeSe2-Ga2Se3-PbI2 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Gao; Liu Cunming; Luo Lan; Chen Wei

    2010-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of new selenium-based GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glasses have been measured using the optical Kerr effect (OKE) technique, with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses. The 0.70GeSe 2 -0.15Ga 2 Se 3 -0.15PbI 2 glass has the largest third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility in GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glass system with χ (3) of 5.28x10 12 esu. In addition, the response time of glasses is sub-picosecond, which is predominantly associated with electron cloud. Local structure of the glasses has been identified by using Raman studies, while the origins of the observed nonlinear optical response are discussed. The [Ge(Ga)Se 4 ] tetrahedral and lone-pair electrons from highly polarizable Pb atom in glasses play an important role in enhanced NLO response. These results as well as their good chemical stability indicate that GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glasses are promising materials for photonic applications of third-order nonlinear optical signal processing.

  10. Structural, elastic, electronic, bonding, and optical properties of BeAZ2 (A = Si, Ge, Sn; Z = P, As) chalcopyrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahad, Shah; Murtaza, G.; Ouahrani, T.; Khenata, R.; Yousaf, Masood; Omran, S.Bin; Mohammad, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    A first principles density functional theory (DFT) technique is used to study the structural, chemical bonding, electronic and optical properties of BeAZ 2 (A = Si, Ge, Sn; Z = P, As) chalcopyrite materials. The calculated parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental results. The lattice constants and the equilibrium volume increased as we moved from Si to Ge to Sn, whereas the c/a and internal parameters u decreased by shifting the cation from P to As. These compounds are elastically stable. An investigation of the band gap using the WC-GGA, EV-GGA, PBE-GGA and mBJ-metaGGA potentials suggested that BeSiP 2 and BeSiAs 2 are direct band gap compounds, whereas BeGeP 2, BeGeAs 2, BeSnP 2, BeSnAs 2 are indirect band gap compounds. The energy band gaps decreased by changing B from Si to Sn and increased by changing the anion C from P to As. The bonding among the cations and anions is primarily ionic. In the optical properties, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric functions, reflectivity and optical conductivity have been studied over a wide energy range. - Highlights: • The compounds are studied by FP-LAPW method within mBJ approximation. • All of the studied materials show isotropic behaviour. • All the compounds show direct band gap nature. • Bonding nature is mostly covalent among the studied compounds. • High absorption peaks and reflectivity ensures there utility in optoelectronic devices

  11. All-epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeSi/Ge/Co{sub 2}FeSi trilayers fabricated by Sn-induced low-temperature epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, M.; Ikawa, M.; Arima, K.; Yamada, S.; Kanashima, T.; Hamaya, K., E-mail: hamaya@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    We demonstrate low-temperature growth of all-epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeSi/Ge/Co{sub 2}FeSi trilayer structures by developing Sn-induced surfactant-mediated molecular beam epitaxy (SMBE) of Ge on Co{sub 2}FeSi. Despite the growth of a semiconductor on a metal, we verify that the inserted Sn monolayers between Ge and Co{sub 2}FeSi enable to promote the 2D epitaxial growth of Ge up to 5 nm at a T{sub G} of 250 °C. An understanding of the mechanism of the Sn-induced SMBE leads to the achievement of all-epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeSi/Ge/Co{sub 2}FeSi trilayer structures with spin-valve-like magnetization reversals. This study will open a way for vertical-type and high-performance Ge-based spintronics devices.

  12. Coordination Chemistry of [E(Idipp)]2+ Ligands (E = Ge, Sn): Metal Germylidyne [Cp*(CO)2W≡Ge(Idipp)]+ and Metallotetrylene [Cp*(CO)3W–E(Idipp)]+ Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Lebedev, Yury

    2017-04-12

    The synthesis and full characterization of the NHC-stabilized tungstenochlorostannylene [Cp*(CO)3W–SnCl(Idipp)] (1Sn), the NHC-stabilized chlorogermylidyne complex [Cp*(CO)2W═GeCl(Idipp)] (2), the tungsten germylidyne complex salt [Cp*(CO)2W≡Ge(Idipp)][B(C6H3-3,5-(CF3)2)4] (3), and the cationic metallostannylene [Cp*(CO)3W–Sn(Idipp)][Al(OC(CF3)3)4] (4Sn) are reported (Idipp = 2,3-dihydro-1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene, Cp* = η5-C5Me5). Metathetical exchange of SnCl2(Idipp) with Li[Cp*W(CO)3] afforded selectively 1Sn. Photolytic decarbonylation of the Ge analogue [Cp*(CO)3W–GeCl(Idipp)] (1Ge) afforded the NHC-stabilized chlorogermylidyne complex (2), featuring a trigonal-planar coordinated germanium center and a W–Ge double bond (W–Ge 2.3496(5) Å). Chloride abstraction from 2 with Na[B(C6H3-3,5-(CF3)2)4] yielded the germylidyne complex salt 3, which contains an almost linear W–Ge–C1 linkage (angle at Ge = 168.7(1)°) and a W–Ge triple bond (2.2813(4) Å). Chloride elimination from 1Ge afforded the tungstenogermylene salt [Cp*(CO)3W–Ge(Idipp)][B(C6H3-3,5-(CF3)2)4] (4Ge), which in contrast to 1Ge could not be decarbonylated to form 3 despite the less strongly bound carbonyl ligands. The tin compounds 1Sn and 4Sn did not afford products bearing multiple W–Sn bonds. Treatment of 4Ge with Me2NC≡CNMe2 yielded unexpectedly the neutral germyl complex 5 containing a pendant 1-germabicyclo-[3,2,0]-hepta-2,5-diene ligand instead of the anticipated [2 + 1]-cycloaddition product at the Ge-center.

  13. Ge(001)-(<2 1>, <0 3>)-Pb(<2 1>, <0 6>)↔Pb: Low-temperature two-dimensional phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, Oliver; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Zeysing, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Ge(001)-((2 1)(0 3))-Pb surface reconstruction with a lead coverage of 5/3 monolayer is on the borderline between the low-coverage covalently-bonded and high-coverage metallic lead overlayers. This gives rise to an unusual low-temperature phase transition with concomitant changes in the bonding...

  14. A study of charge-pickup interactions by (158A GeV) Pb nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, G.; Shahzad, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Study of the relativistic heavy-ion collision is important to focus on probing phase transitions between hadrons and quark-gluon phases in the extreme conditions of temperature and density of nuclear matter formed in the collisions. These states of nuclear matter are expected to be created in relativistic nuclear collisions with large overlap of interacting nuclei, the Lorentz-boosted Coulomb potential Vc proportional to alpha gamma Z/b of a partner with charge Z is very strong, where b is impact parameter and is the fine structure constant. Either one or both nuclei may be disintegrated by the electromagnetic forces in ultra-peripheral collisions at b = R1 + R2, where R1 and R2 are the nuclear radii. This distinct feature of electromagnetic dissociation makes it possible to study the behavior of nuclear matter under electromagnetic fields. The nuclear charge-pickup ( delta Z = +1) by Pb projectiles at energy 158A GeV interacting with targets Bi, Pb, Cu and Al was investigated using CR39 nuclear track detectors. The target-detector stacks were exposed at CERN SPS beam facility. The projectile and fragments charge states have been identified using the etch-cone lengths for charge-pickup at Z = 83 of residual nuclei. Our measured charge-pickup cross sections (delta Z = +1) are shown. It was observed that for the heavy targets the increase in the cross section is anticipated by substantial contribution of electromagnetic dissociation process of production by virtual photons which is almost negligible at 10.6A GeV. In the light target region, our measured cross sections and charge-pickup cross sections reported at energy 10.6A GeV show dominant nuclear contribution and very small contribution of electromagnetic dissociation term. A strong dependence of charge-pickup cross sections on the target mass number was observed particularly in the heavy targets. (orig./A.B.)

  15. Electromodulation spectroscopy of direct optical transitions in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers under hydrostatic pressure and built-in strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybała, F.; Żelazna, K.; Maczko, H.; Gladysiewicz, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Kudrawiec, R., E-mail: robert.kudrawiec@pwr.wroc.pl [Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Lin, H.; Chen, R.; Shang, C.; Huo, Y.; Kamins, T. I.; Harris, J. S. [Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4075 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers of various Sn concentration (1.5%, 3%, 6% Sn) and Ge{sub 0.97}Sn{sub 0.03} layers with built-in compressive (ε = −0.5%) and tensile (ε = 0.3%) strain are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and studied by electromodulation spectroscopy (i.e., contactless electroreflectance and photoreflectance (PR)). In order to obtain unstrained GeSn layers and layers with different built-in in-plane strains, virtual InGaAs substrates of different compositions are grown prior to the deposition of GeSn layers. For unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers, the pressure coefficient for the direct band gap transition is determined from PR measurements at various hydrostatic pressures to be 12.2 ± 0.2 meV/kbar, which is very close to the pressure coefficient for the direct band gap transition in Ge (12.9 meV/kbar). This suggests that the hydrostatic deformation potentials typical of Ge can be applied to describe the pressure-induced changes in the electronic band structure of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloys with low Sn concentrations. The same conclusion is derived for the uniaxial deformation potential, which describes the splitting between heavy-hole (HH) and light-hole (LH) bands as well as the strain-related shift of the spin-orbit (SO) split-off band. It is observed that the HH, LH, and SO related transitions shift due to compressive and tensile strain according to the Bir-Pikus theory. The dispersions of HH, LH, and SO bands are calculated for compressive and tensile strained Ge{sub 0.97}Sn{sub 0.03} with the 8-band kp Hamiltonian including strain effects, and the mixing of HH and LH bands is discussed. In addition, the dispersion of the electronic band structure is calculated for unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers (3% and 6% Sn) at high hydrostatic pressure with the 8-band kp Hamiltonian, and the pressure-induced changes in the electronic band structure are discussed.

  16. First principles investigation of interaction between impurity atom (Si, Ge, Sn) and carbon atom in diamond-like carbon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Aiying; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between impurity atom (Si, Ge, and Sn) and carbon atom in diamond-like carbon (DLC) system was investigated by the first principles simulation method based on the density functional theory. The tetrahedral configuration was selected as the calculation model for simplicity. When the bond angle varied in a range of 90°–130° from the equivalent state of 109.471°, the distortion energy and the electronic structures including charge density of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and partial density of state (PDOS) in the different systems were calculated. The results showed that the addition of Si, Ge and Sn atom into amorphous carbon matrix significantly decreased the distortion energy of the system as the bond angles deviated from the equilibrium one. Further studies of the HOMO and PDOS indicated that the weak covalent bond between Si(Ge, Sn) and C atoms was formed with the decreased strength and directionality, which were influenced by the electronegative difference. These results implied that the electron transfer behavior at the junction of carbon nano-devices could be tailored by the impurity element, and the compressive stress in DLC films could be reduced by the incorporation of Si, Ge and Sn because of the formation of weaker covalent bonds. - Highlights: ►Distortion energy after bond angle distortion was decreased comparing with C-C unit. ►The weak covalent bond was formed between impurity atoms and corner carbon atoms. ►Observed electron transfer behavior affected the strength and directionality of bond. ►Reduction of strength and directionality of bond contributed to small energy change.

  17. Monoanionic Tin Oligomers Featuring Sn–Sn or Sn–Pb Bonds: Synthesis and Characterization of a Tris(TriheteroarylstannylStannate and -Plumbate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Zeckert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of the lithium tris(2-pyridylstannate [LiSn(2-py6OtBu3] (py6OtBu = C5H3N-6-OtBu, 1, with the element(II amides E{N(SiMe32}2 (E = Sn, Pb afforded complexes [LiE{Sn(2-py6OtBu3}3] for E = Sn (2 and E = Pb (3, which reveal three Sn–E bonds each. Compounds 2 and 3 have been characterized by solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallographic studies. Large 1J(119Sn–119/117Sn as well as 1J(207Pb–119/117Sn coupling constants confirm their structural integrity in solution. However, contrary to 2, complex 3 slowly disintegrates in solution to give elemental lead and the hexaheteroarylditin [Sn(2-py6OtBu3]2 (4.

  18. Martensitic transformation behavior in Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jai-young; Chun, Su-jin; Kim, Nam-suk; Cho, Jeung-won; Kim, Jae-hyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwadong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Jong-taek [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-il [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Dong-A, Hadan-dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Tae-hyun, E-mail: tahynam@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwadong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag, In and Sn were soluble in TiNi matrix, while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not. • The B2-R-B19′transformation occurred in Ti-Ni-(Ag, In, Sn) alloys. • Solid solution hardening was essential for inducing the B2-R transformation. - Abstract: The microstructures and transformation behaviors of Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys were investigated using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Micro Vickers hardness tests. All specimens consisted of Ti–Ni matrices and second phase particles. Ag, In and Sn were soluble in Ti–Ni matrices with a limited solubility (≤1.0 at%), while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not soluble. Two-stage B2-R-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–48.8Ni–1.2Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0In and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sn alloys, while one-stage B2-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sb, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Te, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Pb and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Bi alloys. Micro Vickers hardness of the alloys displaying the B2-R-B19′ transformation (Hv 250–368) was much larger than that (

  19. Martensitic transformation behavior in Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jai-young; Chun, Su-jin; Kim, Nam-suk; Cho, Jeung-won; Kim, Jae-hyun; Yeom, Jong-taek; Kim, Jae-il; Nam, Tae-hyun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag, In and Sn were soluble in TiNi matrix, while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not. • The B2-R-B19′transformation occurred in Ti-Ni-(Ag, In, Sn) alloys. • Solid solution hardening was essential for inducing the B2-R transformation. - Abstract: The microstructures and transformation behaviors of Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys were investigated using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Micro Vickers hardness tests. All specimens consisted of Ti–Ni matrices and second phase particles. Ag, In and Sn were soluble in Ti–Ni matrices with a limited solubility (≤1.0 at%), while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not soluble. Two-stage B2-R-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–48.8Ni–1.2Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0In and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sn alloys, while one-stage B2-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sb, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Te, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Pb and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Bi alloys. Micro Vickers hardness of the alloys displaying the B2-R-B19′ transformation (Hv 250–368) was much larger than that (< Hv 200) of the alloys displaying the B2-B19′ transformation. Solid solution hardening was an important factor for inducing the B2-R transformation in Ti–Ni–X (X = non-transition elements) alloys

  20. Maximization of current efficiency for organic pollutants oxidation at BDD, Ti/SnO2-Sb/PbO2, and Ti/SnO2-Sb anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xuan; Ni, Jinren; Zhu, Xiuping; Jiang, Yi; Xia, Jianxin

    2018-08-01

    Whereas electrochemical oxidation is noted for its ability to degrade bio-refractory organics, it has also been incorrectly criticized for excessive energy consumption. The present paper rectifies this misunderstanding by demonstrating that the energy actually consumed in the degradation process is much less than that wasted in the side reaction of oxygen evolution. To minimize the side reaction, the possible highest instantaneous current efficiency (PHICE) for electrochemical oxidation of phenol at Boron-doped Diamond (BDD), Ti/SnO 2 -Sb/PbO 2 (PbO 2 ), and Ti/SnO 2 -Sb (SnO 2 ) anodes has been investigated systematically, and found to reach almost 100% at the BDD anode compared with 23% at the PbO 2 anode and 9% at the SnO 2 anode. The significant discrepancy between PHICE values at the various anodes is interpreted in terms of different existing forms of hydroxyl radicals. For each anode system, the PHICEs are maintained experimentally using a computer-controlled exponential decay current mode throughout the electrolysis process. For applications, the minimized energy consumption is predicted by response surface methodology, and demonstrated for the BDD anode system. Consequently, almost 100% current efficiency is achieved (for a relatively meagre energy consumption of 17.2 kWh kgCOD -1 ) along with excellent COD degradation efficiency by optimizing the initial current density, flow rate, electrolysis time, and exponential decay constant. Compared with galvanostatic conditions, over 70% of the energy is saved in the present study, thus demonstrating the great potential of electrochemical oxidation for practical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optoelectronic and transport properties of LiBZ (B = Al, In, Ga and Z = Si, Ge, Sn) semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Hatim; Khan, Shah Haider; Laref, A.; Murtaza, G.

    2018-02-01

    Half-Heusler compounds LiBZ (B = Al, In, Ga and Z = Si, Ge, Sn) are comprehensively investigated using state of the art full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. Stable geometry of the compounds obtained through energy minimization procedure. Lattice constant increased while bulk modulus decreased in replacing the ions of size increasing from top to bottom of the periodic table. Band structure calculations show LiInGe and LiInSn as direct bandgap while LiAlSi, LiInGe and LiGaSn indirect bandgap semiconductors. Density of states demonstrates mixed s, p, d states of cations and anions in the valence and conduction bands. These compounds have mixed ionic and covalent bonding. Compounds show dominant optical response in the visible and low frequency ultraviolet energy region. The transport properties of the compounds are described in terms of Seebeck coefficient, electrical and thermal conductivities. The calculated figure of merit of LiAlSi is in good agreement with the recent experimental results.

  2. Coordination Chemistry of [E(Idipp)]2+ Ligands (E = Ge, Sn): Metal Germylidyne [Cp*(CO)2W≡Ge(Idipp)]+ and Metallotetrylene [Cp*(CO)3W–E(Idipp)]+ Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Lebedev, Yury; Das, Ujjal; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Filippou, Alexander C.

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis and full characterization of the NHC-stabilized tungstenochlorostannylene [Cp*(CO)3W–SnCl(Idipp)] (1Sn), the NHC-stabilized chlorogermylidyne complex [Cp*(CO)2W═GeCl(Idipp)] (2), the tungsten germylidyne complex salt [Cp*(CO)2W

  3. Catalyst engineering for lithium ion batteries: the catalytic role of Ge in enhancing the electrochemical performance of SnO2(GeO2)0.13/G anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun Guang; Wang, Ye; Han, Zhao Jun; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken; Yang, Hui Ying

    2014-12-21

    The catalytic role of germanium (Ge) was investigated to improve the electrochemical performance of tin dioxide grown on graphene (SnO(2)/G) nanocomposites as an anode material of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Germanium dioxide (GeO(20) and SnO(2) nanoparticles (GeO(2))0.13/G nanocomposites can deliver a capacity of 1200 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), which is much higher than the traditional theoretical specific capacity of such nanocomposites (∼ 702 mA h g(-1)). More importantly, the SnO(2)(GeO(2))0.13/G nanocomposites exhibited an improved rate, large current capability (885 mA h g(-1) at a discharge current of 2000 mA g(-1)) and excellent long cycling stability (almost 100% retention after 600 cycles). The enhanced electrochemical performance was attributed to the catalytic effect of Ge, which enabled the reversible reaction of metals (Sn and Ge) to metals oxide (SnO(2) and GeO(2)) during the charge/discharge processes. Our demonstrated approach towards nanocomposite catalyst engineering opens new avenues for next-generation high-performance rechargeable Li-ion batteries anode materials.

  4. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of PbS sensitized Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays electrode under visible light illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jia; Tang, Chengli [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xu, Hao, E-mail: xuhao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Yan, Wei, E-mail: yanwei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Sb–SnO{sub 2} is used to modify TiO{sub 2} NTAs by microwave method. • PbS is employed to sensitive Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs by S-SILAR method. • Sb–SnO{sub 2} improves electrons transfer and PbS enhances visible light absorption. • The composite electrode shows enhanced photoelectrochemical properties. • The composite electrode exhibits high hydrogen evolution and high QE. - Abstract: The novel PbS sensitized Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTAs) composite electrode (PbS/Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs) was fabricated by microwave combined with sonication-assisted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique (S-SILAR). The obtained electrodes were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra techniques. Enhanced photocurrent (15.52 mA/cm{sup 2}) of the PbS/Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs electrode was observed and can be attributed to the facile photo-generated electrons transfer and enhanced charge separation efficiency. Furthermore, the PbS/Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs composite electrode shows a higher H{sub 2} production rate than the Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs electrode and PbS/TiO{sub 2} NTAs electrode. The results indicate that the PbS/Sb–SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTAs electrode is a promising photoanode in visible photocatalytic water splitting.

  5. Creep Behavior of a Sn-Ag-Bi Pb-Free Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianco, Paul; Rejent, Jerome; Grazier, Mark; Kilgo, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Compression creep tests were performed on the ternary 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (wt.%, abbreviated Sn-Ag-Bi) Pb-free alloy. The test temperatures were: −25 °C, 25 °C, 75 °C, 125 °C, and 160 °C (± 0.5 °C). Four loads were used at the two lowest temperatures and five at the higher temperatures. The specimens were tested in the as-fabricated condition or after having been subjected to one of two air aging conditions: 24 hours at either 125 °C or 150 °C. The strain-time curves exhibited frequent occurrences of negative creep and small-scale fluctuations, particularly at the slower strain rates, that were indicative of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) activity. The source of tertiary creep behavior at faster strain rates was likely to also be DRX rather than a damage accumulation mechanism. Overall, the strain-time curves did not display a consistent trend that could be directly attributed to the aging condition. The sinh law equation satisfactorily represented the minimum strain rate as a function of stress and temperature so as to investigate the deformation rate kinetics: dε/dtmin = Asinhn (ασ) exp (−ΔH/RT). The values of α, n, and ΔH were in the following ranges (±95% confidence interval): α, 0.010–0.015 (±0.005 1/MPa); n, 2.2–3.1 (±0.5); and ΔH, 54–66 (±8 kJ/mol). The rate kinetics analysis indicated that short-circuit diffusion was a contributing mechanism to dislocation motion during creep. The rate kinetics analysis also determined that a minimum creep rate trend could not be developed between the as-fabricated versus aged conditions. This study showed that the elevated temperature aging treatments introduced multiple changes to the Sn-Ag-Bi microstructure that did not result in a simple loss (“softening”) of its mechanical strength.

  6. New silicate-germanate Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] from the series A2Pb2[B2O7], A = K, Cs, B = Si, Ge with the umbrella-like [PbO3]4- group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokoneva, Elena L.; Morozov, Ivan A.; Volkov, Anatoly S.; Dimitrova, Olga V.; Stefanovich, Sergey Yu.

    2018-04-01

    New silicate-germanate Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] was synthesized in multi-components hydrothermal solution with 20 w.% concentration of Cs2CO3 mineralizer, pH = 10. Novel mixed compound belongs to the structure type A2Pb2[B2O7] previously indicated for powders with A = K, B=Si or Ge. Singe crystal structure determination of Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] revealed the need for the correction of the space group of the earlier suggested structural model from P-3 to P-3m1, as well as for the splitting of the Pb-atom position. Umbrella-like groups [PbO3]4- are located between [(Si,Ge)O4]4- tetrahedra in mica-like honeycomb layers and play the role of tetrahedra with the Pb-lone-pair as the forth apex. Crystal chemical comparison revealed similarities and differences with the classical structure type of α-celsian Ba[Al2Si2O8] with the tetrahedral double layer. Recently investigated nonlinear optical acentric borates Pb2(BO3)(NO3) and Pb2(BO3)Cl are both related to this structural type, possessing umbrella-like groups [PbO3]4- and honeycomb layers [Pb2(BO3)]+ with the BO3-triangles on the tetrahedral positions.

  7. Nanoscale semiconductor Pb{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}Se (x = 0.2) thin films synthesized by electrochemical atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Shaoxiong; Zhang Xin; Shi Xuezhao; Wei Jinping; Lu Daban; Zhang Yuzhen; Kou Huanhuan [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-04-15

    In this paper the fabrication and characterization of IV-VI semiconductor Pb{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}Se (x = 0.2) thin films on gold substrate by electrochemical atomic layer deposition (EC-ALD) method at room temperature are reported. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to determine approximate deposition potentials for each element. The amperometric I-t technique is used to fabricate the semiconductor alloy. The elements are deposited in the following sequence: (Se/Pb/Se/Pb/Se/Pb/Se/Pb/Se/Sn ...), each period is formed using four ALD cycles of PbSe followed by one cycle of SnSe. Then the deposition manner above is cyclic repeated till a satisfactory film with expected thickness of Pb{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}Se is obtained. The morphology of the deposit is observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern is used to study its crystalline structure; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the deposit indicates an approximate ratio 1.0:0.8:0.2 of Se, Pb and Sn, as the expected stoichiometry for the deposit. Open-circuit potential (OCP) studies indicate a good p-type property, and the good optical activity makes it suitable for fabricating a photoelectric switch.

  8. Lambda Produktion in Pb-Au Kollisionen bei 40 A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The CERES-experiment at the CERN-SPS investigates the production of electron-positron pairs in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. The CERES spectrometer was upgraded during 1998 by the addition of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a radial electric drift field and two coils of a warm magnet to provide a momentum analysis. This thesis deals with the design and construction of the CERES TPC and a first $Lambda$-analysis in 40 A,GeV Pb+Au collisions. The relative momentum resolution $sigma (dp/p)^2$ = $0.027^2+(0.024 ~ p)^2$ (in GeV/c) was determined using the measured width of the $Lambda$ invariant mass spectrum ($sigma$ = 12 MeV/c$^2$) and comparing it to a TPC simulation containing all measured distortions of a trajectory. The resolution is about a factor of 2.5 worse compared to its design value due to the still incomplete calibration. Analysing the fully corrected $Lambda$ transverse momentum spectra in a rapidity interval 2.0 $<$ $y_{m {Lambda}}$ $<$ 2.4 close to midrapidity for centralities $...

  9. Search for superconductivity in ion-implanted Pb-Ge films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawislak, F.C.; Bernas, H.; Mendoza-Zelis, L.; Travers, A.; Chaumont, J.; Dumoulin, L.

    1980-01-01

    We have studied the dose and the temperature dependence of the resistivity in thin coevaporated films (500-600 A) of Pbsub(0.3) Gesub(0.7) and Pbsub(0.7) Gesub(0.3) implanted at 6K with up to 2x10 15 Ge/cm 2 of 90 and 140 keV. The composition and uniformity of the films were controlled via in situ Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements, as functions of the implanted dose and the annealing temperature. The following results were obtained: a) a sharp Tsub(c) very close to the Tsub(c) of pure Pb was measured for the Pbsub(0.7) Gesub(0.3) film and no change in Tsub(c) was observed as a function of dose; b) for the Pbsub(0.3)Gesub(0.7) film the Tsub(c) decreased from about 6.8K before implantation to about 3.5 K after implantation of 2x10 15 ions/cm 2 ; c) the RBS spectra revealed that the alloy homogeneity was larger implantation at 6 K than before implantation and that precipitation for Pb occured during annealing

  10. Radiative muon capture on Al, Si, Ca, Mo, Sn, and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.S.; Serna-Angel, A.; Ahamad, S.

    1992-08-01

    The branching ratio for radiative muon capture relative to the non-radiative process, is sensitive to g p , the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant of the weak hadronic current. The photon energy spectra from RMC on 27 Al, 28 Si, 40 Ca, nat Mo, nat Sn, and nat Pb have been measured using a high-acceptance pair spectrometer. The measured partial branching ratios, R γ , for photons of E γ > 57 MeV are 1.43 ± 0.13, 1.93 ± 0.18, 2.09 ± 0.19, 1.11 ± 0.11, 0.98 ± 0.09 and 0.60 ± 0.07 respectively, in units of 10 -5 . The results confirm the previously observed suppression of R γ with increasing Z for Z > 20. For 40 Ca the present result is in good agreement with previous measurements. For the heavier nuclei, the results are compared with two recent calculations performed in the Fermi-gas model. In one case the data indicate a complete quenching of g p , but the more recent calculation does not reproduce the data for any value of g p . 50 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Investigation of Sn-Pb solder bumps of prototype photo detectors for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Delsante, M L; Arnau-Izquierdo, G

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). LHCb is one of the dedicated LHC experiments, allowing high energy proton-proton collisions to be exploited. This paper presents the results of the metallurgic studies carried out on Sn-Pb solder bumps of prototype vacuum photo detectors under development for LHCb, and in particular for the ring imaging Cherenkov-hybrid photo diode (RICH-HPD) project. These detectors encapsulate, in a vacuum tube, an assembly made of two silicon chips bonded together by a matrix of solder bumps. Each bump lies on a suitable system of under-bump metallic layers ensuring mechanical and electrical transition between the chip pad and the solder alloy. During manufacturing of the detector, bump-bonded (BB) assemblies are exposed to severe heat cycles up to 400 degree C inducing, in the present fabrication process, a clear degradation of electrical connectivity. Several investigations such as microstructural observati...

  12. Radiative muon capture on Al, Si, Ca, Mo, Sn, and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.S.; Serna-Angel, A.; Ahmad, S.; Azuelos, G.; Bertl, W.; Blecher, M.; Chen, C.Q.; Depommier, P.; von Egidy, T.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Henderson, R.S.; Larabee, A.J.; Macdonald, J.A.; McDonald, S.C.; Poutissou, J.; Poutissou, R.; Robertson, B.C.; Sample, D.G.; Taylor, G.N.; Wright, D.H.; Zhang, N.S.

    1992-01-01

    The branching ratio for radiative muon capture (RMC), relative to the nonradiative process, is sensitive to g p , the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant of the weak hadronic current. The photon energy spectra from RMC on 27 Al, 28 Si, 40 Ca, nat Mo, nat Sn, and nat Pb have been measured using a high-acceptance pair spectrometer. The measured partial branching ratios, R γ , for photons of E γ >57 MeV are 1.43±0.13, 1.93±0.18, 2.09±0.19, 1.11±0.11, 0.98±0.09, and 0.60±0.07 respectively, in units of 10 -5 . The results confirm the previously observed suppression of R γ with increasing Z for Z>20. For 40 Ca the present result is in good agreement with previous measurements. For the heavier nuclei, the results are compared with two recent calculations performed in the Fermi-gas model. In one case the data indicate a complete quenching of g p , but the more recent calculation does not reproduce the data for any value of g p

  13. Analytisch-chemische aspecten van de bepaling van As, Ca, Cd, Sb, Sn, Pb, Zn in MVS-filterdestruaten met ICP-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde-Koerts T van der; Lesquillier AI; Ritsema R; LAC

    1995-01-01

    In dit onderzoek werd een ICP-MS-methode ontwikkeld voor de bepaling van Ca, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Sn en Pb in filterdestruaten. De onderste analysegrens is 30 ng/l Sb, 60 ng/l Cd, 200 ng/l As, 300 ng/l Sn, 400 ng/l Pb, 4 mug/l Zn en 20 mug/l Ca ; de precisie is beter dan 7% RSD voor Ca, 4% RSD voor

  14. Microstructure and electrochemical corrosion behavior of a Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy for lead-acid battery components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Leandro C.; Osorio, Wislei R.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 612, 13083-970, Campinas - SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of solidification cooling rates on the as-cast microstructural morphologies of a Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy, and to correlate the resulting microstructure with the corresponding electrochemical corrosion resistance in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. Cylindrical low-carbon steel and insulating molds were employed permitting the two extremes of a significant range of solidification cooling rates to be experimentally examined. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis were used to evaluate the electrochemical corrosion response of Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy samples. It was found that lower cooling rates are associated with coarse cellular arrays which result in better corrosion resistance than fine cells which are related to high cooling rates. The experimental results have shown that that the pre-programming of microstructure cell size of Pb-Sn alloys can be used as an alternative way to produce as-cast components of lead-acid batteries with higher corrosion resistance. (author)

  15. Systematic study of Si-based GeSn photodiodes with 2.6 µm detector cutoff for short-wave infrared detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thach; Du, Wei; Tran, Huong; Margetis, Joe; Tolle, John; Sun, Greg; Soref, Richard A; Naseem, Hameed A; Li, Baohua; Yu, Shui-Qing

    2016-03-07

    Normal-incidence Ge 1-x Sn x photodiode detectors with Sn compositions of 7 and 10% have been demonstrated. Such detectors were based on Ge/Ge 1-x Sn x /Ge double heterostructures grown directly on a Si substrate via a chemical vapor deposition system. A temperature-dependence study of these detectors was conducted using both electrical and optical characterizations from 300 to 77 K. Spectral response up to 2.6 µm was achieved for a 10% Sn device at room temperature. The peak responsivity and specific detectivity (D*) were measured to be 0.3 A/W and 4 × 10 9 cmHz 1/2 W -1 at 1.55 µm, respectively. The spectral D* of a 7% Sn device at 77 K was only one order-of-magnitude lower than that of an extended-InGaAs photodiode operating in the same wavelength range, indicating the promising future of GeSn-based photodetectors.

  16. Compositional dependence of the band-gap of Ge{sub 1−x−y}Si{sub x}Sn{sub y} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendav, Torsten, E-mail: wendav@physik.hu-berlin.de [AG Theoretische Optik & Photonik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Fischer, Inga A.; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg [Institut für Halbleitertechnik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Montanari, Michele; Zoellner, Marvin Hartwig; Klesse, Wolfgang [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Capellini, Giovanni [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, Viale Marconi 446, 00146 Roma (Italy); Driesch, Nils von den; Buca, Dan [Peter Grünberg Institute 9 (PGI 9) and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technologies, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Busch, Kurt [AG Theoretische Optik & Photonik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2 A, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-13

    The group-IV semiconductor alloy Ge{sub 1−x−y}Si{sub x}Sn{sub y} has recently attracted great interest due to its prospective potential for use in optoelectronics, electronics, and photovoltaics. Here, we investigate molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge{sub 1−x−y}Si{sub x}Sn{sub y} alloys lattice-matched to Ge with large Si and Sn concentrations of up to 42% and 10%, respectively. The samples were characterized in detail by Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectroscopy for composition and crystal quality, x-ray diffraction for strain determination, and photoluminescence spectroscopy for the assessment of band-gap energies. Moreover, the experimentally extracted material parameters were used to determine the SiSn bowing and to make predictions about the optical transition energy.

  17. Effect of impurities in niobium on the growth of superconducting Nb/sub 3//Sn. [Al, Cu, Ge, Si, Sn, Zr impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekizawa, T

    1974-01-01

    In order to examine the possibility of reducing the heat treatment temperature in the manufacturing process of the superconducting intermetallic compounds wire or ribbon by the metallurgical bond method, tin cored specimens of niobium including a small amount of impurity (Al, Cu, Ge, Si, Sn and Zr) have been prepared, and the critical currents measured as a function of the heat treatment temperature and time. Experimental results are summarized as follows. (1) The effect of the impurity added into niobium is to stabilize the dislocation network cell structure in niobium, caused by the cold working, up to the forming temperature of Nb/sub 3/Sn. The stabilized dislocation network structure is considered to serve as diffusion pipes of the tin atom. As this diffusion (microscopic) is predominant over bulk diffusion (macroscopic), the cored specimen made of niobium including impurities has lower forming temperature of Nb/sub 3/Sn compared with the specimen made of pure niobium. (2) The critical current vs. heat treatment temperature characteristics show that the critical current peaks at 900/sup 0/C in the case of niobium including Si, while at 950/sup 0/C in the case of pure niobium. 6 references.

  18. Latest results from NA50 on $J/\\psi$ suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Beolè, S; Alessandro, B; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borenstein, S R; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castor, J I; Castanier, C; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; De Marco, N; De Falco, A; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, G; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Ramello, L; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the NA50 experiment is to study the J/ psi suppression pattern in Pb-Pb interactions, at 158 GeV/c per nucleon at the CERN SPS. We present here the results from the 1996 and 1998 data taking periods. We used new event selection procedures, different analysis techniques and different event centrality estimators and we now confirm and extend our previous observation that the J/ psi is anomalously suppressed when going from peripheral to central Pb-Pb collisions. We observe that in peripheral collisions the J/ psi cross section per nucleon-nucleon collision agrees with the pattern inferred from a wide range of measurements with lighter systems, from p-p to S-U. When the collisions become more central a clear departure from this behavior is observed. The 1996 data show a sudden drop in the J/ psi production yield for transverse energy values above 40 GeV. The 1998 data provide a big improvement in the study of the most central region, where a second change in the pattern becomes visible. This sup...

  19. Investigation of Central Pb-Pb Interactions at Energies of 160 GeV/Nucleon with the Help of the Emulsion Magnetic Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU15 \\\\ \\\\ The aim of this experiment is to investigate high energy heavy ion central collisions by the use of emulsion magnetic chamber with high spatial resolution. The emulsion chamber consists of 50~emulsion layers 50~microns thick each coated on 25~microns mylar base. A thin lead target plate 300~microns thick is installed immediately in front of the first emulsion layer. It is placed in the transverse magnetic field B~$\\sim$~2~Tesla and is to be installed perpendicularly to Pb nucleus beam. This set-up enables to measure full 3-momenta and charge signs of secondary particles. \\\\ \\\\Specific goal is to carry out detailed analysis of individual events with super high multiplicity of secondaries. These data are to be used for investigation of properties of super hot/dense matter, in particular to look for and analyze possible manifestations of quark-gluon plasma in central Pb-Pb collisions at energies of 160~GeV/nucleon.

  20. Damping at high homologous temperature in pure Cd, In, Pb, and Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, L.S.; Lakes, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Typically, if a material possesses the stiffness necessary to be considered a structural material, its damping is low. Conversely, materials with high damping usually do not possess the stiffness necessary to be considered a structural material. Candidate materials for the high stiffness-low damping phase exist in abundance, whereas candidate materials for the moderate stiffness-high damping phase remain to be identified. One possible class of candidate materials for the moderate stiffness-high damping phase is metals at high homologous temperatures. Shear moduli of the specimens at 100 Hz are as follows: 4.1 GPa for indium, 5.7 GPa for lead, 15.7 GPa for tin, and 20.7 GPa for cadmium. Considering the behavior typical of metals, one may think of In and Pb as relatively compliant, while Sn and Cd could be called moderately stiff. The results are of some technological interest in view of the utility of materials with moderately high stiffness and damping. The combination of moderate stiffness and reasonably high loss tangent makes Cd the most promising metal tested with respect to technological applications. The shear modulus of Cd was highest of the metals tested (and very near that of aluminum (G = 27 GPa), which exhibits a loss tangent of about 0.001 at room temperature). The loss tangent of Cd at audio-frequencies was as high or higher than that of the other metals. In addition, frequency dependence of loss tangent was not as large as that observed in the other metals. No clear pattern relating damping to melting point emerged. An understanding in terms of viscoelastic mechanisms is not forthcoming at this time. Among the metal studied, cadmium exhibited a substantial loss tangent of 0.03 to 0.04 over much of the audio range, combined with a moderate stiffness, G = 20.7 GPa

  1. The crystal structure of franckeite, Pb21.7Sn9.3Fe4.0Sb8.1S56.9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Petricek, Vaclav; Dusek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    and forms a homologous pair with cylindrite, which has thinner Q slabs. The Q slabs in franckeite are four atomic layers thick. The two components have their own lattices and a common modulation. The Q slab of the refined franckeite structure, Pb21.74Sn9.34Fe3.95Sb8.08S56.87, is an MS layer (M = Pb2+, Sn2...... layer (M = Sn4+, Fe2+) with a = 3.665(8), b = 6.2575(16), c = 17.419(5) Å, a = 95.25(2)°, ß = 95.45(2)°, ¿ = 89.97(2)°; the modulation vector is q = –0.00087(8) a* + 0.13725(16) b* – 0.0314(4) c*. The a and b vectors of both subsystems are parallel; the c vectors diverge. (3+2)D superspace refinement...... was refined as Pb0.74(Sn,Sb)0.26, whereas that of cations, which are adjacent to the interspace with lone electron pairs, with a configuration analogous to that observed in orthorhombic SnS, corresponds to (Sn,Sb)0.73Pb0.27. Iron is dispersed over the octahedral Sn4+ sites in the H layer. Transversal...

  2. Synthesis, structure, and luminescence properties of In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghoon; An, Soyeon; Jin, Changhyun; Lee, Chongmu [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires were synthesized by using a two-step process: thermal evaporation of a mixture of In and Ge powders and atomic layer deposition of SnO{sub 2}. The core-shell nanowires were characterized using by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} cores in these core-shell nanowires varied from 50 to 100 nanometers in diameter and up to a few hundreds of micrometers in length, and the SnO{sub 2} shell layer thickness ranged from 5 to 15 nm. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanowires had a weak broad violet emission band centered at approximately 405 nm. In contrast, the In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires had a taller blue-violet emission peak at approximately 440 nm. The optimum shell layer thickness of the In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires for the highest PL intensity was found to be 15 nm. Our results also showed that the intensity of the blue-violet emission was increased further by thermal annealing in an Ar atmosphere. The origins of the change on and the enhancement of the luminescence of the In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanowires by SnO{sub 2} coating and annealing are discussed.

  3. Development of nanotopography during SIMS characterization of thin films of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, M., E-mail: secchi@fbk.eu [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, TN (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Demenev, E. [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, TN (Italy); Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, Ca’Foscari University, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Colaux, J.L. [Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Giubertoni, D.; Dell’Anna, R.; Iacob, E. [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, TN (Italy); Gwilliam, R.M.; Jeynes, C. [Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Bersani, M. [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, TN (Italy)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • SIMS protocol to measure high Sn concentration in GeSn alloy is proposed. • Cs{sup +} as incidence beam, collecting positive ions MCs{sup +} was the chosen configuration. • Applied sputtering conditions induced an early formation of surface topography. • Unusual dot and ripple evolution at oblique incidence angle on Ge were studied. • Two different mechanisms seem to be involved: ripple formation and nanovoids in Ge. - Abstract: This work presents a study of application of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to measure tin concentration in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloy with x higher than solid solubility ∼1%, i.e. well above the diluted regime where SIMS measurements usually provide the most reliable quantitative results. SIMS analysis was performed on Sn{sup +} ion implanted Ge films, epitaxially deposited on Si, and on chemical vapor deposition deposited Ge{sub 0.93}Sn{sub 0.07} alloy. Three SIMS conditions were investigated, varying primary beam ion species and secondary ion polarity keeping 1 keV impact energy. Best depth profile accuracy, best agreement with the fluences measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, good detection limit (∼1 × 10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 3}) and depth resolution (∼2 nm/decade) are achieved in Cs{sup +}/SnCs{sup +} configuration. However, applied sputtering conditions (Cs{sup +} 1 keV, 64° incidence vs. normal) induced an early formation of surface topography on the crater bottom resulting in significant variation of sputtering yield. Atomic force microscopy shows a peculiar topography developed on Ge: for oblique incidence, a topography consisting in a sequence of dots and ripples was observed on the crater bottom. This behavior is unusual for grazing incidence and has been observed to increase with the Cs{sup +} fluence. Rotating sample during sputtering prevents this ripple formation and consequently improves the depth accuracy.

  4. Enhancement of hyperon production at central rapidity in 158 A GeV/c Pb-Pb collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antinori, F.; Bacon, P.; Balada, A.; Staroba, Pavel; Závada, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2006), s. 427-441 ISSN 0954-3899 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : central Pb-Pb * hyperon * antihyperon * yield * rapidity * transverse momentum Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.781, year: 2006

  5. Effects of GeI2 or ZnI2 addition to perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Ohishi, Yuya; Oku, Takeo

    2018-01-01

    CH3NH3PbI3 added with GeI2 or ZnI2 perovskite photovoltaic devices were fabricated characterized. The surface coverages of the perovskite layers were improved by the addition of GeI2 or ZnI2. Formation of PbI2 observed for the pristine CH3NH3PbI3 was suppressed by the GeI2 or ZnI2 addition, which resulted in the improvement of the conversion efficiencies of the perovskite photovoltaic devices.

  6. Cross-sections of spallation residues produced in 1A GeV 208Pb on proton reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlazlo, W.; Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow; Enqvist, T.; Armbruster, P.

    2000-02-01

    Spallation residues produced in 1 GeV per nucleon 208 Pb on proton reactions have been studied using the fragment separator facility at GSI. Isotopic production cross-sections of elements from 61 Pm to 82 Pb have been measured down to 0.1 mb with a high accuracy. The recoil kinetic energies of the produced fragments were also determined. The obtained cross-sections agree with most of the few existing gamma-spectroscopy data. Data are compared with different intranuclear-cascade and evaporation-fission models. Drastic deviations were found for a standard code used in technical applications. (orig.)

  7. Relativistic GW calculations on CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3SnI3 perovskites for solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, Paolo; Mosconi, Edoardo; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-03-26

    Hybrid AMX3 perovskites (A = Cs, CH3NH3; M = Sn, Pb; X = halide) have revolutionized the scenario of emerging photovoltaic technologies, with very recent results demonstrating 15% efficient solar cells. The CH3NH3PbI3/MAPb(I(1-x)Cl(x))3 perovskites have dominated the field, while the similar CH3NH3SnI3 has not been exploited for photovoltaic applications. Replacement of Pb by Sn would facilitate the large uptake of perovskite-based photovoltaics. Despite the extremely fast progress, the materials electronic properties which are key to the photovoltaic performance are relatively little understood. Density Functional Theory electronic structure methods have so far delivered an unbalanced description of Pb- and Sn-based perovskites. Here we develop an effective GW method incorporating spin-orbit coupling which allows us to accurately model the electronic, optical and transport properties of CH3NH3SnI3 and CH3NH3PbI3, opening the way to new materials design. The different CH3NH3SnI3 and CH3NH3PbI3 electronic properties are discussed in light of their exploitation for solar cells, and found to be dominantly due to relativistic effects. These effects stabilize the CH3NH3PbI3 material towards oxidation, by inducing a deeper valence band edge. Relativistic effects, however, also increase the material band-gap compared to CH3NH3SnI3, due to the valence band energy downshift (~0.7 eV) being only partly compensated by the conduction band downshift (~0.2 eV).

  8. Displacive phase transition at the 5/3 monolayer of Pb on Ge(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetko, D.; Ratto, F.; Cossaro, A.; Floreano, L.; Bavdek, G.; Morgante, A.

    2005-01-01

    At a coverage of 5/3 monolayer (ML), Pb adsorbed on Ge(001) forms a ground phase displaying a ((2 1/0 6)) symmetry. This phase undergoes two reversible phase transitions ((2 1/0 6))↔((2 1/0 3))↔(2x1) at the critical temperatures T c 1 ∼178 K and T c 2 ∼375 K, respectively. We investigated the behavior of the relevant order parameters at the critical temperatures by means of He and in-plane x-ray diffraction (HAS and XRD, respectively). Both phase transitions at the critical temperature put in evidence a clear order-disorder behavior, in agreement with the universality class expected for the corresponding symmetry group transformation. The low-temperature transition yields the critical exponent of the two-dimensional (2-D) Ising universality class, whereas the three-state Potts' critical exponents are found for the high-temperature transition. By out-of-plane XRD measurements, the low-temperature phase transition is observed to be accompanied by a static surface distortion at room temperature. A complementary HAS study of the temperature evolution of the surface charge corrugation reveals that the complete ((2 1/0 6))↔((2 1/0 3)) transition is of the displacive type. On the contrary, the high-temperature phase transition does not show any change of the surface corrugation up to its irreversible decomposition, thus pointing to a pure order-disorder character

  9. Displacive phase transition at the 5/3 monolayer of Pb on Ge(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetko, D.; Ratto, F.; Cossaro, A.; Bavdek, G.; Morgante, A.; Floreano, L.

    2005-07-01

    At a coverage of 5/3 monolayer (ML), Pb adsorbed on Ge(001) forms a ground phase displaying a ((21)/(06)) symmetry. This phase undergoes two reversible phase transitions ((21)/(06))↔((21)/(03))↔(2×1) at the critical temperatures Tc1˜178K and Tc2˜375K , respectively. We investigated the behavior of the relevant order parameters at the critical temperatures by means of He and in-plane x-ray diffraction (HAS and XRD, respectively). Both phase transitions at the critical temperature put in evidence a clear order-disorder behavior, in agreement with the universality class expected for the corresponding symmetry group transformation. The low-temperature transition yields the critical exponent of the two-dimensional (2-D) Ising universality class, whereas the three-state Potts’ critical exponents are found for the high-temperature transition. By out-of-plane XRD measurements, the low-temperature phase transition is observed to be accompanied by a static surface distortion at room temperature. A complementary HAS study of the temperature evolution of the surface charge corrugation reveals that the complete ((21)/(06))↔((21)/(03)) transition is of the displacive type. On the contrary, the high-temperature phase transition does not show any change of the surface corrugation up to its irreversible decomposition, thus pointing to a pure order-disorder character.

  10. Powder metallurgical processing of functionally graded p-Pb1-x Sn x Te materials for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbstein, Y.; Dashevsky, Z.; Dariel, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Lead tin telluride-based compounds are p-type materials for thermoelectric applications, in the 50-600 deg. C temperature range. The electronic transport properties of PbTe and Pb 1- x Sn x Te materials are strongly dependent on the processing approach. Powder metallurgy is a suitable approach for the preparation of Functionally graded materials (FGMs) but its effects on the electronic properties have to be carefully checked. Powder metallurgical processing may introduce atomic defects and local strains into the material and, thereby, alter the carrier concentration. Such material may be in non-equilibrium conditions at the operating temperature with unstable thermoelectric properties. This effect can be reduced and eliminated by appropriate annealing procedures. In FGMs, annealing up to the stabilization of the thermoelectric properties is mandatory for achieving the desired carrier concentration profile along the sample. The design procedures of the FGMs, as well as the annealing effects on cold compacted and sintered Pb 1- x Sn x Te samples are described in details

  11. The pure rotational spectra of the open-shell diatomic molecules PbI and SnI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Corey J., E-mail: cje8@le.ac.uk, E-mail: nick.walker@newcastle.ac.uk; Needham, Lisa-Maria E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Walker, Nicholas R., E-mail: cje8@le.ac.uk, E-mail: nick.walker@newcastle.ac.uk; Köckert, Hansjochen; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Stephens, Susanna L. [School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-28

    Pure rotational spectra of the ground electronic states of lead monoiodide and tin monoiodide have been measured using a chirped pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer over the 7-18.5 GHz region for the first time. Each of PbI and SnI has a X {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} ground electronic state and may have a hyperfine structure that aids the determination of the electron electric dipole moment. For each species, pure rotational transitions of a number of different isotopologues and their excited vibrational states have been assigned and fitted. A multi-isotopologue Dunham-type analysis was carried out on both species producing values for Y{sub 01}, Y{sub 02}, Y{sub 11}, and Y{sub 21}, along with Λ-doubling constants, magnetic hyperfine constants and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants. The Born-Oppenheimer breakdown parameters for Pb have been evaluated and the parameter rationalized in terms of finite nuclear field effects. Analysis of the bond lengths and hyperfine interaction indicates that the bonding in both PbI and SnI is ionic in nature. Equilibrium bond lengths have been evaluated for both species.

  12. The pure rotational spectra of the open-shell diatomic molecules PbI and SnI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Corey J; Needham, Lisa-Maria E; Walker, Nicholas R; Köckert, Hansjochen; Zaleski, Daniel P; Stephens, Susanna L

    2015-12-28

    Pure rotational spectra of the ground electronic states of lead monoiodide and tin monoiodide have been measured using a chirped pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer over the 7-18.5 GHz region for the first time. Each of PbI and SnI has a X (2)Π1/2 ground electronic state and may have a hyperfine structure that aids the determination of the electron electric dipole moment. For each species, pure rotational transitions of a number of different isotopologues and their excited vibrational states have been assigned and fitted. A multi-isotopologue Dunham-type analysis was carried out on both species producing values for Y01, Y02, Y11, and Y21, along with Λ-doubling constants, magnetic hyperfine constants and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants. The Born-Oppenheimer breakdown parameters for Pb have been evaluated and the parameter rationalized in terms of finite nuclear field effects. Analysis of the bond lengths and hyperfine interaction indicates that the bonding in both PbI and SnI is ionic in nature. Equilibrium bond lengths have been evaluated for both species.

  13. Magnetocaloric effect and transport properties of Gd5Ge2(Si1-x Sn x )2 (x=0.23 and 0.40) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoy, J.C.P.; Plaza, E.J.R.; Nascimento, F.C.; Coelho, A.A.; Pereira, M.C.; Fabris, J.D.; Raposo, M.T.; Cardoso, L.P.; Persiano, A.I.C.; Gama, S.

    2007-01-01

    We report a study about the structural properties of polycrystalline samples of nominal composition Gd 5 Ge 2 (Si 1- x Sn x ) 2 (x=0.23, 0.40) that closely influence their physical behavior particularly related to electric resistivity and magnetocaloric (MCE) effect. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rietveld refinement method, metallographic analyses, 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy, DC magnetization and electrical transport measurements. It was identified a Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 -monoclinic phase for x=0.23 and a Sm 5 Sn 4 -orthorhombic phase (type II) for x=0.40, both with two non-equivalent crystallographic sites for the Sn ions. We were able to infer on the role of tin on the magnetic and transport properties in these compounds

  14. Theoretical study on photon-phonon coupling at (001)-(2 x 1) surfaces of Ge and {alpha}-Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, F.L. [Escuela de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma ' ' Benito Juarez' ' de Oaxaca, Av. Universidad S/N, Ex-Hacienda de Cinco Senores, Ciudad Universitaria, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., 68120 (Mexico); Perez-Rodriguez, F. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. J-48, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    We present a study of the far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra for (001) surfaces of Ge and {alpha}-Sn in the (2 x 1) asymmetric dimer geometry, which exhibit a resonance structure associated with the excitation of surface phonon modes. We have employed a theoretical formalism, based on the adiabatic bond-charge model (ABCM), for computing the far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra. In comparison with previous theoretical results for silicon and diamond surfaces, the resonance structure in the reflectance anisotropy spectrum for Ge(001)-(2 x 1) turns out to be similar to that observed in the spectrum for the Si(001)-(2 x 1) surface, whereas the spectrum for {alpha}-Sn(001)-(2 x 1) surface is noticeably different from the others. We have established a trend of far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra for IV(001) surfaces: the weaker dimer strength, the stronger resonances of low-frequency surface phonons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Tuning Bandgap of p-Type Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 Semiconductor Thin Films via Aqueous Polymer-Assisted Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qinghua; Wu, Jiang; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Hao; Hu, Jiapeng; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu

    2017-01-18

    Bandgap engineering of kesterite Cu 2 Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se) 4 with well-controlled stoichiometric composition plays a critical role in sustainable inorganic photovoltaics. Herein, a cost-effective and reproducible aqueous solution-based polymer-assisted deposition approach is developed to grow p-type Cu 2 Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se) 4 thin films with tunable bandgap. The bandgap of Cu 2 Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se) 4 thin films can be tuned within the range 1.05-1.95 eV using the aqueous polymer-assisted deposition by accurately controlling the elemental compositions. One of the as-grown Cu 2 Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se) 4 thin films exhibits a hall coefficient of +137 cm 3 /C. The resistivity, concentration and carrier mobility of the Cu 2 ZnSn(S, Se) 4 thin film are 3.17 ohm·cm, 4.5 × 10 16 cm -3 , and 43 cm 2 /(V·S) at room temperature, respectively. Moreover, the Cu 2 ZnSn(S, Se) 4 thin film when used as an active layer in a solar cell leads to a power conversion efficiency of 3.55%. The facile growth of Cu 2 Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se) 4 thin films in an aqueous system, instead of organic solvents, provides great promise as an environmental-friendly platform to fabricate a variety of single/multi metal chalcogenides for the thin film industry and solution-processed photovoltaic devices.

  16. Intrinsic defect processes and elastic properties of Ti3AC2 (A = Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In, Sn) MAX phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, S.-R. G.; Filippatos, P. P.; Hadi, M. A.; Kelaidis, N.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.; Chroneos, A.

    2018-01-01

    Mn+1AXn phases (M = early transition metal; A = group 13-16 element and X = C or N) have a combination of advantageous metallic and ceramic properties, and are being considered for structural applications particularly where high thermal conductivity and operating temperature are the primary drivers: for example in nuclear fuel cladding. Here, we employ density functional theory calculations to investigate the intrinsic defect processes and mechanical behaviour of a range of Ti3AC2 phases (A = Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In, Sn). Based on the intrinsic defect reaction, it is calculated that Ti3SnC2 is the more radiation-tolerant 312 MAX phase considered herein. In this material, the C Frenkel reaction is the lowest energy intrinsic defect mechanism with 5.50 eV. When considering the elastic properties of the aforementioned MAX phases, Ti3SiC2 is the hardest and Ti3SnC2 is the softest. All the MAX phases considered here are non-central force solids and brittle in nature. Ti3SiC2 is elastically more anisotropic and Ti3AlC2 is nearly isotropic.

  17. Large anomalous Nernst and spin Nernst effects in the noncollinear antiferromagnets Mn3X (X =Sn ,Ge ,Ga )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang-Yu; Wang, Tzu-Cheng

    2017-12-01

    Noncollinear antiferromagnets have recently been attracting considerable interest partly due to recent surprising discoveries of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in them and partly because they have promising applications in antiferromagnetic spintronics. Here we study the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE), a phenomenon having the same origin as the AHE, and also the spin Nernst effect (SNE) as well as AHE and the spin Hall effect (SHE) in noncollinear antiferromagnetic Mn3X (X =Sn , Ge, Ga) within the Berry phase formalism based on ab initio relativistic band structure calculations. For comparison, we also calculate the anomalous Nernst conductivity (ANC) and anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) of ferromagnetic iron as well as the spin Nernst conductivity (SNC) of platinum metal. Remarkably, the calculated ANC at room temperature (300 K) for all three alloys is huge, being 10-40 times larger than that of iron. Moreover, the calculated SNC for Mn3Sn and Mn3Ga is also larger, being about five times larger than that of platinum. This suggests that these antiferromagnets would be useful materials for thermoelectronic devices and spin caloritronic devices. The calculated ANC of Mn3Sn and iron are in reasonably good agreement with the very recent experiments. The calculated SNC of platinum also agrees with the very recent experiments in both sign and magnitude. The calculated thermoelectric and thermomagnetic properties are analyzed in terms of the band structures as well as the energy-dependent AHC, ANC, SNC, and spin Hall conductivity via the Mott relations.

  18. Low-mass lepton pair production in Pb - Au collisions at 40 A $\\cdot$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073202; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B C; Maas, A; Marin, A; Milosevic, J; Milov, A; Miskowiec, D; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O Yu; Petrácek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schükraft, Jürgen; Sedykh, S; Seipp, W; Shimansky, S S; Slívova, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2003-01-01

    The CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS has previously measured e **+e**- pair production in 160 A center dot GeV Pb-Au collisions. In the mass region m greater than 0.2 GeV/c**2, an enhancement of 2.7 plus or minus 0.4(stat.) plus or minus 0.5(syst.) compared to the expectation from known hadronic decay sources was observed. In the 40 A center dot GeV data taken in 1999, an enhancement is again found; a preliminary analysis gives an even larger value of 5.0 plus or minus 1.3(stat.). The results are compared to theoretical model calculations based on pi**+ pi**- annihilation with a modified rho- propagator; they may be related to chiral symmetry restoration. 17 Refs.

  19. Electronic structure and magnetism of new ilmenite compounds for spintronic devices: FeBO{sub 3} (B = Ti, Hf, Zr, Si, Ge, Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, R.A.P. [Department of Chemistry, State University of Ponta Grossa, Av. General Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Camilo, A. [Department of Physics, State University of Ponta Grossa, Av. General Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Lazaro, S.R. de, E-mail: srlazaro@uepg.br [Department of Chemistry, State University of Ponta Grossa, Av. General Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    First-principles calculations were performed in the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) within hybrid functional (B3LYP) to study the electronic structure and magnetic properties of new ilmenite FeBO{sub 3} (B=Ti, Hf, Zr, Si, Ge, Sn) materials. In particular, the magnetic exchange interaction between Fe{sup 2+} layers is dependent on the interlayer distance and it can be controlled by ionic radius of B-site cation. Thus, Fe(Ti, Si, Ge)O{sub 3} are antiferromagnetic materials, while Fe(Zr, Hf, Sn)O{sub 3} are ferromagnetic. We also argue that antiferromagnetic materials and FeZrO{sub 3} are convectional semiconductors, whereas FeHfO{sub 3} and FeSnO{sub 3} exhibit intrinsic half-metallic behavior, making them promising candidates for spintronic devices. - Highlights: • We study electronic structure and magnetism of new FeBO{sub 3} (B=Ti, Hf, Zr, Si, Ge, Sn) ilmenite materials. • We found that magnetic ordering of Fe-based ilmenite materials can be controlled by size of B-site cation. • Fe(Ti, Zr, Si, Ge)O{sub 3} are convectional semiconductors. • FeHfO{sub 3} and FeSnO{sub 3} exhibit intrinsic half-metallic behavior with potential application for spintronic devices.

  20. Cd-diffused Pb/sub 1-x/Sn/sub x/Te lasers with high output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, W.

    1976-01-01

    Cd-diffused Pb 1 /sub -//subx/Sn/subx/Te (xapprox.0.13) diode lasers have been fabricated with cw output powers of 1.25 mW (single mode) and 2.4 mW (total) at 10.6 μm. These power levels are attributed to the low-temperature Cd diffusion, a new method of growing low-dislocation-density crystals, and to a contact resistance as low as 3x10 -5 Ω cm 2 . Multimode emission spectra are common for cw operation, but reducing the cavity width encourages single-mode emission, indicating the filamentary nature of modes in these devices

  1. Excitation of giant monopole resonance in {sup 208}Pb and {sup 116}Sn using inelastic deuteron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, D.; Garg, U. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Itoh, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Akimune, H. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Berg, G.P.A. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Fujiwara, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, 14076 Caen (France); Iwamoto, C. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Kawabata, T. [Division of Physics and Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawase, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Matta, J.T. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Murakami, T. [Division of Physics and Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Okamoto, A. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Sako, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Schlax, K.W. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Takahashi, F. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); White, M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Yosoi, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-07-30

    The excitation of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) in {sup 208}Pb and {sup 116}Sn has been investigated using small-angle (including 0°) inelastic scattering of 100 MeV/u deuteron and multipole-decomposition analysis (MDA). The extracted strength distributions agree well with those from inelastic scattering of 100 MeV/u α particles. These measurements establish deuteron inelastic scattering at E{sub d}∼100 MeV/u as a suitable probe for extraction of the ISGMR strength with MDA, making feasible the investigation of this resonance in radioactive isotopes in inverse kinematics.

  2. Bloating in (Pb0.95Sn0.05Te)0.92(PbS)0.08-0.055%PbI2 Thermoelectric Specimens as a Result of Processing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jennifer E.; Case, Eldon D.; Stewart, Ryan; Wu, Chun-I.; Hogan, Timothy P.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2012-06-01

    Lead chalcogenides such as (Pb0.95Sn0.05Te)0.92(PbS)0.08-0.055%PbI2 have received attention due to their encouraging thermoelectric properties. For the hot pressing (HP) and pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) techniques used in this study, decomposition reactions can generate porosity (bloating). Porosity in turn can degrade electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. In this study, microstructural observations (scanning electron microscopy) and room-temperature elasticity measurements (resonant ultrasound spectroscopy) were used to characterize bloating generated during post-densification anneals. Although every HP specimen bloated during post-densification annealing, no bloating was observed for the PECS specimens processed from dry milled only powders. The lack of bloating for the annealed PECS specimens may be related to the electrical discharge intrinsic in the PECS process, which reportedly cleans the powder particle surfaces during densification.

  3. Preparation and structural characterization of SnO2 and GeO2 methanol steam reforming thin film model catalysts by (HR)TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Harald; Zhao Qian; Turner, Stuart; Lebedev, Oleg I.; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Kloetzer, Bernhard; Rameshan, Christoph; Penner, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Structure, morphology and composition of different tin oxide and germanium oxide thin film catalysts for the methanol steam reforming (MSR) reaction have been studied by a combination of (high-resolution) transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, dark-field imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Deposition of the thin films on NaCl(0 0 1) cleavage faces has been carried out by thermal evaporation of the respective SnO 2 and GeO 2 powders in varying oxygen partial pressures and at different substrate temperatures. Preparation of tin oxide films in high oxygen pressures (10 -1 Pa) exclusively resulted in SnO phases, at and above 473 K substrate temperature epitaxial growth of SnO on NaCl(0 0 1) leads to well-ordered films. For lower oxygen partial pressures (10 -3 to 10 -2 Pa), mixtures of SnO and β-Sn are obtained. Well-ordered SnO 2 films, as verified by electron diffraction patterns and energy-loss spectra, are only obtained after post-oxidation of SnO films at temperatures T ≥ 673 K in 10 5 Pa O 2 . Preparation of GeO x films inevitably results in amorphous films with a composition close to GeO 2 , which cannot be crystallized by annealing treatments in oxygen or hydrogen at temperatures comparable to SnO/SnO 2 . Similarities and differences to neighbouring oxides relevant for selective MSR in the third group of the periodic system (In 2 O 3 and Ga 2 O 3 ) are also discussed with the aim of cross-correlation in formation of nanomaterials, and ultimately, also catalytic properties.

  4. Optimization of Firing Temperature of PbO-doped SnO2 Sensor for Detection of Acetone, Methanol, Propanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Srivastava

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the response of a set of three PbO (1 % wt doped thick film SnO2 sensors fired at different firing temperatures (6500 C, 7500 C, 8500 C have been studied. The selection of appropriate firing temperature is necessary for the sensor fabrication in order to achieve the highest sensitivity for a particular species of gas. To achieve this, thick film PbO-doped sensor were fabricated on a 1˝x1˝ alumina substrate. The sensitivity of these sensors has been studied at different operating temperatures (1500 C-3500 C upon exposure to acetone, methanol and propanol. The sensor fired at 8500 C besides having good adhesion yields maximum sensitivity at an operating temperature of 2500 C for all gases except acetone for which it gives maximum response at 2000 C.

  5. Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors: Impact of sulfur passivation on gate stack quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Dian; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao, E-mail: elegong@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: elegong@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Material Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Tok, Eng-Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2016-01-14

    The effect of room temperature sulfur passivation of the surface of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} prior to high-k dielectric (HfO{sub 2}) deposition is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the chemical bonding at the interface of HfO{sub 2} and Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}. Sulfur passivation is found to be effective in suppressing the formation of both Ge oxides and Sn oxides. A comparison of XPS results for sulfur-passivated and non-passivated Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} samples shows that sulfur passivation of the GeSn surface could also suppress the surface segregation of Sn atoms. In addition, sulfur passivation reduces the interface trap density D{sub it} at the high-k dielectric/Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} interface from the valence band edge to the midgap of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}, as compared with a non-passivated control. The impact of the improved D{sub it} is demonstrated in Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs). Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-MOSFETs with sulfur passivation show improved subthreshold swing S, intrinsic transconductance G{sub m,int}, and effective hole mobility μ{sub eff} as compared with the non-passivated control. At a high inversion carrier density N{sub inv} of 1 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}, sulfur passivation increases μ{sub eff} by 25% in Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-MOSFETs.

  6. J/ψ azimuthal anisotropy relative to the reaction plane in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prino, F.; Alessandro, B.; Arnaldi, R.; Beole, S.; Chiavassa, E.; De Marco, N.; Gallio, M.; Giubellino, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Monteno, M.; Musso, A.; Piccotti, A.; Riccati, L.; Scomparin, E.; Sigaudo, F.; Vercellin, E.; Alexa, C.; Boldea, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Dita, S.; Atayan, M.; Grigoryan, A.A.; Grigoryan, S.; Gulkanyan, H.; Bordalo, P.; Borges, G.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Santos, H.; Shahoyan, R.; Castanier, C.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Fargeix, J.; Force, P.; Saturnini, P.; Chaurand, B.; Petiau, P.; Cheynis, B.; Guichard, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Cicalo, C.; De Falco, A.; Masoni, A.; Puddu, G.; Serci, S.; Usai, G.L.; Comets, M.P.; Gerschel, C.; Jouan, D.; Le Bornec, Y.; Mac Cormick, M.; Tarrago, X.; Villatte, L.; Willis, N.; Wu, T.; Cortese, P.; Dellacasa, G.; Ramello, L.; Sitta, M.; Golubeva, M.B.; Guber, F.F.; Karavicheva, T.L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Idzik, M.; Kluberg, L.; Lourenco, C.; Sonderegger, P.

    2009-01-01

    The J/ψ azimuthal distribution relative to the reaction plane has been measured by the NA50 experiment in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon. Various physical mechanisms related to charmonium dissociation in the medium created in the heavy ion collision are expected to introduce an anisotropy in the azimuthal distribution of the observed J/ψ mesons at SPS energies. Hence, the measurement of J/ψ elliptic anisotropy, quantified by the Fourier coefficient v 2 of the J/ψ azimuthal distribution relative to the reaction plane, is an important tool to constrain theoretical models aimed at explaining the anomalous J/ψ suppression observed in Pb-Pb collisions. We present the measured J/ψ yields in different bins of azimuthal angle relative to the reaction plane, as well as the resulting values of the Fourier coefficient v 2 as a function of the collision centrality and of the J/ψ transverse momentum. The reaction plane has been estimated from the azimuthal distribution of the neutral transverse energy detected in an electromagnetic calorimeter. The analysis has been performed on a data sample of about 100,000 events, distributed in five centrality or p T sub-samples. The extracted v 2 values are significantly larger than zero for non-central collisions and are seen to increase with p T . (orig.)

  7. J/$\\psi$ azimuthal anisotropy relative to the reaction plane in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Prino, F; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Castanier, C; Castor, J; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalo, C; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Grigoryan, A A; Grigoryan, S; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanyan, H; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavicheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Mac Cormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Riccati, L; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu, T

    2009-01-01

    The J/$\\psi$ azimuthal distribution relative to the reaction plane has been measured by the NA50 experiment in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon. Various physical mechanisms related to charmonium dissociation in the medium created in the heavy ion collision are expected to introduce an anisotropy in the azimuthal distribution of the observed J/$\\psi$ mesons at SPS energies. Hence, the measurement of J/$\\psi$ elliptic anisotropy, quantified by the Fourier coefficient v$_2$ of the J/$\\psi$ azimuthal distribution relative to the reaction plane, is an important tool to constrain theoretical models aimed at explaining the anomalous J/$\\psi$ suppression observed in Pb-Pb collisions. We present the measured J/$\\psi$ yields in different bins of azimuthal angle relative to the reaction plane, as well as the resulting values of the Fourier coefficient v$_{2}$ as a function of the collision centrality and of the J/$\\psi$ transverse momentum. The reaction plane has been estimated from the azimuthal distribution of the ...

  8. Studying Angular Distribution of Neutron for (p,n) Reaction from 0.5 GeV to 1.5 GeV on some Heavy Targets 238U, 206Pb, 197Au, 186W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Giao; Tran Thanh Dung; Nguyen Thi Ai Thu; Huynh Thi Xuan Tham

    2010-08-01

    The angular distributions of neutron are calculated for a spallation reaction induced by proton energy from 0.5 GeV to 1.5 GeV on target nuclei 206 Pb, 197 Au, 238 U, 186 W. In this report, we use nuclear data of JENDL-HE with evaluated proton induced cross-sections up to 3 GeV. The obtained results have been discussed in detail. (author)

  9. Enhanced antiproton production in Pb(160 A GeV)+Pb reactions evidence for quark gluon matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Bleicher, M; Bass, S A; Soff, S; Stöcker, H

    2000-01-01

    The centrality dependence of the antiproton per participant ratio is studied in Pb(160 AGeV)+Pb reactions. Antiproton production in collisions of heavy nuclei at the CERN/SPS seems considerably enhanced as compared to conventional hadronic physics, given by the antiproton production rates in $pp$ and antiproton annihilation in $\\bar{p}p$ reactions. This enhancement is consistent with the observation of strong in-medium effects in other hadronic observables and may be an indication of partial restoration of chiral symmetry.

  10. Characteristics of SnO2-based 68Ge/68Ga generator and aspects of radiolabelling DOTA-peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, Erik; Sze Chan, Ho; Naidoo, Clive; Prince, Deidre; Krenning, Eric P; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2011-02-01

    PET scintigraphy with (68)Ga-labelled analogs is of increasing interest in Nuclear Medicine and performed all over the world. Here we report the characteristics of the eluate of SnO(2)-based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators prepared by iThemba LABS (Somerset West, South Africa). Three purification and concentration techniques of the eluate for labelling DOTA-TATE and concordant SPE purifications were investigated. Characteristics of 4 SnO(2)-based generators (range 0.4-1 GBq (68)Ga in the eluate) and several concentration techniques of the eluate (HCl) were evaluated. The elution profiles of SnO(2)-based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators were monitored, while [HCl] of the eluens was varied from 0.3-1.0 M. Metal ions and sterility of the eluate were determined by ICP. Fractionated elution and concentration of the (68)Ga eluate were performed using anion and cation exchange. Concentrated (68)Ga eluate, using all three concentration techniques, was used for labelling of DOTA-TATE. (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE-containing solution was purified and RNP increased by SPE, therefore also 11 commercially available SPE columns were investigated. The amount of elutable (68)Ga activity varies when the concentration of the eluens, HCl, was varied, while (68)Ge activity remains virtually constant. SnO(2)-based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator elutes at 0.6 M HCl >100% of the (68)Ga activity at calibration time and ±75% after 300 days. Eluate at discharge was sterile and Endotoxins were 80%). Highest desorption for cation purification was obtained using a solution containing 90% acetone at increasing molarity of HCl, resulted in a (68)Ga desorption of 68±8%. With all (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators and for all 3 purification methods a SA up to 50 MBq/nmol with >95% incorporation (ITLC) and RCP (radiochemical purity) by HPLC ±90% could be achieved. Purification and concentration of the eluate with anion exchange has the benefit of more elutable (68)Ga with 1 M HCl as eluens. The additional washing step of the anion column

  11. Pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} on amorphous dielectric layers towards monolithic 3D photonic integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haofeng; Brouillet, Jeremy; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} crystallized on amorphous layers at <450 °C towards 3D Si photonic integration. We developed two approaches to seed the lateral single crystal growth: (1) utilize the Gibbs-Thomson eutectic temperature depression at the tip of an amorphous GeSn nanotaper for selective nucleation; (2) laser-induced nucleation at one end of a GeSn strip. Either way, the crystallized Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} is dominated by a single grain >18 μm long that forms optoelectronically benign twin boundaries with others grains. These pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} patterns are suitable for monolithic 3D integration of active photonic devices on Si.

  12. The interrelation between mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and microstructure of Pb-Sn casting alloys for lead-acid battery components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Leandro C.; Osorio, Wislei R.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 6122, 13083-970, Campinas - SP (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    It is well known that there is a strong influence of thermal processing variables on the solidification structure and as a direct consequence on the casting final properties. The morphological microstructural parameters such as grain size and cellular or dendritic spacings will depend on the heat transfer conditions imposed by the metal/mould system. There is a need to improve the understanding of the interrelation between the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of dilute Pb-Sn casting alloys which are widely used in the manufacture of battery components. The present study has established correlations between cellular microstructure, ultimate tensile strength and corrosion resistance of Pb-1 wt% Sn and Pb-2.5 wt% Sn alloys by providing a combined plot of these properties as a function of cell spacing. It was found that a compromise between good corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties can be attained by choosing an appropriate cell spacing range. (author)

  13. Photosensitive thin-film In/p-Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}S Schottky barriers: Fabrication and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gremenok, V. F., E-mail: gremenok@ifttp.bas-net.by [Scientific-Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus State Scientific and Production Association (Belarus); Rud' , V. Yu., E-mail: rudvas.spb@gmail.com [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Rud' , Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Bashkirov, S. A.; Ivanov, V. A. [Scientific-Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus State Scientific and Production Association (Belarus)

    2011-08-15

    Thin Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}S films are obtained by the 'hot-wall' method at substrate temperatures of 210-330 Degree-Sign C. The microstructure, composition, morphology, and electrical characteristics of films are investigated. On the basis of the obtained films, photosensitive In/p-Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}S Schottky barriers are fabricated for the first time. The photosensivity spectra of these structures are investigated, and the character of interband transitions and the band-gap values are determined from them. The conclusion is drawn that Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}S thin polycrystalline films may be used in solar-energy converters.

  14. Systematic study of hyperfine fields in Rh2 Y Z type Heusler alloys with 119 Sn impurity using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, S.M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetic hyperfine fields in the Heusler alloys Rh 2 Mn .98 Ge Sn 02 , Rh 2 Mn Ge .98 Sn .02 , Rh 2 Mn Pb .98 Sn .02 and Rh 2 Mn Sn has been studied by 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy at 293 K, 77 K, 4.2 K and 293 K with applied external magnetic field. The results show that when one compare the magnetic hyperfine fields systematic with the Heusler alloys X 2 Mn Z (X = Co, Ni, Cu, Pd, and Z = s p metal), this systematic is similar to the Co alloys, although can not explained by the currents models for the Heusler alloys. (author)

  15. Syntheses, structural variants and characterization of AInM′S{sub 4} (A=alkali metals, Tl; M′ = Ge, Sn) compounds; facile ion-exchange reactions of layered NaInSnS{sub 4} and KInSnS{sub 4} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru, E-mail: kvsagar@iitm.ac.in

    2016-06-15

    Ten AInM′S{sub 4} (A=alkali metals, Tl; M′= Ge, Sn) compounds with diverse structure types have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and a variety of spectroscopic methods. They are wide band gap semiconductors. KInGeS{sub 4}(1-β), RbInGeS{sub 4}(2), CsInGeS{sub 4}(3-β), TlInGeS{sub 4}(4-β), RbInSnS{sub 4}(8-β) and CsInSnS{sub 4}(9) compounds with three-dimensional BaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} structure and CsInGeS{sub 4}(3-α) and TlInGeS{sub 4}(4-α) compounds with a layered TlInSiS{sub 4} structure have tetrahedral [InM′S{sub 4}]{sup −} frameworks. On the other hand, LiInSnS{sub 4}(5) with spinel structure and NaInSnS{sub 4}(6), KInSnS{sub 4}(7), RbInSnS{sub 4}(8-α) and TlInSnS{sub 4}(10) compounds with layered structure have octahedral [InM′S{sub 4}]{sup −} frameworks. NaInSnS{sub 4}(6) and KInSnS{sub 4}(7) compounds undergo facile topotactic ion-exchange, at room temperature, with various mono-, di- and tri-valent cations in aqueous medium to give rise to metastable layered phases. - Graphical abstract: NaInSnS{sub 4} and KInSnS{sub 4} compounds undergo, in aqueous medium at room temperature, facile topotactic ion-exchange with mono, di and trivalent cations. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Ten AInM′S{sub 4} compounds with diverse structure types were synthesized. • They are wide band gap semiconductors. • NaInSnS{sub 4} and KInSnS{sub 4} compounds undergo facile topotactic ion-exchange at room temperature.

  16. X-ray fluorescence determination of Sn, Sb, Pb in lead-based bearing alloys using a solution technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lunfu; Wang, Lili; Gao, Wei; Weng, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianhui; Zou, Deshuang; Dai, Yichun; Huang, Shuke

    2018-03-01

    For the quantitative analysis of the principal elements in lead-antimony-tin alloys, directly X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method using solid metal disks introduces considerable errors due to the microstructure inhomogeneity. To solve this problem, an aqueous solution XRF method is proposed for determining major amounts of Sb, Sn, Pb in lead-based bearing alloys. The alloy samples were dissolved by a mixture of nitric acid and tartaric acid to eliminated the effects of microstructure of these alloys on the XRF analysis. Rh Compton scattering was used as internal standard for Sb and Sn, and Bi was added as internal standard for Pb, to correct for matrix effects, instrumental and operational variations. High-purity lead, antimony and tin were used to prepare synthetic standards. Using these standards, calibration curves were constructed for the three elements after optimizing the spectrometer parameters. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of lead-based bearing alloys and is more rapid than classical titration methods normally used. The determination results are consistent with certified values or those obtained by titrations.

  17. Strong anharmonicity in the phonon spectra of PbTe and SnTe from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme A. S.; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Bianco, Raffaello; Errea, Ion; Mauri, Francesco; Calandra, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    At room temperature, PbTe and SnTe are efficient thermoelectrics with a cubic structure. At low temperature, SnTe undergoes a ferroelectric transition with a critical temperature strongly dependent on the hole concentration, while PbTe is an incipient ferroelectric. By using the stochastic self-consistent harmonic approximation, we investigate the anharmonic phonon spectra and the occurrence of a ferroelectric transition in both systems. We find that vibrational spectra strongly depend on the approximation used for the exchange-correlation kernel in density-functional theory. If gradient corrections and the theoretical volume are employed, then the calculation of the phonon frequencies as obtained from the diagonalization of the free-energy Hessian leads to phonon spectra in good agreement with experimental data for both systems. In PbTe we evaluate the linear thermal expansion coefficient γ =2.3 ×10-5K-1 , finding it to be in good agreement with experimental value of γ =2.04 ×10-5K-1 . Furthermore, we study the phonon spectrum and we do reproduce the transverse optical mode phonon satellite detected in inelastic neutron scattering and the crossing between the transverse optical and the longitudinal acoustic modes along the Γ X direction. The phonon satellite becomes broader at high temperatures but its energy is essentially temperature independent, in agreement with experiments. We decompose the self-consistent harmonic free energy in second-, third-, and fourth-order anharmonic terms. We find that the third- and fourth-order terms are small. However, treating the third-order term perturbatively on top of the second-order self-consistent harmonic free energy overestimates the energy of the satellite associated with the transverse optical mode. On the contrary, a perturbative treatment on top of the harmonic Hamiltonian breaks down and leads to imaginary phonon frequencies already at 300 K. In the case of SnTe, we describe the occurrence of a ferroelectric

  18. Kaon and pion production in centrality selected minimum bias Pb+Pb collisions at 40 and 158A.GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Dinkelaker, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Results on charged kaon and negatively charged pion production and spectra for centrality selected Pb+Pb mininimum bias events at 40 and 158A GeV have been presented in this thesis. All analysis are based on data taken by the NA49 experiment at the accelerator Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. The kaon results are based on an analysis of the mean energy loss of the charged particles traversing the detector gas of the time projection chambers (TPCs). The pion results are from an analysis of all negatively charged particles h- corrected for contributions from particle decays and secondary interactions. For the dE/dx analysis of charged kaons, main TPC tracks with a total momentum between 4 and 50 GeV have been analyzed in logarithmic momentum log(p) and transverse momentum pt bins. The resulting dE/dx spectra have been fitted by the sum of 5 Gaussians, one for each main particle type (electrons, pions, kaons, pro...

  19. Double-heterostructure PbSnTe lasers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with cw operation up to 114 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walpole, J.N.; Calawa, A.R.; Harman, T.C.; Groves, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    Double-heterostructure Pb/sub 1-x/Sn/sub x/Te lasers with active regions of Pb 0 . 782 Sn 0 . 218 Te have been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy which operate cw up to heat-sink temperatures of 114 0 K. Temperature tuning of the emission from 15.9 to 8.54 μm wavelength is obtained, with emission at 77 0 K near 11.5 μm. The current-voltage characteristics show an abrupt change in slope at threshold, indicating high incremental internal quantum efficiency

  20. Performance enhancement in uniaxially tensile stressed GeSn n-channel fin tunneling field-effect transistor: Impact of stress direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Han, Genquan; Jiang, Xiangwei; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the boosting effect on the performance of GeSn n-channel fin tunneling FET (nFinTFET) enabled by uniaxial tensile stress is investigated theoretically. As the fin rotates within the (001) plane, the uniaxial tensile stress is always along its direction. The electrical characteristics of tensile-stressed GeSn nFinTFETs with point and line tunneling modes are computed utilizing the technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulator in which the dynamic nonlocal band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) algorithm is employed. In comparison with the relaxed devices, tensile-stressed GeSn nFinTFETs achieve a substantial enhancement in band-to-band tunneling generation rate (G BTBT) and on-state current I ON owing to the reduced bandgap E G induced by the tensile stress. Performance improvement of GeSn nFinTFETs induced by tensile stress demonstrates a strong dependence on channel direction and tunneling modes. Under the same magnitude of stress, line-nFinTFETs obtain a more pronounced I ON enhancement over the transistors with point tunneling mode.

  1. The synthesis and properties of some organometallic compounds containing group IV (Ge, Sn)-group II (Zn, Cd) metal---metal bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Des Tombe, F.J.A.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der; Creemers, H.M.J.C.; Carey, N.A.D.; Noltes, J.G.

    1972-01-01

    The reactions of triphenylgermane and triphenyltin hydride with coordinatively saturated organozinc or organocadmium compounds give organometallic complexes containing Group IV (Ge, Sn)-Group II(Zn, Cd) metal---metal bonds. The 2,2′-bipyridine complexes show solvent-dependent charge-transfer

  2. Relativistic quasiparticle band structures of Mg2Si, Mg2Ge, and Mg2Sn: Consistent parameterization and prediction of Seebeck coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guangsha; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2018-02-01

    We apply density functional and many-body perturbation theory calculations to consistently determine and parameterize the relativistic quasiparticle band structures of Mg2Si, Mg2Ge, and Mg2Sn, and predict the Seebeck coefficient as a function of doping and temperature. The quasiparticle band gaps, including spin-orbit coupling effects, are determined to be 0.728 eV, 0.555 eV, and 0.142 eV for Mg2Si, Mg2Ge, and Mg2Sn, respectively. The inclusion of the semicore electrons of Mg, Ge, and Sn in the valence is found to be important for the accurate determination of the band gaps of Mg2Ge and Mg2Sn. We also developed a Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian and determined a set of band parameters to model the near-edge relativistic quasiparticle band structure consistently for all three compounds that can be applied for thermoelectric device simulations. Our calculated values for the Seebeck coefficient of all three compounds are in good agreement with the available experimental data for a broad range of temperatures and carrier concentrations. Our results indicate that quasiparticle corrections are necessary for the accurate determination of Seebeck coefficients at high temperatures at which bipolar transport becomes important.

  3. Interactions of 82Pb208 nuclei with energy 158 GeV per nucleon with photoemulsion nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Andreeva, N.P.; Bubnov, V.I.; Gajtinov, A.Sh.; Kanygina, Eh.K.; Musaeva, A.K.; Sejtimbetov, A.M.; Skorobagatova, V.I.; Filippova, L.N.; Chasnikov, I.Ya.

    1999-01-01

    In this report there are experimental data on 82 Pb 208 nuclei (158 GeV) interaction with photoemulsion nuclei. The said data are compared to the similar ones for 79 Au 197 nuclei with less energy (10,7 A GeV). Stack of nuclear emulsion was irradiated with the beam of nuclei 82 Pb 208 at SPS of CERN. Events search was done along the primary nucleus trace. Pb nucleus average path length happened to be λ=(3,8±0,1) cm, this virtually coincides with the one calculated by Brandt and Peters formula (3,9 cm). Secondary particles were identified into s (storm), g (knock-on protons) and b- particles (target nucleus fragments), as well as into nucleus-bullet fragments with different charges (Z=1,2,≥3). This allowed obtaining event distribution by multiplicity of these particles (n s , n g , n b ) and fragments (n z=1,2,≥3 ), calculation of average values by multiplicity (see table), finding correlation of characteristics. >From the table it's clear that when the energy increases s > increases 2,5 times where as g > insignificantly decreases and b > doesn't change

  4. Does a network structure exist in molecular liquid SnI4 and GeI4?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahiro; Fuchizaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-04-01

    The existence of a network structure consisting of electrically neutral tetrahedral molecules in liquid SnI4 and GeI4 at ambient pressure was examined. The liquid structures employed for the examination were obtained from a reverse Monte Carlo analysis. The structures were physically interpreted by introducing an appropriate intermolecular interaction. A ‘bond’ was then defined as an intermolecular connection that minimizes the energy of intermolecular interaction. However, their ‘bond’ energy is too weak for the ‘bond’ and the resulting network structure to be defined statically. The vertex-to-edge orientation between the nearest molecules is so ubiquitous that almost all of the molecules in the system can take part in the network, which is reflected in the appearance of a prepeak in the structure factor.

  5. Effect of Ge, Sn, Sb on the resistance to swelling of austenitic alloys irradiated by 1 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubuisson, P.; Levy, V.; Seran, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of new solute elements namely Ge, Sn and Sb on the void swelling resistance of austenitic alloys irradiated with 1 MeV electrons has been studied. Except for tin in Ti-modified 316, all solute improve the swelling resistance of base alloys. Tin addition shifts the swelling peak of 316 S.S. to high temperature. In fact, these solute additions have the same qualitative effect on the swelling components: they enhance the void density and decrease strongly void growth rate. This effect is opposite to the one of usual swelling inhibitors such as Si or Ti which decrease the void density. We have explained this influence on the void nucleation and void growth by introducing a strong interaction between vacancies and solute atoms in a void growth model

  6. Formation of nanocrystalline and amorphous phase of Al-Pb-Si-Sn-Cu powder during mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Guang; Zhou Jingen; Xi Shengqi; Li Pengliang

    2006-01-01

    Al-15%Pb-4%Si-1%Sn-1.5%Cu alloys (mass fraction, %) were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA). Phase transformation and microstructure characteristics of the alloy powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the nanocrystalline supersaturated solid solutions and amorphous phase in the powders are obtained during MA. The effect of ball milling is more evident to lead than to aluminum. During MA, the mixture powders are firstly fined, alloyed, nanocrystallized and then the nanocrystalline partly transforms to amorphous phase. A thermodynamic model is developed based on semi-experimental theory of Miedema to calculate the driving force for phase evolution. The thermodynamic analysis shows that there is no chemical driving force to form a crystalline solid solution from the elemental components. But for the amorphous phase, the Gibbs free energy is higher than 0 for the alloy with lead content in the ranges of 0-86.8 at.% and 98.4-100 at.% and lower than 0 in range of 86.8-98.4 at.%. For the Al-2.25 at.%Pb (Al-15%Pb, mass fraction, %), the driving force for formation of amorphization and nanocrystalline supersaturated solid solutions are provided not by the negative heat of mixing but by mechanical work

  7. First-principles study of new series of quaternary Heusler alloys CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouabça, A. [Condensed Matter and Sustainable Development Laboratory (LMCDD), University of Sidi Bel-Abbes, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Rozale, H., E-mail: hrozale@yahoo.fr [Condensed Matter and Sustainable Development Laboratory (LMCDD), University of Sidi Bel-Abbes, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Amar, A. [Condensed Matter and Sustainable Development Laboratory (LMCDD), University of Sidi Bel-Abbes, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Wang, X.T. [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Sayade, A. [UCCS, CNRS-UMR 8181, Université d’Artois, Faculté des Sciences Jean Perrin, Rue Jean Souvraz, SP 18, 62307 Lens Cedex (France); Chahed, A. [Condensed Matter and Sustainable Development Laboratory (LMCDD), University of Sidi Bel-Abbes, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria)

    2016-12-01

    The structural, electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties of new quaternary Heusler alloys CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb) were investigated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA plus modified Becke and Johnson as the exchange correlation. The results showed that all Heusler compounds were stable in Type (I) structure. The CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn) compounds had a nearly HM characteristic, and CsSrCZ (Z=P, As, Sb) compounds were true half-metallic (HM) ferromagnets. The strong spin polarization of p orbital for C, Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb atoms is found to be the origin of ferromagnetic. The half-metallicity is preserved up to a lattice contraction of 3.45%, 1.69%, 1.69%, 7.16%, 7.16%, and 11.2% for all six quaternary Heusler compounds. We also investigated the thermal effects using the quasi-harmonic Debye model. - Highlights: • Electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb) are investigated. • Until now, there have been no reports theoretical and experimental studies on d{sup 0} half-metals with quaternary structures. • The strong spin polarization of p orbital for C, Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb atoms is found to be the origin of ferromagnetic. • The half-metallicity is preserved up to a lattice contraction.

  8. Performance of a PbWO sub 4 crystal calorimeter for 0.2-1.0 GeV electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, H; Hashimoto, T; Abe, K; Asano, Y; Kinashi, T; Matsumoto, T; Matsumura, T; Okuno, H; Yoshida, H Y

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a calorimeter prototype of PbWO sub 4 crystals has been tested by using 0.2-1.0 GeV electrons. The calorimeter comprises nine crystals, each 20 mmx20 mmx200 mm, arranged in a 3x3 matrix. A phototube was connected to each crystal to collect the signal. The energy resolution is obtained to be (sigma/E) sup 2 =((0.014+-0.001)/E) sup 2 +((0.025+-0.001)/sq root E) sup 2 +(0.000+-0.027) sup 2 at 13 deg. C, where E is the energy given in GeV. The position of the incident electron beam has been measured every 2 mm step. The position resolution at the center of the crystal is obtained to be sq root((2.6+-0.1)/sq root E) sup 2 +(0.4+-0.6) sup 2 mm.

  9. Design and theoretical calculation of novel GeSn fully-depleted n-tunneling FET with quantum confinement model for suppression on GIDL effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Hu, Huiyong; Wang, Meng; Miao, Yuanhao; Han, Genquan; Wang, Bin

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a novel fully-depleted Ge1-xSnx n-Tunneling FET (FD Ge1-xSnx nTFET) with field plate is investigated theoretically based on the experiment previously published. The energy band structures of Ge1-xSnx are calculated by EMP and the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) parameters of Ge1-xSnx are calculated by Kane's model. The electrical characteristics of FD Ge1-xSnx nTFET and FD Ge1-xSnx nTFET with field plate (FD-FP Ge1-xSnx nTFET) having various Sn compositions are investigated and simulated with quantum confinement model. The results indicated that the GIDL effect is serious in FD Ge1-xSnx nTFET. By employing the field plate structure, the GIDL effect of FD-FP Ge1-xSnx nTFET is suppressed and the off-state current Ioff is decreased more than 2 orders of magnitude having Sn compositions from 0 to 0.06 compared with FD Ge1-xSnx nTFET. The impact of the difference of work function between field plate metal and channel Φfps is also studied. With the optimized Φfps = 0.0 eV, the on-state current Ion = 4.6 × 10-5 A/μm, the off-state current Ioff = 1.6 × 10-13 A/μm and the maximum on/off ration Ion/Ioff = 2.9 × 108 are achieved.

  10. Isotopic yields and kinetic energies of primary residues in 1 A GeV 208Pb + p reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, T.; Wlazlo, W.; Armbruster, P.

    2000-09-01

    The production of primary residual nuclei in the reaction 1 A GeV 208 Pb on proton has been studied by measuring isotopic distributions for all elements from titanium (Z=22) to lead (Z=82). Kinematical properties of the residues were also determined and used to disentangle the relevant reaction mechanisms, spallation (projectile fragmentation) and fission. The fragment separator FRS at GSI, Darmstadt, was used to separate and identify the reaction products. The measured production cross sections are highly relevant for the design of accelerator-driven subcritical reactors and for the planning of future radioactive-beam facilities. (orig.)

  11. Multiplicity Fluctuations in Central Nuclear Reaction of Pb + AgBr Events at 158A GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present articles an attempt has been made for the study of multiplicity fluctuations of the secondary charged particles produced in central relativistic nuclear collisions of (Pb+AgBr at an energy 158A GeV, to find the first-order phase transition (QGP to hadron phase state. This study has been carried out for the experimental data along with the theoretical prediction of FRITIOF simulation program and Monte-Carlo (RanMC simulation. The theoretical model predictions were found in good agreements.

  12. Measurements of distribution coefficient for Sn, Pb and Th on sand stone and tuff in saline type groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Okada, Kenichi; Muroi, Masayuki; Shibata, Masahiro; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has developed the sorption database for bentonite and rocks in order to assess the retardation capacities of important radioactive elements in natural and engineered barriers in the H12 report. However, there are not enough distribution coefficient data for radioactive elements in saline type groundwater in the database. Sn (tin), Pb (lead) and Th(thorium) are important radioactive elements for performance assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal, thus we carried out the batch sorption experiments for these radioactive elements on sand stone and tuff. The experiments for each radioactive element were performed on the following conditions; Sn: Kd measurements using the solutions (distilled water or artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone. Pb: Kd measurements using solution (artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone or tuff. Th: Kd measurements using solution (artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone as a function of carbonate concentration. The results of experiment are summarized below; In the case of Sn, Kd were 0.4-1 m 3 /kg in distilled water type and approximately 1 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water type. And also, Kd was 0.3 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water adjusted Ph 12. In artificial sea water type, it was suggested that Kd decreased with pH. In the case of Pb, Kd were approximately 2 m 3 /kg on sand stone and 4-10 m 3 /kg on tuff in artificial sea water type. Kd on tuff was a little larger than that on sand stone. There were no distinctly differences depending on solid-liquid separation methods. In the case of Th, Kd was approximately 1-8 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water type. On the other hand, sorption of Th on sand stone was not observed (i.e., Kd = 0 m 3 /kg) in high carbonate solution. It was estimated that low Kd in high carbonate solution might be caused by speciation of because Th could form the anions in the solution such as hydroxo-carbonate complexes and carbonate complexes

  13. Tribological behaviour of conventional Al–Sn and equivalent Al–Pb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Al–Sn alloys have a very long history (Forrester 1960) to be used as bearing ... has a low modulus of elasticity and apart from indium, lead has the lowest .... film (figures 5a,b), which consists of a thin fluid film and a mixed film of oil-lead ...

  14. An Experimental study of neutral and charged particle fluctuations in Pb Pb collisions at 158-A-GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sood, G

    2002-01-01

    Relativistic quantum field theory treats the vacuum as a medium, with bulk properties characterized by long-range order parameters. This has led to suggestions that regions of disoriented chiral condensate might be formed in high energy colli sion processes. In particular, the approximate chiral symmetry of QCD could lead to regions of vacuum which have chiral order parameters disoriented to directions which have non-zero isospin, i.e. disoriented chiral condensate. The prime accessible signature of DCC is the ratio of neutral to charged pions in a certain range of phase space which should exhibit non-statistical fluctuations. The WA98 experiment has been used to measure the charged and photon multiplicities in the central region of Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. PMD which has the ability to count photons is positioned at 21.5m from the target, covering the pseudorapidity range 2.9 region as compared to mixed events (I and II) and V+G events. To test the authenticity of the filtered events, these events a...

  15. Characterization of Ni/SnPb-TiW/Pt Flip Chip Interconnections in Silicon Pixel Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Härkönen, Jaakko; Luukka, Panja-riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Haeggstrom, Edward; Kalliopuska, Juha; Vahanen, Sami; Kassamakov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary high energy physics experiments, silicon detectors are essential for recording the trajectory of new particles generated by multiple simultaneous collisions. Modern particle tracking systems may feature 100 million channels, or pixels, which need to be individually connected to read-out chains. Silicon pixel detectors are typically connected to readout chips by flip-chip bonding using solder bumps. High-quality electro-mechanical flip-chip interconnects minimizes the number of dead read-out channels in the particle tracking system. Furthermore, the detector modules must endure handling during installation and withstand heat generation and cooling during operation. Silicon pixel detector modules were constructed by flip-chip bonding 16 readout chips to a single sensor. Eutectic SnPb solder bumps were deposited on the readout chips and the sensor chips were coated with TiW/Pt thin film UBM (under bump metallization). The modules were assembled at Advacam Ltd, Finland. We studied the uniformity o...

  16. Self-annealing in a two-phase Pb-Sn alloy after processing by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Nian Xian [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Chinh, Nguyen Q. [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter s. 1/A. (Hungary); Kawasaki, Megumi [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Departments of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Huang, Yi, E-mail: Y.Huang@soton.ac.uk [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Langdon, Terence G. [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Departments of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A Pb-62% Sn two-phase eutectic alloy was processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) and stored at room temperature (RT) to investigate the occurrence of self-annealing. The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties were recorded during self-annealing using scanning electron microscopy, tensile testing and nanoindentation. Processing by HPT produces a weakening effect but storage at RT leads to a gradual increase in the hardness together with significant grain growth. Nanoindentation tests were performed by applying both the indentation depth-time (h-t) relationship at the holding stage and the hardness, H, at various loading rates in order to explore the evolution of the strain rate sensitivity (SRS), m. The results obtained by tensile testing and nanoindentation are consistent despite the large difference in the volumes of the examined regions, thereby confirming the validity of using nanoindentation to measure the strain rate sensitivity.

  17. Aging effects on fracture behavior of 63Sn37Pb eutectic solder during tensile tests under the SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Ying; Wang Chunqing; Li Mingyu; Bang Hansur

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of aging treatment on fracture behavior of Sn-Pb eutectic solder alloys at different loading rate regime during tensile tests under the scanning electron microscope. In high homologous temperature, the solder exhibit the creep behavior that could be confirmed through the phenomena of grain boundary sliding (GBS) to both as-cast and aged specimens. Owing to the large grain scale after high temperature storage, boundary behavior was limited to some extent for the difficulty in grain rotation and boundary migration. Instead, drastic intragranular deformation occurred. Also, the phase coarsening weakened the combination between lead-rich phase and tin matrix. Consequently, surface fragmentation was detected for the aged specimens. Furthermore, the fracture mechanism changed from intergranular dominated to transgranular dominated with increasing loading rate to both specimens during early stage

  18. Complete electric dipole response in 120Sn and 208Pb and implications for neutron skin and symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Neumann-Cosel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Polarized proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and very forward angles including 0° has been established as a new tool to extract the complete E1 strength distribution in nuclei for excitation energies between about 5 and 20 MeV. A case study of 208 Pb demonstrates excellent agreement with other electromagnetic probes. From the information on the B(E1) strength one can derive the electric dipole dipole polarizability, which is strongly correlated to the neutron skin and to parameters of the symmetry energy. Recently, we have extracted the polarizability of 120 Sn with a comparable precision. The combination of both results further constrains the symmetry energy parameters and presents a challenge for mean-field models, since relativistic and many Skyrme parameterizations cannot reproduce both experimental results simultaneously. (paper)

  19. Lowest lying 2+ and 3- vibrational states in Pb, Sn, and Ni isotopes in relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.; Ring, P.

    2006-01-01

    The excitation energies and electric multipole decay rates of the lowest lying 2 + and 3 - vibrational states in Pb, Sn, and Ni nuclei are calculated following relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation formalism based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov mean field. Two sets of Lagrangian parameters, NL1 and NL3, are used to investigate the effect of the nuclear force. Overall there is good agreement with the available experimental data for a wide range of mass numbers considered here, and the NL3 set seems to be a better choice. However, strictly speaking, these studies point toward the need of a new set of force parameters that could produce more realistic single-particle levels, at least in vicinity of the Fermi surface, of a wide range of nuclear masses

  20. Complete Electric Dipole Response in 120Sn and 208Pb and Implications for Neutron Skin and Symmetry Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Neumann-Cosel Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarized proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and extreme forward angles including 0° has been established as a new tool to extract the complete E1 response in nuclei up to excitation energies of about 20 MeV. A case study of 208Pb demonstrates excellent agreement with other electromagnetic probes. From the information on the B(E1 strength one can derive the electric dipole dipole polarizability, which is strongly correlated to the neutron skin and to parameters of the symmetry energy. Recently, we have extracted the polarizability of 120Sn with a comparable precision. The combination of both results further constrains the symmetry energy parameters and presents a challenge for mean-field models, since the relativistic and many Skyrme parameterizations cannot reproduce both experimental results simultaneously.

  1. Study of low-defect and strain-relaxed GeSn growth via reduced pressure CVD in H2 and N2 carrier gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetis, J.; Mosleh, A.; Al-Kabi, S.; Ghetmiri, S. A.; Du, W.; Dou, W.; Benamara, M.; Li, B.; Mortazavi, M.; Naseem, H. A.; Yu, S.-Q.; Tolle, J.

    2017-04-01

    High quality, thick (up to 1.1 μm), strain relaxed GeSn alloys were grown on Ge-buffered Si (1 0 0) in an ASM Epsilon® chemical vapor deposition system using SnCl4 and low-cost commercial GeH4 precursors. The significance of surface chemistry in regards to growth rate and Sn-incorporation is discussed by comparing growth kinetics data in H2 and N2 carrier gas. The role of carrier gas is also explored in the suppression of Sn surface segregation and evolution of layer composition and strain profiles via secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the spontaneous compositional splitting and formation of a thin intermediate layer in which dislocations are pinned. This intermediate layer enables the growth of a thick, strain relaxed, and defect-free epitaxial layer on its top. Last, we present photoluminescence results which indicate that both N2 and H2 growth methods produce optoelectronic device quality material.

  2. Structural, elastic, electronic, bonding, and optical properties of BeAZ{sub 2} (A = Si, Ge, Sn; Z = P, As) chalcopyrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahad, Shah [Department of Physics, Hazara University Mansehra, KPK, Mansehra (Pakistan); Murtaza, G., E-mail: murtaza@icp.edu.pk [Materials Modeling Laboratory, Department of Physics, Islamia College University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Ouahrani, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, B.P. 230, Université de Tlemcen, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Ecole Préparatoire en Sciences et Techniques, BP 165 R.P., 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Khenata, R., E-mail: khenata_rabah@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Yousaf, Masood [Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials, Institute for Basic Science, Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Omran, S.Bin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Mohammad, Saleh [Department of Physics, Hazara University Mansehra, KPK, Mansehra (Pakistan)

    2015-10-15

    A first principles density functional theory (DFT) technique is used to study the structural, chemical bonding, electronic and optical properties of BeAZ{sub 2} (A = Si, Ge, Sn; Z = P, As) chalcopyrite materials. The calculated parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental results. The lattice constants and the equilibrium volume increased as we moved from Si to Ge to Sn, whereas the c/a and internal parameters u decreased by shifting the cation from P to As. These compounds are elastically stable. An investigation of the band gap using the WC-GGA, EV-GGA, PBE-GGA and mBJ-metaGGA potentials suggested that BeSiP{sub 2} and BeSiAs{sub 2} are direct band gap compounds, whereas BeGeP{sub 2,} BeGeAs{sub 2,} BeSnP{sub 2,} BeSnAs{sub 2} are indirect band gap compounds. The energy band gaps decreased by changing B from Si to Sn and increased by changing the anion C from P to As. The bonding among the cations and anions is primarily ionic. In the optical properties, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric functions, reflectivity and optical conductivity have been studied over a wide energy range. - Highlights: • The compounds are studied by FP-LAPW method within mBJ approximation. • All of the studied materials show isotropic behaviour. • All the compounds show direct band gap nature. • Bonding nature is mostly covalent among the studied compounds. • High absorption peaks and reflectivity ensures there utility in optoelectronic devices.

  3. The effect of charge carrier and doping site on thermoelectric properties of Mg2Sn0.75Ge0.25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saparamadu, Udara; Mao, Jun; Dahal, Keshab; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fei; Song, Shaowei; Liu, Weishu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2017-01-01

    Mg 2 Sn 0.75 Ge 0.25 has been recently demonstrated to be a promising thermoelectric material for power generation in the temperature range from room temperature to 723 K because of the high power factor of ∼54 μW cm −1  K −2 upon Sb doping to the Sn site. The enhanced density of states effective mass and weak electron scattering from the alloying effect are believed to be the main reasons for the high power factor (PF) and hence high figure of merit (ZT). In this study, it is shown that the right choice of carrier donor also plays an important role in obtaining high power factor. The effect of carrier donors Y and La at Mg-site and Bi and P at Sn-site in Mg 2 Sn 0.75 Ge 0.25 is systematically investigated. It is found that charge donors at the Sn-site are much more effective than at the Mg-site in enhancing PF and ZT. Bi doped Mg 2 Sn 0.73 Bi 0.02 Ge 0.25 shows a peak ZT of ∼1.4 at 673 K, a peak PF of ∼54 μW cm −1  K −2 at 577 K, which resulted in an engineering figure of merit (ZT) eng of ∼0.76 and (PF) eng of ∼2.05 W m −1  K −1 for cold side fixed at 323 K and hot side at 723 K.

  4. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-12-01

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the Beta-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of Beta-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  5. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-05-15

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the {beta}-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of {beta}-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  6. Energy dependence of particle ratio fluctuations in central Pb+Pb collisions from $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} =$~6.3 to 17.3 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alt, C; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Bunccic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Genchev, V; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Kresan, D; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, St; Nicolic, V; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Prindle, D; Pühlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Szymanski, P; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, I K

    2009-01-01

    We present recent measurements of the energy dependence of event-by-event fluctuations in the K/pi and (p + \\bar{p})/pi multiplicity ratios in heavy ion collisions at the CERN SPS. The particle ratio fluctuations were obtained for central Pb+Pb collisions at five collision energies, \\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}, between 6.3 and 17.3 GeV. After accounting for the effects of finite-number statistics and detector resolution, we extract the strength of non-statistical fluctuations at each energy. For the K/pi ratio, larger fluctuations than expected for independent particle production are found at all collision energies. The fluctuations in the (p + \\bar{p})/pi ratio are smaller than expectations from independent particle production, indicating correlated pion and proton production from resonance decays. For both ratios, the deviation from purely statistical fluctuations shows an increase towards lower collision energies. The results are compared to transport model calculations, which fail to describe the energy dependence o...

  7. Cross sections of production of J / {psi}, {psi}` resonances and of the Drell-Yan process in the Pb-Pb interactions with 158 GeV / c per nucleon; Section efficaces de production des resonances J / {psi}, {psi}` et du processus Drell-Yan dans les interactions Pb-Pb a 158 GeV / c par nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellaiche, F

    1997-04-24

    In the framework of the experimental research for the quark and gluons plasma formation in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, data obtained by the NA50 collaboration at SPS-CERN are analysed. The segmented target used by NA50 experiment is described and analysed in terms of vertex identification efficiency and re-interactions recognition. The absolute J/{psi}, {psi}`and Drell-Yan process cross-sections in 158 GeV/c per nucleon Pb-Pb interactions are extracted. The transverse energy dependence of the production yield of J/{psi} and Drell-Yan process is established. The comparison of these cross-sections with the ones measured in lighter systems and the comparison of the E dependence of J/{psi} production with the Glauber model prediction show an anomalous J/{psi} suppression observed in Pb-Pb interactions is confronted to theoretical models proposed by several authors, describing charmonium bound states formation and interactions is confronted to theoretical models proposed by several authors, describing charmonium bound states formation and interactions in confined or deconfined media. (author) 122 refs.

  8. Estimation of critical thickness of Stranski-Krastanow transition in GeSi/Sn/Si system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovoy, K. A.; Pishchagin, A. A.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper Stranski-Krastanow growth of Ge x Si1-x epitaxial layers on the Si(001) surface with pre-deposited tin layer with the thickness less than 1 ML is considered. For the calculations of critical thickness of transition from 2D to 3D growth in this paper a theoretical model based on general nucleation theory is used. This model is specified by taking into account dependencies of elastic modulus, lattices mismatch and surface energy of side facet on the composition x, as well as change in the adatoms diffusion coefficient and surface energy of the substrate in the presence of tin. As a result, dependencies of critical thickness of Stranski-Krastanow transition on compositon x and temperature are obtained. The simulated results are in a good agreement with experimentally observed results.

  9. Towards from indirect to direct band gap and optical properties of XYP{sub 2} (X=Zn, Cd; Y=Si, Ge, Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sibghat [Department of Physics, Hazara University Mansehra, KPK (Pakistan); Murtaza, G., E-mail: murtaza@icp.edu.pk [Materials Modeling Lab, Department of Physics, Islamia College, Peshawar (Pakistan); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Reshak, A.H. [New Technologies—Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hayat, S.S. [Department of Physics, Hazara University Mansehra, KPK (Pakistan); Bin Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-05-15

    First principle calculations are performed to predict the electronic and optical properties of XYP{sub 2} (X=Zn, Cd; Y=Si, Ge, Sn) compounds. The calculations show an excellent agreement with the available experimental results as compared to previous calculations. The band gap value decreases by changing the cations X from Zn to Cd as well as Y from Si to Ge to Sn in XYP{sub 2}. The d-states of the Zn and Cd contribute majorly in the density of states. Bonding nature in these compounds is analyzed from the electron density plots. Optical response of these compounds is noted from the complex refractive index and reflectivity spectra. The wide direct band gap and the high reflectivity in the visible and ultraviolet regions for these compounds make them potential candidates for optoelectronic and photonic applications.

  10. Morphology and Hardness Improvement of Lead Bearing Alloy through Composite Production: 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn/ 15% V/V SiO2 Particulate Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Okon ASUQUO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and hardness improvement of lead bearing alloy through composite production: 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn/ 15%v/v SiO2 particulate composite, was studied. 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn white bearing alloy produced at the foundry shop of National Metallurgical Development Centre Jos was used for the production of the composite using stir-cast method. The reinforcing agent was 63 microns passing particles of silica. This was produced from pulverizing quartz using laboratory ball mill. The specimens of the composite produced were then subjected to metallographic to study the morphology of the structures produced both in the as cast and aged conditions of the composite. The samples were also tested for hardness and the result showed that the as cast composite had a hardness value of 33 HRB which is an improvement over the hardness value of 27.7 HRB for the 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn alloy which was used for the production of the composite. The effect of age hardening on the produced composite was also investigated; the result showed that the maximum hardness of 34 HRB was obtained after ageing for 3 hours. The micrographs revealed inter-metallic compound SbSn, eutectic of two solid solutions-one tin-rich and the other lead-rich, reinforcing particles, and solid solution of β. The results revealed that particle hardening can be used to improve the hardness of 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn white bearing alloy for use as heavy duty bearing material.

  11. First-principle investigations of the magnetic properties and possible martensitic transformation in Ni2MnX (X=Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge and Sn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Gao, She-Sheng; Meng, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic and electronic properties of Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge and Sn) Heusler alloys have been studied by using the first-principle projector augmented wave potential within the generalized gradient approximation. The possible non-modulated martensitic transformation in these six alloys has been investigated. Both austenitic and martensitic Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge and Sn) Heusler alloys are found to be ferromagnets. In martensitic phase, the energies minimum occurs at c/a=0.99 for Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, In, Ge and Sn), and the energy minimum occurs at c/a=1.02 for Ni 2 MnSi. But there is a negligible energy difference ΔE (<6 meV/cell) between the austenitic and martensitic phases for each alloy. Meanwhile, around c/a=1, an anomaly is observed in the E-c/a curve, which is related to a very slightly tetragonal distortion trend in Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, In, Si, Ge and Sn). The energy difference ΔE between the austenitic and martensitic phases for Ni 2 MnGa is as large as 99 meV/cell, so it is more likely to realize martensitic transformation in it. - Highlights: • Both austenitic and martensitic Ni 2 MnX alloys are found to be ferromagnets. • The energy difference between the martensitic and austenitic phases is negligible. • The total moment in martensitic phase is close to corresponding to austenitic phase

  12. Electronic structure and magnetism of Ge(Sn)TM.sub.x./sub.Te.sub.1-x./sub. (TM = V,Cr,Mn): a first principles study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, Y.; Bose, S. K.; Kudrnovský, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 12 (2016), 1-12, č. článku 125005. ISSN 2158-3226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : SnTe and GeTe * doping with 3d metals * lattice structure * exchange integrals * Curie temperature * first-priciples study Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2016

  13. Effect of B, N, Ge, Sn, K doping on electronic-transport properties of (5, 0) zigzag carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalian, Monir; Seyed Jalili, Yousef; Abbasi, Afshin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper the effect of impurity on the electronic properties and quantum conductance of zigzag (5, 0) carbon nanotube have been studied by using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) combined with Non-Equilibrium Green’s Function (NEGF) formalism with TranSIESTA software. The effect of Boron (B), Nitrogen (N), Germanium (Ge), Tin (Sn) and Potassium (K) impurities on the CNT conduction behavior and physical characteristics, like density of states (DOS), band structure, transmission coefficients and quantum conductance was considered and discussed simultaneously. The current‑voltage (I‑V) curves of all the proposed models were studied for comparative study under low-bias conditions. The distinct changes in conductance reported as the positions, number and type of dopants was varied in central region of the CNT between two electrodes at different bias voltages. This suggested conductance enhancement mechanism for the charge transport in the doped CNT at different positions is important for the design of CNT based nanoelectronic devices. The results show that Germanium, Tin and Potassium dopant atoms has increased the conductance of the model manifold than other doping atoms furthermore 10 Boron and 10 Nitrogen dopant atoms showed the amazing property of Negative Differential Resistance (NDR).

  14. First-principles study on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the Ti{sub 2}VZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn) full-Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Santao; Shen, Jiang [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Chuan-Hui, E-mail: zhangch@ustb.edu.cn [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In the present work, we have investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Ti{sub 2}VZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn) alloys with Hg{sub 2}CuTi-type structure in the framework of density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated results show that Ti{sub 2}VSi and Ti{sub 2}VGe alloys belong to half-metallic compounds with a perfect 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level while Ti{sub 2}VSn alloy is just a conventional ferrimagnetism compound. And the total magnetic moment of Ti{sub 2}VSi and Ti{sub 2}VGe obey the Slater–Pauling (SP) rule. In a moderate variation range of lattice distortion, Ti{sub 2}VSi and Ti{sub 2}VGe remain half-metallicity. We expect that our calculated results may trigger Ti{sub 2}VZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn) applying in the future spintronics field. - Highlights: • Structural properties of Ti{sub 2}VZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn) have been achieved by ab initio. • The calculations proved Ti{sub 2}VSi and Ti{sub 2}VGe to be half-metallic compounds. • The total magnetic moments of Ti{sub 2}VSi and Ti{sub 2}VGe followed the SP rule M{sub t} = Z{sub t} − 18. • Their magnetic and half-metallic properties changed with lattice distortion.

  15. Scale-dependence of transverse momentum correlations in Pb - Au collisions at 158A GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Adamová, D; Antonczyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Bielcikova, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Dubitzky, W; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Maas, A; Marín, A; Milosevic, J; Milov, A; Miskowiec, D; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O; Petracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Ploskon, M; Radomski, S; Rak, acn J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsiledakis, G; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    We present results on transverse momentum correlations of charged particle pairs produced in Pb-Au collisions at 158$A$ GeV/$c$ at the Super Proton Synchrotron. The transverse momentum correlations have been studied as a function of collision centrality, angular separation of the particle pairs, transverse momentum and charge sign. We demonstrate that the results are in agreement with previous findings in scale-independent analyses at the same beam energy. Employing the two-particle momentum correlator $$ and the cumulative $p_t$ variable $x(p_t)$, we identify, using the scale-dependent approach presented in this paper, different sources contributing to the measured correlations, such as quantum and Coulomb correlations, elliptic flow and mini-jet fragmentation.

  16. Scale-dependence of transverse momentum correlations in PbAu collisions at 158A GeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceres Collaboration; Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielcikova, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Płoskoń, M.; Radomski, S.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Tsiledakis, G.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2008-10-01

    We present results on transverse momentum correlations of charged particle pairs produced in PbAu collisions at 158A GeV/c at the Super Proton Synchrotron. The transverse momentum correlations have been studied as a function of collision centrality, angular separation of the particle pairs, transverse momentum and charge sign. We demonstrate that the results are in agreement with previous findings in scale-independent analyses at the same beam energy. Employing the two-particle momentum correlator and the cumulative p variable x(p), we identify, using the scale-dependent approach presented in this paper, different sources contributing to the measured correlations, such as quantum and Coulomb correlations, elliptic flow and mini-jet fragmentation.

  17. Modification of jet-like correlations in Pb-Au collisions at 158A GeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceres Collaboration; Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielčíková, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Holeczek, J.; Kalisky, M.; Kniege, S.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Płoskoń, M.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schuchmann, S.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2009-07-01

    Results of a two-particle correlation analysis of high-p charged particles in Pb-Au collisions at 158A GeV/c are presented. The data have been recorded by the CERES experiment at the CERN-SPS. The correlations are studied as function of transverse momentum, particle charge and collision centrality. We observe a jet-like structure in the vicinity of a high-p trigger particle and a broad back-to-back distribution. The yields of associated particles per trigger show a strong dependence on the trigger/associate charge combination. A comparison to PYTHIA confirms the jet-like pattern at the near-side but suggests a strong modification at the away-side, implying significant energy transfer of the hard-scattered parton to the medium.

  18. Scale-dependence of transverse momentum correlations in Pb sbnd Au collisions at 158A GeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielcikova, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Płoskoń, M.; Radomski, S.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Tsiledakis, G.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.; Ceres Collaboration

    2008-10-01

    We present results on transverse momentum correlations of charged particle pairs produced in Pb sbnd Au collisions at 158A GeV/c at the Super Proton Synchrotron. The transverse momentum correlations have been studied as a function of collision centrality, angular separation of the particle pairs, transverse momentum and charge sign. We demonstrate that the results are in agreement with previous findings in scale-independent analyses at the same beam energy. Employing the two-particle momentum correlator and the cumulative p variable x(p), we identify, using the scale-dependent approach presented in this paper, different sources contributing to the measured correlations, such as quantum and Coulomb correlations, elliptic flow and mini-jet fragmentation.

  19. Semihard scattering unraveled from collective dynamics by two-pion azimuthal correlations in 158A GeV/c Pb+Au collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakichiev, G; Appelshäuser, H; Baur, R; Bielcikova, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fraenkel, Z; Fuchs, Ch; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Huovinen, P; Lenkeit, B; Marín, A; Messer, F; Messer, M; Milosevic, J; Miśkowiec, D; Nix, O; Panebrattsev, Yu; Petrácek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Razin, S; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Saveljic, N; Schmitz, W; Shimansky, S; Socol, E; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, I; Voigt, C; Voloshin, S; Weber, C; Wessels, J P; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V

    2004-01-23

    Elliptic flow and two-particle azimuthal correlations of charged hadrons and high-p(T) pions (p(T)>1 GeV/c) have been measured close to midrapidity in 158A GeV/c Pb+Au collisions by the CERES experiment. Elliptic flow (v(2)) rises linearly with p(T) to a value of about 10% at 2 GeV/c. Beyond p(T) approximately 1.5 GeV/c, the slope decreases considerably, possibly indicating a saturation of v(2) at high p(T). Two-pion azimuthal anisotropies for p(T)>1.2 GeV/c exceed the elliptic flow values by about 60% in midcentral collisions. These nonflow contributions are attributed to nearside and back-to-back jetlike correlations, the latter exhibiting centrality dependent broadening.

  20. Semihard scattering unraveled from collective dynamics by two-pion azimuthal correlations in 158A GeV/c Pb + Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Agakichiev, G; Baur, R; Bielcikova, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Fuchs, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Huovinen, P; Lenkeit, B C; Marin, A; Messer, F; Messer, M; Milosevic, J; Miskowiec, D; Nix, O; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Razin, S; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Saveljic, N; Schmitz, W; Shimansky, S S; Socol, E; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Voigt, C A; Voloshin, S A; Weber, C; Wessels, J P; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V

    2004-01-01

    Elliptic flow and two-particle azimuthal correlations of charged hadrons and high-$p_{T}$ pions ($p_{T}>$1 GeV/c) have been measured close to midrapidity in 158A GeV/c Pb + Au collisions by the CERES experiment. Elliptic flow ($v_{2}$) rises linearly with $p_{T}$ to a value of about 10% at 2 GeV/c. Beyond $p_{T} \\approx $1.5 Ge V/c, the slope decreases considerably, possibly indicating a saturation of $v_{2}$ at high $p_{T}$. Two-pion azimuthal anisotropies for $p_{T} >$1.2 GeV/c exceed the elliptic flow values by about 60% in midcentral collisions. These nonflow contributions are attributed to nearside and back-to-back jetlike correlations, the latter exhibiting centrality dependent broadening.

  1. Kaon and pion production in centrality selected minimum bias Pb+Pb collisions at 40 and 158 A.GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelaker, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Results on charged kaon and negatively charged pion production and spectra for centrality selected Pb+Pb minimum bias events at 40 and 158A GeV have been presented in this thesis. All analysis are based on data taken by the NA49 experiment at the accelerator Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. The kaon results are based on an analysis of the mean energy loss of the charged particles traversing the detector gas of the time projection chambers (TPCs). The pion results are from an analysis of all negatively charged particles h{sup -} corrected for contributions from particle decays and secondary interactions. For the dE/dx analysis of charged kaons, main TPC tracks with a total momentum between 4 and 50 GeV have been analyzed in logarithmic momentum log(p) and transverse momentum p{sub t} bins. The resulting dE/dx spectra have been fitted by the sum of 5 Gaussians, one for each main particle type (electrons, pions, kaons, protons, deuterons). The amplitude of the Gaussian used for the kaon part of the spectra has been corrected for efficiency and acceptance and the binning has been transformed to rapidity y and transverse momentum pt bins. The multiplicity dN/dy of the single rapidity bins has been derived by summing the measured range of the transverse momentum spectra and an extrapolation to full coverage with a single exponential function fitted to the measured range. The results have been combined with the mid-rapidity measurements from the time-of-flight detectors and a double Gaussian fit to the dN/dy spectra has been used for extrapolation to rapidity outside of the acceptance of the dE/dx analysis. For the h{sup -} analysis of negatively charged pions, all negatively charged tracks have been analyzed. The background from secondary reactions, particle decays, and gamma-conversions has been corrected with the VENUS event generator. The results were also corrected for efficiency

  2. Azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles with transverse momentum up to 100 GeV in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-02-02

    The Fourier coefficients v[2] and v[3] characterizing the anisotropy of the azimuthal distribution of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV are measured with data collected by the CMS experiment. The measurements cover a broad transverse momentum range, pt= 1-100 GeV. The analysis focuses on pt > 10 GeV range, where anisotropic azimuthal distributions should reflect the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in the created medium. Results are presented in several bins of PbPb collision centrality, spanning the 60x% most central events. The v[2] coefficient is measured with the scalar product and the multiparticle cumulant methods, which have different sensitivities to the initial-state fluctuations. The values of both methods remain positive up to pt ~ 70 GeV, in all examined centrality classes. The v[3] coefficient, only measured with the scalar product method, tends to zero for pt >~ 20 GeV. Comparisons between theoretical calculations and data provide new constraints on the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in heavy ion collisions and highlight the importance of the initial-state fluctuations.

  3. Azimuthal dependence of pion source radii in Pb + Au collisions at 158 A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073202; Andronic, A; Antonczyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Bielcikova, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Dubitzky, W; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kalisky, M; Kniege, S; Kushpil, V; Maas, A; Marin, A; Milosevic, J; Miskowiec, D; Ortega, R; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O; Petracek, V; Ploskon, M; Radomski, S; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schuchmann, S; Schükraft, J; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Soualah, R; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsiledakis, G; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    We present results of a two-pion correlation analysis performed with the Au+Pb collision data collected by the upgraded CERES experiment in the fall of 2000. The analysis was done in bins of the reaction centrality and the pion azimuthal emission angle with respect to the reaction plane. The pion source, deduced from the data, is slightly elongated in the direction perpendicular to the reaction plane, similarly as was observed at the AGS and at RHIC.

  4. e+e--pair production in Pb-Au collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Agakichiev, G.; Bielcikova, J.; Baur, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.; Faschingbauer, U.; Fraenkel, Z.; Fuchs, Ch.; Gatti, E.; Glassel, P.; Hering, G.; de los Heros, C.P.; Holl, P.; Jung, Ch.; Lenkeit, B.; Marin, A.; Messer, F.; Messer, M.; Miskowiec, D.; Nix, O.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Razin, S.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Sampietro, M.; Sako, H.; Saveljic, N.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Seipp, W.; Shimanskiy, S.; Socol, E.; Specht, H.J.; Stachel, J.; Tel-Zur, G.; Tserruya, Itzhak; Ullrich, T.; Voigt, C.; Voloshin, S.; Weber, C.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J.P.; Yurevich, V.; Fuchs, Ch.; Jung, Ch.; Panebrattsev, Yu.

    2005-01-01

    We present the combined results on electron-pair production in 158 GeV/n {Pb-Au} ($\\sqrt{s}$= 17.2 GeV) collisions taken at the CERN SPS in 1995 and 1996, and give a detailed account of the data analysis. The enhancement over the reference of neutral meson decays amounts to a factor of 2.31$\\pm0.19 (stat.)\\pm0.55 (syst.)\\pm0.69 (decays)$ for semi-central collisions (28% $\\sigma/\\sigma_{geo}$) when yields are integrated over $m>$ 200 MeV/$c^2$ in invariant mass. The measured yield, its stronger-than-linear scaling with $N_{ch}$, and the dominance of low pair $p_t$ strongly suggest an interpretation as {\\it thermal radiation} from pion annihilation in the hadronic fireball. The shape of the excess centring at $m\\approx$ 500 MeV/$c^2$, however, cannot be described without strong medium modifications of the $\\rho$ meson. The results are put into perspective by comparison to predictions from Brown-Rho scaling governed by chiral symmetry restoration, and from the spectral-function many-body treatment in which the a...

  5. Study on the P-odd asymmetry of longitudinally polarized neutron transmission in 117Sn, 233Th, 239Pu isotopes and natural mixture of Cl and Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Ermakov, O.N.; Karpikhin, I.L.; Krupchitskij, P.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.Eh.; Perepelitsa, V.F.; Petrushin, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    The results of measurements of P-odd helicity dependence of the total cross-section a=(σsub(tot)sup(+)-σsub(tot)sup(-))/(σsub(tot)sup(+)+σsub(tot)sup(-)) for thermal neutrons on several targets are presented. The result for 117 Sn is a=(11.2+-2.6)x10 -6 . The upper limits for a in the region of several units of 10 -6 are obtained for 232 Th, 239 Pu, Cl (natural) and Pb (natural)

  6. The influence of hydrostatic pressure on the I-U characteristic of Pb/sub 1-x/Sn/sub x/Te diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerstel, W.; Kraak, W.; Rudolph, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the I-U characteristic of Pb/sub 1-x/Sn/sub x/Te diodes has been investigated. The measurements have been carried out under hydrostatic pressure of 95 to 1070 MPa. The experimental results obtained differ from the predictions of the recombination-tunneling model. Formally it is possible to describe the deviation by a voltage dependence of the concentration of the active traps per unit area in the junction

  7. Synthesis and first-principle calculations of the structural and electronic properties of Ge-substituted type-VIII Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Sn{sub 30} clathrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lanxian [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Yunnan Provincial Renewable Energy Engineering Key Lab, Solar Energy Research Institution, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500 (China); Li, Decong [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Yunnan Open University, Kunming 650500 (China); Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Zuming [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Yunnan Provincial Renewable Energy Engineering Key Lab, Solar Energy Research Institution, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500 (China); Deng, Shukang, E-mail: skdeng@126.com [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Yunnan Provincial Renewable Energy Engineering Key Lab, Solar Energy Research Institution, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the structural and electronic structural properties of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Sn{sub 30−x}Ge{sub x} (0≤x≤30) are determined by the first-principle method on the basis of density functional theory. Consistent with experimental findings, calculated results reveal that Ge atoms preferentially occupy the 2a and 24g sites in these compounds. As the content of Ge in Ge-substituted clathrate is increased, the lattice parameter is decreased, and the structural stability is enhanced. The bandgaps of the compound at 1≤x≤10 are smaller than those of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Sn{sub 30}. By contrast, the bandgaps of the compound at x>10 are larger than those of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Sn{sub 30}. The substitution of Ge for Sn affects p-type conductivity but not n-type conductivity. As Ge content increases, the whole conduction band moves to the direction of high energy, and the density of states of valence-band top decreases. The calculated potential energy versus displacement of Ba indicates that the vibration energy of this atom increases as cage size decreases. Because Ge substitution also affects clathrate structural symmetry, the distance of Ba atom deviation from the center of the cage initially increases and subsequently decreases as the Ge content increases.

  8. Effects of thermo-mechanical iterations on the grain boundary character distribution of Pb-Ca-Sn-Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weiguo; Guo Hong

    2007-01-01

    Recrystallized Pb-0.05%Ca-1.5%Sn-0.026%Al (mass fraction) alloy, with an averaged grain size of 20-30 μm, special grain boundary (Σ1-Σ29) fraction of less than 40% and the general high angle boundary (HAB) network of fully connected, was subjected to 1-4 cycles of thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) of rolling at ambient temperature followed by annealing at 270 deg. C (0.9T m ). Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were employed to determine the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) of the processed samples. The results indicated that 1-, 3- and 4-cycle TMP has very strong but nearly identical effects on the GBCD, the fraction of special boundaries enhanced to 80%, and the connectivity of general high angle boundary (HABs) network is interrupted sufficiently by the so-called special boundaries; However, 2-cycle TMP exerts slight impacts on the GBCD, the fraction of special boundaries is only increased to 59.2% and the connectivity of HABs network is not interrupted substantially. Further discussion pointed out the effects of 1-, 3- and 4-cycle TMP might be attributed to the migration and interactions of incoherent Σ3 (Σ3 ic ) and its variants Σ9 and Σ27 boundaries, while that of 2-cycle TMP may be caused by an enhanced recrystallization

  9. Effect of the roughness of crucible on viscosity of liquid Pb38.1Sn61.9 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuqin; Bian Xiufang; Mao Tan; Li Xuelian; Li Taibao; Wang Caidong

    2007-01-01

    The viscosity of the eutectic Pb 38.1 Sn 61.9 alloy has been measured by a torsional oscillation viscometer using three different crucibles which are made of the materials of highly sintered alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), quartz (SiO 2 ), and graphite (C) respectively. The roughness of crucibles has effect on the viscosity. The viscosity data obtained for SiO 2 and C crucibles were concentrated in the narrow range of about 0.5% and showed almost the same activation energy. However, the viscosity obtained using Al 2 O 3 crucible with the maximal roughness is higher than that using the other two crucibles. The discrepancy of viscosity obtained using those crucibles increases with the viscosity. In addition, the viscosity obtained using three kinds of crucibles in our work has a breakpoint at 488 K, which is approximate with the results of electrical conductivity and thermopower measurements reported by Plevachuk et al., which indicates the microstructure in melt changes before solidification

  10. Geochronology and Genesis of the Xitian W-Sn Polymetallic Deposit in Eastern Hunan Province, South China: Evidence from Zircon U-Pb and Muscovite Ar-Ar Dating, Petrochemistry, and Wolframite Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The recently explored Xitian tungsten-tin (W-Sn polymetallic ore field, located in Hunan province, South China, is one of the largest ore fields in the Nanling Range (NLR. Two major metallogenic types appeared in this ore field, skarn- and quartz vein-type. They are distributed within Longshang, Heshuxia, Shaiheling, Hejiangkou, Goudalan, and so on. Hydrothermal zircons from two altered granites yielded U-Pb ages of 152.8 ± 1.1 Ma, and 226.0 ± 2.8 Ma, respectively. Two muscovite samples from ore-bearing quartz vein yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 156.6 ± 0.7 Ma, 149.5 ± 0.8 Ma, respectively. Combined with the geological evidence, two metallogenic events are proposed in the Xitian ore field, with skarn-type W-Sn mineralization in Late Triassic (Indosinian and quartz vein/greisen type W-Sn mineralization in Late Jurassic (Yanshanian. The relatively low Ce/Ce* ratios and high Y/Ho ratios in zircons from two altered granites indicate that the hydrothermal fluids of two metallogenic events are characterized by low oxygen fugacities and enrichment in F. The similar chondrite-normalized patterns between the skarn and Xitian Indosinian granites and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of wolframite suggest that the metal sources for both types W-Sn mineralization are derived from a crustal source.

  11. Spontaneous growth of whiskers on RE-bearing intermetallic compounds of Sn-RE, In-RE, and Pb-RE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Meng [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xian Aiping, E-mail: ap.xian@imr.ac.c [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2009-11-03

    A phenomenon of the whiskers growth on the bulk rare earth (RE)-intermetallic compounds of NdSn{sub 3}, NdIn{sub 3}, and LaPb{sub 3} is reported. The whiskers formed spontaneously on all of the RE-intermetallic compounds after exposed to room ambience (21-28 deg. C/20-56% RH, relative humidity) for several days. Among the samples, the propensity of whisker growth for NdSn{sub 3} is the strongest, on which the tin whiskers were flourishing and covered all of the surfaces after exposed to room ambience for 22 days; while LaPb{sub 3} is the secondary and NdIn{sub 3} is the last one. Observed by SEM, the whiskers were exhibited as different morphology, size, and number density. The XRD analysis confirms the existence of RE(OH){sub 3} after whiskers formed, also, the weight gain curve of the samples exposed to room ambience supports that a spontaneous chemical reaction of the RE-intermetallic compounds with water in room ambience takes place. In discussion, it is proposed that the fresh metal atoms released by the chemical reaction could be causative to result in nucleation and spontaneous growth of the whiskers, while the anisotropy of crystal structure could be a reason to understand the difference of the whisker growth behaviors between Sn and Pb.

  12. Spontaneous growth of whiskers on RE-bearing intermetallic compounds of Sn-RE, In-RE, and Pb-RE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Meng; Xian Aiping

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenon of the whiskers growth on the bulk rare earth (RE)-intermetallic compounds of NdSn 3 , NdIn 3 , and LaPb 3 is reported. The whiskers formed spontaneously on all of the RE-intermetallic compounds after exposed to room ambience (21-28 deg. C/20-56% RH, relative humidity) for several days. Among the samples, the propensity of whisker growth for NdSn 3 is the strongest, on which the tin whiskers were flourishing and covered all of the surfaces after exposed to room ambience for 22 days; while LaPb 3 is the secondary and NdIn 3 is the last one. Observed by SEM, the whiskers were exhibited as different morphology, size, and number density. The XRD analysis confirms the existence of RE(OH) 3 after whiskers formed, also, the weight gain curve of the samples exposed to room ambience supports that a spontaneous chemical reaction of the RE-intermetallic compounds with water in room ambience takes place. In discussion, it is proposed that the fresh metal atoms released by the chemical reaction could be causative to result in nucleation and spontaneous growth of the whiskers, while the anisotropy of crystal structure could be a reason to understand the difference of the whisker growth behaviors between Sn and Pb.

  13. Designing novel Sn-Bi, Si-C and Ge-C nanostructures, using simple theoretical chemical similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdetsis Aristides

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A framework of simple, transparent and powerful concepts is presented which is based on isoelectronic (or isovalent principles, analogies, regularities and similarities. These analogies could be considered as conceptual extensions of the periodical table of the elements, assuming that two atoms or molecules having the same number of valence electrons would be expected to have similar or homologous properties. In addition, such similar moieties should be able, in principle, to replace each other in more complex structures and nanocomposites. This is only partly true and only occurs under certain conditions which are investigated and reviewed here. When successful, these concepts are very powerful and transparent, leading to a large variety of nanomaterials based on Si and other group 14 elements, similar to well known and well studied analogous materials based on boron and carbon. Such nanomaterias designed in silico include, among many others, Si-C, Sn-Bi, Si-C and Ge-C clusters, rings, nanowheels, nanorodes, nanocages and multidecker sandwiches, as well as silicon planar rings and fullerenes similar to the analogous sp2 bonding carbon structures. It is shown that this pedagogically simple and transparent framework can lead to an endless variety of novel and functional nanomaterials with important potential applications in nanotechnology, nanomedicine and nanobiology. Some of the so called predicted structures have been already synthesized, not necessarily with the same rational and motivation. Finally, it is anticipated that such powerful and transparent rules and analogies, in addition to their predictive power, could also lead to far-reaching interpretations and a deeper understanding of already known results and information.

  14. Rational design of anode materials based on Group IVA elements (Si, Ge, and Sn) for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Long; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) represent the state-of-the-art technology in rechargeable energy-storage devices and they currently occupy the prime position in the marketplace for powering an increasingly diverse range of applications. However, the fast development of these applications has led to increasing demands being placed on advanced LIBs in terms of higher energy/power densities and longer life cycles. For LIBs to meet these requirements, researchers have focused on active electrode materials, owing to their crucial roles in the electrochemical performance of batteries. For anode materials, compounds based on Group IVA (Si, Ge, and Sn) elements represent one of the directions in the development of high-capacity anodes. Although these compounds have many significant advantages when used as anode materials for LIBs, there are still some critical problems to be solved before they can meet the high requirements for practical applications. In this Focus Review, we summarize a series of rational designs for Group IVA-based anode materials, in terms of their chemical compositions and structures, that could address these problems, that is, huge volume variations during cycling, unstable surfaces/interfaces, and invalidation of transport pathways for electrons upon cycling. These designs should at least include one of the following structural benefits: 1) Contain a sufficient number of voids to accommodate the volume variations during cycling; 2) adopt a "plum-pudding"-like structure to limit the volume variations during cycling; 3) facilitate an efficient and permanent transport pathway for electrons and lithium ions; or 4) show stable surfaces/interfaces to stabilize the in situ formed SEI layers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Zircon and cassiterite U-Pb ages, petrogeochemistry and metallogenesis of Sn deposits in the Sibao area, northern Guangxi: constraints on the neoproterozoic granitic magmatism and related Sn mineralization in the western Jiangnan Orogen, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Zongqi; Yan, Zhen; Gong, Jianghua; Ma, Shouxian

    2018-01-01

    A number of Sn deposits associated with Neoproterozoic granites are located in the western Jiangnan Orogen of northern Guangxi. The distribution of Sn mineralization is controlled by faults occurring within and around the Neoproterozoic granites. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralization of these Sn deposits exhibit zoning from the granite to the wall rock. The laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages of the cassiterite and zircon from ore-bearing granite in the Menggongshan Sn deposit are 829 ± 19 Ma and 822 ± 4 Ma, respectively, indicating that the Sn mineralization and granites formed in the Neoproterozoic and can considered to be products of coeval magmatic and hydrothermal activities. The ore-bearing granite and Neoproterozoic granites in northern Guangxi are high-K, calc-alkaline, peraluminous, S-type granites that are depleted in Nb, Ti, Sr and Ba and highly enriched in Rb, U and Pb. All the granites show steep fractionated light rare earth element (LREE) and flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns, with strongly negative Eu anomalies. The ɛHf(t) values of the ore-bearing granite vary from - 9.0 to - 1.7, with an average value of - 4.1. Additionally, the ore-bearing granite exhibits low oxygen fugacity values. The magmatic source experienced partial melting during their evolution, and the source was dominated by recycled heterogeneous continental crustal materials. Our evidence confirms that the Neoproterozoic granites in northern Guangxi formed in a collisional tectonic setting. The collision between the Cathaysia and Yangtze blocks or between the Sibao arc (Jiangnan arc) and the Yangtze Block caused asthenospheric upwelling, leading to partial melting and recycling of the crust, forming the peraluminous S-type granites in the Neoproterozoic. The Sn mineralization has a close genetic relationship with the Neoproterozoic granite. The highly differentiated, peraluminous, B-enriched, crustally derived

  16. Highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented, direct-gap GeSn crystallized on amorphous SiO{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haofeng; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented direct-gap Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} thin films (0.074 < x < 0.085) crystallized on amorphous SiO{sub 2} towards 3D photonic integration. Due to a much smaller Poisson's ratio for (111) vs. (100) orientation, 0.44% thermally induced biaxial tensile strain reduces the direct-gap by 0.125 eV towards enhanced direct-gap semiconductor properties, twice as effective as the tensile strain in Ge(100) films. Correspondingly, the optical response is extended to λ = 2.8 μm. A dilatational deformation potential of a = −12.8 ± 0.8 eV is derived. These GeSn films also demonstrate high thermal stability, offering both excellent direct-gap optoelectronic properties and fabrication/operation robustness for integrated photonics.

  17. Azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles with transverse momentum up to 100 GeV/c in PbPb collisions at √{sNN } = 5.02 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

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    2018-01-01

    The Fourier coefficients v2 and v3 characterizing the anisotropy of the azimuthal distribution of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at √{sNN } = 5.02 TeV are measured with data collected by the CMS experiment. The measurements cover a broad transverse momentum range, 1 10 GeV / c range, where anisotropic azimuthal distributions should reflect the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in the created medium. Results are presented in several bins of PbPb collision centrality, spanning the 60% most central events. The v2 coefficient is measured with the scalar product and the multiparticle cumulant methods, which have different sensitivities to initial-state fluctuations. The values from both methods remain positive up to pT ∼ 60- 80 GeV / c, in all examined centrality classes. The v3 coefficient, only measured with the scalar product method, tends to zero for pT ≳ 20 GeV / c. Comparisons between theoretical calculations and data provide new constraints on the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in heavy ion collisions and highlight the importance of the initial-state fluctuations.

  18. Azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles with transverse momentum up to 100 GeV/$c$ in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{ s_{\\mathrm{NN}} } = $ 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, A.M.; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Bagaturia, Iuri; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Michelotto, Michele; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Popova, Elena; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Demiyanov, Andrey; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kumar, Ajay; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-01-10

    The Fourier coefficients $v_2$ and $v_3$ characterizing the anisotropy of the azimuthal distribution of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{ s_{\\mathrm{NN}} } = $ 5.02 TeV are measured with data collected by the CMS experiment. The measurements cover a broad transverse momentum range, $p_{\\mathrm{T}}= $ 1-100 GeV/$c$. The analysis focuses on $p_{\\mathrm{T}} > $ 10 GeV/$c$ range, where anisotropic azimuthal distributions should reflect the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in the created medium. Results are presented in several bins of PbPb collision centrality, spanning the 60% most central events. The $v_2$ coefficient is measured with the scalar product and the multiparticle cumulant methods, which have different sensitivities to the initial-state fluctuations. The values of both methods remain positive up to $p_{\\mathrm{T}} \\approx $ 70 GeV/$c$, in all examined centrality classes. The $v_3$ coefficient, only measured with the scalar product method, tends to zero for $p_{\\math...

  19. Isotopic and velocity distributions of {sub 83}Bi produced in charge-pickup reactions of {sup 208}{sub 82}PB at 1 A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Enqvist, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (DE)] [and others

    2004-07-01

    Isotopically resolved cross sections and velocity distributions have been measured in charge-pickup reactions of 1 A GeV {sup 208}Pb with proton, deuterium and titanium target. The total and partial charge-pickup cross sections in the reactions {sup 208}Pb + {sup 1}H and {sup 208}Pb + {sup 2}H are measured to be the same in the limits of the error bars. A weak increase in the total charge-pickup cross section is seen in the reaction of {sup 208}Pb with the titanium target. The measured velocity distributions show different contributions - quasi-elastic scattering and {delta}-resonance excitation - to the charge-pickup production. Data on total and partial charge-pickup cross sections from these three reactions are compared with other existing data and also with model calculations based on the coupling of different intra-nuclear cascade codes and an evaporation code. (orig.)

  20. Characteristic of Ti-based PbO{sub 2} anodes with SnO{sub 2}+Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} intermediate layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Tong, H.; Xu, W. [Yangzhou Univ., College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou (China)

    2006-07-01

    Ceramic coatings are used in many electrochemical applications, such as organic synthetic applications, wastewater treatment and oxygen production. These processes typically occur in aqueous sulphuric acid. Desirable features for electrode materials include electro-catalytic activity, high stability, low cost, good overall performance under mild conditions and commercial availability. Lead dioxide exhibits excellent chemical stability, high conductivity, high overpotential for oxygen evolution and lower cost in an acid medium. Studies have shown that the stability of active coating prepared by depositing lead dioxide on titanium substrate is poor. In order to solve this problems, methods of doping expensive noble metals or adding an intermediate layer have been examined. Electrode coatings are very sensitive to preparation procedures, in which precursors play an important role in the surface morphology, microstructure, final composition and stability of anodes. However, appreciable inorganic salt loss has been reported using traditional precursors. A polymeric precursor (PP) method commonly used in the preparation of nano-particles has certain advantages, such as easy manipulation and insensitivity to the presence of water. This study characterized the surface morphology and electrochemical behaviour of titanium (Ti)/tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) plus antimony oxide ((Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3})/lead dioxide (PbO{sub 2}) anode with SnO{sub 2} plus Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} intermediate coatings. The electrochemical performance of Ti/SnO{sub 2}+Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PbO{sub 2} anode preparing intermediate layer by the PP method was compared with alcohol precursors. It was concluded that adding SnO{sub 2}+Sb2O{sub 3} intermediate layer to Ti/PbO{sub 2} anodes could enhance the lifetime and stability of the anodes, thus its performance. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Study of 4f hybridization in CeNiX with X=SnδGe1-δ, 0≤δ≤1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, C. de la; Moral, A. del; Adroja, D.T.; Fraile, A.; Arnaudas, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    We report inelastic neutron scattering and core-level X-ray photoemission spectroscopy experiments for studying the Kondo problem in the CeNiX, X=Sn δ Ge 1-δ 0≤δ≤1 series. The neutron results confirm that they behave like a Kondo lattice for δ≥0.85, showing broad maxima at around 30 meV, typical of a crystal field magnetic scattering. So, the Ge doping could produce the suppression of the cerium magnetism observed for δ≤0.25. To open a more deep sight on this point, we have analyzed the 3d core-level XPS spectra by using the well-known Gunnarsson-Schoenhammer model. From this analysis, we have obtained the 'on-site' Coulomb bare repulsion for f states, U, and hybridization parameter, Δ, related with the hopping from the f states to the conduction ones. These U values are very similar for all compounds, about 7 eV, but the hybridization parameter slightly changes from 0.2 to 0.16 eV on increasing the Sn concentration. In Sn-rich compounds, the 4f occupation is close to spin limit fluctuation, which allows us to obtain an estimation of the Kondo temperatures, ∼1200 K, and the static 0 K susceptibility, ∼1.1x10 -3 emu/mol. Finally, we have done 'ab-initio' calculations based on the LDA+U+SO which confirm the existence of a small electronic gap opening in the DOS of Ge-rich compounds for U values lower than 7 eV.

  2. Study of 4f hybridization in CeNiX with X=Sn{sub d}eltaGe{sub 1-d}elta, 0<=delta<=1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, C. de la, E-mail: cesar@unizar.e [Depto. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Universidad de Zaragoza and ICMA-CSIC (Spain); Moral, A. del [Depto. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Universidad de Zaragoza and ICMA-CSIC (Spain); Adroja, D.T. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Fraile, A. [Depto. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Universidad de Zaragoza and ICMA-CSIC (Spain); Arnaudas, J.I. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    We report inelastic neutron scattering and core-level X-ray photoemission spectroscopy experiments for studying the Kondo problem in the CeNiX, X=Sn{sub d}eltaGe{sub 1-d}elta 0<=delta<=1 series. The neutron results confirm that they behave like a Kondo lattice for delta>=0.85, showing broad maxima at around 30 meV, typical of a crystal field magnetic scattering. So, the Ge doping could produce the suppression of the cerium magnetism observed for delta<=0.25. To open a more deep sight on this point, we have analyzed the 3d core-level XPS spectra by using the well-known Gunnarsson-Schoenhammer model. From this analysis, we have obtained the 'on-site' Coulomb bare repulsion for f states, U, and hybridization parameter, DELTA, related with the hopping from the f states to the conduction ones. These U values are very similar for all compounds, about 7 eV, but the hybridization parameter slightly changes from 0.2 to 0.16 eV on increasing the Sn concentration. In Sn-rich compounds, the 4f occupation is close to spin limit fluctuation, which allows us to obtain an estimation of the Kondo temperatures, approx1200 K, and the static 0 K susceptibility, approx1.1x10{sup -3} emu/mol. Finally, we have done 'ab-initio' calculations based on the LDA+U+SO which confirm the existence of a small electronic gap opening in the DOS of Ge-rich compounds for U values lower than 7 eV.

  3. Strangeness enhancement at rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c: a comparision with VENUS and RQMD models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antinori, F.; Bakke, H.; Beusch, W.; Staroba, Pavel; Závada, Petr

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (1999), s. 79-88 ISSN 1434-6044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : WA97 * VENUS 4.12 * RQMD 2.3 * enhancements * strageness content * central rapidity * p-Pb, Pb-Pb Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.872, year: 1999

  4. Multi-step processes in the (d, t) and (d, 3He) reactions on 116Sn and 208Pb targets at Ed = 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevin-Joliot, H.; Van de Wiele, J.; Guillot, J.; Koning, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The role of multi-step processes in the reactions 116 Sn(d,t), 208 Pb(d,t) and 116 Sn(d, 3 He), previously studied at E d = 200 MeV at forward angles and for relatively low energy transfers, has been investigated. We have performed for the first time multi-step calculations taking into account systematically collective excitations in the second and higher order step inelastic transitions. A calculation code based on the Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin model has been modified to handle explicitly these collective excitations, most important in the forward angle domain. One step double differential pick-up cross sections were built from finite range distorted wave results spread in energy using known or estimated hole state characteristics. It is shown that two-step cross sections calculated using the above method compare rather well with those deduced via coupled channel calculations for the same collective excitations. The multi-step calculations performed up to 6 steps reproduce reasonably well the 115 Sn, 207 Pb and 115 In experimental spectra measured up to E x ∼- 40 MeV and 15 deg. The relative contributions of steps of increasing order to pick-up cross sections at E d = 200 MeV and 150 MeV are discussed. (authors)

  5. Type II band alignment in Ge1-x-ySixSny/Ge1-α-βSiαSnβ heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Bratati; Sen, Gopa; Basu, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    We have examined type II band alignment in Ge1-x-ySixSny/Ge1-α-βSiαSβ heterojunctions grown on virtual substrates in Si platform. It is found that, for different values of x, y, α and β, direct band gap type II band line up can be achieved for both tensile and compressive strains. The calculated band gap energy corresponds to the mid infrared to far infrared regions in the electromagnetic spectrum.

  6. Influence of gold nanoparticles on the 805 nm gain in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped PbO-GeO2 pedestal waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, T. A. A.; Camilo, M. E.; Alayo, M. I.; da Silva, D. M.; Kassab, L. R. P.

    2017-10-01

    The production and characterization of pedestal waveguides based on PbO-GeO2 amorphous thin films codoped with Tm3+/Yb3+, with and without gold nanoparticles (NPs), are reported. Pedestal structure was obtained by conventional photolithography and plasma etching. Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped PGO amorphous thin film was obtained by RF Magnetron Sputtering deposition and used as core layer in the pedestal optical waveguide. The minimum propagation losses in the waveguide were 3.6 dB/cm at 1068 nm. The internal gain at 805 nm was enhanced and increased to 8.67 dB due to the presence of gold NPs. These results demonstrate for the first time that Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped PbO-GeO2 waveguides are promising for first telecom window and integrated photonics, especially for applications on fiber network at short distances.

  7. Low-mass $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair production in 158 A GeV Pb - Au collisions at the CERN SPS, its dependence on multiplicity and transverse momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Agakichiev, G; Braun-Munzinger, P; Ceretto, F; Drees, A; Esumi, S C; Faschingbauer, U; Fraenkel, Zeev; Fuchs, C; Gatti, E; Glässel, P; Pérez de los Heros, C; Holl, P; Jung, C; Lenkeit, B C; Messer, M; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Razin, S V; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Sampietro, M; Saveljic, N; Schükraft, Jürgen; Shimansky, S S; Seipp, W; Socol, E; Specht, H J; Stachel, J J; Tel-Zur, G; Tserruya, Itzhak; Ullrich, T S; Voigt, C A; Weber, C; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V I

    1998-01-01

    We report a measurement of low-mass electron pairsobserved in 158 GeV/nucleon Pb-Au collisions. The pair yield integrated over the range of invariant masses 0.2 < m < 2.0 GeV is enhanced by a factor of 3.5 +/- 0.4 (stat) +/- 0.9 (syst) over the expectation from neutral meson decays. As observed previously in S-Au collisions, the enhancement is most pronounced in the invariant-mass region 300-700 MeV. For Pb-Au we find evidencefor a strong increase of the enhancement with centrality. In addition, we show that the enhancement covers a wide range in transverse momentum, but is largest at the lowest observed pt.

  8. Characteristics of SnO{sub 2}-based {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generator and aspects of radiolabelling DOTA-peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blois, Erik de; Chan, Ho Sze [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Naidoo, Clive; Prince, Deidre [iThemba Labs, Somerset West, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Krenning, Eric P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Breeman, Wouter A.P., E-mail: w.a.p.breeman@erasmusmc.n [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    Objectives: PET scintigraphy with {sup 68}Ga-labelled analogs is of increasing interest in Nuclear Medicine and performed all over the world. Here we report the characteristics of the eluate of SnO{sub 2}-based {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators prepared by iThemba LABS (Somerset West, South Africa). Three purification and concentration techniques of the eluate for labelling DOTA-TATE and concordant SPE purifications were investigated. Methods: Characteristics of 4 SnO{sub 2}-based generators (range 0.4-1 GBq {sup 68}Ga in the eluate) and several concentration techniques of the eluate (HCl) were evaluated. The elution profiles of SnO{sub 2}-based {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators were monitored, while [HCl] of the eluens was varied from 0.3-1.0 M. Metal ions and sterility of the eluate were determined by ICP. Fractionated elution and concentration of the {sup 68}Ga eluate were performed using anion and cation exchange. Concentrated {sup 68}Ga eluate, using all three concentration techniques, was used for labelling of DOTA-TATE. {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE-containing solution was purified and RNP increased by SPE, therefore also 11 commercially available SPE columns were investigated. Results: The amount of elutable {sup 68}Ga activity varies when the concentration of the eluens, HCl, was varied, while {sup 68}Ge activity remains virtually constant. SnO{sub 2}-based {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generator elutes at 0.6 M HCl >100% of the {sup 68}Ga activity at calibration time and {+-}75% after 300 days. Eluate at discharge was sterile and Endotoxins were <0.5 EU/mL, RNP was always <0.01%. Metal ions in the eluate were <10 ppm (in total). Highest desorption for anion purification was obtained with the 30 mg Oasis WAX column (>80%). Highest desorption for cation purification was obtained using a solution containing 90% acetone at increasing molarity of HCl, resulted in a {sup 68}Ga desorption of 68{+-}8%. With all {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators and for all 3 purification methods a

  9. Elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on separated targets of {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn and {sup 208}Pb using the Saclay fixed-energy cyclotron; Sections efficaces differentielles elastiques et inelastiques obtenues par diffusion de particules {alpha} de 44 MeV sur des cibles de {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn et {sup 208}Pb au cyclotron a energie fixe de saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruge, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de physique nucleaire, service de physique nucleaire a moyenne energie

    1967-01-01

    This report contains elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn and Pb enriched targets. (author) [French] Ce rapport contient les tableaux des sections efficaces differentielles obtenues par diffusion elastique et inelastique des particules {alpha} de 44 MeV, fournies par le cyclotron a energie fixe de Saclay, sur des cibles d'isotopes separes de Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn et Pb. (auteur)

  10. Soldering-induced Cu diffusion and intermetallic compound formation between Ni/Cu under bump metallization and SnPb flip-chip solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Sheng; Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2004-04-01

    Nickel-based under bump metallization (UBM) has been widely used as a diffusion barrier to prevent the rapid reaction between the Cu conductor and Sn-based solders. In this study, joints with and without solder after heat treatments were employed to evaluate the diffusion behavior of Cu in the 63Sn-37Pb/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structure. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated from the concentration profiles of Cu in solder joints. During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1015-1016 atoms/cm2s. However, in the assembly without solder, no Cu was detected on the surface of Ni even after ten cycles of reflow. The diffusion behavior of Cu during heat treatments was studied, and the soldering-process-induced Cu diffusion through Ni metallization was characterized. In addition, the effect of Cu content in the solder near the solder/intermetallic compound (IMC) interface on interfacial reactions between the solder and the Ni/Cu UBM was also discussed. It is evident that the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC might form as the concentration of Cu in the Sn-Cu-Ni alloy exceeds 0.6 wt.%.

  11. Electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on (Pb) lead modified by Pt, Pt-Ru and Pt-Sn microparticles dispersed into poly(o-phenylenediamine) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golikand, Ahmad Nozad; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Irannejad, Leila [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Lab., Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran); Golabi, Seyed Mehdi [Electroanalytical Chemistry Lab., Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran)

    2005-08-18

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol at a (Pb) lead electrode modified by Pt, Pt-Ru and Pt-Sn microparticles dispersed into poly(o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) film has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry as analytical technique and 0.5M sulfuric acid as supporting electrolyte. It has been shown that the presence of PoPD film increases considerably the efficiency of deposited Pt and Pt alloys microparticles toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol. The catalytic activity of Pt particles is further enhanced when Ru and especially Sn, is co-deposited in the polymer film. The effects of various parameters such as concentration of methanol, medium temperature as well as the long term stability of modified electrodes have also been investigated. (author)

  12. Multistage hydrothermal silicification and Fe-Tl-As-Sb-Ge-REE enrichment in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district, northern Alaska: Geochemistry, origin, and exploration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Kelley, K.D.; Anderson, V.M.; Clark, J.L.; Ayuso, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE) in more than 200 samples of variably silicified and altered wall rocks, massive and banded sulfide, silica rock, and sulfide-rich and unmineralized barite were obtained from the Main, Aqqaluk, and Anarraaq deposits in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district of northern Alaska. Detailed lithogeochemical profiles for two drill cores at Aqqaluk display an antithetic relationship between SiO2/Al2O3 and TiO2/Zr which, together with textural information, suggest preferential silicification of carbonate-bearing sediments. Data for both drill cores also show generally high Tl, Sb, As, and Ge and uniformly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* > 1.0). Similar high Tl, Sb, As, Ge, and Eu/Eu* values are present in the footwall and shallow hanging wall of Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide intervals at Anarraaq but are not as widely dispersed. Net chemical changes for altered wall rocks in the district, on the basis of average Al-normalized data relative to unaltered black shales of the host Kuna Formation, include large enrichments (>50%) of Fe, Ba, Eu, V, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, Sb, and Ge at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, Si at Red Dog, and Sr, U, and Se at Anarraaq. Large depletions (>50%) are evident for Ca at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, for Mg, P, and Y at Red Dog, and for Na at Anarraaq. At both Red Dog and Anarraaq, wall-rock alteration removed calcite and minor dolomite during hydrothermal decarbonation reactions and introduced Si, Eu, and Ge during silicification. Sulfidation reactions deposited Fe, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, and Sb; barite mineralization introduced Ba, S, and Sr. Light REE and U were mobilized locally. This alteration and mineralization occurred during Mississippi an hydrothermal events that predated the Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous Brookian orogeny. Early hydrothermal silicification at Red Dog took place prior to or during massive sulfide mineralization, on the basis of the dominantly planar nature of Zn-Pb veins, which suggests

  13. Layered Halide Double Perovskites Cs3+nM(II)nSb2X9+3n (M = Sn, Ge) for Photovoltaic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gang; Xiao, Zewen; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio; Fang, Daining; Hong, Jiawang

    2018-01-04

    Over the past few years, the development of lead-free and stable perovskite absorbers with excellent performance has attracted extensive attention. Much effort has been devoted to screening and synthesizing this type of solar cell absorbers. Here, we present a general design strategy for designing the layered halide double perovskites Cs 3+n M(II) n Sb 2 X 9+3n (M = Sn, Ge) with desired photovoltaic-relevant properties by inserting [MX 6 ] octahedral layers, based on the principles of increased electronic dimensionality. Compared to Cs 3 Sb 2 I 9 , more suitable band gaps, smaller carrier effective masses, larger dielectric constants, lower exciton binding energies, and higher optical absorption can be achieved by inserting variable [SnI 6 ] or [GeI 6 ] octahedral layers into the [Sb 2 I 9 ] bilayers. Moreover, our results show that adjusting the thickness of inserted octahedral layers is an effective approach to tune the band gaps and carrier effective masses in a large range. Our work provides useful guidance for designing the promising layered antimony halide double perovskite absorbers for photovoltaic applications.

  14. Two-dimensional n -InSe/p -GeSe(SnS) van der Waals heterojunctions: High carrier mobility and broadband performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Cong-xin; Du, Juan; Huang, Xiao-wei; Xiao, Wen-bo; Xiong, Wen-qi; Wang, Tian-xing; Wei, Zhong-ming; Jia, Yu; Shi, Jun-jie; Li, Jing-bo

    2018-03-01

    Recently, constructing van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions by stacking different two-dimensional (2D) materials has been considered to be effective strategy to obtain the desired properties. Here, through first-principles calculations, we find theoretically that the 2D n -InSe/p -GeSe(SnS) vdW heterojunctions are the direct-band-gap semiconductor with typical type-II band alignment, facilitating the effective separation of photogenerated electron and hole pairs. Moreover, they possess the high optical absorption strength (˜105 ), broad spectrum width, and excellent carrier mobility (˜103c m2V-1s-1 ). Interestingly, under the influences of the interlayer coupling and external electric field, the characteristics of type-II band alignment is robust, while the band-gap values and band offset are tunable. These results indicate that 2D n -InSe/p -GeSe(SnS) heterojunctions possess excellent optoelectronic and transport properties, and thus can become good candidates for next-generation optoelectronic nanodevices.

  15. Multielemental Determination of As, Bi, Ge, Sb, and Sn in Agricultural Samples Using Hydride Generation Coupled to Microwave-Induced Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Raquel C; Amaral, Clarice D B; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Araujo Nogueira, Ana Rita

    2017-06-14

    A microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometer with N 2 -based plasma was combined with a multimode sample introduction system (MSIS) for hydride generation (HG) and multielemental determination of As, Bi, Ge, Sb, and Sn in samples of forage, bovine liver, powdered milk, agricultural gypsum, rice, and mineral fertilizer, using a single condition of prereduction and reduction. The accuracy of the developed analytical method was evaluated using certified reference materials of water and mineral fertilizer, and recoveries ranged from 95 to 106%. Addition and recovery experiments were carried out, and the recoveries varied from 85 to 117% for all samples evaluated. The limits of detection for As, Bi, Ge, Sb, and Sn were 0.46, 0.09, 0.19, 0.46, and 5.2 μg/L, respectively, for liquid samples, and 0.18, 0.04, 0.08, 0.19, and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively, for solid samples. The method proposed offers a simple, fast, multielemental, and robust alternative for successful determination of all five analytes in agricultural samples with low operational cost without compromising analytical performance.

  16. Triangular flow of negative pions emitted in PbAu collisions at $\\sqrt{S_{NN}} = 17.3$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamová, D.

    Differential triangular flow, $v_3(p_T)$, of negative pions is measured at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 17.3~GeV around midrapidity by the CERES/NA45 experiment at CERN in central PbAu collisions in the range 0-30\\% with a mean centrality of 5.5\\%. This is the first measurement of the triangular flow at SPS energies. The $p_T$ range extends from about 0.05~GeV/c to more than 2~GeV/c. The triangular flow magnitude, corrected for the HBT effects, is smaller by a factor of about 2 than the one measured by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC and the ALICE experiment at the LHC. Within the analyzed range of central collisions no significant centrality dependence is observed. The data are found to be well described by a viscous hydro calculation combined with an UrQMD cascade model for the late stages.

  17. Transmutation of 126Sn in spallation targets of accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chi Young; Saito, Masaki; Sagara, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The practical feasibility of 126 Sn transmutation in spallation targets of accelerator-driven systems was evaluated from the viewpoints of accumulation of radioactive spallation products and neutron production as well as transmutation amount of 126 Sn. A cylindrical liquid 126 Sn target whose length depends on proton beam energy was described, based on a Pb-Bi target design of accelerator-driven system being developed in JAEA. A proton beam of 1.5 GeV-20 mA was estimated to give the transmutation rate of 126 Sn 6.4 kg/yr, which corresponds to the amount of 126 Sn annually discharged in 27 LWRs of 1 GWt and 33 GWd/THM. The equilibrium radioactivity of spallation products would reach 9% of that of 126 Sn transmuted in the spallation target, and the equilibrium toxicity would be just 3%. Some parametric analyses showed that the effective half-life of 126 Sn could be reduced through a proper reduction of the target size. The 126 Sn target was calculated to produce 40 neutrons per proton of 1.5 GeV and give a neutron spectrum very similar to that of the reference Pb-Bi target. As a result, the transmutation of 126 Sn in the spallation target has a high feasibility in terms of better transmutation performance and comparable target performance. (author)

  18. Growth and characterization of highly tensile strained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} formed on relaxed In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}P buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; D' Costa, Vijay Richard; Dong, Yuan; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Loke, Wan Khai; Yoon, Soon Fatt [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yin, Tingting; Shen, Zexiang [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2016-03-28

    Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} films with high tensile strain were grown on strain-relaxed In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}P virtual substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The in-plane tensile strain in the Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} film was varied by changing the In mole fraction in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}P buffer layer. The tensile strained Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} films were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. An in-plane tensile strain of up to 1% in the Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} was measured, which is much higher than that achieved using other buffer systems. Controlled thermal anneal experiment demonstrated that the strain was not relaxed for temperatures up to 500 °C. The band alignment of the tensile strained Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} on In{sub 0.77}Ga{sub 0.23}P was obtained by high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06}/In{sub 0.77}Ga{sub 0.23}P interface was found to be of the type I band alignment, with a valence band offset of 0.31 ± 0.12 eV and a conduction band offset of 0.74 ± 0.12 eV.

  19. Pb sub(1-x) Sn sub(x) Te monocrystal growth by vapor phase transport, with formation of a liquid/solid growth interphase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.Y.; Bandeira, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    Due to segregation effects single-crystals of Pb sub(1-x) Sn sub(x) Te growth by Bridgman techniques have an inhomogenous composition profile. A vapor phase transport growth process has been developed in order to reduce convective flows. This is due to the very thin melt layer in front of the crystal, that makes convective flows small and solute mixing in the melt very low. By this process single-crystals with 60 mm lenght by 15 mm diameter and a high degree of homogeneity have been grown. (Author) [pt

  20. First principles study of (Cd, Hg, In, Tl, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Se) modified Pt(111), Pt(100) and Pt(211) electrodes as CO oxidation catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    . The coverage dependence as a function of potential for ten different adatom species (Cd, Hg, In, Tl, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Se) on bare and CO saturated Pt(111), Pt(100) and Pt(211) surfaces has been established by means of Density Functional Theory calculations. Most of the adatoms are very stable under standard......, given by the OH formation potentials from water, is dependent on the oxophilicity of the adatoms, and is found to scale almost inversely with the adatom stability. In electrolyte solutions saturated with CO, the stability reduces to roughly half of that on bare Pt surfaces. Irrespective of the CO...

  1. Critical thickness of transition from 2D to 3D growth and peculiarities of quantum dots formation in GexSi1-x/Sn/Si and Ge1-ySny/Si systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovoy, Kirill A.; Kokhanenko, Andrey P.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander V.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays using of tin as one of the deposited materials in GeSi/Sn/Si, GeSn/Si and GeSiSn/Si material systems is one of the most topical problems. These materials are very promising for various applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics due to possibility of band gap management and synthesis of direct band semiconductors within these systems. However, there is a lack of theoretical investigations devoted to the peculiarities of germanium on silicon growth in the presence of tin. In this paper a new theoretical approach for modeling growth processes of binary and ternary semiconductor compounds during the molecular beam epitaxy in these systems is presented. The established kinetic model based on the general nucleation theory takes into account the change in physical and mechanical parameters, diffusion coefficient and surface energies in the presence of tin. With the help of the developed model the experimentally observed significant decrease in the 2D-3D transition temperatures for GeSiSn/Si system compared to GeSi/Si system is theoretically explained for the first time in the literature. Besides that, the derived expressions allow one to explain the experimentally observed temperature dependencies of the critical thickness, as well as to predict the average size and surface density of quantum dots for different contents and temperatures in growth experiment, that confirms applicability of the model proposed. Moreover, the established model can be easily applied to other material systems in which the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode occurs.

  2. Antiproton-nucleus interactions at 5 to 9 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chan, C.S.; Clement, J.M.; Eiseman, S.E.; Empl, A.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hallman, T.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Kruk, J.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Madansky, L.; Morris, W.; Mutchler, G.S.; Peaslee, D.C.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Toshkov, S.

    1993-01-01

    Antiproton beams of 5, 7 and 9 GeV/c were used to interact with C, Al, Cu, Sn and Pb nuclear targets. Charged particle multiplicity distributions, strange particle production cross sections and rapidity distributions were measured. The charged particle multiplicities are reported in this paper. (orig.)

  3. Influence of dopant segregation on the work function and electrical properties of Ge-doped in comparison to Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyer, Karoline L.; Hubmann, Andreas H.; Klein, Andreas [Surface Science Division, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Ge-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are studied using photoelectron spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. Carrier conductivities of up to 8.35 x 10{sup 3} S cm{sup -1} and carrier mobilities of up to 57 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1}s{sup -1} are observed. The surface Ge concentration is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 compared to the concentration in the interior of the films. The surface Ge concentration increases with more oxidizing deposition conditions, in opposite to what has been reported for Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Ge-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films exhibit higher work functions as compared to Sn-doped films, in particular at oxidizing conditions. This is attributed to the formation of a GeO{sub 2} surface phase. While segregation of Sn reduces the carrier mobility due to grain boundary scattering, Ge segregation does not show such an effect. The differences are attributed to the different oxidation states of the segregated dopants, in agreement with the observed dependence of segregation on oxygen activity. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Promoting SnTe as an Eco-Friendly Solution for p-PbTe Thermoelectric via Band Convergence and Interstitial Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Zheng, Linglang; Ge, Binghui; Lin, Siqi; Zhang, Xinyue; Chen, Zhiwei; Chang, Yunjie; Pei, Yanzhong

    2017-05-01

    Compared to commercially available p-type PbTe thermoelectrics, SnTe has a much bigger band offset between its two valence bands and a much higher lattice thermal conductivity, both of which limit its peak thermoelectric figure of merit, zT of only 0.4. Converging its valence bands or introducing resonant states is found to enhance the electronic properties, while nanostructuring or more recently introducing interstitial defects is found to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. Even with an integration of some of the strategies above, existing efforts do not enable a peak zT exceeding 1.4 and usually involve Cd or Hg. In this work, a combination of band convergence and interstitial defects, each of which enables a ≈150% increase in the peak zT, successfully accumulates the zT enhancements to be ≈300% (zT up to 1.6) without involving any toxic elements. This opens new possibilities for further improvements and promotes SnTe as an environment-friendly solution for conventional p-PbTe thermoelectrics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The behaviour of the elements Ni, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Ag, Mo, Sn, W and U in the magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary and weathering environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    In the last two decades much has been published on the behaviour of certain elements in the magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary and weathering environments, but the information is scattered throughout the literature. This situation prompted the present study on the elements Ni, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Ag, Mo, Sn, W and U. The behaviour of the elements Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Sn, W and U has been studied experimentally in some depth. Ag has been moderately studied, but there is very little information about Co and Mo. Studies on the complexes formed by the elements within the hydrothermal and aqueous environment are often inconclusive and controversial, but conclusions are drawn as to the more likely complexes formed. A genetic classification of ore deposits is used as a framework for the discussion. The source of the elements is regarded as being the mantle, and therefore discussion on other possible sources is beyond the scope of this dissertation. The crystal chemistry and geochemistry of the elements are presented and the essay concludes with a discussion on the elements within their depositional environments

  6. Forward scattering amplitudes for π+- on Al, Ca, Cu, Sn, Ho, and Pb in the energy range 114-215 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the attenuation cross section, sigma(Ω), for both π + and π- projectiles on Al, 40 Ca, Cu, Sn, Ho, and Pb nuclei. The measurements were made over a range of energies including 114, 140, 165, and 215 MeV. A new method of analyzing transmission experiments data has been used to extract both the real and the imaginary parts of a forward scattering amplitude f/sub N/(0), where f/sub N/(0) is defined to be the limit as Ω → 0 of F(Ω)-f/sub c/(Ω). F(Ω) is the full elastic scattering amplitude and f/sub c/(Ω) is the relativistic point Coulomb amplitude. The values of f/sub N/(0) are compared with forward amplitudes from model calculation. These comparisons demonstrate that much of the observed rotation of the forward scattering amplitude, when plotted in the Argand plane, can be attributed to the Coulomb phase contained in the definition of f/sub N/(0). Results are also compared to those of other experiments. A difference is observed in attenuation measurements between this experiment and a Brookhaven experiment which measured total cross sections on Pb, Sn, and Al. There have been only a few published results in which experimental values of f/sub N/(0) are given. In those cases, general agreement is obsserved with the results of this experiment

  7. Syntheses and structural characterization of non-centrosymmetric Na{sub 2}M{sub 2}M'S{sub 6} (M, M′=Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn, Zn, Cd) sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru, E-mail: kvsagar@iitm.ac.in

    2016-06-15

    Seven new non-centrosymmetric Na{sub 2}M{sub 2}M’S{sub 6} sulfides, namely, Na{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}ZnS{sub 6}(1){sub ,} Na{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}GeS{sub 6}(2), Na{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SnS{sub 6}(3-α), Na{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SnS{sub 6}(3-β){sub ,} Na{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}ZnS{sub 6}(4){sub ,} Na{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}CdS{sub 6}(5){sub ,} Na{sub 2}In{sub 2}SiS{sub 6}(6) and Na{sub 2}In{sub 2}GeS{sub 6}(7), were synthesized by high temperature solid state reactions and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. They crystallize in non-centrosymmetric Fdd2 and Cc space groups and their three-dimensional [M{sub 2}M′S{sub 6}]{sup 2-}framework structures consist of MS{sub 4} and M′S{sub 4} tetrahedra corner-connected to one another in either orderly or disordered fashion. Sodium ions reside in the tunnels of the anionic framework. Compounds 1, 2 and 3-α have the structure of known Li{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}GeS{sub 6}, whereas compounds 6 and 7 are isostructural with known Li{sub 2}In{sub 2}GeS{sub 6} compound. Isostructural compounds 4 and 5 represent a new structural variant. Compounds 3-α and its new monoclinic structural variant 3-β have disordered structural framework. All of them are wide band gap semiconductors. Na{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}GeS{sub 6}(2), Na{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SnS{sub 6}(3), Na{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}ZnS{sub 6}(4) and Na{sub 2}In{sub 2}GeS{sub 6}(7) compounds are found to be second-harmonic generation (SHG) active. Compounds 1, 2 and 3-α melt congruently. - Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}GeS{sub 6}, Na{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SnS{sub 6}, Na{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}ZnS{sub 6}, Na{sub 2}In{sub 2}GeS{sub 6}, Na{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}ZnS{sub 6}, Na{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}CdS{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}In{sub 2}SiS{sub 6} have non-centrosymmetric structures and the first four compounds are SHG active. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Seven new Na{sub 2}M{sub 2}M′S{sub 6} compounds with non-centrosymmetric structures were synthesized. • They are wide band gap semiconductors. • Na{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}GeS{sub 6}, Na{sub 2

  8. Energy dependence of kaon-to-proton ratio fluctuations in central Pb+Pb collisions from $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 6.3 to 17.3 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Anticic, T.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Bogusz, M.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Buncic, P.; Cetner, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.G.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Gazdzicki, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Hohne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kollegger, T.; Kowalski, M.; Kresan, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, R.; van Leeuwen, M.; Mackowiak, M.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Nicolic, V.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Puhlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Utvic, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.

    2011-01-01

    Kaons and protons carry large parts of two conserved quantities, strangeness and baryon number. It is argued that their correlation and thus also fluctuations are sensitive to conditions prevailing at the anticipated parton-hadron phase boundary. Fluctuations of the $(\\mathrm{K}^+ + \\mathrm{K}^-)/(\\mathrm{p}+\\bar{\\mathrm{p}})$ and $\\mathrm{K}^+/\\mathrm{p}$ ratios have been measured for the first time by NA49 in central Pb+Pb collisions at 5 SPS energies between $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 6.3~GeV and 17.3~GeV. Both ratios exhibit a change of sign in $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{dyn}}$, a measure of non-statistical fluctuations, around $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 8~GeV. Below this energy, $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{dyn}}$ is positive, indicating higher fluctuation compared to a mixed event background sample, while for higher energies, $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{dyn}}$ is negative, indicating correlated emission of kaons and protons. The results are compared to UrQMD calculations which which give a good description at the higher SPS energies, but fail to reproduc...

  9. Interactions of {sub 82}Pb{sup 208} nuclei with energy 158 GeV per nucleon with photoemulsion nuclei; Vzaimodejstviya yader {sub 82}Pb{sup 208} s ehnergiej 158 Gev na nuklon s yadrami fotoehmul'sii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamovich, M I; Andreeva, N P; Bubnov, V I; Gajtinov, A Sh; Kanygina, Eh K; Musaeva, A K; Sejtimbetov, A M; Skorobagatova, V I; Filippova, L N; Chasnikov, I Ya [Fiziko-tekhnicheskij Inst. Ministerstava Nauki i Vysscego Obrazovaniya Respubliki Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    1999-07-01

    In this report there are experimental data on {sub 82}Pb{sup 208} nuclei (158 GeV) interaction with photoemulsion nuclei. The said data are compared to the similar ones for {sub 79}Au{sup 197} nuclei with less energy (10,7 A GeV). Stack of nuclear emulsion was irradiated with the beam of nuclei {sub 82}Pb{sup 208} at SPS of CERN. Events search was done along the primary nucleus trace. Pb nucleus average path length happened to be {lambda}=(3,8{+-}0,1) cm, this virtually coincides with the one calculated by Brandt and Peters formula (3,9 cm). Secondary particles were identified into s (storm), g (knock-on protons) and b- particles (target nucleus fragments), as well as into nucleus-bullet fragments with different charges (Z=1,2,{>=}3). This allowed obtaining event distribution by multiplicity of these particles (n{sub s}, n{sub g}, n{sub b}) and fragments (n{sub z=1,2,{>=}}{sub 3}), calculation of average values by multiplicity (see table), finding correlation of characteristics. >From the table it's clear that when the energy increases increases 2,5 times where as insignificantly decreases and doesn't change.

  10. Brillouin scattering, DSC, dielectric and X-ray diffraction studies of phase transitions in antiferroelectric PbHfO{sub 3}:Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mączka, Mirosław, E-mail: m.maczka@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Kim, Tae Hyun [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Gągor, Anna [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Jankowska-Sumara, Irena [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków (Poland); Majchrowski, Andrzej [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Kojima, Seiji [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Phase transition mechanisms were studied in antiferroelectric PbHf{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}O{sub 3.} • Acoustic phonons showed anomalies at 472 and 426 K due to phase transitions. • Brillouin data showed evidence for presence of polar clusters in paraelectric phase. • An order-disorder mechanism of the PE to AFE2 transition was proved. - Abstract: Specific heat, dielectric, powder X-ray diffraction and Brillouin scattering studies of phase transitions in antiferroelectric PbHf{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}O{sub 3} crystal were performed. The specific heat data revealed clear anomalies at T{sub 1} = 473.5 and T{sub 2} = 426.3 K on cooling, which could be attributed to onset of first order phase transitions from the paraelectric (PE) phase to an intermediate antiferroelectric phase (AFE2) and the AFE2 phase to another antiferroelectric phase (AFE1), respectively. The estimated entropy changes at T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} pointed to mainly an order-disorder and displacive character of these transitions, respectively. X-ray diffraction data showed a complex superstructure of the intermediate phase with a = 11.895(6) Å, b = 11.936(4) Å, c = 8.223(3) Å at 453 K. Brillouin studies revealed pronounced softening of longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode in the PE phase associated with its broadening. The broadening and softening exhibited maximum values at T{sub 1}. Additional acoustic anomalies, that is, abrupt frequency shifts for LA and transverse acoustic (TA) modes were also observed at T{sub 2}. Brillouin scattering data also showed presence of a broad central peak (CP) that exhibited highest intensity at T{sub 1}. The observed temperature dependences of acoustic modes and CP indicate order-disorder character of the FE to AFE2 phase transition and importance of polar precursor clusters in the PE phase. The obtained data also suggest that the intermediate antiferroelectric phases in Sn{sup 4+} doped PbHfO{sub 3} and PbZrO{sub 3} may have very similar structures

  11. Event-by-event fluctuations of the kaon to pion ratio in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per Nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, S.V.; Bachler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blume, C.; Blyth, C.O.; Boimska, B.; Botje, M.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F.P.; Bramm, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Carr, L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferenc, D.; Filip, P.; Fischer, H.G.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Georgopoulos, G.; Gladysz, E.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Hlinka, V.; Hohne, C.; Igo, G.; Ivanov, M.; Jacobs, P.; Janik, R.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kollegger, T.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; van Leeuwen, M.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Mayes, B.W.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mischke, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, L.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puhlhofer, F.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schafer, E.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Wetzler, A.; Whitten, C.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Yoo, I.K.; Zimanyi, J.

    2001-01-01

    We present the first measurement of fluctuations from event to event in the production of strange particles in collisions of heavy nuclei. The ratio of charged kaons to charged pions is determined for individual central Pb+Pb collisions. After accounting for the fluctuations due to detector resolution and finite number statistics we derive an upper limit on genuine non-statistical fluctuations, perhaps related to a first or second order QCD phase transition. Such fluctuations are shown to be very small.

  12. First principles-based adsorption comparison of group IV elements (C, Si, Ge, and Sn) on Au(111)/Ag(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Sudip; Rajesh, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We have reported a first-principle investigation of the structural properties of monomer and dimer for group IV elements (C, Si, Ge, and Sn) adsorbed on the Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces. The calculations were performed by means of a plane wave based pseudopotential method under the framework of density functional theory. The results reveal the preference of adatom to be adsorbed on the hexagonal closed packed site of the metal (111) surfaces with strong binding energy. The structures introduce interlayer forces in the adsorbate. The strong bonding with the surface atoms is a result of p–d hybridization. The adsorption energy follows a sequence as one goes down in the group IV elements which imply that the interaction of the group IV elements with Au/Ag is decreasing as the atomic number increases.

  13. The role of specific features of the electronic structure in electrical resistivity of band ferromagnets Co2Fe Z ( Z = Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In, Sn, Sb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Perevozchikova, Yu. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2017-05-01

    The electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the band ferromagnets Co2FeZ (where Z = Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In, Sn, and Sb are s- and p-elements of Mendeleev's Periodic Table) has been investigated in the temperature range 4.2 K < T < 1100 K. It has been shown that the dependences ρ( T) of these alloys in a magnetically ordered state at temperatures T < T C are predominantly determined by the specific features of the electronic spectrum in the vicinity of the Fermi level. The processes of charge carrier scattering affect the behavior of the electrical resistivity ρ( T) only in the vicinity of the Curie temperature T C and above, as well as in the low-temperature range (at T ≪ T C).

  14. Systematic study of the elastic properties of Mn3AC antiperovskite with A = Zn, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge and Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medkour, Y.; Roumili, A.; Maouche, D.; Saoudi, A.; Louail, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Single crystal elastic constants C 11 , C 12 and C 44 were calculated. ► Elastic moduli for polycrystalline aggregate were obtained. ► Increasing the atomic number of A element reduces B, G′, Y and v. ► Mn 3 AlC has a high melting point and light weight. - Abstract: First principle calculations were made to investigate the elastic properties of Mn 3 AC antiperovskites, A = Zn, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge and Sn. The estimated equilibrium lattice parameters are in agreement with the experimental ones. From the single crystal elastic constants we have calculated the polycrystalline elastic moduli: the bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, tetragonal shear modulus G′, Young’s modulus Y, Cauchy’s pressure CP, Poisson’s ratio v, elastic anisotropy factor and Pugh’s criterion G/B. Using Debye’s approximation we have deduced the elastic wave velocities and Debye’s temperature.

  15. High-Frequency H-1 NMR Chemical Shifts of Sn-II and Pb-II Hydrides Induced by Relativistic Effects: Quest for Pb-II Hydrides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vícha, J.; Marek, R.; Straka, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 20 (2016), s. 10302-10309 ISSN 0020-1669 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hydrides of TlI and PbII * high-frequency 1H chemical shifts * relativistic effects Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  16. Crystallographic and 119Sn and 155Gd Moessbauer analyses of Gd5Ge2(Si1-xSnx)2 (x = 0.23 and x = 0.40)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoy, J. C. P.; Santos, A. O. dos; Cardoso, L. P.; Paesano, A.; Raposo, M. T.; Fabris, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    We report the structural characterization of Gd 5 Ge 2 (Si 1-x Sn x ) 2 (x = 0.23 and x = 0.40) compounds by means of 100 and 298 K-X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and 4 K- 155 Gd and 298 K- 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. These compounds order ferromagnetically at 218.4 and 172.7 K, respectively. At ∼100 K, it was identified the Gd 5 Si 4 -orthorhombic phase (type I) for both samples. At ∼298 K, it was identified a Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 -monoclinic phase, for x = 0.23 and a Sm 5 Sn 4 -orthorhombic phase (type II), for x 0.40. The Rietveld analysis of XRD data suggests a first order magneto-structural transition at Curie temperature for both compositions. Moessbauer results are well consistent with the proposed crystallographic models for these systems.

  17. Production of deuterium, tritium, and $^3$He in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20A, 30A, 40A, 80A, and 158A GeV at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Anticic, T.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Białkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Bunčić, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.G.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Gaździcki, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Höhne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Kresan, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, R.; van Leeuwen, M.; Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrówczyński, St.; Pálla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Prindle, D.; Pühlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczyński, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Siklér, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Ströbele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranić, D.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.

    2016-01-01

    Production of $d$, $t$, and $^3$He nuclei in central Pb+Pb interactions was studied at five collision energies ($\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 6.3, 7.6, 8.8, 12.3, and 17.3 GeV) with the NA49 detector at the CERN SPS. Transverse momentum spectra, rapidity distributions, and particle ratios were measured. Yields are compared to predictions of statistical models. Phase-space distributions of light nuclei are discussed and compared to those of protons in the context of a coalescence approach. The coalescence parameters $B_2$ and $B_3$, as well as coalescence radii for $d$ and $^3$He were determined as a function of transverse mass at all energies.

  18. Event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum in 40, 80, and 158 A GeV/c Pb-Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Appelshaeuser, H. E-mail: appels@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glaessel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marin, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Slivova, J.; Specht, H.J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V

    2003-11-03

    Measurements of event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum in Pb-Au collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A GeV/c are presented. A significant excess of mean p{sub T} fluctuations at mid-rapidity is observed over the expectation from statistically independent particle emission. The results are somewhat smaller than recent measurements at RHIC. A possible non-monotonic behavior of the mean p{sub T} fluctuations as function of collision energy, which may have indicated that the system has passed the critical point of the QCD phase diagram in the range of {mu}{sub B} under investigation, has not been observed. The centrality dependence of mean p{sub T} fluctuations in Pb-Au is consistent with an extrapolation from pp collisions assuming that the non-statistical fluctuations scale with multiplicity. The results are compared to calculations by the RQMD and URQMD event generators.

  19. Event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum in 40, 80, and 158 A GeV/c Pb-Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Adamova, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Campagnolo, R; Castillo, A; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B C; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Marin, A; Milosevic, J; Milov, A; Miskowiec, D; Musa, L; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O Yu; Petracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schükraft, Jürgen; Sedykh, S; Seipp, W; Sharma, A; Shimansky, S S; Slivova, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V I

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum in Pb-Au collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A GeV/c are presented. A significant excess of mean p_T fluctuations at mid-rapidity is observed over the expectation from statistically independent particle emission. The results are somewhat smaller than recent measurements at RHIC. A possible non-monotonic behaviour of the mean p_T fluctuations as function of collision energy, which may have indicated that the system has passed the critical point of the QCD phase diagram in the range of mu_B under investigation, has not been observed. The centrality dependence of mean p_T fluctuations in Pb-Au is consistent with an extrapolation from pp collisions assuming that the non-statistical fluctuations scale with multiplicity. The results are compared to calculations by the RQMD and UrQMD event generators.

  20. Event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum in 40, 80, and 158 A GeV/c Pb-Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glaessel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marin, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Slivova, J.; Specht, H.J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum in Pb-Au collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A GeV/c are presented. A significant excess of mean p T fluctuations at mid-rapidity is observed over the expectation from statistically independent particle emission. The results are somewhat smaller than recent measurements at RHIC. A possible non-monotonic behavior of the mean p T fluctuations as function of collision energy, which may have indicated that the system has passed the critical point of the QCD phase diagram in the range of μ B under investigation, has not been observed. The centrality dependence of mean p T fluctuations in Pb-Au is consistent with an extrapolation from pp collisions assuming that the non-statistical fluctuations scale with multiplicity. The results are compared to calculations by the RQMD and URQMD event generators

  1. Preliminary results from the 2000 run of CERES on low-mass $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair production in Pb - Au collisions at 158 A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Cherlin, A

    2004-01-01

    CERES has measured low-mass $e^{+}e^{-}$ pairs in Pb- Au collisions at 158 A GeV in the year 2000 Pb run at the SPS with the goal of shedding more light on the origin of the previously observed low-mass pair enhancement. The spectrometer was upgraded with a radial TPC to improve the mass resolution. A very effective rejection of the combinatorial background is achieved using the combined information of the two RICH detectors, the d$E$/dx signal of the doublet of silicon drift chambers, and the TPC track d$E$/dx information. Various steps and the current status of the data analysis are presented. Corrigendum. Table 1 and figures 3 and 4, as originally published, represent an earlier version of the data analysis. The corrected table and figures have been published as a Corrigendum (see below). The Corrigendum has also been appended at the end of the PDF file linked to this page.

  2. Preliminary results on neutron production from a Pb/U target irradiated by deuteron beam at 1.25 GeV/amu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragopoulou, M.; Manolopoulou, M.; Jokic, S.; Zamani, M.; Krivopustov, M.; Sosnin, A.; Stoulos, S.

    2008-01-01

    A spallation neutron source consisted of a cylindrical Pb target and surrounded by uranium blanket was irradiated by deuteron beam 1.25 GeV/amu provided from the Nuclotron accelerator at High Energy Laboratory, JINR, Dubna. For radiation protection purpose a polyethylene shielding was placed around the spallation neutron source. Neutron distributions along the surface of the U-blanket were measured by using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) as particle and fission detectors. The neutron distributions appear to be similar to those obtained by proton irradiations. Applying a fitting procedure to the experimental data the inelastic cross section of deuteron in Pb was estimated. The escaping neutron distribution from the polyethylene shielding and parallel to the target was also measured and presented to be two orders of magnitude less than that over the U-blanket surface

  3. Neutron production by 0.8 and 1.5 GeV protons on Fe and Pb targets at the most-forward region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Daiki; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Ishibashi, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Neutron-production double-differential cross-sections for 0.8 and 1.5 GeV protons incident on Fe and Pb targets were measured at the most-forward region. Neutrons were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. An NE213 liquid organic scintillator was set at 0-degree as neutron detector. Neutron detection efficiencies are calculated by a Monte Carlo simulation code SCINFUL-QMD. Experimental data were compared with other experimental data and the results of calculation codes based on Intranuclear-Cascade-Evaporation (INC/E) and Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) models. Disagreement with the codes is discussed. (author)

  4. Experimental investigation of neutron generation in thick target blocks of Pb, Hg and W with 0.4 to 2.5 GeV proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, U.; Enke, M.; Filges, D.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed experimental neutron data relevant to the design of the target station of neutron spallation sources have been gathered by the NESSI-collaboration at the COSY accelerator in FZ Juelich. Numerous neutron multiplicity distributions and reaction probabilities have been measured for 0.4 to 2.5 GeV protons bombarding highly segmented target blocks from Pb, Hg and W of up to 35 cm in length and 15 cm in diameter with the intention to provide a comprehensive data base for the improvement and validation of existing reaction simulation codes. (author)

  5. Electrochemical evaluation of adsorption and oxidation of the carbon monoxide towards ordered intermetallic phases Pt-M (M=Mn, Pb, Sb e Sn); Avaliacao eletroquimica da adsorcao e oxidacao do monoxido de carbono sobre fases intermetalicas ordenadas Pt-M (M=Mn, Pb, Sb e Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolai, A L; Miguel-Junior, E; Silva, R I.V. da; Angelo, A C.D. [UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil). Depto. de Quimica. Lab. de Eletrocatalise

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the experimental results obtained from the electrochemical evaluation of Pt ordered intermetallic phases (PtMn, PtPb, PtSb, PtSn) as electrode materials towards the CO oxidation reaction. The intermetallics showed a higher performance than pure Pt in the same experimental conditions. PtSn has presented the highest performance among the evaluated materials. There was not observed a clear relationship between the electrocatalytic activity of the materials and their ability in producing oxygen species at lower anodic potentials, suggesting that surface electronic density and structural characteristics of the electrode surfaces must be the properties to be investigated in order to explain the obtained results. (author)

  6. UV N{sub 2} laser ablation of a Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb alloy: Microstructure and topography studied by focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupanic, Franc [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Centre for Electron Microscopy, Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia)], E-mail: franc.zupanic@uni-mb.si; Boncina, Tonica [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Centre for Electron Microscopy, Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Pipic, Davor; Henc-Bartolic, Visnja [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Department of Applied Physics, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-10-06

    A Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb alloy was irradiated by ultraviolet nitrogen laser pulses (N{sub 2} laser, wavelength 337 nm, pulse duration 6 ns, frequency 1 Hz, power 0.5 MW and average power density 0.67 GW/m{sup 2}). The surface topography and microstructure were mainly studied by scanning electron microscopy, and a focused ion beam. The non-homogenized spatial beam profile resulted in the activation of several ablative mechanisms, the main being phase explosion and hydrodynamic instability. They caused a crater to be formed, surrounded by a raised rim and wavelike structure in a halo. FIB cross-sectioning and imaging showed a shallow (few micrometers) molten and resolidified surface layer. Streaks were observed in the heat-affected zone beneath the molten layer, indicating partial recrystallization of initially cold-worked material.

  7. Viscous behavior of (Sn61.9Pb38.1)100-xREx (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 wt%) solder alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuqin; Bian Xiufang; Zhao Yan; Li Xuelian; Zhang Yanning; Tian Yongsheng; Lv Xiaoqian

    2008-01-01

    The viscous behavior of (Sn 61.9 Pb 38.1 ) 100-x RE x (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 wt%) solder alloys has been investigated by a torsional oscillation viscometer. The structural transition temperature T ' increases with increasing addition of RE elements. Above T ' , the viscosities of melts increase with increasing addition of RE, and are fitted well with the Arrhenius equation. The time dependence of viscosity at the measured temperature below T ' follows the exponential relaxation function and reflects the process of the structural transition in the melt, which can be considered as the thermodynamic equilibrium process. The thermodynamic equilibrium relaxation time τ eq increases with both the equilibrium viscosity η eq and the discrepancy in viscosity (Δη), between the initial state and the equilibrium state. However, it decreases with the measured temperature T. The size of clusters in the melts increases with increasing of viscosity and is restricted by the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions

  8. Estudio experimental de la adhesión interfacial del sistema Sn/Pb - Al2O3 asistido con láser

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, A; Puerta, J; Lira, J

    2006-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se propuso y construyó un diseño de cámara de experimentación que permitió realizar diferentes mediciones del ángulo de contacto. El substrato cerámico (Sn/Pb - Al2O3) fue previamente tratado con un láser de CO2 y sobre el mismo se depositó una aleación de Estaño-Plomo fundido empleando el método de la gota en reposo en alto vacío. Estas mediciones experimentales se realizaron con el fin de conocer el comportamiento físico-químico de la mojabilidad del sistema metal-cer...

  9. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Performances in a Topological Crystal Insulator Pb0.7Sn0.3Se via Weak Perturbation of the Topological State and Chemical Potential Tuning by Chlorine Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chan-Chieh; Kim, Gareoung; Ginting, Dianta; Ahn, Kyunghan; Rhyee, Jong-Soo

    2018-04-04

    Topological insulators generally share commonalities with good thermoelectric (TE) materials because of their narrow band gaps and heavy constituent elements. Here, we propose that a topological crystalline insulator (TCI) could exhibit a high TE performance by breaking its crystalline symmetry and tuning the chemical potential by elemental doping. As a candidate material, we investigate the TE properties of the Cl-doped TCI Pb 0.7 Sn 0.3 Se. The infrared absorption spectra reveal that the band gap is increased from 0.055 eV for Pb 0.7 Sn 0.3 Se to 0.075 eV for Pb 0.7 Sn 0.3 Se 0.99 Cl 0.01 , confirming that the Cl doping can break the crystalline mirror symmetry of a TCI Pb 0.7 Sn 0.3 Se and thereby enlarge its bulk electronic band gap. The topological band inversion is confirmed by the extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, which shows that the TCI state is weakened in a chlorine x = 0.05-doped compound. The small gap opening and partial linear band dispersion with massless and massive bands may have a high power factor (PF) for high electrical conductivity with an enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient. As a result, Pb 0.7 Sn 0.3 Se 0.99 Cl 0.01 shows a considerably enhanced ZT of 0.64 at 823 K, which is about 1200% enhancement in ZT compared with that of the undoped Pb 0.7 Sn 0.3 Se. This work demonstrates that the optimal n-type Cl doping tunes the chemical potential together with breaking the state of the TCI, suppresses the bipolar conduction at high temperatures, and thereby enables the Seebeck coefficient to increase up to 823 K, resulting in a significantly enhanced PF at high temperatures. In addition, the bipolar contribution to thermal conductivity is effectively suppressed for the Cl-doped samples of Pb 0.7 Sn 0.3 Se 1- x Cl x ( x ≥ 0.01). We propose that breaking the crystalline mirror symmetry in TCIs could be a new research direction for exploring high-performance TE materials.

  10. Thermoelectric properties of p-type Ag{sub 1−x}(Pb{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y}){sub m}Sb{sub 1−z}Te{sub m+2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyunghan [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science, (IBS), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Huijun; Uher, Ctirad [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kanatzidis, Mercouri G., E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The thermoelectric properties of Ag{sub 1−x}(Pb{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y}){sub m}Sb{sub 1−z}Te{sub m+2} (4≤m≤16, −0.1≤x≤0.3, 1/3≤y≤2/3, 0.2≤z≤0.4; Lead Antimony Silver Tellurium Tin, LASTT-m) compositions were investigated in the temperature range of 300 to ~670 K. All samples crystallize in the average NaCl-type structure without any noticeable second phase and exhibit very narrow bandgaps of <0.1 eV. We studied a range of m values, silver concentrations (x), Pb/Sn ratios (y), and antimony concentrations (z) to determine their effects on the thermoelectric properties. The samples were investigated as melt grown polycrystalline ingots. Varying the Ag contents, the Pb/Sn ratios, and the Sb contents off-stoichiometry allowed us to control the electrical conductivity, the Seebeck coefficient, and the thermal conductivity. The electrical conductivity tends to decrease with decreasing m values. The highest ZT of ~1.1 was achieved at ~660 K for Ag{sub 0.9}Pb{sub 5}Sn{sub 5}Sb{sub 0.8}Te{sub 12} mainly due to the very low lattice thermal conductivity of ~0.4 W/(m K) around 660 K. Also, samples with charge-balanced stoichiometries, Ag(Pb{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y}){sub m}SbTe{sub m+2}, were studied and found to exhibit a lower power factor and higher lattice thermal conductivity than the Ag{sub 1−x}(Pb{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y}){sub m}Sb{sub 1−z}Te{sub m+2} compositions. - Graphical abstract: The Ag{sub 1−x}(Pb{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y}){sub m}Sb{sub 1−z}Te{sub m+2} system defines a complex and flexible class of tunable thermoelectric class of materials with high performance.

  11. High-pressure effect in spectroscopic and structural properties of Sm{sup 3+} doped GeO{sub 2}-PbO glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovani, Pablo Roberto; Herrera, Alvaro; Azevedo, Gustavo de Medeiros; Balzaretti, Naira Maria, E-mail: rovani.pr@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The effect of densification under high pressure (7.7 GPa) on spectroscopic and structural properties of Ge{sub 2}O-PbO glass doped with Sm{sup 3+} ion were investigated. Raman spectroscopy and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) were used to investigate the effect of high pressure on the structural properties. The spectroscopic properties were investigated through the absorption and luminescence spectra recorded at room temperature The splitting in the VIS-NIR fluorescence bands increased after densification. Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory was applied to evaluate phenomenological JO intensity parameters Ω (λ = 2, 4 and 6). The effect of high pressure on the transition probabilities (A{sub R}), radiative lifetimes (t{sub R}), branching ratio (b{sub R}) and stimulated emission cross-section s(l{sub p}) was also investigated. The results obtained from EXAFS indicated changes around the vicinity of Sm{sup 3+} ion which would explain the quenching in emission intensities in the visible range. A novel band related to the transition {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} to {sup 6}F{sub 11/2} was observed in the Sm{sup 3+} doped GeO{sub 2}-PbO. The obtained results may be useful for compact light sources, optical devices in the visible region and optoelectronic devices. (author)

  12. Ordered CoSn-type ternary phases in Co3Sn3-xGex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allred, Jared M.; Jia, Shuang; Bremholm, Martin

    2012-01-01

    . By taking advantage of the chemical differences between the two crystallographically inequivalent Sn sites in the structure, we observe ordered ternary phases, nominally Co3SnGe2 and Co3Sn2Ge. The electron count and unit cell configuration remain unchanged from CoSn; these observations thus help to clarify...

  13. Computational assessment of promising mid-infrared nonlinear optical materials Mg–IV–V2 (IV = Si, Ge, Sn; V = P, As): a first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianping; Zhu, Shifu; Zhao, Beijun; Chen, Baojun; Liu, Hui; He, Zhiyu

    2018-03-01

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR) nonlinear optical (NLO) capabilities of Mg–IV–V2 (IV = Si, Ge, Sn; V = P, As) are systematically assessed by the first-principles calculation. The results show that the compounds in this group except MgSiP2 and MgSnP2 have moderate birefringence values to fulfill the phase-matching conditions. In particular, MgGeP2 and MgSiAs2 possess relatively large band gaps and almost three to four times larger static SHG coefficients than the benchmark material AgGaSe2, exhibiting good potential for mid-IR NLO application. According to the detailed analysis of the electronic structures, it is found that the dominant SHG contributions are from the orbitals of the asymmetry anionic unit [IV–V2]2‑. Moreover, the further evaluation reveals that MgSiAs2, MgGeAs2, MgSnP2 and MgSnAs2 are not thermodynamically stable and the new synthesis strategy (i.e. synthesis under non-equilibrium conditions) should be considered.

  14. Event-by-event fluctuations of average transverse momentum in central Pb + Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshauser, H.; Bailey, S.J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Boimska, B.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Carr, L.D.; Cebra, D.A.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Cristinziani, M.; Csato, P.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Geist, Walter M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Gunther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Hummler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, John M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puhlhofer, F.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schafer, E.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schonfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Struck, Chr.; Susa, T.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.Z.; Zybert, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present first data on event-by-event fluctuations in the average transverse momentum of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. This measurement provides previously unavailable information allowing sensitive tests of microscopic and thermodynamic collision models and to search for fluctuations expected to occur in the vicinity of the predicted QCD phase transition. We find that the observed variance of the event-by-event average transverse momentum is consistent with independent particle production modified by the known two-particle correlations due to quantum statistics and final state interactions and folded with the resolution of the NA49 apparatus. For two specific models of non-statistical fluctuations in transverse momentum limits are derived in terms of fluctuation amplitude. We show that a significant part of the parameter space for a model of isospin fluctuations predicted as a consequence of chiral symmetry restoration in

  15. Interfacial Interactions in Monolayer and Few-Layer SnS/CH3 NH3 PbI3 Perovskite van der Waals Heterostructures and Their Effects on Electronic and Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Cai; Wei, Zeng-Xi; Huang, Wei-Qing; Ma, Li-Li; Hu, Wangyu; Peng, Ping; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2018-02-05

    A high light-absorption coefficient and long-range hot-carrier transport of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites give huge potential to their composites in solar energy conversion and environmental protection. Understanding interfacial interactions and their effects are paramount for designing perovskite-based heterostructures with desirable properties. Herein, we systematically investigated the interfacial interactions in monolayer and few-layer SnS/CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 heterostructures and their effects on the electronic and optical properties of these structures by density functional theory. It was found that the interfacial interactions in SnS/CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 heterostructures were van der Waals (vdW) interactions, and they were found to be insensitive to the layer number of 2D SnS sheets. Interestingly, although their band gap decreased upon increasing the layer number of SnS, the near-gap electronic states and optical absorption spectra of these heterostructures were found to be strikingly similar. This feature was determined to be critical for the design of 2D layered SnS-based heterostructures. Strong absorption in the ultraviolet and visible-light regions, type II staggered band alignment at the interface, and few-layer SnS as an active co-catalyst make 2D SnS/CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 heterostructures promising candidates for photocatalysis, photodetectors, and solar energy harvesting and conversion. These results provide first insight into the nature of interfacial interactions and are useful for designing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite-based devices with novel properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Triangular flow of negative pions emitted in PbAu collisions at √{sNN} = 17.3 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Andronic, A.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielčíková, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kalisky, M.; Karpenko, Iu.; Krobath, G.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Miśkowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Radomski, S.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schuchmann, S.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Tsiledakis, G.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J. P.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2017-01-01

    Differential triangular flow, v3 (pT), of negative pions is measured at √{sNN} = 17.3 GeV around midrapidity by the CERES/NA45 experiment at CERN in central PbAu collisions in the range 0-30% with a mean centrality of 5.5%. This is the first measurement as a function of transverse momentum of the triangular flow at SPS energies. The pT range extends from about 0.05 GeV/c to more than 2 GeV/c. The triangular flow magnitude, corrected for the HBT effects, is smaller by a factor of about 2 than the one measured by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC and the ALICE experiment at the LHC. Within the analyzed range of central collisions no significant centrality dependence is observed. The data are found to be well described by a viscous hydrodynamic calculation combined with an UrQMD cascade model for the late stages.

  17. Second-order phase transition in PbO and SnO at high pressure: Implications for the litharge-massicot phase transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David M.; Christy, Andrew G.; Haines, Julian; Clark, Simon M.

    1992-11-01

    We have studied the structural behavior of PbO at high pressure by powder neturon diffraction in a McWhan cell, and by energy-dispersive powder x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell. A phase (γ-PbO) occurs at room temperature between ~0.7 and ~2.5 GPa pressure, between the stability fields of litharge (phase is related to litharge by a reversible second-order transition. We infer that this is associated with the collapse of the eu acoustic mode. Unit-cell data at 1.6 GPa are Pm21n, a=4.027(3) Å, b=3.950(3) Å, c=4.767(4) Å, and Z=2. The pressure evolution of the spontaneous strain follows a simple Landau model. There are four distinct solid-state transformation paths between litharge and massicot that maintain the known topotactic relationship between the phases, maintain the translational symmetry common to both, and make use of continuous transitions between group-subgroup related structural intermediates. Both the γ phase and the modulated low-temperature phase of PbO are closely related to one step on one of these paths. Although there is evidence to suggest that the intermediate states do have a transient existence, several paths appear to be utilized. A transition to a γ-like phase also occurs in SnO, at 2.5 GPa, although there is no evidence of a massicotlike polymorph of this compound. The orthorhombic phase is stable to at least 7.5 GPa.

  18. Electronic tuning of the transport properties of off-stoichiometric Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}Te thermoelectric alloys by Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttmann, Gilad M. [The Unit of Energy Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Dadon, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Gelbstein, Yaniv [The Unit of Energy Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2015-08-14

    The recent energy demands affected by the dilution of conventional energy resources and the growing awareness of environmental considerations had motivated many researchers to seek for novel renewable energy conversion methods. Thermoelectric direct conversion of thermal into electrical energies is such a method, in which common compositions include IV-VI semiconducting compounds (e.g., PbTe and SnTe) and their alloys. For approaching practical thermoelectric devices, the current research is focused on electronic optimization of off-stoichiometric p-type Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}Te alloys by tuning of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} doping and/or SnTe alloying levels, while avoiding the less mechanically favorable Na dopant. It was shown that upon such doping/alloying, higher ZTs, compared to those of previously reported undoped Pb{sub 0.5}Sn{sub 0.5}Te alloy, were obtained at temperatures lower than 210–340 °C, depending of the exact doping/alloying level. It was demonstrated that upon optimal grading of the carrier concentration, a maximal thermoelectric efficiency enhancement of ∼38%, compared to that of an undoped material, is expected.

  19. Chemical properties of the predicted 32-electron systems PuSn{sub 12} and PuPb{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dognon, J.P. [CEA Saclay, UMR 3299 CEA/CNRS SIS2M, laboratoire de chimie de coordination des elements f, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Clavaguera, C. [Laboratoire des mecanismes reactionnels, departement de chimie, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Pyykko, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-06-15

    The electronic structures, as well as spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of the title PuM{sub 12} clusters, are considered at the density functional theory level. In both cases, a Pu{sup 2+} ion is encapsulated in an icosahedral, stanna- or plumbaspherene M{sub 12}{sup 2-} cage. As suggested before for M=Pb, both systems are reported to follow a 32-electron principle for the central atom. (authors)

  20. Group IVA Element (Si, Ge, Sn)-Based Alloying/Dealloying Anodes as Negative Electrodes for Full-Cell Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Liu, Zheng Jiao; Li, Xiuwan; Xie, Wenhe; Wang, Qi; Liu, Qiming; Fu, Yujun; He, Deyan

    2017-12-01

    To satisfy the increasing energy demands of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and miniaturized energy storage devices, improvements to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are required to provide higher energy/power densities and longer cycle lives. Group IVA element (Si, Ge, Sn)-based alloying/dealloying anodes are promising candidates for use as electrodes in next-generation LIBs owing to their extremely high gravimetric and volumetric capacities, low working voltages, and natural abundances. However, due to the violent volume changes that occur during lithium-ion insertion/extraction and the formation of an unstable solid electrolyte interface, the use of Group IVA element-based anodes in commercial LIBs is still a great challenge. Evaluating the electrochemical performance of an anode in a full-cell configuration is a key step in investigating the possible application of the active material in LIBs. In this regard, the recent progress and important approaches to overcoming and alleviating the drawbacks of Group IVA element-based anode materials are reviewed, such as the severe volume variations during cycling and the relatively brittle electrode/electrolyte interface in full-cell LIBs. Finally, perspectives and future challenges in achieving the practical application of Group IVA element-based anodes in high-energy and high-power-density LIB systems are proposed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. High-field magnetostriction in CeNiSn{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (0<=x<=1) strongly correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral, A. del, E-mail: delmoral@unizar.e [Laboratorio de Magnetismo de Solidos, Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada and ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza and CSIC, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Fuente, C. de la [Laboratorio de Magnetismo de Solidos, Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada and ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza and CSIC, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Magnetization (down to 1.8 K and up to 9 T) and magnetostriction (down to 4.2 K and up to 30 T) measurements have been performed in the series of polycrystalline intermetallics CeNiSn{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (0<=x<=1), which show a crossover from Kondo-lattice to fluctuating valence behaviors with x increase. Magnetostriction observed can be denominated as 'colossal' for a paramagnet (up to 0.68% at 150 K and 30 T), with no sign of saturation. Field, H, induced metamagnetic transitions associated to a change in Ce valence are observed. Three kinds of analysis of magnetostriction have been performed to ascertain the magnetostriction origin. At relatively low field and low temperatures these systems follow well the standard theory of magnetostriction (STM), revealing single-ion crystal field and exchange origins, and a determination of the alpha-symmetry microscopic magnetoelastic parameters have been performed. The valence transition is well explained in terms of the interconfigurational model, which needs an extension up to power H{sup 4}. Application of the scaling (thermodynamics corresponding low states) allows the obtainment of the Grueneisen constant, which increases with x. Needed elastic constants measurements are also reported.

  2. Heavy fragment production cross sections from 1.05 GeV/nucleon 56Fe in C, Al, Cu, Pb, and CH2 targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Rademacher, S. E.; Borak, T.; Carter, T. R.; Frankel, K. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Stronach, C. E.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained charge-changing cross sections and partial cross sections for fragmentation of 1.05 GeV/nucleon Fe projectiles incident on H, C, Al, Cu, and Pb nuclei. The energy region covered by this experiment is critical for an understanding of galactic cosmic ray propagation and space radiation biophysics. Surviving primary beam particles and fragments with charges from 12 to 25 produced within a forward cone of half-angle 61 mrad were detected using a silicon detector telescope to identify their charge and the cross sections were calculated after correction of the measured yields for finite target thickness effects. The cross sections are compared to model calculations and to previous measurements. Cross sections for the production of fragments with even-numbered nuclear charges are seen to be enhanced in almost all cases.

  3. Modification of the ρ meson detected by low-mass electron positron pairs in central PbAu collisions at 158A GeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceres Collaboration; Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielcikova, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2008-09-01

    We present a measurement of ee pair production in central PbAu collisions at 158A GeV/c. As reported earlier, a significant excess of the ee pair yield over the expectation from hadron decays is observed. The improved mass resolution of the present data set, recorded with the upgraded CERES experiment at the CERN-SPS, allows for a comparison of the data with different theoretical approaches. The data clearly favor a substantial in-medium broadening of the ρ spectral function over a density-dependent shift of the ρ pole mass. The in-medium broadening model implies that baryon induced interactions are the key mechanism to the observed modifications of the ρ meson at SPS energy.

  4. Modification of the $\\rho$-meson detected by low-mass electron-positron pairs in central Pb - Au collisions at 158 A GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Adamová, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Bielcikova, J; Braun-munziger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glssel, P; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Ludolphs, a W; Maas, A; Marn, A; Miloevi, J; Milov, A; Mikowiec, D; Panebrattsev, iscs Yu; Petchenova, O; Petrek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, acI; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    We present a measurement of $e^+e^-$ pair production in central Pb-Au collisions at 158$A$ GeV/$c$. As reported earlier, a significant excess of the $e^+e^-$ pair yield over the expectation from hadron decays is observed. The improved mass resolution of the present data set, recorded with the upgraded CERES experiment at the CERN-SPS, allows for a comparison of the data with different theoretical approaches. The data clearly favor a substantial in-medium broadening of the $\\rho$ spectral function over a density-dependent shift of the $\\rho$ pole mass at SPS energy. The in-medium broadening model implies that baryon induced interactions are the key mechanism to in-medium modifications of the $\\rho$-meson in the hot fireball.

  5. Evaluación de la corrosión de una aleación Pb-Ca-Sn por medio de técnicas electroquímicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Estupiñán Duran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of increasing temperature on the corrosion rate of Pb-Ca-Sn alloy, the primary component of the negative grid of a starter battery car, was evaluated by electrochemical techniques: RPL, potentiodynamic curves, Tafel and EIS. By optical microscopy, SEM -EDS and XRD, the compounds formed on the grids were characterized during testing. The passive layer formed on the grids used as cathode and anode in lead-acid batteries allows the anchor in grid-PAM interface (Positive Active Material or NAM (Negative Active Material. A bad process of to form this layer produces the detachment of PAM/NAM, leading to premature failure. The temperature directly affects the kinetics and thermodynamics degradation of the redox reactions taking place in the system grid-PAM/NAM. An increase in temperature causes variations in the chemical composition, favoring the formation of oxides and sulphates mixtures in grid-PAM/NAM interface, its volume and porous structure make it susceptible to failure by tri-axial stress on the interface, producing cracks and detachment of PAM or NAM and reducing the lifetime of the battery. It was found that the Pb-Ca-Sn alloys in 0.5M H2SO4 solution form a multilayer system, verified by the results of EIS and SEM, in which a compact layer of PbO2 and porous layer by PbSO4. Porous layer of PbSO4 was obtained, when the temperature was increased implying greater corrosion kinetics of Pb-Ca-Sn alloy were detected.

  6. Strangelet search and particle production studies in Pb-Pb collisions at 158·A GeV/c with the H6 beamline spectrometer at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lindén, Tomas

    The charged particle beamline simulation program DECAY TURTLE (Trace Unlimited Rays Through Lumped Elements) has been modified to enable simulation of dipole magnet steering effects and simulation of hadronic interactions. These modifications together with the implementation of the measured misalignments of the magnetic elements of the H6 beamline at the CERN North Area and implementation of more accurate magnet apertures have been shown to allow a realistic simulation to be made of the complex 524 m long H6 beamline spectrometer used by NA52. The acceptance of the H6 beamline spectrometer has been computed using this modified version of DECAY TURTLE. Using these results better determined invariant differential production cross sections have been computed from the NA52 1994-1995 data, with improved error estimates. New limits for strangelet production in lead-lead collisions at 158.A GeV/c have been computed from the NA52 measurements from 1994-1995. The methods and results presented in this work can be appli...

  7. Preparation, characterization and thermoelectric properties of a polyaniline matrix Ge{sub 0.94}Pb{sub 0.01}Bi{sub 0.05}Te composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Sude; Zeng, Hao; Zhang, Changxing; Liu, Chun; Xu, Qian [Xihua Univ., Chengdu (China). Center for Advanced Materials and Energy; Zhang, Jianjun [Xihua Univ., Chengdu (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-11-01

    In times of industrialization, much low temperature waste heat is released and no viable technology exists which can produce electricity from this low energy density heat. So the long sought-after class thermoelectric (TE) material which directly achieves conversion between thermal and electrical energy obtains much attention. However, the traditional TE materials are alloys of inorganic materials and expensive, and most of them have some level of toxicity, so the research on organic TE materials is very important. The polyaniline (PANI, i. e., a conducting polymer) and PANI matrix Ge{sub 0.94}Pb{sub 0.01}Bi{sub 0.05}Te composite material were prepared. The chemical structure, microstructure and thermoelectric properties were investigated by FTIR, XRD, SEM and ZEM. Results showed that the molecule chains in the PANI were not ranged very neatly, and Ge{sub 0.94}Pb{sub 0.01}Bi{sub 0.05}Te in the composite material formed interconnected network as 20 wt.-% Ge{sub 0.94}Pb{sub 0.01}Bi{sub 0.05}Te was added. Power factor of the composite material increased greatly while its ZT was almost two times of PANI. The addition of Ge{sub 0.94}Pb{sub 0.01}Bi{sub 0.05}Te was an effective method to increase the thermoelectric properties of PANI.

  8. Nanostructuring and high thermoelectric efficiency in p-type Ag(Pb{sub 1-y}Sn{sub y}){sub m}SbTe{sub 2{sub +m}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androulakis, J; Hsu, K F; Pcionek, R; Kanatzidis, M G [Department of Chemistry, Michigan Sate University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1793 (United States); Kong, H; Uher, C [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D' Angelo, J J; Downey, A; Hogan, T [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226 (United States)

    2006-05-02

    The p-type Ag(Pb{sub 1-y}Sn{sub y}){sub m}SbTe{sub 2{sub +m}} materials shown in the figure demonstrate promising thermoelectric properties that are controlled with the parameters y and m. They can reach a maximum figure of merit of {proportional_to} 1.45 at 630 K. This surpasses the figure of merit of the present state-of-the-art p-type materials such as TAGS (1.2) and PbTe (0.8) at comparable temperatures. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. The crystal structure of franckeite, Pb.sub.21.7./sub.Sn.sub.9.3./sub.Fe.sub.4.0./sub.Sb.sub.8.1./sub.S.sub.56.9./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makovicky, E.; Petříček, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Topa, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 96, 11-12 (2011), s. 1686-1702 ISSN 0003-004X Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0701 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : franckeite * Pb-Sn-Sb-Fe sulfide * modulated layer-misfit crystal structure * 2D–non-commensurate layer structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.169, year: 2011

  10. Thermal behavior of GeO{sub 2} doped PbO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Yin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xiao Hanning [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)]. E-mail: hnxiao@hnu.cn; Guo Weiming [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Guo Wenming [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2006-05-15

    PbO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass is a representative system for vacuum and electronic sealing. Effects of GeO{sub 2} on thermal properties of the glass have been investigated in this paper. Activation energy for crystallization, glass structure, the type of crystals were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Results indicate that the addition of GeO{sub 2} (0.4-2 wt.%) to PbO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass can suppress crystallization of the glass and decrease the sealing temperature. With the increase of GeO{sub 2} content, germanate crystals were revealed, resulting in a slight increase of sealing temperature. When the content of GeO{sub 2} is 0.7 wt.%, the glass possesses the highest stability and lowest sealing temperature (400 deg. C), which is desirable for low-temperature sealing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of PbO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass was measured by dilatometry. The result shows that the coefficient of thermal expansion of the glass increases with the content of GeO{sub 2}. The adjustability of the coefficient of thermal expansion would expand the applications of PbO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass. A flexural strength of 28.3 MPa was obtained at the GeO{sub 2} content of 0.7 wt.%, showing good mechanical property for sealing process.

  11. Azimuthal dependence of pion source radii in Pb+Au collisions at 158A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamova, D.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Agakichiev, G.; Belaga, V.; Fomenko, K.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Petchenova, O.; Shimansky, S.; Yurevich, V.; Andronic, A.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Garabatos, C.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Maas, A.; Marin, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Rak, J.; Sako, H.

    2008-01-01

    We present results of a two-pion correlation analysis performed with the Pb+Au collision data collected by the upgraded CERES experiment in the fall of 2000. The analysis was done in bins of the reaction centrality and the pion azimuthal emission angle with respect to the reaction plane. The pion source, deduced from the data, is slightly elongated in the direction perpendicular to the reaction plane, similarly as was observed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron and Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

  12. Azimuthal dependence of pion source radii in Pb+Au collisions at 158A GeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Andronic, A.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielčíková, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kalisky, M.; Kniege, S.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Miśkowiec, D.; Ortega, R.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Płoskoń, M.; Radomski, S.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Soualah, R.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Tsiledakis, G.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J. P.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2008-12-01

    We present results of a two-pion correlation analysis performed with the Pb+Au collision data collected by the upgraded CERES experiment in the fall of 2000. The analysis was done in bins of the reaction centrality and the pion azimuthal emission angle with respect to the reaction plane. The pion source, deduced from the data, is slightly elongated in the direction perpendicular to the reaction plane, similarly as was observed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron and Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  13. Temperature-dependent dielectric and energy-storage properties of Pb(Zr,Sn,Ti)O{sub 3} antiferroelectric bulk ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Chenhong; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui; Dong, Xianlin, E-mail: xldong@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200050, Shanghai (China)

    2016-05-15

    The dielectric and energy-storage properties of Pb{sub 0.99}Nb{sub 0.02}[(Zr{sub 0.60}Sn{sub 0.40}){sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}]{sub 0.98}O{sub 3} (PNZST) bulk ceramics near the antiferroelectric (AFE)-ferroelectric (FE) phase boundary are investigated as a function of temperature. Three characteristic temperatures T{sub 0}, T{sub C}, T{sub 2} are obtained from the dielectric temperature spectrum. At different temperature regions (below T{sub 0}, between T{sub 0} and T{sub C}, and above T{sub C}), three types of hysteresis loops are observed as square double loop, slim loop and linear loop, respectively. The switching fields and recoverable energy density all first increase and then decrease with increasing temperature, and reach their peak values at ∼T{sub 0}. These results provide a convenient method to optimize the working temperature of antiferroelectric electronic devices through testing the temperature dependent dielectric properties of antiferroelectric ceramics.

  14. Strong room-temperature ultraviolet to red excitons from inorganic organic-layered perovskites, (MX4 (M=Pb, Sn, Hg; X=I-, Br-)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shahab; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    Many varieties of layered inorganic-organic (IO) perovskite of type (MX4 (where R: organic moiety, M: divalent metal, and X: halogen) were successfully fabricated and characterized. X-ray diffraction data suggest that these inorganic and organic structures are alternatively stacked up along c-axis, where inorganic mono layers are of extended corner-shared MX6 octahedra and organic spacers are the bi-layers of organic entities. These layered perovskites show unusual room-temperature exciton absorption and photoluminescence due to the quantum and dielectric confinement-induced enhancement in the exciton binding energies. A wide spectral range of optical exciton tunability (350 to 600 nm) was observed experimentally from systematic compositional variation in (i) divalent metal ions (M=Pb, Sn, Hg), (ii) halides (X=I and Br-), and (iii) organic moieties (R). Specific photoluminescence features are due to the structure of the extended MX42- network and the eventual electronic band structure. The compositionally dependent photoluminescence of these IO hybrids could be useful in various photonic and optoelectronic devices.

  15. Photometric analysis of the structure evolution on the Pb-19.4%Sn melt surface in the S-L temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyakhovitskii M.M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure evolution of alloys in solidification range is considered as the first-order phase transformation from the solid state to the liquid one, which occurs by the mechanism of nucleation and growth of more symmetrical phase to less symmetrical crystalline phase. The kinetic regularities of this transformation are studied by the method of the photometric analysis of structure images (PHASI, which makes it possible to establish the temperature dependence of the relationship between the solid and liquid phases and their distribution on the melt surface. The PHASI method is based on the combined analysis of the brightness spectra of the visible light reflections from the sample surface and of the distribution of its scattering centers in different intensity intervals. The data on the structure evolution of the Sn+19.4%Pb alloy upon melting and solidification were considered in parallel with the measured spectra of sound signals. It was revealed that a distinct maximum is observed in the temperature dependence of radiation energy in the temperature range of phase transformation from the liquid into the solid state and hot crack formation occurs near the transition zone in the region of the contact of the ingot with the crucible.

  16. Measurement of photonuclear cross sections from 30 to 140 MeV for intermediate and heavy mass nuclei (Sn, Ce, Ta, Pb and U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepretre, A.

    1982-06-01

    The total photonuclear absorption cross section for Sn, Ce, Ta, Pb and U has been studied from 25 to 140 MeV using a continuously variable monochromatic photon beam obtained from the annihilation in flight of monoenergetic positrons. The basic experimental results are a set of data giving sums of inclusive multiple photoneutron production cross sections of the form σsup(j) (Esub(γ) = Σsub(i=j)σ(γ,in) for neutron multiplicities ranging from j=1 to 12. From these data the total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(tot : Esub(γ)) has been deduced. It is concluded that Levinger's modified quasi-deuteron model describes the total cross sections reasonably well. When these data are combined with lower energy data and integrated to 140 MeV they indicate the need for an enhancement factor K for the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule of 0.76+-0.10. No evidence was found that would indicate an A-dependence for the enhancement factor. From event-by-event records of observed photoneutron multiplicities it was also possible to determine the mean number of photoneutrons, antiν, for each photon energy and the widths W of the multiplicities distributions. From these measurements one also obtains the cross section for the formation of a compound nucleus state excited with the full energy of the absorbed photon [fr

  17. Mechanical properties of hybrid organic-inorganic CH3NH3BX3 (B = Sn, Pb; X = Br, I perovskites for solar cell absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Feng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures, elastic and anisotropic properties of CH3NH3BX3 (B = Sn, Pb; X = Br, I compounds as solar cell absorber layers are investigated by the first-principles calculations. The type and strength of chemical bond B-X are found to determine the elastic properties. B-X bonds and the organic cations are therefore crucial to the functionalities of such absorbers. The bulk, shear, Young's modulus ranges from 12 to 30 GPa, 3 to 12 GPa, and 15 to 37 GPa, respectively. Moreover, the interaction among organic and inorganic ions would have negligible effect for elastic properties. The B/G and Poisson's ratio show it would have a good ductile ability for extensive deformation as a flexible/stretchable layer on the polymer substrate. The main reason is attributed to the low shear modulus of such perovskites. The anisotropic indices AU, AB AG, A1, A2, and A3 show ABX3 perovskite have very strong anisotropy derived from the elastic constants, chemical bonds, and symmetry.

  18. Electrochemical degradation of triazole fungicides in aqueous solution using TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb/PbO2 anode: Experimental and DFT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Weiqing; Zhong, Congqiang; Liang, Linyue; Sun, Yunlong; Guan, Ying; Wang, Lianjun; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    Triazole fungicides (TFs) are toxic and bio-refractory contaminants widely spread in environment. This study investigated electrochemical degradation of TFs in aqueous solution at TiO 2 -NTs/SnO 2 -Sb/PbO 2 anode with particular attention to the effect of molecular structure. Three TFs with triazole ring in one biologically treated water including tricyclazole (TC), 1H-1,2,4-triazole (Tz) and propiconazole (PPC) were selected as the target compounds. Results of bulk electrolysis showed that degradation of all TFs was fit to a pseudo first-order equation. The three compounds were degraded with the following sequence: PPC > TC> Tz in terms of their rates of oxidation. Quantum chemical calculation using the density function theory (DFT) method was combined with experimental results to describe the degradation sequence of TFs. Atom charge was calculated by DFT method and active sites of TFs were identified respectively. Analysis of intermediates by GC-MS and LC-(ESI)-MS/MS showed agreement with calculation results. In addition, the acute toxicity of TC and PPC treated solution significantly decreased after treatment by electrochemical oxidation

  19. Detailed analysis of two particle correlations in central Pb-Au collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonczyk, D.

    2006-07-01

    This thesis presents a two-particle correlation analysis of the fully calibrated high statistics CERES Pb+Au collision data at the top SPS energy, with the emphasis on the pion-proton correlations and the event-plane dependence of the correlation radii. CERES is a dilepton spectrometer at CERN SPS. After the upgrade, which improved the momentum resolution and extended the detector capabilities to hadrons, CERES collected 30 million Pb+Au events at 158 AGeV in the year 2000. A previous Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) analysis of pion pairs in a subset of these data, together with the results obtained at other beam energies, lead to a new freeze-out criterion [AAA+03]. In this work, the detailed transverse momentum and event-plane dependence of the pion correlation radii, as well as the pion-proton correlations, are discussed in the framework of the blast wave model of the expanding fireball. Furthermore, development of an electron drift velocity gas monitor for the ALICE TPC sub-detector is presented. The new method of the gas composition monitoring is based on the simultaneous measurement of the electron drift velocity and the gas gain and is sensitive to even small variations of the gas mixture composition. Several modifications of the apparatus were performed resulting in the final drift velocity resolution of 0.3 permille. (orig.)

  20. Detailed analysis of two-particle correlations in central Pb - Au collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Dariusz, Antonczyk

    This thesis presents a two-particle correlation analysis of the fully calibrated high statistics CERES Pb+Au collision data at the top SPS energy, with the emphasis on the pion-proton correlations and the event-plane dependence of the correlation radii. CERES is a dilepton spectrometer at CERN SPS. After the upgrade, which improved the momentum resolution and extended the detector capabilities to hadrons, CERES collected 30 million Pb+Au events at 158 AGeV in the year 2000. A previous Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) analysis of pion pairs in a subset of these data, together with the results obtained at other beam energies, lead to a new freeze-out criterion [AAA+03]. In this work, the detailed transverse momentum and event-plane dependence of the pion correlation radii, as well as the pion-proton correlations, are discussed in the framework of the blast wave model of the expanding fireball. Furthermore, development of an electron drift velocity gas monitor for the ALICE TPC sub-detector is presented. The new method...

  1. Detailed analysis of two particle correlations in central Pb-Au collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonczyk, D.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-particle correlation analysis of the fully calibrated high statistics CERES Pb+Au collision data at the top SPS energy, with the emphasis on the pion-proton correlations and the event-plane dependence of the correlation radii. CERES is a dilepton spectrometer at CERN SPS. After the upgrade, which improved the momentum resolution and extended the detector capabilities to hadrons, CERES collected 30 million Pb+Au events at 158 AGeV in the year 2000. A previous Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) analysis of pion pairs in a subset of these data, together with the results obtained at other beam energies, lead to a new freeze-out criterion [AAA+03]. In this work, the detailed transverse momentum and event-plane dependence of the pion correlation radii, as well as the pion-proton correlations, are discussed in the framework of the blast wave model of the expanding fireball. Furthermore, development of an electron drift velocity gas monitor for the ALICE TPC sub-detector is presented. The new method of the gas composition monitoring is based on the simultaneous measurement of the electron drift velocity and the gas gain and is sensitive to even small variations of the gas mixture composition. Several modifications of the apparatus were performed resulting in the final drift velocity resolution of 0.3 permille. (orig.)

  2. Ground state properties and thermoelectric behavior of Ru{sub 2}VZ (Z=Si, ge, sn) half-metallic ferromagnetic full-Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, Battal Gazi

    2016-06-15

    The ground state properties namely structural, mechanical, electronic and magnetic properties and thermoelectric behavior of Ru{sub 2}VZ (Z=Si, Ge and Sn) half-metallic ferromagnetic full-Heusler compounds are systematically investigated. These compounds are ferromagnetic and crystallize in the Heusler type L2{sub 1} structure (prototype: Cu{sub 2}MnAl, Fm-3m 225). This result is confirmed for Ru{sub 2}VSi and Ru{sub 2}VSn by experimental work reported by Yin and Nash using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The studied materials are half-metallic ferromagnets with a narrow direct band gap in the minority spin channel that amounts to 31 meV, 66 meV and 14 meV for Ru{sub 2}VSi, Ru{sub 2}VGe, and Ru{sub 2}VSn, respectively. The total spin magnetic moment (M{sub tot}) of the considered compounds satisfies a Slater–Pauling type rule for localized magnetic moment systems (M{sub tot}=(N{sub V}−24)µ{sub B}), where N{sub V}=25 is the number of valence electrons in the primitive cell. The Curie temperature within the random phase approximation (RPA) is found to be 23 K, 126 K and 447 K for Ru{sub 2}VSi, Ru{sub 2}VGe and Ru{sub 2}VSn, respectively. Semi-classical Boltzmann transport theories have been used to obtain thermoelectric constants, such as Seebeck coefficient (S), electrical (σ/τ) and thermal conductivity (κ/τ), power factor (PF) and the Pauli magnetic susceptibility (χ). ZT{sub MAX} values of 0.016 (350 K), 0.033 (380 K) and 0.063 (315 K) are achieved for Ru{sub 2}VSi, Ru{sub 2}VGe and Ru{sub 2}VSn, respectively. It is expected that the obtained results might be a trigger in future experimentally interest in this type of full-Heusler compounds. - Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of figure of merit for Ru{sub 2}VZ (Z=Si, Ge, and Sn) compounds. - Highlights: • The ground state and thermoelectric properties are reported for the first time. • Ru{sub 2}VZ are found to be a half-metallic ferromagnetic full Heusler compound. • The

  3. Modification of jet-like correlations in Pb - Au collisions at 158A GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Adamová, D; D. Antończyk, D; H. Appelshäuser, H; V. Belaga, V; J. Bielčíková, J; P. Braun-Munzinger, P; O. Busch, O; A. Cherlin, A; S. Damjanović, S; T. Dietel, T; L. Dietrich, L; A. Drees,; W. Dubitzky, W; S.I. Esumi, S I; K. Filimonov, K; K. Fomenko, K; Z. Fraenkel, Z; C. Garabatos, C; P. Glässel, P; J. Holeczek, J; M. Kalisky, M; S. Kniege, S; V. Kushpil, V; A. Maas, A; A. Marín, A; J. Milošević, J; A. Milov, A; D. Miśkowiec, D; Yu. Panebrattsev, Yu; O. Petchenova, O; V. Petráček, V; A. Pfeiffer, A; M. Płoskoń, M; J. Rak, J; I. Ravinovich, I; P. Rehak, P; H. Sako, H; W. Schmitz, W; S. Schuchmann, S; S. Sedykh, S; S. Shimansky, S; J. Stachel, J; M. Šumbera, M; H. Tilsner, H; I. Tserruya, I; J.P. Wessels, J P; T. Wienold, T; J.P. Wurm, J P; W. Xie, W; S. Yurevich, S; V. Yurevich, V

    2009-01-01

    Results of a two-particle correlation analysis of high-pt charged particles in Pb–Au collisions at 158A GeV/c are presented. The data have been recorded by the CERESexperiment at the CERN-SPS. The correlations are studied as function of transverse momentum, particle charge and collision centrality. We observe a jet-like structure in the vicinity of a high-pt trigger particleand a broad back-to-back distribution. The yields of associated particles per trigger show a strongdependence on the trigger/associate charge combination. A comparison to PYTHIA confirmsthe jet-likepattern at the near-side but suggestsa strongmodification at the away-side, implyingsignificant energy transferof the hard-scattered parton to the medium.

  4. Analysis for fragmentation products of proton-induced reactions on Pb with energy up to GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Sheng; Li Zhuxia; Zhao Zhixiang; Ding Dazhao

    2002-01-01

    The mass and charge distribution of residual products produced in the spallation reaction needs to be studied because it can provide useful information for the disposal of nuclear and the radiation damage in the spallation target. The mass and charge distribution of the spallation products is studied by using quantum molecular dynamic (QMD) models. The simulation results are well agreed with the experimental data of the spallation fragment and empirical formula. However, QMD model does not include the fission process; the calculations can not reproduce the fission fragment. The fission model is introduced into QMD model to investigate the fragment products from proton-induced reactions on Pb. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data

  5. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite-based CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}Pb{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}I{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}Pb{sub 1-x}Tl{sub x}I{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}Pb{sub 1-x}In{sub x}I{sub 3} photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Yuya; Oku, Takeo, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Suzuki, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Perovskite-type CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated and characterized. Doping effects of thallium (Tl), indium (In), or germanium (Ge) element on the photovoltaic properties and surface structures of the perovskite phase were investigated. The open circuit voltage increased by Ge addition, and fill factors were improved by adding a small amount of Ge, Tl or In. In addition, the wavelength range of incident photon conversion efficiencies was expanded by the Tl addition.

  6. Angular distributions of light projectile fragments in deep inelastic Pb+Em interactions at 160 A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamovich, M I; Alexandrov, Yu A; Andreeva, N P; Badyal, S K; Basova, E E; Bhalla, K B; Bhasin, A; Bhatia, V S; Bradnova, V; Bubnov, V I; Cai, X; Chasnikov, I Yu; Chen, G M; Chernova, L P; Chernyavsky, M M; Dhamija, S; El-Chenawi, K F; Felea, D; Feng, S Q; Gaitinov, A S; Ganssauge, E R; Garpman, S I A; Gerassimov, S G; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Grote, J; Gulamov, K G; Sen-Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Henjes, U; Jakobsson, B; Kanygina, E K; Karabova, M; Kharlamov, S P; Kovalenko, A D; Krasnov, S A; Kumar, V; Larionova, V G; Lepekhin, F G; Levitskaya, O V; Li, Y X; Liu, L S; Lokanathan, S; Lord, J J; Lukicheva, N S; Lu, Y; Luo, S B; Mangotra, L K; Manhas, I; Mittra, I S; Musaeva, A K; Nasyrov, S Z; Navotny, V S; Nystrand, J; Otterlund, I; Peresadko, N G; Qian, W Y; Qin, Y M; Raniwala, R; Rao, N K; Röper, M D; Rusakova, V V; Saidkhanov, N; Salmanova, N A; Seitimbetov, A M; Seliverstov, D M; Simonov, B B; Sethi, R; Singh, B; Skelding, D; Söderström, K; Stenlund, E; Svechnikova, L N; Svensson, T; Tawfik, A M; Tothova, M; Tretyakova, M I; Trofimova, T P; Tuleeva, U I; Vashisht, V; Vokal, S; Vrláková, J; Wang, H Q; Wang, X R; Weng, Z Q; Wilkes, R J; Yang, C B; Yin, Z B; Yu, L Z; Zhang, D H; Zheng, P Y; Zhokhova, S I; Zhou, D C

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear emulsion was exposed at CERN by the lead projectile at 160 A GeV. The angles between any pair of fragments with Z=2-4 have been measured in the emulsion plane for the events which did not contain heavy fragments. The constant characterizing the normal angle ( phi ) distribution of the fragment momentum projection onto the emulsion plane with respect to initial projectile momentum p/sub 0/ is found to be sigma /sub phi /=(0.37+or-0.02) mrad. Corresponding value sigma /sub 0/=(121+or-6) MeV/c of nucleon momentum distribution in the lead nucleus coincides with that expected from Fermi momentum distribution for this nucleus. The peak in the pair-angle distribution of double-charged fragments, /sup 8/Be to 2 alpha , is presented for the region of small angles (<0.1 mrad). The fraction of alpha -particles coming from the decay of the ground state /sup 8/Be is found to be (13+or-2)601130f their whole number. (14 refs).

  7. Measurement of the yields of residual nuclei in interactions 17.9 GeV/c α-particles with sup(159)Tb, sup(181)Ta and sup(207,2)Pb nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butsev, V.S.; Butseva, G.L.; Kostin, V.Ya.; Migalenya, V.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The results of investigations of 17.9 GeV/c α-particle interactions with Tb, Ta and Ph nuclei are presented. Measurements have been carried out of the relative yields of residual nuclei for the (α+Tb), (α+Ta) and (α+Pb) reactions in the 24 93 Tc, 133 Ce and 198 Tl the isomeric ratios are determined, that are compared with the isomeric ratios measured in reactions induced by 500 MeV protons and by 25.2 GeV 12 C ions

  8. Particle-gamma coincidence measurements in 12C+12C and 12C+Pb collisions at 2.1 GeV/nucleon incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, G.; Koontz, R.; Mulera, T.; Pugh, H.G.; Schroeder, L.S.; Hallman, T.; Madansky, L.; Carroll, J.; Chang, C.C.; Kirk, P.N.; Krebs, G.; Vicente, J.

    1985-01-01

    A particle-gamma coincidence experiment has been performed with a 2.1 GeV per nucleon 12 C beam from the Bevalac. Data were taken with C and Pb targets. The γ-ray spectra are almost independent of the energy or the kind of charged particles detected in coincidence, mainly protons and deuterons. These γ-ray spectra are interpreted as resulting from π 0 decay, and are consistent with known π 0 production rates. A search for a possible decay of singly-charged anomalons into a gamma and a deuteron (or unbound proton-neutron system) has been done by studying the γp and γd invariant mass distributions. The upper limits for such a process are found to be 2 to 20% of the deuteron production rate, for anomalon masses for 200 to 400 MeV above the deuteron mass, with an anomalon mean lifetime of up to 10 -9 s, depending on which kind of decay process is considered. (orig.)

  9. Wavelet analysis of angular spectra of relativistic particles in 208Pb induced collisions with emulsion nuclei at 158A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorisin, J.; Vokal, S.

    2008-01-01

    The continuous wavelet transform is applied to the pseudorapidity spectra of relativistic secondary particles created in Pb + Em nuclear collisions at 158A GeV/c. The wavelet pseudorapidity spectra are subsequently surveyed at different scales to look for signs of ring-like correlations whose presence could be explained either via the production of Cherenkov gluons or the propagation of Mach shock waves in excited nuclear medium. The presented approach is established on the basic prerequisite that the both effects would lead to excess of particles at certain typical pseudorapidities. Furthermore, the particles contributing to the ring-like structures are expected to have uniform azimuthal distributions. The multiscale analysis of the wavelet pseudorapidity spectra reveals the irregularities which are interpreted as the favoured pseudorapidities of groups of produced particles. A uniformity of the azimuthal structure of the disclosed pseudorapidity irregularities is examined, eventually leading to the conclusion that the irregularities are not related to correlations of a ring-like nature

  10. Multi-step processes in the (d, t) and (d, {sup 3}He) reactions on {sup 116}Sn and {sup 208}Pb targets at E{sub d} = 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langevin-Joliot, H.; Van de Wiele, J.; Guillot, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, NL (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    The role of multi-step processes in the reactions {sup 116}Sn(d,t), {sup 208}Pb(d,t) and {sup 116}Sn(d,{sup 3}He), previously studied at E{sub d} = 200 MeV at forward angles and for relatively low energy transfers, has been investigated. We have performed for the first time multi-step calculations taking into account systematically collective excitations in the second and higher order step inelastic transitions. A calculation code based on the Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin model has been modified to handle explicitly these collective excitations, most important in the forward angle domain. One step double differential pick-up cross sections were built from finite range distorted wave results spread in energy using known or estimated hole state characteristics. It is shown that two-step cross sections calculated using the above method compare rather well with those deduced via coupled channel calculations for the same collective excitations. The multi-step calculations performed up to 6 steps reproduce reasonably well the {sup 115}Sn, {sup 207}Pb and {sup 115}In experimental spectra measured up to E{sub x}{approx}- 40 MeV and 15 deg. The relative contributions of steps of increasing order to pick-up cross sections at E{sub d} = 200 MeV and 150 MeV are discussed. (authors)

  11. New insights into organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH₃NH₃PbI₃ nanoparticles. An experimental and theoretical study of doping in Pb²⁺ sites with Sn²⁺, Sr²⁺, Cd²⁺ and Ca²⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Javier; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Gallardo, Juan Jesús; Hernández, Norge Cruz; Piñero, Jose Carlos; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; De los Santos, Desireé M; Aguilar, Teresa; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-04-14

    This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb(2+) position with Sn(2+), Sr(2+), Cd(2+) and Ca(2+). The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed, observing how the characteristics of the dopant affected properties such as the crystalline phase, emission and optical properties. XRD showed how doping with Sn(2+), Sr(2+) and Cd(2+) did not modify the normal tetragonal phase. When doping with Ca(2+), the cubic phase was obtained. Moreover, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy showed how the band gap decreased with the dopants, the values following the trend Sr(2+) Ca(2+) Cd(2+) > Sr(2+) for the tetragonal structure and Pb(2+) > Ca(2+) for the cubic phase. The electron localization function (ELF) analysis showed similar electron localizations for undoped and Sn(2+)-doped tetragonal structures, which were different from those doped with Sr(2+) and Cd(2+). Furthermore, when Cd(2+) was incorporated, the Cd-I interaction was strengthened. For Ca(2+) doping, the Ca-I interaction had a greater ionic nature than Cd-I. Finally, an analysis based on the non-covalent interaction (NCI) index is presented to determine the weak-type interactions of the CH3NH3 groups with the dopant and I atoms. To our knowledge, this kind of analysis with these hybrid systems has not been performed previously.

  12. Al and Si Alloying Effect on Solder Joint Reliability in Sn-0.5Cu for Automotive Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Won Sik; Oh, Chulmin; Kim, Mi-Song; Lee, Young Woo; Kim, Hui Joong; Hong, Sung Jae; Moon, Jeong Tak

    2016-12-01

    To suppress the bonding strength degradation of solder joints in automotive electronics, we proposed a mid-temperature quaternary Pb-free Sn-0.5Cu solder alloy with minor Pd, Al, Si and Ge alloying elements. We manufactured powders and solder pastes of Sn-0.5Cu-(0.01,0.03)Al-0.005Si-(0.006-0.007)Ge alloys ( T m = 230°C), and vehicle electronic control units used for a flame-retardant-4 printed circuit board with an organic solderability preservative finish were assembled by a reflow soldering process. To investigate the degradation properties of solder joints used in engine compartments, thermal cycling tests were conducted from -40°C to 125°C (10 min dwell) for 1500 cycles. We also measured the shear strength of the solder joints in various components and observed the microstructural evolution of the solder joints. Based on these results, intermetallic compound (IMC) growth at the solder joints was suppressed by minor Pd, Al and Si additions to the Sn-0.5Cu alloy. After 1500 thermal cycles, IMC layers thicknesses for 100 parts per million (ppm) and 300 ppm Al alloy additions were 6.7 μm and 10 μm, compared to the as-reflowed bonding thicknesses of 6 μm and 7 μm, respectively. Furthermore, shear strength degradation rates for 100 ppm and 300 ppm Al(Si) alloy additions were at least 19.5%-26.2%. The cause of the improvement in thermal cycling reliability was analyzed using the (Al,Cu)-Sn, Si-Sn and Al-Sn phases dispersed around the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic at the solder matrix and bonding interfaces. From these results, we propose the possibility of a mid-temperature Sn-0.5Cu(Pd)-Al(Si)-Ge Pb-free solder for automotive engine compartment electronics.

  13. Cross sections of neutron production with energies of 7,5-190 MeV in the p+A → n+X reaction at 1-9 GeV/c, π++A → n+X reaction at 1-6 GeV/c, π-+A → n+X reaction at 1,4 and 5 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayukov, Yu.D.; Gavrilov, V.B.; Goryainov, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The tables of cross sections of neutron production with energies 7.5-190 MeV for reactions p+A→n+X at 1-9 GeV/c, π + +A→n+X at 1-6 GeV/c and π - +A→n+X at 1.4 and 5 GeV/c are presented. A-dependence (for Be, C, Al, Ti, Fe, Cu, Nb, Cd, Sn, Ta, Pb and U targets) for incident 7.5 GeV/c protons and dependence on incident particle momentum (for protons at 1, 1.4, 2, 3, 5, 6, 6.25, 6.5, 7, 7.5, 8.25, 8.5 and 9 GeV/c, for π + -mesons at 1, 1.4, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 GeV/c, π - -mesons at 1,4 and 5 GeV/c) for C, Cu, Pb, U targets are measured in detail, for secondary neutrons at 119 deg. Detailed angular dependences in the range from 10 deg to 160 deg are presented for C, Cu, Pb, U targets for incident 7.5 GeV/c protons and 5 GeV/c π - -mesons. Some of typical dependences are illustrated by diagrams

  14. Interfacial microstructures and solder joint strengths of the Sn-8Zn-3Bi and Sn-9Zn-lAl Pb-free solder pastes on OSP finished printed circuit boards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Section 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China); Hsi, C.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw; Chang, T.-C.; Liang, M.-K. [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Section 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China)

    2008-07-14

    Two kinds of lead-free solders, Sn-8Zn-3Bi and Sn-9Zn-lAl, were used to mount passive components onto printed circuit boards via a re-flow soldering process. The samples were stored at 150 deg. C for 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1100 h. The microstructures of the samples after aged at 150 deg. C for various times were characterized using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and the analyzed of solder joint shear strengths. The joint strength between Sn-8Zn-3Bi and Cu pad was about 4.0 {+-} 0.3 kg, while the strength between Sn-9Zn-lAl and Cu pad had values of 2.6 {+-} 0.1 kg. Both kinds of solder joints exhibited reduced strengths with increasing aging times. After aging at 150 deg. C for 1100 h, the joints strengths of Sn-8Zn-3Bi and Sn-9Zn-lAl were 1.8 {+-} 0.3 and 1.7 {+-} 0.3 kg, respectively. Both the Sn-8Zn-3Bi and Sn-9Zn-lAl joints showed brittle fracture behaviors. A flat layer of Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} intermetallic compound (IMC) was formed between Sn-8Zn-3Bi solder and Cu pad after reflow. When the aging time was increased to 400 h, Zn-depletion and formation of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC were observed in the solders due to the interaction between the tin and zinc compounds. The interaction between Sn-9Zn-lAl solder and Cu pad had similar behavior, however, Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC formed in Sn-9Zn-lAl solder when after aging at 150 deg. C for 600 h. As the aging time increased, both types of solders generated clear IMC spalling layers with large and continuous voids. Those voids substantially decreased the joint strength.

  15. Synthesis of chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) based on new SiO2/Al2O3/SnO2 ternary oxide and application for online preconcentration of Pb2+ coupled with FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarley, César R.T.; Scheel, Guilherme L.; Zappielo, Caroline D.; Suquila, Fabio A.C.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.

    2018-01-01

    A new online solid phase preconcentration method using the new SiO 2 /Al2O 3 /SnO 2 ternary oxide (designated as SiAlSn) as chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for Pb 2+ determination at trace levels in different kind of samples is proposed. The solid adsorbent has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and textural data. The method involves the preconcentration using time-based sampling of Pb 2+ solution at pH 4.3 through 100.0 mg of packed adsorbed into a mini-column under flow rate of 4.0 mL min -1 during 5 min. The elution step was accomplished by using 1.0 mol L -1 HCl. A wide range of analytical curve (5.0-400.0 μg L -1 ), high enrichment factor (40.5), low consumption index (0.5 mL) and low limits of quantification and detection, 5.0 and 1.5 μg L -1 , respectively, were obtained with the developed method. Practical application of method was tested on water samples, chocolate powder, Ginkgo biloba and sediment (certified reference material). On the basis of the results, the SiAlSn can be considered an effective adsorbent belonging to the class of CAF-SPE for Pb 2+ determination from different matrices. (author)

  16. Structural complexity and thermoelectric properties of quaternary and quinary tellurides (Ge{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}){sub 0.8}(In{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y}){sub 0.13}Te with 0 ≤ x,y ≤ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neudert, Lukas; Scheel, Manuel [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schwarzmueller, Stefan; Welzmiller, Simon; Oeckler, Oliver [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Kristallographie und Materialwissenschaft, Fakultaet fuer Chemie und Mineralogie, Universitaet Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-12-13

    Starting from stoichiometric mixtures of the elements, quaternary and quinary solid solutions (Ge{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}){sub 0.8}(In{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y}){sub 0.13}Te were obtained. Concerning the ratio Ge/Sn and Sb/In, respectively, lattice parameters of the metastable phases with rocksalt-type average structures approximately obey Vegard's law. Stable phases correspond to a disordered rocksalt type at high temperature and to trigonal layered structures with van der Waal gaps at lower temperature as shown by temperature-dependent powder X-ray diffraction combined with TEM, which reveals layer-like vacancy ordering, whose extent depends on composition and thermal treatment. In the long-periodically ordered model compounds 21R-Ge{sub 0.5}Sn{sub 0.5}InSbTe{sub 4} and 9P-GeSnInSbTe{sub 5} studied by resonant scattering data at K-absorption edges, Sb and Sn concentrate near the van der Waals gaps. Compared to Ge{sub 0.8}Sb{sub 0.13}Te and Sn{sub 0.8}Sb{sub 0.13}Te, the simultaneous presence of In and Sn combines increased electrical conductivity with low thermal conductivity and enhanced thermoelectric properties in certain temperature ranges. Phase transitions correlate with changes of the thermoelectric properties. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Effects of form of nitrogen fertilization on the accumulation of Pb, As, Sc Ge and U in shoots of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is necessary for growth and development of plants but it may also causes an increased metal uptake by plants due to changes of physiochemical properties of the elements in soil. The research in phytoremediation and phytomining conducted so far has revealed that the effect of nitrogen fertilizers initially depends on the form of application, as N is the only element that can be readily utilized by plants in its cationic (ammonia) or anionic form (nitrate) causing several effects in soil-plant system. However, to our knowledge most of the recent studies only documented an improvement of yield parameters and the uptake of heavy metals by plants as a result of different forms of N-fertilization. Here we report the result of a field experiment were we tried to obtain more information about the effects of form of N-fertilization on uptake of As, Pb, Sc Ge and U in reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.). In this study, reed canary grass was grown on 15 plots (4 m² each) under field conditions on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the effects of a fertilization with different N-forms on the accumulation, the plots plants received 5 g N / m² in three doses as NH4SO4, Mg(NO3)2 or NH4NO3. The geometrical arrangement of plots was randomized and every treatment was fivefold replicated. After a 50 day period of plant growth, the plants were harvested and concentrations of trace metals in the shoots were measured with ICP-MS. As a result of the different N-treatments we found that in plants treated with NH4SO4 concentrations of Pb and As as well as of Sc, Ge and U were significantly increased in plant tissues compared to plants treated with NH4NO3. Furthermore, no significant changes in mineral composition of plants between the Mg(NO3)2 and NH4NO3 treatments could be observed. Our interpretation of these results is that it might be an effect of the acidification of

  18. Ab initio CASSCF study of the electronic structure of the transition-metal alkylidene-like complexes Mo-M[prime]H[sub 2] (M[prime] = C, Si, Ge, and Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, A.; Sanz, J.F. (Universidad de Sevilla (Spain))

    1992-12-02

    Experimental and theoretical research on the electronic and geometric structure of transition-metal-carbenes and -alkylidenes is an active area in chemistry nowadays due to their potential activity in catalysis and in organic and organometallic synthesis. A theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of the high-valent, transition-metal, alkylidene-like complexes MoM[prime]H[sub 2] (M[prime] = C, Si, Ge, and Sn) is reported. Based on ab initio calculations carried out at the complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field (CASSCF) level, the molecular structure of the ground state and some low-lying excited states have been determined. For M[prime] = C, Si, and Ge, the ground state has C[sub 2v] symmetry (state [sup 5]B[sub 1]) and corresponds to pairing each electron of the M[prime]H[sub 2] triplet [sup 3]B[sub 1] with an electron of Mo ([sup 7]S). In the case of MoSnH[sub 2], the lowest state is bent (C[sub s] symmetry, state [sup 7]A[prime]), the out-of-plane angle being 68[degrees], and dissociates into SnH[sub 2] ([sup 1]A[sub 1]) + Mo ([sup 7]S). Dissociation energies, potential energy profiles for the dissociation, harmonic force constants in terms of internal symmetry coordinates, and vibrational frequencies are reported. The comparison of these properties with those of their pentacarbonylated homologous (CO)[sub 5]M[double bond]M[prime]H[sub 2] shows that the carbene-like (Fischer) type of complexation is stronger than the alkylidene-like one (Schrock). 28 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Core-dependent and ligand-dependent relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shieldings in MH4-n Y n (n = 0-4; M = Si, Ge, Sn, and Y = H, F, Cl, Br, I) model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Alejandro F; Aucar, Gustavo A; Melo, Juan I

    2014-09-01

    The nuclear magnetic shieldings of Si, Ge, and Sn in MH(4-n) Y(n) (M = Si, Ge, Sn; Y = F, Cl, Br, I and n = 1-4) molecular systems are highly influenced by the substitution of one or more hydrogens by heavy-halogen atoms. We applied the linear response elimination of small components (LRESC) formalism to calculate those shieldings and learn whether including only a few of the leading relativistic correction terms is sufficient to be able to quantitatively reproduce the full relativistic value. It was observed that the nuclear magnetic shieldings change as the number of heavy halogen substituents and their weights vary, and the pattern of σ(M) generally does not exhibit the normal halogen dependence (NHD) behavior that can be seen in similar molecular systems containing carbon atoms. We also analyzed each relativistic correction afforded by the LRESC method and split them in two: core-dependent and ligand-dependent contributions; we then looked for the electronic mechanisms involved in the different relativistic effects and in the total relativistic value. Based on this analysis, we were able to study the electronic mechanism involved in a recently proposed relativistic effect, the "heavy atom effect on vicinal heavy atom" (HAVHA), in more detail. We found that the main electronic mechanism is the spin-orbit or σ p (T(3)) correction, although other corrections such as σ p (S(1)) and σ p (S(3)) are also important. Finally, we analyzed proton magnetic shieldings and found that, for molecules containing Sn as the central atom, σ(H) decreases as the number of heavy halogen substituents (of the same type: either F, Cl, or Br) increases, albeit at different rates for different halogens. σ(H) only increase as the number of halogen substituents increases if the halogen is iodine.

  20. Asymmetrical Precipitation of Ag3Sn Intermetallic Compounds Induced by Thermomigration of Ag in Pb-Free Microbumps During Solid-State Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Ping; Wu, Chun-Sen; Ouyang, Fan-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional integrated circuit technology has become a major trend in electronics packaging in the microelectronics industry. To effectively remove heat from stacked integrated circuitry, a temperature gradient must be established across the chips. Furthermore, because of the trend toward higher device current density, Joule heating is more serious and temperature gradients across soldered joints are expected to increase. In this study we used heat-sink and heat-source devices to establish a temperature gradient across SnAg microbumps to investigate the thermomigration behavior of Ag in SnAg solder. Compared with isothermal conditions, small Ag3Sn particles near the hot end were dissolved and redistributed toward the cold end under a temperature gradient. The results indicated that temperature gradient-induced movement of Ag atoms occurred from the hot side toward the cold side, and asymmetrical precipitation of Ag3Sn resulted. The mechanism of growth of the intermetallic compound (IMC) Ag3Sn, caused by thermomigration of Ag, is discussed. The rate of growth Ag3Sn IMC at the cold side was found to increase linearly with solid-aging time under a temperature gradient. To understand the force driving Ag diffusion under the temperature gradient, the molar heat of transport ( Q*) of Ag in Sn was calculated as +13.34 kJ/mole.

  1. Observing the Bose-condensation of Cooper's pairs in superconductors on the isotope 73(73Ge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemov, S.A.; Seregin, P.P.; Khujakulov, E.S.; Turaev, N.Yu.

    2007-01-01

    Using the emission Moessbauer spectroscopy method on the isotope 73 ( 73 Ge) it has been established that the superconducting transition in the solid solutions (Pb 1-x Sn x ) 1-z In z Te and superconductor Nb 3 Al leads to the change of the electron density in the metal sites, while in the anion sites no change in the electronic density has been observed. (author)

  2. Obtención y caracterización del polvo de bronce Cu88Sn6,5Zn4Pb1,5 para aplicaciones en cojinetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivij, Natalia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the development of alloyed bronze powder Cu88Sn6,5Zn4Pb1,5 to substitute the material used in the manufacture of bearings with antifriction properties. The physical and chemical characterization of the powder has been carried out and an experimental 23 design to determine the optimal parameters of the technological process of powder sintering has been used in the specific case of sealed bearing manufacture of the subset shaft-seal of the open cooling compressor.

    El trabajo tiene como objetivo el desarrollo del polvo de bronce aleado Cu88Sn6,5Zn4Pb1,5 para sustituir el material originalmente utilizado en la fabricación de cojinetes con propiedades antifricción. Se realizó la caracterización física y química del polvo, y se empleó un diseño experimental 23 con vistas a determinar los parámetros óptimos del proceso tecnológico de sinterización del polvo, para el caso específico de la fabricación del cojinete de sellaje del subconjunto eje-sello del compresor abierto de refrigeración.

  3. E0 and E2 decay of low-lying 0+ states in the even-even nuclei 206Pb, 208Po, 112-120 Sn and 112114Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, Rauno.

    1979-04-01

    Several new methods of in-beam conversion-electron and γ-ray spectrometry, applicable in the determination of E0 and E2 decay properties of low-lying 0 + states in even-mass nuclei, have been developed. The main attention has been paid to direct lifetime-measurement and coincidence methods based on the use of the natural pulsing of a cyclotron beam. With the aid of these methods, the similarity of the absolute decay rates of the two-neutron-hole 0 + 2 states in the N = 124 nuclei 206 Pb and 208 Po has been shown. A systematic investigation of the de-excitation of the 0 + 2 and 0 + 3 states in 112 , 11 4 , 116 , 118 , 120 Sn has been carried out. Twelve E0 transitions connecting the 0 + states have been observed, including very strong low-energy E0 transitions between the excited 0 + states, and several absolute transition probabilities have been determined. Furthermore, the new techniques have been applied successfully in determining the absolute E0 and E2 transition rates from the 0 + 2 and 0 + 3 states in 112 Cd and 114 Cd. The use of isotope-shift data in the calculation of the monopole strengths in 206 Pb and 208 Po is discussed. The results on even Sn and Cd nuclei are discussed within the framework of the coexistence of different shapes and of configuration mixing. (author)

  4. Observing bose condensations of cooper pairs in semiconductor solid solutions (Pb1-xSnx)1-zInzTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemov, S.A.; Seregin, P.L.; Volkov, V.P.; Seregin, N.P.; Shamshur, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    It has been established using the emission Moessbauer spectroscopy method on the isotope 73 As( 73 Ge) that superconducting transition in the solid solutions (Pb 1-x Sn x ) 1-z In z Te (temperature of phase transition ∼ 4 K) leads to the change of the electron density in the metal sites, while in the anion sites no change in the electronic density has been observed [ru

  5. The effects of small metal additions (Co, Cu, Ga, Mn, Al, Bi, Sn) on the magnetocaloric properties of the Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shull, R. D.; Provenzano, V.; Shapiro, A. J.; Fu, A.; Lufaso, M. W.; Karapetrova, J.; Kletetschka, Günther; Mikula, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 8 (2006), s. 8-8 ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetocaloric * (Co, Cu, Ga, Mn, Al, Bi, Sn) additions * Cryogenic properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2006

  6. Neutron production in bombardments of thin and thick W, Hg, Pb targets by 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.8 and 2.5 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letrourneau, A.; Galin, J.; Goldenbaum, F.; Lott, B.; Peghaire, A.; Enke, M.; Hilscher, D.; Jahnke, U.; Nuenighoff, K.; Filges, D.; Neef, R.D.; Paul, N.; Schaal, H.; Sterzenbach, G.; Tietze, A.

    2000-05-01

    Neutron experimental data relevant to the design of the target of neutron spallation sources are presented and discussed. The data include the reaction cross sections for W, Hg and Pb investigated with 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.8 and 2.5 GeV proton beams as well as the neutron production, neutron multiplicity distribution, as determined event per event using a high efficiency detector. The production as a function of target material is investigated for both thin (with a single reaction) and thick targets (multiple reactions). Comparisons are made with the predictions of a high energy transport code. (authors)

  7. Late Hercynian volcanic and hypovolcanic phenomena in South of the French Massif Central. Associated mineralization: U, F, Ba, Pb, Zn, Sn, W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badia; Fuchs

    1983-01-01

    Volcanism of the Stephanian period produced lava rich in potassium and fluorine with mineralization of U, F, Sn, W without Mo in the French Massif Central. Permian volcanism and associated magmatism are reviewed. Studied elements allow the characterization of their thermalism. These mineralizations are important for prospection [fr

  8. Ga2O for target, solvent extraction for radiochemical separation and SnO2 for the preparation of a 68Ge/68Ga generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aardaneh, K.; Walt, T.N. van der

    2006-01-01

    The target for the production of 68 Ge consists of a disc of gallium suboxide, Ga 2 O, with a 19 mm diameter. The suboxide was primarily prepared by repeatedly mixing metallic Ga and Ga 2 O 3 at 700 deg C. The target (2.4 g) was quite stable under a long-time irradiation with a 34 MeV proton beam at a current of ∼80 μA. The dissolution of the target was performed using 12M sulphuric acid solution, assisted with the dropwise addition of 30% H 2 O 2 solution, and took less than 4 hours. A solvent extraction method, using a 9M H 2 SO 4 - 0.3M HCl/CCl 4 system, was employed for the radiochemical separation of 68 Ge from Ga and Zn radionuclides, while 0.05M HCl was used for the back extraction of 68 Ge from the organic phase. The 68 Ge obtained in the dilute HCl was directly loaded onto a column containing either a hydrous tin dioxide or a crystalline tin dioxide, obtained by calcinations of the hydrous oxide at 450, 700, and 900 deg C. The calcinated hydrous tin dioxide at 900 deg C showed the highest crystallinity and highest 68 Ga elution yield and was selected for use in the generator. The 68 Ga elution from the column generator packed with 2 g of tin dioxide, using 3 ml of 1M HCl, and yielded an average of 65%. The breakthrough of 68 Ge was 6.1 x 10 -4 %. (author)

  9. MAX phase – Alumina composites via elemental and exchange reactions in the Ti{sub n+1}AC{sub n} systems (A=Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In and Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuskelly, Dylan, E-mail: dylan.cuskelly@uon.edu.au; Richards, Erin; Kisi, Erich, E-mail: Erich.Kisi@newcastle.edu.au

    2016-05-15

    Extension of the aluminothermal exchange reaction synthesis of M{sub n+1}AX{sub n} phases to systems where the element ‘A’ is not the reducing agent was investigated in systems TiO{sub 2}–A–Al–C for A=Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In and Sn as well as Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Ga–Al–C. MAX phase-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were made in all systems except those with A=Ga or In. The effectiveness of conversion to MAX phases was generally in the range 63–96% without optimisation of starting ratios. Optimisation in the Ti–Si–C system gave a MAX phase component with >98% Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: A range of Ti{sub n+1}AX{sub n} phases with different A elements were synthesised directly from the M oxide via exchange reactions. The process has now been shown to be general in all the systems marked in green in the table. - Highlights: • Ti{sub n+1}AC{sub n} phases were produced via a single step exchange reaction. • 3 MAX phase systems were successful via this method for the first time. • Cr{sub 2}GeC was also able to be produced via an exchange reaction. • The interconversion reaction in MAX phases is more general than previously thought.

  10. Shock wave compression and self-generated electric field repolarization in ferroelectric ceramics Pb0.99[(Zr0.90Sn0.10)0.96Ti0.04]0.98Nb0.02O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongdong; Du, Jinmei; Gu, Yan; Feng, Yujun

    2012-03-01

    The shock wave induced depoling current of Pb0.99[(Zr0.90Sn0.10)0.96Ti0.04]0.98Nb0.02O3 ceramics was investigated with a system composed of a resistive load and an unpoled ceramic. Disparity in the depoling current was explained by considering the drawing charge effect of unpoled ceramic. The drawing effect for poled ceramics was analysed by developing a model incorporating a time- and electric-field-dependent repolarization. This model predicts that the high-impedance current eventually becomes higher than the short-circuit current, which is consistent with the experimental results in the literature. This work indicates that both the repolarization of uncompressed ceramics caused by the self-generated electric field and depolarization of compressed ceramics caused by the shock wave govern the output current.

  11. Shock wave compression and self-generated electric field repolarization in ferroelectric ceramics Pb0.99[(Zr0.90Sn0.10)0.96Ti0.04]0.98Nb0.02O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Dongdong; Du Jinmei; Gu Yan; Feng Yujun

    2012-01-01

    The shock wave induced depoling current of Pb 0.99 [(Zr 0.90 Sn 0.10 ) 0.96 Ti 0.04 ] 0.98 Nb 0.02 O 3 ceramics was investigated with a system composed of a resistive load and an unpoled ceramic. Disparity in the depoling current was explained by considering the drawing charge effect of unpoled ceramic. The drawing effect for poled ceramics was analysed by developing a model incorporating a time- and electric-field-dependent repolarization. This model predicts that the high-impedance current eventually becomes higher than the short-circuit current, which is consistent with the experimental results in the literature. This work indicates that both the repolarization of uncompressed ceramics caused by the self-generated electric field and depolarization of compressed ceramics caused by the shock wave govern the output current. (paper)

  12. Contribuição à Gênese do Depósito Primário Polimetálico (Sn, W±, Zn, Cu, Pb) Correas, Ribeirão Branco (SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Luiz Goraieb

    2001-01-01

    O depósito primário polimetálico (Sn, W, Zn, Cu, Pb) Correas, situa-se em terrenos pré-cambrianos da Faixa Ribeira, na porção sul do Estado de São Paulo. Dados geológicos obtidos em etapas de mapeamento e sondagem, juntamente com estudos petrográficos, geoquímicos, isotópicos e de inclusões fluidas, apontam para a relação espacial e genética de mineralização com rochas graníticas muito fracionadas (topázio-muscovita-albita granitos) do Maciço Correas. Essas rochas, ligeiramente peraluminossas...

  13. Elastic and Inelastic α-scatterings from {sup 58}Ni, {sup 116}Sn, and {sup 20}'8Pb targets at 288, 340, 480, and 699 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behairy, Kassem O., E-mail: drkasemomar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Aswan University (Egypt); Mahmoud, Zakaria M.M.; Hassanain, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University (Egypt)

    2015-12-15

    Real double-folding optical potentials are calculated using the S1Y effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction and the tρρ approximation in order to analyze elastic and inelastic scattering of α-particles from {sup 58}Ni, {sup 116}Sn, and {sup 208}Pb targets at 288, 340, 480, and 699 MeV. The relativistic corrections for momenta and reduced masses are performed to investigate the data at the energies 480 and 699 MeV. The second-order (double-scattering) correction to the tρρ potential is also considered. The inelastic scattering to low-lying excited states (2{sup +}) is investigated using the distorted wave born approximation (DWBA) and the coupled-channel (CC) techniques. (author)

  14. GEANT4 hadronic cascade models analysis of proton and charged pion transverse momentum spectra from p plus Cu and Pb collisions at 3, 8, and 15 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Waged, Khaled; Uzhinskii, V V

    2011-01-01

    We describe how various hadronic cascade models, which are implemented in the GEANT4 toolkit, describe proton and charged pion transverse momentum spectra from p + Cu and Pb collisions at 3, 8, and 15 GeV/c, recently measured in the hadron production (HARP) experiment at CERN. The Binary, ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) and modified FRITIOF (FTF) hadronic cascade models are chosen for investigation. The first two models are based on limited (Binary) and branched (UrQMD) binary scattering between cascade particles which can be either a baryon or meson, in the three-dimensional space of the nucleus, while the latter (FTF) considers collective interactions between nucleons only, on the plane of impact parameter. It is found that the slow (p(T) 0.3 GeV/c) proton spectra are not strongly affected by the differences between the FTF and UrQMD models. It is also shown that the UrQMD and FTF combined with Binary (FTFB) models could reproduce both proton and charged pion spectra from p + Cu and Pb...

  15. Probing the distribution and contamination levels of 10 trace metal/metalloids in soils near a Pb/Zn smelter in Middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Guanghui; Lin, Yan; Sun, Guangyi

    2014-03-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution patterns and contamination status of ten trace metal/metalloids (Ag, Bi, Co, Cr, Ge, In, Ni, Sb, Sn, Tl) in soils around one of the largest Chinese Pb-Zn smelter in Zhuzhou City, Central China, were revealed. Different soil samples were collected from 11 areas, including ten agricultural areas and one city park area, with a total of 83 surface soil samples and six soil cores obtained. Trace metal/metalloids were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after digestion by an acid mixture of HF and HNO3. The results showed that Ag, Bi, In, Sb, Sn, and Tl contents decreased both with the distance to the Pb-Zn smelter as well as the soil depth, hinting that these elements were mainly originated from the Pb-Zn smelting operations and were introduced into soils through atmospheric deposition. Soil Ge was influenced by the smelter at a less extent, while the distributions of Co, Cr, and Ni were roughly even among most sampling sites and soil depths, suggesting that they were primarily derived from natural sources. The contamination status, as revealed by the geo-accumulation index (I geo), indicated that In and Ag were the most enriched elements, followed by Sb, Bi, and Sn. In general, Cr, Tl, Co, Ni, and Ge were of an uncontaminated status.

  16. Anomalous temperature behavior of Sn impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskel, D.; Shechter, H.; Stern, E.A.; Newville, M.; Yacoby, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Sn impurities in Pb and Ag hosts have been investigated by Moessbauer effect and in Pb by x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) studies. The Sn atoms are dissolved up to at least 2 at. % in Pb and up to at least 8 at. % in Ag for the temperature ranges investigated. The concentration limit for Sn-Sn interactions is 1 at. % for Pb and 2 at. % for Ag as determined experimentally by lowering the Sn concentration until no appreciable change occurs in the Moessbauer effect. XAFS measurements verify that the Sn impurities in Pb are dissolved and predominantly at substitutional sites. For both hosts the temperature dependence of the spectral intensities of isolated Sn impurities below a temperature T 0 is as expected for vibrating about a lattice site. Above T 0 the Moessbauer spectral intensity exhibits a greatly increased rate of drop-off with temperature without appreciable broadening. This drop-off is too steep to be explained by ordinary anharmonic effects and can be explained by a liquidlike rapid hopping of the Sn, localized about a lattice site. Higher-entropy-density regions of radii somewhat more than an atomic spacing surround such impurities, and can act as nucleation sites for three-dimensional melting

  17. In-situ Ga doping of fully strained Ge1-xSnx heteroepitaxial layers grown on Ge(001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Nakatsuka, O.; Vincent, B.; Gencarelli, F.; Clarysse, T.; Vandervorst, W.; Caymax, M.; Loo, R.; Jensen, A.; Petersen, D.H.; Zaima, S.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the Ga and Sn content dependence of the crystallinity and electrical properties of Ga-doped Ge 1-x Sn x layers that are heteroepitaxially grown on Ge(001) substrates. The doping of Ga to levels as high as the solubility limit of Ga at the growth temperature leads to the introduction of dislocations, due to the increase in the strain of the Ge 1-x Sn x layers. We achieved the growth of a fully strained Ge 0.922 Sn 0.078 layer on Ge with a Ga concentration of 5.5 × 10 19 /cm 3 without any dislocations and stacking faults. The resistivity of the Ga-doped Ge 1-x Sn x layer decreased as the Sn content was increased. This decrease was due to an increase in the carrier concentration, with an increase in the activation level of Ga atoms in the Ge 1-x Sn x epitaxial layers being induced by the introduction of Sn. As a result, we found that the resistivity for the Ge 0.950 Sn 0.050 layer annealed at 600°C for 1 min is 3.6 times less than that of the Ga-doped Ge/Ge sample. - Highlights: ► Heavy Ga-doping into fully strained GeSn layers without the introduction of dislocations ► The uniform Ga depth profile allowed the introduction of Sn ► The decrease in resistivity with an increase in the activation level of Ga was caused by the introduction of Sn

  18. New compounds bearing [M(S_2O_7)_3]"2"- anions (M = Si, Ge, Sn): Syntheses and characterization of A_2[Si(S_2O_7)_3] (A = Na, K, Rb), A_2[Ge(S_2O_7)_3] (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs), A_2[Sn(S_2O_7)_3] (A = Na, K), and the unique germanate Hg_2[Ge(S_2O_7)_3]Cl_2 with cationic "1_∞[HgCl_2_/_2]"+ chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logemann, Christian; Witt, Julia; Wickleder, Mathias S.; Gunzelmann, Daniel; Senker, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of the group 14 tetrachlorides MCl_4 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) with oleum (65 % SO_3) at elevated temperatures led to the unique anionic complexes [M(S_2O_7)_3]"2"- that show the central M atoms in coordination of three chelating S_2O_7"2"- groups. The mean distances M-O within the complexes increase from 175 pm (M = Si) via 186 pm (M = Ge) up to 200 pm (M = Sn). The charge balance for the [M(S_2O_7)_3]"2"- anions is achieved by alkaline metal ions A"+ (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) which were implemented in the syntheses in form of their sulfates. The size of the A"+ ions, i.e. their coordination requirement causes the crystallographic differences in the crystal structures, while the structure of the complex [M(S_2O_7)_3]"2"- anions remains essentially unaffected. Furthermore, we were able to characterize the unique germanate Hg_2[Ge(S_2O_7)_3]Cl_2 which forms when HgCl_2 is added as a source for the counter cation. The Hg"2"+ and the Cl"- ions form infinite cationic chains according to "1_∞[HgCl_2_/_2]"+ which take care for the charge compensation. For selected examples of the compounds the thermal behavior has been monitored by means of thermal analyses and X-ray powder diffraction. For A being an alkaline metal the decomposition product is a mixture of the sulfates A_2SO_4 and the dioxides MO_2, whereas Hg_2[Ge(S_2O_7)_3]Cl_2 shows a more complicated decomposition. The tris-(disulfato)-silicate Na_2[Si(S_2O_7)_3] has additionally been examined by solid state "2"9Si and "2"3Na NMR spectroscopic measurements. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Production of the J/psi and psi' (3.7) by 225-GeV/c π+- and proton beams on C and Sn targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branson, J.G.; Sanders, G.H.; Smith, A.J.S.; Thaler, J.J.; Anderson, K.J.; Henry, G.G.; McDonald, K.T.; Pilcher, J.E.; Rosenberg, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    We present results of a large-acceptance experiment in which muon pairs were observed in the mass range 0.6 to 6.0 GeV/c 2 . Emphasis is given to features of the production of J/psi and psi' (3.7) particles. We find [Bsigma]/sub psi prime//sub(/ 3 /sub ./ 7 )/[Bsigma]/sub J/ psi/ to be 0.007 +- 0.004 for p-C and 0.018 +- 0.007 for π + -C interactions. Comparison with results from e + e - storage rings indicates that both the J/psi and the psi' (3.7) are produced strongly rather than electromagnetically in our experiment

  20. Visible–NIR emission and structural properties of Sm3+ doped heavy-metal oxide glass with composition B2O3–PbO–Bi2O3–GeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, A.; Fernandes, R.G.; Camargo, A.S.S. de; Hernandes, A.C.; Buchner, S.; Jacinto, C.; Balzaretti, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    A highly transparent Sm 3+ glass with composition B 2 O 3 –PbO–Bi 2 O 3 –GeO 2 was obtained by the traditional melt quenching technique and characterized from structural and spectroscopic points of view. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the amorphous nature of the sample and revealed the expected low phonon energy. Differential thermal analysis was also carried out to obtain the glass transition and the crystallization temperatures, related to the thermal stability of the sample. Judd–Ofelt theory was applied to evaluate phenomenological intensity parameters Ω λ (λ=2, 4 and 6) from the optical absorption measurements. The transition probabilities, radiative lifetimes, branching ratio and stimulated emission cross-section were also calculated. Photoluminescence spectra recorded in the visible and infrared regions revealed intense green, orange, red and near infrared emission bands providing a new trace to develop tunable laser and optoelectronics devices.

  1. Legendre polynomial modeling for vibrations of guided Lamb waves modes in [001]c, [011]c and [111]c polarized (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.29 and 0.33) piezoelectric plates: Physical phenomenon of multiple intertwining of An and Sn modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-12-01

    Guided wave devices have recently become one of the most important applications in the industry because such waves are directly related to applications in sensor technology, chemical sensing, agricultural science, fields of bio-sensing and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that are used in electronic filters and signal processing. On that account, this numerical investigation aims to study the propagation behavior of guided Lamb waves in a (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 [PMN- x PT] ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric single crystal plate. In fact, the PMN- xPT ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric crystals are being polarized along [001]c, [011]c and [111]c of the cubic reference directions so that the macroscopic symmetries are tetragonal 4 mm, orthogonal mm2 and rhombohedral 3 m, respectively. Both open- and short-circuit conditions are considered. Here, the Legendre polynomial method is proposed to solve the guided Lamb waves equations. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated by comparison with the ordinary differential equation (ODE). The convergence of this method is discussed. Consequently, the converged results are obtained with very low truncation order M . This constitutes a major advantage of the present method when compared with the other matrix methods. There is cross-crossings among multiple modes for both symmetric ( Sn) and the anti-symmetric ( An) guided Lamb waves propagation. A displacement field has been illustrated to judge whether Sn and An modes cross with each other. Moreover, electric displacement, stress field and electric potential for the open-circuit case were presented for both S0 and A0 Lamb modes.

  2. Synthesis and some coordination chemistry of the PSnP pincer-type stannylene Sn(NCH2PtBu2)2C6H4, attempts to prepare the PSiP analogue, and the effect of the E atom on the molecular structures of E(NCH2PtBu2)2C6H4 (E = C, Si, Ge, Sn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugos, Javier; Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique; Polo, Diego

    2018-03-26

    The non-donor-stabilized PSnP pincer-type stannylene Sn(NCH2PtBu2)2C6H4 (1) has been prepared by treating SnCl2 with Li2(NCH2PtBu2)2C6H4. All attempts to synthesize the analogous PSiP silylene by reduction of the (previously unknown) silanes SiCl2(NCH2PtBu2)2C6H4 (2), SiHCl(NCH2PtBu2)2C6H4 (3) and SiH(HMDS)(NCH2PtBu2)2C6H4 (4; HMDS = N(SiMe3)2) have been unsuccessful. The almost planar (excluding the tert-butyl groups) molecular structure of stannylene 1 (determined by X-ray crystallography) has been rationalized with the help of DFT calculations, which have shown that, in the series of diphosphanetetrylenes E(NCH2PtBu2)2C6H4 (E = C, Si, Ge, Sn), the most stable conformation of the compounds with E = Ge and Sn has both P atoms very close to the EN2C6H4 plane, near (interacting with) the E atom, whereas for the compounds with E = C and Si, both phosphane groups are located at one side of the EN2C6H4 plane and far away from the E atom. The size of the E atom and the strength of stabilizing donor-acceptor PE interactions (both increase on going down in group 14) are key factors in determining the molecular structures of these diphosphanetetrylenes. The syntheses of the chloridostannyl complexes [Rh{κ2Sn,P-SnCl(NCH2PtBu2)2C6H4}(η4-cod)] (5), [RuCl{κ2Sn,P-SnCl(NCH2PtBu2)2C6H4}(η6-cym)] (6) and [IrCl{κ2Sn,P-SnCl(NCH2PtBu2)2C6H4}(η5-C5Me5)] (7) have demonstrated the tendency of stannylene 1 to insert its Sn atom into M-Cl bonds of transition metal complexes and the preference of the resulting PSnP chloridostannyl group to act as a κ2Sn,P-chelating ligand, maintaining an uncoordinated phosphane fragment. X-ray diffraction data (of 6), 31P{1H} NMR data (of 5-7) and DFT calculations (on 6) are consistent with the existence of a weak PSn interaction involving the non-coordinated P atom of complexes 5-7, similar to that found in stannylene 1.

  3. Electric field gradient at the Nb3M(M = Al, In, Si, Ge, Sn) and T3Al (T = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) alloys by perturbed angular correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira, Astrogildo de Carvalho

    1999-01-01

    The electric field gradient (efg) at the Nb site in the intermetallic compounds Nb 3 M (M = Al, Si, Ge, Sn) and at the T site in the intermetallic compounds T 3 Al (T = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) was measured by Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) method using the well known gamma-gamma cascade of 133-482 keV in 181 Ta from the β - decay of 181 Hf. The compounds were prepared by arc melting the constituent elements under argon atmosphere along with radioactive 181 Hf substituting approximately 0.1 atomic percent of Nb and T elements. The PAC measurements were carried out at 295 K for all compounds and the efg was obtained for each alloy. The results for the efg in the T 3 Al compounds showed a strong correlation with the number of conduction electrons, while for the Nbs M compounds the efg behavior is influenced mainly by the p electrons of the M elements. The so-called universal correlation between the electronic and lattice contribution for the efg in metals was not verified in this work for all studied compounds. Measurements of the quadrupole frequency in the range of 100 to 1210 K for the Nb 3 Al compound showed a linear behaviour with the temperature. Superconducting properties of this alloys may probably be related with this observed behaviour. The efg results are compared to those reported for other binary alloys and discussed with the help of ab-initio methods. (author)

  4. About the first experiment on investigation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu and 239Pu transmutation at the nuclotron 2.52 GeV deuteron beam in neutron field generated in U/Pb-assembly 'Energy plus transmutation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivopustov, M.I.; Pavliouk, A.V.; Malakhov, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary results of the first experiment with energy 2.52 GeV at the electronuclear setup which consists of Pb-target (diameter 8.4 cm, length 45.6 cm) and nat U-blanket (206.4 kg), transmutation samples of 129 I, 237 Np, 238 Pu and 239 Pu (radioecological aspect) are described. Hermetically sealed samples in notable amounts are gathered in atomic reactors and setups of industries which use nuclear materials and nuclear technologies were irradiated in the field of neutrons produced in the Pb-target and propagated in the nat U-blanket. Estimates of transmutations were obtained as a result of measurements of gamma activities of the samples. The information about the space and energy distribution of neutrons in the volume of the lead target and the uranium blanket was obtained with the help of sets of activation threshold detectors (Al, Co, Y, I, Au, Bi and others), solid-state nuclear track detectors, 3 He neutron detectors and nuclear emulsion. Comparison of the experimental data with the results of simulation with the MCNPX program was performed

  5. Study of photon interactions and shielding properties of silicate glasses containing Bi2O3, BaO and PbO in the energy region of 1 keV to 100 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanthima, N.; Kaewkhao, J.; Limsuwan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Interaction photon with of silicate glasses containing PbO, BaO and Bi 2 O 3 studied. ► All interactions were changed with energy and composition of glasses. ► Shielding properties of glasses are better than some standard shielding materials. - Abstract: The mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Z eff ), effective electron density (N e,eff ) and half-value layer (HVL) of xR m O n :(1 − x)SiO 2 glass system (where R m O n are Bi 2 O 3 , PbO and BaO, with 0.3 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.7 is fraction by weight) have been calculated by theoretical approach using WinXCom program in the energy region from 1 keV to 100 GeV. Also, the HVL of these glass samples has been compared with some standard shielding concretes. The variations of μ/ρ, Z eff , N e,eff and HVL with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It has been observed that the value of these parameters has been changed with energy and composition of the silicate glasses. The better shielding properties of glass samples were obtained compared with some standard shielding concretes. These results indicated that glasses in the present study can be used as radiation shielding materials.

  6. Correlations and fluctuations in Pb+Pb collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyboth, Peter; Baechler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blume, C.; Blyth, C.O.; Boimska, B.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F.P.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Carr, L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fischer, H.G.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Hlinka, V.; Hoehne, C.; Igo, G.; Ivanov, M.; Jacobs, P.; Janik, R.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Lednicky, R.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Mayes, B.W.; Melkumov, G.L.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Odyniec, G.; Oldenburg, M.D.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, L.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puehlhofer, F.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Roehrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Schaefer, E.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Stroebele, H.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Yoo, I.K.; Zimanyi, J.

    2001-01-01

    Results on two-particle correlations, deuteron production, event anisotropy and event-by-event fluctuations of T > and K/π were obtained by the NA49 experiment in Pb+Pb collisions at 158 A·GeV beam energy. The interpretation of the measurements is discussed in light of the search for deconfinement

  7. Reliability of Pb free solder alloys. Physical and mechanical properties; Pb free handa no shinraisei. Butsuri kikaiteki shinraisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanji, M; Yoshino, M; Ishikawa, J; Takenaka, O [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Properties of 19 different Pb free solders have been evaluated in comparison with Sn-37Pb eutectic solder. Pb free solders without Bi were on the same level as Sn-37Pb in tensile strength and elongation, and those with Bi had higher strength and lower elongation than Sn-37Pb. As the Bi content increased, strength was higher, and elongation was lower. In torsion fatigue tests, fatigue life of Pb free solders without Bi was longer than Sn-37Pb. The relationships of Coffin-Manson rule and Basquin rule with fatigue life was applicable to Pb free solder. Fatigue life of those is inferred from their tensile strength. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Laser soldering of Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn-Bi lead-free solder pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junichi; Nakahara, Sumio; Hisada, Shigeyoshi; Fujita, Takeyoshi

    2004-10-01

    It has reported that a waste of an electronics substrate including lead and its compound such as 63Sn-37Pb has polluted the environment with acid rain. For that environment problem the development of lead-free solder alloys has been promoted in order to find out the substitute for Sn-Pb solders in the United States, Europe, and Japan. In a present electronics industry, typical alloys have narrowed down to Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn lead-free solder. In this study, solderability of Pb-free solder that are Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn-Bi alloy was studied on soldering using YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser and diode laser. Experiments were peformed in order to determine the range of soldering parameters for obtaining an appropriate wettability based on a visual inspection. Joining strength of surface mounting chip components soldered on PCB (printed circuit board) was tested on application thickness of solder paste (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mm). In addition, joining strength characteristics of eutectic Sn-Pb alloy and under different power density were examined. As a result, solderability of Sn-Ag-Cu (Pb-free) solder paste are equivalent to that of coventional Sn-Pb solder paste, and are superior to that of Sn-Zn-Bi solder paste in the laser soldering method.

  9. The matrix effect study in the spectrographic analysis of rare earth elements. Pt. 1. The influence of Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Cu, Ag, Zn and Cd on the spectral lines intensity of Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in the current arc exciting between C-electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysocka-Lisek, J.; Paszkowska, B.; Mularczyk, K.

    1976-01-01

    In the beginning the influence of Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Cu, Ag, Zn and Cd on the light rare earth spectral lines using Ni as the internal standard, during the intermittent current arc excitation between C-electrodes was studied. On the basis of the spectral lines intensity measurements, it was stated that one may apply the addition of Ni as the internal standard by the quantitative determination of Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Zn and Cd in the light rare earth mixtures with one of the above. Also a great influence of the presence of the individually studied metal was observed on the spectral line intensity of rare earth elements and nickel. The differences of the thermo-chemical reactions nature between excited elements and the carbon of the electrodes may cause that influence. (author)

  10. SN Refsdal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, P. L.; Brammer, G.; Selsing, J.

    2016-01-01

    (SNe), and we find strong evidence for a broad H-alpha P-Cygni profile in the HST grism spectrum at the redshift (z = 1.49) of the spiral host galaxy. SNe IIn, powered by circumstellar interaction, could provide a good match to the light curve of SN Refsdal, but the spectrum of a SN IIn would not show...... in the rest frame, provide additional evidence that supports the SN 1987A-like classification. In comparison with other examples of SN 1987A-like SNe, SN Refsdal has a blue B-V color and a high luminosity for the assumed range of potential magnifications. If SN Refsdal can be modeled as a scaled version of SN...

  11. New results on low-mass lepton pair production in Pb-Au collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Lenkeit, B C; Appelshäuser, H; Baur, R; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Ceretto, F; Drees, A; Esumi, S; Faschingbauer, U; Fraenkel, Zeev; Fuchs, C; Gatti, E; Glässel, P; Holl, P; Jung, C; Kraner, H; Lenkeit, B C; Messer, M; Miskowiec, D; Nix, O; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Razin, S; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Sampietro, M; Saveljic, N; Schmitz, W; Schükraft, Jürgen; Seipp, W; Shimansky, S S; Slivova, J; Socol, E; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Tserruya, Itzhak; Ullrich, T; Voigt, C A; Voloshin, S A; Weber, C; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V

    1999-01-01

    The CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN-SPS is dedicated to study the production of e sup + e sup - -pairs in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Compared to extrapolations from results obtained in proton-induced reactions, it has previously observed an enhanced production in S-Au and Pb-Au collisions. To verify this enhancement and to study its properties, higher statistics were accumulated during a runtime in 1996. We report here, for the first time, on the results of this analysis.

  12. Viscous behavior of (Sn{sub 61.9}Pb{sub 38.1}){sub 100-x}RE{sub x} (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 wt%) solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yuqin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (Southern Campus), 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (Southern Campus), 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfbian@sdu.edu.cn; Zhao Yan; Li Xuelian; Zhang Yanning; Tian Yongsheng; Lv Xiaoqian [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (Southern Campus), 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2008-05-19

    The viscous behavior of (Sn{sub 61.9}Pb{sub 38.1}){sub 100-x}RE{sub x} (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 wt%) solder alloys has been investigated by a torsional oscillation viscometer. The structural transition temperature T{sup '} increases with increasing addition of RE elements. Above T{sup '}, the viscosities of melts increase with increasing addition of RE, and are fitted well with the Arrhenius equation. The time dependence of viscosity at the measured temperature below T{sup '} follows the exponential relaxation function and reflects the process of the structural transition in the melt, which can be considered as the thermodynamic equilibrium process. The thermodynamic equilibrium relaxation time {tau}{sub eq} increases with both the equilibrium viscosity {eta}{sub eq} and the discrepancy in viscosity ({delta}{eta}), between the initial state and the equilibrium state. However, it decreases with the measured temperature T. The size of clusters in the melts increases with increasing of viscosity and is restricted by the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions.

  13. Phase composition and superconducting properties of (Pb sub 0 sub . sub 6 Sn sub y Cu sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub - sub y)Sr sub 2 (Y sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x)Cu sub 2 O sub z

    CERN Document Server

    Balchev, N; Kunev, B; Souleva, A; Tsacheva, T

    2001-01-01

    The effect of Sn-doping in (Pb sub 0 sub . sub 6 Sn sub y Cu sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub - sub y)Sr sub 2 (Y sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x)Cu sub 2 O sub z for 0 <= y <= 0.3 and 0 <= x <= 0.7 was investigated. It was established that a nearly pure 1212 phase could be obtained at 0 <= y <= 0.1 and 0 <= x <= 0.3. The obtained X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns as well as the results of the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that the Sn-substitution was possible in the (Pb,Cu)-1212 phase. Superconductivity was observed at 0.4 <= x <= 0.7. The onset of the diamagnetic transitions varied from 10 to 30 K. The influence of the strong Pb deficiency on the superconducting properties of the samples was discussed. (authors)

  14. Transverse momentum distribution of J/ psi produced in Pb-Pb and p-A interactions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Topilskaya, N S; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; Dellacasa, G; De Marco, N; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Soave, C; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2003-01-01

    Muon pairs produced in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon and in p-A interactions at 400 GeV/c, together with older S-U results obtained at 200 GeV/c are used to study the transverse momentum and transverse mass distributions of the J/ psi. (13 refs).

  15. A Strangelet and Particle Search in Pb-Pb Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Lohmann, K-D; Linden, T

    2002-01-01

    %NA52 %title\\\\ \\\\The NA52 experiment aims to detect strangelets, \\textit{i.e.} small drops of strange quark matter, which might result from the extreme energy and baryon densities attained in Pb+Pb collisions at a beam momentum of 158~A GeV/c. The experiment uses the H6 beam line as a spectrometer equipped with wire chambers, time of flight measurements over a path of 524~m and a hadronic calorimeter which is placed at the end of the setup.\\\\ \\\\During the 17 day run in fall of 1994 we accumulated data of 1.8~\\cdot~10$^{12}$~Pb ions on our Pb targets. The average beam intensity was 2~\\cdot~10$^{7}$~ions per spill for the NA52 experiment. We were running mainly with a 40~mm target at spectrometer rigidities of $\\pm$100 and $-$200~GeV/c and with a 16~mm target at $+$200~GeV/c. Per setting 10$^{11}$ Pb+Pb collisions were recorded. During the Pb-ion run in 1995 the statistics for the strangelet search at a rigidity of $-$200~GeV/c has been improved by about one order of magnitude. This was mainly due to a factor o...

  16. Micro-Raman scattering and dielectric investigations of phase transitions behavior in the PbHf0.7Sn0.3O3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska-Sumara, Irena; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Podgórna, Maria; Oh, Soo Han; Majchrowski, Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    Raman light scattering was used to detect the sequence of transitions in a PbHf1-xSnxO3 (PHS) single crystal with x = 0.30 in a temperature range of 77-873 K. Changes of Raman spectra were observed in the vicinity of structural phase transitions: between the antiferroelectric (AFE1)-antiferroelectric (AFE2)—intermediate—paraelectric phases. Light scattering and dielectric investigations were used to find out the nature and sequence of the phase transition, as well as the large dielectric permittivity values measured at the phase transition, by searching for the soft-phonon-mode behavior. The experimentally recorded spectra were analyzed in terms of the damped-harmonic oscillator model for the phonon bands. It is demonstrated that the structural phase transformations in PHS can be considered as the result of softening of many modes, not only the ferroelectric one. It was also proved that locally broken symmetry effects are present at temperatures far above the Curie temperature and are connected with the softening of two optic modes of different nature.

  17. Two- and three-particle azimuthal correlations of high-$p_{t}$ charged hadrons in Pb - Au collisions at 158A GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Kniege, S; Ploskon, M; Kniege, Stefan; Ploskon, Mateusz

    2007-01-01

    Azimuthal correlations of hadrons with high transverse momenta serve as a measure to study the energy loss and the fragmentation pattern of jets emerging from hard parton-parton interactions in heavy ion collisions. Preliminary results from the CERES experiment on two- and three-particle correlations in central Pb-Au collisions are presented. A strongly non-Gaussian shape on the away-side of the two-particle correlation function is observed, indicating significant interactions of the emerging partons with the medium. Mechanisms like deflection of the initial partons or the evolution of a mach cone in the medium can lead to similar modifications of the jet structure on the away-side. An analysis based on three-particle correlations is presented which helps to shed light on the origin of the observed away-side pattern.

  18. Two- and three-particle azimuthal correlations of high-pt charged hadrons in Pb-Au collisions at 158 A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniege, Stefan; Ploskon, Mateusz

    2007-01-01

    Azimuthal correlations of hadrons with high transverse momenta serve as a measure to study the energy loss and the fragmentation pattern of jets emerging from hard parton-parton interactions in heavy-ion collisions. Preliminary results from the CERES experiment on two- and three-particle correlations in central Pb-Au collisions are presented. A strongly non-Gaussian shape on the away-side of the two-particle correlation function is observed, indicating significant interactions of the emerging partons with the medium. Mechanisms like deflection of the initial partons or the evolution of a mach cone in the medium can lead to similar modifications of the jet structure on the away-side. An analysis based on three-particle correlations is presented which helps us to shed light on the origin of the observed away-side pattern

  19. In-situ Ga doping of fully strained Ge1-xSnx heteroepitaxial layers grown on Ge(001) substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimura, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Nakatsuka, O.

    2012-01-01

    to the introduction of dislocations, due to the increase in the strain of the Ge1-xSnx layers. We achieved the growth of a fully strained Ge0.922Sn0.078 layer on Ge with a Ga concentration of 5.5×1019 /cm3 without any dislocations and stacking faults. The resistivity of the Ga-doped Ge1-xSnx layer decreased as the Sn...... content was increased. This decrease was due to an increase in the carrier concentration, with an increase in the activation level of Ga atoms in the Ge1-xSnx epitaxial layers being induced by the introduction of Sn. As a result, we found that the resistivity for the Ge0.950Sn0.050 layer annealed at 600°C...

  20. Color tunable green–yellow–orange–red Er{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+}-codoped PbGeO{sub 3}:PbF{sub 2}:CdF{sub 2} glass phosphor for application in white-LED technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, W.S.; Domingues, R.O.; Bueno, L.A.; Costa, E.B. da; Gouveia-Neto, A.S., E-mail: artur@df.ufrpe.br

    2013-12-15

    Color tunable wide gamut light covering the greenish, yellow–green, yellow, orange, and reddish tone chromaticity region in Er{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+}-codoped lead–cadmium–germanate PbGeO{sub 3}:PbF{sub 2}:CdF{sub 2} glass phosphor is presented. The phosphors were synthesized, and their light emission properties examined under UV and blue LED excitation. Luminescence emission around 525, 550, 590, 610, and 660 nm was obtained and analyzed as a function of Eu/Er concentration, excitation wavelength, and glass host composition. The color tunability was actually obtained via proper combination of Er{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} active ions concentration. The combination of the emission tone with blue LEDs in the region of 400–460 nm, yielded a mixture of light with color in the white-light region presenting a color correlated temperature in the range of 2000–4000 K. Results indicate that the color-tunable fluorolead germanate erbium/europium co-doped glass phosphor herein reported is a promising novel contender for application in LED-based solid-state illumination technology -- Highlights: • Color tunability in the red–orange–yellow–green spectral region. • White-light generation presenting a CCT in the range of 2000–4000 K. • New europium/erbium co-doped lead–cadmium–germanate glass phosphor.

  1. Particle-gamma coincidence measurements in /sup 12/C+/sup 12/C and /sup 12/C+Pb collisions at 2. 1 GeV/nucleon incident energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, G.; Koontz, R.; Mulera, T.; Pugh, H.G.; Schroeder, L.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Hallman, T.; Madansky, L. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA)); Carroll, J. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)); Chang, C.C. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA)); Kirk, P.N.

    1985-06-24

    A particle-gamma coincidence experiment has been performed with a 2.1 GeV per nucleon /sup 12/C beam from the Bevalac. Data were taken with C and Pb targets. The ..gamma..-ray spectra are almost independent of the energy or the kind of charged particles detected in coincidence, mainly protons and deuterons. These ..gamma..-ray spectra are interpreted as resulting from ..pi../sup 0/ decay, and are consistent with known ..pi../sup 0/ production rates. A search for a possible decay of singly-charged anomalons into a gamma and a deuteron (or unbound proton-neutron system) has been done by studying the ..gamma..p and ..gamma..d invariant mass distributions. The upper limits for such a process are found to be 2 to 20% of the deuteron production rate, for anomalon masses for 200 to 400 MeV above the deuteron mass, with an anomalon mean lifetime of up to 10/sup -9/ s, depending on which kind of decay process is considered.

  2. Synthesis of chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) based on new SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SnO{sub 2} ternary oxide and application for online preconcentration of Pb{sup 2+} coupled with FAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarley, César R.T.; Scheel, Guilherme L.; Zappielo, Caroline D.; Suquila, Fabio A.C., E-mail: ctarleyquim@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Química; Ribeiro, Emerson S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Grupo LaDANM

    2018-05-01

    A new online solid phase preconcentration method using the new SiO{sub 2}/Al2O{sub 3}/SnO{sub 2} ternary oxide (designated as SiAlSn) as chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for Pb{sup 2+} determination at trace levels in different kind of samples is proposed. The solid adsorbent has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and textural data. The method involves the preconcentration using time-based sampling of Pb{sup 2+} solution at pH 4.3 through 100.0 mg of packed adsorbed into a mini-column under flow rate of 4.0 mL min{sup -1} during 5 min. The elution step was accomplished by using 1.0 mol L{sup -1} HCl. A wide range of analytical curve (5.0-400.0 μg L{sup -1}), high enrichment factor (40.5), low consumption index (0.5 mL) and low limits of quantification and detection, 5.0 and 1.5 μg L{sup -1}, respectively, were obtained with the developed method. Practical application of method was tested on water samples, chocolate powder, Ginkgo biloba and sediment (certified reference material). On the basis of the results, the SiAlSn can be considered an effective adsorbent belonging to the class of CAF-SPE for Pb{sup 2+} determination from different matrices. (author)

  3. Development of Au-Ge based candidate alloys as an alternative to high-lead content solders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The changes in microstructure and microhardness associated with the addition of low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au......-Ge-In and Au-Ge-Sn combinations was determined to be the classic solid solution strengthening. The Au-Ge-Sb combination was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The aging temperature had a significant influence on the microhardness in the case of the Au-Ge-Sn candidate alloy...

  4. NA49 Results on Single Particle and Correlation Measurements in Central PB+PB Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fuqiang; Bachler, J.; Bailey, S.J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Boimska, B.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Carr, L.D.; Cebra, D.A.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Cristinziani, M.; Csato, P.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Gunther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Hummler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, John M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puhlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schafer, E.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schonfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Struck, C.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.Z.; Zybert, R.; Wang, Fuqiang

    2000-01-01

    Single-particle spectra and two-particle correlation functions measured by the NA49 collaboration in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon are presented. These measurements are used to study the kinetic and chemical freeze-out conditions in heavy ion collisions. We conclude that large baryon stopping, high baryon density and strong transverse radial flow are achieved in central Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS.

  5. Single-Particle States in $^{133}$Sn

    CERN Multimedia

    Huck, A

    2002-01-01

    % IS338 \\\\ \\\\ It is suggested to investigate the $\\beta^- $-decay of $^{133}$In and $^{134}$In in order to determine the single-particle states in $^{133}$Sn, which are so far unknown and needed for the shell-model description of the region close to $^{132}$Sn. Large hyper-pure Ge-detectors will be used for the $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. In the experiments with $^{134}$In, delayed neutrons in coincidence with $\\gamma$-rays from excited states in $^{133}$Sn provide the opportunity for a very selective detection of the states in question.

  6. The inverse perovskite nitrides (Sr{sub 3}N{sub 2/3-x})Sn, (Sr{sub 3}N{sub 2/3-x})Pb, and (Sr{sub 3}N)Sb. Flux crystal growth, crystal structures, and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Manisha; Bobnar, Matej; Ormeci, Alim; Prots, Yurii; Hoehn, Peter [Chemische Metallkunde, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Stoiber, Dominik; Niewa, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Black single crystals with metallic luster of (Sr{sub 3}N{sub 2/3-x})E (E = Sn, Pb) and (Sr{sub 3}N)Sb were grown in lithium flux from strontium nitride, Sr{sub 2}N, and tin, lead, or antimony, respectively. Nitrogen deficiency in the tin and the lead compound is a result of the higher ionic charge of the tetrelide ions E{sup 4-} as compared to the antimonide ion Sb{sup 3-}. In contrast to microcrystalline samples from solid state sinter reactions obtained earlier, the flux synthesis induces nitrogen order in the nitrogen deficient tetrelides. The antimony compound crystallizes as inverse cubic perovskite [a = 517.22(5) pm, Z = 1, space group Pm3m, no. 221] with fully occupied nitrogen site, whereas the nitrogen deficient tin and lead compounds exhibit partially ordered arrangements and a certain phase width in respect to nitrogen contents. For the tetrelides, the nitrogen order leads to a cubic 2 x 2 x 2 superstructure [E = Sn: a = 1045.64(8) pm for x = 0, a = 1047.08(7) pm for x = 0.08; and E = Pb: a = 1050.7(1) pm for x = 0, space group Fm3m, no. 225] as derived from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The metallic tetrelides show diamagnetic behavior, which is consistent with electronic structure calculations. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Defect interactions in Sn1−xGex random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander; Bracht, H.; Grimes, R. W.; Jiang, C.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2009-01-01

    Sn1−xGex alloys are candidates for buffer layers to match the lattices of III-V or II-VI compounds with Si or Ge for microelectronic or optoelectronic applications. In the present work electronic structure calculations are used to study relative energies of clusters formed between Sn atoms and lattice vacancies in Ge that relate to alloys of low Sn content. We also establish that the special quasirandom structure approach correctly describes the random alloy nature of Sn1−xGex with higher Sn content. In particular, the calculated deviations of the lattice parameters from Vegard’s Law are consistent with experimental results.

  8. Defect interactions in Sn1−xGex random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander

    2009-06-23

    Sn1−xGex alloys are candidates for buffer layers to match the lattices of III-V or II-VI compounds with Si or Ge for microelectronic or optoelectronic applications. In the present work electronic structure calculations are used to study relative energies of clusters formed between Sn atoms and lattice vacancies in Ge that relate to alloys of low Sn content. We also establish that the special quasirandom structure approach correctly describes the random alloy nature of Sn1−xGex with higher Sn content. In particular, the calculated deviations of the lattice parameters from Vegard’s Law are consistent with experimental results.

  9. Charged particle production in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00287239; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider measures charged hadron spectra in Pb+Pb and p+Pb collisions. The results are compared to the p+p spectra of charged hadrons at the same centre-of-mass energy. Charged hadron distributions from Pb+Pb are compared to charged particle cross-sections in p+p collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV, reference cross-section for p+Pb at $\\sqrt{s_{_\\text{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV is reconstructed using $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV and 7 TeV p+p results. These allow for a detailed comparison of the collision systems in a wide transverse momentum and rapidity ranges in different centrality intervals. The nuclear modification factors \\rPbPb\\ and \\rpA\\ are presented as a function of centrality, $p_{_\\text{T}}$, $\\eta$. The charged particle \\rPbPb\\ are found to vary significantly as a function of transverse momentum, shows a pronounced minimum at about 7 GeV. Above 60 GeV, $R_{_\\text{AA}}$ is consistent with a flat, centrality-dependent, value within the uncertainties. $R_{_\\text{pPb}}$ results sh...

  10. First measurement of jet mass in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; An, M.; Andrei, C.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Anwar, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Buitron, S. A. I.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A. A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Costanza, S.; Crkovská, J.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Souza, R. D.; Degenhardt, H. F.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Duggal, A. K.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabbietti, L.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Garg, P.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; Germain, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Greiner, L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosa, F.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Grull, F. R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hohlweger, B.; Horak, D.; Hornung, S.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jaelani, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jercic, M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Khuntia, A.; Kielbowicz, M. M.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Kle