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Sample records for ge semiconductor detectors

  1. Response function of semiconductor detectors, Ge and Si(Li); Funcao resposta de detectores semicondutores, Ge e Si(Li)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevallos Chavez, Juan Yury

    2003-07-01

    The Response Function (RF) for Ge and Si(Li) semiconductor detectors was obtained. The RF was calculated for five detectors, four Hp Ge with active volumes of 89 cm{sup 3} , 50 cm{sup 3} , 8 cm{sup 3} and 5 cm{sup 3}, and one Si(Li) with 0.143 cm{sup 3} of active volume. The interval of energy studied ranged from 6 keV up to 1.5 MeV. Two kinds of studies were done in this work. The first one was the RF dependence with the detection geometry. Here the calculation of the RF for a geometry named as simple and an extrapolation of that RF, were both done. The extrapolation process analyzed both, spectra obtained with a shielding geometry and spectra where the source-detector distance was modified. The second one was the RF dependence with the detection electronics. This study was done varying the shaping time of the pulse in the detection electronics. The purpose was to verify the effect of the ballistic deficit in the resolution of the detector. This effect was not observed. The RF components that describe the region of the total absorption of the energy of the incident photons, and the partial absorption of this energy, were both treated. In particular, empirical functions were proposed for the treatment of both, the multiple scattering originated in the detector (crystal), and the photon scattering originated in materials of the neighborhood of the crystal. Another study involving Monte Carlo simulations was also done in order to comprehend the photon scattering structures produced in an iron shield. A deconvolution method is suggested, for spectra related to scattered radiation in order to assess the dose delivered to the scatterer. (author)

  2. Semiconductor Detectors; Detectores de Semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-07-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  3. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  4. Recent developments in semiconductor gamma-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, Paul N.; Amman, Mark; Tindall, Craig; Lee, Julie S.

    2003-10-28

    The successful development of lithium-drifted Ge detectors in the 1960's marked the beginning of the significant use of semiconductor crystals for direct detection and spectroscopy of gamma rays. In the 1970's, high-purity Ge became available, which enabled the production of complex detectors and multi-detector systems. In the following decades, the technology of semiconductor gamma-ray detectors continued to advance, with significant developments not only in Ge detectors but also in Si detectors and room-temperature compound-semiconductor detectors. In recent years, our group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a variety of gamma ray detectors based on these semiconductor materials. Examples include Ge strip detectors, lithium-drifted Si strip detectors, and coplanar-grid CdZnTe detectors. These advances provide new capabilities in the measurement of gamma rays, such as the ability to perform imaging and the realization of highly compact spectroscopy systems.

  5. Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K

    2001-01-01

    expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

  6. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  7. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  8. Ge photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binari, S. C.; Miller, W. E.; Tsuo, Y. H.; Miller, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    An undoped Ge photocapacitive detector is reported which has peak normalized detectivities at wavelengh 1.4 microns and chopping frequencies 13-1000 Hz of 9 x 10 to the 12th, 4 x 10 to the 9th cm Hz to the 1/2th/W operating respectively at temperatures 77, 195, and 295 K. The observed temperature, spectral, and frequency response of the signal and noise are explained in terms of the measured space charge and interface state properties of the device.

  9. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edwin Y.; James, Ralph B.

    2002-01-01

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  10. Semiconductor High-Energy Radiation Scintillation Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kastalsky, A; Spivak, B

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new scintillation-type detector in which high-energy radiation produces electron-hole pairs in a direct-gap semiconductor material that subsequently recombine producing infrared light to be registered by a photo-detector. The key issue is how to make the semiconductor essentially transparent to its own infrared light, so that photons generated deep inside the semiconductor could reach its surface without tangible attenuation. We discuss two ways to accomplish this, one based on doping the semiconductor with shallow impurities of one polarity type, preferably donors, the other by heterostructure bandgap engineering. The proposed semiconductor scintillator combines the best properties of currently existing radiation detectors and can be used for both simple radiation monitoring, like a Geiger counter, and for high-resolution spectrography of the high-energy radiation. The most important advantage of the proposed detector is its fast response time, about 1 ns, essentially limited only by the recombi...

  11. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  12. New materials for radiation hard semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J; CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of the current status of research into new semiconductor materials for use as particle tracking detectors in very high radiation environments. This work is carried out within the framework of the CERN RD50 collaboration, which is investigating detector technologies suitable for operation at the proposed Super-LHC facility (SLHC). Tracking detectors operating at the SLHC in this environment will have to be capable of withstanding radiation levels arising from a luminosity of 1035 cm-2s-1 which will present severe challenges to current tracking detector technologies. The "new materials" activity within RD50 is investigating the performance of various semiconductor materials that potentially offer radiation hard alternatives to silicon devices. The main contenders in this study are silicon carbide, gallium nitride and amorphous silicon. In this paper we review the current status of these materials, in terms of material quality, commercial availability, charge transport properties, and radiati...

  13. Improvement in Ge Detector Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    linear Stirling cooler manufactured by SunPower, Inc., Athens, Ohio. This hybrid system has the same footprint as a standard 30-liter LN2 Dewar and...are two such HPGe detector cooler /cryostat systems that we are modifying and evaluating for use in the RASA. The modifications will enhance vacuum... system incorporating a 4-watt pulse-tube cooler manufactured by Thales Cryogenics, Eindhoven, Netherlands, is being modified to incorporate ultra

  14. Semiconductor detectors in the low countries

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2003-01-01

    Several milestones in the development of semiconductor radiation imaging detectors are attributed to scientists from the Low Countries, the Netherlands and Belgium, and a few historical details will be highlighted. The very first usable semiconductor nuclear detector was made in Utrecht, around 1943, in the form of an AgCl crystal. The earliest large-scale application of monolithic, double- sided silicon strip detectors was in the BOL experiment around 1968 at IKO, now NIKHEF, in Amsterdam. The technology developed and patented by Philips and IKO was adapted by the author and coworkers in 1980 to produce the first silicon microstrip detector used for the reconstruction of events in a CERN fixed target experiment. An avalanche of developments then led to worldwide use of silicon microstrip detectors in elementary particle physics, motivated by the capability to reconstruct particles with lifetime similar to 10**- **1**2s, which decay on sub-millimeter scale. The intensive activity in silicon detector R&D c...

  15. Development of Large Cryogenic Semiconductor Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandic, Vuk [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-12-09

    This project aims at developing large cryogenic semiconductor detectors for applications in particle physics and more broadly. We have developed a 150 mm diameter, 43 mm thick, Si-based detector that measures ionization released in an interaction of a particle inside the silicon crystal of high purity, operated at 30 mK temperature. We demonstrated that such a detector can be used to measure recoil energies on the keV scale, and that its stable operation can be maintained indefinitely. Detectors of this type could therefore be used in the fields of direct dark matter searches, coherent neutrino scattering measurements, X-ray observations, as well as in broader applications such as homeland security.

  16. Analytical response function for planar Ge detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Juan A.; Maidana, Nora L.; Vanin, Vito R.; Fernández-Varea, José M.

    2016-04-01

    We model the response function (RF) of planar HPGe x-ray spectrometers for photon energies between around 10 keV and 100 keV. The RF is based on the proposal of Seltzer [1981. Nucl. Instrum. Methods 188, 133-151] and takes into account the full-energy absorption in the Ge active volume, the escape of Ge Kα and Kβ x-rays and the escape of photons after one Compton interaction. The relativistic impulse approximation is employed instead of the Klein-Nishina formula to describe incoherent photon scattering in the Ge crystal. We also incorporate a simple model for the continuous component of the spectrum produced by the escape of photo-electrons from the active volume. In our calculations we include external interaction contributions to the RF: (i) the incoherent scattering effects caused by the detector's Be window and (ii) the spectrum produced by photo-electrons emitted in the Ge dead layer that reach the active volume. The analytical RF model is compared with pulse-height spectra simulated using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code.

  17. Evaluation of mercuric iodide ceramic semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M.; Zuck, A.; Braiman, M.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel); Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L. [LEPSI (ULP/IN2P3), Strasbourg (France)

    1998-02-01

    Mercuric iodide ceramic radiation detectors, which can act as nuclear particle counters, have been fabricated with single continuos electrical contacts and with linear strip contacts. They have been tested with different kinds of {gamma} and {beta} sources as well as in a high energy beam at CERN. The detectors were also successfully tested for radiation hardness with irradiation of 5*10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. The ratio of detected photons over the number of absorbed photons has been measured with {gamma} sources of different energies, and it ranges from 20% at 44 keV up to about 30% at 660 keV. An absolute efficiency of 70% has been measured for a 350 {mu}m thick detector for {beta} particles emitted by a {sup 90}Sr source. Charge collection efficiency, defined as the amount of charge induced on the electrodes by a mminimum ionizing particle (MIP) traversing the detector, has been measured in two samples. The average collected charge fits well with a linear curve with slope of 35 electrons/(kV/cm) per 100 {mu}m. This result is well described by a dynamic device simulation, where the free carrier mean lifetime is used as a free parameter, adjusted to a value of 1.5 ns, i.e. about 1/100 of the corresponding lifetime in single crystal HgI{sub 2} detectors. The response to MIP has also been studied with a high energy (100 GeV) muon beam in CERN. A preliminary beam profile is presented while a more detailed analysis is still in progress and will be presented elsewhere. These results together with the low cost of the material make ceramic HgI{sub 2} detectors excellent candidates for large area particle tracking and imaging applications, even in a radiation harsh environment. (orig.). 14 refs.

  18. Direct conversion semiconductor detectors in positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joshua W.; Gu, Yi; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-05-01

    Semiconductor detectors are playing an increasing role in ongoing research to improve image resolution, contrast, and quantitative accuracy in preclinical applications of positron emission tomography (PET). These detectors serve as a medium for direct detection of annihilation photons. Early clinical translation of this technology has shown improvements in image quality and tumor delineation for head and neck cancers, relative to conventional scintillator-based systems. After a brief outline of the basics of PET imaging and the physical detection mechanisms for semiconductor detectors, an overview of ongoing detector development work is presented. The capabilities of semiconductor-based PET systems and the current state of these devices are discussed.

  19. Radiation tolerant semiconductor sensors for tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, M

    2006-01-01

    The CERN RD50 collaboration “Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders” is developing radiation tolerant tracking detectors for the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (Super-LHC). One of the main challenges arising from the target luminosity of 1035 cm−2 s−1 are the unprecedented high radiation levels. Over the anticipated 5 years lifetime of the experiment a cumulated fast hadron fluence of about 1016 cm−2 will be reached for the innermost tracking layers. Further challenges are the expected reduced bunch crossing time of about 10 ns and the high track density calling for fast and high granularity detectors which also fulfill the boundary conditions of low radiation length and low costs. After a short description of the expected radiation damage after a fast hadron fluence of 1016 cm−2, several R&D approaches aiming for radiation tolerant sensor materials (defect and material engineering) and sensor designs (device engineering) are review...

  20. Fundamental properties of semiconductor materials, and material performance in detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, K. J.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for determining fundamental properties of semiconductor materials, their performance as radiation detectors, and their service life as such detectors are given. Relationships were established between the minority carrier lifetime in the bulk of the material and the charge collection efficiency of the detector.

  1. Charge induction in semiconductor detectors with pixellated structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable interest is now being attracted to the next generation of compound semiconductor detectors with pixellated structure in application to x-ray and gamma-astronomy, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear medicine. The spatial resolution of this type of detectors is mainly determined by the proce

  2. Design and Fabrication of Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG; Xin; LIU; Yang; HE; Gao-kui

    2015-01-01

    The potential of silicon carbide(SiC)for use in semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors has been recognized for years.SiC detectors have now been demonstrated for high-resolution alpha particle and X-ray energy spectrometry,beta ray,gamma-ray,thermal-and fast-neutron

  3. Comparative technique in measurements of Ge detectors effective volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova, E. V.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Vasenko, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and quick procedure was proposed for measurements of large coaxial Ge detectors effective volumes. It included a comparison of background spectra collected with several detectors without any shielding in an underground laboratory. Such measurements were performed in Homestake (USA) and Canfranc (Spain) laboratories with several 1 kg and 2 kg detectors. Monte-Carlo calculations confirmed that ratios of numbers of events in continua of the spectra should be either equal or very close to the ratios of the detectors effective volumes.

  4. Ge/GaAs heterostructure matrix detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostamo, P. [Optoelectronics Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 3500, 02015 HUT (Finland)]. E-mail: pasi.kostamo@hut.fi; Saeynaetjoki, A. [Optoelectronics Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 3500, 02015 HUT (Finland); Knuuttila, L. [Optoelectronics Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 3500, 02015 HUT (Finland); Lipsanen, H. [Optoelectronics Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 3500, 02015 HUT (Finland); Andersson, H. [Oxford Instruments Analytical Oy (United Kingdom); Banzuzi, K. [Oxford Instruments Analytical Oy (United Kingdom); Nenonen, S. [Oxford Instruments Analytical Oy (United Kingdom); Sipilae, H. [Oxford Instruments Analytical Oy (United Kingdom); Vaijaervi, S. [Oxford Instruments Analytical Oy (United Kingdom); Lumb, D. [Science Payload and Advanced Concepts Office, ESA/ESTEC, Nordwijk (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we present a novel germanium/gallium arsenide heterostructure X-ray detector with the active volume of germanium. The heterostructure is fabricated by depositing a gallium arsenide layer on a high-purity germanium wafer in a vertical metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy system. This approach provides a new alternative to traditional lithium diffused n+ contact which is not easily applicable for finely pixelated detectors. The detector chip fabrication utilizing this kind of heterostructure is straightforward and only standard lithographic processes need to be applied. Electrical properties of the small format detector matrices are studied. Very low reverse biased current at 77 K is observed. It is concluded that the diffusion of arsenic in germanium results in an n-type germanium layer under the epitaxial gallium arsenide.

  5. GeV dark matter searches with the NEWS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profumo, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The proposed NEWS apparatus, a spherical detector with a small central electrode sensor operating as a proportional counter, promises to explore new swaths of the direct detection parameter space in the GeV and sub-GeV dark matter particle mass range by employing very light nuclear targets, such as H and He, and by taking advantage of a very low (sub-keV) energy threshold. Here we discuss and study two example classes of dark matter models that will be tested with NEWS: GeV-scale millicharged dark matter, and a GeV-Dirac Fermion dark matter model with a light (MeV-GeV) scalar or vector mediator, and indicate the physical regions of parameter space the experiment can probe.

  6. Integrated superconducting detectors on semiconductors for quantum optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniber, M.; Flassig, F.; Reithmaier, G.; Gross, R.; Finley, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum photonic circuits can be used to efficiently generate, manipulate, route and exploit nonclassical states of light for distributed photon-based quantum information technologies. In this article, we review our recent achievements on the growth, nanofabrication and integration of high-quality, superconducting niobium nitride thin films on optically active, semiconducting GaAs substrates and their patterning to realize highly efficient and ultra-fast superconducting detectors on semiconductor nanomaterials containing quantum dots. Our state-of-the-art detectors reach external detection quantum efficiencies up to 20 % for ~4 nm thin films and single-photon timing resolutions <72 ps. We discuss the integration of such detectors into quantum dot-loaded, semiconductor ridge waveguides, resulting in the on-chip, time-resolved detection of quantum dot luminescence. Furthermore, a prototype quantum optical circuit is demonstrated that enabled the on-chip generation of resonance fluorescence from an individual InGaAs quantum dot, with a linewidth <15 μeV displaced by 1 mm from the superconducting detector on the very same semiconductor chip. Thus, all key components required for prototype quantum photonic circuits with sources, optical components and detectors on the same chip are reported.

  7. Current responsivity of semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignatov, Anatoly A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    The current responsivity of a semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detector is calculated using an equivalent circuit model which takes into account the finite matching efficiency between a detector antenna and the superlattice in the presence of parasitic losses. Calculations performed for curr......The current responsivity of a semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detector is calculated using an equivalent circuit model which takes into account the finite matching efficiency between a detector antenna and the superlattice in the presence of parasitic losses. Calculations performed...... for currently available superlattice diodes show that both the magnitudes and the roll-off frequencies of the responsivity are strongly influenced by an excitation of hybrid plasma-Bloch oscillations which are found to be eigenmodes of the system in the THz-frequency band. The expected room temperature values...

  8. Method for mapping charge pulses in semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prettyman, T.H.

    1998-12-01

    An efficient method for determining the distribution of charge pulses produced by semiconductor detectors is presented. The method is based on a quasi-steady-state model for semiconductor detector operation. A complete description of the model and underlying assumptions is given. Mapping of charge pulses is accomplished by solving an adjoint carrier continuity equation. The solution of the adjoint equation yields Green`s function, a time- and position-dependent map that contains all possible charge pulses that can be produced by the detector for charge generated at discrete locations (e.g., by gamma-ray interactions). Because the map is generated by solving a single, time-dependent problem, the potential for reduction in computational effort over direct mapping methods is significant, particularly for detectors with complex electrode structures. In this paper, the adjoint equation is derived and the mapping method is illustrated for a simple case.

  9. Mercuric iodide semiconductor detectors encapsulated in polymeric resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao F. Trencher; Santos, Robinson A. dos; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Oliveira, Adriano S.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M., E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disch, Christian; Fiederle, Michael [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg - UniFreibrug, Freiburg Materials Research Center - FMF, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The development of new semiconductor radiation detectors always finds many setback factors, such as: high concentration of impurities in the start materials, poor long term stability, the surface oxidation and other difficulties discussed extensively in the literature, that limit their use. In this work was studied, the application of a coating resin on HgI2 detectors, in order to protect the semiconductor crystal reactions from atmospheric gases and to isolate electrically the surface of the crystals. Four polymeric resins were analyzed: Resin 1: 50% - 100%Heptane, 10% - 25% methylcyclohexane, <1% cyclohexane; Resin 2: 25% - 50% ethanol, 25% - 50% acetone, <2,5% ethylacetate; Resin 3: 50% - 100% methylacetate, 5% - 10% n-butylacetate; Resin 4: 50% - 100% ethyl-2-cyanacrylat. The influence of the polymeric resin type used on the spectroscopic performance of the HgI{sub 2} semiconductor detector is, clearly, demonstrated. The better result was found for the detector encapsulated with Resin 3. An increase of up to 26 times at the stability time was observed for the detectors encapsulated compared to that non-encapsulated detector. (author)

  10. 11th International Conference on Large Scale Applications and Radiation Hardness of Semiconductor Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The conference will focus on semiconductor detectors issues relevant to applications in accelerator and space research. Topics include: - large semiconductor systems for calorimetry and tracking applications; - radiation damage measurements and modeling; - radiation hardness of semiconductor detectors; - innovative detectors and electronic systems.

  11. Semiconductors for room temperature nuclear detector applications

    CERN Document Server

    James, Ralph B

    1995-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The""Willardson and Beer""Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series.

  12. 12 GeV detector technology at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, John P.; GlueX Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) is presently in the middle of an upgrade to increase the energy of its CW electron beam from 6 GeV to 12 GeV along with the addition of a fourth experimental hall. Driven both by necessity and availability, novel detectors and electronics modules have been used in the upgrade. One such sensor is the Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM), specifically a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC), which is an array of avalanche photodiode pixels operating in Geiger mode that are used to sense photons. The SiPMs replace conventional photomultiplier tubes and have several distinct advantages including the safe operation in a magnetic field and the lack of need for high voltage. Another key to 12 GeV success is advanced fast electronics. Jlab will use custom 250 MHz and 125 MHz 12-bit analog to digital converters (ADCs) and time to digital converters (TDCs) all of which take advantage of VME Switched Serial (VXS) bus with its GB/s high bandwidth readout capability. These new technologies will be used to readout drift chambers, calorimeters, spectrometers and other particle detectors at Jlab once the 12 GeV upgrade is complete. The largest experiment at Jlab utilizing these components is GlueX - an experiment in the newly constructed Hall D that will study the photoproduction of light mesons in the search for hybrid mesons. The performance of these components and their respective detectors will be presented.

  13. 12 GeV detector technology at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leckey, John P. [Indiana U.

    2013-04-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) is presently in the middle of an upgrade to increase the energy of its CW electron beam from 6 GeV to 12 GeV along with the addition of a fourth experimental hall. Driven both by necessity and availability, novel detectors and electronics modules have been used in the upgrade. One such sensor is the Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM), specifically a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC), which is an array of avalanche photodiode pixels operating in Geiger mode that are used to sense photons. The SiPMs replace conventional photomultiplier tubes and have several distinct advantages including the safe operation in a magnetic field and the lack of need for high voltage. Another key to 12 GeV success is advanced fast electronics. Jlab will use custom 250 MHz and 125 MHz 12-bit analog to digital converters (ADCs) and time to digital converters (TDCs) all of which take advantage of VME Switched Serial (VXS) bus with its GB/s high bandwidth readout capability. These new technologies will be used to readout drift chambers, calorimeters, spectrometers and other particle detectors at Jlab once the 12 GeV upgrade is complete. The largest experiment at Jlab utilizing these components is GlueX - an experiment in the newly constructed Hall D that will study the photoproduction of light mesons in the search for hybrid mesons. The performance of these components and their respective detectors will be presented.

  14. 12 GeV detector technology at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leckey, John P. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Collaboration: GlueX Collaboration

    2013-04-19

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) is presently in the middle of an upgrade to increase the energy of its CW electron beam from 6 GeV to 12 GeV along with the addition of a fourth experimental hall. Driven both by necessity and availability, novel detectors and electronics modules have been used in the upgrade. One such sensor is the Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM), specifically a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC), which is an array of avalanche photodiode pixels operating in Geiger mode that are used to sense photons. The SiPMs replace conventional photomultiplier tubes and have several distinct advantages including the safe operation in a magnetic field and the lack of need for high voltage. Another key to 12 GeV success is advanced fast electronics. Jlab will use custom 250 MHz and 125 MHz 12-bit analog to digital converters (ADCs) and time to digital converters (TDCs) all of which take advantage of VME Switched Serial (VXS) bus with its GB/s high bandwidth readout capability. These new technologies will be used to readout drift chambers, calorimeters, spectrometers and other particle detectors at Jlab once the 12 GeV upgrade is complete. The largest experiment at Jlab utilizing these components is GlueX - an experiment in the newly constructed Hall D that will study the photoproduction of light mesons in the search for hybrid mesons. The performance of these components and their respective detectors will be presented.

  15. Semiconductor detectors for soft γ-ray astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, François

    2006-07-01

    The study of γ-ray bursts, compact objects, nucleosynthesis and supernova remnants triggers the most interest today in the soft γ-ray domain. These topics have various experimental requirements with emphasis either on imaging or on spectroscopy. Recent progress has shown the great potential of semiconductor detectors for both applications at the expense of classical scintillators such as NaI or CsI. They also gave insight into their long-term in-orbit behaviour. Room temperature semiconductor detectors, particularly CdTe and CdZnTe, are confirmed as the best choice for imaging applications. As illustrated by the INTEGRAL/ISGRI camera, the CdTe stability is better than expected; its internal background is comparable to that of scintillators, and the spectroscopic degradation in space is slow with a lifetime of about 40 years on an eccentric orbit. Cooled germanium detectors offer the best energy resolution but degrade more rapidly under the cosmic-ray irradiation. However, the INTEGRAL/SPI spectrometer has demonstrated that periodic in-orbit annealings, allowing for a full recovery of the energy resolution, can maintain the spectroscopic performance over several years. Most future projects, focussing on coded mask or Compton telescopes, will take advantage of the semiconductor technology, particularly that related to the ambient temperature detectors.

  16. Semiconductor radiation detector with internal gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwanczyk, Jan (Los Angeles, CA); Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

    2003-04-01

    An avalanche drift photodetector (ADP) incorporates extremely low capacitance of a silicon drift photodetector (SDP) and internal gain that mitigates the surface leakage current noise of an avalanche photodetector (APD). The ADP can be coupled with scintillators such as CsI(Tl), NaI(Tl), LSO or others to form large volume scintillation type gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy, photon counting, gamma ray counting, etc. Arrays of the ADPs can be used to replace the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used in conjunction with scintillation crystals in conventional gamma cameras for nuclear medical imaging.

  17. A repair station for HpGe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearman, Robert; Lister, Christopher; Mitchell, A. J.; Copp, Patrick; Jepeal, Steven; Chowdhury, Partha

    2013-10-01

    Hyper-pure Germanium detectors (HpGe) offer the highest energy resolution for gamma-ray nuclear spectroscopy (about 1.5 keV @ 1 MeV), and are used in all the world's leading detector arrays such as GammaSphere, AGATA and GRETINA. The detector crystals are operated in cryostats at 100 K to reduce thermal noise. To maintain low leakage current and low operating temperatures, cryostat hygiene is very important. Detectors must be regularly maintained by using a high-vacuum, oil-free annealing station. At elevated temperatures above 373 K the process of pumping and baking can also anneal away neutron damage to the detector crystals. This poster will show the design and building of a new HpGe repair station at U. Mass Lowell, and make comparisons of results obtained from this new station to the Gammasphere annealing factory at Argonne. This research is funded by the DOE National Nuclear Safety Administration and the Office of Science.

  18. Radiation effects on a Ge:Ga photoconductive detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, N.; Lemke, D.; Wolf, J.

    1984-11-01

    Co-60 is the gamma-ray source employed in the present study of the effects of irradiation on a Ge:Ga photoconductive IR detector, at a low photon background level of 4 x 10 to the 8th ph/sq cm per sec which immediately induced NEP-degrading spike noises while gradually increasing responsivity. After cessation of the irradiation, the spikes disappeared but responsivity lingered over several hours. Responsivity change rate is smaller, both before and after the irradiation, for a higher bias voltage. A flashing procedure is used to establish the effectiveness of long term effect cure. The IR detector will be used by the German IR Laboratory.

  19. Radiation-hard semiconductor detectors for SuperLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, Mara; Al-Ajili, A A; Alexandrov, P; Alfieri, G; Allport, Philip P; Andreazza, A; Artuso, M; Assouak, S; Avset, B S; Barabash, L; Baranova, E; Barcz, A; Basile, A; Bates, R; Belova, N; Betta, G F D; Biagi, S F; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Blue, A; Blumenau, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bondarenko, G B; Borchi, E; Borrello, L; Bortoletto, D; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Bowcock, T J V; Brodbeck, T J; Broz, J; Brukhanov, A; Brzozowski, A; Buda, M; Buhmann, P; Buttar, C; Campabadal, F; Campbell, D; Candelori, A; Casse, G; Cavallini, A; Chilingarov, A G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Citterio, M; Collins, P; Coluccia, R; Contarato, D; Coutinho, J; Creanza, D; Cunningham, W; Cvetkov, V; Davies, G; Dawson, I; De Palma, M; Demina, R; Dervan, P; Dierlamm, A; Dittongo, S; Dobrzanski, L; Dolezal, Z; Dolgolenko, A; Eberlein, T; Eremin, V; Fall, C; Fasolo, F; Ferbel, T; Fizzotti, F; Fleta, C; Focardi, E; Forton, E; Franchenko, S; Fretwurst, E; Gamaz, F; García-Navarro, J E; García, C; Gaubas, E; Genest, M H; Gill, K A; Giolo, K; Glaser, M; Gössling, C; Golovine, V; Gorelov, I; Goss, J; Gouldwell, A; Grégoire, G; Gregori, P; Grigoriev, E; Grigson, C; Grillo, A; Groza, A; Guskov, J; Haddad, L; Harding, R; Härkönen, J; Hauler, F; Hayama, S; Hoeferkamp, M; Honniger, F; Horazdovsky, T; Horisberger, R P; Horn, M; Houdayer, A; Hourahine, B; Hruban, A; Hughes, G; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Irmscher, K; Ivanov, A; Jarasiunas, K; Jin, T; Jones, B K; Jones, R; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kalinina, E; Kaminski, P; Karpenko, A; Karpov, A; Kazlauskiene, V; Kazukauskas, V; Khivrich, V; Khomenkov, V P; Kierstead, J A; Klaiber Lodewigs, J M; Kleverman, M; Klingenberg, R; Kodys, P; Kohout, Z; Korjenevski, S; Kowalik, A; Kozlowski, R; Kozodaev, M; Kramberger, G; Krasel, O; Kuznetsov, A; Kwan, S; Lagomarsino, S; Lari, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lastovetsky, V F; Latino, G; Latushkin, S T; Lazanu, I; Lazanu, S; Lebel, C; Leinonen, K; Leroy, C; Li, Z; Lindström, G; Lindström, L; Linhart, V; Litovchenko, A P; Litovchenko, P G; Litvinov, V; Lo Giudice, A; Lozano, M; Luczynski, Z; Luukka, Panja; Macchiolo, A; Mainwood, A; Makarenko, L F; Mandic, I; Manfredotti, C; Martí i García, S; Marunko, S; Mathieson, K; Melone, J; Menichelli, D; Meroni, C; Messineo, A; Miglio, S; Mikuz, M; Miyamoto, J; Moll, M; Monakhov, E; Moscatelli, F; Mozzanti, A; Murin, L; Naoumov, D; Nava, F; Nossarzhevska, E; Nummela, S; Nysten, J; Olivero, P; O'Shea, V; Palviainen, T; Paolini, C; Parkes, C; Passeri, D; Pein, U; Pellegrini, G; Perera, L; Petasecca, M; Piatkowski, B; Piemonte, C; Pignatel, G U; Pinho, N; Pintilie, I; Pintilie, L; Polivtsev, L; Polozov, P; Popa, A I; Popule, J; Pospísil, S; Pucker, G; Radicci, V; Rafí, J M; Ragusa, F; Rahman, M; Rando, R; Röder, R; Rohe, T; Ronchin, S; Rott, C; Roy, A; Roy, P; Ruzin, A; Ryazanov, A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sakalauskas, S; Scaringella, M; Schiavulli, L; Schnetzer, S; Schumm, B; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Segneri, G; Seidel, S; Seiden, A; Sellberg, G; Sellin, P J; Sentenac, D; Sevilla, S G; Shipsey, I; Sícho, P; Sloan, T; Solar, M; Son, S; Sopko, B; Spencer, N; Stahl, J; Stavitski, I; Stolze, D; Stone, R; Storasta, J; Strokan, N; Strupinski, W; Sudzius, M; Surma, B; Suuronen, J; Suvorov, A; Svensson, B G; Tipton, P; Tomasek, M; Troncon, C; Tsvetkov, A; Tuominen, E; Tuovinen, E; Tuuva, T; Tylchin, M; Uebersee, H; Uher, J; Ullán, M; Vaitkus, J V; Vanni, P; Velthuis, J; Verbitskaya, E; Verzellesi, G; Vrba, V; Wagner, G; Wilhelm, I; Worm, S; Wright, V; Wunstorf, R; Zabierowski, P; Zaluzhny, A; Zavrtanik, M; Zen, M; Zhukov, V; Zorzi, N; de Boer, Wim

    2005-01-01

    An option of increasing the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN to 10/sup 35/ cm-/sup 2/s-/sup 1/ has been envisaged to extend the physics reach of the machine. An efficient tracking down to a few centimetres from the interaction point will be required to exploit the physics potential of the upgraded LHC. As a consequence, the semiconductor detectors close to the interaction region will receive severe doses of fast hadron irradiation and the inner tracker detectors will need to survive fast hadron fluences of up to above 10 /sup 16/ cm-/sup 2/. The CERN-RD50 project "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" has been established in 2002 to explore detector materials and technologies that will allow to operate devices up to, or beyond, this limit. The strategies followed by RD50 to enhance the radiation tolerance include the development of new or defect engineered detector materials (SiC, GaN, Czochralski and epitaxial silicon, oxygen enriched Flo...

  20. Detection Simulation of SiC Semiconductor Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Yeop; Kim, Jeong Dong; Lee, Yong Deok; Kim, Ho Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In a high radiation environment, it has received attention as a material for detecting radiation (neutron). As the field of application of a SIC neutron detector, the semiconductor detector used in cosmic rays was proposed by Ruddy. Recently, X-ray and low-energy gamma ray spectrometry with SiC detectors has been reported. Its usability has recently been being proved in neutron dose surveillance in BNCT (Boron-Capture Neutron Therapy), thermal neutron detection in a waste drum, nuclear material surveillance, and fast neutron detection. In addition, in 2006, an experiment was actually performed by Natsume on spent nuclear fuel. SIC is suitable for radiation surveillance in a complex radiation field emitted from spent nuclear fuel and the pyropocess process. In the radiation field of spent nuclear fuel, neutrons and gamma rays are generated. In this research, the performance of a SiC detector made at KAERI was evaluated to obtain a discriminated neutron signal. First, using neutron ({sup 252}Cf), alpha ({sup 241}Am), and gamma ({sup 60}Co) sources, a SiC semi- conductor detector was tested. The energy spectrum in a complex radiation field was simulated using the MCNPX 2.5. Finally, the experimental results by Ruddy were compared with the simulation results. Research result, whether the SiC semiconductor detector operating or not was confirmed through the simulation according to the neutron, gamma. The simulation results were similar to those of Ruddy. A further study is underway to investigate the discriminated neutron signal of a complex radiation field.

  1. A semiconductor parameter analyzer for ionizing radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Luiz A.P., E-mail: lasantos@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Electrometers and ion chamber are normally used to make several types of measurements in a radiation field and there is a unique voltage applied to each detector type. Some electronic devices that are built of semiconductor materials like silicon crystal can also be used for the same purpose. In this case, a characteristic curve of the device must be acquired to choose an operation point which consists of an electrical current or voltage to be applied to the device. Unlike ion chambers, such an electronic device can have different operation points depending on its current versus voltage curve (I x V). The best operation point of the device is also a function of the radiation, energy, dose rate and fluence. The purpose of this work is to show a semiconductor parameter analyzer built to acquire I x V curves as usually, and the innovation here is the fact that it can be used to obtain such a parametric curve when a quad-polar device is under irradiation. The results demonstrate that the system is a very important tool to scientists interested to evaluate a semiconductor detector before, during and after irradiation. A collection of results for devices under an X-ray beam and a neutron fluence are presented: photodiode, phototransistors, bipolar transistor and MOSFET. (author)

  2. Reporting detection efficiency for semiconductor neutron detectors: A need for a standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S., E-mail: mcgregor@ksu.ed [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Kenneth Shultis, J. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2011-03-11

    In the past few years, there has been an increased interest in the development of alternative neutron detection technologies. Included among many promising alternative neutron detection technologies are semiconductor-based neutron detectors. These detectors are typically small and compact, hence those methods used to characterize large gas-filled neutron detectors are inappropriate. Proposed are standard methods that can be used to model the performance of semiconductor neutron detectors and to characterize experimentally the intrinsic efficiency of these detectors.

  3. Growth and applications of GeSn-related group-IV semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaima, Shigeaki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Taoka, Noriyuki; Kurosawa, Masashi; Takeuchi, Wakana; Sakashita, Mitsuo

    2015-08-01

    We review the technology of Ge1-xSnx-related group-IV semiconductor materials for developing Si-based nanoelectronics. Ge1-xSnx-related materials provide novel engineering of the crystal growth, strain structure, and energy band alignment for realising various applications not only in electronics, but also in optoelectronics. We introduce our recent achievements in the crystal growth of Ge1-xSnx-related material thin films and the studies of the electronic properties of thin films, metals/Ge1-xSnx, and insulators/Ge1-xSnx interfaces. We also review recent studies related to the crystal growth, energy band engineering, and device applications of Ge1-xSnx-related materials, as well as the reported performances of electronic devices using Ge1-xSnx related materials.

  4. Growth and applications of GeSn-related group-IV semiconductor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaima, Shigeaki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Taoka, Noriyuki; Kurosawa, Masashi; Takeuchi, Wakana; Sakashita, Mitsuo

    2015-08-01

    We review the technology of Ge1-x Sn x -related group-IV semiconductor materials for developing Si-based nanoelectronics. Ge1-x Sn x -related materials provide novel engineering of the crystal growth, strain structure, and energy band alignment for realising various applications not only in electronics, but also in optoelectronics. We introduce our recent achievements in the crystal growth of Ge1-x Sn x -related material thin films and the studies of the electronic properties of thin films, metals/Ge1-x Sn x , and insulators/Ge1-x Sn x interfaces. We also review recent studies related to the crystal growth, energy band engineering, and device applications of Ge1-x Sn x -related materials, as well as the reported performances of electronic devices using Ge1-x Sn x related materials.

  5. Dual-sided microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (DSMSNDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fronk, Ryan G., E-mail: rfronk@ksu.edu [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, United States (United States); Bellinger, Steven L.; Henson, Luke C. [Radiation Detection Technologies, Inc., Manhattan, KS 66502 (United States); Ochs, Taylor R.; Smith, Colten T.; Kenneth Shultis, J.; McGregor, Douglas S. [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, United States (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (MSNDs) have in recent years received much interest as high-efficiency replacements for thin-film-coated thermal neutron detectors. The basic device structure of the MSND involves micro-sized trenches that are etched into a vertically-oriented pvn-junction diode that are backfilled with a neutron converting material. Neutrons absorbed within the converting material induce fission of the parent nucleus, producing a pair of energetic charged-particle reaction products that can be counted by the diode. The MSND deep-etched microstructures produce good neutron-absorption and reaction-product counting efficiencies, offering a 10× improvement in intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency over thin-film-coated devices. Performance of present-day MSNDs are nearing theoretical limits; streaming paths between the conversion-material backfilled trenches, allow a considerable fraction of neutrons to pass undetected through the device. Dual-sided microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (DSMSNDs) have been developed that utilize a complementary second set of trenches on the back-side of the device to count streaming neutrons. DSMSND devices are theoretically capable of greater than 80% intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency for a 1-mm thick device. The first such prototype DSMSNDs, presented here, have achieved 29.48±0.29% nearly 2× better than MSNDs with similar microstructure dimensions.

  6. Dual-sided microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (DSMSNDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronk, Ryan G.; Bellinger, Steven L.; Henson, Luke C.; Ochs, Taylor R.; Smith, Colten T.; Kenneth Shultis, J.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2015-12-01

    Microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (MSNDs) have in recent years received much interest as high-efficiency replacements for thin-film-coated thermal neutron detectors. The basic device structure of the MSND involves micro-sized trenches that are etched into a vertically-oriented pvn-junction diode that are backfilled with a neutron converting material. Neutrons absorbed within the converting material induce fission of the parent nucleus, producing a pair of energetic charged-particle reaction products that can be counted by the diode. The MSND deep-etched microstructures produce good neutron-absorption and reaction-product counting efficiencies, offering a 10× improvement in intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency over thin-film-coated devices. Performance of present-day MSNDs are nearing theoretical limits; streaming paths between the conversion-material backfilled trenches, allow a considerable fraction of neutrons to pass undetected through the device. Dual-sided microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (DSMSNDs) have been developed that utilize a complementary second set of trenches on the back-side of the device to count streaming neutrons. DSMSND devices are theoretically capable of greater than 80% intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency for a 1-mm thick device. The first such prototype DSMSNDs, presented here, have achieved 29.48±0.29% nearly 2× better than MSNDs with similar microstructure dimensions.

  7. Organic semiconductor nickel phthalocyanine-based photocapacitive and photoresistive detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mutabar; Karimov, Kh S.; Sayyad, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the photosensitive organic semiconductor nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) is investigated as a photocapacitive and photoresistive detector. NiPc thin film is grown by vacuum thermal evaporation on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is deposited as a top electrode by drop-casting to fabricate the ITO/NiPc/PEDOT:PSS light detector. It has been observed that under the unmodulated filament lamp illumination of up to 9720 lux the capacitance of the detectors increased up to 21, 18 and 4% at a frequency of measuring voltage of 120 Hz, 1 kHz and 10 kHz, respectively, under dark conditions. The change in resistance with the variation in the intensity of light is also investigated. The capacitance and resistance of the light detector decrease with an increase in the frequency. It is assumed that the photocapacitive and photoresistive response of the detector is associated with polarization occurring due to the transfer of photo-generated electrons and holes. The calculated results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results.

  8. MnxGe1-x dilute magnetic semiconductor studied by XAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian; Jiang, Yong; Liu, Qinghua; Sun, Yu; Pan, Zhiyun; Wei, Shiqiang

    2009-11-01

    Fluorescence X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique was used to investigate the local structures of the doped Mn in the MnxGe1-x dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with different Mn content (x=0.07, 0.25, 0.36) prepared by magnetron cosputtering method. The results indicate that for the sample with low Mn content (x=0.07), the Mn atoms are mainly incorporated into the lattice of Ge, and locate at the substitutional sites of Ge atoms with the ratio of 75%. With the Mn content increasing to 0.25 or higher, only part of Mn atoms enter the lattice of Ge and the others exist in the form of the Mn5Ge3 phase whose content increases with the doped Mn concentration. It is found that, in the Mn0.07Ge0.93 the bond length of the first (Mn-Ge) shell is RMn-Ge = 2.50 Å, which is bigger than the first (Ge-Ge) shell distance in Ge by about 0.05 Å. These results imply that local structure expansion is induced by dilute Mn substituting into Ge sites.

  9. Probing Sub-GeV Dark Matter with Conventional Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Pradler, Josef

    2017-01-01

    The direct detection of dark matter particles with mass below the GeV scale is hampered by soft nuclear recoil energies and finite detector thresholds. For a given maximum relative velocity, the kinematics of elastic dark matter nucleus scattering sets a principal limit on detectability. Here, we...... propose to bypass the kinematic limitations by considering the inelastic channel of photon emission from bremsstrahlung in the nuclear recoil. Our proposed method allows us to set the first limits on dark matter below 500 MeV in the plane of dark matter mass and cross section with nucleons. In situations...... where a dark-matter-electron coupling is suppressed, bremsstrahlung may constitute the only path to probe low-mass dark matter awaiting new detector technologies with lowered recoil energy thresholds....

  10. Probing Sub-GeV Dark Matter with Conventional Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Pradler, Josef

    2017-01-01

    The direct detection of dark matter particles with mass below the GeV scale is hampered by soft nuclear recoil energies and finite detector thresholds. For a given maximum relative velocity, the kinematics of elastic dark matter nucleus scattering sets a principal limit on detectability. Here, we...... propose to bypass the kinematic limitations by considering the inelastic channel of photon emission from bremsstrahlung in the nuclear recoil. Our proposed method allows us to set the first limits on dark matter below 500 MeV in the plane of dark matter mass and cross section with nucleons. In situations...... where a dark-matter-electron coupling is suppressed, bremsstrahlung may constitute the only path to probe low-mass dark matter awaiting new detector technologies with lowered recoil energy thresholds....

  11. Probing Sub-GeV Dark Matter with Conventional Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Pradler, Josef

    2017-01-20

    The direct detection of dark matter particles with mass below the GeV scale is hampered by soft nuclear recoil energies and finite detector thresholds. For a given maximum relative velocity, the kinematics of elastic dark matter nucleus scattering sets a principal limit on detectability. Here, we propose to bypass the kinematic limitations by considering the inelastic channel of photon emission from bremsstrahlung in the nuclear recoil. Our proposed method allows us to set the first limits on dark matter below 500 MeV in the plane of dark matter mass and cross section with nucleons. In situations where a dark-matter-electron coupling is suppressed, bremsstrahlung may constitute the only path to probe low-mass dark matter awaiting new detector technologies with lowered recoil energy thresholds.

  12. Probing sub-GeV Dark Matter with conventional detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The direct detection of Dark Matter particles with mass below the GeV-scale is hampered by soft nuclear recoil energies and finite detector thresholds. For a given maximum relative velocity, the kinematics of elastic Dark Matter nucleus scattering sets a principal limit on detectability. Here we propose to bypass the kinematic limitations by considering the inelastic channel of photon emission in the nuclear recoil. Our proposed method allows to set the first limits on MeV-scale Dark Matter in the plane of Dark Matter mass and cross section with nucleons. In situations where a Dark Matter-electron coupling is suppressed, Bremsstrahlung may constitute the only path to probe low-mass Dark Matter awaiting new detector technologies with lowered recoil energy thresholds.

  13. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors a review of the beginnings

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2001-01-01

    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with µW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm2, retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at > 10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities > 10 cm-2. The noise in a channel was ~100 e- r.m.s. and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level 30 Mrad, respectively.

  14. Group IV semiconductor Ge integration with topological insulator Sb2Te3 for spintronic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Beining; Sun, Yu; Wu, Jie; Han, Mei; Wu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Keke; Feng, Shouhua

    2017-03-01

    Sb2Te3/Ge heterojunctions were grown on deoxidized GaAs (0 0 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy to explore a new type of spin torque device. Despite the large lattice mismatch between Ge and Sb2Te3, the films display highly uniform fabrication and good crystallinity, which have been confirmed by structural characterization. The band structures of Sb2Te3/Ge heterojunctions were investigated by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. Small chemical shift of Sb 3d5/2 indicates that TI conducting surface is not destroyed, and Ge valence band bending contributes to Fermi level depinning. The band offset of Sb2Te3/Ge heterojunctions is different from common gate dielectric/Ge heterojunctions. The integral quality of the heterostructure reveals the potential of combining topological insulators with semiconductors for the advancement of spintronic devices.

  15. Charge Collection Efficiency in a segmented semiconductor detector interstrip region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Diez, V.; Vickridge, I.; Jakšić, M.; Grilj, V.; Schmidt, B.; Lange, H.

    2017-09-01

    Charged particle semiconductor detectors have been used in Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) for over four decades without great changes in either design or fabrication. However one area where improvement is desirable would be to increase the detector solid angle so as to improve spectrum statistics for a given incident beam fluence. This would allow the use of very low fluences opening the way, for example, to increase the time resolution in real-time RBS or for analysis of materials that are highly sensitive to beam damage. In order to achieve this goal without incurring the costs of degraded resolution due to kinematic broadening or large detector capacitance, a single-chip segmented detector (SEGDET) was designed and built within the SPIRIT EU infrastructure project. In this work we present the Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) in the vicinity between two adjacent segments focusing on the interstrip zone. Microbeam Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements with different ion masses and energies were used to perform X-Y mapping of (CCE), as a function of detector operating conditions (bias voltage changes, detector housing possibilities and guard ring configuration). We show the (CCE) in the edge region of the active area and have also mapped the charge from the interstrip region, shared between adjacent segments. The results indicate that the electrical extent of the interstrip region is very close to the physical extent of the interstrip and guard ring structure with interstrip impacts contributing very little to the complete spectrum. The interstrip contributions to the spectra that do occur, can be substantially reduced by an offline anti-coincidence criterion applied to list mode data, which should also be easy to implement directly in the data acquisition software.

  16. On the measurement of positron emitters with Ge detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyres, Virginia, E-mail: virginia.peyres@ciemat.e [Ciemat, Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Torano, Eduardo [Ciemat, Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2011-05-01

    This paper discusses the problems related to the measurement of positron emitters with germanium detectors. Five positron emitters with important applications in nuclear medicine ({sup 22}Na, {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N and {sup 68}Ga) have been studied. Measurements and Monte Carlo simulations have been used to determine the optimal conditions of measurement in gamma-ray spectrometry systems. The results obtained indicate that adding adequate absorbers, detection efficiencies are close to those of gamma emitters of similar energy measured in the same conditions, which allows a rapid calibration of a Ge-based spectrometry system. More accurate results are also presented using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation. Comparison to experimental data shows a good agreement.

  17. Experimental study of the response of semiconductor detectors to low-energy photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lepy, M C; Laborie, J M; Plagnard, J; Stemmler, P; Teesdale, W J

    2000-01-01

    Six semiconductor detectors (Si(Li) and HPGe) are calibrated in the 1-10 keV energy range by means of tuneable monochromatised synchrotron radiation. Significant improvement in the quality of the response is observed in very recent detectors. A peak shape calibration is established using a modified Hypermet-type function to model the detector response for each energy step; electron effects induce individual background and tail shapes for each detector material. Fano factors for both semiconductor materials are experimentally derived. The efficiency calibration is determined using a proportional counter as reference: the front semiconductor layer acts as a partially active zone.

  18. ‘Symbiotic’ semiconductors: unusual and counter-intuitive Ge/Si/O interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, T.; Li, P. W.; Chen, K. H.; Peng, K. P.; Lai, W. T.

    2017-03-01

    Since the inception of the first transistors in the 1940s, the immense body of work on the Group IV semiconductors, Si and Ge, has spearheaded spectacular advances in modern integrated-circuit (IC) technology that has enabled a vast landscape of device applications in logic, memory, and computing. Although initially Si supplanted Ge as the material of choice for metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors, Ge-based devices are now breaking new ground. Widespread and innovative Ge-based applications exist in optoelectronics, communications, microelectro-mechanical systems, and energy harvesting/savings. On the fundamental, materials science front, while it is well known that Ge and Si are fully miscible in each other, the nature and extent of their attraction for each other has largely been unexplored. In this paper, we report a rather curious interplay between Ge and Si that occurs at high temperature (~900 °C) and that can be best described as ‘symbiotic’. Each element appears to facilitate reactions in the other which would otherwise not be possible. Oxygen intersititials also appear to play a major role in these reactions. Our experimental work has allowed us to classify four distinct regimes where these reactions occur. We describe these conditions and provide the necessary theoretical explanations for these results.

  19. Transport Properties of Si and Ge Liquid Semiconductor Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aditya M. Vora

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we study the electrical resistivity p, the thermoelectric power (TEP) α, thermal conductivity σ, Knight-ShiFts and temperature coefficient of the Knight-Shifts of the liquid Si and Ge using the well known model potential for the first time. The structure factor used in the present work is derived From the Percus-Yevick (PY) theory. Various local field correction Functions are used to study the screening influence. The present results of resistivity are found in qualitative agreement with available experimental and theoretical whenever exists.

  20. Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Detector for Improved Spatial and Energy Resolution Radioisotopic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Samira; Mahmoudian, Babak; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh

    2017-01-01

    The detector in single-photon emission computed tomography has played a key role in the quality of the images. Over the past few decades, developments in semiconductor detector technology provided an appropriate substitution for scintillation detectors in terms of high sensitivity, better energy resolution, and also high spatial resolution. One of the considered detectors is cadmium telluride (CdTe). The purpose of this paper is to review the CdTe semiconductor detector used in preclinical studies, small organ and small animal imaging, also research in nuclear medicine and other medical imaging modalities by a complete inspect on the material characteristics, irradiation principles, applications, and epitaxial growth method.

  1. Neutron induced activity in natural and enriched {sup 70}Ge detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, J.E. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements]|[NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)]|[Universities Space Research Association, 7501 Forbes Blvd, 206, Seabrook, MD 20706-2253 (United States); Jean, P.; Albernhe, F.; Borrel, V.; Lavigne, J.M.; Vedrenne, G.; von Ballmoos, P. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements; Barthelmy, S.D. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)]|[Universities Space Research Association, 7501 Forbes Blvd, 206, Seabrook, MD 20706-2253 (United States); Bartlett, L.M.; Gehrels, N.; Parsons, A.; Tueller, J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cordier, B. [Service d`Astrophysique du CEA, CEN de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex (France); Leleux, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 2 chemin du Cyclotron, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Teegarden, B.J. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements]|[NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    1997-09-11

    The results of irradiations of isotopically enriched and natural Ge detectors with a neutron beam are presented. The analysis of the gamma-ray lines generated by decay of neutron induced unstable nuclei have provided us with a direct measurement of relevant interaction cross sections. Within a factor of 2, measurements and predictions are in good agreement. These results have important implications for the instrumental background in astrophysical gamma-ray spectrometers using germanium detectors. We confirm the reduction of the {beta}-background component, which dominates the continuum background in the 0.1-1 MeV energy range, using {sup 70}Ge enriched detectors. We clearly identify {beta}{sup +} decays inside the detector as a significant source of continuum background in the 1-4 MeV energy range. This component is about 2 times more intense in {sup 70}Ge enriched detectors than in natural ones. This is mainly due to the enhanced yield of {sup 69}Ge and {sup 68}Ga isotopes. The choice of either natural or {sup 70}Ge enriched as optimum detector material depends on the energies of astrophysical interest. Detectors made of enriched {sup 70}Ge are more appropriate for studies at energies below 1 MeV. For higher energies natural germanium is slightly better. The possibility of rejecting most of {beta}-background component by applying alternative analysis techniques makes natural Ge an appropriate material for future gamma-ray spectrometers. (orig.). 15 refs.

  2. DFT calculations of magnetic anisotropy energy of Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te ferromagnetic semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łusakowski, A; Bogusławski, P; Story, T

    2015-06-10

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The influence of hole concentration and magnetic ion neighbourhood on magnetic anisotropy energy is presented. Analysis of microscopic mechanism of magnetic anisotropy is provided, in particular the role of spin-orbit coupling, spin polarization and spatial changes of electron density are discussed. The calculations are in accordance with the experimental observation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in rhombohedral Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te (1 1 1) thin layers.

  3. DFT calculations of magnetic anisotropy energy of Ge1-xMnxTe ferromagnetic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łusakowski, A.; Bogusławski, P.; Story, T.

    2015-06-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge1-xMnxTe were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The influence of hole concentration and magnetic ion neighbourhood on magnetic anisotropy energy is presented. Analysis of microscopic mechanism of magnetic anisotropy is provided, in particular the role of spin-orbit coupling, spin polarization and spatial changes of electron density are discussed. The calculations are in accordance with the experimental observation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in rhombohedral Ge1-xMnxTe (1 1 1) thin layers.

  4. Production, characterization and operation of {sup 76}Ge enriched BEGe detectors in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M.; Barros, N.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Andreotti, E. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Ioannucci, L.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Macolino, C.; Nisi, S.; Zavarise, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Gurentsov, V.; Inzhechik, L.V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Strecker, H.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bellotti, E.; Pessina, G. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Sada, C.; Von Sturm, K. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Shevchik, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C.; Gotti, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. Germanium detectors made of material with an enriched {sup 76}Ge fraction act simultaneously as sources and detectors for this decay. During Phase I of the experiment mainly refurbished semi-coaxial Ge detectors from former experiments were used. For the upcoming Phase II, 30 new {sup 76}Ge enriched detectors of broad energy germanium (BEGe)- type were produced. A subgroup of these detectors has already been deployed in GERDA during Phase I. The present paper reviews the complete production chain of these BEGe detectors including isotopic enrichment, purification, crystal growth and diode production. The efforts in optimizing the mass yield and in minimizing the exposure of the {sup 76}Ge enriched germanium to cosmic radiation during processing are described. Furthermore, characterization measurements in vacuum cryostats of the first subgroup of seven BEGe detectors and their long-term behavior in liquid argon are discussed. The detector performance fulfills the requirements needed for the physics goals of GERDA Phase II. (orig.)

  5. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygiel, R.; Grybos, P.; Maj, P.

    2012-07-01

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm×4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40×32 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  6. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczygiel, R., E-mail: robert.szczygiel@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Grybos, P.; Maj, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-07-11

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm Multiplication-Sign 4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40 Multiplication-Sign 32 pixels with 100 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  7. Semiconductor Detector Developments for High Energy Space Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Meuris, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The rise of high energy astrophysics and solar physics in the 20th century is linked to the development of space telescopes; since the 1960s they have given access to the X-ray and gamma-ray sky, revealing the most violent phenomena in the Universe. Research and developments in imaging concepts and sensing materials haven't stopped since yet to improve the sensitivity of the X-ray and gamma-ray observatories. The paper proposes an overview of instrument realizations and focuses on the innovative detection techniques and technologies for applications from 0.1 keV to 10 MeV energy range. Solid-state detectors are prominent solutions for space instrumentation because of their excellent imaging and spectroscopic capabilities with limited volume and power resources. Various detection concepts based on semiconductors (Compton camera, Cd(Zn)Te pixel hybrids, DePFET active pixel sensors) are under design or fabrication for the near-future missions like Astro-H, BepiColombo, Solar Orbiter. New technologies on sensing ...

  8. Equipment for Topographical Preparation and Analysis of Various Semiconductor Infrared Detector Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Equipment for Topographical Preparation and Analysis of Various Semiconductor Infrared...Final Report: Equipment for Topographical Preparation and Analysis of Various Semiconductor Infrared Detector Samples Report Title A used calibrated...camera will reinitialize and the video settings have to be reset. 6 Figure 4. This will open the both video overlay and the Dektak

  9. Progress in the Development of CdTe and CdZnTe Semiconductor Radiation Detectors for Astrophysical and Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mancini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, cadmium telluride (CdTe and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe wide band gap semiconductors have attracted increasing interest as X-ray and gamma ray detectors. Among the traditional high performance spectrometers based on silicon (Si and germanium (Ge, CdTe and CdZnTe detectors show high detection efficiency and good room temperature performance and are well suited for the development of compact and reliable detection systems. In this paper, we review the current status of research in the development of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors by a comprehensive survey on the material properties, the device characteristics, the different techniques for improving the overall detector performance and some major applications. Astrophysical and medical applications are discussed, pointing out the ongoing Italian research activities on the development of these detectors.

  10. Progress in the Development of CdTe and CdZnTe Semiconductor Radiation Detectors for Astrophysical and Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Stefano Del; Abbene, Leonardo; Caroli, Ezio; Mancini, Anna Maria; Zappettini, Andrea; Ubertini, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) wide band gap semiconductors have attracted increasing interest as X-ray and gamma ray detectors. Among the traditional high performance spectrometers based on silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge), CdTe and CdZnTe detectors show high detection efficiency and good room temperature performance and are well suited for the development of compact and reliable detection systems. In this paper, we review the current status of research in the development of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors by a comprehensive survey on the material properties, the device characteristics, the different techniques for improving the overall detector performance and some major applications. Astrophysical and medical applications are discussed, pointing out the ongoing Italian research activities on the development of these detectors.

  11. Simulation of one-dimensionally polarized X-ray semiconductor detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, K.J.; Herrmann, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: A pixelated X-ray semiconductor detector (=“direct converter”) is studied which contains an inhomogeneous electric field parallel to the depth axis caused by different concentrations of p- or n-doping. The X-ray energy deposition and charge movement within the detector is modeled in Monte-

  12. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy of pure magnetic semiconductors of MnGeP2 and MnGeAs2: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Gi-Beom; Yun, Won Seok; Hong, Soon Cheol

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we use the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method to investigate the magnetocrystalline anisotropies of pure magnetic MnGeP2 and MnGeAs2 semiconductors. Both MnGeP2 and MnGeAs2 have been calculated to be more stable in their antiferromagnetic (AFM) states than in their ferromagnetic (FM) states, with energy differences of about 230 and 190 meV/Mn, respectively. MnGeP2 and MnGeAs2 exhibit a positive EMCA (magnetization along the z axis) of +52.3 and +122.6 μeV/Mn in their AFM magnetic ground states with a negative EMCA (magnetization on the xy plane) of -71.1 and -177.8 μeV/Mn in their FM states. The EMCA behaviors are analyzed in terms of the electronic structure.

  13. Characterization and application of a GE amorphous silicon flat panel detector in a synchrotron light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H. [XSD Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory (United States)], E-mail: jlee@aps.anl.gov; Almer, J. [XSD Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Aydiner, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Bernier, J.; Chapman, K.; Chupas, P.; Haeffner, D. [XSD Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Kump, K. [GE Healthcare (United States); Lee, P.L.; Lienert, U.; Miceli, A. [XSD Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Vera, G. [GE Healthcare (United States)

    2007-11-11

    Characterization, in the language of synchrotron radiation, was performed on a GE Revolution 41RT flat panel detector using the X-ray light source at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The detector has an active area of 41x41 cm{sup 2} with 200x200 {mu}m{sup 2} pixel size. The nominal working photon energy is around 80 keV. Modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured in terms of line spread function (LSF) using a 25 {mu}mx1 cm tungsten slit. Memory effects of the detector elements, called lag, were also measured. The large area and fast data capturing rate -8 fps in unbinned mode, 30 fps in binned or region of interest (ROI) mode-make the GE flat panel detector a unique and very versatile detector for synchrotron experiments. In particular, we present data from pair distribution function (PDF) measurements to demonstrate the special features of this detector.

  14. Semiconductor scintillator detector for gamma radiation; Detector cintilador semicondutor para radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, F.T.V. der; Borges, V.; Zabadal, J.R.S., E-mail: ftvdl@ufrgs.br, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br, E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (GENUC/DEMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos Nucleares. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays the devices employed to evaluate individual radiation exposition are based on dosimetric films and thermoluminescent crystals, whose measurements must be processed in specific transductors. Hence, these devices carry out indirect measurements. Although a new generation of detectors based on semiconductors which are employed in EPD's (Electronic Personal Dosemeters) being yet available, it high producing costs and large dimensions prevents the application in personal dosimetry. Recent research works reports the development of new detection devices based on photovoltaic PIN diodes, which were successfully employed for detecting and monitoring exposition to X rays. In this work, we step forward by coupling a 2mm anthracene scintillator NE1, which converts the high energy radiation in visible light, generating a Strong signal which allows dispensing the use of photomultipliers. A low gain high performance amplifier and a digital acquisition device are employed to measure instantaneous and cumulative doses for energies ranging from X rays to Gamma radiation up to 2 MeV. One of the most important features of the PIN diode relies in the fact that it can be employed as a detector for ionization radiation, since it requires a small energy amount for releasing electrons. Since the photodiode does not amplify the corresponding photon current, it must be coupled to a low gain amplifier. Therefore, the new sensor works as a scintillator coupled with a photodiode PIN. Preliminary experiments are being performed with this sensor, showing good results for a wide range of energy spectrum. (author)

  15. Direct detection of sub-GeV dark matter with semiconductor targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Rouven; Fernández-Serra, Marivi; Mardon, Jeremy; Soto, Adrián; Volansky, Tomer; Yu, Tien-Tien

    2016-05-01

    Dark matter in the sub-GeV mass range is a theoretically motivated but largely unexplored paradigm. Such light masses are out of reach for conventional nuclear recoil direct detection experiments, but may be detected through the small ionization signals caused by dark matter-electron scattering. Semiconductors are well-studied and are particularly promising target materials because their {O} (1 eV) band gaps allow for ionization signals from dark matter particles as light as a few hundred keV. Current direct detection technologies are being adapted for dark matter-electron scattering. In this paper, we provide the theoretical calculations for dark matter-electron scattering rate in semiconductors, overcoming several complications that stem from the many-body nature of the problem. We use density functional theory to numerically calculate the rates for dark matter-electron scattering in silicon and germanium, and estimate the sensitivity for upcoming experiments such as DAMIC and SuperCDMS. We find that the reach for these upcoming experiments has the potential to be orders of magnitude beyond current direct detection constraints and that sub-GeV dark matter has a sizable modulation signal. We also give the first direct detection limits on sub-GeV dark matter from its scattering off electrons in a semiconductor target (silicon) based on published results from DAMIC. We make available publicly our code, QEdark URL"/> , with which we calculate our results. Our results can be used by experimental collaborations to calculate their own sensitivities based on their specific setup. The searches we propose will probe vast new regions of unexplored dark matter model and parameter space.

  16. New approach to calculate the true-coincidence effect of HpGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnour, I. A., E-mail: aaibrahim3@live.utm.my, E-mail: ibrahim.elnour@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, International University of Africa, 12223 Khartoum (Sudan); Wagiran, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai,Johor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, N. [Faculty of Defence Science and Technology, National Defence University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hamzah, S.; Elias, M. S. [Malaysia Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Siong, W. B. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Resource Science & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The corrections for true-coincidence effects in HpGe detector are important, especially at low source-to-detector distances. This work established an approach to calculate the true-coincidence effects experimentally for HpGe detectors of type Canberra GC3018 and Ortec GEM25-76-XLB-C, which are in operation at neutron activation analysis lab in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The correction for true-coincidence effects was performed close to detector at distances 2 and 5 cm using {sup 57}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 137}Cs as standard point sources. The correction factors were ranged between 0.93-1.10 at 2 cm and 0.97-1.00 at 5 cm for Canberra HpGe detector; whereas for Ortec HpGe detector ranged between 0.92-1.13 and 0.95-100 at 2 and 5 cm respectively. The change in efficiency calibration curve of the detector at 2 and 5 cm after correction was found to be less than 1%. Moreover, the polynomial parameters functions were simulated through a computer program, MATLAB in order to find an accurate fit to the experimental data points.

  17. Instrumentation for characterizing materials and composed semiconductors for ionizing radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoal, Arquimedes J.A.; Leite, Adolfo M.B.; Nazzre, Fabio V.B.; Santos, Luiz A.P. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: lasantos@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this work is the development of instrumentation for characterizing some type of ionizing radiation detectors. Those detectors are being manufactured by the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory at CRCN/Recife and can be used both on photon beam and with particles. Such detectors consist of semiconductor material in the form of films generated by oxide growing or by means of semiconductor material deposition in a substrate. Those materials can be made of metals, semi-metals, composites or semiconductor polymers. Prior to expose those detectors to ionizing radiation, it must be physically and electrically characterized. In this intention it was developed an electromechanical system. An electrical circuit was built to measure the signal from the detector and another circuit to control the movement of four probes (4-points technique) by using a stepper motor and the micro stepping technique avoiding damage to the detector. This system can be of interest to researchers that work with a sort of semiconductor materials in the form of thin film and in nanotechnological processes aiming the design of radiation ionizing detectors. (author)

  18. Emergence of competing magnetic interactions induced by Ge doping in the semiconductor FeGa3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Quiceno, J. C.; Cabrera-Baez, M.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Avila, M. A.; Dalpian, G. M.; Osorio-Guillén, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    FeGa3 is an unusual intermetallic semiconductor that presents intriguing magnetic responses to the tuning of its electronic properties. When doped with Ge, the system evolves from diamagnetic to paramagnetic to ferromagnetic ground states that are not well understood. In this work, we have performed a joint theoretical and experimental study of FeGa3 -xGex using density functional theory and magnetic susceptibility measurements. For low Ge concentrations we observe the formation of localized moments on some Fe atoms and, as the dopant concentration increases, a more delocalized magnetic behavior emerges. The magnetic configuration strongly depends on the dopant distribution, leading even to the appearance of antiferromagnetic interactions in certain configurations.

  19. Effects of electric field on magnetic properties of MnxGe_{1-x} diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Gezahegn; Singh, P.

    2016-03-01

    We report the effect of external electric field (EEF) on the magnetic properties of MnxGe_{1-x}, diluted magnetic semiconductor. We present a Kondo Lattice Model type Hamiltonian with exchange coupling between localized spins, itinerant holes and the EEF. The magnetization, the dispersion and critical temperature (Tc) are calculated for different values of EEF parameters (α) using double time temperature-dependent Green function formalism. The enhancement of the (Tc) with the EEF is shown to be very distinct and is in agreement with recent experimental observation and much required for spintronics applications and devices.

  20. Radiative lifetime of geminate and non-geminate pairs in amorphous semiconductors: a-Ge:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [Faculty of Technology, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    Lifetimes of radiative recombination of geminate and non-geminate pairs in amorphous semiconductors are calculated at thermal equilibrium. The theory is applied to calculate the radiative lifetimes of type I and II geminate pairs and non-geminate pairs in hydrogenated amorphous germanium (a-Ge:H) and compared with the experimental results. The type II geminate pairs can exist in singlet and triplet spin states, only singlet is considered here, whereas the type I geminate pairs do not have spin dependence. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Richard Karl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Jeffrey B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamilton, Allister B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  2. Advanced far infrared detector and double donor studies in Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1994-12-01

    This has application to astronomy and astrophysics. Selenium in Ge has been studied with a doping technique which limits complex formation. Only one ionization level has been found to correspond to selenium, which presumably occupies a substitutional site. This level is extremely unstable and its concentration decreases after annealing at 400C. Future work is planned to anneal the fast neutron damage before much selenium has formed in the {sup 74/76}Ge samples. It is expected that the observed selenium level can be better characterized and the missing selenium level is more likely to be discovered if other defects are removed before {sup 77}Se formation.

  3. Dual-Energy Semiconductor Detector of X-rays and Gamma Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodyn, M.S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the major types of ionizing radiation detectors, their advantages and disadvantages are presented. Application of ZnSe-based semiconductor detector in high temperature environment is substantiated. Different forms of ZnSe-based detector samples and double-crystal scheme for registration of X- and gamma rays in a broad energy range were used . Based on the manufactured simulator device, the study sustains the feasibility of the gamma quanta recording by a high-resistance ZnSe-based detector operating in a perpulse mode.

  4. High-sensitivity visible-blind UV detectors made with organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Cao, Yong; Srdanov, Gordana

    1999-04-01

    High sensitivity visible-blind UV detectors were fabricated with organic semiconductors. The photo-sensitivity at 350 nm reaches 75 mA/Watt, corresponding to quantum efficiency of approximately 27% el/ph. The visible/UV suppression ratio is more than 10(superscript 4) without optical filters. These UV detectors are of linear intensity dependence with fast response time. The simple fabrication process allows these UV detectors to be made in large size, in flexible forms or onto non-planar substrates with low cost. The fabrication process also allows these UV detectors to be integrated with electronic devices or optical devices.

  5. Defect Characterization in SiGe/SOI Epitaxial Semiconductors by Positron Annihilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferragut R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The potential of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS for defect characterization at the atomic scale in semiconductors has been demonstrated in thin multilayer structures of SiGe (50 nm grown on UTB (ultra-thin body SOI (silicon-on-insulator. A slow positron beam was used to probe the defect profile. The SiO2/Si interface in the UTB-SOI was well characterized, and a good estimation of its depth has been obtained. The chemical analysis indicates that the interface does not contain defects, but only strongly localized charged centers. In order to promote the relaxation, the samples have been submitted to a post-growth annealing treatment in vacuum. After this treatment, it was possible to observe the modifications of the defect structure of the relaxed film. Chemical analysis of the SiGe layers suggests a prevalent trapping site surrounded by germanium atoms, presumably Si vacancies associated with misfit dislocations and threading dislocations in the SiGe films.

  6. High-efficiency microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors that are arrayed, dual-integrated, and stacked

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellinger, Steven L., E-mail: slb3888@ksu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Fronk, Ryan G. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Sobering, Timothy J. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McGregor, Douglas S. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Silicon diodes with large aspect ratio 3D microstructures backfilled with {sup 6}LiF show a significant increase in neutron detection efficiency beyond that of conventional thin-film coated planar devices. Described in this work are advancements in the technology using detector stacking methods and summed-detector 6 Multiplication-Sign 6-element arraying methods to dramatically increase the sensitivity to thermal neutrons. The intrinsic detection efficiency of the 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 array for normal-incident 0.0253 eV neutrons was found 6.8% compared against a calibrated {sup 3}He proportional counter. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid-state semiconductor neutron detectors utilizing {sup 6}LiF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large aspect ratio 3D microstructured silicon diodes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arrayed solid-state semiconductor neutron detectors.

  7. What can be expected from high-Z semiconductor detectors. [Assessment of promising semiconductor materials; 25 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armantrout, G.A.; Swierkowski, S.P.; Sherohman, J.W.; Lee, J.H.

    1976-11-17

    It has been hoped that high-Z semiconductors would offer efficient ..gamma..-ray detection at or near ambient temperatures with energy resolution significantly better than NaI (Tl) scintillators. For use at X-ray energies, this goal has been achieved with both HgI/sub 2/, CdTe, and GaAs detectors. However, at higher energies (approximately 660 keV) all current detectors have one or more significant deficiencies in terms of attainable volume, charge collection efficiency, and polarization effects. Starting with first principles, all potential compounds which can be formed by the binary combination of elements from the periodic chart were considered as possible detector materials. A rank-ordered listing of the most promising materials for further development is given as well as an assessment of the prospects for future success. 25 references.

  8. Efficiency calibration of an extended-range Ge detector by a detailed Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyres, V. [Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)], E-mail: Virginia.peyres@ciemat.es; Garcia-Torano, E. [Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2007-09-21

    A Monte Carlo simulation has been employed for calibrating an extended-range Ge detector in an energy range from 14 to 1800 keV. A set of sources from monoenergetic and multi-gamma emitters point were measured at 15 cm from the detector window and provided 26 experimental values to which the results of the simulations are compared. Discrepancies between simulated and experimental values are within 1 standard deviation, and relative differences are, in most cases, below 1%.

  9. Epitaxial silicon semiconductor detectors, past developments, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the main physical characteristics of epitaxial silicon as it relates to detector development is presented. As examples of applications results are presented on (1) epitaxial silicon avalanche diodes (ESAD); signal-to-noise, non-linear aspects of the avalanche gain mechanism, gain-bandwidth product, (2) ultrathin epitaxial silicon surface barrier (ESSB) detectors, response to heavy ions, (3) an all-epitaxial silicon diode (ESD), response to heavy ions, charge transport and charge defect. Future prospects of epitaxial silicon as it relates to new detector designs are summarized.

  10. Epitaxial silicon semiconductor detectors: past developments, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1977-02-01

    A review of the main physical characteristics of epitaxial silicon as it relates to detector development is presented. As examples of applications results are presented on (1) epitaxial silicon avalanche diodes (ESAD); signal-to-noise, non-linear aspects of the avalanche gain mechanism, gain-bandwidth product, (2) ultrathin epitaxial silicon surface barrier (ESSB) detectors, response to heavy ions, (3) an all-epitaxial silicon diode (ESD), response to heavy ions, charge transport and charge defect. Future prospects of epitaxial silicon as it relates to new detector designs are summarized.

  11. Developments in semiconductor detector technology and new applications -- symposium summary

    CERN Document Server

    Kamae, T

    1999-01-01

    Most traditional silicon-based detectors have advanced close to their intrinsic limits and optimization of the front-end electronics has become most crucial in improving performance for specific applications. CdZnTe and CdTe, the most promising in the hard X-ray band, are now finding real commercial applications. Si drift-type detectors are among the few silicon-based detectors whose merits have not been fully exploited. When they are used as photodiodes and combined with new high-Z, high light-yield scintillators (eg. GSO), we can expect a break-through in MeV gamma-ray detection.

  12. An evaluation of semiconductor and ionization chamber detectors for diagnostic x-ray dosimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C J

    2007-08-07

    Dosemeters for performance testing of x-ray equipment may utilize semiconductor technology or ionization chambers (ICs). Semiconductor dosemeters incorporate several elements into the detectors from which compensation for variations in response with photon energy is derived. The design of the detectors influences their response with angle and this is different from that of ICs. The responses of semiconductor detectors (SDs) and ICs to x-ray beams with a variety of radiation qualities have been measured in order to assess differences in response. Measurements have been made with experimental arrangements simulating use of the detectors in performance testing of digital radiography and fluoroscopy equipment. Results show that differences in photon energy responses between the detectors are small, but because ICs are sensitive to radiation incident from all angles, they record more scattered radiation than SDs. Implications of differences in detector responses are discussed and recommendations made about their use. SDs are more appropriate for measurements of image receptor doses and are recommended for setting up automatic exposure control devices for digital radiography. ICs are suitable for assessment of patient entrance surface dose rate measurements. Correction factors that could be applied to allow comparisons between measurements with different dosemeters are proposed.

  13. Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Shultis, John K.; Rice, Blake B.; McNeil, Walter J.; Solomon, Clell J.; Patterson, Eric L.; Bellinger, Steven L.

    2010-12-21

    Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

  14. Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Riley, KS); Shultis, John K. (Manhattan, KS); Rice, Blake B. (Manhattan, KS); McNeil, Walter J. (Winnfield, KS); Solomon, Clell J. (Wichita, KS); Patterson, Eric L. (Manhattan, KS); Bellinger, Steven L. (Manhattan, KS)

    2010-12-21

    Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

  15. Alpha-ray spectrometry at high temperature by using a compound semiconductor detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo

    2013-11-01

    The use of conventional radiation detectors in harsh environments is limited by radiation damage to detector materials and by temperature constraints. We fabricated a wide-band gap semiconductor radiation detector based on silicon carbide. All the detector components were considered for an application in a high temperature environment like a nuclear reactor core. The radiation response, especially to alpha particles, was measured using an (241)Am source at variable operating voltages at room temperature in the air. The temperature on detector was controlled from 30°C to 250°C. The alpha-particle spectra were measured at zero bias operation. Even though the detector is operated at high temperature, the energy resolution as a function of temperature is almost constant within 3.5% deviation.

  16. Quality Control of CMS - GE1/1 Muon Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Salem, Safaa

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the project I get assigned to as a CERN summer student from 27th of June 2016 to 19th of August 2016. It is mainly focused on Quality Control of CMS GE1/1 muon detector upgrade.

  17. An aerogel Cherenkov detector for multi-GeV photon detection with low sensitivity to neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Y; Masuda, T; Morii, H; Naito, D; Nakajima, Y; Nanjo, H; Nomura, T; Sasao, N; Seki, S; Shiomi, K; Sumida, T; Tajima, Y

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel photon detector which operates under an intense flux of neutrons. It is composed of lead-aerogel sandwich counter modules. Its salient features are high photon detection efficiency and blindness to neutrons. As a result of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the efficiency for photons with the energy larger than 1 GeV is expected to be higher than 99.5% and that for 2 GeV/$c$ neutrons less than 1%. The performance on the photon detection under such a large flux of neutrons was measured for a part of the detector. It was confirmed that the efficiency to photons with the energy $>$1 GeV was consistent with the MC expectation within 8.2% uncertainty.

  18. Ab-initio calculation of ZnGeAs{sub 2} semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, S. K., E-mail: susanta96@gmail.com; Kumar, V., E-mail: susanta96@gmail.com [Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties of ZnGeAs{sub 2} semiconductor have been investigated using pseudopotential plane wave method within the density functional theory (DFT). The optimized lattice constants, energy gap and crystal field splitting parameter are calculated. The optical properties such as dielectric function, optical reflectivity,, extinction coefficient, absorption spectra, refractive index and electron energy loss spectrum have been studied. The values of bulk modulus (B), elastic constants (C{sub ij}), Young’s modulus (Y), Zener anisotropic factor (A), Poisson’s ratio (ν) and Debye temperature (Θ{sub D}) have been calculated. The calculated values of all these parameters are compared with the available experimental values and the values reported by different workers. A fairly good agreement has been found between them.

  19. Measurement of nuclear activity with Ge detectors and its uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes, C A P

    1999-01-01

    presented in the fifth chapter and they are applied to establish the optimum conditions for the measurement of the activity of a gamma transmitter isolated radioactive source with a spectrometer with germanium detector. (Author) The objective of this work is to analyse the influence magnitudes which affect the activity measurement of gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources. They prepared by means of the gravimetric method, as well as, determining the uncertainty of such measurement when this is carried out with a gamma spectrometer system with a germanium detector. This work is developed in five chapters: In the first one, named Basic principles it is made a brief description about the meaning of the word Measurement and its implications and the necessaries concepts are presented which are used in this work. In the second chapter it is exposed the gravimetric method used for the manufacture of the gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources, it is tackled the problem to determine the main influence ...

  20. Testing the Ge detectors for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, W; Aguayo, E; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Combs, D C; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fast, J E; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Gusev, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Hegai, A; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; MacMullin, J; MacMullin, S; Martin, R D; Meijer, S; Mertens, S; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Pushkin, K; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shanks, B; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Thompson, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Yakushev, E; Young, A R; Yu, C H; Yumatov, V

    2014-01-01

    High purity germanium (HPGe) crystals will be used for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, where they serve as both the source and the detector for neutrinoless double beta decay. It is crucial for the experiment to understand the performance of the HPGe crystals. A variety of crystal properties are being investigated, including basic properties such as energy resolution, efficiency, uniformity, capacitance, leakage current and crystal axis orientation, as well as more sophisticated properties, e.g. pulse shapes and dead layer and transition layer distributions. In this paper, we will present our measurements that characterize the HPGe crystals. We will also discuss our simulation package for the detector characterization setup, and show that additional information can be extracted from data-simulation comparisons.

  1. Cryogenic Semiconductor Detectors: Simulation of Signal Formation & Irradiation Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091318; Stamoulis, G; Vavougios, D

    The Beam Loss Monitoring system of the Large Hadron Collider is responsible for the pro- tection of the machine from damage and for the prevention of a magnet quench. Near the interaction points of the LHC, in the triplet magnets area, the BLMs are sensitive to the collision debris, limiting their ability to distinguish beam loss signal from signal caused due to the collision products. Placing silicon & diamond detectors inside the cold mass of the mag- nets, in liquid helium temperatures, would provide significant improvement to the precision of the measurement of the energy deposition in the superconducting coil of the magnet. To further study the signal formation and the shape of the transient current pulses of the aforementioned detectors in cryogenic temperatures, a simulation application has been developed. The application provides a fast way of determining the electric field components inside the detectors bulk and then introduces an initial charge distribution based on the properties of the radiat...

  2. Experimental characterization of semiconductor-based thermal neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Bortot, D.; Pola, A.; Introini, M.V.; Lorenzoli, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); INFN—Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gómez-Ros, J.M. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sacco, D. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); INAIL—DIT, Via di Fontana Candida 1, 00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Buonomo, B. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Palomba, M.; Grossi, A. [ENEA Triga RC-1C.R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00060 S. Maria di Galeria, Roma (Italy)

    2015-04-21

    In the framework of NESCOFI@BTF and NEURAPID projects, active thermal neutron detectors were manufactured by depositing appropriate thickness of {sup 6}LiF on commercially available windowless p–i–n diodes. Detectors with different radiator thickness, ranging from 5 to 62 μm, were manufactured by evaporation-based deposition technique and exposed to known values of thermal neutron fluence in two thermal neutron facilities exhibiting different irradiation geometries. The following properties of the detector response were investigated and presented in this work: thickness dependence, impact of parasitic effects (photons and epithermal neutrons), linearity, isotropy, and radiation damage following exposure to large fluence (in the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2})

  3. Organic semiconductors as real-time radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T., E-mail: tsuzuki@hep.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Miyata, H., E-mail: miyata@hep.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Katsumata, M. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Nakano, S.; Matsuda, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tamura, M. [Carlit Holdings Co., Ltd., Tokyo 104-0031 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the possibility of using π-conjugated organic semiconducting polymers as real-time radiation detectors was explored. Polyaniline (PAni) was used to fabricate radiation sensors because of its relative long-term stability in air. Each fabricated sensor was then subjected to irradiation by α- and β-particles, and the real-time response was measured. The multichannel analyzer (MCA) data of the response signal for each irradiation was acquired and the detection efficiency, relative to the electrode bias voltage of the detector, was extracted.

  4. Materials processing threshold report. 1: Semiconductor crystals for infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, E. V.; Thompson, T. R.; Nagler, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    An extensive search was performed of the open literature pertaining to infrared detectors to determine what constitutes a good detector and in what way performance is limited by specific material properties. Interviews were conducted with a number of experts in the field to assess their perceptions of the state of the art and of the utility of zero-gravity processing. Based on this information base and on a review of NASA programs in crystal growth and infrared sensors, NASA program goals were reassessed and suggestions are presented as to possible joint and divergent efforts between NASA and DOD.

  5. Direct Detection of sub-GeV Dark Matter with Semiconductor Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Essig, Rouven; Mardon, Jeremy; Soto, Adrian; Volansky, Tomer; Yu, Tien-Tien

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter in the sub-GeV mass range is a theoretically motivated but largely unexplored paradigm. Such light masses are out of reach for conventional nuclear recoil direct detection experiments, but may be detected through the small ionization signals caused by dark matter-electron scattering. Semiconductors are well-studied and are particularly promising target materials because their ${\\cal O}(1~\\rm{eV})$ band gaps allow for ionization signals from dark matter as light as a few hundred keV. Current direct detection technologies are being adapted for dark matter-electron scattering. In this paper, we provide the theoretical calculations for dark matter-electron scattering rate in semiconductors, overcoming several complications that stem from the many-body nature of the problem. We use density functional theory to numerically calculate the rates for dark matter-electron scattering in silicon and germanium, and estimate the sensitivity for upcoming experiments such as DAMIC and SuperCDMS. We find that the r...

  6. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, S; Campbell, M; Snoeys, W; Heijne, Erik H M; Pernigotti, E; Raine, C; Smith, K; Watt, J; O'Shea, V; Ludwig, J; Schwarz, C

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the OMEGA 3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  7. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolopoulos, S.; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Snoeys, W.; Heijne, E.; Pernigotti, E.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. E-mail: k.smith@physics.gla.ac.uk; Watt, J.; O' Shea, V.; Ludwig, J.; Schwarz, C

    1999-09-11

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the {omega}3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  8. Influence of backscattering on the spatial resolution of semiconductor X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoheisel, M.; Korn, A.; Giersch, J.

    2005-07-01

    Pixelated X-ray detectors using semiconductor layers or scintillators as absorbers are widely used in high-energy physics, medical diagnosis, or non-destructive testing. Their good spatial resolution performance makes them particularly suitable for applications where fine details have to be resolved. Intrinsic limitations of the spatial resolution have been studied in previous simulations. These simulations focused on interactions inside the conversion layer. Transmitted photons were treated as a loss. In this work, we also implemented the structure behind the conversion layer to investigate the impact of backscattering inside the detector setup. We performed Monte Carlo simulations with the program ROSI ( Roentgen Simulation) which is based on the well-established EGS4 algorithm. Line-spread functions of different fully implemented detectors were simulated. In order to characterize the detectors' spatial resolution, the modulation transfer functions (MTF) were calculated. The additional broadening of the line-spread function by carrier transport has been ignored in this work. We investigated two different detector types: a directly absorbing pixel detector where a semiconductor slab is bump-bonded to a readout ASIC such as the Medipix-2 setup with Si or GaAs as an absorbing semiconductor layer, and flat-panel detectors with a Se or a CsI converter. We found a significant degradation of the MTF compared to the case without backscattering. At energies above the K-edge of the backscattering material the spatial resolution drops and can account for the observed low-frequency drop of the MTF. Ignoring this backscatter effect might lead to misinterpretations of the charge sharing effect in counting pixel detectors.

  9. Quantum coherence in semiconductor nanostructures for improved lasers and detectors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Weng Wah Dr. (; .); Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Modine, Normand Arthur; Biefeld, Robert Malcolm

    2006-02-01

    The potential for implementing quantum coherence in semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical modeling suggests that coherent dynamics should be possible in self-assembled quantum dots. Our experimental efforts have optimized InGaAs and InAs self-assembled quantum dots on GaAs for demonstrating coherent phenomena. Optical investigations have indicated the appropriate geometries for observing quantum coherence and the type of experiments for observing quantum coherence have been outlined. The optical investigation targeted electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in order to demonstrate an all optical delay line.

  10. Fine-pitch semiconductor detector for the FOXSI mission

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takaaki; Watanabe, Shin; Odaka, Hirokazu; Fukuyama, Taro; Kokubun, Motohide; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Terada, Yukikatsu; Krucker, Sam; Christe, Steven; McBride, Steve; Glesener, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a NASA sounding rocket mission which will study particle acceleration and coronal heating on the Sun through high sensitivity observations in the hard X-ray energy band (5-15 keV). Combining high-resolution focusing X-ray optics and fine-pitch imaging sensors, FOXSI will achieve superior sensitivity; two orders of magnitude better than that of the RHESSI satellite. As the focal plane detector, a Double-sided Si Strip Detector (DSSD) with a front-end ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) will fulfill the scientific requirements of spatial and energy resolution, low energy threshold and time resolution. We have designed and fabricated a DSSD with a thickness of 500 {\\mu}m and a dimension of 9.6 mm x 9.6 mm, containing 128 strips with a pitch of 75 {\\mu}m, which corresponds to 8 arcsec at the focal length of 2 m. We also developed a low-noise ASIC specified to FOXSI. The detector was successfully operated in the laboratory at a temperature of -20 C and w...

  11. Physical characteristics of GE Senographe Essential and DS digital mammography detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Caterina; Borrini, Adriano; Ortenzia, Ornella; Rossi, Raffaella; Ordóñez, Pedro L

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate physical characteristics of two full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems (GE Senographe Essential and DS). Both are indirect conversion (x ray to light) alpha-Si flat panels coupled with a CsI(Tl) scintillator. The examined systems have the same pixel size (100 microm) but a different field of view: a conventional size 23 x 19.2 cm2 and a large field 24 X 30.7 cm2, specifically designed to image large breasts. In the GE Senographe Essential model relevant improvements in flat panel design were implemented and new deposition tools for metal, alpha-Si, and CsI(Tl) were introduced by GE. These changes in detector design are expected to be beneficial for advanced applications such as breast tomosynthesis. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for a wide range of exposure (25-240 microGy) with a RQA-M2 technique (28 kVp with a Mo/Mo target/filter combination and 2 mm of additional aluminum filtration). At 1, 2, and at 4 lp/mm MTF is equal to 0.9, 0.76, and 0.46 for the conventional field detector and to 0.85, 0.59, and 0.24 for the large field detector. The latter detector exhibits an improved NNPS due to a lower electronic noise and a better DQE that reaches 60%. In addition a contrast-detail analysis was performed with CDMAM 3.4 phantom and CDCOM software: GE Senographe DS showed statistically significant poorer detection ability in comparison with the GE Senographe Essential. These results could have been expected, at least qualitatively, considering the relative DQE of the two systems.

  12. The Impact of HC1 Precleaning and Sulfur Passivation on the Al2O3/Ge Interface in Ge Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Bai-Qing; CHANG Hu-Dong; SUN Bing; WANG Sheng-Kai; LIU Hong-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Surface treatment for Ge substrates using hydrogen chlorine cleaning and chemical passivation are investigated on AuTi/Al2O3/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. After hydrogen chlorine cleaning, a smooth Ge surface almost free from native oxide is demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations. Passivation using a hydrogen chlorine solution is found to form a chlorine-terminated surface, while aqueous ammonium sulfide pretreatment results in a surface terminated by Ge-S bonding. Compared with chlorine-passivated samples, the sulfur-passivated ones show less frequency dispersion and better thermal stability based on capacitance-voltage characterizations. The samples with HCl pre-cleaning and (NH4)2S passivation show less frequency dispersion than the HF pre-cleaning and (NH4)2S passivated ones. The surface treatment process using hydrogen chlorine cleaning followed by aqueous ammonium sulfide passivation demonstrates a promising way to improve gate dielectric/Ge interface quality.%Surface treatment for Ge substrates using hydrogen chlorine cleaning and chemical passivation are investigated on AuTi/Al2O3/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors.After hydrogen chlorine cleaning,a smooth Ge surface almost free from native oxide is demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations.Passivation using a hydrogen chlorine solution is found to form a chlorine-terminated surface,while aqueous ammonium sulfide pretreatment results in a surface terminated by Ge-S bonding.Compared with chlorine-passivated samples,the sulfur-passivated ones show less frequency dispersion and better thermal stability based on capacitance-voltage characterizations.The samples with HCl pre-cleaning and (NH4 )2S passivation show less frequency dispersion than the HF pre-cleaning and (NH4)2S passivated ones.The surface treatment process using hydrogen chlorine cleaning followed by aqueous ammonium sulfide

  13. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% – 35% and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  14. An investigation of performance characteristics of a pixellated room-temperature semiconductor detector for medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, P; Santos, A [Centro de Investigacion Biomedica de Bioningenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CEEI-Modulo 3, C/ Maria de Luna, 11, 50018 Zaragoza (United States); Darambara, D G, E-mail: pguerra@ciber-bbn.e [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-07

    The operation of any semiconductor detector depends on the movement of the charge carriers, which are created within the material when radiation passes through, as a result of energy deposition. The carrier movement in the bulk semiconductor induces charges on the metal electrodes, and therefore a current on the electrodes and the external circuit. The induced charge strongly depends on the material transport parameters as well as the geometrical dimensions of a pixellated semiconductor detector. This work focuses on the performance optimization in terms of energy resolution, detection efficiency and intrinsic spatial resolution of a room-temperature semiconductor pixellated detector based on CdTe/CdZnTe. It analyses and inter-relates these performance figures for various dimensions of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors and for an energy range spanning from x-ray (25 keV) to PET (511 keV) imaging. Monte Carlo simulations, which integrate a detailed and accurate noise model, are carried out to investigate several CdTe/CdZnTe configurations and to determine possible design specifications. Under the considered conditions, the simulations demonstrate the superiority of the CdZnTe over the CdTe in terms of energy resolution and sensitivity in the photopeak. Further, according to the results, the spatial resolution is maximized at high energies and the energy resolution at low energies, while a reasonable detection efficiency is achieved at high energies, with a 1 x 1 x 6 mm{sup 3} CdZnTe pixellated detector.

  15. X-ray measurement with Pin type semiconductor detectors; Medicion de rayos X con detectores de semiconductor tipo PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Electronica, C.P. 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Here are presented the experimental results of the applications of Pin type radiation detectors developed in a National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) project, in the measurement of low energy gamma and X-rays. The applications were oriented mainly toward the Medical Physics area. It is planned other applications which are in process of implementation inside the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. (Author)

  16. Ultrafast nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging on a new gamma camera with semiconductor detector technique: first clinical validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechel, Ronny R.; Herzog, Bernhard A.; Husmann, Lars; Burger, Irene A.; Pazhenkottil, Aju P.; Treyer, Valerie; Valenta, Ines; Schulthess, Patrick von; Nkoulou, Rene; Wyss, Christophe A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15

    To assess the diagnostic performance of a novel ultrafast cardiac gamma camera with cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) solid-state semiconductor detectors for nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The study group comprised 75 consecutive patients (55 men, BMI range 19-45 kg/m{sup 2}) who underwent a 1-day {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin adenosine-stress/rest imaging protocol. Scanning was performed first on a conventional dual-detector SPECT gamma camera (Ventri, GE Healthcare) with a 15-min acquisition time each for stress and rest. All scans were immediately repeated on an ultrafast CZT camera (Discovery 530 NMc, GE Healthcare) with a 3-min scan time for stress and a 2-min scan time for rest. Clinical agreement (normal, ischaemia, scar) between CZT and SPECT was assessed for each patient and for each coronary territory using SPECT MPI as the reference standard. Segmental myocardial tracer uptake values (percent of maximum) using a 20-segment model and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) values obtained using CZT were compared with those obtained using conventional SPECT by intraclass correlation and by calculating Bland-Altman limits of agreement. There was excellent clinical agreement between CZT and conventional SPECT on a per-patient basis (96.0%) and on a per-vessel territory basis (96.4%) as shown by a highly significant correlation between segmental tracer uptake values (r=0.901, p<0.001). Similarly, EF values for both scanners were highly correlated (r=0.976, p<0.001) with narrow Bland-Altman limits of agreement (-5.5-10.6%). The novel CZT camera allows a more than fivefold reduction in scan time and provides clinical information equivalent to conventional standard SPECT MPI. (orig.)

  17. The simulation of charge sharing in semiconductor X-ray pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Rahman, M; Smith, K M; Watt, J; Whitehill, C

    2002-01-01

    Two simulation packages were used to model the sharing of charge, due to the scattering and diffusion of carriers, between adjacent pixel elements in semiconductors X-ray detectors. The X-ray interaction and the consequent multiple scattering was modelled with the aid of the Monte Carlo package, MCNP. The resultant deposited charge distribution was then used to create the charge cloud profile in the finite element semiconductor simulation code MEDICI. The analysis of the current pulses induced on pixel electrodes for varying photon energies was performed for a GaAs pixel detector. For a pixel pitch of 25 mu m, the charge lost to a neighbouring pixel was observed to be constant, at 0.6%, through the energies simulated. Ultimately, a fundamental limit on the pixel element size for imaging and spectroscopic devices may be set due to these key physical principles.

  18. Investigation of efficient termination structure for improved breakdown properties of semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krizaj, D.; Resnik, D.; Vrtacnik, D.; Amon, S. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1998-06-01

    Efficiency of a new junction termination structure for improvement of breakdown properties of semiconductor radiation detectors is investigated. The structure consists of a diffused resistor winding around the active junction in a spiral fashion. The current flow through the spiral enables controlled potential distribution along the spiral turns and thus controlled depletion spreading from the main junction, efficiently preventing premature avalanche breakdown. Both multiple guard-ring structures and spiral junction termination structures have shown good breakdown properties typically three to five times higher than breakdown voltages of diodes without junction termination. The breakdown voltages of spiral junction termination structures are only weakly influenced by changes in substrate doping concentration caused by neutron irradiation. They can thus be considered for termination of future semiconductor radiation detectors.

  19. Analysis of defect formation in semiconductor cryogenic bolometric detectors created by heavy dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lazanu, Ionel; Lazanu, Sorina

    2012-01-01

    The cryogenic detectors in the form of bolometers are presently used for different applications, in particular for very rare or hypothetical events associated with new forms of matter, specifically related to the existence of Dark Matter. In the detection of particles with a semiconductor as target and detector, usually two signals are measured: ionization and heat. The amplification of the thermal signal is obtained with the prescriptions from Luke-Neganov effect. The energy deposited in the semiconductor lattice as stable defects in the form of Frenkel pairs at cryogenic temperatures, following the interaction of a dark matter particle, is evaluated and consequences for measured quantities are discussed. This contribution is included in the energy balance of the Luke effect. Applying the present model to germanium and silicon, we found that for the same incident weakly interacting massive particle the energy deposited in defects in germanium is about twice the value for silicon.

  20. Development of radiation tolerant semiconductor detectors for the Super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, M; Al-Ajili, A A; Alfieri, G; Allport, P P; Artuso, M; Assouak, S; Avset, B S; Barabash, L; Barcz, A; Bates, R; Biagi, S F; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Blue, A; Blumenau, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bondarenko, G B; Borchi, E; Borrello, L; Bortoletto, D; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Bowcock, T J V; Brodbeck, T J; Broz, J; Bruzzi, M; Brzozowski, A; Buda, M; Buhmann, P; Buttar, C; Campabadal, F; Campbell, D; Candelori, A; Casse, G; Cavallini, A; Charron, S; Chilingarov, A; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Coluccia, R; Contarato, D; Coutinho, J; Creanza, D; Cunningham, W; Betta, G F D; Dawson, I; de Boer, Wim; De Palma, M; Demina, R; Dervan, P; Dittongo, S; Dolezal, Z; Dolgolenko, A; Eberlein, T; Eremin, V; Fall, C; Fasolo, F; Fizzotti, F; Fleta, C; Focardi, E; Forton, E; Fretwurst, E; García, C; García-Navarro, J E; Gaubas, E; Genest, M H; Gill, K A; Giolo, K; Glaser, M; Gössling, C; Golovine, V; Sevilla, S G; Gorelov, I; Goss, J; Bates, A G; Grégoire, G; Gregori, P; Grigoriev, E; Grillo, A A; Groza, A; Guskov, J; Haddad, L; Härkönen, J; Hauler, F; Hoeferkamp, M; Honniger, F; Horazdovsky, T; Horisberger, Roland Paul; Horn, M; Houdayer, A; Hourahine, B; Hughes, G; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Irmscher, K; Ivanov, A; Jarasiunas, K; Johansen, K M H; Jones, B K; Jones, R; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kalinina, E; Kaminski, P; Karpenko, A; Karpov, A; Kazlauskiene, V; Kazukauskas, V; Khivrich, V; Khomenkov, V; Kierstead, J A; Klaiber Lodewigs, J; Klingenberg, R; Kodys, P; Kohout, Z; Korjenevski, S; Koski, M; Kozlowski, R; Kozodaev, M; Kramberger, G; Krasel, O; Kuznetsov, A; Kwan, S; Lagomarsino, S; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lastovetsky, V F; Latino, G; Lazanu, S; Lazanu, I; Lebedev, A; Lebel, C; Leinonen, K; Leroy, C; Li Z; Lindström, G; Linhart, V; Litovchenko, A P; Litovchenko, P G; Lo Giudice, A; Lozano, M; Luczynski, Z; Luukka, P; Macchiolo, A; Makarenko, L F; Mandic, I; Manfredotti, C; Manna, N; Garcia, S Mi; Marunko, S; Mathieson, K; Melone, J; Menichelli, D; Messineo, A; Metcalfe, J; Miglio, S; Mikuz, M; Miyamoto, J; Monakhov, E; Moscatelli, F; Naoumov, D; Nossarzhevska, E; Nysten, J; Olivero, P; OShea, V; Palviainen, T; Paolini, C; Parkes, C; Passeri, D; Pein, U; Pellegrini, G; Perera, L; Petasecca, M; Piemonte, C; Pignatel, G U; Pinho, N; Pintilie, I; Pintilie, L; Polivtsev, L; Polozov, P; Popa, A; Popule, J; Pospísil, S; Pozza, A; Radicci, V; Rafí, J M; Rando, R; Röder, R; Rohe, T; Ronchin, S; Rott, C; Roy, A; Ruzin, A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sakalauskas, S; Scaringella, M; Schiavulli, L; Schnetzer, S; Schumm, B; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Segneri, G; Seidel, S; Seiden, A; Sellberg, G; Sellin, P J; Sentenac, D; Shipsey, I; Sícho, P; Sloan, T; Solar, M; Son, S; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spencer, N; Stahl, J; Stolze, D; Stone, R; Storasta, J; Strokan, N; Sudzius, M; Surma, B; Suvorov, A; Svensson, B G; Tipton, P; Tomasek, M; Tsvetkov, A; Tuominen, E; Tuovinen, E; Tuuva, T; Tylchin, M; Uebersee, H; Uher, J; Ullán, M; Vaitkus, J V; Velthuis, J; Verbitskaya, E; Vrba, V; Wagner, G; Wilhelm, I; Worm, S; Wright, V; Wunstorf, R; Yiuri, Y; Zabierowski, P; Zaluzhny, A; Zavrtanik, M; Zen, M; Zhukov, V; Zorzi, N

    2005-01-01

    The envisaged upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN towards the Super-LHC (SLHC) with a 10 times increased luminosity of 10challenges for the tracking detectors of the SLHC experiments. Unprecedented high radiation levels and track densities and a reduced bunch crossing time in the order of 10ns as well as the need for cost effective detectors have called for an intensive R&D program. The CERN RD50 collaboration "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" is working on the development of semiconductor sensors matching the requirements of the SLHC. Sensors based on defect engineered silicon like Czochralski, epitaxial and oxygen enriched silicon have been developed. With 3D, Semi-3D and thin detectors new detector concepts have been evaluated and a study on the use of standard and oxygen enriched p-type silicon detectors revealed a promising approach for radiation tolerant cost effective devices. These and other most recent advancements of the RD50 ...

  1. HREM study on stacking structure of SiGe/Si infrared detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Stacking structure and defects in SiGe/P-Si infrared detector were studied by using localization high resolutionelectron microscopy (HREM). The photosensitive region in the detector consists of 3 P+-Si0.65 Ge0.35 layers and 2 UD-Si(undoped Si) layers. The interface between Si0.65 Ge0.35 and UD-Si is not sharp and has a transition zone with non-uniform contrast. The misfit stress of interface is distributed gradiently along the normal direction of the interface. Thereforethe crystal defects and serious lattice deformations on the interface have not been found. A defect area with a shape of in-verted triangle exists in the edge of photosensitive region. The main types of the defects in the area are stacking faults andmicrotwins. The stacking faults are on ( 1 11), and the thickness of the most microtwins is less than 4 interplanar spacingand the twin plane is (111). The Si0.65Ge0.35 and UD-Si layers on amorphous SiO2 layer consist of polycrystals grown byrandom nueleation, and are in wave

  2. Comparison of a pixelated semiconductor detector and a non-pixelated scintillation detector in pinhole SPECT system for small animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Koichi

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate a pixelated semiconductor detector and non-pixelated scintillation detector in a pinhole SPECT system for small animal imaging. We assumed two pixelated CdTe semiconductor detectors (a monolithic type and a modular type) and two non-pixelated NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors (a conventional type and a large detector field type). For the monolithic semiconductor detector we assumed that the size of a pixel was 1.0 × 1.0 mm², the thickness 1 mm, and an effective detector field 128 × 128 mm². For the modular-type semiconductor detector we assumed that the size of a pixel was 2.5 × 2.5 mm², the thickness 5 mm, and an effective detector field 320 × 320 mm². For the two scintillation detectors we assumed that the size of a pixel was 1.4 × 1.4 mm² and the intrinsic spatial resolution 4.0 mm FWHM, and the thickness 9 mm. For the conventional scintillation detector we assumed that the effective detector field was 179.2 × 179.2 mm², and for the large field scintillation detector 358.2 × 358.2 mm² and the magnification factor two. In the simulation we used a pinhole collimator with a pinhole size of 0.3 mm. We reconstructed SPECT images of hot-rod and cold-channel phantoms with projection data calculated with a Monte Carlo method assuming a fixed data acquisition time, and evaluated the image quality with respect to contrast and spatial resolution. In addition, we calculated the scatter fraction to compare the amount of scattered photons between the pixelated and non-pixelated detectors. The image quality of the modular-type pixelated detector was similar to that of the non-pixelated detector operated with a twofold magnified data acquisition. The scattered photons and the parallax effect in the pixelated detector were small and similar to those in the non-pixelated detector. The performance of a modular-type pixelated semiconductor detector was almost the same as that of a non-pixelated scintillation detector with a magnified

  3. 2010 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference, and Room Temperature Semiconductor Detectors Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nuclear Science Symposium (NSS) offers an outstanding opportunity for scientists and engineers interested or actively working in the fields of nuclear science, radiation instrumentation, software and their applications, to meet and discuss with colleagues from around the world. The program emphasizes the latest developments in technology and instrumentation and their implementation in experiments for space sciences, accelerators, other radiation environments, and homeland security. The Medical Imaging Conference (MIC) is the foremost international scientific meeting on the physics, engineering and mathematical aspects of nuclear medicine based imaging. As the field develops, multi-modality approaches are becoming more and more important. The content of the MIC reflects this, with a growing emphasis on the methodologies of X-ray, optical and MR imaging as they relate to nuclear imaging techniques. In addition, specialized topics will be addressed in the Short Courses and Workshops programs. The Workshop on Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detectors (RTSD) represents the largest forum of scientists and engineers developing new semiconductor radiation detectors and imaging arrays. Room-temperature solid-state radiation detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron radiation are finding increasing applications in such diverse fields as medicine, homeland security, astrophysics and environmental remediation. The objective of this workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the state of the art of material development for semiconductor, scintillator, and organic materials for detection, materials characterization, device fabrication and technology, electronics and applications.

  4. Recent advancements in the development of radiation hard semiconductor detectors for S-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fretwurst, E; Al-Ajili, A A; Alfieri, G; Allport, P P; Artuso, M; Assouak, S; Avset, B S; Barabash, L; Barcz, A; Bates, R; Biagi, S F; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Blue, A; Blumenau, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bondarenko, G B; Borchi, E; Borrello, L; Bortoletto, D; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Bowcock, T J V; Brodbeck, T J; Broz, J; Bruzzi, M; Brzozowski, A; Buda, M; Buhmann, P; Buttar, C; Campabadal, F; Campbell, D; Candelori, A; Casse, G; Cavallini, A; Charron, S; Chilingarov, A G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Coluccia, R; Contarato, D; Coutinho, J; Creanza, D; Cunningham, L; Dalla Betta, G F; Dawson, I; de Boer, Wim; De Palma, M; Demina, R; Dervan, P; Dittongo, S; Dolezal, Z; Dolgolenko, A; Eberlein, T; Eremin, V; Fall, C; Fasolo, F; Ferbel, T; Fizzotti, F; Fleta, C; Focardi, E; Forton, E; García, C; García-Navarro, J E; Gaubas, E; Genest, M H; Gill, K A; Giolo, K; Glaser, M; Gössling, C; Golovine, V; González-Sevilla, S; Gorelov,I; Goss, J; Gouldwell-Bates, A; Grégoire, G; Gregori, P; Grigoriev, E; Grillo, A A; Groza, A; Guskov, J; Haddad, L; Härkönen, J; Hauler, F; Hoeferkamp, M; Honniger, F; Horazdovsky, T; Horisberger, R P; Horn, M; Houdayer, A; Hourahine, B; Hughes, G; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Irmscher, K; Ivanov, A; Jarasiunas, K; Johansen, K M H; Jones, B K; Jones, R; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kalinina, E; Kaminski, P; Karpenko, A; Karpov, A; Kazlauskiene, V; Kazukauskas, V; Khivrich, V; Khomenkov, V P; Kierstead, J A; Klaiber Lodewigs, J M; Klingenberg, R; Kodys, P; Kohout, Z; Korjenevski, S; Koski, M; Kozlowski, R; Kozodaev, M; Kramberger, G; Krasel, O; Kuznetsov, A; Kwan, S; Lagomarsino, S; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lastovetsky, V F; Latino, G; Lazanu, I; Lazanu, S; Lebedev, A; Lebel, C; Leinonen, K; Leroy, C; Li, Z; Lindström, G; Linhart, V; Litovchenko, P G; Litovchenko, A P; Lo Giudice, A; Lozano, M; Luczynski, Z; Luukka, Panja; Macchiolo, A; Makarenko, L F; Mandic, I; Manfredotti, C; Manna, N; Martí i García, S; Marunko, S; Mathieson, K; Melone, J; Menichelli, D; Messineo, A; Metcalfe, J; Miglio, S; Mikuz, M; Miyamoto, J; Moll, M; Monakhov, E; Moscatelli, F; Naoumov, D; Nossarzhevska, E; Nysten, J; Olivero, P; O'Shea, V; Palviainen, T; Paolini, C; Parkes, C; Passeri, D; Pein, U; Pellegrini, G; Perera, L; Petasecca, M; Piemonte, C; Pignatel, G U; Pinho, N; Pintilie, I; Pintilie, L; Polivtsev, L; Polozov, P; Popa, A; Populea, J; Pospísil, S; Pozza, A; Radicci, V; Rafí, J M; Rando, R; Röder, R; Rohe, T; Ronchin, S; Rott, C; Roy, A; Ruzin, A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sakalauskas, S; Scaringella, M; Schiavulli, L; Schnetzer, S; Schumm, B; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Segneri, G; Seidela, S; Seiden, A; Sellberg, G; Sellin, P J; Sentenac, D; Shipsey, I; Sícho, P; Sloan, T; Solar, M; Son, S; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spencer, N; Stahl, J; Stolze, D; Stone, R; Storasta, J; Strokan, N; Sudzius, M; Surma, B; Suvorov, A; Svensson, B G; Tipton, P; Tomasek, M; Tsvetkov, A; Tuominen, E; Tuovinen, E; Tuuva, T; Tylchin, M; Uebersee, H; Uher, J; Ullán, M; Vaitkus, J V; Velthuis, J; Verbitskaya, E; Vrba, V; Wagner, G; Wilhelm, I; Worm, S; Wright, V; Wunstorf, R; Yiuri, Y; Zabierowski, P; Zaluzhny, A; Zavrtanik, M; Zen, M; Zhukov, V; Zorzi, N

    2005-01-01

    The proposed luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (S-LHC) at CERN will demand the innermost layers of the vertex detectors to sustain fluences of about 1016 hadrons/cm2. Due to the high multiplicity of tracks, the required spatial resolution and the extremely harsh radiation field new detector concepts and semiconductor materials have to be explored for a possible solution of this challenge. The CERN RD50 collaboration “Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders” has started in 2002 an R&D program for the development of detector technologies that will fulfill the requirements of the S-LHC. Different strategies are followed by RD50 to improve the radiation tolerance. These include the development of defect engineered silicon like Czochralski, epitaxial and oxygen-enriched silicon and of other semiconductor materials like SiC and GaN as well as extensive studies of the microscopic defects responsible for the degradation of irradiated sensors. Furthe...

  5. Scintillator-Lucite sandwich detector for n/gamma separation in the GeV energy region

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, H; Harada, E; Inoue, S; Inagaki, T; Kobayashi, S; Kurilin, A S; Lim, G Y; Ogawa, I; Okuno, H; Omata, K; Sato, T; Shinkawa, T; Tsamalaidze, Z; Tsukamoto, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2002-01-01

    A Scintillator-Lucite Sandwich Detector (SLSD) has been developed for n/gamma separation in the GeV energy region. An efficient n/gamma separation is achieved by measuring a correlation between the scintillation and Cherenkov light yields. The basic performance of the detector has been tested with e, pi and p beams with momenta between 0.5 and 2.0 GeV/c; the results were compared with a Monte-Carlo simulation. The n/gamma separation capability of this detector has been studied by simulations in the energy range from 5 MeV to 12 GeV. The SLSD detector was successfully used for a beam survey of the new K sub L sup 0 beam line built for a K sub L sup 0-> pi sup 0 nu nu-bar experiment at the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron.

  6. Temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals into fractal architectures and thermoelectric power properties in Au/Ge bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Quanbao; Wang Jian; Jiao Zheng [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wu Minghong, E-mail: mhwu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shek, Chan-Hung; Lawrence Wu, C.M.; Lai, Joseph K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chen Zhiwen, E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Ge fractal architectures were achieved by temperature-induced assembly. > The appearance of fractal architectures influences the thermoelectric power. > But it has little effect on the resistivity. > The values of the superlocalization exponent were within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29. > It was higher than expected for two-dimension fractal system. - Abstract: Fractal architectures of semiconductor nanocrystals were successfully achieved by temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals in gold/germanium (Au/Ge) bilayer films. New assessment strategies of fractal architectures are of fundamental importance in the development of micro/nano-devices. Temperature-dependent properties including resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) of Au/Ge bilayer films with self-similar fractal patterns were investigated in detail. Experimental results indicated that the microstructure of Au film plays an important role in the characteristics of Au/Ge bilayer films after annealing and the crystallization processes of amorphous Ge accompany by fractal formation of Ge nanocrystals via temperature-induced assembly. The appearance of fractal architectures has significantly influence on the TEP but little effect on the resistivity of the annealed bilayer film. By analysis of the data, we found that the values of superlocalization exponent are within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29, which are higher than expected for two-dimension fractal systems. The results provided possible evidence for the superlocalization on fractal architectures in Au/Ge bilayer films. The TEP measurements are considered a more effective method than the conductivity for investigating superlocalization in a percolating system.

  7. The study of response of wide band gap semiconductor detectors using the Geant4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Riaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy dependence on the intrinsic efficiency, absolute efficiency, full energy peak absolute efficiency and peak-to-total ratio have been studied for various wide band gap semiconductor detectors using the Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulations. The detector thickness of 1-4 mm and the area in 16-100 mm2 range were considered in this work. In excellent agreement with earlier work (Rybka et al., [20], the Geant4 simulated values of detector efficiencies have been found to decrease with incident g-ray energy. Both for the detector thickness and the detector area, the increasing trends have been observed for total efficiency as well as for full-energy peak efficiency in 0.1 MeV-50 MeV range. For Cd1-xZnxTe, the detector response remained insensitive to changes in relative proportions of Zn. For various wide band gap detectors studied in this work, the detection efficiency of TlBr was found highest over the entire range of energy, followed by the HgI2, CdTe, and then by CZT.

  8. Improvements to the Leake neutron detector II: Extension to 10 GeV energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, J. W.; Lowe, T.; Mason, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on an improved design of neutron ambient dose equivalent (DE) detector, SNS-LINUS, consisting of a spherical polyethylene detector with internal shields of boron and lead based on the LINUS model thus extending the response to the GeV region. The computed Monte Carlo neutron ambient DE energy response is within a factor ±2.4 from 0.1 keV to 10 GeV with a detector weight of 7.8 kg that is significantly lower than other LINUS designs. The ambient DE response in the 50 keV-10 MeV range is within a factor ±1.36 (i.e. ±30%). The main applications are likely to be around particle accelerators, in aircraft or in spacecraft. The improved response in the 20 MeV energy region should make it attractive for use with fission sources. The computed responses of the SNS NGREM and LINUS detectors to pulsed neutrons and limits for their prudent use in portable monitors in such fields are given. The effect of large gamma bursts on the measurement of pulsed neutrons is discussed with recommendations made to enable operation up to 10 μGy of gamma radiation per burst. We propose a method of extending the dynamic range for pulsed neutron detection in which the neutron decay within the moderator is used to make measurements at a time at which the count rate losses are acceptable.

  9. Precision Electron-Beam Polarimetry at 1 GeV Using Diamond Microstrip Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Narayan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the highest precision yet achieved in the measurement of the polarization of a low-energy, O(1  GeV, continuous-wave (CW electron beam, accomplished using a new polarimeter based on electron-photon scattering, in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. A number of technical innovations were necessary, including a novel method for precise control of the laser polarization in a cavity and a novel diamond microstrip detector that was able to capture most of the spectrum of scattered electrons. The data analysis technique exploited track finding, the high granularity of the detector, and its large acceptance. The polarization of the 180-μA, 1.16-GeV electron beam was measured with a statistical precision of <1% per hour and a systematic uncertainty of 0.59%. This exceeds the level of precision required by the Q_{weak} experiment, a measurement of the weak vector charge of the proton. Proposed future low-energy experiments require polarization uncertainty <0.4%, and this result represents an important demonstration of that possibility. This measurement is the first use of diamond detectors for particle tracking in an experiment. It demonstrates the stable operation of a diamond-based tracking detector in a high radiation environment, for two years.

  10. Improvements to the Leake neutron detector II: Extension to 10 GeV energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leake, J.W. [Sherwood Nutec Scientific, 23 Paddock Close, Wantage, Oxfordshire OX12 7EQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john5leake@vodafoneemail.co.uk; Lowe, T. [BAE Systems Ltd (United Kingdom); Mason, R.S. [Sherwood Nutec Scientific, 23 Paddock Close, Wantage, Oxfordshire OX12 7EQ (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-11

    We report on an improved design of neutron ambient dose equivalent (DE) detector, SNS-LINUS, consisting of a spherical polyethylene detector with internal shields of boron and lead based on the LINUS model thus extending the response to the GeV region. The computed Monte Carlo neutron ambient DE energy response is within a factor {+-}2.4 from 0.1 keV to 10 GeV with a detector weight of 7.8 kg that is significantly lower than other LINUS designs. The ambient DE response in the 50 keV-10 MeV range is within a factor {+-}1.36 (i.e. {+-}30%). The main applications are likely to be around particle accelerators, in aircraft or in spacecraft. The improved response in the 20 MeV energy region should make it attractive for use with fission sources. The computed responses of the SNS NGREM and LINUS detectors to pulsed neutrons and limits for their prudent use in portable monitors in such fields are given. The effect of large gamma bursts on the measurement of pulsed neutrons is discussed with recommendations made to enable operation up to 10 {mu}Gy of gamma radiation per burst. We propose a method of extending the dynamic range for pulsed neutron detection in which the neutron decay within the moderator is used to make measurements at a time at which the count rate losses are acceptable.

  11. Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

  12. Gamma-ray pulse height spectrum analysis on systems with multiple Ge detectors using spectrum summing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killian, E.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A technique has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to sum high resolution gamma-ray pulse spectra from systems with multiple Ge detectors. Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company operates a multi-detector spectrometer configuration at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant facility which is used to characterize the radionuclide contents in waste drums destined for shipment to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This summing technique was developed to increase the sensitivity of the system, reduce the count times required to properly quantify the radio-nuclides and provide a more consistent methodology for combining data collected from multiple detectors. In spectrometer systems with multiple detectors looking at non homogeneous waste forms it is often difficult to combine individual spectrum analysis results from each detector to obtain a meaningful result for the total waste container. This is particularly true when the counting statistics in each individual spectrum are poor. The spectrum summing technique adds the spectra collected by each detector into a single spectrum which has better counting statistics than each individual spectrum. A normal spectral analysis program can then be used to analyze the sum spectrum to obtain radio-nuclide values which have smaller errors and do not have to be further manipulated to obtain results for the total waste container. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Detection of fast neutrons from shielded nuclear materials using a semiconductor alpha detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T

    2014-08-01

    The response of a semiconductor alpha detector to fast (>1 MeV) neutrons was investigated by using measurements and simulations. A polyethylene converter was placed in front of the detector to register recoil protons generated by elastic collisions between neutrons and hydrogen nuclei of the converter. The developed prototype equipment was tested with shielded radiation sources. The low background of the detector and insensitivity to high-energy gamma rays above 1 MeV are advantages when the detection of neutron-emitting nuclear materials is of importance. In the case of a (252)Cf neutron spectrum, the intrinsic efficiency of fast neutron detection was determined to be 2.5×10(-4), whereas three-fold greater efficiency was obtained for a (241)AmBe neutron spectrum.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations for the optimisation of low-background Ge detector designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakenmueller, Janina; Heusser, Gerd; Maneschg, Werner; Schreiner, Jochen; Simgen, Hardy; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Strecker, Herbert; Weber, Marc; Westernmann, Jonas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Laubenstein, Matthias [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Via G. Acitelli 22, 67100 Assergi L' Aquila (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for the low-background Ge spectrometer Giove at the underground laboratory of MPI-K, Heidelberg, are presented. In order to reduce the cosmogenic background at the present shallow depth (15 m w.e.) the shielding of the spectrometer includes an active muon veto and a passive shielding (lead and borated PE layers). The achieved background suppression is comparable to Ge spectrometers operated in much greater depth. The geometry of the detector and the shielding were implemented using the Geant4-based toolkit MaGe. The simulations were successfully optimised by determining the correct diode position and active volume. With the help of the validated Monte Carlo simulation the contribution of the single components to the overall background can be examined. This includes a comparison between simulated results and measurements with different fillings of the sample chamber. Having reproduced the measured detector background in the simulation provides the possibility to improve the background by reverse engineering of the passive and active shield layers in the simulation.

  15. Electrical properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures with low-energy Ge-implanted and annealed thin gate oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, E.; Normand, P.; Holliger, P.

    2008-03-01

    The electrical characteristics of low-energy (3keV) Ge-implanted and, subsequently, thermal annealed SiO2 layers are investigated through capacitance-voltage (C-V ) and conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. Particular emphasis is placed on the properties of such gate oxides for memory applications. Capacitance measurements at flatband voltage before and after the application of constant voltage stress in the accumulation regime indicate that the charge trapping behavior of the devices undergoes a major change after annealing at temperatures higher than 910°C. The latter change is identified as a relocation of Ge atoms mainly toward the upper portion of the oxide with a significant fraction of them leaving the oxide; a finding in harmony with secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis. The interface trap density (Dit) for the thin (9-12nm) implanted oxides decreases with increasing annealing temperature, approaching at 950°C the Dit levels in the mid-1010eV-1cm-2 range of the nonimplanted samples. At elevated annealing temperatures (>1000°C), the device C-V characteristics are substantially disturbed. In this case, the presence of electrically active Ge atoms at an extended depth in the substrate modifies the intrinsic electrical properties of the n-Si substrate, lending a p-type conductivity character to the device high-frequency C-V curves. Substrate electrical modification is interpreted through a model that takes into account the formation of a SiO2/Ge-rich-Si /n-Si system. The SiO2/Ge-rich-Si interface presents very low Dit levels as revealed by conductance loss characteristics. The present study suggests that a combination of Ge implantation into SiO2 films and thermal annealing may be exploited in damage-free SiGe epitaxial growth technology based on Ge implantation.

  16. Detector development for Jefferson Lab’s 12 GeV Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Yi, E-mail: yqiang@jlab.org

    2015-05-01

    Jefferson Lab will soon finish its highly anticipated 12 GeV Upgrade. With doubled maximum energy, Jefferson Lab’s Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential, addressing important topics in nuclear, hadronic and electroweak physics. In order to take full advantage of the high energy, high luminosity beam, new detectors are being developed, designed and constructed to fit the needs of different physics topics. The paper will give an overview of various new detector technologies to be used for 12 GeV experiments. It will then focus on the development of two solenoid-based spectrometers, the GlueX and SoLID spectrometers. The GlueX experiment in Hall D will study the complex properties of gluons through exotic hybrid meson spectroscopy. The GlueX spectrometer, a hermetic detector package designed for spectroscopy and the associated partial wave analysis, is currently in the final stage of construction. Hall A, on the other hand, is developing the SoLID spectrometer to capture the 3D image of the nucleon from semi-inclusive processes and to study the intrinsic properties of quarks through mirror symmetry breaking. Such a spectrometer will have the capability to handle very high event rates while still maintaining a large acceptance in the forward region.

  17. Detection of secondary electrons with pixelated hybrid semiconductor detectors; Sekundaerelektronennachweis mit pixelierten hybriden Halbleiterdetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, Ulrike Sonja

    2011-09-14

    Within the scope of this thesis, secondary electrons were detected with a pixelated semiconductor detector named Timepix. The Timepix detector consists of electronics and a sensor made from a semiconductor material. The connection of sensor and electronics is done for each pixel individually using bump bonds. Electrons with energies above 3 keV can be detected with the sensor. One electron produces a certain amount of electron-hole pairs according to its energy. The charge then drifts along an electric field to the pixel electronics, where it induces an electric signal. Even without a sensor it is possible to detect an electric signal from approximately 1000 electrons directly in the pixel electronics. Two different detector systems to detect secondary electrons using the Timepix detector were investigated during this thesis. First of all, a hybrid photon detector (HPD) was used to detect single photoelectrons. The HPD consists of a vacuum vessel with an entrance window and a cesium iodine photocathode at the inner surface of the window. Photoelectrons are released from the photocathode by incident light and are accelerated in an electric field towards the Timepix detector, where the point of interaction and the arrival time of the electron is determined. With a proximity focusing setup, a time resolution of 12 ns (with an acceleration voltage of 20 kV between photocathode and Timepix detector) was obtained. The HPD examined in this thesis showed a strong dependence of the dark rate form the acceleration voltage and the pressure in the vacuum vessel. At a pressure of few 10{sup -5} mbar and an acceleration voltage of 20 kV, the dark rate was about 800 Hz per mm{sup 2} area of the read out photocathode. One possibility to reduce the dark rate is to identify ion feedback events. With a slightly modified setup it was possible to reduce the dark rate to 0.5 Hz/mm{sup 2}. To achieve this, a new photocathode was mounted in a shorter distance to the detector. The

  18. Optimizing the design and analysis of cryogenic semiconductor dark matter detectors for maximum sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyle, Matt Christopher [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we illustrate how the complex E- field geometry produced by interdigitated electrodes at alternating voltage biases naturally encodes 3D fiducial volume information into the charge and phonon signals and thus is a natural geometry for our next generation dark matter detectors. Secondly, we will study in depth the physics of import to our devices including transition edge sensor dynamics, quasi- particle dynamics in our Al collection fins, and phonon physics in the crystal itself so that we can both understand the performance of our previous CDMS II device as well as optimize the design of our future devices. Of interest to the broader physics community is the derivation of the ideal athermal phonon detector resolution and it's T3 c scaling behavior which suggests that the athermal phonon detector technology developed by CDMS could also be used to discover coherent neutrino scattering and search for non-standard neutrino interaction and sterile neutrinos. These proposed resolution optimized devices can also be used in searches for exotic MeV-GeV dark matter as well as novel background free searches for 8GeV light WIMPs.

  19. Perfluorocarbons and their use in Cooling Systems for Semiconductor Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Vacek, V; Ilie, S; Lindsay, S

    2000-01-01

    We report on the development of evaporative fluorocarbon cooling for the semiconductor pixel and micro-strip sensors of inner tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment at the future CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We proceeded with studies using perfluoro-n-propane (3M-"PFG 5030"; C3F8), perfluoro-n-butane (3M-"PFG 5040"; C4F10), trifluoro-iodo-methane (CF3I) and custom C3F8/C4F10 mixtures. Certain thermo-physical properties had to be verified for these fluids.

  20. Development of a novel 2D position-sensitive semiconductor detector concept

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F.J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I

    2012-01-01

    A novel 2D position-sensitive semiconductor detector concept has been developed employing resistive electrodes in a single-sided silicon microstrip sensor. The resistive charge division method has been implemented reading out each strip at both ends, in order to get the second coordinate of an ionizing event along the strips length. Two generations of prototypes, with different layout, have been produced and characterized using a pulsed near infra-red laser. The feasibility of the resistive charge division method in silicon microstrip detectors has been demonstrated and the possibility of single-chip readout of the device has been investigated. Experimental data were compared with the theoretical expectations and the electrical simulation of the sensor equivalent circuit coupled to simple electronics readout circuits. The agreement between experimental and simulation results validates the developed simulation as a tool for the optimization of future sensor prototypes.

  1. Characterization of a large CdZnTe coplanar quad-grid semiconductor detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Joachim; Gehre, Daniel; Hagner, Caren; Heidrich, Nadine; Klingenberg, Rainer; Kröninger, Kevin; Nitsch, Christian; Oldorf, Christian; Quante, Thomas; Rajek, Silke; Rebber, Henning; Rohatsch, Katja; Tebrügge, Jan; Temminghoff, Robert; Theinert, Robert; Timm, Jan; Wonsak, Björn; Zatschler, Stefan; Zuber, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The COBRA collaboration aims to search for neutrinoless double beta-decay of $^{116}$Cd. A demonstrator setup with 64 CdZnTe semiconductor detectors, each with a volume of 1cm$^3$, is currently being operated at the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy. This paper reports on the characterization of a large (2 $\\times$ 2 $\\times$ 1.5)cm$^3$ CdZnTe detector with a new coplanar-grid design for applications in $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy and low-background operation. Several studies of electric properties as well as of the spectrometric performance, like energy response and resolution, are conducted. Furthermore, measurements including investigating the operational stability and a possibility to identify multiple-scattered photons are presented.

  2. Very Low-Power Consumption Analog Pulse Processing ASIC for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessendorf, K.O.; Lund, J.C.; Brunett, B.A.; Laguna, G.R.; Clements, J.W.

    1999-08-23

    We describe a very-low power consumption circuit for processing the pulses from a semiconductor radiation detector. The circuit was designed for use with a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector for unattended monitoring of stored nuclear materials. The device is intended to be battery powered and operate at low duty-cycles over a long period of time. This system will provide adequate performance for medium resolution gamma-ray pulse-height spectroscopy applications. The circuit incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive preamplifier, shaping amplifier, and peak sample and hold circuit. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) version of the design has been designed, built and tested. With the exception of the input field effect transistor (FET), the circuit is constructed using bipolar components. In this paper the design philosophy and measured performance characteristics of the circuit are described.

  3. A HEMT-Based Cryogenic Charge Amplifier with sub-100 eVee Ionization Resolution for Massive Semiconductor Dark Matter Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A; Sadoulet, B; Serfass, B; Jin, Y

    2016-01-01

    We present the design and noise performance of a fully cryogenic (T=4 K) HEMT-based charge amplifier for readout of massive semiconductor dark matter detectors operating at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The amplifier has been developed to allow direct detection experiments such as CDMS and EDELWEISS to probe WIMP masses below 10 GeV/$c^2$ while retaining electromagnetic background discrimination. The amplifier dissipates only 1 mW of power and has a measured noise performance three times better than traditional JFET-based charge amplifiers. The predicted optimal filter baseline ionization energy resolution using the measured intrinsic amplifier noise performance and typical detector characteristics is $\\sigma_E \\approx 100 \\,\\text{eV}_{ee}$ (33 electrons). We have measured a calibrated baseline energy resolution of $\\sigma_E = 91\\,\\text{eV}_{ee}$ when coupled to a live CDMS II detector. To our knowledge, this is the best resolution achieved on such massive ($\\approx$150 pF capacitance) radiation detectors.

  4. First look at Gamma-ray background lines in the SPI Ge detector spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderer, C. B.; Weidenspointner, G.; Cordier, B.; Diehl, R.; Jean, P.; v. Kienlin, A.; Knoedlseder, J.; Leleux, P.; Lichti, G.; Roques, J.-P.; Schanne, S.; Schoenfelder, V.; Shrader, C.; Skinner, G.; Strong, A.; Sturner, S.; Teegarden, B.; Vedrenne, G.

    2003-03-01

    ESA's INTEGRAL observatory has been launched successfully on October 17, 2002. Since November 2002, the 19 Ge detectors comprising the camera of one of its main instruments, the Spectrometer SPI, have been recording data. They cover the energy range from ˜ 20 keV to ˜ 8 MeV. The spectrometer is particularly suited to the observations of gamma-ray line emission from astrophysical objects of interest. However, since many astrophysically interesting lines have energies very close to energies of some instrumental background lines, and since some astrophysically interesting radioactive isotopes are also produced within spacecraft and instrument materials by cosmic-ray activation, a detailed study of the gamma-ray background lines seen with the SPI Ge detectors is necessary. We present the first steps taken towards understanding the line components of the gamma-ray background observed with SPI. This includes both isotope identification and preliminary studies of temporal variations. Emphasis is placed on the energy regions of particular interest to astrophysics, especially around the 60Fe and 26Al lines. Preliminary sensitivity estimates for some astrophysically interesting lines will also be presented. This work has been supported by the DLR.

  5. Development and characterization of the lead iodide semiconductor detector; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao do detector semicondutor de iodeto de chumbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Icimone Braga de

    2001-07-01

    A methodology for purification and growth of PbI{sub 2} crystal as well as for its characterization as a room temperature radiation detector was developed in this work. Commercial salts were purified using the zone refining method and, for the purified material growth, the Bridgman method was used. To calculate the purification efficiency, studies of the decrease impurities concentrations were made in the salts and in three sections of the materials purified, using the neutron activation analysis technique. The results showed that the impurities segregate preferentially in the ingot final section. A significant decrease of the impurities concentration in function of the purification pass number was observed. The grown crystals presented good crystalline quality according to the results of the X-ray diffraction analysis. To evaluate the crystal as a semiconductor detector, measurements of dark leakage current, resistivity and the response of ({sup 241}Am) alpha particle and ({sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 137}Cs) gamma rays were carried out. The radiation response is strongly dependent on the crystals purity. The crystals purified with 500 passes exhibited energy resolution of 10% for {sup 241} Am alpha particle and the gamma rays resolution was compatible with the literature. The photosensibility of the PbI{sub 2} crystal found in the wavelength from 400 to 600 nm range suggests an another application at this crystal as a photodetector to be coupled to scintillators. (author)

  6. Electrical-modelling, design and simulation of cumulative radiation effects in semiconductor pixels detectors: prospects and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Fourches, Nicolas T; Chipaux, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    Silicon detectors have gained in popularity since silicon became a widely used micro/nanoelectronic semiconductor material. Silicon detectors are used in particle physics as well as imaging for pixel based detecting systems. Over the past twenty years a lot of experimental efforts have been focused on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on silicon pixels. Some of this research was done in the framework of high luminosity particle physics experiments, along with radiation hardness studies of basic semiconductors devices. In its simplest form the semiconductor pixel detectors reduce to a PIN or PN structure partially or totally depleted, or in some MOS and APD (Avalanche PhotoDiode) structures. Bulk or surface defects affect considerably transport of free carriers. We propose guidelines for pixel design, which will be tested through a few pixel structures. This design method includes into the design the properties of defects. The electrical properties reduce to parameters, which can be introduced...

  7. Elemental boron-doped p(+)-SiGe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for infrared detector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.

  8. Recent advances in Tl Br, Cd Te and CdZnTe semiconductor radiation detectors: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Icimone B. [Universidade Bandeirante (UNIBAN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The success in the development of radiation spectrometers operating at room temperature is based on many years of effort on the part of large numbers of workers around the world. These individuals have contributed to the understanding of the fundamental materials issues associated with the growth of semiconductors for this application, the development of device fabrication and processing technology, and advances in low noise electronics and pulse processing. Progress in this field continues at an accelerated pace, as in evidenced by the improvements in detector performance and by the growing number of commercial products. Thus, the last years have been seen continued effort in the development of room temperature compound semiconductors devices. High-Z compound semiconductor detectors has been explored for high energy resolution, high detection efficiency and are of low cost. Compound semiconductors detectors are well suited for addressing needs of demanding applications such as bore hole logging where high operating temperature are encountered. In this work recent developments in semiconductors detectors were reviewed. This review concentrated on thallium bromide (TlBr), cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) crystals detectors. TlBr has higher stopping power compared to common semiconductor materials because it has the higher photoelectric and total attenuation coefficients over wide energy range from 100 keV to 1 MeV. CdTe and CdZnTe detectors have several attractive features for detecting X-ray and low energy gamma ray. Their relatively large band gaps lead to a relatively low leakage current and offer an excellent energy resolution at room temperature. A literature survey and bibliography was also included. (author)

  9. Studies of Hadronic Event Structure in $e^+ e^-$ Annihilation from 30 GeV to 209 GeV with the L3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    In this Report, QCD results obtained from a study of hadronic event structure in high energy e^+e^- interactions with the L3 detector are presented. The operation of the LEP collider at many different collision energies from 91 GeV to 209 GeV offers a unique opportunity to test QCD by measuring the energy dependence of different observables. The main results concern the measurement of the strong coupling constant, \\alpha_s, from hadronic event shapes and the study of effects of soft gluon coherence through charged particle multiplicity and momentum distributions.

  10. Measurements with a Ge detector and Monte Carlo computations of dose rate yields due to cosmic muons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Silva, J

    2003-02-01

    The present work shows how portable Ge detectors can be useful for measurements of the dose rate due to ionizing cosmic radiation. The methodology proposed converts the cosmic radiation induced background in a Ge crystal (energy range above 3 MeV) to the absorbed dose rate due to muons, which are responsible for 75% of the cosmic radiation dose rate at sea level. The key point is to observe in the high energy range (above 20 MeV) the broad muon peak resulting from the most probable energy loss of muons in the Ge detector. An energy shift of the muon peak was observed, as expected, for increasing dimensions of three Ge crystals (10%, 20%, and 70% efficiency). Taking into account the dimensions of the three detectors the location of the three muon peaks was reproduced by Monte Carlo computations using the GEANT code. The absorbed dose rate due to muons has been measured in 50 indoor and outdoor locations at Thessaloniki, the second largest town of Greece, with a portable Ge detector and converted to the absorbed dose rate due to muons in an ICRU sphere representing the human body by using a factor derived from Monte Carlo computations. The outdoor and indoor mean muon dose rate was 25 nGy h(-1) and 17.8 nGy h(-1), respectively. The shielding factor for the 40 indoor measurements ranges from 0.5 to 0.9 with a most probable value between 0.7-0.8.

  11. Background rejection capabilities of a Compton imaging telescope setup with a DSSD Ge planar detector and AGATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doncel, M., E-mail: doncel@usal.es [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Quintana, B. [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Gadea, A. [IFIC Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Recchia, F.; Farnea, E. [INFN sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2011-08-21

    In this work, we show the first Monte Carlo results about the performance of the Ge array which we propose for the DESPEC experiment at FAIR, when the background algorithm developed for AGATA is applied. The main objective of our study is to characterize the capabilities of the {gamma}-spectroscopy system, made up of AGATA detectors in a semi-spherical distribution covering a 1{pi} solid angle and a set of planar Ge detectors in a daisy configuration, to discriminate between {gamma} sources placed at different locations.

  12. As doping of Si-Ge-Sn epitaxial semiconductor materials on a commercial CVD reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Nupur; Margetis, Joe; Tolle, John

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present the As doping, via AsH3, of Ge1-x Sn x and SiyGe1-y-x Sn x alloys grown in a commercial RPCVD reactor. The composition, thickness, and resistivity of the layers were measured for varying AsH3 flows and AsH3 growth kinetics was discussed. We find that the addition of As to the lattice induces compressive strain in the layer despite a smaller covalent radius relative to Ge and Sn. N-type dopant incorporation and activation is compared for AsH3 and PH3-based processes, and we find that As incorporates more efficiently than P. As concentrations > 2 × 1020 cm-3 were achieved for both Ge1-x Sn x and SiyGe1-y-x Sn x with resistivity as low as 0.6 mΩ cm.

  13. Measurement of 15 MeV gamma-rays with the Ge cluster detectors of EUROBALL

    CERN Document Server

    Million, B; Camera, F; Brambilla, S; Gadea, A; Giugni, D; Herskind, B; Kmiecik, M; Isocrate, R; Leoni, S; Maj, A; Prelz, F; Wieland, O

    2000-01-01

    A measurement of the response to 15.1 MeV gamma-rays has been made for the Ge cluster detectors in the EUROBALL array. Each cluster detector consists of seven germanium capsules surrounded by a single anticompton shield of BGO. The reaction D( sup 1 sup 1 B,gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C+n at E sub b sub e sub a sub m =19.1 MeV has been employed. The 'adding-back' of signals simultaneously present in the capsules composing each cluster detector has been made on an event by event basis. The intensity in full-energy peak increases by a factor of three as compared to that of the spectrum obtained by summing the individual spectra of the 7 capsules. The pulse height to energy conversion is found to be very linear from few hundreds keV to 15 MeV. The efficiency is discussed relative to that of large volume BaF sub 2 scintillators.

  14. Ether-like Si-Ge hydrides for applications in synthesis of nanostructured semiconductors and dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jesse B; Weng, Change; Tolle, John; D'Costa, Vijay R; Singh, Rachna; Menendez, Jose; Kouvetakis, John; Chizmeshya, Andrew V G

    2009-09-14

    Hydrolysis reactions of silyl-germyl triflates are used to produce ether-like Si-Ge hydride compounds including H(3)SiOSiH(3) and the previously unknown O(SiH(2)GeH(3))(2). The structural, energetic and vibrational properties of the latter were investigated by experimental and quantum chemical simulation methods. A combined Raman, infrared and theoretical analysis indicated that the compound consists of an equal mixture of linear and gauche isomers in analogy to the butane-like H(3)GeSiH(2)SiH(2)GeH(3) with an exceedingly small torsional barrier of approximately 0.2 kcal mol(-1). This is also corroborated by thermochemistry simulations which indicate that the energy difference between the isomers is less than 1 kcal mol(-1). Proof-of-principle depositions of O(SiH(2)GeH(3))(2) at 500 degrees C on Si(100) yielded nearly stoichiometric Si(2)Ge(2)O materials, closely reflecting the composition of the molecular core. A complete characterization of the film by RBS, XTEM, Raman and IR ellipsometry revealed the presence of Si(0.30)Ge(0.70) quantum dots embedded within an amorphous matrix of Si-Ge-O suboxide, as required for the fabrication of high performance nonvolatile memory devices. The use of readily available starting materials coupled with facile purification and high yields also makes the above molecular approach an attractive synthesis route to H(3)SiOSiH(3) with industrial applications in the formation of Si-O-N high-k gate materials in high-mobility SiGe based transistors.

  15. Rich detector with a sodium fluoride radiator: /K identification up to 3 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R.; Guyonnet, J.L.; Giomataris, Y.; Petroff, P.; Seguinot, J.; Tocqueville, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1988-12-15

    The use of a single crystal of sodium fluoride (NaF) as a Cherenkov radiator has been investigated. Its transparency has been measured and found to be good for photon energies below 9.6 eV. Data on its index of refraction are well fitted to a single-pole Sellmeier resonance formula. These data allow a realistic Monte Carlo simulation of a proximity-focused ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system. The photon detector is a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) with pad readout. The photosensitive gases considered are tetrakis(dimethylamine)ethylene (TMAE) and triethylamine (TEA). The simulation shows that a system having 10 cm radial thickness and 12% of a radiation length of material would identify pions and kaons below 3 GeV/c momentum. The pad dimensions required are about 5 mm x 5 mm.

  16. Application of multiparameter coincidence spectrometry using a Ge detectors array to neutron activation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsukawa, Y; Hayakawa, T; Toh, Y; Shinohara, N

    2002-01-01

    The method of multiparameter coincidence spectrometry based on gamma-gamma coincidence is widely used for the nuclear structure studies, because of its high sensitivity to gamma-rays. In this study, feasibility of the method of multiparameter coincidence spectrometry for analytical chemistry was examined. Two reference igneous rock samples (JP-1, JB-1a) issued by the Geological Survey of Japan were irradiated at a research reactor, and the gamma-rays from the radioisotopes produced via neutron capture reactions were measured using an array of 12 Ge detectors with BGO Compton suppressors, GEMINI. Simultaneously 24 elements were analyzed without chemical separation. The observed smallest component was Eu contained in JP-1 with abundance of 4 ppb.

  17. Basic processes and scintillator and semiconductor detectors; Des processus de base aux detecteurs scintillateurs et semi-conducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire]|[Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the following course, the interaction of heavy charged particles, electrons and {Gamma} with matter is represented. Two types of detectors are studied, organic and inorganic scintillators and semiconductors. The signal formation is analysed. (author). 13 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Summer program Report : Quality control and Aging study for the GE1/1 detectors in CMS Muon endcap upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, Adithya

    2017-01-01

    In this report, I summarize the work I did during my tenure in the Summer program. The project started with conducting three quality controls -- gas leak test, High Voltage test and Gas gain test. These are necessary to check if the GE1/1 detectors pass the requirements necessary for its deployment in the CMS. Then, I explain how aging study of the detectors was conducted and how the data was analyzed to ascertain if the detector has undergone aging. Lastly, the ongoing process of setting up a further accelerated aging study within the GEM lab is explained, with some potential difficulties associated with it.

  19. Mathematical calibration of Ge detectors, and the instruments that use them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, F.L.; Young, B. [Canberra Industries, Meriden, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Efficiency calibrations for Ge detectors are typically done with the use of multiple energy calibrations sources which are added to a bulk matrix intended to simulate the measurement sample, and then deposited in the sample container. This is rather easy for common laboratory samples. Bu, even there, for many environmental samples, waste assay samples, and operational health physics samples, accurate calibrations are difficult. For these situations, various mathematical corrections or direct calibration techniques are used at Canberra. EML has pioneered the use of mathematical calibrations following source-based detector characterization measurements for in situ measurements of environmental fallout. Canberra has expanded this by the use of MCNP for the source measurements required in EML. For other calibration situations, MCNP was used directly, as the primary calibration method. This is demonstrated to be at least as accurate as source based measurements, and probably better. Recently, a new method [ISOCS] has been developed and is nearing completion. This promises to be an easy to use calibration software that can be used by the customer for in situ gamma spectroscopy to accurately measure many large sized samples, such as boxes, drums, pipes, or to calibrate small laboratory-type samples. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Preparation of Si sub 1 sub - sub x sub - sub y Ge sub x C sub y semiconductor films on Si by ion implantation and solid phase epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Xue Qin; Zhen Cong Mian; Zhang Jing; Yang Yi; Guo Yong

    2002-01-01

    Si sub 1 sub - sub x sub - sub y Ge sub x C sub y ternary alloy semiconductor films were prepared on Si(100) substrates by C ion implanting SiGe films and subsequent solid phase epitaxy (SPE). Two-step annealing technique was employed in the SPE processing. The properties of the alloy films were determined using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. It is shown that C atoms are located at substitutional sites and the incorporation of C relieves the compressive strain in the SiGe layer

  1. Fast front-end electronics for semiconductor tracking detectors: Trends and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    In the past few years, extensive research efforts pursued by both the industry and the academia have lead to major improvements in the performance of Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Time to Digital Converters (TDCs). ADCs achieving 8-10 bit resolution, 50-100 MHz conversion frequency and less than 1 mW power consumption are the today's standard, while TDCs have reached sub-picosecond time resolution. These results have been made possible by architectural upgrades combined with the use of ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies with minimum feature size of 130 nm or smaller. Front-end ASICs in which a prompt digitization is followed by signal conditioning in the digital domain can now be envisaged also within the tight power budget typically available in high density tracking systems. Furthermore, tracking detectors embedding high resolution timing capabilities are gaining interest. In the paper, ADC's and TDC's developments which are of particular relevance for the design front-end electronics for semiconductor trackers are discussed along with the benefits and challenges of exploiting such high performance building blocks in implementing the next generation of ASICs for high granularity particle detectors.

  2. Fast front-end electronics for semiconductor tracking detectors: Trends and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivetti, Angelo

    2014-11-21

    In the past few years, extensive research efforts pursued by both the industry and the academia have lead to major improvements in the performance of Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Time to Digital Converters (TDCs). ADCs achieving 8–10 bit resolution, 50–100 MHz conversion frequency and less than 1 mW power consumption are the today's standard, while TDCs have reached sub-picosecond time resolution. These results have been made possible by architectural upgrades combined with the use of ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies with minimum feature size of 130 nm or smaller. Front-end ASICs in which a prompt digitization is followed by signal conditioning in the digital domain can now be envisaged also within the tight power budget typically available in high density tracking systems. Furthermore, tracking detectors embedding high resolution timing capabilities are gaining interest. In the paper, ADC's and TDC's developments which are of particular relevance for the design front-end electronics for semiconductor trackers are discussed along with the benefits and challenges of exploiting such high performance building blocks in implementing the next generation of ASICs for high granularity particle detectors.

  3. Microstructure and magnetic behavior of Mn doped GeTe chalcogenide semiconductors based phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Adam Abdalla Elbashir; Cheng, Xiaomin; Abuelhassan, Hassan H.; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2017-06-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) are the most promising candidates to be used as an active media in the universal data storage and spintronic devices, due to their large differences in physical properties of the amorphous-crystalline phase transition behavior. In the present study, the microstructure, magnetic and electrical behaviors of Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film were investigated. The crystallographic structure of Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film was studied sing X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM). The XRD pattern showed that the crystallization structure of the film was rhombohedral phase for GeTe with a preference (202) orientation. The HR-TEM image of the crystalline Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film demonstrated that, there were two large crystallites and small amorphous areas. The magnetization as a function of the magnetic field analyses of both amorphous and crystalline states showed the ferromagnetic hysteretic behaviors. Then, the hole carriers concentration of the film was measured and it found to be greater than 1021 cm-3 at room temperature. Moreover, the anomalous of Hall Effect (AHE) was clearly observed for the measuring temperatures 5, 10 and 50 K. The results demonstrated that the magnitude of AHE decreased when the temperature was increasing.

  4. Re-evaluation of Galileo Energetic Particle Detector data - a correction model and comparison to semiconductor detector dead-layer sensitivity losses using SRIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Payne, Zoe Hannah

    2016-10-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector launched in 1989 on the Galileo satellite took data on the Jovian Particle environment for 8 years before its demise. Over the course of the mission the detectors in the Composition Measurement System (CMS) have visibly decayed with higher mass particles, specifically oxygen and sulphur, reading far lower energies at later epochs. By considering the non-steady accumulation of damage in the detector, as well as the operation of the priority channel data recording system in place on the EPD, an evolving correction can be made. The recalibration significance can be validated using a model of dead layer build-up in semiconductor detectors, based on SRIM results. The final aim is to assign an estimation dead-layer depth during the mission data recordings.

  5. Combining experiment and optical simulation in coherent X-ray nanobeam characterization of Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilka, J. A.; Park, J.; Ahn, Y.; Pateras, A.; Sampson, K. C.; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Evans, P. G., E-mail: pgevans@wisc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Prance, J. R.; Simmons, C. B.; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Holt, M. V. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    The highly coherent and tightly focused x-ray beams produced by hard x-ray light sources enable the nanoscale characterization of the structure of electronic materials but are accompanied by significant challenges in the interpretation of diffraction and scattering patterns. X-ray nanobeams exhibit optical coherence combined with a large angular divergence introduced by the x-ray focusing optics. The scattering of nanofocused x-ray beams from intricate semiconductor heterostructures produces a complex distribution of scattered intensity. We report here an extension of coherent x-ray optical simulations of convergent x-ray beam diffraction patterns to arbitrary x-ray incident angles to allow the nanobeam diffraction patterns of complex heterostructures to be simulated faithfully. These methods are used to extract the misorientation of lattice planes and the strain of individual layers from synchrotron x-ray nanobeam diffraction patterns of Si/SiGe heterostructures relevant to applications in quantum electronic devices. The systematic interpretation of nanobeam diffraction patterns from semiconductor heterostructures presents a new opportunity in characterizing and ultimately designing electronic materials.

  6. Combining experiment and optical simulation in coherent X-ray nanobeam characterization of Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilka, J. A.; Park, J.; Ahn, Y.; Pateras, A.; Sampson, K. C.; Savage, D. E.; Prance, J. R.; Simmons, C. B.; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.; Lagally, M. G.; Holt, M. V.; Evans, P. G.

    2016-07-01

    The highly coherent and tightly focused x-ray beams produced by hard x-ray light sources enable the nanoscale characterization of the structure of electronic materials but are accompanied by significant challenges in the interpretation of diffraction and scattering patterns. X-ray nanobeams exhibit optical coherence combined with a large angular divergence introduced by the x-ray focusing optics. The scattering of nanofocused x-ray beams from intricate semiconductor heterostructures produces a complex distribution of scattered intensity. We report here an extension of coherent x-ray optical simulations of convergent x-ray beam diffraction patterns to arbitrary x-ray incident angles to allow the nanobeam diffraction patterns of complex heterostructures to be simulated faithfully. These methods are used to extract the misorientation of lattice planes and the strain of individual layers from synchrotron x-ray nanobeam diffraction patterns of Si/SiGe heterostructures relevant to applications in quantum electronic devices. The systematic interpretation of nanobeam diffraction patterns from semiconductor heterostructures presents a new opportunity in characterizing and ultimately designing electronic materials.

  7. Status of radiation damage measurements in room temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, L.A.; James, R.B.

    1998-04-01

    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) is reviewed for the purpose of determining their applicability to space applications. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3 MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 10{sup 10} p/cm{sup 2} and significant bulk leakage after 10{sup 12} p/cm{sup 2}. CZT exposed to 200 MeV protons shows a two-fold loss in energy resolution after a fluence of 5 {times} 10{sup 9} p/cm{sup 2} in thick (3 mm) planar devices but little effect in 2 mm devices. No energy resolution effects were noted from moderated fission spectrum neutrons after fluences up to 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2}, although activation was evident. CT detectors show resolution losses after fluences of 3 {times} 10{sup 9} p/cm{sup 2} at 33 MeV for chlorine-doped detectors. Indium doped material may be more resistant. Neutron exposures (8 MeV) caused resolution losses after fluences of 2 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2}. Mercuric iodide has been studied with intermediate energy protons (10 to 33 MeV) at fluences up to 10{sup 12} p/cm{sup 2} and with 1.5 GeV protons at fluences up to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 8} p/cm{sup 2}. Neutron exposures at 8 MeV have been reported at fluences up to 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}. No radiation damage was found under these irradiation conditions.

  8. A comparative study of IR Ge photodiodes with a Schottky barrier contact and metal-semiconductor-metal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurelbaatar, Zagarzusem; Kil, Yeonho; Lee, Hunki; Yang, Jonghan; Kang, Sukill; Kim, Taeksung; Shim, Kyuhwan [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report the characterization of germanium (Ge) infrared photodiodes fabricated with a Schottky barrier contact and a interdigitated metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure with gold electrodes on n-Ge substrates. The current-volage (I-V) characteristics were studied, and parameters such as the ideality factor and the barrier height of the Schottky contacts were extracted. Furthemore, we estimated the dark current and the photocurrent under illumination with λ = 1550 nm light, and we measured the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and the dependence of the responsivity on the bias voltage of both photodiodes at room temperature. The dark currents of the Schottky and the MSM photodiodes were ∼ 20.2 μA and ∼ 26.0 μA under .1 V bias and .2 V bias, respectively. In addition, the reverse breakdown voltage was high, in excess of ∼ -30 V. The Schottky barrier height was deduced to be 0.546 eV. A maximum responsivity of 0.27 A/W was achieved under illumination with λ = 1550 nm light at a 2-V bias. A typical peak was observed at a wavelength of 1600 nm, and a high responsivity was observed in the wavelength range from 1200 to 1800 nm.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2015-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al2O3 and HfO2. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO3), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO{sub 3}), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  11. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES MEXTRAM model based SiGe HBT large-signal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Han; Shoulin, Li; Jiali, Cheng; Qiuyan, Yin; Jianjun, Gao

    2010-10-01

    An improved large-signal equivalent-circuit model for SiGe HBTs based on the MEXTRAM model (level 504.5) is proposed. The proposed model takes into account the soft knee effect. The model keeps the main features of the MEXTRAM model even though some simplifications have been made in the equivalent circuit topology. This model is validated in DC and AC analyses for SiGe HBTs fabricated with 0.35-μm BiCMOS technology, 1 × 8 μm2 emitter area. Good agreement is achieved between the measured and modeled results for DC and S-parameters (from 50 MHz to 20 GHz), which shows that the proposed model is accurate and reliable. The model has been implemented in Verilog-A using the ADS circuit simulator.

  12. Comparison of Ohmic contact resistances of n- and p-type Ge source/drain and their impact on transport characteristics of Ge metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jungwoo, E-mail: jungwoo.oh@sematech.org [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, TX 78741 (United States); Huang, Jeff [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, TX 78741 (United States); Chen, Yen-Ting [Universityof Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Ok, Injo [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, TX 78741 (United States); Jeon, Kanghoon [Universityof California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Se-Hoon [Universityof Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Sassman, Barry; Loh, Wei-Yip [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, TX 78741 (United States); Lee, Hi-Deok [Chungnam National University (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Dea-Hong [Yonsei University (Korea, Republic of); Majhi, Prashant; Kirsch, Paul; Jammy, Raj [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, TX 78741 (United States)

    2011-10-31

    We report the results of a systematic study to understand low drive current of Ge-nMOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor). The poor electron transport property is primarily attributed to the low dopant activation efficiency and high contact resistance. Results are supported by analyzing source/drain Ohmic metal contacts to n-type Ge using the transmission line method. Ni contacts to Ge nMOSFETs exhibit specific contact resistances of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5} {Omega} cm{sup 2}, which is significantly higher than the 10{sup -7}-10{sup -8} {Omega} cm{sup 2} of Ni contacts to Ge pMOSFETs. The high resistance of Ni Ohmic contacts to n-type Ge is attributed mainly to insufficient dopant activation in Ge (or high sheet resistance) and a high tunneling barrier. Results obtained in this work identify one of the root causes of the lower than expected Ge nMOSFET transport issue, advancing high mobility Ge channel technology.

  13. High-efficiency microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors for direct {sup 3}He replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fronk, R.G., E-mail: rfronk@ksu.edu [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Bellinger, S.L.; Henson, L.C. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Huddleston, D.E. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Ochs, T.R. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Sobering, T.J. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McGregor, D.S. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2015-04-11

    High-efficiency Microstructured Semiconductor Neutron Detectors (MSNDs) have been tiled and arranged in a cylindrical form factor in order to serve as a direct replacement to aging and increasingly expensive {sup 3}He gas-filled proportional neutron detectors. Two 6-in long by 2-in diameter cylinders were constructed and populated with MSNDs which were then directly compared to a 4 atm Reuter Stokes {sup 3}He detector of the same dimensions. The Generation 1 MSND-based {sup 3}Helium-Replacement (HeRep Mk I) device contained sixty-four 1-cm{sup 2} active-area MSNDs, each with an intrinsic neutron detection efficiency of approximately 7%. A Generation 2 device (the HeRep Mk II) was populated with thirty 4-cm{sup 2} active-area MSNDs, with an intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of approximately 30%. The MSNDs of each HeRep were integrated to count as a single device. The {sup 3}He proportional counter and the HeRep devices were tested while encased in a cylinder of high-density polyethylene measuring a total of 6-in by 9-in. The {sup 3}He counter and the HeRep Mk II were each placed 1 m from a 54-ng {sup 252}Cf source and tested for efficiency. The {sup 3}He proportional counter had a net count rate of 17.13±0.10 cps at 1 m. The HeRep Mk II device had a net count rate of 17.60±0.10 cps, amounting to 102.71±2.65% of the {sup 3}He gas counter while inside of the moderator. Outside of moderator, the {sup 3}He tube had a count rate of 3.35±0.05 cps and the HeRep Mk II device reported 3.19±05, amounting to 95.15±9.04% of the {sup 3}He neutron detector.

  14. Contribution to the study of electronic structure of crystalline semiconductors (Si, Ge, GaAs, Gap, ZnTe, ZnSe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhafs B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The band structure of semiconductors was described by several theorists since the Fifties. The main objective of the present paper is to do a comparative study between various families of semi-conductors IV (Si,Ge, III-V (GaAs, GaP and II-VI (ZnSe, ZnTe with both methods; tight Binding1 method and pseudo potential method2. This work enables us to understand as well as the mechanism of conduction process in these semiconductors and powers and limits of the above methods. The obtained results allow to conclude that both methods are in a good agreement to describe the morphology of band structures of the cited semiconductors. This encourages us to study in the future the electronic behaviour through the structure of bands for more complex systems such as the heterostructures.

  15. Development of neutron/gamma generators and a polymer semiconductor detector for homeland security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael Joseph

    -energetic gamma generators that operate at low-acceleration energies and leverage neutron generator technologies. The dissertation focused on the experimental characterization of the generator performance and involved MCNPX simulations to evaluate and analyze the experimental results. The emission of the 11.7 MeV gamma-rays was observed to be slightly anisotropic and the gamma yield was measured to be 2.0*105 gamma/s-mA. The lanthanum hexaboride target suffered beam damage from a high power density beam; however, this may be overcome by sweeping the beam across a larger target area. The efficient detection of fast neutrons is vital to active interrogation techniques for the detection of both SNM and explosives. Novel organic semiconductors are air-stable, low-cost materials that demonstrate direct electronic particle detection. As part of the development of a pi-conjugated organic polymer for fast neutron detection, charge generation and collection properties were investigated. By devising a dual, thin-film detector test arrangement, charge collection was measured for high energy protons traversing the dual detector arrangement that allowed the creation of variable track lengths by tilting the detector. The results demonstrated that an increase in track length resulted in a decreased signal collection. This can be understood by assuming charge carrier transport along the track instead of along the field lines, which was made possible by the filling of traps. However, this charge collection mechanism may be insufficient to generate a useful signal. This dissertation has explored the viability of a new generation of radiation sources and detectors, where the newly developed ion source technologies and prototype generators will further enhance the capabilities of existing threat detection systems and promote the development of cutting-edge detection technologies.

  16. SuperTIGER scintillator detector calibration with 30 GeV/nucleon Pb and its fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    The SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) long-duration balloon instrument has measured the abundances of galactic cosmic-ray elements to provide sensitive tests and clarification of the OB-association model of Galactic cosmic-ray origins. More than 600 nuclei with atomic number Z > 30 were observed on its first flight and the abundances of nuclei have been determined with clear individual element resolution and high statistical precision for 30 energy 30 GeV/nucleon Pb and its fragments to measure the saturation response of the scintillator detectors, which are essential to determine the abundances of nuclei with atomic number Z > 40. The beamtest results have been used to optimize the Geant4 simulation to represent the flight data, and will be used to interpret the flight data to extend the abundance determination to about _{60}Nd. SuperTIGER was developed by Washington University in St. Louis, NASA Goddard Flight Center, the California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the University of Minnesota.

  17. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, M; Zavarise, P; Volynets, O

    2011-01-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is pr...

  18. Transition radiation detectors for electron identification beyond 1 GeV/ c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhn, R. D.; Heinloth, K.; Lange, E.; Oedingen, R.; Schlösser, A.

    1988-01-01

    Transition radiation detectors (TRDs) have been tested for the separation of electrons from pions in the momentum range between 1 and 6 GeV/ c. Foams as well as fibres and foils served as radiator materials while two types of chambers, a longitudinal drift chamber (DC) and a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC), both of 16 mm depth and dominantly filled with xenon, were used for detecting the transition radiation photons with a setup of four chambers. Analyzing the data we compared the methods of mean, truncated mean and of maximum likelihood of the total charge measurements and several methods of cluster analysis. As a result of the total charge measurements performed at test beams at CERN and DESY we obtained about 1% pion contamination at 90% electron efficiency for the polypropylene materials in the configuration of four modules with a total length of 40 cm. An improvement by a factor of about two for the electron/pion discrimination can be obtained in the case of a detailed analysis of the clusters.

  19. Modeling the detection efficiency of an HP-Ge detector for use in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Wakita, Akihisa; Ito, Masashi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Nishioka, Shie; Iijima, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Nishio, Teiji; Igaki, Hiroshi; Itami, Jun

    2017-07-01

    The multi-foil method is commonly used to determine upon an energy spectrum of neutrons in boron neutron capture therapy. The method requires to measure the radioactivation of the foils. This study develops a simple modeling procedure of a high-purity Ge detector, which is used to measure the radioactivation, in order to calculate the detection efficiency with GEANT4. By changing four parameters from their manufacturing specifications of the detector, the simulated detection efficiency is able to reproduce the actual detection efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CoGeNT: A Search for Low-Mass Dark Matter using p-type Point Contact Germanium Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aalseth, C E; Colaresi, J; Collar, J I; Leon, J Diaz; Fast, J E; Fields, N E; Hossbach, T W; Knecht, A; Kos, M S; Marino, M G; Miley, H S; Miller, M L; Orrell, J L; Yocum, K M

    2013-01-01

    CoGeNT employs p-type point-contact (PPC) germanium detectors to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). By virtue of its low energy threshold and ability to reject surface backgrounds, this type of device allows an emphasis on low-mass dark matter candidates (WIMP mass around 10 GeV/c2). We report on the characteristics of the PPC detector presently taking data at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, elaborating on aspects of shielding, data acquisition, instrumental stability, data analysis, and background estimation. A detailed background model is used to investigate the low energy excess of events previously reported, and to assess the possibility of temporal modulations in the low-energy event rate. We conclude that the technique is ideally suited to search for the annual modulation signature expected from dark matter particle interactions in the region of WIMP mass and coupling favored by the DAMA/LIBRA claim.

  1. Measurement of $R$ between 1.84 and 3.05 GeV at the KEDR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Anashin, V V; Baldin, E M; Barladyan, A K; Barnyakov, A Yu; Barnyakov, M Yu; Baru, S E; Basok, I Yu; Batrakov, A M; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bobrov, A V; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bogomyagkov, A V; Bondar, A E; Buzykaev, A R; Eidelman, S I; Grigoriev, D N; Glukhovchenko, Yu M; Karnaev, S E; Karpov, G V; Karpov, S V; Kasyanenko, P V; Kharlamova, T A; Kiselev, V A; Kolmogorov, V V; Kononov, S A; Kotov, K Yu; Kravchenko, E A; Kudryavtsev, V N; Kulikov, V F; Kurkin, G Ya; Kuyanov, I A; Levichev, E B; Maksimov, D A; Malyshev, V M; Maslennikov, A L; Meshkov, O I; Mishnev, S I; Morozov, I I; Muchnoi, N Yu; Neufeld, V V; Nikitin, S A; Nikolaev, I B; Okunev, I N; Onuchin, A P; Oreshkin, S B; Osipov, A A; Ovtin, I V; Peleganchuk, S V; Pivovarov, S G; Piminov, P A; Petrov, V V; Prisekin, V G; Rezanova, O L; Ruban, A A; Sandyrev, V K; Savinov, G A; Shamov, A G; Shatilov, D N; Shwartz, B A; Simonov, E A; Sinyatkin, S V; Skrinsky, A N; Sokolov, A V; Sukharev, A M; Starostina, E V; Talyshev, A A; Tayursky, V A; Telnov, V I; Tikhonov, Yu A; Todyshev, K Yu; Tumaikin, G M; Usov, Yu V; Vorobiov, A I; Zhilich, V N; Zhulanov, V V; Zhuravlev, A N

    2016-01-01

    Using the KEDR detector at the VEPP-4M $e^+e^-$ collider, we have determined the values of $R$ at thirteen points of the center-of-mass energy between 1.84 and 3.05 GeV. The achieved accuracy is about or better than $3.9\\%$ at most of the energy points with a systematic uncertainty less than $2.4\\%$.

  2. Strangeness in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 130 GeV observed with the STAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnby, Lee S.; STAR Collaboration; Adler, C.; Ahammed, Z.; Allgower, C.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B. D.; Anderson, M.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V. V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bichsel, H.; Bland, L. C.; Blyth, C. O.; Bonner, B. E.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Cadman, R. V.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cardenas, A.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Castro, M.; Cebra, D.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S. P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J. P.; Cormier, T. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Deng, W. S.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunin, V. B.; Dunlop, J. C.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L. G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Filimonov, K.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K. J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Grabski, J.; Grachov, O.; Grigoriev, V.; Guedon, M.; Gushin, E.; Hallman, T. J.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J. W.; Heffner, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Hümmler, H.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Ivanshin, Yu. I.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P. G.; Judd, E. G.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S. R.; Klyachko, A.; Konstantinov, A. S.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A. I.; Kunde, G. J.; Kunz, C. L.; Kutuev, R. Kh.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Lakehal-Ayat, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lange, S.; Lansdell, C. P.; Lasiuk, B.; Laue, F.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, R.; Leontiev, V. M.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, Q.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Q. J.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Curto, G. Lo; Long, H.; Longacre, R. S.; Lopez-Noriega, M.; Love, W. A.; Lynn, D.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Martin, L.; Marx, J.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; McShane, T. S.; Meissner, F.; Melnick, Yu.; Meschanin, A.; Messer, M.; Miller, M. L.; Milosevich, Z.; Minaev, N. G.; Mitchell, J.; Moiseenko, V. A.; Moore, C. F.; Morozov, V.; de Moura, M. M.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nelson, J. M.; Nevski, P.; Nikitin, V. A.; Nogach, L. V.; Norman, B.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldenburg, M.; Olson, D.; Paic, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S. Y.; Pavlinov, A. I.; Pawlak, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Peryt, W.; Petrov, V. A.; Pluta, J.; Porile, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Radomski, S.; Rai, G.; Ravel, O.; Ray, R. L.; Razin, S. V.; Reichhold, D.; Reid, J. G.; Retiere, F.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevski, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, C.; Rykov, V.; Sakrejda, I.; Sandweiss, J.; Saulys, A. C.; Savin, I.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Schroeder, L. S.; Schüttauf, A.; Schweda, K.; Seger, J.; Seliverstov, D.; Seyboth, P.; Shahaliev, E.; Shestermanov, K. E.; Shimanskii, S. S.; Shvetcov, V. S.; Skoro, G.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, A.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Struck, C.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugarbaker, E.; Suire, C.; umbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarwas, P.; Tai, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Thomas, J. H.; Thompson, M.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Trofimov, V.; Tsai, O.; Turner, K.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; Vander Molen, A. M.; Vasilevski, I. M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vigdor, S. E.; Voloshin, S. A.; Wang, F.; Ward, H.; Watson, J. W.; Wells, R.; Wenaus, T.; Westfall, G. D.; Whitten, C., Jr.; Wieman, H.; Willson, R.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wood, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Yakutin, A. E.; Yamamoto, E.; Yang, J.; Yepes, P.; Yurevich, V. I.; Zanevski, Y. V.; Zborovský, I.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, W. M.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zubarev, A. N.

    2002-07-01

    The STAR detector has made a variety of measurements of strange and other hadronic species in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 130 GeV. A comparison of kaon and pion production enables an examination of the systematics of strangeness production with energy by comparing them to lower energy collisions. Anti-baryon to baryon ratios indicate a much reduced net-baryon density and transverse momentum spectra show that a picture of transverse expansion seems appropriate.

  3. Diagnostic analysis of silicon strips detector readout in the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker module production

    CERN Document Server

    Ciocio, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) Collaboration is currently in the production phase of fabricating and testing silicon strips modules for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider being built at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. A small but relevant percentage of ICs developed a new set of defects after being mounted on hybrids that were not detected in the wafer screening. To minimize IC replacement and outright module failure, analysis methods were developed to study IC problems during the production of SCT modules. These analyses included studying wafer and hybrid data correlations to finely tune the selection of ICs and tests to utilize the ability to adjust front-end parameters of the IC in order to reduce the rejection and replacement rate of fabricated components. This paper will discuss a few examples of the problems encountered during the production of SCT hybrids and modules in the area of ICs performance, and will demonstrate the value of the flexibility built into the ABCD3T ...

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of semiconductor detector response to (222)Rn and (220)Rn environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlinger, J; Trinkl, S; Wielunksi, M; Tschiersch, J; Rühm, W

    2016-07-01

    A new electronic radon/thoron monitor employing semiconductor detectors based on a passive diffusion chamber design has been recently developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU). This device allows for acquisition of alpha particle energy spectra, in order to distinguish alpha particles originating from radon and radon progeny decays, as well as those originating from thoron and its progeny decays. A Monte-Carlo application is described which uses the Geant4 toolkit to simulate these alpha particle spectra. Reasonable agreement between measured and simulated spectra were obtained for both (220)Rn and (222)Rn, in the energy range between 1 and 10 MeV. Measured calibration factors could be reproduced by the simulation, given the uncertainties involved in the measurement and simulation. The simulated alpha particle spectra can now be used to interpret spectra measured in mixed radon/thoron atmospheres. The results agreed well with measurements performed in both radon and thoron gas environments. It is concluded that the developed simulation allows for an accurate prediction of calibration factors and alpha particle energy spectra.

  5. Calibration of semiconductor detectors in the 200-8500 keV range at VNIIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, Evgeny E; Moiseev, Nikolay

    2012-09-01

    At the ionising radiation department of the D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, a semiconductor detector was calibrated in the energy range 200-8500 keV using (n,2γ) and (n,γ) reactions. Separate cylindrical targets (77 mm diameter and 10mm height) were made from mercuric sulphate, sodium chloride and metallic titanium. A (252)Cf spontaneous fission neutron source, placed in 150 mm diameter polyethylene ball, was used to generate thermal neutrons. The optimal target dimensions were determined taking into account the thermal neutron cross-sections and gamma-radiation attenuations in the target materials. The influence of the background radiation induced by neutrons from the walls, floors and ceilings was also taken into account. The shapes of the efficiency curves for point and volume sources in the 200-8500 keV range have been investigated. The experimental results are in good agreement with Monte-Carlo calculations. The emission rate of the 6.13 MeV photons from a (238)Pu-(13)C source was determined with an expanded uncertainty, U(c), of 10% (k=2).

  6. TEM study on Si0.65Ge0.35/p-Si HIP infrared detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Microstructure of P+ -Si0.65Ge0.35/p-Si HIP infrared detector has been studied by using localization cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The photosensitive region of the detector consists of 6 P+ -Si0.65Ge0.35 layers and 5 UD-Si layers, whichare flat and have thickness of 6 nm and 32 nm, respectively. A stress field exists on the interface between Si0.65Ge0.35 and UD-Si layers, but no any crystal defect has been found in this region, except the edges of this region. Both Si0.65Ge0.35 and UD-Si layers on amorphous SiO2 layer consist of polycrystals and are in wave. There is defect area in the edges of photosensitive region.The area appears in a shape of inverse triangle and the maximum width is less than 120 nm. The crystal defects are stacking faults and microtwins.

  7. Ge0.83Sn0.17 p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors: Impact of sulfur passivation on gate stack quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dian; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Gong, Xiao; Liang, Gengchiau; Tok, Eng-Soon; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-01-01

    The effect of room temperature sulfur passivation of the surface of Ge0.83Sn0.17 prior to high-k dielectric (HfO2) deposition is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the chemical bonding at the interface of HfO2 and Ge0.83Sn0.17. Sulfur passivation is found to be effective in suppressing the formation of both Ge oxides and Sn oxides. A comparison of XPS results for sulfur-passivated and non-passivated Ge0.83Sn0.17 samples shows that sulfur passivation of the GeSn surface could also suppress the surface segregation of Sn atoms. In addition, sulfur passivation reduces the interface trap density Dit at the high-k dielectric/Ge0.83Sn0.17 interface from the valence band edge to the midgap of Ge0.83Sn0.17, as compared with a non-passivated control. The impact of the improved Dit is demonstrated in Ge0.83Sn0.17 p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs). Ge0.83Sn0.17 p-MOSFETs with sulfur passivation show improved subthreshold swing S, intrinsic transconductance Gm,int, and effective hole mobility μeff as compared with the non-passivated control. At a high inversion carrier density Ninv of 1 × 1013 cm-2, sulfur passivation increases μeff by 25% in Ge0.83Sn0.17 p-MOSFETs.

  8. A Novel Assembly Procedure of GE1\\slash1 Detectors for CMS High Luminosity Phase of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Aashaq

    2017-01-01

    A CMS muon group is investigating the possibility of enhancing muon tracking and triggering capabilities in the region 1.6$\\textless$$\\eta$$\\textless$2.18 of the CMS experiment at the LHC by instrumenting the end-cap muon system with large-area tipple GEM detectors. These GE1/1 detectors are considered as an important technology for High-Luminosity phase of LHC and contain a triple-GEM with a 3\\slash1\\slash2\\slash1 mm drift\\slash transfer-1\\slash transfer-2\\slash induction field gap configuration and the active readout area of 0.345\\slash0.409m$^{2}$ for the short/long chambers. We describe a novel assembly procedure of such detectors at LHC.

  9. Electrostatic effects of Au nanoparticles on near-infrared photoluminescence from Si/SiGe due to nanoscale metal/semiconductor contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yefei; Wang, Ze; Wang, Shuguang; Bai, Yujie; Jiang, Zuimin; Zhong, Zhenyang

    2017-02-21

    The photoluminescence from the Si and the SiGe is comprehensively modified by the Au NPs under the excitation without the surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, it sensitively depends on the size of the Au NPs, the excitation power and the thickness of Si between the Au NPs and the SiGe. A model is proposed in terms of the electrostatic effects of the naturally charged Au NPs due to the electron transferring through the nanoscale metal/semiconductor Schottky junction without an external bias and an external injection of carriers. It well accounts for all those unique PL features. It also reveals that Au NPs can substantially modify the energy band structures, the distribution and the transition of carriers in the nanoscale region below the Au NPs. Our results demonstrate that the Au NPs on semiconductor can efficiently modulate the light-matter interaction from the fundamental aspect of the matter as well as the light.

  10. Design and operation of a 2-D thin-film semiconductor neutron detector array for use as a beamport monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unruh, Troy C.; Bellinger, Steven L. [SMART Laboratory, Kansas State University, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Huddleston, David E. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McNeil, Walter J.; Patterson, Eric [SMART Laboratory, Kansas State University, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Sobering, Tim J. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McGregor, Douglas S. [SMART Laboratory, Kansas State University, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: mcgregor@ksu.edu

    2009-06-01

    Silicon-based diodes coated with a thin film of neutron reactive materials have been shown to produce excellent low-efficiency neutron detectors. This work employs the same technology, but groups 25 equally sized and spaced diodes on a single 29 mm by 29 mm substrate. A 5x5 array was fabricated and coated with a thin film of {sup 6}LiF for use as a low-efficiency neutron beam monitor. The 5x5 neutron detector array is coupled to an array of amplifiers, allowing the response to be interpreted using a LabVIEW FPGA. The 5x5 array has been characterized in a diffracted neutron beam. This work is a part of on-going research to develop various designs of high- and low-efficiency semiconductor neutron detectors.

  11. Heat-Treatment-Induced Switching of Magnetic States in the Doped Polar Semiconductor Ge1‑xMnxTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriener, M.; Nakajima, T.; Kaneko, Y.; Kikkawa, A.; Yu, X. Z.; Endo, N.; Kato, K.; Takata, M.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.; Taguchi, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Cross-control of a material property - manipulation of a physical quantity (e.g., magnetisation) by a nonconjugate field (e.g., electrical field) – is a challenge in fundamental science and also important for technological device applications. It has been demonstrated that magnetic properties can be controlled by electrical and optical stimuli in various magnets. Here we find that heat-treatment allows the control over two competing magnetic phases in the Mn-doped polar semiconductor GeTe. The onset temperatures Tc of ferromagnetism vary at low Mn concentrations by a factor of five to six with a maximum Tc ≈ 180 K, depending on the selected phase. Analyses in terms of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy indicate a possible segregation of the Mn ions, which is responsible for the high-Tc phase. More importantly, we demonstrate that the two states can be switched back and forth repeatedly from either phase by changing the heat-treatment of a sample, thereby confirming magnetic phase-change-memory functionality.

  12. Design of Antenna-on-Chip, Antenna-on-Package and Detectors from RF, Microwave to THz Frequency Range in SiGe-C Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wane, S; Bardy, S.; Heijster, R.M.E.M. van; Goulet, F.; Gamand, P.

    2011-01-01

    Design solutions for on-chip signal detectors, Antenna-on- Chip and Antenna-on-Package (with Bond Wire elements), from RF, Microwave to THz frequency range, using state-of-theart SiGe BiCMOS technology are presented. Both CML and CMOS detectors are designed, fabricated and compared in terms of their

  13. Realisation of magnetically and atomically abrupt half-metal/semiconductor interface: Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5/Ge(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelkoski, Zlatko; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Glover, Stephanie E.; Sanchez, Ana M.; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Ghasemi, Arsham; Burrows, Christopher W.; Yamada, Shinya; Hamaya, Kohei; Ramasse, Quentin M.; Hasnip, Philip J.; Hase, Thomas; Bell, Gavin R.; Hirohata, Atsufumi; Lazarov, Vlado K.

    2016-11-01

    Halfmetal-semiconductor interfaces are crucial for hybrid spintronic devices. Atomically sharp interfaces with high spin polarisation are required for efficient spin injection. In this work we show that thin film of half-metallic full Heusler alloy Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5 with uniform thickness and B2 ordering can form structurally abrupt interface with Ge(111). Atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals that there is a small outdiffusion of Ge into specific atomic planes of the Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5 film, limited to a very narrow 1 nm interface region. First-principles calculations show that this selective outdiffusion along the Fe-Si/Al atomic planes does not change the magnetic moment of the film up to the very interface. Polarized neutron reflectivity, x-ray reflectivity and aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirm that this interface is both magnetically and structurally abrupt. Finally, using first-principles calculations we show that this experimentally realised interface structure, terminated by Co-Ge bonds, preserves the high spin polarization at the Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5/Ge interface, hence can be used as a model to study spin injection from half-metals into semiconductors.

  14. Development of Blocked-Impurity-Band-Type Ge Detectors Fabricated with the Surface-Activated Wafer Bonding Method for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, M.; Kaneda, H.; Oyabu, S.; Yamagishi, M.; Hattori, Y.; Ukai, S.; Shichi, K.; Wada, T.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, K.; Nagase, K.; Baba, S.; Kochi, C.

    2016-07-01

    We report the current status of the development of our new detectors for far-infrared (FIR) astronomy. We develop Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB)-type Ge detectors to realize large-format compact arrays covering a wide FIR wavelength range up to 200 \\upmu m. We fabricated Ge junction devices of different physical parameters with a BIB-type structure, using the room temperature, surface-activated wafer bonding (SAB) method. We measured the absolute responsivity and the spectral response curve of each device at low temperatures, using an internal blackbody source in a cryostat and a Fourier transform spectrometer, respectively. The results show that the SAB Ge junction devices have significantly higher absolute responsivities and longer cut-off wavelengths of the spectral response than the conventional bulk Ge:Ga device. Based upon the results, we discuss the optimum parameters of SAB Ge junction devices for FIR detectors. We conclude that SAB Ge junction devices possess a promising applicability to next-generation FIR detectors covering wavelengths up to ˜ 200 \\upmu m with high responsivity. As a next step, we plan to fabricate a BIB-type Ge array device in combination with a low-power cryogenic readout integrated circuit.

  15. The development of a high count rate neutron flux monitoring channel using silicon carbide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisi Fard, Mehdi

    In this dissertation, a fast neutron flux-monitoring channel, which is based on the use of SiC semiconductor detectors is designed, modeled and experimentally evaluated as a power monitor for the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactors. A detailed mathematical model of the SiC diode detector and the electronic processing channel is developed using TRIM, MATLAB and PSpice simulation codes. The flux monitoring channel is tested at the OSU Research Reactor. The response of the SiC neutron-monitoring channel to neutrons is in close agreement to simulation results. Linearity of the channel response to thermal and fast neutron fluxes, pulse height spectrum of the channel, energy calibration of the channel and the detector degradation in a fast neutron flux are presented. Along with the model of the neutron monitoring channel, a Simulink model of the GT-MHR core has been developed to evaluate the power monitoring requirements for the GT-MHR that are most demanding for the SiC diode power monitoring system. The Simulink model is validated against a RELAP5 model of the GT-MHR. This dyanamic model is used to simulate reactor transients at the full power and at the start up, in order to identify the response time requirements of the GT-MHR. Based on the response time requirements that have been identified by the Simulink model and properties of the monitoring channel, several locations in the central reflector and the reactor cavity are identified to place the detector. The detector lifetime and dynamic range of the monitoring channel at the detector locations are calculated. The channel dynamic range in the GT-MHR central reflector covers four decades of the reactor power. However, the detector does not survive for a reactor refueling cycle in the central reflector. In the reactor cavity, the detector operates sufficiently long; however, the dynamic range of the channel is smaller than the dynamic range of the channel in the central reflector.

  16. A Systematic Study of the Optical and Electrical Properties of Ge1-ySny and Ge1-x-ySixSny Semiconductor Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    temperatures for the p- GeSn /n-Si (0.06% Sn) sample. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 5 Sheet carrier concentration...measured at RT in both air and vacuum as a function of etch depth for the p- GeSn /n-Si (0.06% Sn) sample...63 6 Measured sheet carrier concentration in cm-2 as a function of etch depth at selected temperatures for the p- GeSn /n-Si

  17. MCNPX simulations of the silicon carbide semiconductor detector response to fast neutrons from D-T nuclear reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlačková, Katarína; Šagátová, Andrea; Zat'ko, Bohumír; Nečas, Vladimír; Solar, Michael; Granja, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) has been long recognized as a suitable semiconductor material for use in nuclear radiation detectors of high-energy charged particles, gamma rays, X-rays and neutrons. The nuclear interactions occurring in the semiconductor are complex and can be quantified using a Monte Carlo-based computer code. In this work, the MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) code was employed to support detector design and analysis. MCNPX is widely used to simulate interaction of radiation with matter and supports the transport of 34 particle types including heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The code also supports complex 3D geometries and both nuclear data tables and physics models. In our model, monoenergetic neutrons from D-T nuclear reaction were assumed as a source of fast neutrons. Their energy varied between 16 and 18.2 MeV, according to the accelerating voltage of the deuterons participating in D-T reaction. First, the simulations were used to calculate the optimum thickness of the reactive film composed of High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE), which converts neutral particles to charged particles and thusly enhancing detection efficiency. The dependency of the optimal thickness of the HDPE layer on the energy of the incident neutrons has been shown for the inspected energy range. Further, from the energy deposited by secondary charged particles and recoiled ions, the detector response was modeled and the effect of the conversion layer on detector response was demonstrated. The results from the simulations were compared with experimental data obtained for a detector covered by a 600 and 1300 μm thick conversion layer. Some limitations of the simulations using MCNPX code are also discussed.

  18. Neutrinoless double-{beta} decay of {sup 76}Ge: First results from the International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) with six isotopically enriched detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, C.E.; Avignone, F.T. III; Collar, J.I.; Hasenbalg, F. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Miley, H.S.; Reeves, J.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Garcia, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A. [University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Starostin, A.S.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russia); Klimenko, A.A.; Osetrov, S.B.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Vasiliev, S.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Baksan Neutrino Observatory, 361609 Neutrino (Russia); Pogosov, V.S.; Tamanyan, A.G. [Yerevan Physical Institute, 375 036 Yerevan (Armenia)

    1999-04-01

    The International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) has six HPGe detectors, isotopically enriched to 86{percent} in {sup 76}Ge, containing approximately 90 active moles of {sup 76}Ge. Three detectors of 2 kg each operate in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spain) with pulse-shape analysis electronics. One detector ({approximately}0.7 kg active volume) has been operating in the Baksan Low-Background Laboratory for several years, and two additional similar detectors will operate in Baksan. A maximum likelihood analysis of 74.84 active mole years of data yields a lower bound T{sub 1/2}{sup 0{nu}}{ge}0.8{times}10{sup 25}yr (90{percent} C.L.), corresponding to {l_angle}m{sub {nu}}{r_angle}{lt}(0.5{endash}1.5)eV, depending on the theoretical nuclear matrix elements used to extract the neutrino mass parameter. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Searching for Dark Matter with the CoGeNT and C-4 Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Recently published CoGeNT data shows an excess of events at energies below 1.2 keV. The excess at low energies is compatible with light-WIMP nucleon scattering. While it is hard to imagine a background model to explain the spectral and temporal characteristics of the CoGeNT data, a thorough simulation of the external backgrounds is needed to quantify their contribution. In this analysis we simulate both external cavern neutrons and muon induced spallation events inside the CoGeNT shielding. We also model radioactive backgrounds from the shielding materials. The resulting background distributions are compared with the CoGeNT data and we discuss how closely the backgrounds resemble the CoGeNT data. We also discuss plans for the next larger generation of CoGeNT, C4. We will discuss the expected WIMP sensitivity of C4 and contrast to current dark matter experiments. We will also show how we plan to improve upon the CoGeNT design to lower the backgrounds for C4.

  20. Búsqueda de charginos con el detector DELPHI de LEP a $E_{cm}=130 - 172 GeV$

    CERN Document Server

    Navas-Concha, S

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this work is the search for charginos using the data collected with the DELPHI detector at LEP during the years 1995~--~1996 at energies $ E_{cm} =$~130.4, 136.3, 161.4 and 172.4~GeV. In this thesis the methods used and the results obtained are described. This study has been performed within the theoretical framework of the Minimal Standard Supersymmetric Model (MSSM), assuming Grand Unification and $R$--parity conservation. Concerning the nature of the lightest supersymmetric particle, two cases have been treated: the ``NeutraliNO1LSP scenario'' and the ``Gravitino LSP scenario''.

  1. Measurement of Ruds and R between 3.12 and 3.72 GeV at the KEDR detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Anashin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the KEDR detector at the VEPP-4M e+e− collider, we have measured the values of Ruds and R at seven points of the center-of-mass energy between 3.12 and 3.72 GeV. The total achieved accuracy is about or better than 3.3% at most of energy points with a systematic uncertainty of about 2.1%. At the moment it is the most accurate measurement of R(s in this energy range.

  2. Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard J; Light, Roger A; Sharples, Steve D; Johnston, Nicholas S; Pitter, Mark C; Somekh, Mike G

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound system that uses a custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear array detector. This novel sensor allows parallel phase-sensitive detection of very low contrast modulated signals with performance in each channel comparable to that of a discrete photodiode and a lock-in amplifier. Application of the instrument is demonstrated by parallelizing spatial measurements to produce two-dimensional thickness maps on a layered sample, and spectroscopic parallelization is demonstrated by presenting the measured Brillouin oscillations from a gallium arsenide wafer. This paper demonstrates the significant advantages of our approach to pump probe systems, especially picosecond ultrasonics.

  3. Ultra-Fast Image Sensor Using Ge on Insulator MIS/Schottky Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-28

    14 m, respectively. These transitions result from the intraband transition of -doping well Fig. 7. The blueshift of the cutoff wavelength of the...m, respectively. The blueshift of the -QD sample may be due to the many body effect. The intraband transition in -doping quantum wells contributes...tively. The blueshift of the cutoff wavelength of the -SiGe01 sample is probably due to the additional quantum confinement of Si0.9Ge0.1 QW outside

  4. SOI metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photon detector based on single-hole counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Inokawa, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Ono, Atsushi

    2011-08-01

    In this Letter, a scaled-down silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is characterized as a photon detector, where photogenerated individual holes are trapped below the negatively biased gate and modulate stepwise the electron current flowing in the bottom channel induced by the positive substrate bias. The output waveforms exhibit clear separation of current levels corresponding to different numbers of trapped holes. Considering this capability of single-hole counting, a small dark count of less than 0.02 s(-1) at room temperature, and low operation voltage of 1 V, SOI MOSFET could be a unique photon-number-resolving detector if the small quantum efficiency were improved.

  5. Verification tests of the GALLEX solar neutrino detector, with 71Ge produced in-situ from the beta-decay of 71As.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, W.; Handt, J.; Heusser, G.; Kaether, D.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Neder, E.; Pernicka, E.; Rau, W.; Richter, H.; Ronn, U.; Schwan, U.; Wojcik, M.; Zakharov, Y.; von Ammon, R.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Heidt, D.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weirich, F.; Balata, M.; Hartmann, F. X.; Bellotti, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorini, E.; Zanotti, L.; Altmann, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Mossbauer, R.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Cribier, M.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.

    1998-09-01

    Previously, it was demonstrated that the GALLEX solar neutrino detector responds properly to low energy neutrinos, by exposing it to two intense 51Cr-neutrino sources; the recovery yield of the product 71Ge was reported to be 93%±8%. New experiments, in which known amounts of radioactive 71As have decayed to 71Ge in the full-scale gallium detector, strongly support this evidence. In several experiments, the gallium detector has been spiked with ≡105 71As atoms, under varying conditions of how the 71As was added (either carrier free, or with Ge carrier), how the gallium solution was mixed, and how long the 71Ge remained in the gallium. 71As decays by electron capture and positron emission to 71Ge, with a half life of 2.72 d. Hot atoms are produced by these decay modes with kinematics that mimic solar neutrino capture, although the 51Cr neutrino source provided a more perfect match. This relative disadvantage is offset by the much better statistics obtainable with the 71As. In all 71As experiments, the recovery of 71Ge from the gallium was 100%, with uncertainties of only ±1%. The combined results from the 51Cr sources and the 71As spikes rule out any loss mechanisms for 71Ge, including hot-atom chemical effects.

  6. Design of a high-resolution small-animal SPECT-CT system sharing a CdTe semiconductor detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Young-Jin; Lee, Seung-Wan; Cho, Hyo-Min; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    A single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system with a co-registered X-y computed tomography (CT) system allows the convergence of functional information and morphologic information. The localization of radio pharmaceuticals on a SPECT can be enhanced by combining the SPECT with an anatomical modality, such as X-ray CT. Gamma-ray imaging for nuclear medicine devices and X-ray imaging systems for diagnostics has recently been developed based on semiconductor detectors, and semiconductor detector materials such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) or cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) are available for both X-ray and gamma-ray systems for small animal imaging. CdTe or CZT detectors provide strong absorption and high detection efficiency of high energy X-ray and gamma-ray photons because of their large atomic numbers. In this study, a pinhole collimator SPECT system sharing a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with a CT was designed. The GEANT4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v.6.1 was used for the simulation. The pinhole collimator was designed to obtain a high spatial resolution of the SPECT system. The acquisition time for each projection was 40 seconds, and 60 projections were obtained for tomographic image acquisition. The reconstruction was performed using ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM) algorithms. The sensitivity and the spatial resolution were measured on the GATE simulation to evaluate the system characteristics. The spatial resolution of the system calculated from the FWHM of Gaussian fitted PSF curve was 0.69 mm, and the sensitivity of the system was measured to be 0.354 cps/kBq by using a Tc-99m point source of 1 MBq for 800 seconds. A phantom study was performed to verify the design of the dual imaging modality system. The system will be built as designed, and it can be applied as a pre-clinical imaging system.

  7. Measurement of nuclear activity with Ge detectors and its uncertainty; Medicion de actividad nuclear con detectores de Ge y su incertidumbre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, C.A

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse the influence magnitudes which affect the activity measurement of gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources. They prepared by means of the gravimetric method, as well as, determining the uncertainty of such measurement when this is carried out with a gamma spectrometer system with a germanium detector. This work is developed in five chapters: In the first one, named Basic principles it is made a brief description about the meaning of the word Measurement and its implications and the necessaries concepts are presented which are used in this work. In the second chapter it is exposed the gravimetric method used for the manufacture of the gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources, it is tackled the problem to determine the main influence magnitudes which affect in the measurement of their activity and the respective correction factors and their uncertainties are deduced. The third chapter describes the gamma spectrometry system which is used in this work for the measurement of the activity of isolated sources and also its performance and experimental arrangement that it is used. In the fourth chapter are applied the three previous items with the object of determining the uncertainty which would be obtained in the measurement of an isolated radioactive source elaborated with the gravimetric method in the experimental conditions less favourable predicted above the obtained results from the chapter two. The conclusions are presented in the fifth chapter and they are applied to establish the optimum conditions for the measurement of the activity of a gamma transmitter isolated radioactive source with a spectrometer with germanium detector. (Author)

  8. Epitaxial GeSn film formed by solid phase epitaxy and its application to Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-gated GeSn metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Wei; Wu, Yung-Hsien; Hsieh, Ching-Heng; Lin, Chia-Chun [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 300 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-17

    Through the technique of solid phase epitaxy (SPE), an epitaxial Ge{sub 0.955}Sn{sub 0.045} film was formed on a Ge substrate by depositing an amorphous GeSn film followed by a rapid thermal annealing at 550 °C. A process that uses a SiO{sub 2} capping layer on the amorphous GeSn film during SPE was proposed and it prevents Sn precipitation from occurring while maintaining a smooth surface due to the reduced surface mobility of Sn atoms. The high-quality epitaxial GeSn film was observed to have single crystal structure, uniform thickness and composition, and tiny surface roughness with root mean square of 0.56 nm. With a SnO{sub x}-free surface, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-gated GeSn metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 0.55 nm were developed. A small amount of traps inside the Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} was verified by negligible hysteresis in capacitance measurement. Low leakage current of 0.4 A/cm{sup 2} at gate bias of flatband voltage (V{sub FB})-1 V suggests the high quality of the gate dielectric. In addition, the feasibility of using Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} to well passivate GeSn surface was also evidenced by the small interface trap density (D{sub it}) of 4.02 × 10{sup 11} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, which can be attributed to smooth GeSn surface and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} valency passivation. Both leakage current and D{sub it} performance outperform other passivation techniques at sub-nm EOT regime. The proposed epitaxial GeSn film along with Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric paves an alternative way to enable high-performance GeSn MOS devices.

  9. Development of twin Ge detector for high energy photon measurement and its performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigetome, Yoshiaki; Harada, Hideo [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-03-01

    Prototype twin HPGe detector composed of two large HPGe crystals was developed to obtain better detection efficiency ({epsilon}) and P/T ratio, which was required for high energy photon spectroscopy. In this work, the performances of the twin HPGe detector were evaluated by computer simulation employing EGS4 code. (author)

  10. Effect of prolonged annealing on the performance of coaxial Ge gamma-ray detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owens, A.; Brandenburg, S.; Buis, E. -J.; Kozorezov, A. G.; Kraft, S.; Ostendorf, R. W.; Quarati, F.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of prolonged annealing at elevated temperatures have been investigated in a 53 cm(3) closed-end coaxial high purity germanium detector in the reverse electrode configuration. The detector was multiply annealed at 100 degrees C in block periods of 7 days. After each anneal cycle it was co

  11. Ternary GeSiSn alloys: New opportunities for strain and band gap engineering using group-IV semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Costa, V.R. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Fang, Y.-Y.; Tolle, J.; Kouvetakis, J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States); Menendez, J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2010-02-26

    Ternary GeSiSn alloys have been recently demonstrated on Ge- and GeSn-buffered Si substrates. These alloys, with a two-dimensional compositional space, make it possible to decouple lattice constant and electronic structure for the first time in a group-IV system. This paper reviews the basic properties of the GeSiSn alloy, presents some new results on its optical properties, and discusses the approach that has been followed to model heterostructures containing GeSiSn layers for applications in modulators, quantum cascade lasers, and photovoltaics.

  12. New constraints and discovery potential of sub-GeV dark matter with xenon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Existing xenon dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments can probe the DM-nucleon interaction of DM with a sub-GeV mass through a search for photon emission from the recoiling xenon atom. We show that LUX's constraints on sub-GeV DM, which utilize the scintillation (S1) and ionization (S2) signals, are approximately 3 orders of magnitude more stringent than previous xenon constraints in this mass range, derived from the XENON10 and XENON100 S2-only searches. The new LUX constraints provide the most stringent direct detection constraints for DM particles with a mass below 0.5 GeV. In addition, the photon emission signal in LUX and its successor LZ maintain the discrimination between background and signal events so that an unambiguous discovery of sub-GeV DM is possible. We show that LZ has the potential to reconstruct the DM mass with ≃20 % accuracy for particles lighter than 0.5 GeV.

  13. Adsorption smoke detector made of thin-film metal-oxide semiconductor sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Adamian, A Z; Aroutiounian, V M

    2001-01-01

    Based on results of investigations of the thin-film smoke sensors made of Bi sub 2 O sub 3 , irresponsive to a change in relative humidity of the environment, an absorption smoke detector processing circuit, where investigated sensor is used as a sensitive element, is proposed. It is shown that such smoke detector is able to function reliably under conditions of high relative humidity of the environment (up to 100%) and it considerably exceeds the known smoke detectors by the sensitivity threshold.

  14. Optical characteristics of p-type GaAs-based semiconductors towards applications in photoemission infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Y. F.; Perera, A. G. U.; Wang, H. L.; Zhao, J. H.; Jin, Y. J.; Zhang, D. H.

    2016-03-01

    Free-carrier effects in a p-type semiconductor including the intra-valence-band and inter-valence-band optical transitions are primarily responsible for its optical characteristics in infrared. Attention has been paid to the inter-valence-band transitions for the development of internal photoemission (IPE) mid-wave infrared (MWIR) photodetectors. The hole transition from the heavy-hole (HH) band to the spin-orbit split-off (SO) band has demonstrated potential applications for 3-5 μm detection without the need of cooling. However, the forbidden SO-HH transition at the Γ point (corresponding to a transition energy Δ0, which is the split-off gap between the HH and SO bands) creates a sharp drop around 3.6 μm in the spectral response of p-type GaAs/AlGaAs detectors. Here, we report a study on the optical characteristics of p-type GaAs-based semiconductors, including compressively strained InGaAs and GaAsSb, and a dilute magnetic semiconductor, GaMnAs. A model-independent fitting algorithm was used to derive the dielectric function from experimental reflection and transmission spectra. Results show that distinct absorption dip at Δ0 is observable in p-type InGaAs and GaAsSb, while GaMnAs displays enhanced absorption without degradation around Δ0. This implies the promise of using GaMnAs to develop MWIR IPE detectors. Discussions on the optical characteristics correlating with the valence-band structure and free-hole effects are presented.

  15. Crystal growth and detector performance of large size high-purity Ge crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guojian; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming; Irmscher, Klaus; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000 - 4200 cm-2, which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

  16. X-ray diffuse scattering for evaluation of wide bandgap semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goorsky, M.S. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.; Yoon, H. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.; Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Graduate Sch. of Appl. Sci.; James, R.B. [Sandia Nat. Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Dept. 8347; McGregor, D.S. [Sandia Nat. Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Dept. 8347; Natarajan, M. [TN Technol., Round Rock, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The crystalline perfection of solid state radiation detectors was examined using triple axis x-ray diffraction. Triple axis techniques provide a means to analyze the origin of diffraction peak broadening: the effects of strain (due to deviations in alloy composition or stoichiometry) and lattice tilts (mosaic structure) can be separated. Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te (x{approx}0.1), HgI{sub 2}, and GaAs detector materials were studied. In the cases of Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te and HgI{sub 2} the crystalline properties of detectors with different spectral responses to {gamma}-radiation were determined. Increased mosaicity was universally found to be related to deteriorated detector properties. For Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te, detectors with poor performance possessed greater levels of diffuse scatter due to lattice tilts than did high quality detectors. For GaAs, low angle grain boundaries were attributed to impaired detector performance. Additionally, in large HgI{sub 2} detectors, deviations from stoichiometry were also related to reduced performance. Interestingly, HgI{sub 2} detectors which possessed a sharp spectral response to {gamma}-radiation but also showed polarization were of comparable crystallinity to those detectors which did not exhibit polarization effects. This initial analysis suggests that polarization is related to native point defects or chemical impurities which do not significantly alter the crystallinity of the material. Overall, within a given class of materials, improved detector performance (better spectral response) always correlated with better material quality. (orig.).

  17. Transport properties of the pressure-induced amorphous semiconductor state of Al sub 3 sub 2 Ge sub 6 sub 8

    CERN Document Server

    Antonov, V E; Gurov, A F; Harkunov, A I; Kolyubakin, A I

    2002-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the dc conductivity and thermopower of the bulk amorphous alloy Al sub 3 sub 2 Ge sub 6 sub 8 were investigated at 6-420 K and at 80-370 K, respectively. The samples were prepared by solid-state amorphization of a quenched crystalline high-pressure phase while heating from 77 to 400 K at ambient pressure. Amorphous Al sub 3 sub 2 Ge sub 6 sub 8 was found to be a p-type semiconductor with an unusual combination of transport properties. The behaviour of the properties was described semi-quantitatively in terms of a modified Mott-Davis model assuming that the Fermi level lies inside the valence band tail.

  18. High Electron Mobility Ge n-Channel Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Fabricated by the Gate-Last Process with the Solid Source Diffusion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; Morita, Yukinori; Takagi, Shinichi

    2010-06-01

    We fabricate high-k/Ge n-channel metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) by the gate-last process with the thermal solid source diffusion to achieve both of high quality source/drain (S/D) and gate stack. The n+/p junction formed by solid source diffusion technique of Sb dopant shows the excellent diode characteristics of ˜1.5×105 on/off ratio between +1 and -1 V and the quite low reverse current density of ˜4.1×10-4 A/cm2 at +1 V after the fabrication of high-k/Ge n-channel MISFETs that enable us to observe well-behaved transistor performances. The extracted electron mobility with the peak of 891 cm2/(V.s) is high enough to be superior to the Si universal electron mobility especially in low Eeff.

  19. 3D Active Edge Silicon Detector Tests With 120 GeV Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Da Via, Cinzia; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher; Kok, Angela; Parker, Sherwood; Watts, Stephen; Anelli, Giovanni; Avati, Valentina; Bassetti, Valerio; Boccone, Vittorio; Bozzo, Marco; Eggert, Karsten; Ferro, Fabrizio; Inyakin, Alexandre; Kaplon, Jan; Lozano Bahilo, Julio; Morelli, Aldo; Niewiadomski, Hubert; Noschis, Elias; Oljemark, Fredrik; Oriunno, Marco; Österberg, Kenneth; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Snoeys, Walter; Tapprogge, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    3D detectors with electrodes penetrating through the silicon wafer and covering the edges were tested in the SPS beam line X5 at CERN in autumn 2003. Detector parameters including efficiency, signal-to-noise ratio, and edge sensitivity were measured using a silicon telescope as a reference system. The measured sensitive width and the known silicon width were equal within less than 10 mum.

  20. Achievement of low parasitic resistance in Ge n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor using an embedded TiN-source/drain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomi, Y.; Tateyama, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Wang, D.; Nakashima, H.

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the source/drain (S/D) parasitic resistance (R P) of a Ge n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (n-MOSFET) with TiN-S/D. The R P was as high as ∼1400 Ω, which is attributed to a very thin amorphous interlayer (a-IL) at a TiN/Ge interface. To solve this problem, n-MOSFETs with an embedded S/D structure were fabricated, of which the S/D was formed by the etching of a Ge layer using 0.03%-H2O2 solution followed by TiN sputter deposition. The electrical performances were investigated for devices with etching depths in the range of 2–22 nm. The devices with etching depths of 2–5 nm did not work. The devices with etching depths of 12–15 nm showed a quite normal transistor operation, and the R P was as low as ∼130 Ω, which is comparable to that of a p-MOSFET with PtGe-S/D. However, R Ps of the devices with etching depths of ∼22 nm was considerably high. The reason for these results is discussed on the basis of an a-IL formation at the sidewall of the engraved S/D region.

  1. Prototyping and tests for an MRPC-based time-of-flight detector for 1 GeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Aumann, T. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bemmerer, D., E-mail: d.bemmerer@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Boretzky, K. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Caesar, C. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Ciobanu, M. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Cowan, T.; Elekes, Z. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Elvers, M. [Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Gonzalez Diaz, D. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Hannaske, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Hehner, J.; Heil, M. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Kempe, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Maroussov, V. [Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Nusair, O. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Al Balqa' Applied University, Salt (Jordan); Simon, H. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Sobiella, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); and others

    2011-10-21

    The NeuLAND detector at the R{sup 3}B experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt aims to detect fast neutrons (0.2-1.0 GeV) with high time and spatial resolutions ({sigma}{sub t}<100ps,{sigma}{sub x,y,z}<1cm). This task can be performed either with a scintillator or based on the multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) technology. Here, prototyping and test for an MRPC-based solution are discussed. In order to reach 90% detection efficiency, the final detector must consist of 50 consecutive MRPC stacks. Each stack contains a 4 mm thick anode made of iron converter material, with an additional 4 mm of converter material between two stacks. The secondary charged particles stemming from hadronic interactions of the high energetic neutrons in the converter will be detected in the MRPCs. As part of the ongoing development effort, a number of prototypes for this detector have been developed and built. They have been tested in experiments with a single-electron beam with picosecond resolution at the superconducting linac ELBE (Dresden, Germany). The results of the tests are presented here, and an outlook is given.

  2. A multielement Ge detector with complete spectrum readout for x-ray fluorescence microprobe and microspectroscopy (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Mark L.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rarback, Harvey

    1995-02-01

    Multielement Ge and Si(Li) detectors have been used in recent years to improve the increase count rate capability and to improve the solid-angle efficiency in fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Such systems have typically been equipped with one or more single-channel analyzers (SCAs) for each detector element. Such SCA-based electronics are sufficient when only the counts in one or two well-resolved peaks are of interest. For the fluorescence (XRF) microprobe at beamline X-26A at the NSLS, SCA-based electronics were not a satisfactory solution for two reasons: (1) for XRF experiments, the entire fluorescence spectrum is required; (2) for micro-XAS studies of trace elements in complex systems, the fluorescence peak often sits on a significant background or partially overlaps another fluorescence peak, requiring software background subtraction or peak deconvolution. An electronics system which permits collection of the entire fluorescence spectrum from each detector element has been designed. The system is made cost-effective by the use of analog multiplexors, reducing the number of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and multichannel analyzers (MCAs) required. The system was manufactured by Canberra Industries and consists of: (1) a 13 element Ge detector (11 mm diameter detector elements), (2) 13 NIM spectroscopy amplifiers with programmable gains, (3) four analog multiplexors with maximum of eight inputs each, (4) four ADCs with programmable offsets and gains and 800 ns conversion time, and (5) two MCAs with Ethernet communications ports and two ADC inputs each. The amplifiers have shaping times which are adjustable from 0.5 to 12 μs. The analog multiplexors were modified to perform pileup rejection. The analog multiplexing does not significantly reduce the count rate capability of the system, even at the shortest amplifier shaping times. The average detector resolution is 170 eV at 12 μs shaping time and 200 eV at 4 μs shaping time. The maximum

  3. Theoretical investigation of tensile strained GeSn waveguide with Si₃N₄ liner stressor for mid-infrared detector and modulator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingfang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Jing; Zhang, Chunfu; Hao, Yue; Han, Genquan

    2015-03-23

    We theoretically investigate a tensile strained GeSn waveguide integrated with Si₃N₄ liner stressor for the applications in mid-infrared (MIR) detector and modulator. A substantial tensile strain is induced in a 1 × 1 μm² GeSn waveguide by the expansion of 500 nm Si₃N₄ liner stressor and the contour plots of strain are simulated by the finite element simulation. Under the tensile strain, the direct bandgap E(G,Γ) of GeSn is significantly reduced by lowering the Γ conduction valley in energy and lifting of degeneracy of valence bands. Absorption coefficients of tensile strained GeSn waveguides with different Sn compositions are calculated. As the Si₃N₄ liner stressor expands by 1%, the cut-off wavelengths of tensile strained Ge(0.97)Sn(0.03), Ge(0.95)Sn(0.05), and Ge(0.90)Sn(0.10) waveguide photodetectors are extended to 2.32, 2.69, and 4.06 μm, respectively. Tensile strained Ge(0.90)Sn(0.10) waveguide electro-absorption modulator based on Franz-Keldysh (FK) effect is demonstrated in theory. External electric field dependence of cut-off wavelength and propagation loss of tensile strained Ge(0.90)Sn(0.10) waveguide is observed, due to the FK effect.

  4. Neutrinoless double-β decay of76Ge: First results from the International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) with six isotopically enriched detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Avignone, F. T.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Collar, J. I.; Garcia, E.; González, D.; Hasenbalg, F.; Hensley, W. K.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Klimenko, A. A.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Osetrov, S. B.; Pogosov, V. S.; Puimedón, J.; Reeves, J. H.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M. L.; Smolnikov, A. A.; Starostin, A. S.; Tamanyan, A. G.; Vasenko, A. A.; Vasiliev, S. I.; Villar, J. A.

    1999-04-01

    The International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) has six HPGe detectors, isotopically enriched to 86% in 76Ge, containing approximately 90 active moles of 76Ge. Three detectors of 2 kg each operate in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spain) with pulse-shape analysis electronics. One detector (~0.7 kg active volume) has been operating in the Baksan Low-Background Laboratory for several years, and two additional similar detectors will operate in Baksan. A maximum likelihood analysis of 74.84 active mole years of data yields a lower bound T0ν1/2>=0.8×1025 yr (90% C.L.), corresponding to <(0.5-1.5) eV, depending on the theoretical nuclear matrix elements used to extract the neutrino mass parameter.

  5. SuperCDMS SNOLAB Low-Mass Detectors: Ultra-Sensitive Phonon Calorimeters for a Sub-GeV Dark Matter Search

    CERN Document Server

    Kurinsky, Noah; Partridge, Richard; Cabrera, Blas; Pyle, Matt

    2016-01-01

    We present the technical design for the SuperCDMS high-voltage, low-mass dark matter detectors, designed to be sensitive to dark matter down to 300 MeV/$c^2$ in mass and resolve individual electron-hole pairs from low-energy scattering events in high-purity Ge and Si crystals. In this paper we discuss some of the studies and technological improvements which have allowed us to design such a sensitive detector, including advances in phonon sensor design and detector simulation. With this design we expect to achieve better than 10 eV (5 eV) phonon energy resolution in our Ge (Si) detectors, and recoil energy resolution below 1eV by exploiting Luke-Neganov phonon generation of charges accelerated in high fields.

  6. Operational Experience of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker and Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Dave; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on the silicon and gaseous tracking subsystems that form the ATLAS Inner Detector. Those subsystems have undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the LHC during Run2. The key status and performance metrics of the Pixel Detector and the Semi Conductor Tracker are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described.

  7. The COMPASS sandwich veto detector and a first look at kaonic final states from a $\\pi^-$ (190 GeV} beam on a proton target

    CERN Document Server

    Schlüter, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the sandwich veto detector that was built for the 2008 and 2009 hadron runs of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. During these beamtimes it was serving as a veto detector for neutral and charged particles outside the spectrometer acceptance, mostly thought to originate from reactions which excited the target. We also present first mass spectra from $\\pi^-(190\\,\\GeV) p \\to \\pi^- \\Kshort \\Kshort p$ that were measured in the 2008 hadron run.

  8. Recent advances in the development of semiconductor detectors for very high luminosity colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    For the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the SLHC, the tracking systems of the LHC experiments need to be replaced. A main concern is the extreme radiation hardness requirement up to $1 x 10^{16} cm^{-2}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent. This paper describes an extract of recent results on radiation hardening technologies developed within the RD50 Collaboration (http://www.cern.ch/rd50) [1] for the tracker upgrades. Silicon detectors have been designed and produced on n- and p-type wafers made by Float Zone, epitaxy and Czochralski technology. Their charge collection efficiency after proton, neutron and mixed irradiation has been studied. Novel detector concepts, as 3D detectors, have been designed, produced and studied as well. Radiation induced microscopic disorder has been also investigated and correlated with the performance degradation of irradiated detectors.

  9. The Insulator to Superconductor Transition in Ga-Doped Semiconductor Ge Single Crystal Induced by the Annealing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated the heavily Ga-doped layer in Ge single crystal by the implantation and rapid thermal annealing method. The samples show a crossover from the insulating to the superconducting behavior as the annealing temperature increases. Transport measurements suggest that the superconductivity is from the heavily Ga-doped layer in Ge.

  10. Analysis of the effect of true coincidence summing on efficiency calibration for an HP GE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenas, J.; Gallardo, S.; Ballester, S.; Primault, V. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Lab. de Radiactividad Ambiental (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The H.P. (High Purity) Germanium detector is commonly used for gamma spectrometry in environmental radioactivity laboratories. The efficiency of the detector must be calibrated for each geometry considered. This calibration is performed using a standard solution containing gamma emitter sources. The usual goal is the obtaining of an efficiency curve to be used in the determination of the activity of samples with the same geometry. It is evident the importance of the detector calibration. However, the procedure presents some problems as it depends on the source geometry (shape, volume, distance to detector, etc.) and shall be repeated when these factors change. That means an increasing use of standard solutions and consequently an increasing generation of radioactive wastes. Simulation of the calibration procedure with a validated computer program is clearly an important auxiliary tool for environmental radioactivity laboratories. This simulation is useful for both optimising calibration procedures and reducing the amount of radioactivity wastes produced. The M.C.N.P. code, based on the Monte Carlo method, has been used in this work for the simulation of detector calibration. A model has been developed for the detector as well as for the source contained in a Petri box. The source is a standard solution that contains the following radionuclides: {sup 241}Am, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 139}Ce, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 113}Sn, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 88}Y and {sup 60}Co; covering a wide energy range (50 to 2000 keV). However, there are two radionuclides in the solution ({sup 60}Co and {sup 88}Y) that emit gamma rays in true coincidence. The effect of the true coincidence summing produces a distortion of the calibration curve at higher energies. To decrease this effect some measurements have been performed at increasing distances between the source and the detector. As the true coincidence effect is observed in experimental measurements but not in the Monte Carlo

  11. Study of a new design of p-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging by monte carlo simulation codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh-Safar, M; Ghorbani, M; Khoshkharam, S; Ashrafi, Z

    2014-07-01

    Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc(99_m) activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using

  12. A rich detector with a sodium fluoride radiator:. pi. /K identification up to 3 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R.; Guyonnet, J.L.; Giomataris, Y.; Petroff, P.; Seguinot, J.; Tocqueville, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1987-10-01

    The use of a single crystal of sodium fluoride (NaF) as a Cherenkov radiator has been investigated. Its transparency has been measured and found to be good for photon energies below 9.8 eV. Data on its index of refraction are well fitted to a single-pole Sellmeier resonance formula. These data allow a realistic Monte Carlo simulation of a proximity-focused ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system. The photon detector is a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) with pad readout. The photosensitive gases considered are tetrakis(dimethylamine)ethylene (TMAE) and triethylamine (TEA). The simulation shows that system having 10 cm radial thickness and 10% of a radiation length of material would identify pions and kaons below 3 GeV/c momentum. The pad dimensions required are about 5 mm /times/ 5 mm. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  13. An empirical formula for the efficiency detection of Ge detectors for cylindrical radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfassi, Z.B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering Ben Gurion University, Il-84105 Beer Sheva (Israel)]. E-mail: alfassi@bgu.ac.il; Groppi, F. [LASA, Universita degli Studi and INFN of Milano, Laboratory of Radiochemistry, via F.lli Cervi 201, 20090 Segrate (Italy)

    2007-05-01

    An empirical equation was developed for the count rate of a cylindrical radioactive source by an HPGe detector as a function of the volume and the height of the source. The equation can be used to calculate the height of the cylinder, which will yield maximum count rate for a known volume of environmental source.

  14. ATLAS experiment first 900 GeV Collision Events in Stable-Beam Conditions with Inner Detector Fully Powered, December 6, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    the ATLAS experiment; Neal Hartman; Phil Owen; Joao Pequenao

    2009-01-01

    On Sunday morning, December 6th, 2009, the LHC achieved for the first time 900 GeV collisions under stable-beam conditions. This allowed ATLAS to fully ramp the high voltage of the inner most pixel and silicon-strip tracking detectors.

  15. Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, R; Imai, T; Kariya, T; Numakura, T; Eguchi, T; Kawarasaki, R; Nakazawa, K; Kato, T; Sato, F; Nanzai, H; Uehara, M; Endo, Y; Ichimura, M

    2014-11-01

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

  16. A tracking detector to study O(1 GeV) νμ CC interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, P.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; D'Antone, I.; Degli Esposti, L.; Lax, I.; Mandrioli, G.; Marsella, G.; Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Sirri, G.; Surdo, A.; Tenti, M.

    2017-03-01

    A tracking system composed of planes of triangular shape scintillator bars coupled to Silicon PhotoMultipliers in analog mode read-out has been developed for applications in neutrino experiments. A spatial resolution of O(1 mm) is required for the determination of momentum and charge of muons produced in νμ CC interactions at few GeV energy scale. The performance of the system has been studied by exposing it to charged particle beams at the CERN-PS. Preliminary results are discussed.

  17. Si based mid-infrared GeSn photo detectors and light emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Pham, Thach; Margetis, Joe; Tran, Huong; Ghetmiri, Seyed A.; Mosleh, Aboozar; Sun, Greg; Soref, Richard A.; Tolle, John; Naseem, Hameed A.; Li, Baohua; Yu, Shui-Qing

    2015-08-01

    In this work, high performance GeSn photoconductor and light emitting diodes (LED) have been demonstrated. For the photoconductor, the high responsivity was achieved due to high photoconductive gain, which is attributed to the novel optical and electrical design. The longwave cutoff at 2.4 μm was also observed at room temperature. For LED, temperature-dependent study was conducted. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra at different temperatures were obtained and EL peak shift was observed. Moreover, the emission power at different temperatures was measured. High power emission at 2.1 μm was achieved.

  18. A neutron dose detector with REM response to 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, R.K.; Krebs, G.F.; Smith, A.R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Hsu, H.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-07-01

    The limitation of current remmeters, which do not measure neutron dose equivalents above about 15 MeV, is a serious problem at high-energy accelerator facilities, where a much wider range of neutron energies exist. The purpose of this work was to measure the response of a modified Anderson-Braun (A-B) remmeter to neutron energies up to 1 GeV. The modifications to the standard A-B remmeter were based on the experimental results of Pb(n,xn) reactions.

  19. Electronic, optical and lattice dynamic properties of the novel diamond-like semiconductors Li2CdGeS4 and Li2CdSnS4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanlu; Fan, Weiliu; Sun, Honggang; Cheng, Xiufeng; Li, Pan; Zhao, Xian

    2011-06-01

    Li2CdGeS4 and Li2CdSnS4 are novel quaternary diamond-like semiconductors (DLSs) which have been synthesized recently. We present first-principles calculations of their electronic, optical and lattice dynamic properties with the plane-wave pseudopotential method. We have found an indirect band gap of 2.78 eV for Li2CdGeS4 and a direct band gap of 2.50 eV for Li2CdSnS4. The serious stretching vibrations of the Ge/Sn-S and Li-S bonds may enhance their phonon energies, and cause them to exhibit high heat capacities and Debye temperatures, which are promising for nonlinear optical applications. Compared with Cu-based DLSs, Li plays a key role in enlarging the band gaps and increasing the lattice phonon energies, which would increase the thermal conductivity accompanied by an increase of the optical damage threshold.

  20. Strained Germanium-Tin (GeSn) P-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Featuring High Effective Hole Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yan, Jing; Wang, Hongjuan; Cheng, Buwen; Han, Genquan

    2015-06-01

    Compressively strained and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are fabricated with low-temperature surface passivation. High crystallinity GeSn films epitaxially grown on a Ge(001) substrate are used for the device fabrication. The impacts of the Sn composition on the subthreshold swing , threshold voltage , on-state current , and effective hole mobility of the devices are investigated. GeSn pMOSFETs with different Sn compositions show a similar , indicating almost the same midgap density of interface states . A positive shift of with an increase of the Sn composition is observed. A pMOSFET exhibits a significant improvement in as compared to a device with a lower Sn composition, which is due to the superior hole mobility in a device with a higher Sn composition. pMOSFETs achieve a peak effective hole mobility of , which is much higher than that of devices. The enhancement of the compressive strain and chemical effect in the channel region with increased Sn composition leads to an improvement of.

  1. Ionizing Radiation Detectors Based on Ge-Doped Optical Fibers Inserted in Resonant Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Avino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of ionizing radiation (IR is a crucial issue in different areas of interest, from environmental safety and industrial monitoring to aerospace and medicine. Optical fiber sensors have recently proven good candidates as radiation dosimeters. Here we investigate the effect of IR on germanosilicate optical fibers. A piece of Ge-doped fiber enclosed between two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs is irradiated with gamma radiation generated by a 6 MV medical linear accelerator. With respect to other FBG-based IR dosimeters, here the sensor is only the bare fiber without any special internal structure. A near infrared laser is frequency locked to the cavity modes for high resolution measurement of radiation induced effects on the fiber optical parameters. In particular, we observe a variation of the fiber thermo-optic response with the radiation dose delivered, as expected from the interaction with Ge defect centers, and demonstrate a detection limit of 360 mGy. This method can have an impact in those contexts where low radiation doses have to be measured both in small volumes or over large areas, such as radiation therapy and radiation protection, while bare optical fibers are cheap and disposable.

  2. Status of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) in the search of neutrinoless ββ decays of 76Ge at LNGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönert, S.; Abt, I.; Altmann, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Barabanov, I.; Bauer, C.; Bauer, M.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Brudanin, V.; Bolotsky, V. P.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chirchenko, M. V.; Chkvorets, O.; Demidova, E.; di Vacri, A.; Eberth, J.; Egorov, V.; Farnea, E.; Gangapshev, A.; Gasparro, J.; Grabmayr, P.; Grigoriev, G. Y.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Heisel, M.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Katulina, S.; Kiko, J.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Klimenko, A.; Knapp, M.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kröninger, K.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lebedev, V. I.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; Marissens, G.; Nemchenok, I.; Pandola, L.; Peiffer, P.; Pullia, A.; Alvarez, C. R.; Sandukovsky, V.; Scholl, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schwan, U.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stelzer, F.; Tikhomirov, A. V.; Tomei, C.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Vasiliev, S.; Weißhaar, D.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Yurkowski, J.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zocca, F.; Zuzel, G.

    2006-12-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) in the search for neutrinoless ββ decays of 76Ge at LNGS will operate bare germanium diodes enriched in 76Ge in an (optional active) cryogenic fluid shield to investigate neutrinoless ββ decay with a sensitivity of T 1/2 > 2 × 1026 yr after an exposure of 100 kg yr. Recent progress includes the installation of the first underground infrastructures at Gran Sasso, the completion of the enrichment of 37.5 kg of germanium material for detector construction, prototyping of low-mass detector support and contacts, and front-end and DAQ electronics, as well as the preparation for construction of the cryogenic vessel and water tank.

  3. Next Generation Semiconductor-Based Radiation Detectors Using Cadmium Magnesium Telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B [Brimrose Technology Corporation, Sparks Glencoe, MD (United States); Kutcher, Susan W [Brimrose Technology Corporation, Sparks Glencoe, MD (United States); Palsoz, Witold [Brimrose Technology Corporation, Sparks Glencoe, MD (United States); Berding, Martha [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burger, Arnold [Brimrose Technology Corporation, Sparks Glencoe, MD (United States)

    2014-11-17

    The primary objective of Phase I was to perform extensive studies on the purification, crystal growth and annealing procedures of CdMgTe to gain a clear understanding of the basic material properties to enable production of detector material with performance comparable to that of CdZnTe. Brimrose utilized prior experience in the growth and processing of II-VI crystals and produced high purity material and good quality single crystals of CdMgTe. Processing techniques for these crystals including annealing, mechanical and chemical polishing, surface passivation and electrode fabrication were developed. Techniques to characterize pertinent electronic characteristics were developed and gamma ray detectors were fabricated. Feasibility of the development of comprehensive defect modeling in this new class of material was demonstrated by our partner research institute SRI International, to compliment the experimental work. We successfully produced a CdMgTe detector that showed 662 keV gamma response with energy resolution of 3.4% (FWHM) at room temperature, without any additional signal correction. These results are comparable to existing CdZnTe (CZT) technology using the same detector size and testing conditions. We have successfully demonstrated detection of gamma-radiation from various isotopes/sources, using CdMgTe thus clearly proving the feasibility that CdMgTe is an excellent, low-cost alternative to CdZnTe.

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Fabrication and characterization of an AlGaN/PZT detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhang; Jinglan, Sun; Nili, Wang; Li, Han; Xiangyang, Liu; Xiangyang, Li; Xiangjian, Meng

    2010-12-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization of a novel two-color detector for ultraviolet and infrared applications are reported. The detector has a simple multilayer structure composed of n-Al0.3Ga0.7N/i-GaN/p-GaN/SiO2/LaNiO3/PZT/Pt fabricated on a sapphire substrate. Ultraviolet and infrared properties are measured. For the ultraviolet region, a flat band spectral response is achieved in the 302-363 nm band. The detector displays an unbiased responsivity of 0.064 A/W at 355 nm. The current-voltage curve shows that current at zero bias is -1.57 × 10-12 A. This led to a detectivity of 1.81 × 1011 cm · Hz1/2/W. In the infrared region, the detectivity of the detector is 1.58 × 105 cm · Hz1/2/W at 4 μm.

  5. The Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera of the ASTRO-H Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD)

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Shin; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ichinohe, Yuto; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Enoto, Teruaki; Fukuyama, Taro; Furui, Shunya; Genba, Kei; Hagino, Kouichi; Harayama, Astushi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu; Matsuura, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ryo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Noda, Hirofumi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohta, Masayuki; Onishi, Mitsunobu; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Goro; Sato, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Togo, Atsushi; Tomizuka, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) is one of the instrument payloads onboard ASTRO-H, and will cover a wide energy band (60--600 keV) at a background level 10 times better than instruments currently in orbit. The SGD achieves low background by combining a Compton camera scheme with a narrow field-of-view active shield. The Compton camera in the SGD is realized as a hybrid semiconductor detector system which consists of silicon and cadmium telluride (CdTe) sensors. The design of the SGD Compton camera has been finalized and the final prototype, which has the same configuration as the flight model, has been fabricated for performance evaluation. The Compton camera has overall dimensions of 12 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, consisting of 32 layers of Si pixel sensors and 8 layers of CdTe pixel sensors surrounded by 2 layers of CdTe pixel sensors. The detection efficiency of the Compton camera reaches about 15% and 3% for 100 keV and 511 keV gamma rays, respectively. The pixel pitch of the Si and CdTe sensors is 3.2 mm, and ...

  6. Performance optimization of a free space optical interconnect system with a metal-semiconductor-metal detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ababneh, Nedal; Khader, Ateka

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we study the possibility and the potentiality of using metal semiconductor-metal photodetector (MSM-PD) in three-dimensional parallel free space optical interconnect (FSOI) systems. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and time response are used as performance measures to optimize the geometry of MSM-PD used in FSOI systems. Both SNR and time response are evaluated, analyzed, and their dependence on feature parameters of the MSM-PD, including finger size, spacing, and number of fingers, are considered. Based on the results obtained, we show that the use of MSM-PD in FSOI improves the interconnect speed at a given acceptable SNR.

  7. Micro and nanophotonics for semiconductor infrared detectors towards an ultimate uncooled device

    CERN Document Server

    Jakšic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The advent of microelectromechanic system (MEMS) technologies and nanotechnologies has resulted in a multitude of structures and devices with ultra compact dimensions and with vastly enhanced or even completely novel properties. In the field of photonics it resulted in the appearance of new paradigms, including photonic crystals that exhibit photonic bandgap and represent an optical analog of semiconductors and metamaterials that have subwavelength features and may have almost arbitrary values of effective refractive index, including those below zero. In addition to that, a whole new field of

  8. SU-C-201-03: Coded Aperture Gamma-Ray Imaging Using Pixelated Semiconductor Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, S [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Kaye, W; Jaworski, J [H3D, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); He, Z [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Improved localization of gamma-ray emissions from radiotracers is essential to the progress of nuclear medicine. Polaris is a portable, room-temperature operated gamma-ray imaging spectrometer composed of two 3×3 arrays of thick CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, which detect gammas between 30keV and 3MeV with energy resolution of <1% FWHM at 662keV. Compton imaging is used to map out source distributions in 4-pi space; however, is only effective above 300keV where Compton scatter is dominant. This work extends imaging to photoelectric energies (<300keV) using coded aperture imaging (CAI), which is essential for localization of Tc-99m (140keV). Methods: CAI, similar to the pinhole camera, relies on an attenuating mask, with open/closed elements, placed between the source and position-sensitive detectors. Partial attenuation of the source results in a “shadow” or count distribution that closely matches a portion of the mask pattern. Ideally, each source direction corresponds to a unique count distribution. Using backprojection reconstruction, the source direction is determined within the field of view. The knowledge of 3D position of interaction results in improved image quality. Results: Using a single array of detectors, a coded aperture mask, and multiple Co-57 (122keV) point sources, image reconstruction is performed in real-time, on an event-by-event basis, resulting in images with an angular resolution of ∼6 degrees. Although material nonuniformities contribute to image degradation, the superposition of images from individual detectors results in improved SNR. CAI was integrated with Compton imaging for a seamless transition between energy regimes. Conclusion: For the first time, CAI has been applied to thick, 3D position sensitive CZT detectors. Real-time, combined CAI and Compton imaging is performed using two 3×3 detector arrays, resulting in a source distribution in space. This system has been commercialized by H3D, Inc. and is being acquired for

  9. Fluorocarbon evaporative cooling developments for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Anderssen, E; Berry, S; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Bouvier, P; Cragg, D; English, R; Godlewski, J; Górski, B; Grohmann, S; Hallewell, G D; Hayler, T; Ilie, S; Jones, T; Kadlec, J; Lindsay, S; Miller, W; Niinikoski, T O; Olcese, M; Olszowska, J; Payne, B; Pilling, A; Perrin, E; Sandaker, H; Seytre, J F; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

    1999-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients 2-5.103 Wm-2K-1 have been measured in a 3.6 mm I.D. heated tube dissipating 100 Watts - close to the full equivalent power (~110 W) of a barrel SCT detector "stave" - over a range of power dissipations and mass flows in the above fluids. Aspects of full-scale evaporative cooling circulator design for the ATLAS experiment are discussed, together with plans for future development.

  10. Effect of SiO2 coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches

    CERN Document Server

    Beeman, J W; Giuliani, A; Mancuso, M; Pessina, G; Plantevin, O; Rusconi, C

    2012-01-01

    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO$_2$ anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25-35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at $\\sim 630$ nm wavelength) that will characterise future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope $^{82}$Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO$_2$ coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings ...

  11. MCNPX Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport in SiC semiconductor detectors of fast neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlačková, K.; Zat'ko, B.; Šagátová, A.; Pavlovič, M.; Nečas, V.; Stacho, M.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate particle transport properties of a fast neutron detector based on silicon carbide. MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) code was used in our study because it allows seamless particle transport, thus not only interacting neutrons can be inspected but also secondary particles can be banked for subsequent transport. Modelling of the fast-neutron response of a SiC detector was carried out for fast neutrons produced by 239Pu-Be source with the mean energy of about 4.3 MeV. Using the MCNPX code, the following quantities have been calculated: secondary particle flux densities, reaction rates of elastic/inelastic scattering and other nuclear reactions, distribution of residual ions, deposited energy and energy distribution of pulses. The values of reaction rates calculated for different types of reactions and resulting energy deposition values showed that the incident neutrons transfer part of the carried energy predominantly via elastic scattering on silicon and carbon atoms. Other fast-neutron induced reactions include inelastic scattering and nuclear reactions followed by production of α-particles and protons. Silicon and carbon recoil atoms, α-particles and protons are charged particles which contribute to the detector response. It was demonstrated that although the bare SiC material can register fast neutrons directly, its detection efficiency can be enlarged if it is covered by an appropriate conversion layer. Comparison of the simulation results with experimental data was successfully accomplished.

  12. Neural-based pile-up correction and ballistic deficit correction of X-ray semiconductor detectors using the Monte Carlo simulation and the Ramo theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafaee, Mahdi; Moussavi Zarandi, Ali; Taheri, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Pile-up distortion is a common problem in many nuclear radiation detection systems, especially in high count rates. It can be solved by hardware-based pile-up rejections, but there is no complete pile-up elimination in this way. Additionally, the methods can lead to poor quantitative results. Generally, time characteristics of semiconductor detector pulses are different from Scintillator detector pulses due to ballistic deficit. Hence, pulse processing-based pile-up correction in the detectors should consider this specification. In this paper, the artificial neural network pile-up correction method is applied for silicon detector piled-up pulses. For this purpose, the interaction of photons with a silicon detector is simulated by the MCNP4c code and the pulse current is calculated by Ramo's theorem. In this approach, we use a sub-Nyquist frequency sampling. The results show that the proposed method is reliable for pile-up correction and ballistic deficit in semiconductor detectors. The technique is remarkable for commercial considerations and high-speed, real-time calculations.

  13. Medical Compton cameras based on semiconductor detectors design and experimental development

    CERN Document Server

    Scannavini, M G

    2001-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is aimed at the study of Compton scatter as an alternative method of collimating gamma-rays in nuclear medicine applications. Conventional approaches to radioisotope medical imaging and their current limitations are examined. The theory of electronic collimation based on Compton scatter is introduced and it is shown that in principle its application could provide an advantageous imaging method, with both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. The current status of research in the field, of Compton cameras is assessed and potential niches for applications of clinical interest are suggested. The criteria for the design of a Compton scatter camera are examined. A variety of semiconductors are considered for the construction of an electronic collimator and results from Monte Carlo computer simulations are presented for photon energies of clinical interest. It is concluded that the most viable approach is to design a silicon collimator for the imaging of high-energy (511 ke...

  14. Equivalent oxide thickness scaling of Al2O3/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with ozone post oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jia-Bao; Yang Zhou-Wei; Geng Yang; Lu Hong-Liang; Wu Wang-Ran; Ye Xiang-Dong; David Zhang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum-oxide films deposited as gate dielectrics on germanium (Ge) by atomic layer deposition were post oxidized in an ozone atmosphere.No additional interracial layer was detected by the high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements made after the ozone post oxidation (OPO) treatment.Decreases in the equivalent oxide thickness of the OPO-treated Al2O3/Ge MOS capacitors were confirmed.Furthermore,a continuous decrease in the gate leakage current was achieved with increasing OPO treatment time.The results can be attributed to the film quality having been improved by the OPO treatment.

  15. The strain induced band gap modulation from narrow gap semiconductor to half-metal on Ti2CrGe: A first principles study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Heusler alloy Ti2CrGe is a stable L21 phase with antiferromagnetic ordering. With band-gap energy (∼ 0.18 eV obtained from a first-principles calculation, it belongs to the group of narrow band gap semiconductor. The band-gap energy decreases with increasing lattice compression and disappears until a strain of −5%; moreover, gap contraction only occurs in the spin-down states, leading to half-metallic character at the −5% strain. The Ti1, Ti2, and Cr moments all exhibit linear changes in behavior within strains of −5%– +5%. Nevertheless, the total zero moment is robust for these strains. The imaginary part of the dielectric function for both up and down spin states shows a clear onset energy, indicating a corresponding electronic gap for the two spin channels.

  16. Investigation of a direction sensitive sapphire detector stack at the 5 GeV electron beam at DESY-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacheban, O.; Afanaciev, K.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J. L.; Levy, I.; Lohmann, W.; Schuwalow, S.

    2015-08-01

    Extremely radiation hard sensors are needed in particle physics experiments to instrument the region near the beam pipe. Examples are beam halo and beam loss monitors at the Large Hadron Collider, FLASH or XFEL. Currently artificial diamond sensors are widely used. In this paper single crystal sapphire sensors are considered as a promising alternative. Industrially grown sapphire wafers are available in large sizes, are of low cost and, like diamond sensors, can be operated without cooling. Here we present results of an irradiation study done with sapphire sensors in a high intensity low energy electron beam. Then, a multichannel direction-sensitive sapphire detector stack is described. It comprises 8 sapphire plates of 1 cm2 size and 525 μ m thickness, metallized on both sides, and apposed to form a stack. Each second metal layer is supplied with a bias voltage, and the layers in between are connected to charge-sensitive preamplifiers. The performance of the detector was studied in a 5 GeV electron beam. The charge collection efficiency measured as a function of the bias voltage rises with the voltage, reaching about 10% at 095 V. The signal size obtained from electrons crossing the stack at this voltage is about 02200 e, where e is the unit charge. The signal size is measured as a function of the hit position, showing variations of up to 20% in the direction perpendicular to the beam and to the electric field. The measurement of the signal size as a function of the coordinate parallel to the electric field confirms the prediction that mainly electrons contribute to the signal. Also evidence for the presence of a polarisation field was observed.

  17. The structural, elastic, electronic and dynamical properties of chalcopyrite semiconductor BeGeAs{sub 2} from first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciftci, Yasemin Oe. [Gazi University Teknikokullar, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Evecen, Meryem; Aldirmaz, Emine [Amasya University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Amasya (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    First-principles calculations for the structural, elastic, electronic and vibrational properties of BeGeAs{sub 2} with chalcopyrite structure have been reported in the frame work of the density functional theory. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with the available data. By considering the electronic band structure and electronic density of states calculation, it is found that this compound is a semiconductor which confirmed the previous work. Single-crystal elastic constants and related properties such as Young's modulus, Poisson ratio, shear modulus and bulk modulus have been predicted using the stress-finite strain technique. It can be seen from the calculated elastic constants that this compound is mechanically stable in the chalcopyrite structure. Pressure dependences of elastic constants and band gap are also reported. Finally, the phonon dispersion curves and total and partial density of states were calculated and discussed. The calculated phonon frequencies BeGeAs{sub 2} are positive, indicating the dynamical stability of the studied compound. (orig.)

  18. Structural characterization of the high-temperature modification of the Cu{sub 2}ZnGeTe{sub 4} quaternary semiconductor compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.; Marcano, G.; Power, C.; Rincon, C. [Centro de Estudios de Semiconductores, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida, 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Delgado, G.E. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida, 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Lopez-Rivera, S.A. [Grupo de Fisica Aplicada, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida, 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A combined study of the X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis, optical absorption, and Raman spectroscopy of the high-temperature modification of Cu{sub 2}ZnGeTe{sub 4} quaternary semiconductor, obtained by fast quenching from 820 K to ice water temperature, has been done. It has been found that this phase crystallizes in a tetragonal kesterite-type structure. From the analysis of the absorption coefficient spectra, the band gap energy of this material at room temperature has been found to be 1.49 eV. An optical transition from defect acceptor states to the conduction band is also observed below the fundamental absorption edge. Three strongest Raman lines observed at 116, 119, and 139 cm{sup -1} have been assigned to the A-symmetry modes. Also, lines at 81, 89, 97, and 263 cm{sup -1} tentatively ascribed as B or E-symmetry modes have been detected from the spectrum. The presence in this high-temperature modification of ZnTe and Cu{sub 2}GeTe{sub 3} secondary phases has been detected by both XRD and Raman spectroscopy. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Measurement of the running of the fine structure constant below 1 GeV with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Precision physics requires appropriate inclusion of higher order effects and the knowledge of very precise input parameters of the electroweak Standard Model. One of the basic input parameters is the effective QED coupling constant α(s) which depends on the energy scale because of charge screening by vacuum polarization. Hadronic non-perturbative effects limits the accuracy of α(s) from low energy to the Z mass scale. We present the measurement of the running of the QED coupling constant in the time-like region 0.6 < √s < 0.975 GeV with the KLOE detector at DAΦNE , using the ISR differential cross section dσ(e+e− → μ+μ− γ)/d√s. The result shows a clear contribution of the ρ−ω resonances to the photon propagator with a significance of the hadronic contribution to the running of α(s) of more than 5σ. It represents the first measurement of th...

  20. Measurement of the running of the fine structure constant below 1 GeV with the KLOE Detector

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Babusci, D; Bencivenni, G; Berlowski, M; Bloise, C; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Balkeståhl, L Caldeira; Cao, B; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Curciarello, F; Czerwiński, E; D'Agostini, G; Dané, E; De Leo, V; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; Di Cicco, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Salvo, R; Domenici, D; D'Uffizi, A; Fantini, A; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Gajos, A; Gauzzi, P; Giardina, G; Giovannella, S; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Heijkenskjöld, L; Johansson, T; Kamińska, D; Krzemien, W; Kupsc, A; Loffredo, S; Lukin, P A; Mandaglio, G; Martini, M; Mascolo, M; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Morello, G; Moricciani, D; Moskal, P; Papenbrock, M; Passeri, A; Patera, V; del Rio, E Perez; Ranieri, A; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Silarski, M; Sirghi, F; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Wiślicki, W; Wolke, M; Jegerlehner, F

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the running of the effective QED coupling constant $\\alpha(s)$ in the time-like region $0.6<\\sqrt s< 0.975$ GeV with the KLOE detector at DA$\\Phi$NE using the Initial State Radiation process $e^+e^-\\to\\mu^+ \\mu^-\\gamma$. It represents the first measurement of the running of $\\alpha(s)$ in this energy region. Our results show a more than 5$\\sigma$ significance of the hadronic contribution to the running of $\\alpha(s)$, which is the strongest direct evidence both in time- and space-like regions achieved in a single measurement. By using the $e^+e^-\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-$ cross section measured by KLOE, the real and imaginary part of the shift $\\Delta\\alpha(s)$ has been extracted. By a fit of the real part of $\\Delta\\alpha(s)$ and assuming the lepton universality the branching ratio $BR(\\omega\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-) = (6.6\\pm1.4_{stat}\\pm1.7_{syst})\\cdot 10^{-5} $ has been determined.

  1. Measurement of the running of the fine structure constant below 1 GeV with the KLOE detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anastasi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the running of the effective QED coupling constant α(s in the time-like region 0.6GeV with the KLOE detector at DAΦNE using the Initial-State Radiation process e+e−→μ+μ−γ. It represents the first measurement of the running of α(s in this energy region. Our results show a more than 5σ significance of the hadronic contribution to the running of α(s, which is the strongest direct evidence both in time- and space-like regions achieved in a single measurement. By using the e+e−→π+π− cross section measured by KLOE, the real and imaginary parts of the shift Δα(s have been extracted. From a fit of the real part of Δα(s and assuming the lepton universality the branching ratio BR(ω→μ+μ−=(6.6±1.4stat±1.7syst⋅10−5 has been determined.

  2. Measurements on semiconductor and scintillator detectors at the Advanced Light Source (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Cui, Yonggang; Gul, Rubi; Hossain, Anwar; Roy, Utpal N.; Yang, Ge; James, Ralph B.; Vanier, Peter E.

    2016-09-01

    During the transition period between closure of Beamline X27B at BNL's NSLS and the opening of Beamline MID at NSLS-II, we began operation of LBNL's ALS Beamline 3.3.2 to carry out our radiation detection materials RD. Measurements performed at this Beamline include, X-ray Detector Response Mapping and White Beam X-ray Diffraction Topography (WBXDT), among others. We will introduce the capabilities of the Beamline and present the most recent results obtained on CdZnTe and scintillators. The goal of the studies on CdZnTe is to understand the origin and effects of subgrain boundaries and help to visualize the presence of a higher concentration of impurities, which might be responsible for the deterioration of the energy resolution and response uniformity in the vicinity of the sub-grain boundaries. The results obtained in the second year of measurements will be presented.

  3. First Investigation on a novel 2D position sensitive semiconductor detector concept

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F.J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first study of the performance of a novel 2D position-sensitive microstrip detector, where the resistive charge division method was implemented by replacing the metallic electrodes with resistive electrodes made of polycrystalline silicon. A characterization of two proof-of-concept prototypes with different values of the electrode resistivity was carried out using a pulsed Near Infra-Red laser. The experimental data were compared with the electrical simulation of the sensor equivalent circuit coupled to simple electronics readout circuits. The good agreement between experimental and simulation results establishes the soundness of resistive charge division method in silicon microstrip sensors and validates the developed simulation as a tool for the optimization of future sensor prototypes. Spatial resolution in the strip length direction depends on the ionizing event position. The average value obtained from the protype analysis is close to 1.2% of the strip length for a 6 MIP signal.

  4. Quantum efficiency of a single microwave photon detector based on a semiconductor double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Clement H.; Vavilov, Maxim G.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we consider a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting resonator that is driven by the microwave field of a superconducting transmission line. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and show that the resonator-coupled DQD is a sensitive microwave single photon detector. Using currently available experimental parameters of DQD-resonator coupling and dissipation, including the effects of 1 /f charge noise and phonon noise, we determine the parameter regime for which incident photons are completely absorbed and near-unit ≳98 % efficiency can be achieved. We show that this regime can be reached by using very high quality resonators with quality factor Q ≃105 .

  5. Measurement of effect of electron cyclotron heating in a tandem mirror plasma using a semiconductor detector array and an electrostatic energy analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, R.; Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Uehara, M.; Tsumura, K.; Ebashi, Y.; Kajino, S.; Endo, Y.; Nakashima, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray and end-loss-electron analyses of the electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using a semiconductor detector array and an electrostatic energy analyzer in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The flux and the energy spectrum of the end loss electrons are measured by a multi-grid energy analyzer. Recently, the electron cyclotron heating power modulation experiments have been started in order to generate and control the high heat flux and to make the edge localized mode-like intermittent heat load pattern for the divertor simulation studies by the use of these detectors for electron properties.

  6. Study of the process $e^+e^-\\to\\omega\\eta\\pi^0$ in the energy range $\\sqrt{s} <2$ GeV with the SND detector

    CERN Document Server

    Achasov, M N; Barnyakov, A Yu; Beloborodov, K I; Berdyugin, A V; Berkaev, D E; Bogdanchikov, A G; Botov, A A; Dimova, T V; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kardapoltsev, L V; Kharlamov, A G; Koop, I A; Korol, A A; Kovrizhin, D P; Koshuba, S V; Kupich, A S; Lysenko, A P; Melnikova, N A; Martin, K A; Pakhtusova, E V; Obrazovsky, A E; Perevedentsev, E A; Rogovsky, Yu A; Serednyakov, S I; Silagadze, Z K; Shatunov, Yu M; Shatunov, P Yu; Shtol, D A; Skrinsky, A N; Surin, I K; Tikhonov, Yu A; Usov, Yu V; Vasiljev, A V; Zemlyansky, I M

    2016-01-01

    The process $e^+e^-\\to\\omega\\eta\\pi^0$ is studied in the energy range $1.45-2.00$ GeV using data with an integrated luminosity of 33 pb$^{-1}$ accumulated by the SND detector at the $e^+e^-$ collider VEPP-2000. The $e^+e^-\\to\\omega\\eta\\pi^0$ cross section is measured for the first time. The cross section has a threshold near 1.75 GeV. Its value is about 2 nb in the energy range $1.8-2.0$ GeV. The dominant intermediate state for the process $e^+e^- \\to \\omega\\eta\\pi^0$ is found to be $\\omega a_0(980)$.

  7. Study of the Solar Anisotropy for Cosmic Ray Primaries of about 200 GeV Energy with the L3+C Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benitez, M; van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, J; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, Valery P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bahr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillere, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Bohm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo, M; Chiarusi, T; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J; de Asmundis, R; Deglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degre, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; DeNotaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Duran, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El Hage, A; El Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagan, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S N; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grabosch, H J; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Gruenewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, Ch; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Hu, Y; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jing, C L; Jones, Lawrence W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kantserov, V; Kaur, M; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; Konig, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V; Kraber, M; Kuang, H H; Kraemer, R W; Kruger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladron de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levtchenko, P; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, F L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Mana, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, y G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novak, T; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J -F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroue, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pojidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P; Riemann, y S; Riles, Keith; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sanchez, E; Schafer, C; Schegelsky, V; Schmitt, V; Schoeneich, B; Schopper, H; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Straessner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillasi, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Toth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vasquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitsky, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopianov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; van Wijk, R; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yeh, S C; Yu, Z Q; Zalite, An; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhou, S J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zhu, Q Q; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zoller, M; Zwart, A N M

    2008-01-01

    Primary cosmic rays experience multiple deflections in the nonuniform galactic and heliospheric magnetic fields which may generate anisotropies. A study of anisotropies in the energy range between 100 and 500 GeV is performed. This energy range is not yet well explored. The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, is used for a study of the angular distribution of atmospheric muons with energies above 20 GeV. This distribution is used to investigate the isotropy of the time-dependent intensity of the primary cosmic-ray flux with a Fourier analysis. A small deviation from isotropy at energies around 200 GeV is observed for the second harmonics at the solar frequency. No sidereal anisotropy is found at a level above 10^-4. The measurements have been performed in the years 1999 and 2000.

  8. Charge noise analysis of metal oxide semiconductor dual-gate Si/SiGe quantum point contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamioka, J.; Oda, S. [Quantum Nanoelectronics Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S9-11, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); Kodera, T., E-mail: kodera.t.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Quantum Nanoelectronics Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S9-11, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-NE-25, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Takeda, K.; Obata, T. [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-05-28

    The frequency dependence of conductance noise through a gate-defined quantum point contact fabricated on a Si/SiGe modulation doped wafer is characterized. The 1/f{sup 2} noise, which is characteristic of random telegraph noise, is reduced by application of a negative bias on the global top gate to reduce the local gate voltage. Direct leakage from the large global gate voltage also causes random telegraph noise, and therefore, there is a suitable point to operate quantum dot measurement.

  9. High-contrast X-ray micro-tomography of low attenuation samples using large area hybrid semiconductor pixel detector array of 10 × 5 Timepix chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, J.; Krejci, F.; Bartl, B.; Dudak, J.; Kuba, J.; Kvacek, J.; Zemlicka, J.

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide excellent imaging properties such as unlimited dynamic range, high spatial resolution, high frame rate and energy sensitivity. Nevertheless, a limitation in the use of these devices for imaging has been the small sensitive area of a few square centimetres. In the field of microtomography we make use of a large area pixel detector assembled from 50 Timepix edgeless chips providing fully sensitive area of 14.3 × 7.15 cm2. We have successfully demonstrated that the enlargement of the sensitive area enables high-quality tomographic measurements of whole objects with high geometrical magnification without any significant degradation in resulting reconstructions related to the chip tilling and edgeless sensor technology properties. The technique of micro-tomography with the newly developed large area detector is applied for samples formed by low attenuation, low contrast materials such a seed from Phacelia tanacetifolia, a charcoalified wood sample and a beeswax seal sample.

  10. Improved performance of GaN metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors by depositing SiO2 nanoparticles on a GaN surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Li, Dabing; Jiang, Hong; Li, Zhiming; Song, Hang; Chen, Yiren; Miao, Guoqing

    2011-03-01

    GaN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet detectors were investigated by depositing different density of SiO2 nanoparticles (SNPs) on the GaN. It was shown that the dark current of the detectors with SNPs was more than one order of magnitude lower than that without SNPs and the peak responsivity was enhanced after deposition of the SNPs. Atomic force microscopy observations indicated that the SNPs usually formed at the termination of screw and mixed dislocations, and further current-voltage measurements showed that the leakage of the Schottky contact for the GaN MSM detector decreased with deposited the SNPs. Moreover, the leakage obeyed the Frenkel-Poole emission model, which meant that the mechanism for improving the performance is the SNPs passivation of the dislocations followed by the reduction in the dark current.

  11. Pulsed-laser-induced damage in semiconductors Ge, ZnS, and ZnSe at 10.6um

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefranc, Sebastian; Kudriavtsev, Eugene M.; Autric, Michel L.

    1998-04-01

    Laser irradiation induced damage to several materials of interest for use as 10.6 micrometers laser system windows is investigated in this paper. The irradiation source in these single shot experiments was a pulsed TEA CO2 laser. Damage initiation in semiconductors has been studied during the interaction by measuring the variation of the transmitted intensity of a He- Ne and a CO2 cw lasers through the samples. Results show that damages appear at the beginning of the laser-matter interaction process on both surfaces and in the bulk of the materials. The damaged materials have been characterized for various incident fluences by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in terms of topography and morphology. The modified surface chemical analysis and the structural analysis have been carried out using energy dispersive x-ray and Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Optical study of Ge{sub 10}Se{sub 90-x}Te{sub x} glassy semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Pankaj [Department of Physics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, HP-173215 (India)], E-mail: pks_phy@yahoo.co.in; Katyal, S.C. [Department of Physics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, HP-173215 (India)

    2007-07-31

    Chalcogenide glasses are interesting materials from their infrared transmitting properties and photo-induced effects exhibited by them. Thin films of the glasses Ge{sub 10}Se{sub 90-x}Te{sub x} (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50) prepared by melt quench technique were evaporated at a pressure of {approx} 10{sup -4} Pa. The amorphous nature of bulk as well as thin films was detected by X-ray diffraction. Optical transmission spectra of thin films were obtained in the range 400-2400 nm. The optical constants i.e. optical band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are calculated using the Swanepoel method. The optical band gap is found to decrease with the increase of Te content. The absorption coefficient and refractive index decrease with the increase of wavelength. The refractive index first decreases (up to 30 at.%) and thereafter increase with Te content.

  13. Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors: Impact of sulfur passivation on gate stack quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Dian; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao, E-mail: elegong@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: elegong@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Material Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Tok, Eng-Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2016-01-14

    The effect of room temperature sulfur passivation of the surface of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} prior to high-k dielectric (HfO{sub 2}) deposition is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the chemical bonding at the interface of HfO{sub 2} and Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}. Sulfur passivation is found to be effective in suppressing the formation of both Ge oxides and Sn oxides. A comparison of XPS results for sulfur-passivated and non-passivated Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} samples shows that sulfur passivation of the GeSn surface could also suppress the surface segregation of Sn atoms. In addition, sulfur passivation reduces the interface trap density D{sub it} at the high-k dielectric/Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} interface from the valence band edge to the midgap of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}, as compared with a non-passivated control. The impact of the improved D{sub it} is demonstrated in Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs). Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-MOSFETs with sulfur passivation show improved subthreshold swing S, intrinsic transconductance G{sub m,int}, and effective hole mobility μ{sub eff} as compared with the non-passivated control. At a high inversion carrier density N{sub inv} of 1 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}, sulfur passivation increases μ{sub eff} by 25% in Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-MOSFETs.

  14. The search for Higgs boson production in the four-jet channel at $192 < \\sqrt{s} < 202$ GeV with the ALEPH detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D H

    2001-01-01

    A search for neutral Higgs boson production in e sup + e sup - collisions using data collected by the ALEPH detector at the LEP accelerator is presented. Approximately 413 pb sup - sup 1 of data collected at centre of mass energies between 188.6 and 201.6 GeV during 1998 and 1999 is used. The selection of candidates is described and the results of the search are presented and interpreted. Particular attention is given to the selection of the final states with four hadronic jets. No evidence of Higgs boson production is found. In the context of the Standard Model the lower limit on the Higgs boson mass is set at 105.2 GeV/c sup 2 at the 95% confidence level. A search for neutral Higgs boson production in e+e- collisions using data collected by the ALEPH detector and the LEP accelerator is presented. Approximately 413pb-1 of data collected at centre-of-mass energies between 188.6 and 201.6GeV during 1998 and 1999 is used. The selection of candidates is described and the results of the search are presented and i...

  15. Experimental study of the structure of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors in three-component systems of Ge-As-Se and As-Sb-Se by means of NQR and EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolebrukh, Olga; Sinyavsky, Nikolay; Korneva, Irina; Dobosz, Bernadeta; Ostafin, Michal; Nogaj, Boleslaw; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard

    2013-12-01

    The structure of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors in three-component systems of Ge-As-Se and As-Sb-Se has been studied by means of both NQR (nuclear quadrupole resonance) and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectroscopy. It is investigated that in the glasses of both systems the value of the electric field gradient at the resonating nuclei grows with increasing concentration of the clusters As2Se3 and Sb2Se3, thereby increasing the NQR resonance frequencies. It appears that for the Ge-As-Se system the structural transition from a two-dimensional to three-dimensional structure occurs at average coordination number bar r = 2.45. The EPR spectral parameters of glasses depend on the composition, the average coordination number and the temperature, and these are discussed. The effect of "ageing" for CGS (chalcogenide glassy semiconductors) of As-Sb-Se system due to partial crystallization of the sample is observed from the EPR spectra.

  16. Cross section and couplings measurements with the ATLAS detector for the 125 GeV Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Herde, Hannah; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the properties of the 125 GeV Higgs boson are fundamental for the understanding of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. Measurements of the Higgs boson allow to study the gauge, loop induced and Yukawa couplings of the Higgs boson both in production and decay modes. This talk summarizes recent ATLAS measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson.

  17. Measurement of K+ production cross section by 8 GeV protons using high energy neutrino interactions in the SciBooNE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, G

    2011-01-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports K+ production cross section and rate measurements using high energy daughter muon neutrino scattering data off the SciBar polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE detector. The K+ mesons are produced by 8 GeV protons striking a beryllium target in Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam line (BNB). Using observed neutrino and antineutrino events in SciBooNE, we measure d2{\\sigma}/dpd{\\Omega} = (5.34 \\times 0.76) mb/(GeV/c \\times sr) for p + Be -> K+ + X at mean K+ energy of 3.9 GeV and angle (with respect to the proton beam direction) of 3.7 degrees, corresponding to the selected K+ sample. Compared to Monte Carlo predictions using previous higher energy K+ production measurements, this measurement, which uses the NUANCE neutrino interaction generator, is consistent with a normalization factor of 0.85\\times0.12. This agreement is evidence that the extrapolation of the higher energy K+ measurements to an 8 GeV beam energy using Feynman scaling is valid. This measurement reduces the e...

  18. Status and Performance of New Silicon Stripixel Detector for the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC Beta Source, Cosmic-rays and Proton Beam at 120 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2009-01-01

    We are constructing a Silicon Vertex Tracker detector (VTX) for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. Our main motivation is to enable measurements of heavy flavor production (charm and beauty) in p+p, p+d and A+A collisions. Such data will illuminate the properties of the matter created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The measurements also will reveal the distribution of gluons in protons from p+p collisions. The VTX detector consists of four layers of barrel detectors and covers |eta|< 1.2, and almost a 2pi in azimuth. The inner two silicon barrels consist of silicon pixel sensors; their technology accords with that of the ALICE1LHCB sensor-readout hybrid. The outer two barrels are silicon stripixel detectors with a new "spiral" design, and a single-sided sensor with 2-dimensional (X, U) readout. In this paper, we describe the silicon stripixel detector and discuss its performance, including its response to electrons from a beta source (90Sr), muons from cosmic-rays, and a 120 GeV proton beam. The results ...

  19. Colloidal synthesis and functional properties of quaternary Cu-based semiconductors: Cu2HgGeSe4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhua; Ibáñez, Maria; Cadavid, Doris; Zamani, Reza R.; Rubio-Garcia, Javier; Gorsse, Stéphane; Morante, Joan Ramon; Arbiol, Jordi; Cabot, Andreu

    2014-03-01

    Herein, a colloidal synthetic route to produce highly monodisperse Cu2HgGeSe4 (CHGSe) nanoparticles (NPs) is presented in detail. The high yield of the developed procedure allowed the production of CHGSe NPs at the gram scale. A thorough analysis of their structural and optical properties is shown. CHGSe NPs displayed poly-tetrahedral morphology and narrow size distributions with average size in the range of 10-40 nm and size dispersions below 10 %. A 1.6 eV optical band gap was measured by mean of UV-Vis. By adjusting the cation ratio, an effective control of their electrical conductivity is achieved. The prepared NPs are used as building blocks for the production of CHGSe bulk nanostructured materials. The thermoelectric properties of CHGSe nanomaterials are studied in the temperature range from 300 to 730 K. CHGSe nanomaterials reached electrical conductivities up to 5 × 104 S m-1, Seebeck coefficients above 100 μV K-1, and thermal conductivities below 1.0 W m-1 K-1 which translated into thermoelectric figures of merit up to 0.34 at 730 K.

  20. Study of the muon-pair production at centre-of-mass energies from 20 to 136 GeV with the ALEPH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Machefert, F P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Morawitz, P; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Konstantinidis, N P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Tilquin, A; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Williams, R W; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1997-01-01

    The total cross section and the forward-backward asymmetry for the process $e^+ e^- \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^- (n \\gamma)$ are measured in the energy range 20-136 GeV by reconstructing the effective centre-of-mass energy after initial state radiation. The analysis is based on the data recorded with the ALEPH detector at LEP between 1990 and 1995, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 143.5 $\\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$. Two different approaches are used: in the first one an exclusive selection of events with hard initial state radiation in the energy range 20-88 GeV is directly compared with the Standard Model predictions showing good agreement. In the second one, all events are used to obtain a precise measurement of the energy dependence of $\\sigma^0$ and $A_{\\mathrm{FB}}^0$ from a model independent fit, enabling constraints to be placed on models with extra Z bosons.

  1. Measurement of sigma(e+ e- -> pi+ pi-) from threshold to 0.85 GeV^2 using Initial State Radiation with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Archilli, F; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Micco, B; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Graziani, E; Jacewicz, M; Kluge, W; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Santangelo, P; Sciascia, B; Spadaro, T; Taccini, C; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the cross section of the radiative process e+e- -> pi+pi-gamma with the KLOE detector at the Frascati phi-factory DAPHNE, from events taken at a CM energy W=1 GeV. Initial state radiation allows us to obtain the cross section for e+e- -> pi+pi-, the pion form factor |F_pi|^2 and the dipion contribution to the muon magnetic moment anomaly, Delta a_mu^{pipi} = (478.5+-2.0_{stat}+-4.8_{syst}+-2.9_{th}) x 10^{-10} in the range 0.1 < M_{pipi}^2 < 0.85 GeV^2. The discrepancy between the Standard Model evaluation of a_mu and the value measured by the Muon g-2 collaboration at BNL is confirmed.

  2. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Cesareo, R; Castellano, A

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te and HgI sub 2 , coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 mu m, an area of about 2x3 mm sup 2 , an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 mu m. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching approx 9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te detector ha...

  3. Superlight and superflexible three-dimensional semiconductor frameworks A(X≡Y)4 (A=Si, Ge; X/Y=C, B, N) with tunable optoelectronic and mechanical properties from first-principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinrui; Li, Xiao-Fei; Zhu, Zi-Zhong

    2017-02-17

    Silicon carbide materials as the leading wide-bandgap semiconductor holds significant importance in semiconductor technologies. Here, diamond-like three-dimensional (3D) materials with low density but high elasticity properties have been designed from first-principles calculations. They are porous single-crystalline materials composed of sp3-hybridized Si (or Ge) and sp-type C≡C (or B≡N) linear moieties, while their stabilities are found to be comparable to the recently prepared SiC4 materials. Moreover, we find that such wide-bandgap semiconductors have strong absorption in a wide range of UV region and exhibit superlight, superflexible, and incompressible mechanical properties, and their optoelectronic and mechanical properties can be well tuned via structural modifications. Such features make them have high potential for practicable application in extreme conditions, and suggest promising applications for the design of UV optoelectronic devices.

  4. Search for GeV gamma-ray bursts with the ARGO-YBJ detector: summary of eight years of observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D' Ettorre; Di Girolamo, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Napoli " Federico II," Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; D' Amone, A.; De Mitri, I. [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica " Ennio De Giorgi," Università del Salento, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Roma " Tor Vergata," via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R.; Sciascio, G. Di [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z., E-mail: digirola@na.infn.it, E-mail: Piero.Vallania@to.infn.it, E-mail: vigorito@to.infn.it [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Rd., 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-10

    The search for gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission in the energy range of 1-100 GeV in coincidence with the satellite detection has been carried out using the Astrophysical Radiation with Ground-based Observatory at YangBaJing (ARGO-YBJ) experiment. The high-altitude location (4300 m a.s.l.), the large active surface (∼6700 m{sup 2} of Resistive Plate Chambers), the wide field of view (∼2 sr, limited only by the atmospheric absorption), and the high duty cycle (>86%) make the ARGO-YBJ experiment particularly suitable to detect short and unexpected events like GRBs. With the scaler mode technique, i.e., counting all the particles hitting the detector with no measurement of the primary energy and arrival direction, the minimum threshold of ∼1 GeV can be reached, overlapping the direct measurements carried out by satellites. During the experiment lifetime from 2004 December 17 to 2013 February 7, a total of 206 GRBs occurring within the ARGO-YBJ field of view (zenith angle θ ≤ 45°) have been analyzed. This is the largest sample of GRBs investigated with a ground-based detector. Two light curve models have been assumed and since in both cases no significant excess has been found, the corresponding fluence upper limits in the 1-100 GeV energy region have been derived, with values as low as 10{sup –5} erg cm{sup –2}. The analysis of a subset of 24 GRBs with known redshift has been used to constrain the fluence extrapolation to the GeV region together with possible cutoffs under different assumptions on the spectrum.

  5. Curves for the response of a Ge(Li) detector to gamma rays in the energy range up to 11 MeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, J.; Ratyński, W.; Warming, Inge Elisabeth

    1967-01-01

    The response function of a Ge(Li) coaxial detector with a sensitive volume of 17 cm3 for gamma rays of energies ranging from 2.23 to 10.83 MeV has been determined. The measurements were carried out with an experimental set-up using the neutron beam from the DR 3 reactor ar Risö and the (n, γ......) reaction as gamma-ray source. The important features of the spectra are discussed, and the double-escape peak efficiency is determined....

  6. Measurement of $R_{\\text{uds}}$ and $R$ between 3.12 and 3.72 GeV at the KEDR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Anashin, V V; Baldin, E M; Barladyan, A K; Barnyakov, A Yu; Barnyakov, M Yu; Baru, S E; Basok, I Yu; Batrakov, A M; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bobrov, A V; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bogomyagkov, A V; Bondar, A E; Buzykaev, A R; Eidelman, S I; Grigoriev, D N; Glukhovchenko, Yu M; Karnaev, S E; Karpov, G V; Karpov, S V; Kasyanenko, P V; Kharlamova, T A; Kiselev, V A; Kolmogorov, V V; Kononov, S A; Kotov, K Yu; Kravchenko, E A; Kudryavtsev, V N; Kulikov, V F; Kurkin, G Ya; Kuyanov, I A; Levichev, E B; Maksimov, D A; Malyshev, V M; Maslennikov, A L; Meshkov, O I; Mishnev, S I; Morozov, I I; Muchnoi, N Yu; Neufeld, V V; Nikitin, S A; Nikolaev, I B; Okunev, I N; Onuchin, A P; Oreshkin, S B; Osipov, A A; Ovtin, I V; Peleganchuk, S V; Pivovarov, S G; Piminov, P A; Petrov, V V; Prisekin, V G; Rezanova, O L; Ruban, A A; Sandyrev, V K; Savinov, G A; Shamov, A G; Shatilov, D N; Shwartz, B A; Simonov, E A; Sinyatkin, S V; Skrinsky, A N; Sokolov, A V; Sukharev, A M; Starostina, E V; Talyshev, A A; Tayursky, V A; Telnov, V I; Tikhonov, Yu A; Todyshev, K Yu; Tumaikin, G M; Usov, Yu V; Vorobiov, A I; Zhilich, V N; Zhulanov, V V; Zhuravlev, A N

    2016-01-01

    Using the KEDR detector at the VEPP-4M $e^+e^-$ collider, we have measured the values of $R_{\\text{uds}}$ and $R$ at seven points of the center-of-mass energy between 3.12 and 3.72 GeV. The total achieved accuracy is about or better than $3.3\\%$ at most of energy points with a systematic uncertainty of about $2.1\\%$. At the moment it is the most accurate measurement of $R(s)$ in this energy range.

  7. Application of the Monte Carlo method to the analysis of measurement geometries for the calibration of a HP Ge detector in an environmental radioactivity laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenas, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jrodenas@iqn.upv.es; Gallardo, Sergio; Ballester, Silvia; Primault, Virginie [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Ortiz, Josefina [Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    A gamma spectrometer including an HP Ge detector is commonly used for environmental radioactivity measurements. The efficiency of the detector should be calibrated for each geometry considered. Simulation of the calibration procedure with a validated computer program is an important auxiliary tool for environmental radioactivity laboratories. The MCNP code based on the Monte Carlo method has been applied to simulate the detection process in order to obtain spectrum peaks and determine the efficiency curve for each modelled geometry. The source used for measurements was a calibration mixed radionuclide gamma reference solution, covering a wide energy range (50-2000 keV). Two measurement geometries - Marinelli beaker and Petri boxes - as well as different materials - water, charcoal, sand - containing the source have been considered. Results obtained from the Monte Carlo model have been compared with experimental measurements in the laboratory in order to validate the model.

  8. Results of charged pions cross-section in proton carbon interaction at 31 GeV/c measured with the NA61/SHINE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Among other goals, the NA61/SHINE (SHINE=SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) detector at CERN SPS aims at precision hadro-production measurements to characterise the neutrino beam of the T2K experiment at J-PARC. These measurements are performed using a 31 GeV/c proton beam produced at the SPS with a thin carbon target and a full T2K replica target. Spectra of charged pion inclusive inelastic cross section were obtained from pilot data collected in 2007 1 with a 2 cm thick target (4% of the interaction length). The SHINE detector and its particle identification capabilities are described and the analysis techniques are briefly discussed.

  9. Status of the GERDA experiment aimed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Smolnikov, Anatoly A

    2008-01-01

    The progress in the development of the new international Gerda (GErmanium Detector Array) experiment is presented. Main purpose of the experiment is to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The experimental set up is under construction in the underground laboratory of LNGS. Gerda will operate with bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in 76Ge) situated in liquid argon. In the Phase I the existing enriched detectors from the previous Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments are employed, in the Phase II the new segmented detectors made from recently produced enriched material will be added. Novel concepts for background suppression including detector segmentation and anti-coincidence with LAr scintillation are developed.

  10. The response of TL lithium fluoride detectors to 24 GeV/c protons for doses ranging up to 1 MGy

    CERN Document Server

    Obryk, B; Olko, P; Pajor, A; Glaser, M; Budzanowski, M; Bilski, P

    2010-01-01

    A new method of thermoluminescent (TL) measurement of radiation doses ranging from micrograys up to a megagray has been recently developed at IFJ. This method is based on a newly discovered behavior of LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors at doses exceeding 1 kGy. Significant changes in their glow-curves are observed at higher doses; of special importance is occurrence of a new, well separated peak for doses above 50 kGy, thus these detectors can be used for measurements of doses at ultra-high dose range. In order to check the glow-curve features in the high dose region for different types of LiF:Mg,Cu,P and LiF:Mg,Ti detectors after irradiation with heavy charged particles, tests at the 24 GeV/c proton beam of IRRAD1 irradiation zone at the CERN Proton Synchrotron accelerator up to 1 MGy were performed. The occurrence of the high dose peak in the glow-curve of LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors resulting from heavy particles irradiation was confirmed. Results of this investigation are presented in this paper. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All...

  11. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  12. Method for converting in-situ gamma ray spectra of a portable Ge detector to an incident photon flux energy distribution based on Monte Carlo simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A matrix stripping method for the conversion of in-situ gamma ray spectrum, obtained with portable Ge detector, to photon flux energy distribution is proposed. The detector response is fully described by its stripping matrix and full absorption efficiency curve. A charge collection efficiency function is introduced in the simulation to take into account the existence of a transition zone of increasing charge collection after the inactive Ge layer. Good agreement is obtained between simulated and experimental full absorption efficiencies. The characteristic stripping matrix is determined by Monte Carlo simulation for different incident photon energies using the Geant4 toolkit system. The photon flux energy distribution is deduced by stripping the measured spectrum of the partial absorption and cosmic ray events and then applying the full absorption efficiency curve. The stripping method is applied to a measured in-situ spectrum. The value of the absorbed dose rate in air deduced from the corresponding flux energy distribution agrees well with the value measured directly in-situ.

  13. Coated semiconductor devices for neutron detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klann, Raymond T. (Bolingbrook, IL); McGregor, Douglas S. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A device for detecting neutrons includes a semi-insulated bulk semiconductor substrate having opposed polished surfaces. A blocking Schottky contact comprised of a series of metals such as Ti, Pt, Au, Ge, Pd, and Ni is formed on a first polished surface of the semiconductor substrate, while a low resistivity ("ohmic") contact comprised of metals such as Au, Ge, and Ni is formed on a second, opposed polished surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, n-type low resistivity pinout contacts comprised of an Au/Ge based eutectic alloy or multi-layered Pd/Ge/Ti/Au are also formed on the opposed polished surfaces and in contact with the Schottky and ohmic contacts. Disposed on the Schottky contact is a neutron reactive film, or coating, for detecting neutrons. The coating is comprised of a hydrogen rich polymer, such as a polyolefin or paraffin; lithium or lithium fluoride; or a heavy metal fissionable material. By varying the coating thickness and electrical settings, neutrons at specific energies can be detected. The coated neutron detector is capable of performing real-time neutron radiography in high gamma fields, digital fast neutron radiography, fissile material identification, and basic neutron detection particularly in high radiation fields.

  14. Performance estimation of InSb compound semiconductor detectors as a function of active area using alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuki, E-mail: y.sato@riken.jp [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Morita, Yasunari [NOK Corporation, 4-3-1 Tsujido-Shinmachi, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 251-0042 (Japan); Kanno, Ikuo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan)

    2014-02-11

    We have fabricated radiation detectors using p-type indium antimonide crystals grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). The current–voltage curves, energy spectra of alpha particles, and energy resolutions obtained using two different InSb detectors were compared. The alpha-particle energy resolutions were 1.8% at 24 and 42 K, using the LPE–InSb detector with wafer size of 1.0×1.5 mm{sup 2}.

  15. Low-temperature growth of fully epitaxial CoFe/Ge/Fe3Si layers on Si for vertical-type semiconductor spintronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S.; Kawano, M.; Ikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Yamada, S.; Hamaya, K.

    2017-09-01

    We develop a low-temperature growth technique of epitaxial Ge layers on a body-centered-cubic ferromagnetic metal (bcc-FM), Fe3Si, by combining solid phase epitaxy (SPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The insertion of an SPE-grown Ge layer enables two-dimensional epitaxial growth of Ge layers by MBE even at a growth temperature of ∼175 {}\\circ C. Thanks to the relatively flat surface of the Ge epilayers, we can obtain an epitaxial CoFe (bcc-FM) layer on top of the Ge layers, leading to the all-epitaxial CoFe/Ge/Fe3Si trilayer with a reasonable magnetization reversal process. We believe that the all-epitaxial CoFe/Ge/Fe3Si trilayer has great potential to be utilized as novel vertical-type Ge-channel spintronic devices.

  16. Purification and preparation of bismuth(III) iodide for application as radiation semiconductor detector; Purificacao e preparacao do cristal semicondutor de iodeto de bismuto para aplicacao como detector de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Caue de Mello

    2016-11-01

    This study describes the experimental procedure of a BiI{sub 3} purification method powder, aiming a future application of these semiconductor crystals as room temperature radiation detector. The Repeated Vertical Bridgman Technique was applied for the purification, based on the melting and nucleation phenomena. An ampoule filled with a maximum of 25% by volume of BiI{sub 3} powder was mounted into the Bridgman furnace and vertically moved at a speed of 2 millimeters per hour, inside the furnace with programmed thermal gradient and temperature profile, at a temperature maximum of 530 deg C. The reduction of the impurities in the BiI{sub 3}, each purification, was analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), in order to evaluate the efficiency of the purification technique established in this work, for trace metal impurities. It was demonstrated that the Repeated Bridgman is effective to reduce the concentration of many impurities in BiI{sub 3}, such as Ag, As, Br, Cr, K, Mo, Na and Sb. The crystalline structure of the BiI{sub 3} crystal purified twice and third times was similar to the BiI{sub 3} pattern. However, for BiI{sub 3} powder and purified once an intensity contribution of the BiOI was observed in the diffractograms. It is known that semiconductor detectors fabricated from high purity crystal exhibit significant improvement in their performance compared to those produced from low purity crystals. (author)

  17. Space Detectors for Gamma Rays (100 MeV-100 GeV): from Egret to Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The design of spaceborne high-energy (E is greater than 100 MeV) gamma-ray detectors depends on two principal factors: (1) the basic physics of detecting and measuring the properties of the gamma rays; and (2) the constraints of operating such a detector in space for an extended period. Improvements in technology have enabled major advances in detector performance, as illustrated by two successful instruments, EGRET on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and LAT on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  18. Semiconductor sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Frank, E-mail: frank.hartmann@cern.c [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT, Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, Karlsruhe 76131 (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  19. Production of D* mesons in photon-photon collisions at $\\sqrt{s}_{ee}$ = 183 GeV and 189 GeV using the OPAL detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Patt, J

    2000-01-01

    The inclusive production of D*/sup +or-/ mesons in photon-photon collisions has been measured using the OPAL detector at LEP at e/sup +/e/sup -/ centre-of-mass energies square root (s/sub ee/) of 183 and 189 GeV. The D*/sup +/ mesons are reconstructed in their decay to D /sup 0/ pi /sup +/ with the D/sup 0/ observed in the two decay modes K/sup -/ pi /sup +/ and K/sup -/ pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ pi /sup +/. After background subtraction, 121+or-14 (stat.) D*/sup +or-/ events have been selected. Jets are reconstructed using a cone jet finding algorithm to separate direct and single-resolved events. Differential cross-sections d sigma /dp/sub T//sup D/* and d sigma /d eta /sup D /* as functions of the D*/sup +or-/ transverse momentum p/sub T//sup D/* and pseudorapidity eta /sup D/* are presented in the kinematic region 2

    GeV and eta /sup D/*<1.5. They are compared to next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations. The total cross-section for the process e/sup +/e/sup - / to ...

  20. Prompt emission from GRB 150915A in the GeV energy range detected at ground by the New-Tupi detector

    CERN Document Server

    Augusto, C R A; de Oliveira, M N; Nepomuceno, A A; Kopenkin, V; Sinzi, T

    2016-01-01

    Since 2014, a new detector (New-Tupi) consisting of four plastic scintillators ($150 \\times 75 \\times 5 cm^3$) placed in pairs and located in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, has been used for the search of transient solar events and photomuons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). On September 15, 2015, at 21:18:24 UT, the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) triggered and located GRB 150915A (trigger 655721). The GRB light curve shows a weak complex structure of long duration $T_{90}=164.7 \\pm 49.7 $ sec, and a fluence in the 15-150 keV band of $8.0 \\pm 1.8 \\times 10^{-7}erg/cm^2$. GRB 150915A was fortuitously located in the field of view of the New-Tupi detector, and a search for prompt emission in the GeV energy range is presented here. The analysis was made using the "scaler" or "single-particle" technique. The New-Tupi detector registered a muon excess peak of 6.1s duration with a signal significance $6.9\\sigma$, the signal was within the T90 duration of the Swift BAT GRB, with an estimated fluence $4.8 \\times 10^...

  1. Characterization of a broad energy germanium detector and application to neutrinoless double beta decay search in Ge-76

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, M; Brugnera, R; Cattadori, C M; D'Andragora, A; di Vacri, A; Garfagnini, A; Laubenstein, M; Pandola, L; Ur, C A

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a 630 g commercial broad energy germanium (BEGe) detector has been systematically investigated. Energy resolution, linearity, stability vs. high-voltage (HV) bias, thickness and uniformity of dead layers have been measured and found to be excellent. Special attention has been dedicated to the study of the detector response as a function of bias HV. The nominal depletion voltage being 3000 V, the detector under investigation shows a peculiar behavior for biases around 2000 V: in a narrow range of about 100 V the charge collection is strongly reduced. The detector seems to be composed by two parts: a small volume around the HV contact where charges are efficiently collected as at higher voltage, and a large volume where charges are poorly collected. A qualitative explanation of this behavior is presented. An event-by-event pulse shape analysis based on A/E (maximum amplitude of the current pulse over the total energy released in the detector) has been applied to events in different energy reg...

  2. Energy Parameters of Interfacial Layers in Composite Systems: Graphene – (Si, Cu, Fe, Co, Au, Ag, Al, Ru, Hf, Pb and Semiconductor (Si,Ge – (Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Au, Cr, W, Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Koman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics relations and the surface physics phenomena we calculate adhesion and energy parameters to characterize the interfacial interactions in graphene – (Si, Cu, Fe, Co, Au, Ag, Al, Ru, Hf, Pb and semiconductor (Si, Ge – (Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Au, Cr, W, Pb systems. We analyze trends of the interfacial energy, interfacial tension, work of adhesion and the energy of adhesive bonds on the contacting element’s atomic number in the periodic table and on the electronegativity difference of interacting elements. Thus, this work provides theoretical basis for the development of new composite materials.

  3. Biggest semiconductor installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Scientists and technicians at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, commonly known by its French acronym CERN (Centre Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire), have completed the installation of the largest semiconductor silicon detector.

  4. Charged-particle multiplicities in $pp$ interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Ackers, M; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adorisio, C; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, H; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Åkesson, P F; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Aktas, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Aleppo, M; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, J; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Ambrosini, G; Ambrosio, G; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amoros, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonelli, S; Antos, J; Antunovic, B; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J F; Argyropoulos, T; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arms, K E; Armstrong, S R; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Arutinov, D; Asai, M; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asner, D; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Athar, B; Atoian, G; Aubert, B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Austin, N; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Bachy, G; Backes, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Baranov, S P; Baranov, S; Barashkou, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; 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Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernardet, K; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertin, A; Bertinelli, F; Bertolucci, S; Besana, M I; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieri, M; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Binder, M; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bischof, R; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanch, O; Blanchard, J B; Blanchot, G; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Boaretto, C; Bobbink, G J; Bocci, A; Bocian, D; Bock, R; Boehler, M; Boehm, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A; Bondarenko, V G; Bondioli, M; Bonino, R; Boonekamp, M; Boorman, G; Boosten, M; Booth, C N; Booth, P S L; Booth, P; Booth, J R A; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borer, K; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Botterill, D; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boulahouache, C; 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Davies, M; Davison, A R; Dawson, I; Dawson, J W; Daya, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; De Lotto, B; De Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; de Saintignon, P; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S; Deberg, H; Dedes, G; Dedovich, D V; Defay, P O; Degenhardt, J; Dehchar, M; Deile, M; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delpierre, P; Delruelle, N; Delsart, P A; Deluca, C; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demirkoz, B; Deng, J; Deng, W; Denisov, S P; Dennis, C; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; DeWilde, B; Dhaliwal, S; Dhullipudi, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M A; Diaz Gomez, M M; Diblen, F; Diehl, E B; Dietl, H; Dietrich, J; Dietzsch, T A; Diglio, S; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D J; Dionisi, C; Dipanjan, R; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djilkibaev, R; Djobava, T; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Doan, T K O; Dobbs, M; Dobinson, R; Dobos, D; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; Dodd, J; Dogan, O B; Doglioni, C; Doherty, T; Doi, Y; Dolejsi, J; Dolenc, I; Dolezal, Z; Dolgoshein, B A; Dohmae, T; Domingo, E; Donega, M; Donini, J; Dopke, J; Doria, A; Dos Anjos, A; Dosil, M; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Dowell, J D; Doxiadis, A; Doyle, A T; Dragic, J; Drakoulakos, D; Drasal, Z; Drees, J; Dressnandt, N; Drevermann, H; Driouichi, C; Dris, M; Drohan, J G; Dubbert, J; Dubbs, T; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Dudarev, A; Dudziak, F; Dührssen, M; Dür, H; Duerdoth, I P; Duflot, L; Dufour, M A; Dunford, M; Duran Yildiz, H; Dushkin, A; Duxfield, R; Dwuznik, M; Dydak, F; Dzahini, D; Düren, M; Ebenstein, W L; Ebke, J; Eckert, S; Eckweiler, S; Edmonds, K; Edwards, C A; Efthymiopoulos, I; Egorov, K; Ehrenfeld, W; Ehrich, T; Eifert, T; Eigen, G; Einsweiler, K; Eisenhandler, E; Ekelof, T; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M; Elles, S; Ellinghaus, F; Ellis, K; Ellis, N; Elmsheuser, J; Elsing, M; Ely, R; Emeliyanov, D; Engelmann, R; Engl, A; Epp, B; Eppig, A; Erdmann, J; Ereditato, A; Eremin, V; Eriksson, D; Ermoline, I; Ernst, J; Ernst, M; Ernwein, J; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Escobar, C; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B; Etienne, F; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evans, H; Evdokimov, V N; Fabbri, L; Fabre, C; Facius, K; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Falou, A C; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farley, J; Farooque, T; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fatholahzadeh, B; Fayard, L; Fayette, F; Febbraro, R; Federic, P; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W; Feligioni, L; Felzmann, C U; Feng, C; Feng, E J; Fenyuk, A B; Ferencei, J; Ferland, J; Fernandes, B; Fernando, W; Ferrag, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrara, V; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, A; 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    2010-01-01

    The first measurements from proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. Data were collected in December 2009 using a minimum-bias trigger during collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, and the relationship between mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured for events with at least one charged particle in the kinematic range |eta|500 MeV. The measurements are compared to Monte Carlo models of proton-proton collisions and to results from other experiments at the same centre-of-mass energy. The charged-particle multiplicity per event and unit of pseudorapidity at eta = 0 is measured to be 1.333 +/- 0.003 (stat.) +/- 0.040 (syst.), which is 5-15% higher than the Monte Carlo models predict.

  5. Charged-particle multiplicities in $pp$ interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, P.F.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Ambrosini, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Athar, B.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, M.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartheld, V.; Bartko, H.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Bathe, S.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger, G.A.N.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belymam, A.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieri, M.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Binder, M.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bischof, R.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanch, O.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Boaretto, C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Bocian, D.; Bock, R.; Boehler, M.; Boehm, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Bonino, R.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Boosten, M.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.S.L.; Booth, P.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borer, K.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyer, B.H.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozhko, N.I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Braccini, S.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Brambilla, E.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Bravo, S.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Bright-Thomas, P.G.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    The first measurements from proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. Data were collected in December 2009 using a minimum-bias trigger during collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, and the relationship between mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured for events with at least one charged particle in the kinematic range |eta|500 MeV. The measurements are compared to Monte Carlo models of proton-proton collisions and to results from other experiments at the same centre-of-mass energy. The charged-particle multiplicity per event and unit of pseudorapidity at eta = 0 is measured to be 1.333 +/- 0.003 (stat.) +/- 0.040 (syst.), which is 5-15% higher than the Monte Carlo models predict.

  6. Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated from an amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Vissers, M. R.; Marsili, F.; Pappas, D. P.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    We present the characteristics of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) fabricated from amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin-films. Fabricated devices show a saturation of the internal detection efficiency at temperatures below 1 K, with system dark count rates below 500 cps. Operation in a closed-cycle cryocooler at 2.5 K is possible with system detection efficiencies exceeding 20% for SNSPDs which have not been optimized for high detection efficiency. Jitter is observed to vary between 69 ps at 250 mK and 187 ps at 2.5 K using room temperature amplifiers.

  7. Possible application of scintillation detectors with semiconductor PMT for cosmic-neutron and gamma-ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrousov, M. I.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Karpushkina, N. E.; Malakhov, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Solar system planets exploration and cosmic neutrons and gamma-ray flux research have been dynamically evolving for several decades. Different scintillation crystals are used for this purpose along with photo signal receivers, such as vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Many studies are being performed in order to provide alternative devices for photon signal capture: PIN-diodes,avalanche photodiodes, semiconductor silicon photomultipliers. We study the applicability of a silicon PMT in employing highresolution crystals in space applications.

  8. Possible application of scintillation detectors with semiconductor PMT for cosmic-neutron and gamma-ray detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokrousov, M. I., E-mail: mokromax@iki.rssi.ru; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Karpushkina, N. E.; Malakhov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (IKI) (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Solar system planets exploration and cosmic neutrons and gamma-ray flux research have been dynamically evolving for several decades. Different scintillation crystals are used for this purpose along with photo signal receivers, such as vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Many studies are being performed in order to provide alternative devices for photon signal capture: PIN-diodes,avalanche photodiodes, semiconductor silicon photomultipliers. We study the applicability of a silicon PMT in employing highresolution crystals in space applications.

  9. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  10. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  11. Glass Transitions, Semiconductor-Metal Transitions, and Fragilities in Ge -V -Te (V =As , Sb) Liquid Alloys: The Difference One Element Can Make

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuai; Coleman, Garrett J.; Lucas, Pierre; Angell, C. Austen

    2017-03-01

    Glass-transition temperatures (Tg ) and liquid fragilities are measured along a line of constant Ge content in the system Ge-As-Te, and contrasted with the lack of glass-forming ability in the twin system Ge-Sb-Te at the same Ge content. The one composition established as free of crystal contamination in the latter system shows a behavior opposite to that of a more covalent system. The comparison of Tg vs bond density in the three systems Ge-As-chalcogen differing in chalcogen, i.e., S, Se, or Te, shows that as the chalcogen becomes more metallic, i.e., in the order S ambient pressure) melting point.

  12. Search for An Annual Modulation in Three Years of CoGeNT Dark Matter Detector Data

    CERN Document Server

    Aalseth, C E; Colaresi, J; Collar, J I; Leon, J Diaz; Fast, J E; Fields, N E; Hossbach, T W; Knecht, A; Kos, M S; Marino, M G; Miley, H S; Miller, M L; Orrell, J L; Yocum, K M

    2014-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are well-established dark matter candidates. WIMP interactions with sensitive detectors are expected to display a characteristic annual modulation in rate. We release a dataset spanning 3.4 years of operation from a low-background germanium detector, designed to search for this signature. A previously reported modulation persists, concentrated in a region of the energy spectrum populated by an exponential excess of unknown origin. Its phase and period agree with phenomenological expectations, but its amplitude is a factor $\\sim$4-7 larger than predicted for a standard WIMP galactic halo. We consider the possibility of a non-Maxwellian local halo velocity distribution as a plausible explanation, able to help reconcile recently reported WIMP search anomalies.

  13. Low Mass Dimuon Production in p-A Collisions at 400 GeV/c with the NA60 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Uras, Antonio; De Falco, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The NA60 experiment has studied low-mass muon pair production in proton-nucleus collisions with a system of Be, Cu, In, W, Pb and U targets using a 400 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN SPS. The mass spectrum is well described by the superposition of the two-body and Dalitz decays of the light neutral mesons eta, rho, omega, eta' and phi. A new measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factors of the eta and omega was performed. The values found agree with the previous available measurements, improving their uncertainty thanks to the higher statistics, and confirm the discrepancy with the prediction of the Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) model in the case of the electromagnetic form factor of the omega meson; for this latter, the comparison of the data to an improved calculation including also a direct point-like term is discussed. The pT spectra for the omega and phi mesons are studied in the full pT range accessible, up to pT = 2 GeV/c. The pT spectrum of the eta meson is also considered, starting from pT...

  14. Hard-X and gamma-ray imaging detector for astrophysics based on pixelated CdTe semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, J.-L.; Hernanz, M.; Álvarez, L.; Artigues, B.; Ullán, M.; Lozano, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Cabruja, E.; Martínez, R.; Chmeissani, M.; Puigdengoles, C.

    2016-01-01

    Stellar explosions are astrophysical phenomena of great importance and interest. Instruments with high sensitivities are essential to perform detailed studies of cosmic explosions and cosmic accelerators. In order to achieve the needed performance, a hard-X and gamma-ray imaging detector with mm spatial resolution and large enough efficiency is required. We present a detector module which consists of a single CdTe crystal of 12.5 × 12.5mm 2 and 2mm thick with a planar cathode and with the anode segmented in an 11x11 pixel array with a pixel pitch of 1 mm attached to the readout chip. Two possible detector module configurations are considered: the so-called Planar Transverse Field (PTF) and the Parallel Planar Field (PPF). The combination of several modules in PTF or PPF configuration will achieve the desired performance of the imaging detector. The sum energy resolution of all pixels of the CdTe module measured at 122 keV and 356 keV is 3.8% and 2% respectively, in the following operating conditions: PPF irradiation, bias voltage -500 V and temperature -10̂ C.

  15. Display of a high-pT H → ZZ* → eeμμ decay (mH = 130 GeV), after full simulation and reconstruction in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    The four leptons and the recoiling jet with ET = 135 GeV are clearly visible. Hits in the Inner Detector are shown in green for the four reconstructed leptons, both for the precision tracker (pixel and silicon micro-strip detectors) at the inner radii and for the transition radiation tracker at the outer radii. The other tracks reconstructed with pT > 0.5 GeV in the Inner Detector are shown in blue. The two electrons are depicted as reconstructed tracks in yellow and their energy deposits in each layer of the electromagnetic LAr calorimeter are shown in red. The two muons are shown as combined reconstructed tracks in orange, with the hit strips in the resistive-plate chambers and the hit drift tubes in the monitored drift-tube chambers visible as white lines in the barrel muon stations. The energy deposits from the muons in the barrel tile calorimeter can also be seen in purple.

  16. Nanoimprinted Hybrid Metal-Semiconductor Plasmonic Multilayers with Controlled Surface Nano Architecture for Applications in NIR Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram A. Khosroabadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a proof of concept for tunable plasmon resonance frequencies in a core shell nano-architectured hybrid metal-semiconductor multilayer structure, with Ag as the active shell and ITO as the dielectric modulation media. Our method relies on the collective change in the dielectric function within the metal semiconductor interface to control the surface. Here we report fabrication and optical spectroscopy studies of large-area, nanostructured, hybrid silver and indium tin oxide (ITO structures, with feature sizes below 100 nm and a controlled surface architecture. The optical and electrical properties of these core shell electrodes, including the surface plasmon frequency, can be tuned by suitably changing the order and thickness of the dielectric layers. By varying the dimensions of the nanopillars, the surface plasmon wavelength of the nanopillar Ag can be tuned from 650 to 690 nm. Adding layers of ITO to the structure further shifts the resonance wavelength toward the IR region and, depending on the sequence and thickness of the layers within the structure, we show that such structures can be applied in sensing devices including enhancing silicon as a photodetection material.

  17. Fluorescence-suppressed time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojalin, Tatu; Kurki, Lauri; Laaksonen, Timo; Viitala, Tapani; Kostamovaara, Juha; Gordon, Keith C; Galvis, Leonardo; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Strachan, Clare J; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we utilize a short-wavelength, 532-nm picosecond pulsed laser coupled with a time-gated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector to acquire Raman spectra of several drugs of interest. With this approach, we are able to reveal previously unseen Raman features and suppress the fluorescence background of these drugs. Compared to traditional Raman setups, the present time-resolved technique has two major improvements. First, it is possible to overcome the strong fluorescence background that usually interferes with the much weaker Raman spectra. Second, using the high photon energy excitation light source, we are able to generate a stronger Raman signal compared to traditional instruments. In addition, observations in the time domain can be performed, thus enabling new capabilities in the field of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. With this system, we demonstrate for the first time the possibility of recording fluorescence-suppressed Raman spectra of solid, amorphous and crystalline, and non-photoluminescent and photoluminescent drugs such as caffeine, ranitidine hydrochloride, and indomethacin (amorphous and crystalline forms). The raw data acquired by utilizing only the picosecond pulsed laser and a CMOS SPAD detector could be used for identifying the compounds directly without any data processing. Moreover, to validate the accuracy of this time-resolved technique, we present density functional theory (DFT) calculations for a widely used gastric acid inhibitor, ranitidine hydrochloride. The obtained time-resolved Raman peaks were identified based on the calculations and existing literature. Raman spectra using non-time-resolved setups with continuous-wave 785- and 532-nm excitation lasers were used as reference data. Overall, this demonstration of time-resolved Raman and fluorescence measurements with a CMOS SPAD detector shows promise in diverse areas, including fundamental chemical research, the

  18. Optimal configuration of a low-dose breast-specific gamma camera based on semiconductor CdZnTe pixelated detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genocchi, B.; Pickford Scienti, O.; Darambara, DG

    2017-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequent tumours in women. During the ‘90s, the introduction of screening programmes allowed the detection of cancer before the palpable stage, reducing its mortality up to 50%. About 50% of the women aged between 30 and 50 years present dense breast parenchyma. This percentage decreases to 30% for women between 50 to 80 years. In these women, mammography has a sensitivity of around 30%, and small tumours are covered by the dense parenchyma and missed in the mammogram. Interestingly, breast-specific gamma-cameras based on semiconductor CdZnTe detectors have shown to be of great interest to early diagnosis. Infact, due to the high energy, spatial resolution, and high sensitivity of CdZnTe, molecular breast imaging has been shown to have a sensitivity of about 90% independently of the breast parenchyma. The aim of this work is to determine the optimal combination of the detector pixel size, hole shape, and collimator material in a low dose dual head breast specific gamma camera based on a CdZnTe pixelated detector at 140 keV, in order to achieve high count rate, and the best possible image spatial resolution. The optimal combination has been studied by modeling the system using the Monte Carlo code GATE. Six different pixel sizes from 0.85 mm to 1.6 mm, two hole shapes, hexagonal and square, and two different collimator materials, lead and tungsten were considered. It was demonstrated that the camera achieved higher count rates, and better signal-to-noise ratio when equipped with square hole, and large pixels (> 1.3 mm). In these configurations, the spatial resolution was worse than using small pixel sizes (< 1.3 mm), but remained under 3.6 mm in all cases.

  19. In vivo dosimetry with semiconductor and thermoluminescent detectors applied to head and neck cancer treatment; Dosimetria in vivo com uso de detectores semicondutores e termoluminescentes aplicada ao tratamento de cancer de cabeca e pescoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viegas, Claudio Castelo Branco

    2003-03-15

    In vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy, i. e, the assessment of the doses received by patients during their treatments, permits a verification of the therapy quality. A routine of in vivo dosimetry is, undoubtedly, a direct benefit for the patient. Unfortunately, in Brazil and in Latin America this procedure is still a privilege for only a few patients. This routine is of common application only in developed countries. The aim of this work is to show the viability and implementation of a routine in vivo dosimetry, using diodes semiconductors and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), at the radiotherapy section of the National Institute of Cancer in Brazil, in the case of head and neck cancer treatment. In order to reach that aim, the characteristics of the response of diodes ISORAD-p and LiF:Mg;Ti (TLD-100) thermoluminescent detectors in powder form were determined. The performance of those detectors for in vivo dosimetry was tested using an RANDO Alderson anthropomorfic phantom and, once their adequacy proved for the kind of measurements proposed, they were used for dose assessment in the case of tumour treatments in the head and neck regions, for Cobalt-60 irradiations. (author)

  20. Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Radiation Detectors: Science Fiction, Horror Story, or Headlines (460th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Ralph (BNL Nonproliferation and National Security Department)

    2010-08-18

    With radiation constantly occurring from natural sources all around us -- from food, building materials, and rays from the sun, to name a few -- detecting radiotracers for medical procedures and other radiation to keep people safe is not easy. In order to make better use of radiation to diagnose or treat certain health conditions, or to track radiological materials being transported, stored, and used, the quest is on to develop improved radiation detectors. James gives a brief introduction on radiation detection and explain how it is used in applications ranging from medical to homeland security. He then discusses how new materials and better ways to analyze them here at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and the future NSLS-II will lead to a new class of radiation detectors that will provide unprecedented advances in medical and industrial imaging, basic science, and the nonproliferation of nuclear materials.

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Parallel readout of two-element CdZnTe detectors with real-time digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhubin, Shi; Linjun, Wang; Kaifeng, Qin; Jiahua, Min; Jijun, Zhang; Xiaoyan, Liang; Jian, Huang; Ke, Tang; Yiben, Xia

    2010-12-01

    Readout electronics, especially digital electronics, for two-element CdZnTe (CZT) detectors in parallel are developed. The preliminary results show the detection efficiency of the two-element CZT detectors in parallel with analog electronics is as many as 1.8 and 2.1 times the single ones, and the energy resolution (FWHM) is limited by that of the single one by the means of analog electronics. However, the digital method for signal processing will be sufficiently better by contrast with an analog method especially in energy resolution. The energy resolution by the means of digital electronics can be improved by about 26.67%, compared to that only with analog electronics, while their detection efficiency is almost the same. The cause for this difference is also discussed.

  2. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, Roberto; Ettore Gigante, Giovanni; Castellano, Alfredo

    1999-06-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te and HgI{sub 2}, coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 {mu}m, an area of about 2x3 mm{sup 2}, an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 {mu}m. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching {approx}9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te detector has an area of 4 mm{sup 2} and a thickness of 3 mm. It has an energy resolution of about 300 eV at 5.9 keV, and an efficiency of 100% over the whole range of X-rays. Finally the HgI{sub 2} detector has an efficiency of about 100% in the whole range of X-rays, and an energy resolution of about 200 eV at 5.9 keV. Coupled to a small 50-60 kV, 1 mA, W-anode X-ray tube, portable systems can be constructed, for the analysis of practically all elements. These systems were applied to analysis in the field of archaeometry and in all applications for which portable systems are needed or at least useful (for example X-ray transmission measurements, X-ray microtomography and so on). Results of in-field use of these detectors and a comparison among these room temperature detectors in relation to concrete applications are presented. More specifically, concerning EDXRF analysis, ancient gold samples were analysed in Rome, in Mexico City and in Milan, ancient bronzes in Sassari, in Bologna, in

  3. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesareo, Roberto; Ettore Gigante, Giovanni; Castellano, Alfredo

    1999-06-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd1-xZnxTe and HgI 2, coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 μm, an area of about 2×3 mm 2, an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 μm. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching ˜9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd 1- xZn xTe detector has an area of 4 mm 2 and a thickness of 3 mm. It has an energy resolution of about 300 eV at 5.9 keV, and an efficiency of 100% over the whole range of X-rays. Finally the HgI 2 detector has an efficiency of about 100% in the whole range of X-rays, and an energy resolution of about 200 eV at 5.9 keV. Coupled to a small 50-60 kV, 1 mA, W-anode X-ray tube, portable systems can be constructed, for the analysis of practically all elements. These systems were applied to analysis in the field of archaeometry and in all applications for which portable systems are needed or at least useful (for example X-ray transmission measurements, X-ray microtomography and so on). Results of in-field use of these detectors and a comparison among these room temperature detectors in relation to concrete applications are presented. More specifically, concerning EDXRF analysis, ancient gold samples were analysed in Rome, in Mexico City and in Milan, ancient bronzes in Sassari, in Bologna, in Chieti and in Naples, and sulfur (due to pollution

  4. Nanoscale strain distributions in embedded SiGe semiconductor devices revealed by precession electron diffraction and dual lens dark field electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. Y. [IBM Micro-Electronics Division, 2070 Route 52, Hopewell Junction, New York 12570 (United States); Cooper, D.; Bernier, N. [University Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rouviere, J. [University Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Murray, C. E.; Bruley, J. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Route 134, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2015-01-26

    The detailed strain distributions produced by embedded SiGe stressor structures are measured at high spatial resolution with high precision, with dual lens dark field electron holography and precession electron diffraction. Shear strain and lattice rotation within the crystalline lattice are observed at the boundaries between the SiGe and Si regions. The experimental results are compared to micromechanical modeling simulations to understand the mechanisms of elastic relaxation on all the modes of deformation at a sub-micron length scale.

  5. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Liu, C. W.; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Chung, Hua; Chang, Chorng-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells are grown on a 300 mm Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The direct bandgap emission from strained GeSn is observed in the photoluminescence spectra and is enhanced by Al2O3/SiO2 passivation due to the field effect. The electroluminescence of the direct bandgap emission of strained GeSn is also observed from the Ni/Al2O3/GeSn metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes. Electroluminescence is a good indicator of GeSn material quality, since defects in GeSn layers degrade the electroluminescence intensity significantly. At the accumulation bias, the holes in the Ni gate electrode tunnel to the strained n-type GeSn layer through the ultrathin Al2O3 and recombine radiatively with electrons. The emission wavelength of photoluminescence and electroluminescence can be tuned by the Sn content.

  6. A metal-semiconductor-metal detector based on ZnO nanowires grown on a graphene layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Cheng, Qijin; Zhong, Jinxiang; Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Zifeng; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Fengyan

    2014-02-01

    High quality ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a graphene layer by a hydrothermal method. The ZnO NWs revealed higher uniform surface morphology and better structural properties than ZnO NWs grown on SiO2/Si substrate. A low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector based on ZnO NWs with Au Schottky contact has also been fabricated. The photodetector displays a low dark current of 1.53 nA at 1 V bias and a large UV-to-visible rejection ratio (up to four orders), which are significantly improved compared to conventional ZnO NW photodetectors. The improvement in UV detection performance is attributed to the existence of a surface plasmon at the interface of the ZnO and the graphene.

  7. The Effect of Metal-Semiconductor Contact on the Transient Photovoltaic Characteristic of HgCdTe PV Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient photovoltaic (PV characteristic of HgCdTe PV array is studied using an ultrafast laser. The photoresponse shows an apparent negative valley first, then it evolves into a positive peak. By employing a combined theoretical model of pn junction and Schottky potential, this photo-response polarity changing curves can be interpreted well. An obvious decreasing of ratio of negative valley to positive peak can be realized by limiting the illumination area of the array electrode. This shows that the photoelectric effect of Schottky barrier at metal-semiconductor (M/S interface is suppressed, which will verify the correctness of the model. The characteristic parameters of transient photo-response induced from p-n junction and Schottky potential are extracted by fitting the response curve utilizing this model. It shows that the negative PV response induced by the Schottky barrier decreases the positive photovoltage generated by the pn junction.

  8. A metal-semiconductor-metal detector based on ZnO nanowires grown on a graphene layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Cheng, Qijin; Zhong, Jinxiang; Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Zifeng; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Fengyan

    2014-02-07

    High quality ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a graphene layer by a hydrothermal method. The ZnO NWs revealed higher uniform surface morphology and better structural properties than ZnO NWs grown on SiO2/Si substrate. A low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector based on ZnO NWs with Au Schottky contact has also been fabricated. The photodetector displays a low dark current of 1.53 nA at 1 V bias and a large UV-to-visible rejection ratio (up to four orders), which are significantly improved compared to conventional ZnO NW photodetectors. The improvement in UV detection performance is attributed to the existence of a surface plasmon at the interface of the ZnO and the graphene.

  9. The effect of metal-semiconductor contact on the transient photovoltaic characteristic of HgCdTe PV detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haoyang; Xu, Yongpeng; Yang, Junjie; Tang, Naiyun; Tang, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The transient photovoltaic (PV) characteristic of HgCdTe PV array is studied using an ultrafast laser. The photoresponse shows an apparent negative valley first, then it evolves into a positive peak. By employing a combined theoretical model of pn junction and Schottky potential, this photo-response polarity changing curves can be interpreted well. An obvious decreasing of ratio of negative valley to positive peak can be realized by limiting the illumination area of the array electrode. This shows that the photoelectric effect of Schottky barrier at metal-semiconductor (M/S) interface is suppressed, which will verify the correctness of the model. The characteristic parameters of transient photo-response induced from p-n junction and Schottky potential are extracted by fitting the response curve utilizing this model. It shows that the negative PV response induced by the Schottky barrier decreases the positive photovoltage generated by the pn junction.

  10. Pixel CdTe semiconductor module to implement a sub-MeV imaging detector for astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, J.-L.; Hernanz, M.; Álvarez, L.; Artigues, B.; Álvarez, J.-M.; Ullán, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Cabruja, E.; Martínez, R.; Chmeissani, M.; Puigdengoles, C.

    2017-03-01

    Stellar explosions are relevant and interesting astrophysical phenomena. Since long ago we have been working on the characterization of nova and supernova explosions in X and gamma rays, with the use of space missions such as INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and Swift. We have been also involved in feasibility studies of future instruments in the energy range from several keV up to a few MeV, in collaboration with other research institutes, such as GRI, DUAL and e-ASTROGAM. High sensitivities are essential to perform detailed studies of cosmic explosions and cosmic accelerators, e.g., Supernovae, Classical Novae, Supernova Remnants (SNRs), Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). In order to fulfil the combined requirement of high detection efficiency with good spatial and energy resolution, an initial module prototype based on CdTe pixel detectors is being developed. The detector dimensions are 12.5mm x 12.5mm x 2mm, with a pixel pitch of 1mm x 1mm. Each pixel is bump bonded to a fanout board made of Sapphire substrate and routed to the corresponding input channel of the readout ASIC, to measure pixel position and pulse height for each incident gamma-ray photon. An ohmic CdTe pixel detector has been characterised by means of 57Co, 133Ba and 22Na sources. Based on this, its spectroscopic performance and the influence of charge sharing is reported here. The pixel study is complemented by the simulation of the CdTe module performance using the GEANT 4 and MEGALIB tools, which will help us to optimise the pixel size selection.

  11. Performance of Geant4 in simulating semiconductor particle detector response in the energy range below 1 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Soti, G.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Finlay, P.; Kraev, I.S.; Knecht, A.; Porobic, T.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2013-01-01

    Geant4 simulations play a crucial role in the analysis and interpretation of experiments providing low energy precision tests of the Standard Model. This paper focuses on the accuracy of the description of the electron processes in the energy range between 100 and 1000 keV. The effect of the different simulation parameters and multiple scattering models on the backscattering coefficients is investigated. Simulations of the response of HPGe and passivated implanted planar Si detectors to \\beta{} particles are compared to experimental results. An overall good agreement is found between Geant4 simulations and experimental data.

  12. Electrical properties of Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with high-k La2O3 gate dielectric incorporated by N or/and Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huoxi, Xu; Jingping, Xu

    2016-06-01

    LaON, LaTiO and LaTiON films are deposited as gate dielectrics by incorporating N or/and Ti into La2O3 using the sputtering method to fabricate Ge MOS capacitors, and the electrical properties of the devices are carefully examined. LaON/Ge capacitors exhibit the best interface quality, gate leakage property and device reliability, but a smaller k value (14.9). LaTiO/Ge capacitors exhibit a higher k value (22.7), but a deteriorated interface quality, gate leakage property and device reliability. LaTiON/Ge capacitors exhibit the highest k value (24.6), and a relatively better interface quality (3.1 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2), gate leakage property (3.6 × 10-3 A/cm2 at V g = 1 V + V fb) and device reliability. Therefore, LaTiON is more suitable for high performance Ge MOS devices as a gate dielectric than LaON and LaTiO materials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274112), the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (No. 2011CDB165), and the Scientific Research Program of Huanggang Normal University (No. 2012028803).

  13. Design and development of SiGe based near-infrared photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, John W.; Puri, Yash R.; Sood, Ashok K.; McMahon, Shane; Efsthadiatis, Harry; Haldar, Pradeep; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2014-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) sensors operating at room temperatures are critical for a variety of commercial and military applications including detecting mortar fire and muzzle flashes. SiGe technology offers a low-cost alternative to conventional IR sensor technologies such as InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe for developing NIR micro-sensors that will not require any cooling and can operate with high bandwidths and comparatively low dark currents. Since Ge has a larger thermal expansion coefficient than Si, tensile strain may be incorporated into detector devices during the growth process, enabling an extended operating wavelength range above 1600 nm. SiGe based pin photodetectors have advantages of high stability, low noise, and high responsivity compared to metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices. We have developed a process flow and are fabricating SiGe detector devices on 12" (300 mm) silicon wafers in order to take advantage of high throughput, large-area leading-edge silicon based CMOS technology that provides small feature sizes with associated device cost/density scaling advantages. The fabrication of the detector devices is facilitated by a two-step growth process incorporating initial low temperature growth of Ge/SiGe to form a thin strain-relaxed layer, followed by high temperature growth to deposit a thicker absorbing film, and subsequent high temperature anneal. This growth process is designed to effectively reduce dark current and enhance detector performance by reducing the number of defects and threading dislocations which form recombination centers during the growth process. Various characterization techniques have been employed to determine the properties of the epitaxially deposited Ge/SiGe layers, and the corresponding results are discussed.

  14. Theoretical consideration of the energy resolution in planar HPGe detectors for low energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samedov, Victor V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoye Shosse, 115409, Moscow, (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    In this work, theoretical consideration of the processes in planar High Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors for low energy X-rays using the random stochastic processes formalism was carried out. Using the random stochastic processes formalism, the generating function of the processes of X-rays registration in a planar HPGe detector was derived. The power serial expansions of the detector amplitude and the variance in terms of the inverse bias voltage were derived. The coefficients of these expansions allow determining the Fano factor, electron mobility lifetime product, nonuniformity of the trap density, and other characteristics of the semiconductor material. (authors)

  15. Investigation of a direction sensitive sapphire detector stack at the 5 GeV electron beam at DESY-II

    CERN Document Server

    Karacheban, O; Hempel, M; Henschel, H; Lange, W; Leonard, J L; Levy, I; Lohmann, W; Schuwalow, S

    2015-01-01

    Extremely radiation hard sensors are needed in particle physics experiments to instrument the region near the beam pipe. Examples are beam halo and beam loss monitoring systems at the Large Hadron Collider, FLASH or XFEL. Artificial diamond sensors are currently widely used as sensors in these systems. In this paper single crystal sapphire sensors are considered as a promising alternative. Industrially grown sapphire wafers are available in large sizes, are of low cost and, like diamond sensors, can be operated without cooling. Here we present results of an irradiation study done with sapphire sensors in a high intensity low energy electron beam. Then, a multichannel direction-sensitive sapphire detector stack is described. It comprises 8 sapphire plates of 1 cm^2 size and 525 micrometer thickness, metallized on both sides, and apposed to form a stack. Each second metal layer is supplied with a bias voltage, and the layers in between are connected to charge-sensitive preamplifiers. The performance of the dete...

  16. Measurement of underlying event characteristics using charged particles in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmed, Hossain; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Antunovic, Bijana; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Belhorma, Bouchra; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bischof, Reinhard; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Boaretto, Christian; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Rudolf; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Booth, Peter; Booth, Richard; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Braccini, Saverio; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Brambilla, Elena; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Brett, Nicolas; Bright-Thomas, Paul; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brubaker, Erik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Buis, Ernst-Jan; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caccia, Massimo; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camard, Arnaud; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Cammin, Jochen; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Caprio, Mario; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carpentieri, Carmen; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavallari, Alvise; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Cazzato, Antonio; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerna, Cedric; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervetto, Mario; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Li; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Tcherniatine, Valeri; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Coluccia, Rita; Comune, Gianluca; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Correard, Sebastien; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cuneo, Stefano; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, Aline; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dahlhoff, Andrea; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dankers, Reinier; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; De La Taille, Christophe; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; de Saintignon, Paul; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedes, George; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Deile, Mario; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Dennis, Chris; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diaz Gomez, Manuel Maria; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietl, Hans; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Dogan, Ozgen Berkol; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Drohan, Janice; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Düren, Michael; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falou, Alain; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fasching, Damon; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Ivan; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferguson, Douglas; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Ferro, Fabrizio; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flammer, Joachim; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Föhlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Fopma, Johan; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gieraltowski, Gerry; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gildemeister, Otto; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gollub, Nils Peter; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gong, Chenwei; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Gorski, Boguslaw Tomasz; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanère, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Gruwe, Magali; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Härtel, Roland; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Christian Johan; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harper, Devin; Harper, Robert; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hart, John; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heldmann, Michael; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Hendriks, Patrick John; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hindson, Daniel; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Hollins, Ivan; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homer, Jim; Homma, Yasuhiro; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hott, Thomas; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Mark; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joo, Kwang; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Jorgensen, Sigrid; Joseph, John; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Kazi, Sandor Istvan; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kilvington, Graham; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; König, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasel, Olaf; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Krobath, Gernot; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambacher, Marion; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lapin, Vladimir; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Wing; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Leahu, Marius; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; Lechowski, Matthieu; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee JR, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lehto, Mark; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Lepidis, Johannes; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Lim, Heuijin; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Lovas, Lubomir; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Jiansen; Lu, Liang; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lynn, James; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maaßen, Michael; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Magrath, Caroline; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makouski, Mikhail; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Mangin-Brinet, Mariane; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Mann, Anthony; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchesotti, Marco; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Maß, Martin; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGarvie, Scott; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McMahon, Tania; McMahon, Tom; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Merkl, Doris; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Migliaccio, Agostino; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikulec, Bettina; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Miscetti, Stefano; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitra, Ankush; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohn, Bjarte; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Moneta, Lorenzo; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moye, Tamsin; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muijs, Sandra; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nasteva, Irina; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Nauyock, Farah; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neukermans, Lionel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nicholson, Caitriana; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Odino, Gian Andrea; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, Concepcion; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Ordonez, Gustavo; Oreglia, Mark; Orellana, Frederik; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ottewell, Brian; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Øye, Ola; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozone, Kenji; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Palmer, Matt; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Paoloni, Alessandro; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Su-Jung; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peeters, Simon Jan Marie; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Peric, Ivan; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petereit, Emil; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rajek, Silke; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renkel, Peter; Rensch, Bertram; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Roa Romero, Diego Alejandro; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rottländer, Iris; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmidt, Michael; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schreiner, Alexander; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schroers, Marcel; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schweiger, Dietmar; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Stefanidis, Efstathios; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stodulski, Marek; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Siva; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Gary; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Tevlin, Christopher; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Treis, Johannes; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Typaldos, Dimitrios; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Ventura, Silvia; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vertogardov, Leonid; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Viret, Sébastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale, Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vovenko, Anatoly; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Wastie, Roy; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Stephanie; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zdrazil, Marian; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zema, Pasquale Federico; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Anton; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zilka, Branislav; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of charged particle distributions, sensitive to the underlying event, have been performed with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements are based on data collected using a minimum-bias trigger to select proton{proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The "underlying event" is defined as those aspects of a hadronic interaction attributed not to the hard scattering process, but rather to the accompanying interactions of the rest of the proton. Three regions are defined in azimuthal angle with respect to the the highest-$p_T$ charged particle in the event, such that the region transverse to the dominant momentum-flow is most sensitive to the underlying event. In each of these regions, distributions of the charged particle multiplicity, $p_T$ density, and average $p_T$ are measured. The data show a higher underlying event activity than that predicted by Monte Carlo models tuned to pre-LHC data.

  17. Measurement of underlying event characteristics using charged particles in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmed, Hossain; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Antunovic, Bijana; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Belhorma, Bouchra; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bischof, Reinhard; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of charged particle distributions, sensitive to the underlying event, have been performed with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements are based on data collected using a minimum-bias trigger to select proton{proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The "underlying event" is defined as those aspects of a hadronic interaction attributed not to the hard scattering process, but rather to the accompanying interactions of the rest of the proton. Three regions are defined in azimuthal angle with respect to the the highest-$p_T$ charged particle in the event, such that the region transverse to the dominant momentum-flow is most sensitive to the underlying event. In each of these regions, distributions of the charged particle multiplicity, $p_T$ density, and average $p_T$ are measured. The data show a higher underlying event activity than that predicted by Monte Carlo models tuned to pre-LHC data.

  18. Growth and characterization of rutile TiO2 nanorods on various substrates with fabricated fast-response metal-semiconductor-metal UV detector based on Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Abbas M.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-07-01

    Rutile-phase titanium dioxide nanorods (NRs) were synthesized successfully on p-type silicon (Si) (1 1 1), c-plane sapphire (Al2O3), glass coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), glass, and quartz substrates via chemical bath deposition method. All substrates were seeded with a TiO2 seed layer synthesized with a radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering system prior to NRs growth. The effect of substrate type on structural, morphological, and optical properties of rutile TiO2 NRs was studied. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy analyses showed the tetragonal rutile structure of the synthesized TiO2 NRs. Optical properties were examined with photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy of the grown rutile NRs on all substrates, with the spectra exhibiting one strong ultraviolet emission peak intensity compared with broad visible peak. The optimal sample of rutile NRs was grown on Si substrate. Thus, a fast-response metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet (UV) detector was fabricated. Upon exposure to 365 nm light (2.3 mW/cm2) at 5 V bias, the device displays 2.62 × 10-5 A photocurrent, and the response and recovery times are calculated as 18.5 and 19.1 ms, respectively. These results demonstrate that the fabricated high-quality photodiode is a promising candidate as a low-cost UV photodetector for commercially integrated photoelectronic applications.

  19. Search for scalar diphoton resonances in the mass range 65-600 GeV with the ATLAS detector in pp collision data at √s = 8 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aad, G.; et al., [Unknown; Aben, R.; Angelozzi, I.; Beemster, L.J.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bos, K.; Boterenbrood, H.; Butti, P.; Castelli, A.; Colijn, A.P.; de Jong, P.; de Nooij, L.; Deigaard, I.; Deluca, C.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dhaliwal, S.; Ferrari, P.; Gadatsch, S.; Geerts, D.A.A.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P.; Hod, N.; Igonkina, O.; Kluit, P.; Koffeman, E.; Lee, H.; Linde, F.; Mahlstedt, J.; Mechnich, J.; Oussoren, K.P.; Pani, P.; Salek, D.; Valencic, N.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P.C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Leeuw, R.; van Vulpen, I.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vreeswijk, M.; Weits, H.

    2014-01-01

    A search for scalar particles decaying via narrow resonances into two photons in the mass range 65-600 GeV is performed using 20.3  fb−1 of √s=8  TeV pp collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The recently discovered Higgs boson is treated as a background. No s

  20. Tuning Bandgap of p-Type Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 Semiconductor Thin Films via Aqueous Polymer-Assisted Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qinghua; Wu, Jiang; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Hao; Hu, Jiapeng; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu

    2017-01-18

    Bandgap engineering of kesterite Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 with well-controlled stoichiometric composition plays a critical role in sustainable inorganic photovoltaics. Herein, a cost-effective and reproducible aqueous solution-based polymer-assisted deposition approach is developed to grow p-type Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films with tunable bandgap. The bandgap of Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films can be tuned within the range 1.05-1.95 eV using the aqueous polymer-assisted deposition by accurately controlling the elemental compositions. One of the as-grown Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films exhibits a hall coefficient of +137 cm(3)/C. The resistivity, concentration and carrier mobility of the Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 thin film are 3.17 ohm·cm, 4.5 × 10(16) cm(-3), and 43 cm(2)/(V·S) at room temperature, respectively. Moreover, the Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 thin film when used as an active layer in a solar cell leads to a power conversion efficiency of 3.55%. The facile growth of Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films in an aqueous system, instead of organic solvents, provides great promise as an environmental-friendly platform to fabricate a variety of single/multi metal chalcogenides for the thin film industry and solution-processed photovoltaic devices.

  1. Ge(Li) detector gamma-ray spectrometer system for measurement of the spectra and production cross sections of. gamma. -rays produced by 14 MeV neutron nonelastic interaction with nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Ronglin; Shi Xiamin; Wu Yongshun; Xing Jinjiang; Ding Dazhao

    1982-02-01

    A 42 cm/sup 3/ Ge(Li) detector gamma-ray spectrometer system for measuring the spectra and the production cross sections of ..gamma..-rays produced by fast neutron nonelastic interaction with nuclei is described in this paper. The incident neutrons are produced by T(d,n)/sup 4/He reaction in an high tension set with the incident deuteron energy of 200 keV. The time of flight technique is used to discriminate between the scattered neutrons and gamma-rays resulting from nonelastic interaction. The ..cap alpha..-particles are picked up by a Si(Au) surface barrier detector and the ARC timing discriminaters are used in both Si(Au) and Ge(Li) channels. The overall time resolution (FWHM) of this system is 4.1 ns typically for energy selection threshold at 400keV. The block diagram of spectrometer system is described in detail. The complex complete shielding damage of Ge(Li) detector in this fast neutron field is well discussed.

  2. An upgraded drift–diffusion model for evaluating the carrier lifetimes in radiation-damaged semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lopez, J., E-mail: fjgl@us.es [Dept of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); CNA (U. Sevilla, J. Andalucia, CSIC), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jimenez-Ramos, M.C.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M. [CNA (U. Sevilla, J. Andalucia, CSIC), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Forneris, J. [Physics Dept./NIS Centre, University of Torino, INFN-Sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ceballos, J. [Institute of Microelectronics of Seville, IMSE-CNM (CSIC/University of Seville), Seville 41092 (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    The transport properties of a series of n- and p-type Si diodes have been studied by the ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique using a 4 MeV proton microbeam. The samples were irradiated with 17 MeV protons at fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 12} to 1 × 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2} in order to produce a uniform profile of defects with depth. The analysis of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) as a function of the reverse bias voltage has been carried out using an upgraded drift–diffusion (D–D) model which takes into account the possibility of carrier recombination not only in the neutral substrate, as the simple D–D model assumes, but also within the depletion region. This new approach for calculating the CCE is fundamental when the drift length of carriers cannot be considered as much greater that the thickness of the detector due to the ion induced damage. From our simulations, we have obtained the values of the carrier lifetimes for the pristine and irradiated diodes, which have allowed us to calculate the effective trapping cross sections using the one dimension Shockley–Read–Hall model. The results of our calculations have been compared to the data obtained using a recently developed Monte Carlo code for the simulation of IBIC analysis, based on the probabilistic interpretation of the excess carrier continuity equations.

  3. Measurement of gamma-ray intensities of sup 2 sup 3 sup 1 Th using semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chatani, H

    1999-01-01

    Nuclide sup 2 sup 3 sup 1 Th was yielded by the sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th(n, 2n) reaction with neutron irradiation in the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). Moreover, the thorium was purified chemically. Gamma-ray spectra of thorium have been measured using low-energy photon spectrometers and a high-purity germanium detector. Relative gamma-ray intensities ranging from 25 to 352 keV in the decay of sup 2 sup 3 sup 1 Th have been determined with satisfactory accuracy. The results are in very good agreement with those of earlier studies. We observe two new gamma-rays at 77.69 and 177.66 keV, whose intensities are found to be (0.063+-0.010)% and (0.00095+-0.00020)%, respectively, relative to that of 84.21 keV taken as 100%. Absolute intensity of 84.21 keV gamma-ray which is the most prominent one from the decay of sup 2 sup 3 sup 1 Th and that of 185.739 keV following the decay of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U are also determined from the secular equilibrium for sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U- sup 2 sup 3 sup 1 Th. The results obtained in t...

  4. Structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of the novel quaternary diamond-like semiconductors Cu2MgSiS4 and Cu2MgGeS4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedjaoui, A.; Bouhemadou, A.; Aloumi, S.; Khenata, R.; Bin-Omran, S.; Al-Douri, Y.; Saad Saoud, F.; Bensalem, S.

    2017-08-01

    The structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of two newly synthetized quaternary diamond-like semiconductors Cu2MgSiS4 and Cu2MgGeS4 were studied in detail using two complementary first-principles approaches. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic moduli and their related properties, including elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, elastic anisotropy indexes, Pugh's criterion, elastic wave velocities and Debye temperature, were predicted. We find that the inclusion of the electronic exchange-correlation through the newly developed Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential (TB-mBJ) improves the description of the electronic structure. The TB-mBJ yields a direct band gap (Γ-Γ) of 2.64 and 1.54 eV for Cu2MgSiS4 and Cu2MgGeS4, respectively. Frequency dependence of the dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, reflectivity, energy loss function and optical conductivity were predicted and the origin of the observed electronic transitions were assigned.

  5. Magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihler, Christoph

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis we investigated in detail the properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P, and Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films with a focus on the magnetic anisotropy and the changes of their properties upon hydrogenation. We applied two complementary spectroscopic techniques to address the position of H in magnetic semiconductors: (i) Electron paramagnetic resonance, which provides direct information on the symmetry of the crystal field of the Mn{sup 2+} atoms and (ii) x-ray absorption fine structure analysis which allows to probe the local crystallographic neighborhood of the absorbing Mn atom via analysing the fine structure at the Mn K absorption edge. Finally, we discussed the obstacles that have to be overcome to achieve Curie temperatures above the current maximum in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As of 185 K. Here, we outlined in detail the generic problem of the formation of precipitates at the example of Ge:MN. (orig.)

  6. Lattice-Matched Semiconductor Layers on Single Crystalline Sapphire Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang; King, Glen; Park, Yeonjoon

    2009-01-01

    SiGe is an important semiconductor alloy for high-speed field effect transistors (FETs), high-temperature thermoelectric devices, photovoltaic solar cells, and photon detectors. The growth of SiGe layer is difficult because SiGe alloys have different lattice constants from those of the common Si wafers, which leads to a high density of defects, including dislocations, micro-twins, cracks, and delaminations. This innovation utilizes newly developed rhombohedral epitaxy of cubic semiconductors on trigonal substrates in order to solve the lattice mismatch problem of SiGe by using trigonal single crystals like sapphire (Al2O3) as substrate to give a unique growth-orientation to the SiGe layer, which is automatically controlled at the interface upon sapphire (0001). This technology is different from previous silicon on insulator (SOI) or SGOI (SiGe on insulator) technologies that use amorphous SiO2 as the growth plane. A cubic semiconductor crystal is a special case of a rhombohedron with the inter-planar angle, alpha = 90 deg. With a mathematical transformation, all rhombohedrons can be described by trigonal crystal lattice structures. Therefore, all cubic lattice constants and crystal planes (hkl) s can be transformed into those of trigonal crystal parameters. These unique alignments enable a new opportunity of perfect lattice matching conditions, which can eliminate misfit dislocations. Previously, these atomic alignments were thought to be impossible or very difficult. With the invention of a new x-ray diffraction measurement method here, growth of cubic semiconductors on trigonal crystals became possible. This epitaxy and lattice-matching condition can be applied not only to SiGe (111)/sapphire (0001) substrate relations, but also to other crystal structures and other materials, including similar crystal structures which have pointgroup rotational symmetries by 120 because the cubic (111) direction has 120 rotational symmetry. The use of slightly miscut (less than

  7. Space charge sign inversion and electric field reconstruction in 24 GeV/c proton-irradiated MCz Si p$^+$-n(TD)-n$^+$ detectors processed via thermal donor introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z; Carini, G; Chen, W; Eremin, V; Gul, R; Harkonen, J; Li, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of radiation effects in detectors based on p-type magnetic czochralski (MCz) Si that was converted to n-type by thermal donor (TD) introduction. As-processed p+-p-n+ detectors were annealed at 430 °C resulting in p+-n(TD)-n+ structures. The space charge sign and the electric field distribution E(x) in MCz Si p+-n(TD)-n+ detectors irradiated by 24 GeV/c protons were analyzed using the data on the current pulse response and the Double Peak (DP) electric field distribution model for heavily irradiated detectors. The approach considers an irradiated detector as a structure with three regions in which the electric field depends on the coordinate, and the induced current pulse response arises from the drift process of free carriers in the detector with variable electric field. Reconstruction of the E(x) profile from the pulse response shapes is performed employing a new method for DP electric field reconstruction. This method includes: (a) a direct extraction of charge loss ...

  8. Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with HfTaO{sub x} gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S., E-mail: sandi.iitkgp@gmail.com [Dept. of Electronics and ECE, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Mahata, C.; Hota, M.K. [Dept. of Electronics and ECE, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Sarkar, C.K. [Dept. of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Maiti, C.K. [Dept. of Electronics and ECE, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2011-10-31

    Interfacial reactions and electrical properties of RF sputter deposited HfTaO{sub x} high-k gate dielectric films on Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x = 19%) are investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses indicate an interfacial layer containing GeO{sub x}, Hf silicate, SiO{sub x} (layer of Hf-Si-Ge-O) formation during deposition of HfTaO{sub x}. No evidence of Ta-silicate or Ta incorporation was found at the interface. The crystallization temperature of HfTaO{sub x} film is found to increase significantly after annealing beyond 500 deg. C (for 5 min) along with the incorporation of Ta. HfTaO{sub x} films (with 18% Ta) remain amorphous up to about 500 deg. C anneal. Electrical characterization of post deposition annealed (in oxygen at 600 deg. C) samples showed; capacitance equivalent thickness of {approx} 4.3-5.7 nm, hysteresis of 0.5-0.8 V, and interface state density = 1.2-3.8 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}. The valence and conduction band offsets were determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra after careful analyses of the experimental data and removal of binding energy shift induced by differential charging phenomena occurring during X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements. The valence and conduction band offsets were found to be 2.45 {+-} 0.05 and 2.31 {+-} 0.05 eV, respectively, and a band gap of 5.8 {+-} 05 eV was found for annealed samples.

  9. Application of a CZT detector to in situ environmental radioactivity measurement in the Fukushima area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowatari, M; Kubota, T; Shibahara, Y; Fujii, T; Fukutani, S; Takamiya, K; Mizuno, S; Yamana, H

    2015-11-01

    Instead of conventional Ge semiconductor detectors and NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers, an application of a CdZnTe semiconductor (CZT) whose crystal has the dimension of 1 cm cubic to the in situ environmental radioactivity measurement was attempted in deeply affected areas in Fukushima region. Results of deposition density on soil for (134)Cs/(137)Cs obtained seemed consistent, comparing obtained results with those measured by the Japanese government. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Semiconductor crystal high resolution imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Craig S. (Inventor); Matteson, James (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A radiation imaging device (10). The radiation image device (10) comprises a subject radiation station (12) producing photon emissions (14), and at least one semiconductor crystal detector (16) arranged in an edge-on orientation with respect to the emitted photons (14) to directly receive the emitted photons (14) and produce a signal. The semiconductor crystal detector (16) comprises at least one anode and at least one cathode that produces the signal in response to the emitted photons (14).

  11. Search for a Standard Model Higgs boson in the mass range 200-600 GeV in the $H \\to ZZ \\to l^+l^-q\\bar{q}$ decay channel with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    A search for a heavy Standard Model Higgs boson decaying via $H \\to ZZ \\to l^+l^-q\\bar{q}$, where $l=e$ or $\\mu$, is presented. The search uses a data set of pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb$^{-1}$ collected in 2011 by the ATLAS detector at the CERN LHC. No significant excess of events above the estimated background is found. Upper limits at 95% confidence level on the production cross section of a Higgs boson with a mass in the range between 200 and 600 GeV are derived. A Standard Model Higgs boson with a mass in the range 300 $\\le m_H \\le$ 322 GeV or 353 $\\le m_H \\le$ 410 GeV is excluded at 95% CL. The corresponding expected exclusion range is 351 $\\le m_H \\le$ 404 GeV at 95% CL.

  12. Search for a Standard Model Higgs boson in the mass range 200-600 GeV in the $H \\to ZZ \\to l^+l^-q\\bar{q}$ decay channel with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Å kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Å sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    A search for a heavy Standard Model Higgs boson decaying via $H \\to ZZ \\to l^+l^-q\\bar{q}$, where $l=e$ or $\\mu$, is presented. The search uses a data set of pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb$^{-1}$ collected in 2011 by the ATLAS detector at the CERN LHC. No significant excess of events above the estimated background is found. Upper limits at 95% confidence level on the production cross section of a Higgs boson with a mass in the range between 200 and 600 GeV are derived. A Standard Model Higgs boson with a mass in the range 300 $\\le m_H \\le$ 322 GeV or 353 $\\le m_H \\le$ 410 GeV is excluded at 95% CL. The corresponding expected exclusion range is 351 $\\le m_H \\le$ 404 GeV at 95% CL.

  13. Strain and lattice orientation distribution in SiN/Ge complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible light emitting microstructures by quick x-ray nano-diffraction microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahine, G. A.; Schülli, T. U. [European Synchrotron ESRF, Grenoble 38043 (France); Zoellner, M. H.; Guha, S.; Reich, C.; Zaumseil, P.; Capellini, G. [IHP-Leibniz Institute for Innovative Microelectronics, Frankfurt (Germany); Richard, M.-I. [European Synchrotron ESRF, Grenoble 38043 (France); Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IM2NP UMR 7334, Marseille 13397 (France); Schroeder, T. [IHP-Leibniz Institute for Innovative Microelectronics, Frankfurt (Germany); Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Brandenburg Technical University, Cottbus 03046 (Germany)

    2015-02-16

    This paper presents a study of the spatial distribution of strain and lattice orientation in CMOS-fabricated strained Ge microstripes using high resolution x-ray micro-diffraction. The recently developed model-free characterization tool, based on a quick scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy technique can image strain down to levels of 10{sup −5} (Δa/a) with a spatial resolution of ∼0.5 μm. Strain and lattice tilt are extracted using the strain and orientation calculation software package X-SOCS. The obtained results are compared with the biaxial strain distribution obtained by lattice parameter-sensitive μ-Raman and μ-photoluminescence measurements. The experimental data are interpreted with the help of finite element modeling of the strain relaxation dynamics in the investigated structures.

  14. GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaojian; Cheng, Buwen; Xue, Chunlai; Wang, Wei; Cao, Quan; Xue, Haiyun; Hu, Weixuan; Zhang, Guangze; Zuo, Yuhua; Wang, Qiming

    2011-03-28

    Using a 820 nm-thick high-quality Ge0.97Sn0.03 alloy film grown on Si(001) by molecular beam epitaxy, GeSn p-i-n photodectectors have been fabricated. The detectors have relatively high responsivities, such as 0.52 A/W, 0.23 A/W, and 0.12 A/W at 1310 nm, 1540 nm, and 1640 nm, respectively, under a 1 V reverse bias. With a broad detection spectrum (800-1800 nm) covering the whole telecommunication windows and compatibility with conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) technology, the GeSn devices are attractive for applications in both optical communications and optical interconnects.

  15. MSM-Metal Semiconductor Metal Photo-detector Using Black Silicon Germanium (SiGe) for Extended Wavelength Near Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    they produced that microstructure using only halogenated etching gas (sulfur hexafluoride [ SF6 ]), the spectral absorbance of light was extended well...infrared imaging. In 2003, Mazur and colleagues reported that using femtosecond laser processing coupled with halogenated etching gas could produce...metal-masked, wet-chemical etching approach versus a femtosecond gas -phase etching process, and (2) we used in-situ boron doping p≈5x10 19 /cm 3

  16. Research on an FM/cw ladar system using a 64 × 64 InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal self-mixing focal plane array of detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Sun, Jianfeng; Cong, Mingyu

    2017-04-01

    Frequency-modulated/continuous-wave imaging systems are a focal plane array (FPA) ladar architecture that is applicable to smart munitions, reconnaissance, face recognition, robotic navigation, etc. In this paper, we report a 64×64 pixel FPA ladar system we built using a 1550 nm amplified laser diode transmitter and an InAlAs/InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal self-mixing detector array and the test results attained over the years it was constructed. Finally, we gained 4D imaging (3D range + 1D intensity) of the target with the range of 220 m.

  17. A ΔE-E semiconductor detector combined with CsI(Tl) crystal for monitoring the relative electrons flux generated in interaction of accelerated nuclei beam on thin targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruceru, M.; Afanasiev, S.; Dryablov, D.; Dubinchik, B.; Igamkulov, Z.

    2015-07-01

    Experimental data are presented, obtained with a ΔE-E semiconductor detector combined with a CsI(Tl) inorganic scintillator crystal. The interaction between a beam of accelerated nuclei and thin targets is analyzed. We show that, as a result of this interaction, the secondary particles, including δ-electrons, are generated. In the case of δ-electrons it is possible to study the beam characteristics and the nature of interaction processes, which is of great interest in high-energy interaction.

  18. Evaluation of clinical use of OneDose™ metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors compared to thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure skin dose for adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Ibrahim Al-Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total body irradiation is a protocol used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients prior to their bone marrow transplant. It involves the treatment of the whole body using a large radiation field with extended source-skin distance. Therefore, it is important to measure and monitor the skin dose during the treatment. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs and the OneDose™ metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET detectors are used during treatment delivery to measure the radiation dose and compare it with the target prescribed dose. Aims: The primary goal of this study was to measure the variation of skin dose using OneDose MOSFET detectors and TLD detectors, and compare the results with the target prescribed dose. The secondary aim was to evaluate the simplicity of use and determine if one system was superior to the other in clinical use. Material and Methods : The measurements involved twelve adult patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. TLD and OneDose MOSFET dosimetry were performed at ten different anatomical sites of each patient. Results : The results showed that there was a variation between skin dose measured with OneDose MOSFET detectors and TLD in all patients. However, the variation was not significant. Furthermore, the results showed for every anatomical site there was no significant different between the prescribed dose and the dose measured by either TLD or OneDose MOSFET detectors. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the OneDose MOSFET and TLDs in comparison to the target prescribed dose. However, OneDose MOSFET detectors give a direct read-out immediately after the treatment, and their simplicity of use to compare with TLD detectors may make them preferred for clinical use.

  19. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Hsuan Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  20. Metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  1. Cross section and coupling measurements with the ATLAS detector for the 125 GeV Higgs Boson in the fermion decay channels

    CERN Document Server

    Gregersen, Kristian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the properties of the 125 GeV Higgs boson are fundamental for the understanding of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. Measurements of the Higgs boson in fermion final states allow to study the Yukawa couplings of the Higgs boson through the decay mode and the gauge couplings of the Higgs boson through the production mode. This talk summarizes ATLAS measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson in decays involving b, tau and mu.

  2. Coherent magnetic semiconductor nanodot arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Faxian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In searching appropriate candidates of magnetic semiconductors compatible with mainstream Si technology for future spintronic devices, extensive attention has been focused on Mn-doped Ge magnetic semiconductors. Up to now, lack of reliable methods to obtain high-quality MnGe nanostructures with a desired shape and a good controllability has been a barrier to make these materials practically applicable for spintronic devices. Here, we report, for the first time, an innovative growth approach to produce self-assembled and coherent magnetic MnGe nanodot arrays with an excellent reproducibility. Magnetotransport experiments reveal that the nanodot arrays possess giant magneto-resistance associated with geometrical effects. The discovery of the MnGe nanodot arrays paves the way towards next-generation high-density magnetic memories and spintronic devices with low-power dissipation.

  3. Measurement of the reaction {gamma}p{yields}K{sup 0}{sigma}{sup +} for photon energies up to 2.65 GeV with the SAPHIR detector at ELSA; Messung der Reaktion {gamma}p {yields} K{sup 0}{sigma}{sup +} fuer Photonenergien bis 2.65 GeV mit dem SAPHIR-Detektor an ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawall, R.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction {gamma}p {yields} K{sup 0}{sigma}{sup +} was measured with the SAPHIR-detector at ELSA during the run periods 1997 and 1998. Results were obtained for cross sections in the photon energy range from threshold up to 2.65 GeV for all production angles and for the {sigma}{sup +}-polarization. Emphasis has been put on the determination and reduction of the contributions of background reactions and the comparison with other measurements and theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  4. Inclusive D meson production with the Mark II detector at SPEAR. [3. 9 to 7. 4 GeV (c. m. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, M.W.

    1980-09-01

    Neutral and charged D meson production cross sections were measured at center-of-mass energies between 3.9 GeV and 7.4 GeV. The quantity R/sub D/(=(sigma/sub D/sup +/+D/sup -// + sigma/sub D/sup 0/+ anti D/sup 0//)/2 sigma/sub ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -//) is equal to 2 at 4 GeV and 4.4 GeV and about equal to 1 elsewhere. R/sub D/ + 2.5 approximately equals R (sigma/sub hadrons//sigma/sub ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -//) at all energies. The exclusive cross sections for e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation into D anti D, D* anti D, and D* anti D* were measured at center-of-mass energies between 3.9 GeV and 4.3 GeV. sigma/sub D* anti D*/ decreases with increasing center-of-mass energy from 6.6 +- 1.3 nb near 4 GeV to 3.6 +- .9 nb near 4.3 GeV. sigma/sub D* anti D/ also decreases from 4.2 +- .9 nb to 1.8 +- .6 nb over the same energy region. sigma/sub D anti D/ is less than 0.5 +- .3 nb at all energies. The branching fractions for D*/sup +/ and D* decay were measured. B/sub D*/sup 0/..-->..D/sup 0/..pi../sup 0// = 0.5 +- .09, B/sub D*/sup +/..-->..D/sup 0/..pi../sup +// = 0.44 +- .10, and B/sub D*/sup +/..-->..D/sup +/..pi../sup 0// = 0.31 +- .07. At 5.2 GeV, the D meson differential cross section is well described by phase space for e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. D anti D..pi pi.. or D* anti D*..pi pi... Sd sigma/dz was parameterized as A(1-z)/sup n/ with n = 0.9 +- .4. Quasi-two-body production accounts for less than 20% of the total D cross section. No evidence was found for associated charmed baryon-D meson production. An upper limit of 0.4 nb (90% confidence level) was determined for associated production. 41 figures, 12 tables.

  5. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum sta...

  6. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  7. Cross section and coupling measurements with the ATLAS detector for the 125 GeV Higgs Boson in the diboson decay channels

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Tiesheng; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    To understand the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism, the detailed measurements of the properties of the 125 GeV Higgs boson are essential. The Higgs boson decaying into the diboson final states allow to study the gauge and loop induced couplings of the Higgs boson both in production and decay modes. This talk summarizes ATLAS measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson cross-sections and couplings from final diboson state involving W, Z or photons based on 36.1 fb-1 ATLAS 13 Tev data.

  8. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Prospects of a β-SiC based IMPATT oscillator for application in THz communication and growth of a β-SiC p—n junction on a Ge modified Si (100) substrate to realize THz IMPATTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Moumita; Mazumder, Nilratan

    2010-12-01

    The prospects of a p+nn+ cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC/β-SiC) based IMPATT diode as a potential solid-state terahertz source is studied for the first time through a modified generalized simulation scheme. The simulation predicts that the device is capable of generating an RF power output of 63.0 W at 0.33 THz with an efficiency of 13%. The effects of parasitic series resistance on the device performance and exploitable RF power level are further simulated. The studies clearly establish the potential of 3C-SiC as a base semiconductor material for a high-power THz IMPATT device. Based on the simulation results, an attempt has been made to fabricate β-SiC based IMPATT devices in the THz region. Single crystalline, epitaxial 3C-SiC films are deposited on silicon (Si) (100) substrates by rapid thermal chemical vapour deposition (RTPCVD) at a temperature as low as 800 °C using a single precursor methylsilane, which contains Si and C atoms in the same molecule. No initial surface carbonization step is required in this method. A p—n junction with an n-type doping concentration of 4 × 1024 m-3 (which is similar to the simulated design data) has been grown successfully and the characterization of the grown 3C-SiC film is reported in this paper. It is found that the inclusion of Ge improves the crystal quality and reduces the surface roughness.

  9. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1987-01-01

    In-depth exploration of the implications of carrier populations and Fermi energies examines distribution of electrons in energy bands and impurity levels of semiconductors. Also: kinetics of semiconductors containing excess carriers, particularly in terms of trapping, excitation, and recombination.

  10. Hyperon production in proton-nucleus collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 41.6 GeV at HERA-B and design of silicon microstrip detectors for tracking at LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agari, Michaela

    2006-07-01

    The topics of this thesis are the measurements of hyperon production in protonnucleus collisions at {radical}(s)=41.6 GeV with the Hera-B detector located at DESY, Hamburg (Germany), and the design of silicon microstrip sensors for the LHCb experiment at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). {lambda}, {xi} and {omega} hyperons and their antiparticles were reconstructed from 113.5 . 10{sup 6} inelastic collisions of protons with fixed carbon, titanium and tungsten targets. With these samples, antiparticle-to-particle ratios, cross sections integrated for the accessible kinematic region of Hera-B and single differential cross sections as function of transverse momentum, d{sigma}/dp{sub T}{sup 2} (for {lambda} and {xi}) and rapidity, d{sigma}/dy (for {lambda} only), have been been measured as well as the dependence of these quantities on the atomic number of the target nucleus, as parameterized using the Glauber model. The obtained ratios follow the same trend as found for the energy dependence of measurements from nucleus-nucleus collisions. Silicon microstrip sensors have been designed for the tracking system of the LHCb detector. Evaluating the performance in beam tests at CERN, the strip geometry and sensor thickness were varied optimizing for a large signal-to-noise ratio, a small number of read-out channels and a low occupancy. The detector is currently being built to be operational for first proton-proton collisions in autumn 2007. (orig.)

  11. Gamma ray detector modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

  12. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  13. Measurement of the pion form factor for M_{pipi}^2 between 0.1 and 0.85 GeV^2 with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The KLOE experiment at the phi-factory DA$\\Phi$NE has measured the pion form factor in the range between 0.1 < M_{pipi}^2 < 0.85 GeV^2 using events taken at sqrt{s}= 1 GeV with a photon emitted at large polar angles in the initial state. This measurement extends the M_{pipi}^2 region covered by KLOE ISR measurements of the pion form factor down to the two pion production threshold. The value obtained in this measurement of the dipion contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment of \\Delta a_mu^{pipi} = (478.5+-2.0_{stat}+-4.8_{syst}+-2.9_{theo}) 10^{-10} further confirms the discrepancy between the Standard Model evaluation for a_mu and the experimental value measured by the (g-2) collaboration at BNL.

  14. Search for scalar diphoton resonances in the mass range 65-600 GeV with the ATLAS detector in pp collision data at √s=8 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

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    2014-10-24

    A search for scalar particles decaying via narrow resonances into two photons in the mass range 65-600 GeV is performed using 20.3  fb(-1) of √s 8 TeV pp collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The recently discovered Higgs boson is treated as a background. No significant evidence for an additional signal is observed. The results are presented as limits at the 95% confidence level on the production cross section of a scalar boson times branching ratio into two photons, in a fiducial volume where the reconstruction efficiency is approximately independent of the event topology. The upper limits set extend over a considerably wider mass range than previous searches.

  15. Search for Scalar Diphoton Resonances in the Mass Range $65-600$ GeV with the ATLAS Detector in $pp$ Collision Data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 $TeV$

    CERN Document Server

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Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibson, Stephen; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    A search for scalar particles decaying via narrow resonances into two photons in the mass range $65-600$ GeV is performed using 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV $pp$ collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The recently discovered Higgs boson is treated as a background. No significant evidence for an additional signal is observed. The results are presented as limits at the 95 % confidence level on the production cross-section of a scalar boson times branching ratio into two photons, in a fiducial volume where the reconstruction efficiency is approximately independent of the event topology. The upper limits set extend over a considerably wider mass range than previous searches.

  16. Studies of topological distributions of inclusive three- and four-jet events in p¯p collisions at s=1800 GeV with the D0 detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Álvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Chevalier, L.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; de, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Dharmaratna, W.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S. R.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gao, S. G.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Gu, W. X.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hatcher, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Tao; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jiang, J. Z.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johari, H.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnstad, H.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kernan, A.; Kerth, L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B. I.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrat, J.-F.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, Y. K.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Mandrichenko, I. V.; Mangeot, Ph.; Mani, S.; Mansoulié, B.; Mao, H. S.; Margulies, S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Marx, M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; de Mello Neto, J. R.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Milder, A.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mohammadi-Baarmand, M.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; Mudan, M.; Murphy, C.; Murphy, C. T.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neis, E.; Nemethy, P.; NešiĆ, D.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pluquet, A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Pušeljić, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rao, M. V.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rusin, S.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shao, Y. Y.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Taketani, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, T. L.; Teiger, J.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Virador, P. R.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; Wen, F.; Wenzel, W. A.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Wilcox, J.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1996-06-01

    The global topologies of inclusive three- and four-jet events produced in p¯p interactions are described. The three- and four-jet events are selected from data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider operating at a center-of-mass energy of √s=1800 GeV. The measured, normalized distributions of various topological variables are compared with parton-level predictions of tree-level QCD calculations. The parton-level QCD calculations are found to be in good agreement with the data. The studies also show that the topological distributions of the different subprocesses involving different numbers of quarks are very similar and reproduce the measured distributions well. The parton-shower Monte Carlo generators provide a less satisfactory description of the topologies of the three- and four-jet events.

  17. Studies of topological distributions of the three- and four-jet events in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1800 GeV with the D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abachi, S.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    The global topologies of three- and four-jet events produced in {bar p}p interactions are described. the three- and four-jet events are selected from data recorded by the D0 detector at the Tevatron Collider operating at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1800 GeV. the measured normalized distributions of various topological variables are compared with parton-level predictions of the tree- level QCD calculations. The parton-level QCD calculations are found to be in good agreement with the data. The studies also show that the topological distributions of the different subprocesses involving different numbers of quarks are very similar and reproduce the measured distributions well.

  18. WE-G-204-04: Focal Spot Deblurring For High Resolution Amorphous Selenium (aSe) Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) X-Ray Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagesh, S Setlur; Rana, R; Russ, M; Ionita, C; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, SUNY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: CMOS-based aSe detectors compared to CsI-TFT-based flat panels have the advantages of higher spatial sampling due to smaller pixel size and decreased blurring characteristic of direct rather than indirect detection. For systems with such detectors, the limiting factor degrading image resolution then becomes the focal-spot geometric unsharpness. This effect can seriously limit the use of such detectors in areas such as cone beam computed tomography, clinical fluoroscopy and angiography. In this work a technique to remove the effect of focal-spot blur is presented for a simulated aSe detector. Method: To simulate images from an aSe detector affected with focal-spot blur, first a set of high-resolution images of a stent (FRED from Microvention, Inc.) were acquired using a 75µm pixel size Dexela-Perkin-Elmer detector and averaged to reduce quantum noise. Then the averaged image was blurred with a known Gaussian blur at two different magnifications to simulate an idealized focal spot. The blurred images were then deconvolved with a set of different Gaussian blurs to remove the effect of focal-spot blurring using a threshold-based, inverse-filtering method. Results: The blur was removed by deconvolving the images using a set of Gaussian functions for both magnifications. Selecting the correct function resulted in an image close to the original; however, selection of too wide a function would cause severe artifacts. Conclusion: Experimentally, focal-spot blur at different magnifications can be measured using a pin hole with a high resolution detector. This spread function can be used to deblur the input images that are acquired at corresponding magnifications to correct for the focal spot blur. For CBCT applications, the magnification of specific objects can be obtained using initial reconstructions then corrected for focal-spot blurring to improve resolution. Similarly, if object magnification can be determined such correction may be applied in fluoroscopy and

  19. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Tojo, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi- Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the stri...

  20. Development of TiBr semiconductor crystal for applications as radiation detector and photodetector; Desenvolvimento do cristal semicondutor de brometo de talio para aplicacoes como detector de radiacao e fotodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Icimone Braga de

    2006-07-01

    In this work, Tlbr crystals were grown by the Bridgman method from zone melted materials. The influence of the purification efficiency and the crystalline surface quality on the crystal were studied, evaluating its performance as a radiation detector. Due to significant improvement in the purification and crystals growth, good results have been obtained for the developed detectors. The spectrometric performance of the Tlbr detector was evaluated by {sup 241}Am (59 keV), {sup 133}Ba (80 e 355 keV), {sup 57}Co (122 keV), {sup 22}Na (511 keV) and {sup 137} Cs (662 keV) at room temperature. The best energy resolution results were obtained from purer detectors. Energy resolutions of 10 keV (16%), 12 keV (15%), 12 keV (10%), 28 keV (8%), 31 keV (6%) and 36 keV (5%) to 59, 80, 122, 355, 511 and 662 keV energies, respectively, were obtained. A study on the detection response at -20 deg C was also carried out, as well as the detector stability in function of the time. No significant difference was observed in the energy resolution between measurements at both temperatures. It was observed that the detector instability causes degradation of the spectroscopic characteristics during measurements at room temperature and the instability varies for each detector. This behavior was also verified by other authors. The viability to use the developed Tlbr crystal as a photodetector coupled to scintillators crystals was also studied in this work. Due to its quantum efficiency in the region from 350 to 500 nm, Tlbr shows to be a promising material to be used as a photodetector. As a possible application of this work, the development of a surgical probe has been initiated using the developed Tlbr crystal as the radiation detector of the probe. (author)

  1. GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassenq, A; Gencarelli, F; Van Campenhout, J; Shimura, Y; Loo, R; Narcy, G; Vincent, B; Roelkens, G

    2012-12-03

    A surface-illuminated photoconductive detector based on Ge0.91Sn0.09 quantum wells with Ge barriers grown on a silicon substrate is demonstrated. Photodetection up to 2.2µm is achieved with a responsivity of 0.1 A/W for 5V bias. The spectral absorption characteristics are analyzed as a function of the GeSn/Ge heterostructure parameters. This work demonstrates that GeSn/Ge heterostructures can be used to developed SOI waveguide integrated photodetectors for short-wave infrared applications.

  2. A Search for Lepton-Flavor-Violating Decays of the 125 GeV Higgs Boson with Hadronically Decaying Tau Leptons in the 20.3 inverse fembtobarns using the $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV Dataset Collected in 2012 by the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00287453

    A Search for Lepton-Flavor-Violating Decays of the 125 GeV Higgs Boson with Hadronically Decaying Tau Leptons in the $20.3 fb^1$ proton-proton $\\sqrt{s}= 8$ TeV Dataset collected in 2012 by the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider is reported.

  3. First-principles study of defect formation in the photovoltaic semiconductors Cu2GeS3 and Cu2ZnGeS4 for comparison with Cu2SnS3, Cu2ZnSnS4, and CuInSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Hironori; Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Shigemi, Akio; Wada, Takahiro

    2017-04-01

    The formation energies of neutral Cu, Ge, and S vacancies in monoclinic Cu2GeS3 and those of neutral Cu, Zn, Ge, and S vacancies in kesterite-type Cu2ZnGeS4 were evaluated by first-principles pseudopotential calculations using plane-wave basis functions. The calculations were performed at typical points in a schematic ternary phase diagram of a Cu-Ge-S system for Cu2GeS3 and in Cu-(Zn1/2Ge1/2)-S and Cu29S16-ZnS-GeS2 pseudoternary phase diagrams for Cu2ZnGeS4. The results have been compared with those for Cu2SnS3, Cu2ZnSnS4, and CuInSe2 calculated with the same version of the CASTEP program code. The results indicate that Cu vacancies are easily formed in Cu2GeS3 and Cu2ZnGeS4 under the Cu-poor condition as in the cases of Cu2SnS3, Cu2ZnSnS4, and CuInSe2, suggesting that Cu2GeS3 and Cu2ZnGeS4 are also preferable p-type absorber materials for thin-film solar cells. Desirable preparation conditions of these thin films for photovoltaic application are discussed using the calculated formation energies of antisite defects.

  4. Electric and Magnetic Field Tunable Rectification and Magnetoresistance in FexGe1-x/Ge Heterojunction Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yu-Feng; CHEN Yan-Xue; MEI Liang-Mo; ZHANG Ze; YAN Shi-Shen; KANG Shi-Shou; XIAO Shu-Qin; LI Qiang; DAI Zheng-Kun; SHEN Ting-Ting; DAI You-Yong; LIU Guo-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Fex Ge1- x/Ge amorphous heterojunction diodes with p-Fex Ge1-x ferromagnetic semiconductor layers are grown on single-crystal Ge substrates of p-type,n-type and intrinsic semiconductors,respectively.The I-V curves of pFe0.4 Ge0.6 /p-Ge diodes only show slight changes with temperature or with magnetic field.For the p-Fe0.4 Ge0.6 /nGe diode,good rectification is maintained at room temperature.More interestingly,the I-V curve of the pFe0.4Ge0.6/i-Ge diode can be tuned by the magnetic field,indicating a large positive magnetoresistance.The resistances of the junctions decrease with the increasing temperature,suggesting a typical semiconductor transport behavior.The origin of the positive magnetoresistance is discussed based on the effect of the electric and magnetic field on the energy band structures of the interface.In the past decades,ferromagnetic semiconductors (FMSs),which can be used as spin current sources,have received much attention due to their potential application in the next generation of information technology.In 1996,Ohno et a/.… reported molecular beam epitaxial (Ga,Mn)As FMSs,which show a wellaligned ferromagnetic order and an anomalous Halleffect.In 2002,Park et al.[2]%FexGe1-x/Ge amorphous heterojunction diodes with p-FexGe1-x ferromagnetic semiconductor layers are grown on single-crystal Ge substrates of p-type, n-type and intrinsic semiconductors, respectively. The I-V curves of p-Fe0.4Geo.6/p-Ge diodes only show slight changes with temperature or with magnetic field. For the p-Fe0.4Ge0.6/n-Ge diode, good rectification is maintained at room temperature. More interestingly, the I-V curve of the p-Fe0.4Ge0.6/I-Ge diode can be tuned by the magnetic field, indicating a large positive magnetoresistance. The resistances of the junctions decrease with the increasing temperature, suggesting a typical semiconductor transport behavior. The origin of the positive magnetoresistance is discussed based on the effect of the electric and magnetic field on the

  5. Electro-magnetic physics studies at RHIC: Neutral pion production, direct photon HBT, photon elliptic flow in gold-gold collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV and the Muon Telescope Detector simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoji

    Electro-magnetic (E&M) probes such as direct photons and muons (mu) are important tools to study the properties of the extremely hot and dense matter created in heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this thesis, several topics of E&M physics will be addressed, including neutral pion (pi0) production, direct photon HBT, and photon elliptic flow (v2) in Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. A discussion on the simulation study of the new Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) will also be presented. The pi0 production is a fundamental measurement of hadron production and prerequisite for the background study of direct photons. Neutral pions are reconstructed using the photons detected by the STAR Barrel Electro-magnetic Calorimeter (BEMC) and the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Spectra of pi 0 are measured at transverse momentum 1 information of the system size throughout the whole collision. A first attempt of direct photon HBT study at RHIC in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions is done using photons detected by the STAR BEMC and TPC. All unknown correlation at small Qinv is observed, whose magnitude is much larger than the expected HBT signal, and possible causes of the correlation will be discussed. Direct photon elliptic flow (v2) at intermediate to high pT is sensitive to the source of direct photon production. Results of inclusive photon v2 in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions are presented. The v2 of pi0 decay photons is calculated from the previously published pi results. The comparison between inclusive and decay photon v 2 indicates that direct photon v2 is small. A new large-area Muon Telescope Detector at mid-rapidity at RHIC is proposed and under investigation, using the Long-strip Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber (Long-MRPC). Simulations indicate that the MTD can effectively identify mu and reject hadron backgrounds, and it can serve as a mu trigger. A beam test result of the Long-MRPC at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is also discussed.

  6. Search for the 125 GeV Higgs boson in the ttH production mode with the ATLAS detector (ID#99)

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Shuyang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This poster presents the results of a combined ttH search in the γγ, multilepton and bb decay channels using up to 13.3 fb-1 of proton-proton collison data at sqrt(s)=13 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The poster is to be shown at PANIC17, which will be held in Beijing from Sep 1st to Sep 5th.

  7. Study of point ldefect detectors in Si

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENDingyu; CHENJian; 等

    1999-01-01

    The importance of point defects in semiconductor and function materials has been studied in detail.but effective means for detecting point defects has not been available for a long time.The end of range defects in Si,produced by 140keV Ge+ implantation,were investigated as detectors for measuring the interstitial concentration created by 42keV B+ implantation.The concentration of interstitial resulting from the B+ implantation and the behavior of the interstitial flux under different annealing condition were given.The enhanced diffusion in the boron doped EPI marker,resulting from mobile non-equilibrium interstitials was demonstrated to be transient.Interstitial fluxes arising from processing can be detected by tansient enhanced diffusion(TED) of doped marker layers as well.

  8. Experimental verification of gamma-efficiency calculations for scintillation detectors in ANGLE 4 software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thabet Abouzeid A; Dlabac Aleksandar D; Jovanovic Slobodan I; Badawi Mohamed S; Mihaljevic Nikola N; El-Khatib Ahmed M; Gouda Mona M; Abbas Mahmoud I

    2015-01-01

    ANGLE software for semiconductor detector efficiency calculations - long existing and widely accepted tool in quantitative gamma spectrometry - has been recently extended to scintillation NaI detectors...

  9. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  10. Silicon Drift Detectors for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Navach, F; CERN. Geneva

    1992-01-01

    The Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) is a semiconductor, not yet extensively used in HEP experiment, which has an excellent spatial resolution and granularity about comparable to a pixel device requiring a number of readout channels two order of magnitude less.

  11. High responsivity near-infrared photodetectors in evaporated Ge-on-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorianello, V.; De Iacovo, A.; Colace, L.; Fabbri, A.; Tortora, L.; Buffagni, E.; Assanto, G.

    2012-08-01

    Germanium is considered the most suitable semiconductor for monolithic integration of near-infrared detectors on silicon photonic chips. Here we report on Ge-on-Si near-infrared photodetectors fabricated by thermal evaporation, demonstrating the use of phosphorus spin-on-dopant to compensate the acceptor states introduced by dislocations. The detectors exhibit 1.55 μm responsivities as high as 0.1 A/W, more than two orders of magnitude larger than in undoped devices and comparing well with state-of-the-art p-i-n photodiodes. This approach enables simple and low-cost monolithic integration of near-infrared sensors with silicon photonics.

  12. Ge well detector calibration by means of a trial and error procedure using the dead layers as a unique parameter in a Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtine, Fabien; Pilleyre, Thierry; Sanzelle, Serge [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Miallier, Didier [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)], E-mail: miallier@clermont.in2p3.fr

    2008-11-01

    The project aimed at modelling an HPGe well detector in view to predict its photon-counting efficiency by means of the Monte Carlo simulation code GEANT4. Although a qualitative and quantitative description of the crystal and housing was available, uncertainties were associated to parameters controlling the detector response. This induced poor agreement between the efficiency calculated on the basis of nominal data and the actual efficiency experimentally measured with a {sup 137}Cs point source. It was then decided to improve the model, by parameterization of a trial and error method. The distribution of the dead layers was adopted as a unique parameter, in order to explore the possibilities and pertinence of this parameter. In the course of the work, it appeared necessary to introduce the possibility that the thickness of the dead layers was not uniform for a given surface. At the end of the process, the results allowed to conclude that the approach was able to give a model adapted to practical application with a satisfactory precision in the calculated efficiency. The pattern of the 'dead layers' that was obtained is characterized by a variable thickness which seems to be physically relevant. It implicitly and partly accounts for effects that are not originated from actual dead layers, such as incomplete charge collection. But, such effects, which are uneasily accounted for, can, in a first approximation, be represented by 'dead layers'; this is an advantage of the parameterization that was adopted.

  13. GaN as a radiation hard particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J.; Bates, R.; Cunningham, W.; Blue, A.; Melone, J.; McEwan, F.; Vaitkus, J.; Gaubas, E.; O'Shea, V.

    2007-06-01

    Semiconductor tracking detectors at experiments such as ATLAS and LHCb at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be subjected to intense levels of radiation. The proposed machine upgrade, the Super-LHC (SLHC), to 10 times the initial luminosity of the LHC will require detectors that are ultra-radiation hard. Much of the current research into finding a detector that will meet the requirements of the SLHC has focused on using silicon substrates with enhanced levels of oxygen, for example Czochralski silicon and diffusion oxygenated float zone silicon, and into novel detector structures such as 3D devices. Another avenue currently being investigated is the use of wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN). Both SiC and GaN should be intrinsically more radiation hard than silicon. Pad and guard ring structures were fabricated on three epitaxial GaN wafers. The epitaxial GaN thickness was either 2.5 or 12 μm and the fabricated detectors were irradiated to various fluences with 24 GeV/c protons and 1 MeV neutrons. Detectors were characterised pre- and post-irradiation by performing current-voltage ( I- V) and charge collection efficiency (CCE) measurements. Devices fabricated on 12 μm epitaxial GaN irradiated to fluences of 1016 protons cm-2 and 1016 neutrons cm-2 show maximum CCE values of 26% and 20%, respectively, compared to a maximum CCE of 53% of the unirradiated device.

  14. Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

  15. Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001) quantum wells: Examining indirect band gap bowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkikh, Alexander A. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, GSP-105, Nizhniy Novgorod (Russian Federation); Eisenschmidt, Christian; Schmidt, Georg [Institute of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3 D-01620, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Talalaev, Vadim G. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany); ZIK SiLi-Nano, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Karl-Freiherr-von-Fritsch-Str. 3 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Zakharov, Nikolay D.; Werner, Peter [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Schilling, Joerg [ZIK SiLi-Nano, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Karl-Freiherr-von-Fritsch-Str. 3 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    A study of the bandgap character of compressively strained GeSn{sub 0.060-0.091}/Ge(001) quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The built-in strain in GeSn wells leads to an increased separation between L and {Gamma} conduction band minima. The prevalent indirect interband transitions in GeSn were probed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. As a result we could simulate the L-valley bowing parameter in GeSn alloys, b{sub L} = 0.80 {+-} 0.06 eV at 10 K. From this we conclude that even compressively strained GeSn/Ge(001) alloys could become direct band gap semiconductors at the Sn-fraction higher than 17.0 at. %.

  16. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Detector Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Coniavitis, E

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV, followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall. After the commissioning phase it arrived to the first LHC pp collision runs in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications, the alignment is already close enough to the ideal one to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. The current status of the SCT is reviewed, including results from the latest data-taking periods in 2009 and 2010, and from the detector alignment. We report on the operation of the detector and observed problems. The main emphasi...

  17. Semiconductor spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Jianbai; Chang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.

  18. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  19. The Proposed Majorana 76Ge Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, Craig E; Anderson, Dale N; Arthur, Richard J; Avignone, Frank; Baktash, Cryus; Ball, Thedore; Barabash, Alexander S; Bertrand, F; Brodzinski, Ronald L; Brudanin, V; Bugg, William; Champagne, A E; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Cianciolo, Thomas V; Collar, J I; Creswick, R W; Descovich, M; Di Marco, Marie; Doe, P J; Dunham, Glen C; Efremenko, Yuri; Egerov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, Steven R; Emanuel, A; Fallon, Paul; Farach, H A; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, Victor; Grzywacz, Robert; Hallin, A; Hazma, R; Henning, R; Hime, Andrew; Hossbach, Todd W; Jordan, David V; Kazkaz, K; Kephart, Jeremy; King, G S; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S; Kouzes, Richard T; Lesko, Kevin; Luke, P; Luzum, M; Macchiavelli, A O; McDonald, A; Mei, Dongming; Miley, Harry S; Mills, G B; Mokhtarani, A; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L; Palms, John M; Poon, Alan; Radford, D C; Reeves, James H; Robertson, R G. H.; Runkle, Robert C; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P; Saburov, Konstantin; Sandukovsky, Viatcheslav; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Tornow, W; Tull, C; van de Water, R G; Vanushin, Igor; Vetter, Kai; Warner, Ray A; Wilkerson, John F; Wouters, Jan M; Young, A R; Yumatov, V

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Majorana experiment is based on an array of segmented intrinsic Ge detectors with a total mass of 500 kg of Ge isotopically enriched to 86% in 76Ge. Background reduction will be accomplished by: material selection, detector segmentation, pulse shape analysis, electro-formation of copper parts, and granularity of detector spacing. The predicted experimental sensitivity for measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay mode of 76Ge, over a data acquisition period of 5000 kg•y, is ~ 4 x 1027 y.

  20. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Junhao

    2010-01-01

    Narrow gap semiconductors obey the general rules of semiconductor science, but often exhibit extreme features of these rules because of the same properties that produce their narrow gaps. Consequently these materials provide sensitive tests of theory, and the opportunity for the design of innovative devices. Narrow gap semiconductors are the most important materials for the preparation of advanced modern infrared systems. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors offers descriptions of the materials science and device physics of these unique materials. Topics covered include impurities and defects, recombination mechanisms, surface and interface properties, and the properties of low dimensional systems for infrared applications. This book will help readers to understand not only the semiconductor physics and materials science, but also how they relate to advanced opto-electronic devices. The last chapter applies the understanding of device physics to photoconductive detectors, photovoltaic infrared detector...

  1. Semiconductor heterojunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, B L

    1974-01-01

    Semiconductor Heterojunctions investigates various aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions. Topics covered include the theory of heterojunctions and their energy band profiles, electrical and optoelectronic properties, and methods of preparation. A number of heterojunction devices are also considered, from photovoltaic converters to photodiodes, transistors, and injection lasers.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the theory of heterojunctions and a discussion on abrupt isotype and anisotype heterojunctions, along with graded heterojunctions. The reader is then

  2. Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well photodetectors on silicon substrates with extended infrared response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Guo-En; Chen, Shao-Wei; Cheng, H H

    2016-08-08

    We report on tensile-strained Ge/Si0.11Ge0.89 quantum-well (QW) metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors on Si substrates. A tensile strain of 0.21% is introduced into the Ge wells by growing the QW stack on in-situ annealed Ge-on-Si virtual substrates (VS). The optical characterization of Ge/Si0.11Ge0.89 QW MSM photodetectors indicates that the optical response increases to a wavelength of 1.5 μm or higher owing to the strain-induced direct bandgap shrinkage. Analysis of the band structure by using a k · p model suggests that by optimizing the tensile strain and Ge well width, tensile-strained Ge/SiGe QW photodetectors can be designed to cover the telecommunication C-band and beyond for optical telecommunications and on-chip interconnection.

  3. Effects of substrate voltage on noise characteristics and hole lifetime in SOI metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photon detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, Dedy Septono Catur; Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Hartanto, Djoko; Du, Wei; Satoh, Hiroaki; Ono, Atsushi; Inokawa, Hiroshi

    2014-09-08

    Low-frequency noise and hole lifetime in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are analyzed, considering their use in photon detection based on single-hole counting. The noise becomes minimum at around the transition point between front- and back-channel operations when the substrate voltage is varied, and increases largely on both negative and positive sides of the substrate voltage showing peculiar Lorentzian (generation-recombination) noise spectra. Hole lifetime is evaluated by the analysis of drain current histogram at different substrate voltages. It is found that the peaks in the histogram corresponding to the larger number of stored holes become higher as the substrate bias becomes larger. This can be attributed to the prolonged lifetime caused by the higher electric field inside the body of SOI MOSFET. It can be concluded that, once the inversion channel is induced for detection of the photo-generated holes, the small absolute substrate bias is favorable for short lifetime and low noise, leading to high-speed operation.

  4. Status of the KEDR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Anashin, V V; Baibusinov, B O; Balashov, V; Baldin, E M; Barkov, L M; Barladyan, A K; Barnyakov, M Y; Baru, S E; Bedny, I; Beilin, D M; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bondarev, D V; Bondar, A E; Buzykaev, A R; Cantoni, P; Chilingarov, A G; Dneprovsky, L V; Eidelman, S I; Epifanov, D A; Frabetti, P L; Gaidarev, P B; Groshev, V R; Karpov, S V; Kiselev, V A; Klimenko, S G; Kolachev, G M; Kononov, S A; Kozlov, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Kulikov, V F; Kurdadze, L M; Kuzmin, A S; Kuznecov, S A; Lanni, F; Lelchuk, M Y; Leontiev, L A; Levichev, E B; Malyshev, V M; Manfredi, P F; Maslennikov, A L; Minakov, G D; Nagaslaev, V P; Naumenkov, A I; Nikitin, S A; Nomerotski, A; Onuchin, A P; Oreshkin, S B; Ovechkin, R; Palombo, F; Peleganchuk, S V; Petrosyan, S S; Pivovarov, S V; Poluektov, A O; Pospelov, G E; Protopopov, I Ya; Re, V; Romanov, L V; Root, N I; Ruban, A A; Savinov, G A; Shamov, A G; Shatilov, D; Shubin, M A; Shusharo, A I; Shwartz, B A; Sidorov, V A; Skovpen, Y I; Smakhtin, V P; Snopkov, R G; Sokolov, A V; Soukharev, A M; Talyshev, A A; Tayursky, V A; Telnov, V I; Tikhonov, Yu A; Todyshev, K Y; Usov, Y V; Vorobyev, A I; Yushkov, A N; Zatcepin, A V; Zhilich, V N

    2002-01-01

    KEDR is a general-purpose detector for experiments at the VEPP-4M e sup + e sup - -collider in the energy range 2E=2.0-12 GeV. All detector subsystems (except the aerogel Cherenkov counters) have been installed into the detector at VEPP-4M. Some preliminary data have been taken in the energy region of the J/PSI meson. The tuning of the detector and the VEPP-4M collider is in progress. Preliminary results on the detector performance are presented. The future experimental program for the KEDR detector is discussed.

  5. Status of the KEDR detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anashin, V.V.; Aulchenko, V.M.; Baibusinov, B.O.; Balashov, V.; Baldin, E.M.; Barkov, L.M.; Barladyan, A.K.; Barnyakov, M.Yu.; Baru, S.E.; Bedny, I.V.; Beilin, D.M.; Blinov, A.E.; Blinov, V.E.; Bondarev, D.V.; Bondar, A.E.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Cantoni, P.; Chilingarov, A.G.; Dneprovsky, L.V.; Eidelman, S.I.; Epifanov, D.A.; Frabetti, P.L.; Gaidarev, P.B.; Groshev, V.R.; Karpov, S.V.; Kiselev, V.A.; Klimenko, S.G.; Kolachev, G.M.; Kononov, S.A.; Kozlov, V.N.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Kulikov, V.F.; Kurdadze, L.M.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Kuznecov, S.A.; Lanni, F.; Lelchuk, M.Yu.; Leontiev, L.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Malyshev, V.M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Maslennikov, A.L.; Minakov, G.D.; Nagaslaev, V.P.; Naumenkov, A.; Nikitin, S.A.; Nomerotsky, A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Oreshkin, S.B.; Ovechkin, R.; Palombo, F.; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Petrosyan, S.S.; Pivovarov, S.V.; Poluektov, A.O.; Pospelov, G.E.; Protopopov, I.Ya.; Re, V.; Romanov, L.V.; Root, N.I.; Ruban, A.A.; Savinov, G.A.; Shamov, A.G.; Shatilov, D.; Shubin, M.A.; Shusharo, A.I.; Shwartz, B.A.; Sidorov, V.A.; Skovpen, Yu.I.; Smakhtin, V.P.; Snopkov, R.G.; Sokolov, A.V.; Soukharev, A.M.; Talyshev, A.A.; Tayursky, V.A.; Telnov, V.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.A. E-mail: tikhonov@cppm.in2p3.fr; Todyshev, K.Yu.; Usov, Yu.V.; Vorobyev, A.I.; Yushkov, A.N.; Zatcepin, A.V.; Zhilich, V.N

    2002-02-01

    KEDR is a general-purpose detector for experiments at the VEPP-4M e{sup +}e{sup -}-collider in the energy range 2E=2.0-12 GeV. All detector subsystems (except the aerogel Cherenkov counters) have been installed into the detector at VEPP-4M. Some preliminary data have been taken in the energy region of the J/{psi} meson. The tuning of the detector and the VEPP-4M collider is in progress. Preliminary results on the detector performance are presented. The future experimental program for the KEDR detector is discussed.

  6. A 4$\\pi$ Solid Angle Detector for the SPS used as a Proton-Antiproton Collider at a Centre of Mass Energy of 540 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the first phase of operation of the UA1 experiment, 700 $ nb ^- ^{1} $ of integrated luminosity were accumulated at the Sp$\\bar{p}$S collider up to the end of 1985. Published results include first observation and measurements of W and Z bosons, significant limits on the top quark, heavy lepton and supersymmetric particle masses, observation of $ B \\bar{B} $ mixing, studies of b~quark production and tests of QCD using jet, intermediate boson and photon production.\\\\ \\\\ For the second phase of operation the following items were upgraded for the high luminosity 1988 and 1989 collider runs: the muon detection system was improved by extra iron shielding, partly magnetised and instrumented with Iarocci tubes; the data acquisition system was redesigned using VME to prov speed and second level trigger capacity followed by a farm of 318E emulators for on-line event reconstruction and selection; the central detector was equipped with a laser calibration system. A total of 5 $ pb ^- ^{1} $ of mainly muon-triggered da...