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Sample records for ge nanocrystals doped

  1. Uniform fabrication of Ge nanocrystals embedded into SiO2 film via neutron transmutation doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline 74Ge embedded SiO2 films were prepared by employing ion implantation and neutron transmutation doping methods. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and photoluminescence of the obtained samples were measured. The existence of As dopants transmuted from 74Ge is significant to guarantee the uniformity and higher volume density of Ge nanocrystals by tuning the system׳s crystallinity and activating mass transfer process. It was observed that the photoluminescence intensity of Ge nanocrystals increased first then decreased with the increase of arsenic concentration. The optimized fluence of neutron transmutation doping was found to be 5.5×1017 cm−2 to achieve maximum photoluminescence emission in Ge embedded SiO2 film. This work opens a route in the three-dimensional nanofabrication of uniform Ge nanocrystals.

  2. Uniform fabrication of Ge nanocrystals embedded into SiO2 film via neutron transmutation doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liu; Tiecheng Lu; Qingyun Chen; Youwen Hu; Shaobo Dun; Issai Shlimak

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline 74Ge embedded SiO2 films were prepared by employing ion implantation and neutron transmutation doping methods. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and photoluminescence of the obtained samples were measured. The existence of As dopants transmuted from 74Ge is significant to guarantee the uniformity and higher volume density of Ge nanocrystals by tuning the system's crystallinity and activating mass transfer process. It was observed that the photoluminescence intensity of Ge nanocrystals increased first then decreased with the increase of arsenic concentration. The optimized fluence of neutron transmutation doping was found to be 5.5 ? 1017 cm ? 2 to achieve maximum photoluminescence emission in Ge embedded SiO2 film. This work opens a route in the three-dimensional nanofabrication of uniform Ge nanocrystals.

  3. Fabrication of Ge nanocrystals doped silica-on-silicon waveguides and observation of their strong quantum confinement effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Germanium (Ge) nanocrystals embedded in silica matrix is an interesting material for new optoelectronic devices. In this paper, standard silica-on-silicon waveguides with a core doped by Ge nanocrystals were fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition and reactive ion etching...

  4. Nanocrystal diffusion doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskin, Vladimir A; Barrows, Charles J; Erickson, Christian S; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2013-09-25

    A diffusion-based synthesis of doped colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals is demonstrated. This approach involves thermodynamically controlled addition of both impurity cations and host anions to preformed seed nanocrystals under equilibrium conditions, rather than kinetically controlled doping during growth. This chemistry allows thermodynamic crystal compositions to be prepared without sacrificing other kinetically trapped properties such as shape, size, or crystallographic phase. This doping chemistry thus shares some similarities with cation-exchange reactions, but proceeds without the loss of host cations and excels at the introduction of relatively unreactive impurity ions that have not been previously accessible using cation exchange. Specifically, we demonstrate the preparation of Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se (0 ≤ x ≤ ∼0.2) nanocrystals with narrow size distribution, unprecedentedly high Mn(2+) content, and very large magneto-optical effects by diffusion of Mn(2+) into seed CdSe nanocrystals grown by hot injection. Controlling the solution and lattice chemical potentials of Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) allows Mn(2+) diffusion into the internal volumes of the CdSe nanocrystals with negligible Ostwald ripening, while retaining the crystallographic phase (wurtzite or zinc blende), shape anisotropy, and ensemble size uniformity of the seed nanocrystals. Experimental results for diffusion doping of other nanocrystals with other cations are also presented that indicate this method may be generalized, providing access to a variety of new doped semiconductor nanostructures not previously attainable by kinetic routes or cation exchange.

  5. Doping of CdSe Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John

    2003-10-01

    What happens to a nanocrystal when it is doped with electrons? We doped CdSe nanocrystals with potassium metal and sodium biphenyl, potassium and sodium acting as the charge carriers. In order to monitor the properties of the doped nanocrystals we used Electron Spin Resonance and luminescence techniques. In this poster we present findings and problems encountered in doping CdSe nanocrystals.

  6. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowik, Ł.; Mélin, T., E-mail: thierry.melin@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d’Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS-UMR8520, Avenue Poincaré, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Nguyen-Tran, T.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces, CNRS-UMR7647, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-11-28

    Semiconductor junctions are the basis of electronic and photovoltaic devices. Here, we investigate junctions formed from highly doped (N{sub D}≈10{sup 20}−10{sup 21}cm{sup −3}) silicon nanocrystals (NCs) in the 2–50 nm size range, using Kelvin probe force microscopy experiments with single charge sensitivity. We show that the charge transfer from doped NCs towards a two-dimensional layer experimentally follows a simple phenomenological law, corresponding to formation of an interface dipole linearly increasing with the NC diameter. This feature leads to analytically predictable junction properties down to quantum size regimes: NC depletion width independent of the NC size and varying as N{sub D}{sup −1/3}, and depleted charge linearly increasing with the NC diameter and varying as N{sub D}{sup 1/3}. We thus establish a “nanocrystal counterpart” of conventional semiconductor planar junctions, here however valid in regimes of strong electrostatic and quantum confinements.

  7. 纳米晶复合Er3+掺杂Ge-In-S-CsI玻璃的发光性能%Luminescence Properties of Nanocrystals Composited Er3+Ions Doped Ge-In-S-CsI Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚嘉妮; 许银生; 魏淑林; 陈飞飞; 林常规; 徐铁峰; 戴世勋

    2013-01-01

      纳米晶复合的玻璃材料在稀土离子发光方面有着重要的研究意义。用真空熔融淬冷法制备了Er3+掺杂的70GeS2–20In2S3–10CsI玻璃样品,研究了不同温度和时间热处理玻璃基质内部析出的纳米晶对Er3+发光性能的影响。结果表明:随着热处理温度和时间的增加,玻璃样品的短波截止波长发生了明显的红移现象。在380℃经过18 h热处理后的玻璃样品析出均匀的纳米晶颗粒,尺寸约为10~20 nm。玻璃基质中先后析出In2S3和GeS2晶体。玻璃样品在380℃,经过12 h热处理后,Er3+在1540 nm处的发光增强了3倍,有望应用于C波段通讯用光纤放大器。%The Er2S3 and Ag2S co-doped 70GeS2-20In2S3-10CsI glasses were synthesized by a vacuumed melt-quenching technique. The influence of precipitated nanocrystal on the luminescence properties of RE (rare earth) ions was investigated. The short-wavelength absorption edge appears red-shift when the temperature and duration increase. For the samples treated at 380 for 12℃ h, the nanocrystals in the size range from 10 to 20 nm disperse homogeneously in the glass. The In2S3 and GeS2 nanocrystals precipitate successively. The intensity of 1 540 nm luminescence of Er3+ions is three times greater than that of the glass matrix. The Er3+ions doped chalcogenide glasses with the nanocrystals have potential applications in the C band optical fiber amplifier.

  8. Heavily Doped Semiconductor Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Mocatta; Guy Cohen; Jonathan Schattner; Oded Millo; Eran Rabani; Uri Banin

    2011-01-01

    ... of fundamental understanding of this heavily doped limit under strong quantum confinement. We developed a method to dope semiconductor nanocrystals with metal impurities, enabling control of the band gap and Fermi energy...

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopy and simulation of doped nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, Jan Frederik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with the properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (ZnS or ZnSe) in the size range (diameter) of 2 nm to 10 nm. The nanocrystals under investigation are doped with the transition metal ions manganese or copper. The goal is to study photoluminescence and electroluminescence from dope

  10. Synthesis and Doping of Silicon Nanocrystals for Versatile Nanocrystal Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas Johannes

    atmospheric pressures necessitates high plasma densities to reach temperatures required for crystallization of nanoparticles. Using experimentally determined plasma properties from the literature, the model estimates the nanoparticle temperature that is achieved during synthesis at atmospheric pressures. It was found that temperatures well above those required for crystallization can be achieved. Now that the synthesis of nanocrystals is understood, the second half of this thesis will focus on doping of the nanocrystals. The doping of semiconductor nanocrystals, which is vital for the optimization of nanocrystal-based devices, remains a challenge. Gas phase plasma approaches have been very successful in incorporating dopant atoms into nanocrystals by simply adding a dopant precursor during synthesis. However, little is known about the electronic activation of these dopants. This was investigated with field-effect transistor measurements using doped silicon nanocrystal films. It was found that, analogous to bulk silicon, boron and phosphorous electronically dope silicon nanocrystals. However, the dopant activation efficiency remains low as a result of self-purification of the dopants to the nanocrystal surface. Next the plasmonic properties of heavily doped silicon nanocrystals was explored. While the synthesis method was identical, the plasmonic behavior of phosphorus-doped and boron-doped nanocrystals was found the be significantly different. Phosphorus-doped nanocrystals exhibit a plasmon resonance immediately after synthesis, while boron-doped nanocrystals require a post-synthesis annealing or oxidation treatment. This is a result of the difference in dopant location. Phosphorus is more likely to be incorporated into the core of the nanocrystal, while the majority of boron is placed on the surface of the nanocrystal. The oxidized boron-doped particles exhibit stable plasmonic properties, and therefore this allows for the production of air-stable silicon-based plasmonic

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopy and simulation of doped nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, Jan Frederik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with the properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (ZnS or ZnSe) in the size range (diameter) of 2 nm to 10 nm. The nanocrystals under investigation are doped with the transition metal ions manganese or copper. The goal is to study photoluminescence and electroluminescence from

  12. Doped Colloidal ZnO Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizheng Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal ZnO nanocrystals are promising for a wide range of applications due to the combination of unique multifunctional nature and remarkable solution processability. Doping is an effective approach of enhancing the properties of colloidal ZnO nanocrystals in well-controlled manners. In this paper, we analyzed two synthetic strategies for the doped colloidal ZnO nanocrystals, emphasizing our understanding on the critical factors associated with the high temperature and nonaqueous approach. Latest advances of three topics, bandgap engineering, n-type doping, and dilute magnetic semiconductors related to doped ZnO nanocrystals were discussed to reveal the effects of dopants on the properties of the nanocrystalline materials.

  13. Evolution of microstructural defects of TiO2 nanocrystals by Zr4+ or/and Ge4+ doping lead to high disinfection efficiency for CWAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhong; Zhong, Jin-Yi; Chai, Na-Na; He, Xin; Zang, Jian-Zheng; Xu, Hui; Han, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Zr4+, Ge4+ doped and co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a 'one-pot' homogeneous precipitation method. The photocatalytic reaction kinetics of DMMP and the disinfection efficiency of HD, GD and VX on the samples were investigated. By means of a variety of characterization methods, especially the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, the changes in structure and property of TiO2 across doping were studied. The results show that the reasonable engineering design of novel photocatalysts in the field of CWAs decontamination can be realized by adjusting the bulk-to-surface defects ratio, except for crystal structure, specific surface area, pore size distribution and light utilization.

  14. Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

  15. Active Optical Fibers Doped with Ceramic Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mrazek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Erbium-doped active optical fiber was successfully prepared by incorporation of ceramic nanocrystals inside a core of optical fiber. Modified chemical vapor deposition was combined with solution-doping approach to preparing preform. Instead of inorganic salts erbium-doped yttrium-aluminium garnet nanocrystals were used in the solution-doping process. Prepared preform was drawn into single-mode optical fiber with a numerical aperture 0.167. Optical and luminescence properties of the fiber were analyzed. Lasing ability of prepared fiber was proofed in a fiber-ring set-up. Optimal laser properties were achieved for a fiber length of 20~m. The slope efficiency of the fiber-laser was about 15%. Presented method can be simply extended to the deposition of other ceramic nanomaterials.

  16. Characterization of Ge-nanocrystal films with photoelectron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bostedt, C; Willey, T M; Nelson, A J; Franco, N; Möller, T; Terminello, L J

    2003-01-01

    The Ge 3d core-levels of germanium nanocrystal films have been investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. The experiments indicate bulk-like coordinated atoms in the nanocrystals and suggest structured disorder on the nanoparticle surface. The results underline the importance of the surface on the overall electronic structure of this class of nanostructured materials.

  17. Highly doped silicon and germanium nanocrystals for thermoelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, N.; Grimm, H.; Wiggers, H. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Inst. of Combustion and Gas Dynamics and Center for NanoIntegration; Stein, N.; Schierning, G.; Theissmann, R.; Schmechel, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Faculty of Engineering and Center for NanoIntegration

    2010-07-01

    Microwave plasma induced decomposition of gaseous precursors like germane (GeH{sub 4}) and silane (SiH{sub 4}) is used to synthesize semiconductor nanocrystals (ncs) that can be utilized for the formation of thermoelectric materials. N or p doping is achieved by mixing silane and germane with phosphine (PH{sub 3}) or diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}), respectively. Adjusting the fraction of the respective precursors in the gas phase is used to control the dopant concentration. (orig.)

  18. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal based fluorescent cellular imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Palmal, Sharbari; Basiruddin, S K; Karan, Niladri Sekhar; Sarkar, Suresh; Pradhan, Narayan; Jana, Nikhil R

    2013-06-21

    Doped semiconductor nanocrystals such as Mn doped ZnS, Mn doped ZnSe and Cu doped InZnS, are considered as new classes of fluorescent biological probes with low toxicity. Although the synthesis in high quality of such nanomaterials is now well established, transforming them into functional fluorescent probes remains a challenge. Here we report a fluorescent cellular imaging probe made of high quality doped semiconductor nanocrystals. We have identified two different coating approaches suitable for transforming the as synthesized hydrophobic doped semiconductor nanocrystals into water-soluble functional nanoparticles. Following these approaches we have synthesized TAT-peptide- and folate-functionalized nanoparticles of 10-80 nm hydrodynamic diameter and used them as a fluorescent cell label. The results shows that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can be an attractive alternative for conventional cadmium based quantum dots with low toxicity.

  19. Energy relaxation in optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The scientific objective of the research presented in this thesis is to explore energy relaxation processes of optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals. The identification and deeper understanding of unique energy relaxation paths in these materials will open a new window of opportunity for these ma

  20. Nano-electron beam induced current and hole charge dynamics through uncapped Ge nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, A.; El Hdiy, A.; Troyon, M. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Nanosciences, Bat. 6, case no 15, UFR Sciences, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Amiard, G.; Ronda, A.; Berbezier, I. [IM2NP, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Campus de Saint Jerome - Case 142, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2012-04-16

    Dynamics of hole storage in spherical Ge nanocrystals (NCs) formed by a two step dewetting/nucleation process on an oxide layer grown on an n-doped <001> silicon substrate is studied using a nano-electron beam induced current technique. Carrier generation is produced by an electron beam irradiation. The generated current is collected by an atomic force microscope--tip in contact mode at a fixed position away from the beam spot of about 0.5 {mu}m. This distance represents the effective diffusion length of holes. The time constants of holes charging are determined and the effect of the NC size is underlined.

  1. Controlled Chemical Doping of Semiconductor Nanocrystals Using Redox Buffers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Jesse H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Surendranath, Yogesh [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Alivisatos, Paul [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-07-20

    Semiconductor nanocrystal solids are attractive materials for active layers in next-generation optoelectronic devices; however, their efficient implementation has been impeded by the lack of precise control over dopant concentrations. Herein we demonstrate a chemical strategy for the controlled doping of nanocrystal solids under equilibrium conditions. Exposing lead selenide nanocrystal thin films to solutions containing varying proportions of decamethylferrocene and decamethylferrocenium incrementally and reversibly increased the carrier concentration in the solid by 2 orders of magnitude from their native values. This application of redox buffers for controlled doping provides a new method for the precise control of the majority carrier concentration in porous semiconductor thin films.

  2. Synthesis of Ge nanocrystals embedded in a Si host matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngiam, Shih-Tung; Jensen, Klavs F.; Kolenbrander, K. D.

    1994-12-01

    The synthesis of a composite material consisting of Ge nanoclusters (greater than or equal to 2 nm in diameter) embedded in a Si host matrix is reported. The Ge nanoparticles are produced by pulsed laser ablation and are codeposited in a Si film simultaneously grown by chemical beam epitaxy using disilane. Scanning transmission electron microscopy, combined with energy-dispersive x-ray measurements, show that discrete Ge particles (greater than or equal to 2 nm diameter) are deposited within a polycrystalline Si host matrix. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the paricles are crystalline with a lattice spacing corresponding to that of Ge. The enhancement of Si deposition rates from silanes in the presence of Ge, previously demonstrated in chemical vapor deposition of Si(1 - x)Ge(x) alloys, is shown to facilitate the growth of a Si layer around the Ge nanocrystals. The overall composition of the Ge cluster/Si host composite material is determined by Rutherford backscattering measurements.

  3. TEM studies of Ge nanocrystal formation in PECVD grown SiO2:Ge/SiO2 multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agan, S.; Dana, A.; Aydinli, A.

    2006-06-01

    We investigate the effect of annealing on the Ge nanocrystal formation in multilayered germanosilicate-oxide films grown on Si substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The multilayered samples were annealed at temperatures ranging from 750 to 900 °C for 5 min under nitrogen atmosphere. The onset of formation of Ge nanocrystals, at 750 °C, can be observed via high resolution TEM micrographs. The diameters of Ge nanocrystals were observed to be between 5 and 14 nm. As the annealing temperature is raised to 850 °C, a second layer of Ge nanocrystals forms next to the original precipitation band, positioning itself closer to the substrate SiO2 interface. High resolution cross section TEM images, electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy as well as energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) data all indicate that Ge nanocrystals are present in each layer.

  4. Metal-insulator transition in films of doped semiconductor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Reich, K V; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Fu, Han; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Shklovskii, B I

    2016-03-01

    To fully deploy the potential of semiconductor nanocrystal films as low-cost electronic materials, a better understanding of the amount of dopants required to make their conductivity metallic is needed. In bulk semiconductors, the critical concentration of electrons at the metal-insulator transition is described by the Mott criterion. Here, we theoretically derive the critical concentration nc for films of heavily doped nanocrystals devoid of ligands at their surface and in direct contact with each other. In the accompanying experiments, we investigate the conduction mechanism in films of phosphorus-doped, ligand-free silicon nanocrystals. At the largest electron concentration achieved in our samples, which is half the predicted nc, we find that the localization length of hopping electrons is close to three times the nanocrystals diameter, indicating that the film approaches the metal-insulator transition.

  5. Photoluminescence quenching in cobalt doped ZnO nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Sekika Yamamoto

    2012-01-01

    Influence of cobalt doping on the luminescence properties of ZnO nanocrystals with average diameter of 3.0 nm is investigated. Time resolved measurements at 20 K show that the dark exciton luminescence is completely lost in the nanocrystals doped with cobalt, while the perturbed luminescence with slight red shift survives and exhibits a non-exponential decay curve reflecting random distribution of cobalt atoms. By analyzing the non-exponentiality, the increase of the decay rate of the band-ed...

  6. Photoluminescence of Eu2+ Doped ZnS Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Man; GUO Hai-Qing; ZHANG Zhi-Hua; LIU Feng-Qi; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2000-01-01

    Eu2+ doped ZnS nanocrystals exhibit new luminescence properties because of the enlarged energy gap of nanocrys talline ZnS host due to quantum confinement effects. Photoluminescence emission at about 520nm from Eu2+ doped ZnS nanocrystals at room temperature is investigated by using photoluminescence emission and excitation spectroscopy. Such green emission with long lifetime (ms) is proposed to be a result of excitation, ionization, carriers recapture and recombination via Eu2+ centers in nanocrystalline ZnS host.

  7. Infrared photoluminescence from GeSi nanocrystals embedded in a germanium–silicate matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodin, V. A., E-mail: volodin@isp.nsc.ru; Gambaryan, M. P.; Cherkov, A. G.; Vdovin, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Stoffel, M.; Rinnert, H.; Vergnat, M. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour UMR CNRS 7198 (France)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate the structural and optical properties of GeO/SiO{sub 2} multilayers obtained by evaporation of GeO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} powders under ultrahigh vacuum conditions on Si(001) substrates. Both Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopy measurements indicate the formation of GeSi nanocrystals after postgrowth annealing at 800°C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterizations show that the average size of the nanocrystals is about 5 nm. For samples containing GeSi nanocrystals, photoluminescence is observed at 14 K in the spectral range 1500–1600 nm. The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence is studied.

  8. Infrared photoluminescence from GeSi nanocrystals embedded in a germanium-silicate matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. A.; Gambaryan, M. P.; Cherkov, A. G.; Vdovin, V. I.; Stoffel, M.; Rinnert, H.; Vergnat, M.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the structural and optical properties of GeO/SiO2 multilayers obtained by evaporation of GeO2 and SiO2 powders under ultrahigh vacuum conditions on Si(001) substrates. Both Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopy measurements indicate the formation of GeSi nanocrystals after postgrowth annealing at 800°C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterizations show that the average size of the nanocrystals is about 5 nm. For samples containing GeSi nanocrystals, photoluminescence is observed at 14 K in the spectral range 1500-1600 nm. The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence is studied.

  9. Photoluminescence properties of Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lommens, P.; Smet, P.F.; De Mello Donega, C.

    2006-01-01

    We performed photoluminescence experiments on colloidal, Co -doped ZnO nanocrystals in order to study the electronic properties of Co in a ZnO host. Room temperature measurements showed, next to the ZnO exciton and trap emission, an additional emission related to the Co dopant. The spectral posit...

  10. Nanocrystals formation and fractal microstructural assessment in Au/Ge bilayer films upon annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn; Lai, J.K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Shek, C.H. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Chen, H.D. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-08-31

    Nanocrystals formation and fractal microstructural assessment in Au/Ge bilayer films upon annealing have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations. Experimental results indicated that the microstructure of the metal Au film plays an important role in metal-induced crystallization for Au/Ge bilayer films upon annealing. Synchronously, the crystallization processes of amorphous Ge accompanied by the formation of Ge fractal clusters, which were composed of Ge nanocrystals. We found that the grain boundaries of polycrystalline Au film were the initial nucleation sites of Ge nanocrystals. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations showed successive nucleation of amorphous Ge at Au grain boundaries near fractal tips. The crystallization process was suggested to be diffusion controlled and a random successive nucleation and growth mechanism.

  11. Transparent silicate glass-ceramics embedding Ni-doped nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of transparent silicate glass-ceramics embedding Ni-doped nanocrystals as broadband gain media is reviewed. At first, optical properties such as the peak positions, wavelengths lifetimes and quantum efficiencies of the near-infrared emission of nickel-doped oxide crystals are overviewed. The quantum efficiencies of the near-infrared emission of nickel-doped LiGa5O8 and MgGa2O4 were as high as ~1 even at room temperature. Thus these materials are promising ca...

  12. Theoretical and experimental investigation of stability and spectra of doped Ag:ZnSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Cui, Yiping

    2014-04-01

    In experiment, doped Ag:ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) had better stability than that of ZnSe nanocrystals under ambient atmospheres in the presence of air and light illumination. However, it is difficult to explain the mechanism of better stability of Ag:ZnSe nanocrystals from the experiment perspective for doped nanocrystals are more unstable than corresponding pure nanocrystals in general. Using B3LYP/LANL2DZ method, we have investigated the geometrical structures, bonding characters, and molecular orbitals (MOs) of hexagonal and tetrahedral Ag doped ZnSe structures in theory. The results showed that the good stability of Ag:ZnSe nanocrystals can be attributed to the stronger binding between Ag and Se. Moreover, we have proved that Ag doped ZnSe nanocrystals synthesized in experiment should be substituting doped but not vacuity doped. Substituting Ag doped ZnSe molecules have the same configuration as that of the ZnSe structure, but vacuity doped Ag:ZnSe have completely different configuration than ZnSe structure due to the big size of Ag atom. In addition, through contrast of MO of ZnSe and Ag doped ZnSe, we have testified that Ag easily formed bonds with Se. The high binding energy and high probability of forming bonds with Se atom make Ag doped ZnSe nanocrystals have better stability than that of ZnSe nanocrystals.

  13. Dense Ge nanocrystal layers embedded in oxide obtained by controlling the diffusion-crystallization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepadatu, Ana-Maria [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania); Stoica, Toma [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Stavarache, Ionel; Teodorescu, Valentin Serban [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania); Buca, Dan [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Ciurea, Magdalena Lidia, E-mail: ciurea@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania)

    2013-10-15

    Amorphous Ge/SiO{sub 2} multilayer structures deposited by magnetron sputtering have been annealed at different temperatures between 650 and 800 Degree-Sign C for obtaining Ge nanocrystals in oxide matrix. The properties of the annealed structures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and low temperature photoluminescence. The Ge crystallization is partially achieved at 650 Degree-Sign C and increases with annealing temperature. Insight of the Ge nanocrystal formation was acquired by comparing two annealing procedures, i.e., in a conventional tube furnace and by a rapid thermal annealing. By rapid thermal annealing in comparison to conventional furnace one, the Ge crystallization process is faster than Ge diffusion, resulting in the formation of more compact layers of Ge nanocrystals with 8-9.5-nm size as Raman spectroscopy reveals. These findings are important to improve the annealing efficiency in the nanocrystals formation for a precise control of their sizes and location in oxide matrix and for the possibility to create systems with interacting nanoparticles for charge or excitonic transfer. The infrared photoluminescence of Ge nanocrystals at low temperatures shows strong emission with two sharp peaks at about 1,000 meV.

  14. Study of Si-Ge interdiffusion with phosphorus doping

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Feiyang

    2016-10-28

    Si-Ge interdiffusion with phosphorus doping was investigated by both experiments and modeling. Ge/Si1-x Ge x/Ge multi-layer structures with 0.75Ge<1, a mid-1018 to low-1019 cm−3 P doping, and a dislocation density of 108 to 109 cm−2 range were studied. The P-doped sample shows an accelerated Si-Ge interdiffusivity, which is 2–8 times of that of the undoped sample. The doping dependence of the Si-Ge interdiffusion was modelled by a Fermi-enhancement factor. The results show that the Si-Ge interdiffusion coefficient is proportional to n2/n2i for the conditions studied, which indicates that the interdiffusion in a high Ge fraction range with n-type doping is dominated by V2− defects. The Fermi-enhancement factor was shown to have a relatively weak dependence on the temperature and the Ge fraction. The results are relevant to the structure and thermal processing condition design of n-type doped Ge/Si and Ge/SiGe based devices such as Ge/Si lasers.

  15. Luminescence in Mn-doped CdS nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angshuman Nag; Sameer Sapra; Subhra Sen Gupta; Ankita Prakash; Ajit Ghangrekar; N Periasamy; D D Sarma

    2008-06-01

    We have synthesized Mn-doped CdS nanocrystals (NCs) with size ranging from 1.8–3 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the doped NCs differ from that of the undoped NCs with an additional peak due to Mn – transitions. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra along with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and PL spectra confirm the incorporation of Mn in the CdS lattice. The fact that emissions from surface states and the Mn levels occur at two different energies, allowed us to study the PL lifetime decay behaviour of both kinds of emissions.

  16. Zero-reabsorption doped-nanocrystal luminescent solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Christian S; Bradshaw, Liam R; McDowall, Stephen; Gilbertson, John D; Gamelin, Daniel R; Patrick, David L

    2014-04-22

    Optical concentration can lower the cost of solar energy conversion by reducing photovoltaic cell area and increasing photovoltaic efficiency. Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to combined spectral and spatial concentration of both specular and diffuse light without tracking, but they have been plagued by luminophore self-absorption losses when employed on practical size scales. Here, we introduce doped semiconductor nanocrystals as a new class of phosphors for use in luminescent solar concentrators. In proof-of-concept experiments, visibly transparent, ultraviolet-selective luminescent solar concentrators have been prepared using colloidal Mn(2+)-doped ZnSe nanocrystals that show no luminescence reabsorption. Optical quantum efficiencies of 37% are measured, yielding a maximum projected energy concentration of ∼6× and flux gain for a-Si photovoltaics of 15.6 in the large-area limit, for the first time bounded not by luminophore self-absorption but by the transparency of the waveguide itself. Future directions in the use of colloidal doped nanocrystals as robust, processable spectrum-shifting phosphors for luminescent solar concentration on the large scales required for practical application of this technology are discussed.

  17. Ge doping of FeGa3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Quiceno, J. C.; Cabrera-Baez, M.; Munévar, J.; Micklitz, H.; Bittar, E. M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Avila, M. A.; Dalpian, G. M.; Osorio-Guillén, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The intermetallic narrow-gap semiconductor FeGa3 is one of the few Fe-based diamagnetic materials. Experimentally, Ge doping induces a ferromagnetic (FM) state. The mechanism responsible for this FM response is still unestablished, but there are proposals of itinerant magnetism to explain this behavior. Our DFT simulations show that inserting holes induces a delocalized FM response, while inserting electrons induces a localized FM response around some Fe atoms. We also modeled different distributions of Ge substitution and observe that the FM response depends on the Ge concentration and also on the Ge distribution on the Ga sites. We observed that the extra electrons become localized in some specific Fe atoms, rather than delocalized over the entire crystal lattice, as expected from an itinerant model. For experimental probing of this scenario, we have performed 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy on flux-grown singlecrystalline samples. The resulting resonance peak shape supports a localized model for ferromagnetism, since it is possible to resolve the presence of two distinct Fe isomer shifts (despite a single crystallographic site), expected to correspond to Fe atoms with high and low magnetic moments. The authors thank Capes, CNPQ and FAPESP for financial support.

  18. Growth Mechanism and Surface Structure of Ge Nanocrystals Prepared by Thermal Annealing of Cosputtered GeSiO Ternary Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ge nanocrystals (Ge-ncs embedded in a SiO2 superlattice structure were prepared by magnetron cosputtering and postdeposition annealing. The formation of spherical nanocrystals was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and their growth process was studied by a combination of spectroscopic techniques. The crystallinity volume fraction of Ge component was found to increase with crystallite size, but its overall low values indicated a coexistence of crystalline and noncrystalline phases. A reduction of Ge-O species was observed in the superlattice during thermal annealing, accompanied by a transition from oxygen-deficient silicon oxide to silicon dioxide. A growth mechanism involving phase separation of Ge suboxides (GeOx was then proposed to explain these findings and supplement the existing growth models for Ge-ncs in SiO2 films. Further analysis of the bonding structure of Ge atoms suggested that Ge-ncs are likely to have a core-shell structure with an amorphous-like surface layer, which is composed of GeSiO ternary complex. The surface layer thickness was extracted to be a few angstroms and equivalent to several atomic layer thicknesses.

  19. Synthesis and size differentiation of Ge nanocrystals in amorphous SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agan, S. [University of Illinois, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States); Kirikale University, Physics Department, Kirikale (Turkey); Celik-Aktas, A. [University of Illinois, Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States); Zuo, J.M. [University of Illinois, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States); Dana, A.; Aydinli, A. [Bilkent University, Physics Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-04-15

    Germanosilicate layers were grown on Si substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and annealed at different temperatures ranging from 700-1010 C for durations of 5 to 60 min. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate Ge nanocrystal formation in SiO{sub 2}:Ge films. High-resolution cross section TEM images, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) data indicate that Ge nanocrystals are present in the amorphous silicon dioxide films. These nanocrystals are formed in two spatially separated layers with average sizes of 15 and 50 nm, respectively. EDX analysis indicates that Ge also diffuses into the Si substrate. (orig.)

  20. TEM studies of Ge nanocrystal formation in PECVD grown SiO{sub 2}:Ge/SiO{sub 2} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agan, S [Physics Department, Kirikkale University, 71450 Kirikkale (Turkey); Dana, A [Physics Department, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Aydinli, A [Physics Department, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-06-07

    We investigate the effect of annealing on the Ge nanocrystal formation in multilayered germanosilicate-oxide films grown on Si substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The multilayered samples were annealed at temperatures ranging from 750 to 900 {sup 0}C for 5 min under nitrogen atmosphere. The onset of formation of Ge nanocrystals, at 750 {sup 0}C, can be observed via high resolution TEM micrographs. The diameters of Ge nanocrystals were observed to be between 5 and 14 nm. As the annealing temperature is raised to 850 {sup 0}C, a second layer of Ge nanocrystals forms next to the original precipitation band, positioning itself closer to the substrate SiO{sub 2} interface. High resolution cross section TEM images, electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy as well as energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) data all indicate that Ge nanocrystals are present in each layer.

  1. Phosphorus doping of Si nanocrystals: Interface defects and charge compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegner, A. R.; Pereira, R. N.; Klein, K.; Wiggers, H.; Brandt, M. S.; Stutzmann, M.

    2007-12-01

    Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Fourier-transform infrared absorption (FTIR) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), we have investigated the doping of silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs) and the interaction between intrinsic defects and dopants. Si-ncs were produced in a low-pressure microwave plasma reactor using silane as precursor gas. Phosphorus doping was achieved by addition of phosphine to the precursor gas. The low temperature EPR spectra of all P-doped samples display a line at g=1.998, which is the fingerprint of substitutional P in crystalline silicon for [P]>1018 cm-3. In addition, the characteristic hyperfine signature of P in Si is also observed for samples with nominal P doping levels below 1019 cm-3. Two more features are observed in our EPR spectra: a broad band located at g=2.0056, due to isotropic Si dangling bonds (Si-dbs), and an axially symmetric powder pattern (g⊥=2.0087,g∥=2.0020) arising from Si-dbs at the interface between the crystalline Si core and a native oxide shell. The formation of this oxide layer and the presence of different H-termination configurations are revealed by FTIR spectroscopy. The density of Si-dbs is reduced in P-doped samples, indicating a sizable compensation of the doping by Si-dbs. This compensation effect was verified by H desorption, which enhances the density of Si-dbs, in combination with TPD and FTIR.

  2. Influence of Sn Doping on Phase Transformation and Crystallite Growth of TiO2 Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sn doped TiO2 nanocrystals were synthesized via a single-step hydrothermal method and the influences of Sn doping on TiO2 have been investigated. It is found that Sn doping not only facilitates the crystal transfer from anatase to rutile but also facilitates the morphology change from sphere to rod. The states of Sn were studied by XPS and the creation of oxygen vacancies by Sn doping is confirmed. Moreover, the HRTEM results suggest that Sn facilitates preferential growth of resulting nanocrystals along (110 axis, which results in the formation of rod-like rutile nanocrystals.

  3. Optical properties of an indium doped CdSe nanocrystal: A density functional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salini, K.; Mathew, Vincent, E-mail: vincent@cukerala.ac.in [Department of Physics, Central University of Kerala, Riverside Transit Campus, Kasaragod, Kerala (India); Mathew, Thomas [Department of Physics, Central University of Kerala, Riverside Transit Campus, Kasaragod, Kerala (India); Department of Physics, St Pius X College Rajapuram, Kasaragod, Kerala (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the electronic and optical properties of a CdSe nanocrystal doped with n-type impurity atom. First principle calculations of the CdSe nanocrystal based on the density functional theory (DFT), as implemented in the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package (VASP) was used in the calculations. We have introduced a single Indium impurity atom into CdSe nanocrystal with 1.3 nm diameter. Nanocrystal surface dangling bonds are passivated with hydrogen atom. The band-structure, density of states and absorption spectra of the doped and undopted nanocrystals were discussed. Inclusion of the n-type impurity atom introduces an additional electron in conduction band, and significantly alters the electronic and optical properties of undoped CdSe nanocrystal. Indium doped CdSe nannocrystal have potential applications in optoelectronic devices.

  4. Structure and Spatial Distribution of Ge Nanocrystals Subjected to Fast Neutron Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ionov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fast neutron irradiation on the structure and spatial distribution of Ge nanocrystals (NC embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix has been studied. The investigation was conducted by means of laser Raman Scattering (RS, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The irradiation of Ge- NC samples by a high dose of fast neutrons lead to a partial destruction of the nanocrystals. Full reconstruction of crystallinity was achieved after annealing the radiation damage at 8000C, which resulted in full restoration of the RS spectrum. HR-TEM images show, however, that the spatial distributions of Ge-NC changed as a result of irradiation and annealing. A sharp decrease in NC distribution towards the SiO2 surface has been observed. This was accompanied by XPS detection of Ge oxides and elemental Ge within both the surface and subsurface region.

  5. Plasmonic doped semiconductor nanocrystals: Properties, fabrication, applications and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco; Manna, Liberato

    2017-02-01

    Degenerately doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are of recent interest to the NC community due to their tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the near infrared (NIR). The high level of doping in such materials with carrier densities in the range of 1021cm-3 leads to degeneracy of the doping levels and intense plasmonic absorption in the NIR. The lower carrier density in degenerately doped semiconductor NCs compared to noble metals enables LSPR tuning over a wide spectral range, since even a minor change of the carrier density strongly affects the spectral position of the LSPR. Two classes of degenerate semiconductors are most relevant in this respect: impurity doped semiconductors, such as metal oxides, and vacancy doped semiconductors, such as copper chalcogenides. In the latter it is the density of copper vacancies that controls the carrier concentration, while in the former the introduction of impurity atoms adds carriers to the system. LSPR tuning in vacancy doped semiconductor NCs such as copper chalcogenides occurs by chemically controlling the copper vacancy density. This goes in hand with complex structural modifications of the copper chalcogenide crystal lattice. In contrast the LSPR of degenerately doped metal oxide NCs is modified by varying the doping concentration or by the choice of host and dopant atoms, but also through the addition of capacitive charge carriers to the conduction band of the metal oxide upon post-synthetic treatments, such as by electrochemical- or photodoping. The NIR LSPRs and the option of their spectral fine-tuning make accessible important new features, such as the controlled coupling of the LSPR to other physical signatures or the enhancement of optical signals in the NIR, sensing application by LSPR tracking, energy production from the NIR plasmon resonance or bio-medical applications in the biological window. In this review we highlight the recent advances in the synthesis of various different plasmonic

  6. Preparation and thermal decomposition mechanism of Mg,Al-hydrotalcite nano-crystals with titania doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Qing-li; LUO Qiang

    2006-01-01

    The highly pure nano-crystal Mg,Al-hydrotalcite with titania doping was synthesized by one-step liquid reaction method at atmospheric pressure. The preparation of the Mg,Al-hydrotalcite nano-crystal after doping titania was investigated according to the results of XRD,TEM,IR and DSC. Moreover,based on the DSC test results,the thermal mechanism functions of the Mg,Al-hydrotalcite with titania doping were studied after calculation and comparison.

  7. One-Step Synthesis of Monodisperse In-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang QingLing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A method for the synthesis of high quality indium-doped zinc oxide (In-doped ZnO nanocrystals was developed using a one-step ester elimination reaction based on alcoholysis of metal carboxylate salts. The resulting nearly monodisperse nanocrystals are well-crystallized with typically crystal structure identical to that of wurtzite type of ZnO. Structural, optical, and elemental analyses on the products indicate the incorporation of indium into the host ZnO lattices. The individual nanocrystals with cubic structures were observed in the 5% In–ZnO reaction, due to the relatively high reactivity of indium precursors. Our study would provide further insights for the growth of doped oxide nanocrystals, and deepen the understanding of doping process in colloidal nanocrystal syntheses.

  8. Spectroscopic ellipsometric study of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} using parametric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrik, P.; Fried, M. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Budapest (Hungary); Dana, A.; Aydinli, A. [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara (Turkey); Foss, S.; Finstad, T.G. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Basa, P.

    2008-05-15

    Ge-rich SiO{sub 2} layers on top of Si substrates were deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Ge nanocrystals embedded in the SiO{sub 2} layers were formed by high temperature annealing. The samples were measured and evaluated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Effective medium theory (EMT) and parametric semiconductor models have been used to model the dielectric function of the layers. Systematic dependences of the layer thickness and the oscillator parameters have been found on the annealing temperature (nanocrystal size). (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Optical absorption and emission of nitrogen-doped silicon nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaobo; Ma, Yeshi; Yang, Deren

    2011-11-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) may be both unintentionally and intentionally doped with nitrogen (N) during their synthesis and processing. Since the importance of Si NCs largely originates from their remarkable optical properties, it is critical to understand the effect of N doping on the optical behavior of Si NCs. On the basis of theoretical calculations, we show that the doping of Si NCs with N most likely leads to the formation of paired interstitial N at the NC surface, which causes both the optical absorption and emission of Si NCs to redshift. But these redshifts are smaller than those induced by doubly bonded O at the NC surface. It is found that high radiative recombination rates can be reliably obtained for Si NCs with paired interstitial N at the NC surface. The current results not only help to understand the optical behavior of Si NCs synthesized and processed in N-containing environments, but also inspire intentional N doping as an additional means to control the optical properties of Si NCs.

  10. Multicolour synthesis in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals through cation exchange in water

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Sanyang

    2016-10-04

    Meeting the high demand for lanthanide-doped luminescent nanocrystals across a broad range of fields hinges upon the development of a robust synthetic protocol that provides rapid, just-in-time nanocrystal preparation. However, to date, almost all lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials have relied on direct synthesis requiring stringent controls over crystal nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. Here we demonstrate the use of a cation exchange strategy for expeditiously accessing large classes of such nanocrystals. By combining the process of cation exchange with energy migration, the luminescence properties of the nanocrystals can be easily tuned while preserving the size, morphology and crystal phase of the initial nanocrystal template. This post-synthesis strategy enables us to achieve upconversion luminescence in Ce3+ and Mn2+-activated hexagonal-phased nanocrystals, opening a gateway towards applications ranging from chemical sensing to anti-counterfeiting.

  11. The influence of dopant distribution on the optoelectronic properties of tin-doped indium oxide nanocrystals and nanocrystal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounis, Sebastien Dahmane

    Colloidally prepared nanocrystals of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors have emerged in the past decade as an exciting new class of plasmonic materials. In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in developing synthetic methods for the growth of these nanocrystals, basic characterization of their properties, and their successful integration into optoelectronic and electrochemical devices. However, many fundamental questions remain about the physics of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in these materials, and how their optoelectronic properties derive from their underlying structural properties. In particular, the influence of the concentration and distribution of dopant ions and compensating defects on the optoelectronic properties of TCO nanocrystals has seen little investigation. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely studied and commercially deployed TCO. Herein we investigate the role of the distribution of tin dopants on the optoelectronic properties of colloidally prepared ITO nanocrystals. Owing to a high free electron density, ITO nanocrystals display strong LSPR absorption in the near infrared. Depending on the particular organic ligands used, they are soluble in various solvents and can readily be integrated into densely packed nanocrystal films with high conductivities. Using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, modeling and simulation of the optical properties of the nanocrystals using the Drude model, and transport measurements, it is demonstrated herein that the radial distribution of tin dopants has a strong effect on the optoelectronic properties of ITO nanocrystals. ITO nanocrystals were synthesized in both surface-segregated and uniformly distributed dopant profiles. Temperature dependent measurements of optical absorbance were first combined with Drude modeling to extract the internal electrical properties of the ITO nanocrystals, demonstrating that they are well-behaved degenerately doped semiconductors

  12. Electrical Transport in Thin Films of Doped Silicon Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have shown great potential for thin-film optoelectronics, such as solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs), due to their size-tunable electronic properties and solution processability. Significant progress has been made in developing synthetic methods to prepare high quality NCs, achieving controllable doping, and integrating NCs into high performance electronic devices. Most electronic applications rely on the electrical conduction through NC films, therefore, fundamental understanding of the carrier transport in NC films is required to further improve device performance and provide guide for future device design. My research is inspired by the successful achievement of a highly efficient LED with hydrosilylated Si NCs as the emissive layer. To better understand the electrical conduction in the Si NC system, a systematic study of the temperature and electric-field dependence of the film conductivity is performed. It shows that the conductivity of the Si NC film is limited by the ionization of rare NCs containing donor impurities and the carrier transport follows nearest neighbor hopping. The Si NCs are inherently doped with a very small concentration of impurities, about 1 donor per 1000 NCs. This is also the first study of carrier transport in a lightly doped NC system, and results obtained in this work can apply to other NC materials as well. The organic ligands used to passivate NC surface are necessary to achieve strong photoluminescence, however, they inhibit the carrier transport due to the resulting large tunneling barrier between neighboring NCs. The localization length estimated from the temperature data in the high electric field regime is about 1 nm. In addition, the activation energy required for conduction also depends on the surrounding medium of NCs, the electrical conduction can be improved by reducing the activation energy through engineering of the matrix of NC arrays. Doping is critical to enable

  13. Characterization of PTCDA nanocrystals on Ge(0 0 1):H-(2 × 1) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad Zebari, Amir A.; Kolmer, Marek; Prauzner-Bechcicki, Jakub S., E-mail: jakub.prauzner-bechcicki@uj.edu.pl

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • We characterize self-assembled PTCDA molecular islands on Ge(0 0 1):H-(2 × 1) surfaces. • Preferred orientation, height, shape and internal structure are identified. • Electronic properties and stability of nanocrystals are discussed. - Abstract: We analyze self-assembled nanocrystals of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules on hydrogen passivated Ge(0 0 1) surfaces with use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS). At 0.7ML coverage, 2.1 nm high, elongated, hexagonal islands inclined at 37° with respect to the substrate row are mostly observed. By measuring the differential tunneling conductance, we observe an effect of electronic decoupling of the nanocrystals due to the introduced passivating layer. Finally, we shortly discuss the stability of the islands and their interaction with the scanning probe in the ultra-high vacuum environment.

  14. Photoluminescence of phosphorus atomic layer doped Ge grown on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Nien, Li-Wei; Capellini, Giovanni; Virgilio, Michele; Costina, Ioan; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Seifert, Winfried; Srinivasan, Ashwyn; Loo, Roger; Scappucci, Giordano; Sabbagh, Diego; Hesse, Anne; Murota, Junichi; Schroeder, Thomas; Tillack, Bernd

    2017-10-01

    Improvement of the photoluminescence (PL) of Phosphorus (P) doped Ge by P atomic layer doping (ALD) is investigated. Fifty P delta layers of 8 × 1013 cm‑2 separated by 4 nm Ge spacer are selectively deposited at 300 °C on a 700 nm thick P-doped Ge buffer layer of 1.4 × 1019 cm‑3 on SiO2 structured Si (100) substrate. A high P concentration region of 1.6 × 1020 cm‑3 with abrupt P delta profiles is formed by the P-ALD process. Compared to the P-doped Ge buffer layer, a reduced PL intensity is observed, which might be caused by a higher density of point defects in the P delta doped Ge layer. The peak position is shifted by ∼0.1 eV towards lower energy, indicating an increased active carrier concentration in the P-delta doped Ge layer. By introducing annealing at 400 °C to 500 °C after each Ge spacer deposition, P desorption and diffusion is observed resulting in relatively uniform P profiles of ∼2 × 1019 cm‑3. Increased PL intensity and red shift of the PL peak are observed due to improved crystallinity and higher active P concentration.

  15. Nanocrystals magnetic contribution to FINEMET-type soft magnetic materials with Ge addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraca, D. [Lab. de Solidos Amorfos, Facultad de Ingenieria-INTECIN, UBA-CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: diego.muraca@gmail.com; Silveyra, J.; Pagnola, M. [Lab. de Solidos Amorfos, Facultad de Ingenieria-INTECIN, UBA-CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cremaschi, V. [Lab. de Solidos Amorfos, Facultad de Ingenieria-INTECIN, UBA-CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    Over the last years several works have been published in which magnetic and structural properties of soft magnetic nanocrystalline alloys were reported. Among these, there are a series of articles where the nanocrystals composition of FINEMET-type alloys with Ge addition was obtained by Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). By considering a linear relationship between the magnetic moments of the nanocrystals and the composition of various elements in these crystallites, the magnetic moment of the nanocrystals was calculated. This paper reviews results obtained by different authors since 1980 and they are compared with ours. In turn, we revised some elements not previously considered for the calculus of the nanocrystals composition that allowed us to obtain the magnetic moment of the crystallites in the alloy. In particular, we analyzed FINEMET-type alloys with replacement of B for Ge: Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}Ge{sub 2}B{sub 7}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1} and Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}Ge{sub 4}B{sub 5}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1}. The nanocrystalline structure was obtained by isothermal annealing of melt-spun ribbons at 823 K for 1 h. From MS and XRD we obtained the atomic composition of the nanocrystals in the magnetic material. The magnetic contribution of the nanocrystals to the alloy was calculated using a linear model and the results were compared with experimental measurements of the samples.

  16. Controlled synthesis of bright and compatible lanthanide-doped upconverting nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Bruce E.; Ostrowski, Alexis D.; Chan, Emory M.; Gargas, Daniel J.; Katz, Elan M.; Schuck, P. James; Milliron, Delia J.

    2017-01-31

    Certain nanocrystals possess exceptional optical properties that may make them valuable probes for biological imaging, but rendering these nanoparticles biocompatible requires that they be small enough not to perturb cellular systems. This invention describes a phosphorescent upconverting sub-10 nm nanoparticle comprising a lanthanide-doped hexagonal .beta.-phase NaYF.sub.4 nanocrystal and methods for making the same.

  17. Self-Assembled Monolayers of CdSe Nanocrystals on Doped GaAs Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Walzer, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    This letter reports the self-assembly and analysis of CdSe nanocrystal monolayers on both p- and a-doped GaAs substrates. The self-assembly was performed using a 1,6-hexanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to link CdSe nanocrystals to GaAs substrates. Attenuated total reflection Fourier tran...

  18. GeSi nanocrystals formed by high temperature annealing of GeO/SiO2 multilayers: structure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. A.; Cherkov, A. G.; Vdovin, V. I.; Stoffel, M.; Rinnert, H.; Vergnat, M.

    2016-12-01

    The structural and optical properties of Ge and GeSi nanocrystals, formed by annealing of GeO/SiO2 multilayers have been investigated. According to Raman spectroscopy, the formation of pure Ge nanocrystals is observed after post growth annealing at 700 °C. Annealings at 800°C-900°C leads to the formation of intermixed GexSi1-x nanocrystals. High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the structure and the size of the nanocrystals strongly depend on annealing temperature. Spatial redistribution of Ge with the formation of large faceted clusters located near the Si substrate as well as GeSi intermixing at the substrate/film interface were observed. In the case of the sample containing 20 pairs of GeO/SiO2 layers annealed at 900 °C, some clusters exhibit a pyramid-like shape. FTIR absorption spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that intermixing between the GeO and SiO2 layers occurs leading to the formation of a SiGeO2 glass. Low temperature (10 K-100 K) photoluminescence was observed in the spectral range 1400-2000 nm for samples containing nanocrystals. The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence is studied.

  19. Emerging blue-UV luminescence in cerium doped YAG nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmane, Liana [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Lithuania); Pankratov, Vladimir [Research Center of Molecular Materials, University of Oulu (Finland)

    2016-06-15

    Time-resolved luminescence properties of Ce{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) nanocrystals have been studied by means of vacuum-ultraviolet excitation spectroscopy. It was discovered that additionally to the regular Ce{sup 3+} yellow-green emission which is well-known luminescence in YAG, new emission covering a broad spectral range from 2.7 eV to 3.5 eV was revealed in the luminescence spectra for all YAG:Ce nanocrystals studied. This blue-UV emission has fast decay time about 7 ns as well as intensive well-resolved excitation band peaking at 5.9 eV and, in contrast to green Ce{sup 3+} emission, practically is not excited at higher energies. The origin of the blue-UV emission is tentatively suggested and discussed. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Exciton-to-Dopant Energy Transfer in Mn-Doped Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parobek, David; Roman, Benjamin J; Dong, Yitong; Jin, Ho; Lee, Elbert; Sheldon, Matthew; Son, Dong Hee

    2016-12-14

    We report the one-pot synthesis of colloidal Mn-doped cesium lead halide (CsPbX3) perovskite nanocrystals and efficient intraparticle energy transfer between the exciton and dopant ions resulting in intense sensitized Mn luminescence. Mn-doped CsPbCl3 and CsPb(Cl/Br)3 nanocrystals maintained the same lattice structure and crystallinity as their undoped counterparts with nearly identical lattice parameters at ∼0.2% doping concentrations and no signature of phase separation. The strong sensitized luminescence from d-d transition of Mn(2+) ions upon band-edge excitation of the CsPbX3 host is indicative of sufficiently strong exchange coupling between the charge carriers of the host and dopant d electrons mediating the energy transfer, essential for obtaining unique properties of magnetically doped quantum dots. Highly homogeneous spectral characteristics of Mn luminescence from an ensemble of Mn-doped CsPbX3 nanocrystals and well-defined electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of Mn(2+) in host CsPbX3 nanocrystal lattices suggest relatively uniform doping sites, likely from substitutional doping at Pb(2+). These observations indicate that CsPbX3 nanocrystals, possessing many superior optical and electronic characteristics, can be utilized as a new platform for magnetically doped quantum dots expanding the range of optical, electronic, and magnetic functionality.

  1. SiGe superlattice nanocrystal infrared and Raman spectra: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsattar, Mudar A.

    2012-02-01

    Infrared and Raman vibrational spectrum are calculated using ab initio density functional theory for SiGe superlattice nanocrystal of approximately 1.6 nm length. After obtaining the optimum positions of atoms via geometrical optimization using density functional theory, coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock equations are solved iteratively to obtain vibrational spectrum. Frequencies of vibrations are analyzed against intensities, reduced masses, and vibrational force constants. A scale factor of 0.81 is suggested to correct the frequencies of the present calculations that are obtained using STO-3 G basis functions. Results show that SiGe nanocrystals have complex and rich vibrational spectrum that can be generally divided into three regions. The highest reduced masses are in the first region where Si and Ge atoms are the main contributors to vibrations with a smaller number of vibrations attributed to hydrogen atoms. The highest intensity lines in SiGe superlattice nanocrystals are in the middle region where most of the modes of vibration can be excited. The third region is characterized by high force constants. The first region shows a redshift of the original Ge-Si bond vibration from the calculated bulk 418 cm-1 to the present nanocrystal 395 cm-1. Hydrogen vibrations interferences are found in the same redshift region that might induce uncertainties in the experimentally measured redshift. Si-H and Ge-H vibrations are observed mainly in the second and third region and less frequently in the first region. These vibrations include modes of vibration such as symmetric, asymmetric, wagging, scissor, rocking, and twisting modes.

  2. Labelling of silica microspheres with fluorescent lanthanide-doped LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yong [Division of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Lu Meihua [Division of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-07-11

    Fluorescent microspheres have been demonstrated to be useful in a variety of biological applications. Fluorescent silica or polymer microspheres have been produced by incorporation of chromophores into the microspheres, which usually produces microspheres with nonuniform sizes and reduced fluorescence. Here we present a simple and straightforward method to produce silica microspheres with fluorescent lanthanide-doped LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals grown on the surface. LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals are in situ grown on silica microspheres of different sizes to form a raspberry-like structure. The microspheres exhibit strong fluorescence and the colour could be altered by changing the lanthanide ions doped in LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals.

  3. Optical down-conversion in doped ZnSe:Tb3+ nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sandip; Mandal, Krishna C

    2013-02-07

    Rare earth (RE) Tb(3+)-doped high quality ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by a facile chemical hot-injection method. ZnSe:Tb(3+) nanocrystals exhibited broadband absorption below the first excitonic absorption peak. Photoluminescence spectra showed Tb(3+) emission lines in the visible spectral window at room temperature when excited by UV radiation below the band-edge of the host ZnSe nanocrystals. Our experimental results indicate optical down-conversion in these Tb(3+)-doped Zn-chalcogenide nanocrystals via energy migration from host ZnSe to the Tb(3+) dopant. The host-dopant energy transfer mechanism for this ZnSe:Tb(3+) nanocrystal system is correlated with the emission spectra.

  4. Cubic to tetragonal phase transition of Tm3+ doped nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tm3+ ions doped β-PbF2 nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics with different doping concentrations and thermal temperatures are prepared by a traditional melt-quenching and thermal treatment method to investigate the structure and the phase transition of Tm3+ doped nanocrystals. The structures are characterized by X-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis and confirmed with numerical simulation. The phase transitions are proved further by the emission spectra. Both of the doping concentration and thermal temperature can induce an Oh to D4h site symmetry distortion and a cubic to tetragonal phase transition. The luminescence of Tm3+ doped nanocrystals at 800 nm was modulated by the phase transition of the surrounding crystal field.

  5. Cubic to tetragonal phase transition of Tm{sup 3+} doped nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yiming; Fu, Yuting; Shi, Yahui; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hua, E-mail: zhaolj@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: yuhua@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhao, Lijuan, E-mail: zhaolj@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: yuhua@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Applied Physics School of TEDA, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Tm{sup 3+} ions doped β-PbF{sub 2} nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics with different doping concentrations and thermal temperatures are prepared by a traditional melt-quenching and thermal treatment method to investigate the structure and the phase transition of Tm{sup 3+} doped nanocrystals. The structures are characterized by X-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis and confirmed with numerical simulation. The phase transitions are proved further by the emission spectra. Both of the doping concentration and thermal temperature can induce an O{sub h} to D{sub 4h} site symmetry distortion and a cubic to tetragonal phase transition. The luminescence of Tm{sup 3+} doped nanocrystals at 800 nm was modulated by the phase transition of the surrounding crystal field.

  6. Lanthanide-doped CaS and SrS luminescent nanocrystals : A single-source precursor approach for doping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiming; Rabouw, Freddy T.; Puffelen, Tim Van; van Walree, Kees; Gamelin, Daniel R.; De Mello Donegá, Celso; Meijerink, A

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of dopants with optical or magnetic functionalities into colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) has been a longstanding challenge for nanomaterial research. A deeper understanding of the doping kinetics will aid a better control of the doping process. In particular, alkaline-earth sulfides a

  7. Flat Ge-doped optical fibres for food irradiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, N. Mohd; Jusoh, M. A. [Department of Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Razis, A. F. Abdull [Food Safety Research Centre, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Laboratory of UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Alawiah, A. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450 Malacca (Malaysia); Bradley, D. A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Exposing food to radiation can improve hygiene quality, germination control, retard sprouting, and enhance physical attributes of the food product. To provide for food safety, radiation dosimetry in irradiated food is required. Herein, fabricated germanium doped (Ge-doped) optical fibres have been used. The fibres have been irradiated using a gamma source irradiator, doses in the range 1 kGy to 10 kGy being delivered. Using Ge-doped optical fibres of variable size, type and dopant concentration, study has been made of linearity, reproducibility, and fading. The thermoluminescence (TL) yield of the fibres were obtained and compared. The fibres exhibit a linear dose response over the investigated range of doses, with mean reproducibility to within 2.69 % to 8.77 %, exceeding the dose range of all commercial dosimeters used in evaluating high doses for the food irradiation industry. TL fading of the Ge-doped flat fibres has been found to be < 13%.

  8. CORRIGENDUM: TEM studies of nanocrystal formation in PECVD grown for SiO2:Ge/SiO2 multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agan, S.; Dana, A.; Aydinli, A.

    2006-11-01

    In figure 4(c) the diffraction pattern of the Si substrate was inadvertently included instead of the diffraction pattern of Ge nanocrystals, and should be replaced by the new figure given (see pdf for details).

  9. Nanocrystals and amorphous matrix phase studies of Finemet-like alloys containing Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, J.A., E-mail: jmoya.fi.uba@gmail.co [IESIING, Facultad de Ingenieria e Informatica, UCASAL, A4402FYP Salta (Argentina); Lab. Solidos Amorfos, Facultad de Ingenieria, INTECIN, UBA-CONICET (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    Two simple models were developed in order to determine the chemical composition of both nanocrystals and intergranular amorphous phases in nanocrystallized Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1} containing Ge using data from X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy techniques. Saturation magnetization of the amorphous intergranular matrix (M{sub s}{sup am}) was calculated considering the contribution of the alpha-Fe(Si,Ge) nanocrystals and saturation magnetization of the alloys. The behavior of M{sub s}{sup am} with the iron content of the matrix was obtained and discussed. The exchange stiffness constant for the nanograins and for the amorphous phases was determined. The increment in the coercive field (H{sub c}) with increasing Ge content was evaluated using two theoretical models for the random magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (). Results show that the magnetic hardening observed could not be attributed to an increase in but mainly to an important increment of the magnetostriction constant of the alpha-Fe(Si,Ge) nanocrystals (lambda{sub s}{sup cr}). Values for lambda{sub s}{sup cr} are proposed.

  10. Embedded Ge nanocrystals in SiO{sub 2} synthesized by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranwal, V., E-mail: vikasphy@gmail.com; Pandey, Avinash C. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002 (India); Gerlach, J. W.; Lotnyk, A.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung, Permoserstraße 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Karl, H. [Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-10-07

    200 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layers grown on Si substrates were implanted with 150 keV Ge ions at three different fluences. As-implanted samples were characterized with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to obtain depth profiles and concentration of Ge ions. As-implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C for 30 min. Crystalline quality of pristine, as-implanted, and annealed samples was investigated using Raman scattering measurements and the results were compared. Crystalline structure of as-implanted and annealed samples of embedded Ge into SiO{sub 2} matrix was studied using x-ray diffraction. No secondary phase or alloy formation of Ge was detected with x-ray diffraction or Raman measurements. Scanning transmission electron microscope measurements were done to get the nanocrystal size and localized information. The results confirmed that fluence dependent Ge nanocrystals of different sizes are formed in the annealed samples. It is also observed that Ge is slowly diffusing deeper into the substrate with annealing.

  11. Direct Observation of Room-Temperature Polar Ordering in Colloidal GeTe Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polking, Mark J.; Zheng, Haimei; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.; Chan, Emory; Caldwell, Marissa A.; Raoux, Simone; Kisielowski, Christian F.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Alivisatos, A.P.

    2009-12-07

    Ferroelectrics and other materials that exhibit spontaneous polar ordering have demonstrated immense promise for applications ranging from non-volatile memories to microelectromechanical systems. However, experimental evidence of polar ordering and effective synthetic strategies for accessing these materials are lacking for low-dimensional nanomaterials. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of size-controlled nanocrystals of the polar material germanium telluride (GeTe) using colloidal chemistry and provide the first direct evidence of room-temperature polar ordering in nanocrystals less than 5 nm in size using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman studies demonstrate a sizeable polar distortion and a reversible size-dependent polar phase transition in these nanocrystals. The stability of polar ordering in solution-processible nanomaterials suggests an economical avenue to Tbit/in2-density non-volatile memory devices and other applications.

  12. Ge nanocrystals with highly uniform size distribution deposited on alumina at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition: structural, morphological, and charge trapping properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Sanchez, J., E-mail: javier.martin.nano@gmail.com; Marques, L.; Vieira, E. M. F. [University of Minho, Department of Physics and Centre of Physics (Portugal); Doan, Q. T.; Marchand, A.; El Hdiy, A. [LMEN, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (France); Rolo, A. G.; Pinto, S. R. C.; Ramos, M. M. D.; Chahboun, A.; Gomes, M. J. M. [University of Minho, Department of Physics and Centre of Physics (Portugal)

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we report on the synthesis of Ge nanocrystals (NCs) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature (RT) in an argon atmosphere without any further annealing process. Our results show that functional thin films of crystalline Ge nanoparticles with spherical shapes can be obtained by PLD directly on alumina layers deposited on n-doped Si (100) substrates. In addition, we also demonstrate that a uniform size distribution of NCs with an average diameter of about 3 nm and a density of 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} can be obtained by optimizing a shadow mask set-up, where a solid disk is introduced between the target and the substrate. Charge/discharge effects in Ge NCs deposited on a high-k amorphous alumina layer are also evidenced by conductive atomic force microscopy, which makes them suitable for memory applications.

  13. Charge trapping of Ge-nanocrystals embedded in TaZrO{sub x} dielectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehninger, D., E-mail: David.Lehninger@physik.tu-freiberg.de; Seidel, P.; Geyer, M.; Schneider, F.; Heitmann, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Klemm, V.; Rafaja, D. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Borany, J. von [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-01-12

    Ge-nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized in amorphous TaZrO{sub x} by thermal annealing of co-sputtered Ge-TaZrO{sub x} layers. Formation of spherical shaped Ge-NCs with small variation of size, areal density, and depth distribution was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The charge storage characteristics of the Ge-NCs were investigated by capacitance-voltage and constant-capacity measurements using metal-insulator-semiconductor structures. Samples with Ge-NCs exhibit a maximum memory window of 5 V by sweeping the bias voltage from −7 V to 7 V and back. Below this maximum, the width of the memory window can be controlled by the bias voltage. The fitted slope of the memory window versus bias voltage characteristics is very close to 1 for samples with one layer Ge-NCs. A second layer Ge-NCs does not result in a second flat stair in the memory window characteristics. Constant-capacity measurements indicate charge storage in trapping centers at the interfaces between the Ge-NCs and the surrounding materials (amorphous matrix/tunneling oxide). Charge loss occurs by thermal detrapping and subsequent band-to-band tunneling. Reference samples without Ge-NCs do not show any memory window.

  14. Determination of Ge content in high concentration Ge-doped Czochralski Si single crystals by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhongwei; ZHANG Weilian; NIU Xinhuan

    2005-01-01

    SiGe single crystals with different Ge concentrations were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) and 10 K. A new peak appears at the wave number of 710 cm-1 and the spectroscopy becomes clearer with an increase in Ge content. The absorption strength and wave sharp of the 710 cm-1 peak are independent of temperature. The relation of the absorption coefficient amax, the band width of half maximum (BWHM) W1/2 of the 710 cm-1 peak, and the Ge concentration is determined with the Ge content obtained by SEM-EDX. The conversion factor is k = 1.211 at 10 K. Therefore, the Ge content in high concentration Ge doped CZ-Si single crystals can be determined by FTIR.

  15. Ge nanocrystals embedded in ultrathin Si3N4 multilayers with SiO2 barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahariqushchi, R.; Gundogdu, Sinan; Aydinli, A.

    2017-04-01

    Multilayers of germanium nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in thin films of silicon nitride matrix separated with SiO2 barriers have been fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). SiGeN/SiO2 alternating bilayers have been grown on quartz and Si substrates followed by post annealing in Ar ambient from 600 to 900 °C. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) as well as Raman spectroscopy show good crystallinity of Ge confined to SiGeN layers in samples annealed at 900 °C. Strong compressive stress for SiGeN/SiO2 structures were observed through Raman spectroscopy. Size, as well as NC-NC distance were controlled along the growth direction for multilayer samples by varying the thickness of bilayers. Visible photoluminescence (PL) at 2.3 and 3.1 eV with NC size dependent intensity is observed and possible origin of PL is discussed.

  16. Structure and distortion of lead fluoride nanocrystals in rare earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jin; Zhao, Lijuan; Guo, Hui; Lan, Zijian; Chang, Lifen; Li, Yiming; Yu, Hua

    2013-10-28

    A series of rare earth (RE) doped oxyfluoride glasses with the composition of (45-x) SiO2-5Al2O3-40PbF2-10CdF2-xRe2O3 (x = 1, 5, 10, 15) (mol%) were prepared by a traditional melt-quenching method. Glass ceramics (GCs) were obtained after thermal treatment and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the nanocrystal structure and distortion. Both the dopant type and the doping level play an important role in the distortion of the PbF2-RE lattice. It is found that a cubic Pb3REF9 phase forms in low doping GCs, a tetragonal PbREF5 phase forms in middle doping GCs and cubic PbRE3F11 forms in high doping GCs. Accordingly, the site symmetry of RE(3+) dopants in β-PbF2 nanocrystal undergoes a transition of Oh···D4h···Oh with the increase of doping level. The change in the ligands coordinating the RE(3+) ions was further illustrated by the optical changes in Yb-doped GCs. This paper provides insights on the nanocrystal structure of RE at the atomic level and tries to make a complete description of the nanocrystal structure and distortion in these glass-ceramic materials, which will benefit the optimization of optical properties.

  17. EFFECT OF UV LASER ON SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF BORATE GLASSES DOPED WITH COPPER CHLORIDE NANOCRYSTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Babkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the pulsed ultraviolet laser effect on the spectral properties of the potassium-aluminium-borate glasses doped with the copper chloride nanocrystals with the average size of 3.1-6.3 nm. We have studied the changes of the exciton absorption spectra of the CuCl nanocrystals induced by different duration of the laser exposure. The results show the possibility of the laser-induced crystallization and growth of the nanocrystals. For the first time the effect of the irreversible photochromism has been obtained in the potassium-aluminium-borate glasses doped with the copper chloride nanocrystals. The effect is associated with the formation of the temperature stable Cu0n colloidal color centers.

  18. Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Feng

    2010-02-25

    Doping is a widely applied technological process in materials science that involves incorporating atoms or ions of appropriate elements into host lattices to yield hybrid materials with desirable properties and functions. For nanocrystalline materials, doping is of fundamental importance in stabilizing a specific crystallographic phase, modifying electronic properties, modulating magnetism as well as tuning emission properties. Here we describe a material system in which doping influences the growth process to give simultaneous control over the crystallographic phase, size and optical emission properties of the resulting nanocrystals. We show that NaYF 4 nanocrystals can be rationally tuned in size (down to ten nanometres), phase (cubic or hexagonal) and upconversion emission colour (green to blue) through use of trivalent lanthanide dopant ions introduced at precisely defined concentrations. We use first-principles calculations to confirm that the influence of lanthanide doping on crystal phase and size arises from a strong dependence on the size and dipole polarizability of the substitutional dopant ion. Our results suggest that the doping-induced structural and size transition, demonstrated here in NaYF 4 upconversion nanocrystals, could be extended to other lanthanide-doped nanocrystal systems for applications ranging from luminescent biological labels to volumetric three-dimensional displays. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Electroluminescence of Si Nanocrystal-Doped SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dan; XIE Zhi-Qiang; WU Qian; ZHAO You-Yuan; LU Ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ We perform a comparative study on the electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) of Si nanocrystaldoped SiO2 (nc-Si:SiO2) and SiO2, and clarify whether the contribution from Si nanocrystals in the EL of nc-Si:SiO2 truly exists. The results unambiguously indicate the presence of EL of Si nanocrystals. The difference of peak positions between the EL and PL spectra are discussed. It is found that the normal method of passivation to enhance the PL of Si nanocrystals is not equally effective for the EL, hence new methods need to be explored to promote the EL of Si nanocrystals.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Chen, Fen; Jiang, Deli; Shi, Weidong; Zheng, Wenjun

    2016-12-01

    N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets have been synthesized by a two-step method. Firstly, we synthesized anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets by an original hydrothermal method using HBF4 and n-BA to coordinated the regulation of size and morphology. Then, ethylenediamine has been used as N dopant source to dope with the as-prepared TiO2 nanocrystals. The effects of both HBF4 and n-BA in synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets have been investigated. The enlarged localized profiles of the XRD pattern and XPS spectra demonstrate the existence of N element. The photocatalytic property studies showed that the N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than that of the N-doped P25, which might be ascribed to the high percentage of exposed {001} facets. In addition, the stability study suggests that the as-synthesized photocatalyst is a promising material for the application of wastewater purification.

  1. Microbe-Assisted Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Monodispersed Tb3+-Doped ZnS Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanguo Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tb3+-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals were synthesized by spray precipitation with sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB culture at room temperature. The morphology of the SRB and ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. The PL mechanism of ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals was further analyzed, and the effects of Tb3+ ion concentration on the luminescence properties of ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals were studied. ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals showed a sphalerite phase, and the prepared ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals had high luminescence intensity under excitation at 369 nm. The main peak position of the absorption spectra positively blueshifted with increasing concentrations of Tb3+ dopant. Based on the strength of the peak of the excitation and emission spectra, we inferred that the optimum concentration of the Tb3+ dopant is 5 mol%. Four main emission peaks were obtained under excitation at 369 nm:489 nm (5D4→7F6, 545 nm (5D4→7F5, 594 nm (5D4→7F4, and 625 nm (5D4→7F3. Our findings suggest that nanocrystals have potential applications in photoelectronic devices and biomarkers.

  2. Doping and strain dependence of the electronic band structure in Ge and GeSn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chi; Gallagher, James; Senaratne, Charutha; Brown, Christopher; Fernando, Nalin; Zollner, Stefan; Kouvetakis, John; Menendez, Jose

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study of the effect of dopants and strain on the electronic structure of Ge and GeSn alloys is presented. Samples were grown by UHV-CVD on Ge-buffered Si using Ge3H8 and SnD4 as the sources of Ge and Sn, and B2H6/P(GeH3)3 as dopants. High-energy critical points in the joint-density of electronic states were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry, which yields detailed information on the strain and doping dependence of the so-called E1, E1 +Δ1 , E0' and E2 transitions. The corresponding dependencies of the lowest direct band gap E0 and the fundamental indirect band gap Eindwere studied via room-T photoluminescence spectroscopy. Of particular interest for this work were the determination of deformation potentials, band gap renormalization effects, Burstein-Moss shifts due to the presence of carriers at band minima, and the dependence of other critical point parameters, such as amplitudes and phase angles, on the doping concentration. The selective blocking of transitions due to high doping makes it possible to investigate the precise k-space location of critical points. These studies are complemented with detailed band-structure calculations within a full-zone k-dot- p approach. Supported by AFOSR under DOD AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0208 and DOD AFOSR FA9550-13-1-0022.

  3. Erbium and Al2O3 nanocrystals-doped silica optical fibers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Fibre lasers and inherently rare-earth-doped optical fibers nowadays pass through a new period of their progress aiming at high efficiency of systems and their high power. In this paper, we deal with the preparation of silica fibers doped with erbium and Al2O3 nanocrystals and the characterization of their optical properties. The fibers were prepared by the extended Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) method from starting chlorides or oxide nanopowders. Conventional as well as modified ...

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photoluminescence on the Glass Doped with AgInS2 Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewu Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a synthetic process on the glass doped with AgInS2 nanocrystals through sol-gel method under a controlled atmosphere. X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that the AgInS2 crystalline phase had formed in the glass matrix. Transmittance electron microscopy showed that these AgInS2 crystals had spherical shape and good dispersed form in the glass matrix, and their diameter distribution was mainly focused on three size regions. Furthermore, the glass doped with AgInS2 nanocrystals exhibited three photoluminescence peaks located at 1.83 eV, 2.02 eV, and 2.21 eV, which were ascribed to the introduction of AgInS2 nanocrystals in the glass.

  5. Rational synthesis of carbon-coated hollow Ge nanocrystals with enhanced lithium-storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Chaoji; Xiang, Jingwei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yunhui; Hu, Xianluo

    2016-06-01

    High-capacity anode materials based on alloy-type group IV elements always have large volume expansion during lithiation when they are used in lithium-ion batteries. Designing hollow structures is a well-established strategy to accommodate the volume change because of sufficient internal void space. Here we report a facile template-free route to prepare hollow Ge nanospheres without using any templates through a quasi-microemulsion method. Ge nanocrystals are preferably self-assembled along the interface of liquid vesicles between water and tetrahydrofuran, and well-defined hollow architectures of ~50 nm in diameter are formed. Both the wall thickness and hollow interiors can be easily tuned. After subsequent carbon coating via pyrolysis of acetylene, the as-formed Ge@C nanocomposite with hollow interiors exhibits a highly reversible capacity of about 920 mA h g-1 at 200 mA g-1 over 50 cycles, and excellent rate capability. The small size and the high structural integrity of hollow Ge@C structures contribute to the superior lithium-storage performances.High-capacity anode materials based on alloy-type group IV elements always have large volume expansion during lithiation when they are used in lithium-ion batteries. Designing hollow structures is a well-established strategy to accommodate the volume change because of sufficient internal void space. Here we report a facile template-free route to prepare hollow Ge nanospheres without using any templates through a quasi-microemulsion method. Ge nanocrystals are preferably self-assembled along the interface of liquid vesicles between water and tetrahydrofuran, and well-defined hollow architectures of ~50 nm in diameter are formed. Both the wall thickness and hollow interiors can be easily tuned. After subsequent carbon coating via pyrolysis of acetylene, the as-formed Ge@C nanocomposite with hollow interiors exhibits a highly reversible capacity of about 920 mA h g-1 at 200 mA g-1 over 50 cycles, and excellent rate

  6. Quantum Dots and Doped Nanocrystals: Synthesis, Optical Properties and Bio-applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to develop new luminescent nanoparticles, including quantum dots (QDs) and doped nanocrystals (NCs), for the application in biomedical research. The studies in this thesis discuss both fundamentals and the applications. Each chapter is an individual research and three parts

  7. Quantum Dots and Doped Nanocrystals: Synthesis, Optical Properties and Bio-applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to develop new luminescent nanoparticles, including quantum dots (QDs) and doped nanocrystals (NCs), for the application in biomedical research. The studies in this thesis discuss both fundamentals and the applications. Each chapter is an individual research and three parts

  8. Growth mechanism of Ge-doped CZTSSe thin film by sputtering method and solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinze; Shen, Honglie; Chen, Jieyi; Li, Yufang; Yang, Jiale

    2016-10-19

    Ge-doped CZTSSe thin films were obtained by covering a thin Ge layer on CZTS precursors, followed by a selenization process. The effect of the Ge layer thickness on the morphologies and structural properties of Ge-doped CZTSSe thin films were studied. It was found that Ge doping could promote grain growth to form a compact thin film. The lattice shrank in the top-half of the film due to the smaller atomic radius of Ge, leading to the formation of tensile stress. According to thermodynamic analysis, Sn was easier to be selenized than Ge. Thus, Ge preferred to remain on the surface and increased the surface roughness when the Ge layer was thin. CZTSe was easier to form than Ge-doped CZTSe, which caused difficulty in Ge doping. These results offered a theoretical and experimental guide for preparing Ge-doped CZTSSe thin films for the potential applications in low-cost solar cells. With a 10 nm Ge layer on the top of the precursor, the conversion efficiency of the solar cell improved to 5.38% with an open-circuit voltage of 403 mV, a short-circuit current density of 28.51 mA cm(-2) and a fill factor of 46.83% after Ge doping.

  9. Influence of the deposition and annealing temperatures on the luminescence of germanium nanocrystals formed in GeO x films and multilayer Ge/SiO2 structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, D. A.; Ershov, A. V.; Karabanova, I. A.; Pirogov, A. V.; Nezhdanov, A. V.; Mashin, A. I.; Pavlov, D. A.

    2017-05-01

    The GeO x films and multilayer nanoperiodic Ge/SiO2 structures containing germanium nanocrystals were prepared by physical vapor deposition in vacuum. The properties of the films and multilayer structures were controlled by varying the deposition temperature in the range of 35-590°C and the annealing temperature in the range of 400-1000°C. A comparative study of the optical and structural characteristics of the nanosystems was performed using the methods of Raman scattering spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electron microscopy, which demonstrated a qualitative similarity of the nanosystems. It was found that annealing at temperatures in the range of 600-800°C leads to the formation of germanium nanocrystals with a high density ( 1012 cm-2), whereas in the materials not subjected to annealing, their density did not exceed 1010 cm-2. The average size of the nanocrystals was found to be 5 ± 2 nm. For both nanosystems, three luminescence bands were observed at 1.2, 1.5-1.7, and 1.7-2.0 eV. It was assumed that the origin of these bands is associated with germanium nanocrystals, oxygen-deficient centers in GeOx, and defects at the Ge/dielectric interface, respectively.

  10. Giant Seebeck effect in Ge-doped SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallah, M.; Serrano-Sánchez, F.; Nemes, N. M.; Mompeán, F. J.; Martínez, J. L.; Fernández-Díaz, M. T.; Elhalouani, F.; Alonso, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Thermoelectric materials may contribute in the near future as new alternative sources of sustainable energy. Unprecedented thermoelectric properties in p-type SnSe single crystals have been recently reported, accompanied by extremely low thermal conductivity in polycrystalline samples. In order to enhance thermoelectric efficiency through proper tuning of this material we report a full structural characterization and evaluation of the thermoelectric properties of novel Ge-doped SnSe prepared by a straightforward arc-melting method, which yields nanostructured polycrystalline samples. Ge does not dope the system in the sense of donating carriers, yet the electrical properties show a semiconductor behavior with resistivity values higher than that of the parent compound, as a consequence of nanostructuration, whereas the Seebeck coefficient is higher and thermal conductivity lower, favorable to a better ZT figure of merit.

  11. Study of the structural, electrical and optical properties of Ge-Pb-Te nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Iman A.; Mahdy, Manal A.; El Sheikh, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Nanocrystals of Pb37.5Ge12.5Te50 with average size 24 nm are prepared using direct solid state reactions of pure elements in vacuum. The obtained Pb37.5Ge12.5Te50 nanocrystal alloy was used as a starting material for preparing thin films by inert gas condensation (IGC) technique. The obtained thin films show a nanocrystalline structure. Particle size of thin film increases from 4.3 to 6.9 nm with increasing film thickness from 10 to 60 nm. Optical studies for thin films revealed a direct allowed electronic transition. The values of optical band gap E op g decreased from 2.26 to 1.63 eV with increasing film thickness from 10 to 60 nm and inversely proportional to particle size. The electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline thin films was enhanced by a factor of 1000 times with increasing film thickness from 10 to 60 nm. The reduction of electrical conductivity during cooling cycle for 46 and 60 nm film thicknesses can be explained by the so-called core-shell model. The growth of crystal during heating process causes an increase in thin film resistance during cooling which reduces the probability of the presence of current paths within thin film.

  12. Low temperature growth of heavy boron-doped hydrogenated Ge epilayers and its application in Ge/Si photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Lee, Ming Jay; Wu, Mount-Learn; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Tsao, I.-Yu; Chang, Jenq-Yang

    2017-04-01

    In this study, heavily boron-doped hydrogenated Ge epilayers are grown on Si substrates at a low growth temperature (220 °C). The quality of the boron-doped epilayers is dependent on the hydrogen flow rate. The optical emission spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and Hall measurement results demonstrate that better quality boron-doped Ge epilayers can be obtained at low hydrogen flow rates (0 sccm). This reduction in quality is due to an excess of hydrogen in the source gas, which breaks one of the Ge-Ge bonds on the Ge surface, leading to the formation of unnecessary dangling bonds. The structure of the boron doped Ge epilayers is analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In addition, the performance, based on the I-V characteristics, of Ge/Si photodetectors fabricated with boron doped Ge epilayers produced under different hydrogen flow rates was examined. The photodetectors with boron doped Ge epilayers produced with a low hydrogen flow rate (0 sccm) exhibited a higher responsivity of 0.144 A/W and a lower dark current of 5.33 × 10-7 A at a reverse bias of 1 V.

  13. Temperature Sensor Based on Ge-Doped Microstructured Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Torres-Peiró

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental mode cutoff properties of Ge-doped microstructured fibers, filled with a liquid, permit the implementation of wavelength- and amplitude-encoded temperature sensors with an ultra-high sensitivity. The cutoff wavelength changes with temperature, and the thermo-optic coefficient of the liquid determines the sensitivity of the sensor. Sensitivity as high as 25 nm/∘C is reported. In addition, simple amplitude interrogation techniques can be implemented using the same sensor heads.

  14. Investigation of Room temperature Ferromagnetism in Mn doped Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakerol Arslan, Leyla; Toydemir, Burcu; Onel, Aykut Can; Ertas, Merve; Doganay, Hatice; Gebze Inst of Tech Collaboration; Research Center Julich Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    We present a systematic investigation of structural, magnetic and electronic properties of MnxGe1 -x single crystals. MnxGe1-x films were grown by sequential deposition of Ge and Mn by molecular-beam epitaxy at low substrate temperatures in order to avoid precipitation of ferromagnetic Ge-Mn intermetallic compounds. Reflected high energy electron diffraction and x-ray diffraction observations revealed that films are epitaxially grown on Si (001) substrates from the initial stage without any other phase formation. Magnetic measurements carried out using a physical property measurement system showed that all samples exhibited ferromagnetism at room temperature. Electron spin resonance indicates the presence of magnetically ordered localized spins of divalent Mn ions. X-ray absorption measurements at the Mn L-edge confirm significant substitutional doping of Mn into Ge-sites. The ferromagnetism was mainly induced by Mn substitution for Ge site, and indirect exchange interaction of these magnetic ions with the intrinsic charge carriers is the origin of ferromagnetism. The magnetic interactions were better understood by codoping with nonmagnetic impurities. This work was supported by Marie-Curie Reintegration Grant (PIRG08-GA-2010-276973).

  15. Nonthermal Plasma Synthesis of Core/Shell Quantum Dots: Strained Ge/Si Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Katharine I; Held, Jacob T; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2017-03-08

    In this work, we present an all-gas-phase approach for the synthesis of quantum-confined core/shell nanocrystals (NCs) as a promising alternative to traditional solution-based methods. Spherical quantum dots (QDs) are grown using a single-stage flow-through nonthermal plasma, yielding monodisperse NCs, with a concentric core/shell structure confirmed by electron microscopy. The in-flight negative charging of the NCs by plasma electrons keeps the NC cores separated during shell growth. The success of this gas-phase approach is demonstrated here through the study of Ge/Si core/shell QDs. We find that the epitaxial growth of a Si shell on the Ge QD core compressively strains the Ge lattice and affords the ability to manipulate the Ge band structure by modulation of the core and shell dimensions. This all-gas-phase approach to core/shell QD synthesis offers an effective method to produce high-quality heterostructured NCs with control over the core and shell dimensions.

  16. Mid- to long-wavelength infrared plasmonic-photonics using heavily doped n-Ge/Ge and n-GeSn/GeSn heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Richard; Hendrickson, Joshua; Cleary, Justin W

    2012-02-13

    Heavily doped n-type Ge and GeSn are investigated as plasmonic conductors for integration with undoped dielectrics of Si, SiGe, Ge, and GeSn in order to create a foundry-based group IV plasmonics technology. N-type Ge1-xSnx with compositions of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.115 are investigated utilizing effective-mass theory and Drude considerations. The plasma wavelengths, relaxation times, and complex permittivities are determined as functions of the free carrier concentration over the range of 10(10) to 10(21) cm-3. Basic plasmonic properties such as propagation loss and mode height are calculated and example numerical simulations are shown of a dielectric-conductor-dielectric ribbon waveguide structure are shown. Practical operation in the 2 to 20 μm wavelength range is predicted.

  17. Silicon photonic crystals doped with colloidally synthesized lead salt semiconductors nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Nadav; Armon, Akiva; Shandalov, Michael; Osherov, Anna; Golan, Yuval; Sa'ar, Amir

    2009-06-01

    The fabrication of two-dimensional and three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals doped with lead salt nanocrystals is reported. The silicon based photonic crystals of macro-porous silicon are fabricated by electro-chemical etching via masked silicon wafers with the periodicity along the third dimension is achieved by modulating the anodization current and voltage. The chemical solution deposition technique has been utilized to deposit thin layers of lead salts (PbS and PbSe) nanocrystals into the pores. Infrared transmission measurements revealed a considerable red-shift of the photonic band gap in a good agreement with numerical calculations.

  18. Raman and TEM studies of Ge nanocrystal formation in SiO{sub x}:Ge/SiO{sub x} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, A.; Aydinli, A. [Physics Department and National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Agan, S.; Tokay, S. [Physics Department, Kirikkale University, 71450 Kirikkale (Turkey); Finstad, T.G. [Physics Department, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 - Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2007-07-01

    Alternating germanosilicate-siliconoxide layers of 10-30 nm thickness were grown on Si substrates by plasma enhanced chemically vapor deposition (PECVD). The compositions of the grown films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The films were annealed at temperatures varying from 670 to 1000 C for 5 to 45 minutes under nitrogen atmosphere. High resolution cross section TEM images, electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy as well as energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) data confirm presence of Ge nanocrystals in each layer. The effect of annealing on the Ge nanocrystal formation in multilayers was investigated by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). As the annealing temperature is raised to 850 C, single layer of Ge nanocrystals observed at lower annealing temperatures is transformed into a double layer with the smaller sized nanocrystals closer to the substrate SiO{sub 2} interface. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Shape control of colloidal Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals and their visible light photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Li, Yaguang; Zhu, Liping; He, Haiping; Hu, Liang; Huang, Jingyun; Hu, Fengchun; He, Bo; Ye, Zhizhen

    2013-11-07

    For colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), shape control and doping as two widely applied strategies are crucial for enhancing and manipulating their functional properties. Here we report a facile and green synthetic approach for high-quality colloidal Mn doped ZnO NCs with simultaneous control over composition, shape and optical properties. Specifically, the shape of doped ZnO NCs can be finely modulated from three dimensional (3D) tetrapods to 0D spherical nanoparticles in a single reaction scheme. The growth mechanism of doped ZnO NCs with interesting shape transition is explored. Furthermore, we demonstrate the tunable optical absorption features of Mn doped ZnO NCs by varying the Mn doping levels, and the enhanced photocatalytic performance of Mn doped ZnO NCs under visible light, which can be further optimized by delicately controlling their shapes and Mn doping concentrations. Our results provide an improved understanding of the growth mechanism of doped NCs during the growth process and can be potentially extended to ZnO NCs doped with other metal ions for various applications.

  20. Charge storage characteristics and tunneling mechanism of amorphous Ge-doped HfOx films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, X. Y.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhang, T.; Wang, R. X.; Li, L. T.; Zhang, Y.; Dai, J. Y.

    2016-09-01

    Amorphous Ge-doped HfOx films have been deposited on p-Si(100) substrates by means of RF magnetron sputtering. Microstructural investigations reveal the partial oxidation of doped Ge atoms in the amorphous HfOx matrix and the existence of HfSiOx interfacial layer. Capacitance-voltage hysteresis of the Ag-/Ge-doped HfOx/Si/Ag memory capacitor exhibits a memory window of 3.15 V which can maintain for >5 × 104 cycles. Current-voltage characteristics reveal that Poole-Frenkel tunneling is responsible for electron transport in the Ge-doped HfOx film.

  1. Excited-state dynamics and nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals embedded in silica matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzari, Luca; Gnoli, Andrea; Righini, Marcofabio; Dâna, Aykutlu; Aydinli, Atilla

    2006-05-01

    We use a dedicated Z-scan setup, arranged to account for cumulative effects, to study the nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals embedded in silica matrix. Samples are prepared with plasma-enchanced chemical-vapor deposition and post-thermal annealing. We measure a third-order nonlinear refraction coefficient of γ =1×10-16m2/W. The nonlinear absorption shows an intensity-independent coefficient of β =4×10-10m/W related to fast processes. In addition, we measure a second β component around 10-9m /W with a relaxation time of 300μs that rises linearly with the laser intensity. We associate its origin to the absorption of excited carriers from a surface-defect state with a long depopulation time.

  2. Ultra-smooth epitaxial Ge grown on Si(001) utilizing a thin C-doped Ge buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mantey, J.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present work on epitaxial Ge films grown on a thin buffer layer of C doped Ge (Ge:C). The growth rate of Ge:C is found to slow over time and is thus unsuitable for thick (>20 nm) layers. We demonstrate Ge films from 10 nm to >150 nm are possible by growing pure Ge on a thin Ge:C buffer. It is shown that this stack yields exceedingly low roughness levels (comparable to bulk Si wafers) and contains fewer defects and higher Hall mobility compared to traditional heteroepitaxial Ge. The addition of C at the interface helps reduce strain by its smaller atomic radius and its ability to pin defects within the thin buffer layer that do not thread to the top Ge layer. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  3. The tetragonal structure of nanocrystals in rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Pan; Wang, Yazhou; Zhao, Lijuan

    2011-01-28

    Rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glasses and nanocrystalline glass ceramics have been prepared and studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) aiming at investigating the structure and the symmetry of the nanocrystal as well as the site of the rare-earth ion. To solve the problem encountered by previous researchers due to glass host interference, we etched off glass matrix and released the fluoride nanocrystal, which is more convenient for EDS measurement. A tetragonal phase model with the chemical formula as PbREF(5) proved by quantitative EDS and XRD analyses has been proposed in this paper for the first time. Two specific crystalline phases with the same space group have been observed at 460 °C-500 °C and 520 °C-560 °C, respectively. Moreover, a super "pseudo-cubic" cell based on our tetragonal model may give a good explanation to the probable previous cubic-symmetry misunderstanding by researchers. Additionally, the thermodynamic mechanism of phase transition and the thermal stability related to the structure of nanocrystals in glass ceramics have been studied and supported by ab initio calculations and experimental methods. The structure and thermal stability of the nanocrystal and clear environment of the rare-earth ion reported here have far-reaching significance with respect to the optical investigations and further applications of rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics.

  4. Tuning Equilibrium Compositions in Colloidal Cd1-xMnxSe Nanocrystals Using Diffusion Doping and Cation Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Charles J; Chakraborty, Pradip; Kornowske, Lindsey M; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2016-01-26

    The physical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals can be tuned dramatically via composition control. Here, we report a detailed investigation of the synthesis of high-quality colloidal Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals by diffusion doping of preformed CdSe nanocrystals. Until recently, Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals proved elusive because of kinetic incompatibilities between Mn(2+) and Cd(2+) chemistries. Diffusion doping allows Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals to be prepared under thermodynamic rather than kinetic control, allowing access to broader composition ranges. We now investigate this chemistry as a model system for understanding the characteristics of nanocrystal diffusion doping more deeply. From the present work, a Se(2-)-limited reaction regime is identified, in which Mn(2+) diffusion into CdSe nanocrystals is gated by added Se(2-), and equilibrium compositions are proportional to the amount of added Se(2-). At large added Se(2-) concentrations, a solubility-limited regime is also identified, in which x = xmax = ∼0.31, independent of the amount of added Se(2-). We further demonstrate that Mn(2+) in-diffusion can be reversed by cation exchange with Cd(2+) under exactly the same reaction conditions, purifying Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals back to CdSe nanocrystals with fine tunability. These chemistries offer exceptional composition control in Cd1-xMnxSe NCs, providing opportunities for fundamental studies of impurity diffusion in nanocrystals and for development of compositionally tuned nanocrystals with diverse applications ranging from solar energy conversion to spin-based photonics.

  5. Size limit on the phosphorous doped silicon nanocrystals for dopant activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, P., E-mail: pengyuan.yang@surrey.ac.uk [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH (United Kingdom); Gwilliam, R.M. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH (United Kingdom); Crowe, I.F.; Papachristodoulou, N.; Halsall, M.P. [Photon Science Institute, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hylton, N.P. [Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hulko, O.; Knights, A.P. [Department of Engineering Physics and the Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton L8S 4L7, Ontario (Canada); Shah, M.; Kenyon, A.J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    We studied the photoluminescence spectra of silicon nanocrystals doped with and without phosphorus as a function of isothermal annealing time. Silicon nanocrystals were prepared by the implantation of 80 keV Si{sup +} into a 500 nm SiO{sub 2} film to an areal density of 8 × 10{sup 16} at/cm{sup 2}. Half of the samples were co-implanted with P{sup +} at 80 keV to 5 × 10{sup 15} at/cm{sup 2}. The photoluminescence of the annealed samples were photo-excited at wavelength of 405 nm. For short anneal times, when the nanocrystal size distribution has a relatively small mean diameter, formation in the presence of phosphorus yields an increase in the luminescence intensity and a blue shift in the emission peak compared with intrinsic nanocrystals. As the mean size increases with annealing time, this enhancement rapidly diminishes and the peak energy shifts to the red. Our results indicate the donor electron generation depends strongly on the nanocrystal size. We also found a critical limit above which it allows dopant activation.

  6. Tunable surface plasmon resonance and enhanced electrical conductivity of In doped ZnO colloidal nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sirshendu; Saha, Manas; de, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    We report a new synthesis process of colloidal indium (In) doped zinc oxide (ZIO) nanocrystals by a hot injection technique. By fine tuning the synthesis we reached the same nucleation temperature for indium oxide and zinc oxide which helped us to study a dopant precursor dependent In incorporation into the ZnO matrix by using different In sources. The dopant induced shape evolution changes the hexagonal pyramid structured ZnO to a platelet like structure upon 8% In doping. The introduction of trivalent In3+ into the ZnO lattice and consequent substitution of divalent Zn2+ generates free electrons in the conduction band which produces a plasmonic resonance in the infrared region. The electron concentration controls plasmon frequency as well as the band gap of host ZnO. The variation of the band gap and the modification of the conduction band have been explained by the Burstein-Moss effect and Mie's theory respectively. The In dopant changes the defect chemistry of pure ZnO nanocrystals which has been studied by photoluminescence and other spectroscopic measurements. The nanocrystals are highly stable in the organic medium and can be deposited as a crack free thin film on different substrates. Careful ligand exchange and thermal annealing of the spin cast film lead to a good conductive film (720 Ω per square to 120 Ω per square) with stable inherent plasmonic absorption in the infrared and 90% transmittance in the visible region. A temperature induced metal-semiconductor transition was found for doped ZnO nanocrystals. The transition temperature shifts to a lower temperature with increase of the doping concentration.We report a new synthesis process of colloidal indium (In) doped zinc oxide (ZIO) nanocrystals by a hot injection technique. By fine tuning the synthesis we reached the same nucleation temperature for indium oxide and zinc oxide which helped us to study a dopant precursor dependent In incorporation into the ZnO matrix by using different In sources. The

  7. Segregation of Sb in Ge epitaxial layers and its usage for the selective doping of Ge-based structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, A. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Novikov, A. V., E-mail: anov@ipmras.ru; Yurasov, D. V. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The segregation of Sb in Ge epitaxial layers grown by the method of molecular beam epitaxy on Ge (001) substrates is investigated. For a growth temperature range of 180–325°C, the temperature dependence is determined for the segregation ratio of Sb in Ge, which shows a sharp increase (by more than three orders of magnitude) with increasing temperature. The strong dependence of the segregation properties of Sb on the growth temperature makes it possible to adapt a method based on the controlled use of segregation developed previously for the doping of Si structures for the selective doping of Ge structures with a donor impurity. Using this method selectively doped Ge:Sb structures, in which the bulk impurity concentration varies by an order of magnitude at distances of 3–5 nm, are obtained.

  8. Cation coordination reactions on nanocrystals: surface/interface, doping control and advanced photocatalysis applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiatao

    2016-10-01

    Abstract: Including the shape and size effect, the controllable doping, hetero-composite and surface/interface are the prerequisite of colloidal nanocrystals for exploring their optoelectronic properties, such as fluorescence, plasmon-exciton coupling, efficient electron/hole separation, and enhanced photocatalysis applications. By controlling soft acid-base coordination reactions between cation molecular complexes and colloidal nanocrystals, we showed that chemical thermodynamics could drive nanoscale monocrystalline growth of the semiconductor shell on metal nano-substrates and the substitutional heterovalent doping in semiconductor nanocrystals. We have demonstrated evolution of relative position of Au and II-VI semiconductor in Au-Semi from symmetric to asymmetric configuration, different phosphines initiated morphology engineering, oriented attachment of quantum dots into micrometer nanosheets with synergistic control of surface/interface and doing, which can further lead to fine tuning of plasmon-exciton coupling. Therefore, different hydrogen photocatalytic performance, Plasmon enhanced photocatalysis properties have been achieved further which lead to the fine tuning of plasmon-exciton coupling. Substitutional heterovalent doping here enables the tailoring of optical, electronic properties and photocatalysis applications of semiconductor nanocrystals because of electronic impurities (p-, n-type doping) control. References: (1) J. Gui, J. Zhang*, et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 3683. (2) Q. Zhao, J. Zhang*, etc., Adv. Mater. 2014, 26, 1387. (3) J. Liu, Q. Zhao, S. G. Wang*, J. Zhang*, etc., Adv. Mater. 2015, 27-2753-2761. (4) H. Qian, J. Zhang*, etc., NPG Asia Mater. (2015) 7, e152. (5) M. Ji, M. Xu, etc., J. Zhang*, Adv. Mater. 2016, in proof. (6) S. Yu, J. T. Zhang, Y. Tang, M. Ouyang*, Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 6282-6288. (7) J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee and M. Ouyang*, Science 2010, 327, 1634. (8) J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee, M. Ouyang*, Nature 2010, 466

  9. Photo-sensitive Ge nanocrystal based films controlled by substrate deposition temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Stavarache, Ionel

    2017-07-21

    Lowering the temperature of crystallization by deposition of thin films on a heated substrate represents the easiest way to find new means to develop and improve new working devices based on nanocrystals embedded in thin films. The improvements are strongly related with the increasing of operation speed, substantially decreasing the energy consumption and reducing unit fabrication costs of the respective semiconductor devices. This approach avoids major problems, such as those related to diffusion or difficulties in controlling of nanocrystallites size, which appear during thermal treatments at high temperatures after deposition. It is reported here the significant progress introduced by synthesis procedure to the in-situ structuring of Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films by heating the substrate at low temperature, 400 °C during co-deposition of Ge and SiO2 by magnetron sputtering. As a proof-of-concept, a Si/Ge-NCs:SiO2 photo-sensitive structure was fabricated thereof and characterized. The structure shows superior performance on broad operation bandwidth from visible to near-infrared, as strong rectification properties in dark, significant current rise in the inversion mode when illuminated, high responsivity, high photo-detectivity of 1014 Jones, quick response and significant conversion efficiency of 850 %. This simple preparation approach brings an important contribution to the efort of structuring Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films at a lower temperature for the purpose of using these materials for devices in optoelectronics, solar cells and electronics on flexible substrates.

  10. Paramagnetic behavior of Co doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals controlled by self-purification mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anitha, B. [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581 (India); Khadar, M. Abdul, E-mail: mabdulkhadar@rediffmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581 (India); Banerjee, Alok [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (CSR), Khandwa Road, Indore 452 001 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Doping in nanocrystals is a challenging process because of the self- purification mechanism which tends to segregate out the dopants resulting in a greater dopant concentration near the surface than at the interior of nanocrystals. In the present work nanocrystals of TiO{sub 2} doped with different atom % of Co were synthesized by peroxide gel method. XRD analysis confirmed the tetragonal anatase structure and HRTEM images showed the rod-like morphology of the samples. Raman modes of anatase phase of TiO{sub 2} along with weak intensity peaks of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} for higher Co dopant concentrations were observed for the samples. EPR measurements revealed the presence of cobalt in +2 oxidation state in the TiO{sub 2} matrix. SQUID measurements indicated paramagnetic behavior of the Co doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. The paramagnetic behavior is attributed to an increased concentration of Co{sup 2+} ions and an increased presence of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase near the surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals due to self-purification mechanism. - Graphical abstract: Variation of the intensity ratios of XRD peaks as a function of atomic ratio of Co. Inset: variation of structure factor for (101) reflection as a function of atomic ratio of Co. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Co doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were synthesized by peroxide gel method. • HRTEM images showed Co doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals to be rod-like. • EPR spectra showed +2 oxidation states for Co in the samples. • Co doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals showed paramagnetic behavior.

  11. Green-white-yellow tunable luminescence from doped transparent glass ceramics containing nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Yan, X. H.; Xuan, Y.; Zheng, J.; He, W. Y.

    2013-10-01

    , , and doped transparent ceramics containing nanocrystals were fabricated by a melt-quenching method and subsequent heating. Tetragonal phase spheres with 20 nm size are homogeneously precipitated among a borosilicate glass matrix. The photoluminescence spectrum of single doped transparent ceramics shows white light emission under 382 nm UV excitation. The emission color of co-doped transparent glass ceramics is tuned from green to white through energy transfer from to , and the emission color of co-doped transparent ceramics is tuned from white to yellow through energy transfer from to . CIE chromaticity and color temperature measurements show that the resulting transparent glass ceramics may be a candidate as a warm-white LED material pumped by a UV InGaN chip.

  12. Temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals into fractal architectures and thermoelectric power properties in Au/Ge bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Quanbao; Wang Jian; Jiao Zheng [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wu Minghong, E-mail: mhwu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shek, Chan-Hung; Lawrence Wu, C.M.; Lai, Joseph K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chen Zhiwen, E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Ge fractal architectures were achieved by temperature-induced assembly. > The appearance of fractal architectures influences the thermoelectric power. > But it has little effect on the resistivity. > The values of the superlocalization exponent were within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29. > It was higher than expected for two-dimension fractal system. - Abstract: Fractal architectures of semiconductor nanocrystals were successfully achieved by temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals in gold/germanium (Au/Ge) bilayer films. New assessment strategies of fractal architectures are of fundamental importance in the development of micro/nano-devices. Temperature-dependent properties including resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) of Au/Ge bilayer films with self-similar fractal patterns were investigated in detail. Experimental results indicated that the microstructure of Au film plays an important role in the characteristics of Au/Ge bilayer films after annealing and the crystallization processes of amorphous Ge accompany by fractal formation of Ge nanocrystals via temperature-induced assembly. The appearance of fractal architectures has significantly influence on the TEP but little effect on the resistivity of the annealed bilayer film. By analysis of the data, we found that the values of superlocalization exponent are within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29, which are higher than expected for two-dimension fractal systems. The results provided possible evidence for the superlocalization on fractal architectures in Au/Ge bilayer films. The TEP measurements are considered a more effective method than the conductivity for investigating superlocalization in a percolating system.

  13. Low temperature synthesis and electrical characterization of germanium doped Ti-based nanocrystals for nonvolatile memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Li-Wei; Chang, Chun-Yen [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Tu, Chun-Hao; Wang, Pai-Syuan [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chao-Cheng [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, 310, Taiwan (China); Chen, Min-Chen [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hui-Chun; Gan, Der-Shin; Ho, New-Jin [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Ching [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute of Electronic Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 310, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-30

    Chemical and electrical characteristics of Ti-based nanocrystals containing germanium, fabricated by annealing the co-sputtered thin film with titanium silicide and germanium targets, were demonstrated for low temperature applications of nonvolatile memory. Formation and composition characteristics of nanocrystals (NCs) at various annealing temperatures were examined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photon-emission spectroscopy, respectively. It was observed that the addition of germanium (Ge) significantly reduces the proposed thermal budget necessary for Ti-based NC formation due to the rise of morphological instability and agglomeration properties during annealing. NC structures formed after annealing at 500 Degree-Sign C, and separated well at 600 Degree-Sign C annealing. However, it was also observed that significant thermal desorption of Ge atoms occurs at 600 Degree-Sign C due to the sublimation of formatted GeO phase and results in a serious decrease of memory window. Therefore, an approach to effectively restrain Ge thermal desorption is proposed by encapsulating the Ti-based trapping layer with a thick silicon oxide layer before 600 Degree-Sign C annealing. The electrical characteristics of data retention in the sample with the 600 Degree-Sign C annealing exhibited better performance than the 500 Degree-Sign C-annealed sample, a result associated with the better separation and better crystallization of the NC structures.

  14. Reduction of threading dislocation density in Ge/Si using a heavily As-doped Ge seed layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Hong Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High quality germanium (Ge epitaxial film is grown directly on silicon (001 substrate with 6° off-cut using a heavily arsenic (As doped Ge seed layer. The growth steps consists of (i growth of a heavily As-doped Ge seed layer at low temperature (LT, at 400 °C, (ii Ge growth with As gradually reduced to zero at high temperature (HT, at 650 °C, (iii pure Ge growth at HT. This is followed by thermal cyclic annealing in hydrogen at temperature ranging from 600 to 850 °C. Analytical characterization have shown that the Ge epitaxial film with a thickness of ∼1.5 µm experiences thermally induced tensile strain of 0.20% with a treading dislocation density (TDD of mid 106/cm2 which is one order of magnitude lower than the control group without As doping and surface roughness of 0.37 nm. The reduction in TDD is due to the enhancement in velocity of dislocations in an As-doped Ge film.

  15. Atomistic simulation of the thermal conductivity in amorphous SiO2 matrix/Ge nanocrystal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryliuk, Vasyl V.; Korotchenkov, Oleg A.

    2017-04-01

    We use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations with the Tersoff potential aiming to provide a comprehensive picture of the thermal conductivity of amorphous SiO2 (a-SiO2) matrix with embedded Ge nanocrystals (nc-Ge). The modelling predicts the a-SiO2 matrix thermal conductivity in a temperature range of 50 molecular dynamics simulations with the Tersoff potential are promising for computing the thermal conductivity of nanocomposites based on amorphous SiO2 and can be readily scaled to more complex composite structures with embedded nanoparticles, which thus help design nanocomposites with desired thermal properties.

  16. Crystallographic and optical studies on Cr doped ZnS nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Bodke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromium doped ZnS nanocrystals with pure and 10% compositions were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation route. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and UV-Visible spectrometer. Lattice parameter 'a' decreases and grain size increases with increasing Cr concentration. XRD study shows that both the samples have cubic structure. Grain size increases due to ionic radius. The functional groups and chemical species of Cr doped ZnO samples were determined using FTIR data. UV-Vis study revealed that red shift is clearly observed in absorption band. Surface morphology of pure and 10% Cr doped samples was investigated by SEM technique and it is confirmed that images exibit cubic form of the samples. Using EDS, percentage of chemical compositions of material recorded.

  17. Enhanced photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals-doped cellulose nanofibers by plasmonic light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Zhang, Ran [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States); Reinhard, Björn M. [Department of Chemistry and Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Fujii, Minoru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Perotto, Giovanni; Marelli, Benedetto; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Physics, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Dal Negro, Luca, E-mail: dalnegro@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2015-07-27

    We report the development of bio-compatible cellulose nanofibers doped with light emitting silicon nanocrystals and Au nanoparticles via facile electrospinning. By performing photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength, we demonstrate plasmon-enhanced PL by a factor of 2.2 with negligible non-radiative quenching due to plasmon-enhanced scattering of excitation light from Au nanoparticles to silicon nanocrystals inside the nanofibers. These findings provide an alternative approach for the development of plasmon-enhanced active systems integrated within the compact nanofiber geometry. Furthermore, bio-compatible light-emitting nanofibers prepared by a cost-effective solution-based processing are very promising platforms for biophotonic applications such as fluorescence sensing and imaging.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of surfactant assisted Mn2+ doped ZnO nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shanmugam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis and characterization of Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals, both in the free standing and PVP capped particle forms. The nanocrystals size could be controlled by capping them with polyvinylpyrollidone and was estimated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical compositions of the products were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy measurements reveal that the capping of ZnO leads to blue shift due to quantum confinement effect. The morphology of the particles was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. Both the Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA curves of the ZnO show no further weight loss and thermal effect at a temperature above 510 °C.

  19. Preparation and Luminescence of Er3+ Doped Oxyfluoride Glass Ceramics Containing LaF3 Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Er3+ doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals were prepared and the up-con-version and near infrared luminescence behavior of Er3+ in glasses and glass ceramics were investigated. With increasing heat-treating time and temperature, the size (varied from 0 to 19 nm) and crystallinity (varied from 0 to 47%) of LaF3 nanocrystals in the glass ceramics are increased. The up-conversion luminescence intensity of Er3+ ions in the glass ceramics is much stronger than that in the glasses and increased significantly with increasing heat-treating time and temperature. The near infrared emission of Er3+ ions in the glass ceramics is found to be similar to that in the glasses.

  20. Study of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashtiban, R J; Bangert, U; Harvey, A J [Nanostructured Materials Research Group, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester, M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Crowe, I F; Halsall, M [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Gass, M, E-mail: Reza.jalilikashtiban@postgrad.manchester.ac.u [SuperSTEM, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Er-doped SiO{sub 2} and Er-doped Si-NCs embedded in a SiO{sub 2} matrix were produced by Er and/or Si ion beam implantation of a Si (100) substrate. The composition and distribution of implanted Er varies in samples either with or without Si implants. HAADF and EELS detail in samples with Si implants, the Si and Er distribution is identical, and within a band of {approx}110 nm width at {approx}75 nm below the SiO{sub 2} surface. Intense PL emission at 1.54 {mu}m confirms formation of ErSi{sub 2}, for the majority of aggregates, is unlikely. The present investigation details most Si-NCs are surrounded by Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or possess this phase within.

  1. Effect of Cu-doping on optical, electrical and magnetic properties of chemically synthesized MnS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeramanikandasamy, T., E-mail: veeramaniks@gmail.com [Department of Electronics and Communication Systems, Sri Krishna Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 008 (India); Rajendran, K. [Department of Electronics, L.R.G Govt. Arts College for Women, Tirupur 641 604 (India); Sambath, K. [Department of Electronics and Communication Systems, Sri Krishna Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 008 (India); Rameshbabu, P. [Center for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India)

    2016-03-01

    Manganese sulfide and Cu-doped manganese sulfide nanocrystals have been synthesized by wet chemical technique. The structural, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of as-synthesized nanocrystals have been investigated. The average crystallite size and lattice strain of the samples have been calculated from powder X-ray diffraction patterns using the Williamson–Hall analysis. The results show that the average crystallite size decreased while both the lattice strain and the dislocation density values increased in the Cu-doped MnS nanocrystals. The surface morphology of Cu-doped MnS nanocrystals has lesser particle size than undoped sample and it shows spherical like structures with little agglomeration. The chemical composition of the prepared samples has been obtained from EDAX. It clearly indicates the presence of Cu ions in the MnS lattice. UV–visible spectroscopy shows a blue shift in the optical band gap with doping. The photoluminescence spectra on the doped sample show a quenching of the PL intensity due to strain induced by doping. The electrical conduction, dielectric and impedance properties of as-synthesized nanocrystals have been investigated in the frequency range 50 Hz–5 MHz and temperature range 323–473 K which are greatly affected by doping with Cu. The vibrating sample magnetometer measurement revealed that the undoped MnS has paramagnetic behavior while the Cu-doped MnS has superparamagnetic behavior. On Cu-doping, the saturation magnetization and remanence increases while the coercivity decreases. - Highlights: • Pure and Cu-doped MnS nanocrystals were synthesized by the wet chemical technique. • Optical band gap value is raised by the Burstein-Moss effect due to the introduction of Cu-dopant. • It is a potential material for violet-blue light emission. • Cu-doped MnS showed good electrical conductivity compared to pure γ-MnS. • Doping of Cu induces superparamagnetic behavior in the system.

  2. In-situ Ga doping of fully strained Ge1-xSnx heteroepitaxial layers grown on Ge(001) substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimura, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Nakatsuka, O.;

    2012-01-01

    to the introduction of dislocations, due to the increase in the strain of the Ge1-xSnx layers. We achieved the growth of a fully strained Ge0.922Sn0.078 layer on Ge with a Ga concentration of 5.5×1019 /cm3 without any dislocations and stacking faults. The resistivity of the Ga-doped Ge1-xSnx layer decreased as the Sn...... content was increased. This decrease was due to an increase in the carrier concentration, with an increase in the activation level of Ga atoms in the Ge1-xSnx epitaxial layers being induced by the introduction of Sn. As a result, we found that the resistivity for the Ge0.950Sn0.050 layer annealed at 600°C...

  3. Synthesis of visible light emitting self assembled Ge nanocrystals embedded within a SiO{sub 2} matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Hernandez, A.; De Moure-Flores, F.; Quinones-Galvan, J. G.; Santoyo-Salazar, J.; Melendez-Lira, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, A.P. 14740, C.P. 07300, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Rangel-Kuoppa, V. T. [Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Plach, Thomas [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterization, Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Zapata-Torres, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria IPN, Calzada Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Hernandez-Hernandez, L. A. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9 U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07730 (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    As-grown light emitting self-assembled Ge nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) embedded in a SiO{sub 2} matrix were produced via a sequential deposition process of SiO{sub 2}/Ge/SiO{sub 2} layers employing a reactive radio frequency sputtering technique. Obtained Ge-NCs show a crystallographic phase, the proportion, size, quality, and specific orientation of which are determined by the oxygen partial pressure. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the size distribution of Ge-NCs is reduced and centered on about 8 nm when higher oxygen partial pressure is employed; the formation of Ge-NCs is corroborated by transmission electron microscopy measurements, and their sizes are consistent with estimates from PL measurements. Resistivity measurements are explained by a near neighbors hopping process, with specific features depending on the Ge-NCs' size. The features of PL and resistivity measurements indicate that there is no appreciable dependence of the number of interfacial defects on the oxygen partial pressure.

  4. Synthesis of visible light emitting self assembled Ge nanocrystals embedded within a SiO2 matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, A.; Rangel-Kuoppa, V. T.; Plach, Thomas; De Moure-Flores, F.; Quiñones-Galván, J. G.; Santoyo-Salazar, J.; Zapata-Torres, M.; Hernández-Hernández, L. A.; Meléndez-Lira, M.

    2012-02-01

    As-grown light emitting self-assembled Ge nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) embedded in a SiO2 matrix were produced via a sequential deposition process of SiO2/Ge/SiO2 layers employing a reactive radio frequency sputtering technique. Obtained Ge-NCs show a crystallographic phase, the proportion, size, quality, and specific orientation of which are determined by the oxygen partial pressure. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the size distribution of Ge-NCs is reduced and centered on about 8 nm when higher oxygen partial pressure is employed; the formation of Ge-NCs is corroborated by transmission electron microscopy measurements, and their sizes are consistent with estimates from PL measurements. Resistivity measurements are explained by a near neighbors hopping process, with specific features depending on the Ge-NCs' size. The features of PL and resistivity measurements indicate that there is no appreciable dependence of the number of interfacial defects on the oxygen partial pressure.

  5. Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, B.; Gencarelli, F.; Bender, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we propose an atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition technique to grow metastable GeSn epitaxial layers on Ge. We report the growth of defect free fully strained undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn layers on Ge substrates with Sit contents up to 8%. Those metastable layers stay...

  6. Engineering Interfacial Charge Transfer in CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals by Heterovalent Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Begum, Raihana

    2016-12-17

    Since compelling device efficiencies of perovskite solar cells have been achieved, investigative efforts have turned to understand other key challenges in these systems, such as engineering interfacial energy-level alignment and charge transfer (CT). However, these types of studies on perovskite thin-film devices are impeded by the morphological and compositional heterogeneity of the films and their ill-defined surfaces. Here, we use well-defined ligand-protected perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) as model systems to elucidate the role of heterovalent doping on charge-carrier dynamics and energy level alignment at the interface of perovskite NCs with molecular acceptors. More specifically, we develop an in situ doping approach for colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite NCs with heterovalent Bi3+ ions by hot injection to precisely tune their band structure and excited-state dynamics. This synthetic method allowed us to map the impact of doping on CT from the NCs to different molecular acceptors. Using time-resolved spectroscopy with broadband capability, we clearly demonstrate that CT at the interface of NCs can be tuned and promoted by metal ion doping. We found that doping increases the energy difference between states of the molecular acceptor and the donor moieties, subsequently facilitating the interfacial CT process. This work highlights the key variable components not only for promoting interfacial CT in perovskites, but also for establishing a higher degree of precision and control over the surface and the interface of perovskite molecular acceptors.

  7. Size Dependence of Doping by a Vacancy Formation Reaction in Copper Sulfide Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elimelech, Orian [The Institute of Chemistry and The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 Israel; Liu, Jing [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook NY 11794 USA; Plonka, Anna M. [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook NY 11794 USA; Frenkel, Anatoly I. [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook NY 11794 USA; Banin, Uri [The Institute of Chemistry and The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 Israel

    2017-07-19

    Doping of nanocrystals (NCs) is a key, yet underexplored, approach for tuning of the electronic properties of semiconductors. An important route for doping of NCs is by vacancy formation. The size and concentration dependence of doping was studied in copper(I) sulfide (Cu2S) NCs through a redox reaction with iodine molecules (I2), which formed vacancies accompanied by a localized surface plasmon response. X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction reveal transformation from Cu2S to Cu-depleted phases, along with CuI formation. Greater reaction efficiency was observed for larger NCs. This behavior is attributed to interplay of the vacancy formation energy, which decreases for smaller sized NCs, and the growth of CuI on the NC surface, which is favored on well-defined facets of larger NCs. This doping process allows tuning of the plasmonic properties of a semiconductor across a wide range of plasmonic frequencies by varying the size of NCs and the concentration of iodine. Controlled vacancy doping of NCs may be used to tune and tailor semiconductors for use in optoelectronic applications.

  8. White light emitting Ho{sup 3+}-doped CdS nanocrystal ingrained glass nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Chirantan; Karmakar, Basudeb, E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in [Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Goswami, Madhumita [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-02-23

    We report the generation of white light from Ho{sup 3+} ion doped CdS nanocrystal ingrained borosilicate glass nanocomposites prepared by the conventional melt-quench method. Near visible 405 nm diode laser excited white light emission is produced by tuning the blue emission from the Ho{sup 3+} ions, green band edge, and orange-red surface-state emissions of the nanocrystalline CdS, which are further controlled by the size of the nanocrystals. The absorption and emission spectra evidenced the excitation of Ho{sup 3+} ions by absorption of photons emitted by the CdS nanocrystals. The high color rendering index (CRI = 84–89) and befitting chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.308–0.309, y = 0.326–0.338) of white light emission, near visible harmless excitation wavelength (405 nm), and high absorbance values at excitation wavelength point out that these glass nanocomposites may serve as a prominent candidate for resin free high power white light emitting diodes.

  9. The Progress of Photoluminescent Properties of Rare-Earth-Ions-Doped Phosphate One-Dimensional Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1D nanostructures, such as tubes, wires, rods, and belts, have aroused remarkable attentions over the past decade due to a great deal of potential applications, such as data storage, advanced catalyst, and photoelectronic devices . On the other hand, in comparison with zero-dimensional (0D nanostructures, the space anisotropy of 1D structures provided a better model system to study the dependence of electronic transport, optical and mechanical properties on size confinement and dimensionality. Rare earth (RE compounds, were intensively applied in luminescent and display devices. It is expected that in nanosized RE compounds the luminescent quantum efficiency (QE and display resolution could be improved. In this paper, we systematically reported the research progress of luminescent properties of RE-doped 1D orthophosphate nanocrystal, including the synthesis of 1D nanostructures doped with RE ions, local symmetry of host, electronic transition processes, energy transfer (ET, and so forth.

  10. Optical properties and thermal stability of germanium oxide (GeO{sub 2}) nanocrystals with {alpha}-quartz structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, C.V., E-mail: rvchintalapalle@utep.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Carbajal-Franco, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Vemuri, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Troitskaia, I.B. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor, Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gromilov, S.A. [Laboratory of Crystal Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Atuchin, V.V. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor, Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-25

    Germanium dioxide (GeO{sub 2}) crystals were prepared by a chemical precipitation method at a relatively low-temperature (100 {sup o}C). The grown crystals were characterized by studying their microstructure, optical properties and thermal stability. The results indicate that the grown GeO{sub 2} crystals exhibit {alpha}-quartz type crystal structure. The lattice parameters obtained from XRD were a = 4.987(4) A and c = 5.652(5) A. Electron microscopy analysis indicates a high structural quality of GeO{sub 2} crystals grown using the present approach. Optical absorption measurements indicate a direct bandgap of 5.72 eV without any additional bands arising from localized or defect states. Thermogravimetric measurements indicate the temperature stability of the grown GeO{sub 2} nanocrystals. Microscopic analysis coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the GeO{sub 2} crystals with {alpha}-quartz type crystal structure indicates their stability in chemical composition up to a temperature of 400 deg. C. The surface morphology of GeO{sub 2} crystals, however, found to be changing with the increase in temperature.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of transition-metal-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals for spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng

    Spintronics (spin transport electr onics), in which both spin and charge of carriers are utilized for information processing, is believed to challenge the current microelectronics and to become the next-generation electronics. Nanostructured spintronic materials and their synthetic methodologies are of paramount importance for manufacturing future nanoscale spintronic devices. This thesis aims at studying synthesis, characterization, and magnetism of transition-metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals---a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS)---for potential applications in future nano-spintronics. A simple bottom-up-based synthetic strategy named a solvothermal technique is introduced as the primary synthetic approach and its crystal growth mechanism is scrutinized. N-type cobalt-doped ZnO-based DMS nanocrystals are employed as a model system, and characterized by a broad spectrum of advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. It is found that the self-orientation growth mechanism, imperfect oriented attachment, is intimately correlated with the high-temperature ferromagnetism via defects. The influence of processing on the magnetic properties, such as compositional variations, reaction conditions, and post-growth treatment, is also studied. In this way, an in-depth understanding of processing-structure-property interrelationships and origins of magnetism in DMS nanocrystals are obtained in light of the theoretical framework of a spin-split impurity band model. In addition, a nanoscale spinodal decomposition phase model is also briefly discussed. Following the similar synthetic route, copper- and manganese-doped ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized and characterized. They both show high-temperature ferromagnetism in line with the aforementioned theoretical model(s). Moreover, they display interesting exchange biasing phenomena at low temperatures, revealing the complexity of magnetic phases therein. The crystal growth strategy demonstrated in this work

  12. A facile green antisolvent approach to Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with visible-light-responsive photoactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Wei-Hao; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Pu, Ying-Chih; Lee, Min-Han; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2014-08-07

    An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room temperature ionic liquid, known as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), was used as the solvent to dissolve ZnO powders. Upon the introduction of the ZnO-containing DES into a bad solvent which shows no solvation to ZnO, ZnO was precipitated and grown due to the dramatic decrease of solubility. By adding Cu(2+) ions to the bad solvent, the growth of ZnO from the antisolvent process was accompanied by Cu(2+) introduction, resulting in the formation of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The as-prepared Cu(2+)-doped ZnO showed an additional absorption band in the visible range (400-800 nm), which conduced to an improvement in the overall photon harvesting efficiency. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, together with the photovoltage information, suggested that the doped Cu(2+) may otherwise trap photoexcited electrons during the charge transfer process, inevitably depressing the photoconversion efficiency. The photoactivity of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical water oxidation was effectively enhanced in the visible region, which achieved the highest at 2.0 at% of Cu(2+). A further increase in the Cu(2+) concentration however led to a decrease in the photocatalytic performance, which was ascribed to the significant carrier trapping caused by the increased states given by excessive Cu(2+). The photocurrent action spectra illustrated that the enhanced photoactivity of the Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals was mainly due to the improved visible photon harvesting achieved by Cu(2+) doping. These results may facilitate the use of transition metal ion-doped ZnO in other photoconversion applications, such as ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells and magnetism-assisted photocatalytic systems.

  13. High Resolution Fluorescence Imaging of Cancers Using Lanthanide Ion-Doped Upconverting Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Rafik; Rodríguez, Emma Martín; Bogdan, Nicoleta; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; de la Cruz, Maria del Carmen Iglesias; de la Fuente, Ángeles Juarranz; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Jaque, Daniel; Solé, José García; Capobianco, John A.

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade inorganic luminescent nanoparticles that emit visible light under near infrared (NIR) excitation (in the biological window) have played a relevant role for high resolution imaging of cancer. Indeed, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoparticles, mostly gold nanorods (GNRs), are already commercially available for this purpose. In this work we review the role which is being played by a relatively new class of nanoparticles, based on lanthanide ion doped nanocrystals, to target and image cancer cells using upconversion fluorescence microscopy. These nanoparticles are insulating nanocrystals that are usually doped with small percentages of two different rare earth (lanthanide) ions: The excited donor ions (usually Yb3+ ion) that absorb the NIR excitation and the acceptor ions (usually Er3+, Ho3+ or Tm3+), that are responsible for the emitted visible (or also near infrared) radiation. The higher conversion efficiency of these nanoparticles in respect to those based on QDs and GNRs, as well as the almost independent excitation/emission properties from the particle size, make them particularly promising for fluorescence imaging. The different approaches of these novel nanoparticles devoted to “in vitro” and “in vivo” cancer imaging, selective targeting and treatment are examined in this review. PMID:24213500

  14. Room temperature enhanced red emission from novel Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnO nanocrystals uniformly dispersed in nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yongzhe; Wang Qijie [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Liu Yanxia; Li Xiaodong; Xie Erqing, E-mail: QJWANG@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2011-10-14

    Achieving red emission from ZnO-based materials has long been a goal for researchers in order to realize, for instance, full-color display panels and solid-state light-emitting devices. However, the current technique using Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnO for red emission generation has a significant drawback in that the energy transfer from ZnO to Eu{sup 3+} is inefficient, resulting in a low intensity red emission. In this paper, we report an efficient energy transfer scheme for enhanced red emission from Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnO nanocrystals by fabricating polymer nanofibers embedded with Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnO nanocrystals to facilitate the energy transfer. In the fabrication, ZnO nanocrystals are uniformly dispersed in polymer nanofibers prepared by the high electrical field electrospinning technique. Enhanced red emission without defect radiation from the ZnO matrix is observed. Three physical mechanisms for this observation are provided and explained, namely a small ZnO crystal size, uniformity distribution of ZnO nanocrystals in polymers (PVA in this case), and strong bonding between ZnO and polymer through the -OH group bonding. These explanations are supported by high resolution transmission emission microscopy measurements, resonant Raman scattering characterizations, photoluminescence spectra and photoluminescence excitation spectra measurements. In addition, two models exploring the 'accumulation layer' and 'depletion layer' are developed to explain the reasons for the more efficient energy transfer in our ZnO nanocrystal system compared to that in the previous reports. This study provides an important approach to achieve enhanced energy transfer from nanocrystals to ions which could be widely adopted in rare earth ion doped materials. These discoveries also provide more insights into other energy transfer problems in, for example, dye-sensitized solar cells and quantum dot solar cells.

  15. Room temperature enhanced red emission from novel Eu3 + doped ZnO nanocrystals uniformly dispersed in nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongzhe; Liu, Yanxia; Li, Xiaodong; Jie Wang, Qi; Xie, Erqing

    2011-10-01

    Achieving red emission from ZnO-based materials has long been a goal for researchers in order to realize, for instance, full-color display panels and solid-state light-emitting devices. However, the current technique using Eu3 + doped ZnO for red emission generation has a significant drawback in that the energy transfer from ZnO to Eu3 + is inefficient, resulting in a low intensity red emission. In this paper, we report an efficient energy transfer scheme for enhanced red emission from Eu3 + doped ZnO nanocrystals by fabricating polymer nanofibers embedded with Eu3 + doped ZnO nanocrystals to facilitate the energy transfer. In the fabrication, ZnO nanocrystals are uniformly dispersed in polymer nanofibers prepared by the high electrical field electrospinning technique. Enhanced red emission without defect radiation from the ZnO matrix is observed. Three physical mechanisms for this observation are provided and explained, namely a small ZnO crystal size, uniformity distribution of ZnO nanocrystals in polymers (PVA in this case), and strong bonding between ZnO and polymer through the -OH group bonding. These explanations are supported by high resolution transmission emission microscopy measurements, resonant Raman scattering characterizations, photoluminescence spectra and photoluminescence excitation spectra measurements. In addition, two models exploring the 'accumulation layer' and 'depletion layer' are developed to explain the reasons for the more efficient energy transfer in our ZnO nanocrystal system compared to that in the previous reports. This study provides an important approach to achieve enhanced energy transfer from nanocrystals to ions which could be widely adopted in rare earth ion doped materials. These discoveries also provide more insights into other energy transfer problems in, for example, dye-sensitized solar cells and quantum dot solar cells.

  16. Observation of the nano-effect on the SHG in moderately Cu-doped CdI2 thin nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M I Miah

    2015-09-01

    Nanocrystals take into account the nano-sized quantum-confined effect, where k-space bulk-like dispersion disappears and discrete excitonic-like nanolevels occur within the forbidden energy gap of the material processes. Nanocrystals of cadmium iodide both un-doped and doped with copper, synthesized and grown by the standard Bridgman method, were analysed by scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of the nano-confined effect on the optical nonlinearity. The second harmonic generation (SHG) of the crystals was measured and studied. The second-order optical susceptibilities in dependences of the size of the nanocrystals and of their copper contents within low levels were calculated. The results showed a clear increase in the SHG with the decrease in the thickness of the nanocrystals. The observed size dependence, however, demonstrates the nano-confined effect or nano-effect on the SHG, where the quantum confinement dominates the material’s optical properties. A significant change in the second-order optical response with copper content of the nanocrystals was also observed. The observed results are discussed by exploring the photo-induced electron–phonon anharmonic interaction for the noncentrosymmetry of the nanocrystallite’s process.

  17. Enhancement of carrier mobility in thin Ge layer by Sn co-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucnal, S.; Liu, F.; Berencén, Y.; Vines, L.; Bischoff, L.; Grenzer, J.; Andric, S.; Tiagulskyi, S.; Pyszniak, K.; Turek, M.; Drozdziel, A.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.; Skorupa, W.

    2016-10-01

    We present the development, optimization and fabrication of high carrier mobility materials based on GeOI wafers co-doped with Sn and P. The Ge thin films were fabricated using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition followed by ion implantation and explosive solid phase epitaxy, which is induced by millisecond flash lamp annealing. The influence of the recrystallization mechanism and co-doping of Sn on the carrier distribution and carrier mobility both in n-type and p-type GeOI wafers is discussed in detail. This finding significantly contributes to the state-of-the-art of high carrier mobility-GeOI wafers since the results are comparable with GeOI commercial wafers fabricated by epitaxial layer transfer or SmartCut technology.

  18. Tunable Light Filtering in a Bragg Mirror/Heavily-Doped Semiconducting Nanocrystal Composite

    CERN Document Server

    Kriegel, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Tunable light filters are critical components for many optical applications in which light in-coupling, out-coupling or rejection is crucial, such as lasing, sensing, photovoltaics and information and communication technology. For this purpose, Bragg mirrors, band-pass filters with high reflectivity represent good candidates. However, their optical characteristics are determined at the stage of fabrication. Heavily doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) on the other hand deliver a high degree of optical tunability through the active modulation of their carrier density ultimately influencing their plasmonic absorption properties. Here, we propose the design of a tunable light filter composed of a Bragg mirror and a layer of plasmonic semiconductor NCs. We demonstrate that the filtering properties of the coupled device can be tuned to cover a wide range of frequencies from the visible to the near infrared (vis-NIR) spectral region when employing varying carrier densities. As tunable component we implemented a d...

  19. Visible Discrimination of Broadband Infrared Light by Dye-Enhanced Upconversion in Lanthanide-Doped Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles G. Dupuy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical upconversion of near infrared light to visible light is an attractive way to capture the optical energy or optical information contained in low-energy photons that is otherwise lost to the human eye or to certain photodetectors and solar cells. Until the recent application of broadband absorbing optical antennas, upconversion efficiency in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals was limited by the weak, narrow atomic absorption of a handful of sensitizer elements. In this work, we extend the role of the optical antenna to provide false-color, visible discrimination between bands of infrared radiation. By pairing different optical antenna dyes to specific nanoparticle compositions, unique visible emission is associated with different bands of infrared excitation. In one material set, the peak emission was increased 10-fold, and the width of the spectral response was increased more than 10-fold.

  20. Visible light induced electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals prepared by oxidation of titanium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongbiao; Dong, Fan; Zhao, Weirong; Guo, Sen

    2008-08-30

    Nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals with anatase and rutile mixed phases were prepared by incomplete oxidation of titanium nitride at different temperatures. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CL XPS), valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VB XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), and visible light excited photoluminescence (PL). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of toluene in gas phase under visible light irradiation. The visible light absorption and photoactivities of these nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals can be clearly attributed to the change of the additional electronic (N(-)) states above the valence band of TiO(2) modified by N dopant as revealed by the VB XPS and visible light induced PL. A band gap structure model was established to explain the electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals under visible light irradiation, which was consistent with the previous theoretical and experimental results. This model can also be applied to understand visible light induced photocatalysis over other nonmetal doped TiO(2).

  1. Enhanced emissions in Tb{sup 3+}-doped oxyfluoride scintillating glass ceramics containing BaF{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lihui, E-mail: huanglihui@cjlu.edu.cn; Jia, Shijie; Li, Yang; Zhao, Shilong; Deng, Degang; Wang, Huanping; Jia, Guohua; Hua, Youjie; Xu, Shiqing, E-mail: shiqingxu@cjlu.edu.cn

    2015-07-11

    Transparent Tb{sup 3+}-doped glass ceramics containing BaF{sub 2} nanocrystals were prepared by melt-quenching method with subsequent heat treatment. The XRD and EDS results showed the precipitated crystalline phase in the glass matrix was BaF{sub 2}. Under 376 nm light, Tb{sup 3+} doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing BaF{sub 2} nanocrystals showed more intense green emission than the as-made glass, and the emission intensity increased with increasing heat treatment temperature and time. The lifetimes of 541 nm emission of Tb{sup 3+} doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics were longer than that of as-made glass, which are in the range from 3.00 ms to 3.55 ms. Under X-ray excitation, the green emission was enhanced in the glass ceramics compared to the as-made glass. The results indicate Tb{sup 3+} doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing BaF{sub 2} nanocrystals could be a material candidate for X-ray glass scintillator for slow event detection.

  2. Ge{sup 4+} doped TiO{sub 2} for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared nanodisperse Ge{sup 4+} doped titania by a novel synthesis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis does not involve organic solvents, organometallics nor thermal processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared materials are efficient in removal of chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ge{sup 4+} doping improves rate of removal of soman and agent VX by TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Germanium doped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of GeCl{sub 4} and TiOSO{sub 4} with urea. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). Ge{sup 4+} doping increases surface area and content of amorphous phase in prepared samples. These oxides were used in an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with chemical warfare agent, sulphur mustard, soman and agent VX. Ge{sup 4+} doping worsens sulphur mustard degradation and improves soman and agent VX degradation. The best degree of removal (degradation), 100% of soman, 99% of agent VX and 95% of sulphur mustard, is achieved with sample with 2 wt.% of germanium.

  3. Kesterite Cu2Zn(Sn,Ge)(S,Se)4 thin film with controlled Ge-doping for photovoltaic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wangen; Pan, Daocheng; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2016-05-01

    Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) semiconductors have been a focus of extensive research effort owing to low-toxicity, high abundance and low material cost. Yet, the CZTSSe thin film solar cell has a low open-circuit voltage value that presents challenges. Herein, using GeSe2 as a new Ge source material, we have achieved a wider band gap CZTSSe-based semiconductor absorber layer with its band-gap controlled by adjusting the ratio of SnS2 : GeSe2 used. In addition, the Cu2Zn(Sn,Ge)(S,Se)4 thin films were prepared with optimal Ge doping (30%) and solar cells were fabricated to attain a respectable power conversion efficiency of 4.8% under 1.5 AM with an active area of 0.19 cm2 without an anti-reflection layer.Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) semiconductors have been a focus of extensive research effort owing to low-toxicity, high abundance and low material cost. Yet, the CZTSSe thin film solar cell has a low open-circuit voltage value that presents challenges. Herein, using GeSe2 as a new Ge source material, we have achieved a wider band gap CZTSSe-based semiconductor absorber layer with its band-gap controlled by adjusting the ratio of SnS2 : GeSe2 used. In addition, the Cu2Zn(Sn,Ge)(S,Se)4 thin films were prepared with optimal Ge doping (30%) and solar cells were fabricated to attain a respectable power conversion efficiency of 4.8% under 1.5 AM with an active area of 0.19 cm2 without an anti-reflection layer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The XRD patterns, chemical component analysis, top-view and cross-sectional images, and XPS of CZTGSSe thin films with different Ge content are exhibited. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00959j

  4. Enhanced near infrared emission in water-soluble NdF3 nanocrystals by Ba2+ doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Fan; Qinyuan Zhang; Zhonghong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the synthesis of water-soluble NdF3 and NdF3:Ba2+ nanocrystals under hydrothermal conditions is established. The method involves the coating of the nanocrystals with a layer of hydrophilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The as-prepared products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electronic microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The PVP coating transforms the nanocrystals into a biocompatible material and improves the fluorescence intensity of NdF3 in the near infrared (NIR) region. The morphology of the nanoparticles changes, whereas the fluorescence intensity of NdF3 in the NIR region increases when a small amount of Ba2+ is doped into the NdFs/PVP nanoparticles.%A simple and efficient method for the synthesis of water-soluble NdF3 and NdF3∶Ba2+ nanocrystals under hydrothermal conditions is established.The method involves the coating of the nanocrystals with a layer of hydrophilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).The as-prepared products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction,field emission scanning electronic microscopy,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,and photoluminescence spectroscopy.The PVP coating transforms the nanocrystals into a biocompatible material and improves the fluorescence intensity of NdF3 in the near infrared (NIR) region.The morphology of the nanoparticles changes,whereas the fluorescence intensity of NdF3 in the NIR region increases when a small amount of Ba2+ is doped into the NdF3/PVP nanoparticles.

  5. Mg doping induced high structural quality of sol–gel ZnO nanocrystals: Application in photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abed, Chayma; Bouzidi, Chaker [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Elhouichet, Habib, E-mail: Habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université Tunis El Manar, Tunis 2092 (Tunisia); Gelloz, Bernard [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, 2-24-16 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Ferid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nancrystals doped with Mg were prepared from sol–gel method. • Structural and optical properties of ZnO:Mg nanocrystals were investigated. • Good crystalline quality of ZnO nanocrystals was reported after Mg doping. • Good photocatalytic activity of Mg doped ZnO nanocrystals was demonstrated under sun light illumination. - Abstract: Undoped and Mg doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) ZnO:x%Mg (x = 1, 2, 3, and 5) were synthesized using sol–gel method. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectivity, and photoluminescence (PL). XRD analysis demonstrates that all prepared samples present pure hexagonal wurtzite structure without any Mg related phases. The NCs size varies from 26.82 nm to 42.96 nm with Mg concentrations; it presents an optimal value for 2% of Mg. The Raman spectra are dominated by the E{sub 2high} mode. For highly Mg doping (5%), the occurrence of silent B{sub 1(low)} mode suggested that the Mg ions do substitute at Zn sites in the ZnO lattice The band gap energy was estimated from both Tauc and Urbach methods and found to be 3.39 eV for ZnO:2%Mg. The PL spectra exhibit two emission bands in the UV and visible range. Their evolution with Mg doping reveals the reduction of defect density in ZnO at low Mg doping by filling Zn vacancies. In addition, it was found that further Mg doping, above 2%, improves the photocatalytic activity of ZnO NCs for photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under sunlight irradiation. The efficient electron–hole separation is the main factor responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic performance of Mg doped ZnO NCs. Through this work, we show that by varying the Mg contents in ZnO, this material can be a potential candidate for both optoelectronic and photocatalytic applications.

  6. Seeded growth of metal-doped plasmonic oxide heterodimer nanocrystals and their chemical transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingchen; Reifsnyder Hickey, Danielle; Fei, Jiayang; Diroll, Benjamin T; Paik, Taejong; Chen, Jun; Murray, Christopher B

    2014-04-02

    We have developed a generalized seeded-growth methodology for the synthesis of monodisperse metal-doped plasmonic oxide heterodimer nanocrystals (NCs) with a near-unity morphological yield. Using indium-doped cadmium oxide (ICO) as an example, we show that a wide variety of preformed metal NCs (Au, Pt, Pd, FePt, etc.) can serve as the seeds for the tailored synthesis of metal-ICO heterodimers with exquisite size, shape, and composition control, facilitated by the delayed nucleation mechanism of the CdO phase. The metal-ICO heterodimers exhibit broadly tunable near-infrared localized surface plasmon resonances, and dual plasmonic bands are observed for Au-ICO heterodimers. We further demonstrate that the oxide domain of the Au-ICO heterodimers can be selectively and controllably transformed into a series of partially and completely hollow cadmium chalcogenide nanoarchitectures with unprecedented structural complexity, leaving the metal domain intact. Our work not only represents an exciting addition to the rapidly expanding library of chemical reactions that produce colloidal hybrid NCs, but it also provides a general route for the bottom-up chemical design of multicomponent metal-oxide-semiconductor NCs in a rational and sequential manner.

  7. The Progress of TiO Nanocrystals Doped with Rare Earth Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs have been widely studied in the fields of photoelectric devices, optical communication, and environment for their stability in aqueous solution, being nontoxic, cheapness, and so on. Among the three crystalline phases of TiO2, anatase TiO2 NCs are the best crystallized phase of solar energy conversion. However, the disadvantages of high band gap energy (3.2 ev and the long lifetime of photogenerated electrons and holes limit its photocatalytic activity severely. Therefore, TiO2 NCs doped with metal ions is available way to inhibit the transformation from anatase to rutile. Besides, these metal ions will concentrate on the surface of TiO2 NCs. All above can enhance the photoactivity of TiO2 NCs. In this paper, we mainly outlined the different characterization brought about in the aspect of nanooptics and photocatalytics due to metal ions added in. Also, the paper mainly concentrated on the progress of TiO2 NCs doped with rare earth (RE ions.

  8. Enhanced electrical activation in In-implanted Ge by C co-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, R., E-mail: ruixing.feng@anu.edu.au; Kremer, F.; Mirzaei, S.; Medling, S. A.; Ridgway, M. C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Sprouster, D. J. [Nuclear Science and Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Decoster, S.; Pereira, L. M. C. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Glover, C. J. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Russo, S. P. [Applied Physics, School Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia)

    2015-11-23

    At high dopant concentrations in Ge, electrically activating all implanted dopants is a major obstacle in the fulfillment of high-performance Ge-channel complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices. In this letter, we demonstrate a significant increase in the electrically-active dopant fraction in In-implanted Ge by co-doping with the isovalent element C. Electrical measurements have been correlated with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results in addition to density functional theory simulations. With C + In co-doping, the electrically active fraction was doubled and tripled at In concentrations of 0.2 and 0.7 at. %, respectively. This marked improvement was the result of C-In pair formation such that In-induced strain in the Ge lattice was reduced while the precipitation of In and the formation of In-V clusters were both suppressed.

  9. First principles study of crystal Si-doped Ge2Sb2Te5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Beibei; Yang, Fei; Chen, Tian; Wang, Minglei; Chang, Hong; Ke, Daoming; Dai, Yuehua

    2017-02-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and Si-doped GST with hexagonal structure were investigated by means of First-principles calcucations. We performed many kinds of doping types and studied the electronic properties of Si-doped GST with various Si concentrations. The theoretical calculations show that the lowest formation energy appeared when Si atoms substitute the Sb atoms (SiSb). With the increasing of Si concentrations from 10% to 30%, the impurity states arise around the Fermi level and the band gap of the SiSb structure broadens. Meanwhile, the doping supercell has the most favorable structure when the doping concentration keeps in 20%. The Si-doped GST exhibits p-type metallic characteristics more distinctly owing to the Fermi level moves toward the valence band. The Te p, d-orbitals electrons have greater impact on electronic properties than that of Te s-orbitals.

  10. A low-cost cementite (Fe3C) nanocrystal@N-doped graphitic carbon electrocatalyst for efficient oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianxing; Zhang, Haimin; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Yunxia; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Guozhong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, chitosan whiskers (CWs) were first extracted using low-cost and earth-abundant crab shells as materials by a series of chemical processes, and then assembled into chitosan whisker microspheres (CWMs) via a simple photochemical polymerization approach. Subsequently, a cementite (Fe3C) nanocrystal@N-doped graphitic carbon (Fe3C@NGC) nanocomposite was successfully fabricated by high temperature pyrolysis of CWMs adsorbed with ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3) at 900 °C. It was found that a suitable growth atmosphere generated inside CWMs during high temperature pyrolysis is critically important to form Fe3C nanocrystal cores, concurrently accompanying a structural transformation from chitosan whiskers to mesoporous graphitic carbon shells with natural nitrogen (N) doping properties, resulting in the formation of a core-shell structure Fe3C@NGC nanocomposite. The resulting samples were evaluated as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In comparison with sole N-doped graphitic carbon without Fe3C nanocrystals obtained by direct pyrolysis of chitosan whisker microspheres at 900 °C (CWMs-900), Fe3C@NGC showed significantly improved ORR catalytic activity. The tolerance to fuel cell molecules (e.g., methanol) and the durability of Fe3C@NGC are obviously superior to commercial Pt/C catalysts in alkaline media. The high ORR performance of Fe3C@NGC could be due to its large surface area (313.7 m(2) g(-1)), a synergistic role of Fe3C nanocrystals, N doping in graphitic carbon creating more catalytic active sites, and a porous structure of the nanocomposite facilitating mass transfer to efficiently improve the utilization of these catalytic active sites.

  11. The Insulator to Superconductor Transition in Ga-Doped Semiconductor Ge Single Crystal Induced by the Annealing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated the heavily Ga-doped layer in Ge single crystal by the implantation and rapid thermal annealing method. The samples show a crossover from the insulating to the superconducting behavior as the annealing temperature increases. Transport measurements suggest that the superconductivity is from the heavily Ga-doped layer in Ge.

  12. Chemically tailoring the dopant emission in manganese-doped CsPbCl{sub 3} perovskite nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das Adhikari, Samrat; Dutta, Sumit K.; Dutta, Anirban; Guria, Amit K.; Pradhan, Narayan [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata (India)

    2017-07-17

    Doping in perovskite nanocrystals adopts different mechanistic approach in comparison to widely established doping in chalcogenide quantum dots. The fast formation of perovskites makes the dopant insertions more competitive and challenging. Introducing alkylamine hydrochloride (RNH{sub 3}Cl) as a promoting reagent, precise controlled doping of Mn{sup II} in CsPbCl{sub 3} perovskite nanocrystals is reported. Simply, by changing the amount of RNH{sub 3}Cl, the Mn incorporation and subsequent tuning in the excitonic as well as Mn d-d emission intensities are tailored. Investigations suggested that RNH{sub 3}Cl acted as the chlorinating source, controlled the size, and also helps in increasing the number of particles. This provided more opportunity for Mn ions to take part in reaction and occupied the appropriate lattice positions. Carrying out several reactions with varying reaction parameters, the doping conditions are optimized and the role of the promoting reagent for both doped and undoped systems are compared. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Structural and optical properties of Na doped ZnO nanocrystals: Application to solar photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib, Asma; Bouslama, Wiem; Sieber, Brigitte; Addad, Ahmed; Elhouichet, Habib; Férid, Mokhtar; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2017-02-01

    Na doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) were successfully produced by sol-gel process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), Raman scattering, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). XRD analysis indicated that all the prepared samples present pure hexagonal wurtzite structure without any Na related phases. The lattice distortion, calculated using Williamson hall equation, induces stress and a reduction of NCs size from 71.4 to 24.5 nm. TEM images showed NCs with hexagonal shape and a rather uniform size distribution. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns confirmed the high crystal quality along the direction and is consistent with the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. The Raman spectra are dominated by E2high mode of ZnO. High Na doping shows the occurrence of anomalous local vibrational Raman modes close to 270 and 513 cm-1 that are related to intrinsic host lattice defects and distortion, respectively. Optical band gap was found to vary with Na content. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate the presence of a high density of defects in ZnO NCs which are mainly oxygen vacancies. Finally, the obtained NCs were used as a photocatalyst to degrade Rhodamine B (RhB) in solution, under solar irradiation. Na doping enhances the photocatalytic activity of ZnO NCs till an optimum concentration of 0.5% where a full degradation was observed after 120 min of sun light irradiation. Furthermore, this sample presents a good cycling stability and reusability. Based on scavangers test, it was found that both superoxide and hydroxyl oxidizing radicals are mainly actives.

  14. Rate equation analysis of nanocrystal-enhanced upconversion in neodymium-doped glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, U.; Pfau, Charlotte; Seifert, G.; Schweizer, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Rare-earth ions embedded in glassy matrices are promising materials for photon upconversion processes, e.g. to convert near infrared light to frequencies above the band gap of a solar cell to make it available for electrical power generation. One strategy to optimize the efficiency of such upconversion processes is to embed the active ions in a host matrix with minimal losses to non-radiative relaxation. For the model system of trivalent neodymium in fluorochlorozirconate (FCZ) glass it has been shown recently that a uniform growth of BaCl2 nanocrystals inside such glasses can decrease the probability of multi-phonon relaxation (MPR) drastically, leading to a huge increase in upconversion intensity for monochromatic illumination. To identify the key processes which may enhance or diminish the total upconversion efficiency, a comprehensive description for the optical dynamics of neodymium in FCZ glass ceramics has been developed on the basis of a rate equation system, including ion-photon, ion-phonon, and ion-ion interactions. An effective medium approach is utilized to account for the neodymium located in BaCl2 nanocrystals or the FCZ glass bulk, respectively. The numerous parameters required to enable for a reliable numerical simulation of the processes are obtained from theoretical approaches like Judd-Ofelt theory, as well as from experimental studies of luminescence decay after femtosecond excitation at various wavelengths and luminescence spectra under cw illumination at 800 nm wavelength. This rate equation model enables for a convenient, self-consistent description of all time-resolved and cw experiments on samples with different neodymium concentration. On this basis, the power dependence of upconversion spectra can be simulated in good agreement with the experimental result for 800 nm cw illumination. The model therefore forms an excellent tool for optimizing the upconversion efficiency of rare-earth doped luminescent material also under realistic

  15. Fast dynamics of 1.5 μm photoluminescence in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, D.; Saeed, S.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate origin of fast photoluminescence at 1.5 μm reported to appear in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with silicon nanocrystals, time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were compared between high temperature annealed Er-doped and Er-free samples. We confirm that this fast

  16. Magnetic phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in the Fe-doped MnNiGe alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng-Liang; Wang Dun-Hui; Chen Jian; Wang Ting-Zhi; Xie Guang-Xi; Zhu Chun

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic phase transition and magnetocaloric effects in Fe-doped MnNiGe alloys are investigated. The substitution of Fe for Ni decreases the structural transition temperature remarkably,resulting in the magnetostructural transition occurring between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic states in MnNil-xFex Ge alloy. Owing to the enhanced ferromagnetic coupling induced by the substitution of Fe,metamagnetic behaviour is also observed in TiNiSi-type phase of MnNil_yFe.Ge alloys at temperature below the structural transition temperature.

  17. Electronic structure of O-doped SiGe calculated by DFT + U method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zong-Yan; Yang, Wen; Yang, Pei-Zhi

    2016-12-01

    To more in depth understand the doping effects of oxygen on SiGe alloys, both the micro-structure and properties of O-doped SiGe (including: bulk, (001) surface, and (110) surface) are calculated by DFT + U method in the present work. The calculated results are as follows. (i) The (110) surface is the main exposing surface of SiGe, in which O impurity prefers to occupy the surface vacancy sites. (ii) For O interstitial doping on SiGe (110) surface, the existences of energy states caused by O doping in the band gap not only enhance the infrared light absorption, but also improve the behaviors of photo-generated carriers. (iii) The finding about decreased surface work function of O-doped SiGe (110) surface can confirm previous experimental observations. (iv) In all cases, O doing mainly induces the electronic structures near the band gap to vary, but is not directly involved in these variations. Therefore, these findings in the present work not only can provide further explanation and analysis for the corresponding underlying mechanism for some of the experimental findings reported in the literature, but also conduce to the development of μc-SiGe-based solar cells in the future. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan Province, China (Grant No. 2015FB123), the 18th Yunnan Province Young Academic and Technical Leaders Reserve Talent Project, China (Grant No. 2015HB015), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1037604).

  18. As doping of Si-Ge-Sn epitaxial semiconductor materials on a commercial CVD reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Nupur; Margetis, Joe; Tolle, John

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present the As doping, via AsH3, of Ge1-x Sn x and SiyGe1-y-x Sn x alloys grown in a commercial RPCVD reactor. The composition, thickness, and resistivity of the layers were measured for varying AsH3 flows and AsH3 growth kinetics was discussed. We find that the addition of As to the lattice induces compressive strain in the layer despite a smaller covalent radius relative to Ge and Sn. N-type dopant incorporation and activation is compared for AsH3 and PH3-based processes, and we find that As incorporates more efficiently than P. As concentrations > 2 × 1020 cm-3 were achieved for both Ge1-x Sn x and SiyGe1-y-x Sn x with resistivity as low as 0.6 mΩ cm.

  19. Effect of n-type doping level on direct band gap electroluminescence intensity for asymmetric metal/Ge/metal diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekura, T.; Tanaka, K.; Motoyama, C.; Yoneda, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Nakashima, H.; Wang, D.

    2017-10-01

    The direct band gap electroluminescence (EL) intensity was investigated for asymmetric metal/Ge/metal diodes fabricated on n-type Ge with doping levels in the range of 4.0 × 1013-3.1 × 1018 cm-3. Up to a doping level of 1016 cm-3 order, commercially available (100) n-Ge substrates were used. To obtain a doping level higher than 1017 cm-3 order, which is commercially unavailable, n+-Ge/p-Ge structures were fabricated by Sb doping on p-type (100) Ge substrates with an in-diffusion at 600 °C followed by a push-diffusion at 700 °C-850 °C. The EL intensity was increased with increasing doping level up to 1.0 × 1018 cm-3. After that, it was decreased with a further increase in n-type doping level. This EL intensity decrease is explained by the decreased number of holes in the active region. One reason is the difficulty in hole injection through the PtGe/n-Ge contact due to the occurring of tunneling electron current. Another reason is the loss of holes caused by both the small thickness of n+-Ge layer and the existence of n+p junction.

  20. In-situ Ga doping of fully strained Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} heteroepitaxial layers grown on Ge(001) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimura, Y., E-mail: ysimura@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Takeuchi, S.; Nakatsuka, O. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Vincent, B.; Gencarelli, F.; Clarysse, T.; Vandervorst, W.; Caymax, M.; Loo, R. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jensen, A. [CAPRES A/S, Scion-DTU, Building 373, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, D.H. [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345B, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Zaima, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the Ga and Sn content dependence of the crystallinity and electrical properties of Ga-doped Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} layers that are heteroepitaxially grown on Ge(001) substrates. The doping of Ga to levels as high as the solubility limit of Ga at the growth temperature leads to the introduction of dislocations, due to the increase in the strain of the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} layers. We achieved the growth of a fully strained Ge{sub 0.922}Sn{sub 0.078} layer on Ge with a Ga concentration of 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} /cm{sup 3} without any dislocations and stacking faults. The resistivity of the Ga-doped Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} layer decreased as the Sn content was increased. This decrease was due to an increase in the carrier concentration, with an increase in the activation level of Ga atoms in the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layers being induced by the introduction of Sn. As a result, we found that the resistivity for the Ge{sub 0.950}Sn{sub 0.050} layer annealed at 600 Degree-Sign C for 1 min is 3.6 times less than that of the Ga-doped Ge/Ge sample. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy Ga-doping into fully strained GeSn layers without the introduction of dislocations Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uniform Ga depth profile allowed the introduction of Sn Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decrease in resistivity with an increase in the activation level of Ga was caused by the introduction of Sn.

  1. The influence of oxygen and nitrogen doping on GeSbTe phase-change optical recording media properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, D.; Shieh, H.-P.D

    2004-03-15

    Nitrogen and oxygen doped and co-doped GeSbTe (GST) films for phase-change optical recording are investigated. It is found that the crystallization temperature increased as well as the crystalline microstructure refined by doping. The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) and erasability of phase-change optical disks are improved being up to 52 and 35 dB, respectively, by using an appropriate nitrogen doping or co-doping concentration in the recording layer. Optical disks with co-doped recording layer are found to be superior in the recording characteristics then the single doped recording layer disks.

  2. Structural and optical manipulation of colloidal Ge1-xSnx nanocrystals with experimentally synthesized sizes: Atomistic tight-binding theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkabot, Worasak

    2017-02-01

    Nontoxic, maintainable and cost-effective group IV semiconductors are gorgeous for an expansive range of electronic and optoelectronic applications, even though the presence of the indirect band gap obstructs the optical performance. However, band structures can be modified from indirect to direct band gaps by constructing the nanostructures or by alloying with tin (Sn) material. In the study presented here, I investigate the impact of ion-centred types, Sn compositions and dimensions on the electronic structures and optical properties in Ge1-xSnx diamond cubic nanocrystals of the experimentally synthesized Sn contents and diameters using the atomistic tight-binding theory (TB) in the conjunction with the configuration interaction description (CI). The analysis of the mechanism suggests that the physical properties are mainly sensitive with ion-centred types (anion (a) and cation (c)), Sn compositions and dimensions of Ge1-xSnx diamond cubic nanocrystals. The reduction of optical band gaps is reported with the increasing diameters and Sn alloying contents. The visible spectral range is obtained allowing for the applications in bio imaging and chemical sensing. The optical band gaps based on tight-binding calculations are in close agreement with the experimental data for Ge1-xSnx nanocrystals with diameter of 2.1 nm, while for Ge1-xSnx nanocrystals with diameter of 2.7 nm there is a discrepancy of 0.4 eV with experimental results and first-principles calculations. An improvement in the luminescence properties of such Ge1-xSnx nanocrystals becomes possible in the presence of the Sn contents. The electron-hole coulomb interaction is reduced with the increasing Sn components, while the electron-hole exchange interaction is increased with the increasing Sn contents. In addition, I have to point out an astonishing phenomenon, stokes shift and fine structure splitting, with the aim for the realization of the entangled source. The stokes shift and fine structure splitting

  3. Synthesis of Co-Doped CdS Nanocrystals by Direct Thermolysis of Cadmium and Cobalt Thiolate Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-doped CdS (Co:CdS nanocrystals with controllable morphology (quantum dots and nanorods were easily synthesized by direct thermolysis of (Me4N2[Co4(SC6H510] and (Me4N4[S4Cd10(SPh16] under different precursor concentration, in virtue of the ions exchange of molecular clusters. The Co:CdS quantum dots were produced under low precursor concentration, and the Co:CdS nanorods could be obtained under higher precursor concentration. The Co-doping effect on the structure, growth process, and property of CdS nanocrystals was also investigated. The results indicated that the Co-doping was favorable for the formation of the nanorod structures for a short reaction time. In addition, the Co-doping in the CdS lattice resulted in the ferromagnetic property of the Co:CdS quantum dots at room temperature. Moreover, compared with the CdS quantum dots, the Co:CdS quantum dots exhibited obvious quantum confinement effect and photoluminescence emission with slightly red-shift.

  4. Sonochemical Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity of N-Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals with Mesoporous Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiekun Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N-Doped TiO2 nanocrystals were synthesized via a simple sonochemical route, using titanium tetrachloride, aqueous ammonia, and urea as starting materials. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM equipped with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrometer (EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results of TEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption showed that the average size and specific surface area of the as-synthesized nanocrystals are 10 nm and 107.2 m2/g, respectively. Raman spectral characterization combined with the results of XRD and EDS revealed that N dopant ions were successfully doped into TiO2. Compared with pure TiO2, the adsorption band edge of N-doped TiO2 samples exhibited an obvious red shift to visible region. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB under visible light, and the results showed that the N-doped TiO2 sample synthesized by an optimal amount of urea exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity due to its special mesoporous structure and the incorporation of nitrogen dopant ions.

  5. Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} thin films produced by helicon activated reactive evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.T.; Bulla, D.A.P.; Charles, C.; Boswell, R.; Love, J.; Luther-Davies, B

    2002-11-01

    Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} thin films for optical waveguide application were produced at low temperature by using an improved helicon plasma assisted reactive evaporation technique. Pure Si and Ge materials were simultaneously evaporated from two separated crucibles by using e-beams into high-density oxygen plasma to form the oxide films on a substrate. The film density was enhanced by supplying an r.f. bias to the substrate. Nearly H-free Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} thin films with very high atomic density ({approx}0.66x10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}), good adhesion and very low surface roughness were produced. The influence of deposition conditions, mainly the helicon r.f. power and substrate bias, on the properties of the films was studied by using surface profilometer, ellipsometer, atomic force microscope, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and field emission scanning electron microscope.

  6. Effect of nitrogen doping on the thermal conductivity of GeTe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallica, Roberto; Longo, Massimo; Wiemer, Claudia [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Agrate Brianza (Italy); Varesi, Enrico; Fumagalli, Luca; Spadoni, Simona [Micron Semiconductor Italia, Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The 3{omega} method was employed to determine the effect of nitrogen doping (5 at.%) on the thermal conductivity of sputtered thin films of stoichiometric GeTe (a material of interest for phase change memories). It was found that nitrogen doping has a detrimental effect on the thermal conductivity of GeTe in both phases, but less markedly in the amorphous (-25%) than in the crystalline one (-40%). On the opposite, no effect could be detected on the measured thermal boundary resistance between these films and SiO{sub 2}, within the experimental error. Our results agree with those obtained by molecular dynamic simulation of amorphous GeTe. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Luminescence Enhanced Eu(3+)/Gd(3+) Co-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals as Imaging Agents In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunfei; He, Wangmei; Li, Fang; Perera, Thalagalage Shalika Harshani; Gan, Lin; Han, Yingchao; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Shipu; Dai, Honglian

    2016-04-27

    Biocompatible, biodegradable, and luminescent nano material can be used as an alternative bioimaging agent for early cancer diagnosis, which is crucial to achieve successful treatment. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocyrstals have good biocompatibility and biodegradability, and can be used as an excellent host for luminescent rare earth elements. In this study, based on the energy transfer from Gd(3+) to Eu(3+), the luminescence enhanced imaging agent of Eu/Gd codoping HAP (HAP:Eu/Gd) nanocrystals are obtained via coprecipitation with plate-like shape and no change in crystal phase composition. The luminescence can be much elevated (up to about 120%) with a nonlinear increase versus Gd doping content, which is due to the energy transfer ((6)PJ of Gd(3+) → (5)HJ of Eu(3+)) under 273 nm and the possible combination effect of the cooperative upconversion and the successive energy transfer under 394 nm, respectively. Results demonstrate that the biocompatible HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystals can successfully perform cell labeling and in vivo imaging. The intracellular HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystals display good biodegradability with a cumulative degradation of about 65% after 72 h. This biocompatible, biodegradable, and luminescence enhanced HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystal has the potential to act as a fluorescent imaging agent in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Nanocrystals precipitation and up-conversion luminescence in Yb3+-Tm3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jianbei; SONG Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    Rare earth ions doped oxyfluoride glass with composition of 28SiO2·22AlO1.5·40PbF2·10PbO·(4.8-x) GdF3·0.1NdF3·xYbF3·0.1TmF3 (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 4.8) in molar rado was developed. When the oxyfluoride glasses were heat-treated at the VErSt crystallization temperature, the glasses gave transparent glass-ceramics in which rare earth containing fluorite-type nanocrystals of about 17.2 nm in diame-ter uniformly precipitated in the glass matrix. Compared with the glasses before heat treatment, the glass-ceramics exhibited very strong blue up-conversion luminescence under 800 nm light excitation. Rare earth containing nanocrystals were also space selectively precipitated upon laser irradiation in an oxyfluoride glass, the size of precipitated nanocrystals could be controlled by laser power and scan speed. The intensity of the blue up-conversion luminescence was strongly dependent on the precipitation of β-PbF2 nanocrystal and the YbF3 concentration. The reasons for the highly efficient Tm3+ up-conversion luminescence after laser irradiation were discussed.

  9. Covalently Coupled Ultrafine H-TiO2 Nanocrystals/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrid Materials for High-Performance Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuhua; Lin, Yuan; Song, Xuefeng; Zhang, Peng; Gao, Lian

    2015-08-19

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) are considered one of the most promising materials for supercapacitors given its low-cost, high conductivity, and enhanced electrochemical activity. However, the electrochemical performances of H-TiO2 due to lacking suitable structures is unsatisfactory, and thus how to design energetic H-TiO2-based electrode architectures still remains a great challenge. Herein, covalently coupled ultrafine H-TiO2 nanocrystals/nitrogen-doped graphene (H-TiO2/NG) hybrid materials were developed through a simple hydrothermal route followed by hydrogenation. Within this architecture, the strong interaction between H-TiO2 nanocrystals and NG sheets via covalent chemical bonding affords high structural stability inhibiting the aggregation of H-TiO2 nanocrystals. Meanwhile, the NG matrices function as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that most of well-dispersed ultrafine H-TiO2 nanocrystals are electrochemically active but stable. As a result, the optimized H-TiO2/NG (H-TiO2/NG-B) exhibited high reversible specific capacity of 385.2 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1), enhanced rate performance of 320.1 F g(-1) at a high current density of 10 A g(-1), and excellent cycling stability with 98.8% capacity retention.

  10. Mn-doped Ge and Si: A Review of the Experimental Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidemarie Schmidt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors (FMS are in the focus of intense research due to their potential applications in spintronics and their striking new physical properties. So far Mn-doped III-V compound semiconductors such as GaMnAs are the most important and best understood ones, but they are ferromagnetic only at well below room temperature. An interesting alternative could be magnetic semiconductors based on elemental semiconductors, also owing to their compatibility with Si microelectronics. In the last decades, considerable amount of work has been devoted to fabricate Mn-doped Ge and Si FMS. In this article, the structural, magnetic and magneto-transport properties of Mn-doped Ge and Si will be reviewed.

  11. Mn-doped Ge and Si: A Review of the Experimental Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2010-01-01

    Diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors (FMS) are in the focus of intense research due to their potential applications in spintronics and their striking new physical properties. So far Mn-doped III-V compound semiconductors such as GaMnAs are the most important and best understood ones, but they are ferromagnetic only at well below room temperature. An interesting alternative could be magnetic semiconductors based on elemental semiconductors, also owing to their compatibility with Si microelectronics. In the last decades, considerable amount of work has been devoted to fabricate Mn-doped Ge and Si FMS. In this article, the structural, magnetic and magneto-transport properties of Mn-doped Ge and Si will be reviewed. PMID:28883369

  12. Phosphorus Doping in Si Nanocrystals/SiO2 msultilayers and Light Emission with Wavelength compatible for Optical Telecommunication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Mu, Weiwei; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji

    2016-03-09

    Doping in semiconductors is a fundamental issue for developing high performance devices. However, the doping behavior in Si nanocrystals (Si NCs) has not been fully understood so far. In the present work, P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers are fabricated. As revealed by XPS and ESR measurements, P dopants will preferentially passivate the surface states of Si NCs. Meanwhile, low temperature ESR spectra indicate that some P dopants are incorporated into Si NCs substitutionally and the incorporated P impurities increase with the P doping concentration or annealing temperature increasing. Furthermore, a kind of defect states will be generated with high doping concentration or annealing temperature due to the damage of Si crystalline lattice. More interestingly, the incorporated P dopants can generate deep levels in the ultra-small sized (~2 nm) Si NCs, which will cause a new subband light emission with the wavelength compatible with the requirement of the optical telecommunication. The studies of P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers suggest that P doping plays an important role in the electronic structures and optoelectronic characteristics of Si NCs.

  13. Tunable light filtering by a Bragg mirror/heavily doped semiconducting nanocrystal composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Kriegel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunable light filters are critical components for many optical applications in which light in-coupling, out-coupling or rejection is crucial, such as lasing, sensing, photovoltaics and information and communication technology. For this purpose, Bragg mirrors (band-pass filters with high reflectivity represent good candidates. However, their optical characteristics are determined during the fabrication stage. Heavily doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs, on the other hand, deliver a high degree of optical tunability through the active modulation of their carrier density, ultimately influencing their plasmonic absorption properties. Here, we propose the design of an actively tunable light filter composed of a Bragg mirror and a layer of plasmonic semiconductor NCs. We demonstrate that the filtering properties of the coupled device can be tuned to cover a wide range of frequencies from the visible to the near infrared (vis–NIR spectral region when employing varying carrier densities. As the tunable component, we implemented a dispersion of copper selenide (Cu2−xSe NCs and a film of indium tin oxide (ITO NCs, which are known to show optical tunablility with chemical or electrochemical treatments. We utilized the Mie theory to describe the carrier-dependent plasmonic properties of the Cu2−x Se NC dispersion and the effective medium theory to describe the optical characteristics of the ITO film. The transmission properties of the Bragg mirror have been modelled with the transfer matrix method. We foresee ease of experimental realization of the coupled device, where filtering modulation is achieved upon chemical and electrochemical post-fabrication treatment of the heavily doped semiconductor NC component, eventually resulting in tunable transmission properties of the coupled device.

  14. Tunable light filtering by a Bragg mirror/heavily doped semiconducting nanocrystal composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Tunable light filters are critical components for many optical applications in which light in-coupling, out-coupling or rejection is crucial, such as lasing, sensing, photovoltaics and information and communication technology. For this purpose, Bragg mirrors (band-pass filters with high reflectivity) represent good candidates. However, their optical characteristics are determined during the fabrication stage. Heavily doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), on the other hand, deliver a high degree of optical tunability through the active modulation of their carrier density, ultimately influencing their plasmonic absorption properties. Here, we propose the design of an actively tunable light filter composed of a Bragg mirror and a layer of plasmonic semiconductor NCs. We demonstrate that the filtering properties of the coupled device can be tuned to cover a wide range of frequencies from the visible to the near infrared (vis-NIR) spectral region when employing varying carrier densities. As the tunable component, we implemented a dispersion of copper selenide (Cu2-xSe) NCs and a film of indium tin oxide (ITO) NCs, which are known to show optical tunablility with chemical or electrochemical treatments. We utilized the Mie theory to describe the carrier-dependent plasmonic properties of the Cu2-x Se NC dispersion and the effective medium theory to describe the optical characteristics of the ITO film. The transmission properties of the Bragg mirror have been modelled with the transfer matrix method. We foresee ease of experimental realization of the coupled device, where filtering modulation is achieved upon chemical and electrochemical post-fabrication treatment of the heavily doped semiconductor NC component, eventually resulting in tunable transmission properties of the coupled device.

  15. Structure, morphology and optical characterization of Dy3+-doped BaYF5 nanocrystals for warm white light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritha, P.; Martín, I. R.; Dwaraka Viswanath, C. S.; Vijaya, N.; Venkata Krishnaiah, K.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Haranath, D.; Lavín, V.; Venkatramu, V.

    2017-08-01

    The barium yttrium fluoride BaYF5 nanocrystalline powders doped with different concentrations of Dy3+ ions have been synthesized via a hydrothermal method and studied their structural, morphological, thermal, vibrational, and optical properties. These nanopowders have been crystallized in a single phase of the tetragonal structure with the average size of around 30 nm having spherical shape in morphology. Upon excitations at 350 and 387 nm, Dy3+ -doped BaYF5 nanocrystals exhibit strong blue and yellow emissions ascribed to the 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 transitions, respectively. Decay curves of the 4F9/2 level of Dy3+ ion in BaYF5 nanocrystals exhibit non-exponential nature due to the dipole-dipole interaction between Dy3+ ions, confirmed by Inokuti-Hirayama model. The quantum yield for these nanocrystals have been found to be increased from 4.64% to 11.61% as the concentration of Dy3+ ions increases from 1.0 mol% to 2.0 mol% and then decreased to 10.68% as the dopant concentration increased to 5.0 mol%. Moreover, color coordinates and correlated color temperatures have been evaluated as a function of concentration and excitation wavelength and found to be in the warm white light region for all Dy3+ concentrations.

  16. Determination of active doping in highly resistive boron doped silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} by capacitance voltage measurement on inverted metal oxide semiconductor structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tian, E-mail: tianz@student.unsw.edu.au; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, UNSW Australia, Kensington, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)

    2015-10-21

    We investigate the Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurement to study the electrically active boron doping in Si nanocrystals (ncSi) embedded in SiO{sub 2}. The ncSi thin films with high resistivity (200–400 Ω cm) can be measured by using an inverted metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structure (Al/ncSi (B)/SiO{sub 2}/Si). This device structure eliminates the complications from the effects of lateral current flow and the high sheet resistance in standard lateral MOS structures. The characteristic MOS CV curves observed are consistent with the effective p-type doping. The CV modeling method is presented and used to evaluate the electrically active doping concentration. We find that the highly boron doped ncSi films have electrically active doping of 10{sup 18}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} despite their high resistivity. The saturation of doping at about 1.4 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} and the low doping efficiency less than 5% are observed and discussed. The calculated effective mobility is in the order of 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V s, indicating strong impurity/defect scattering effect that hinders carriers transport.

  17. Determination of active doping in highly resistive boron doped silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by capacitance voltage measurement on inverted metal oxide semiconductor structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurement to study the electrically active boron doping in Si nanocrystals (ncSi) embedded in SiO2. The ncSi thin films with high resistivity (200-400 Ω cm) can be measured by using an inverted metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structure (Al/ncSi (B)/SiO2/Si). This device structure eliminates the complications from the effects of lateral current flow and the high sheet resistance in standard lateral MOS structures. The characteristic MOS CV curves observed are consistent with the effective p-type doping. The CV modeling method is presented and used to evaluate the electrically active doping concentration. We find that the highly boron doped ncSi films have electrically active doping of 1018-1019 cm-3 despite their high resistivity. The saturation of doping at about 1.4 × 1019 cm-3 and the low doping efficiency less than 5% are observed and discussed. The calculated effective mobility is in the order of 10-3 cm2/V s, indicating strong impurity/defect scattering effect that hinders carriers transport.

  18. Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of aluminium- and indium-doped ZnO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Elin; Prodi-Schwab, Anna; Feldmann, Claus

    2009-06-01

    Microwave heating is applied to prepare suspensions of ZnO:In (IZO) and ZnO:Al (AZO) nanocrystals in diethylene glycol as a high-boiling multidentate alcohol (so-called polyol). Both n-doped zinc oxides are realized with high yields and in suspensions with solid contents up to 10 wt-%. These suspensions are colloidally stable for months. According to dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis as-prepared particles turn out to be single crystalline with an average diameter of 10-15 nm, a near monodisperse size distribution, and a low degree of agglomeration. As-prepared samples exhibit high resistivities due to the adhesion of DEG as a stabilizer on the particle surface. Subsequent to specific thermal post-treatment resistivities of 2.0 x 10(-1) and 5.7 x 10(-1) Omegacm are obtained for IZO and AZO powders, respectively. As a proof of the concept, thin layers are deposited on glass plates using a simple solvent evaporation technique. Post-treated layers exhibit a visible transmittance of about 80% and resistivities of 2.1 x 10(-1) Omegacm (IZO) and 2.6 x 10(-1) Omegacm (AZO). The bandgap of post-treated powders and thin layers is calculated to 3.2 and 3.3 eV, respectively.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of CeO2-doped TiO2 Composite Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman ZUAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure TiO2 and CeO2-doped TiO2 (3 % CeO2-97 %TiO2 composite nanocrystals were synthesized via co-precipitation method and characterized using TGA, XRD, FTIR, DR-UV-vis and TEM. The XRD data revealed that the phase structure of the synthesized samples was mainly in pure anatase having crystallite size in the range of 7 nm – 11 nm. Spherical shapes with moderate aggregation of the crystal particles were observed under the TEM observation. The presence of the CeO2 at TiO2 site has not only affected morphologically but also induced the electronic property of the TiO2 by lowering the band gap energy from 3.29 eV (Eg-Ti to 3.15 eV (Eg-CeTi. Performance evaluation of the synthesized samples showed that both samples have a strong adsorption capacity toward Congo red (CR dye in aqueous solution at room temperature experiment, where  the capacity of the CeTi was higher than the Ti sample. Based on DR-UV data, the synthesized samples obtained in this study may also become promising catalysts for photo-assisted removal of synthetic dye in aqueous solution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2732

  20. Up-conversion luminescence polarization control in Er3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zhang; Yun-Hua, Yao; Shi-An, Zhang; Chen-Hui, Lu; Zhen-Rong, Sun

    2016-02-01

    We propose a femtosecond laser polarization modulation scheme to control the up-conversion (UC) luminescence in Er3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals dispersed in the silicate glass. We show that the UC luminescence can be suppressed when the laser polarization is changed from linear through elliptical to circular, and the higher repetition rate will yield the lower control efficiency. We theoretically analyze the physical control mechanism of the UC luminescence polarization modulation by considering on- and near-resonant two-photon absorption, energy transfer up-conversion, and excited state absorption, and show that the polarization control mainly comes from the contribution of near-resonant two-photon absorption. Furthermore, we propose a method to improve the polarization control efficiency of UC luminescence in rare-earth ions by applying a two-color femtosecond laser field. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304396), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474096 and 51132004), and the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14JC1401500).

  1. Enhancement of upconversion luminescence due to the formation of nanocrystals in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Zhou; Shixun Dai; Chunlei Yu; Junjie Zhang; Guonian Wang; Lei Wen; Zhonghong Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Optically transparent Er3+-doped tellurite-based nanocrystallized glasses with the composition of 70TeO2·15Lie2O·0·15Nb2O5·0.5Er2O3(mol)have been perpared by a conventional melting quenching and the subsequent heat treatment porcesses.The sizes of grown nanocrystals in glass matrix appear to be35-50 nm from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. The microhardness measurement shows that the Vickers hardness values of the nanocrystallized tellurite glasses are larger (33%-62%) than those inthe base glass. The Raman spectra imply that the maximum phonon energy of the based glass decreases and shifts from 668 to 638 cm-1 after heat-treatment. Visible upconversion luminescence and infrared luminescence of the base glass and heat-treated glasses under 980-nm laser diode (LD) excitation are investigated. The 524-, 546- and 656-nm upconversion intensities by 980-nm pumping increase significantly.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and femtosecond nonlinear saturable absorption behavior of copper phthalocyanine nanocrystals doped-PMMA polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, S.; Dhlamini, M. S.; Neethling, P. H.; Yao, A.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report the femtosecond nonlinear saturable absorption response of synthesized copper phthalocyanine nanocrystals (CPc-NCs)-doped PMMA polymer thin films. The samples were initially characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-Vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The crystalline phase and morphological analysis revealed nanocrystals of monoclinic structure with an average crystallite size between 31.38 nm and 42.5 nm. The femtosecond Z-scan study at 800 nm central wavelength indicated a saturable absorption behavior of which the mechanism is closely related to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the particles. This nonlinear effect could potentially make the CPc-NCs useful in nonlinear optical devices.

  3. Influence of La doping and synthesis method on the properties of CoFe2O4 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, S. F.; Hemeda, O. M.; El-Dek, S. I.; Salem, B. I.

    2016-12-01

    Nanocrystals of La doped CoFe2O4 were synthesized using three different techniques: flash autocombustion, citrate-nitrate and the standard ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the obtained nanocrystals. All samples were crystallized in a spinel structure with cubic symmetry. The decrease in the lattice constant was endorsed to the large difference in ionic radii of both La+3 (1.216 Å) and Fe (0.65 Å) in 6-f coordination. The citrate method displayed superior Ms values amongst all techniques. The coercivity was found to exhibit largest values for the citrate method and then the flash while smallest values are associated with ceramic technique.

  4. Influence of local phonon energy on quantum efficiency of Tb3+-Yb3+co-doped glass ceramics containing fluoride nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧云; 叶松; 刘天华; 李松; 胡荣璇; 王德平

    2015-01-01

    The Tb3+single-doped and Tb3+-Yb3+co-doped glass ceramics with the precipitation of CaF2, CaF2-SrF2 solid state solu-tion and SrF2 nanocrystals were designed and prepared by taking different amounts of CaF2 and SrF2 as the starting fluorides to inves-tigate the influence of the crystalline phase on the total quantum efficiency. The formation of the fluoride nanocrystals and the incor-poration of the doped rare earth ions into the fluoride nanocrystals were proved by the XRD measurement. The energy transfer from Tb3+to Yb3+was studied by the steady and time resolved spectra. The total internal quantum efficiencies were calculated based on the measured Tb3+lifetime, which was about 10.5%improved in the SrF2 nanocrystals precipitated glass ceramics compared with that in the CaF2 nanocrystals precipitated glass ceramics mainly due to the lower phonon energy environment. Meanwhile, the total external quantum efficiencies were evaluated with the integrating sphere measurement system, which were 18.6%, 19.3%and 24.4%, respec-tively, for the CaF2, CaF2-SrF2 and SrF2 nanocrystals precipitated glass ceramics. Additionally, obvious difference between the calcu-lated total internal quantum efficiency and the measured total external quantum efficiency was also discussed.

  5. Thermoluminescence Responses of Photon and Electron Irradiated Ge- and Al-Doped SiO2 Optical Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Wagiran; I. Hossain; D. Bradley; A. N. H. Yaakob; T. Ramli

    2012-01-01

    We carry out a comparison of the thermoluminescence (TL) response of photon and electron irradiated Ge- and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,as well as cross-comparison with that of TLD-100.Irradiation is made with 6 MeV electrons and 6 MV photons,for doses ranging from 0.2 Gy to 4.0Gy.The commercially available Al- and Gedoped optical fibres produce a linear dose-TL response.The TL yield for both of the doped fibres and also for TLD-100 is greater for electron irradiation than for photon irradiation.The TL yield of the Al-doped fibres is a small fraction of that of Ge-doped fibres (by a factor of 25),the Ge-doped fibres offering a response of 59%o of that of TLD-100.%We carry out a comparison of the thermoluminescence (TL) response of photon and electron irradiated Ge- and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres, as well as cross-comparison with that of TLD-100. Irradiation is made with 6 MeV electrons and 6MV photons, for doses ranging from 0.2 Gy to 4.0Gy. The commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibres produce a linear dose-TL response. The TL yield for both of the doped fibres and also for TLD-100 is greater for electron irradiation than for photon irradiation. The TL yield of the Al-doped fibres is a small fraction of that of Ge-doped fibres (by a factor of 25), the Ge-doped fibres offering a response of 59% of that of TLD-100.

  6. Mode coupling in 340 μm GeO2 doped core-silica clad optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevich, Alexandar; Savović, Svetislav

    2017-03-01

    The state of mode coupling in 340 μm GeO2 doped core-silica clad optical fibers is investigated in this article using the power flow equation. The coupling coefficient in this equation was first tuned such that the equation could correctly reconstruct previously reported measured output power distributions. It was found that the GeO2 doped core-silica clad optical fiber showed stronger mode coupling than both, glass and popular plastic optical fibers. Consequently, the equilibrium as well as steady state mode distributions were achieved at shorter fiber lengths in GeO2 doped core-silica clad optical fibers.

  7. Rare earth doped silicate-oxyfluoride glass ceramics incorporating LaF3 nano-crystals for UV-LED color conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suk-Rok; Choi, Yong Gyu; Im, Won Bin; Lee, Ki Seok; Chung, Woon Jin

    2013-09-01

    Rare earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics with LaF3 nano-crystals formed inside were fabricated for color converter of UV-LED. Among various rare earth ions, Dy3+ and Eu3+ showed practically utilizable visible emissions under UV-LED excitation of 365 nm. The visible emission has been improved by the formation of LaF3 brought by heat treatment. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy along with its energy dispersive spectra confirmed the formation of LaF3 nano-crystals. Compositional dependence and the effects of heat treatment conditions on the visible emissions have been investigated. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the glasses were also examined for Dy3+ singly doped and co-doped samples. The effect of LaF3 nano-crystals and co-dopants on the visible emission properties of Dy3+ was discussed.

  8. Spectrophotometric studies of visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange using phthalocyanine-modified Fe-doped TiO2 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgari, Zohreh; Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz; Khosravi, Alireza; Gharanjig, Kamaladin

    2012-06-15

    In this paper, preparation and visible light induced photocatalytic activity of phthalocyanine-modified Fe-doped TiO(2) nanocrystals (Pc/Fe-TiO(2)) with different Fe doping content (0, 0.05, 0.5 and 3.0 mol% Fe) as photocatalysts for the degradation of methyl orange have been reported. The study carried out using XRD, FT-IR, EDX, BET, DRS, UV-Vis, SEM and TEM techniques. Results revealed that modified TiO(2) nanocrystals possessed only the anatase phase with crystal sizes of about 10-23 nm and high surface areas of 2.8-37.3 m(2)/g. It can be seen phthalocyanine and Fe(3+) ion exist in photocatalysts based on analysis of FT-IR and EDX. The doping amount of Fe remarkably affects the activity of modified TiO(2) nanocrystals as catalysts. The 0.5 mol% Fe doping exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in this work. It was found that phthalocyanine and Fe induced a shift in the energy band gap to lower energies, which changes from 3.26 to 2.26 eV for pure TiO(2) and Pc/3% Fe-TiO(2) nanocrystals, respectively. Results of the degradation of methyl orange revealed that modified TiO(2) nanocrystals showed much more photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2) under visible light which makes the applicability of TiO(2) photocatalysts even more versatile.

  9. Tiny crystalline grain nanocrystal NiCo2O4/N-doped graphene composite for efficient oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li-li; Zang, Guo-long; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Le-an; Li, Tian; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) plays an important role in green energy conversion, although catalysts are necessary for overcoming its sluggish kinetic. Herein, a nanocrystal NiCo2O4/N-doped graphene composite material showing high ORR electrocatalytic activity is prepared. The resulting NiCo2O4/N-doped graphene composite (NiCo2O4-NG/C) combines the advantages of both component materials and shows enhanced ORR electrocatalytic activity (i.e., more positive peak potential and half-wave potential compared with NiCo2O4) while having higher diffusion-limited current density values (-5.7 mA cm-2, 1600 rpm), better tolerance to methanol, and improved stability than 20 wt% Pt/C. NiCo2O4 anchored on N-doped graphene are demonstrated to be nanocrystal with tiny crystalline grain (diameter < 5 nm) and result in large surface area, thereby allowing more active sites to be exposed. Moreover, the potential exposure of high-index planes may be also responsible for the observed high activity of these materials.

  10. Effect of Al3+ co-doping on the dopant local structure, optical properties, and exciton dynamics in Cu+-doped ZnSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sheraz; Cooper, Jason Kyle; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko; Zhang, Jin Zhong

    2013-10-22

    The dopant local structure and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnSe (ZnSe:Cu) and Cu and Al co-doped ZnSe (ZnSe:Cu,Al) nanocrystals (NCs) were studied with an emphasis on understanding the impact of introducing Al as a co-dopant. Quantum-confined NCs with zinc blende crystal structure and particle size of 6 ± 0.6 Å were synthesized using a wet chemical route. The local structure of the Cu dopant, studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure, indicated that Cu in ZnSe:Cu NCs occupies a site that is neither substitutional nor interstitial and is adjacent to a Se vacancy. Additionally, we estimated that approximately 25 ± 8% of Cu was located on the surface of the NC. Al(3+) co-doping aids in Cu doping by accounting for the charge imbalance originated by Cu(+) doping and consequently reduces surface Cu doping. The Cu ions remain distorted from the center of the tetrahedron to one of the triangular faces. The lifetime of the dopant-related photoluminescence was found to increase from 550 ± 60 to 700 ± 60 ns after Al co-doping. DFT calculations were used to obtain the density of states of a model system to help explain the optical properties and dynamics processes observed. This study demonstrates that co-doping using different cations with complementary oxidation states is an effective method to enhance optical properties of doped semiconductor NCs of interest for various photonics applications.

  11. Native point defects and doping in ZnGeN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skachkov, Dmitry; Punya Jaroenjittichai, Atchara; Huang, Ling-yi; Lambrecht, Walter R. L.

    2016-04-01

    A computational study within the framework of density functional theory in the local density approximation (LDA) is presented for native defects and doping in ZnGeN2. Gap corrections are taken into account using an LDA+U approach and finite size corrections for charged defects are evaluated in terms of an effective charge model, introduced in this paper. The donor or acceptor characteristics of each of the cation and N vacancies and the two cation antisite defects are determined as well as their energies of formation under different chemical potential conditions. These are then used to determine defect concentrations and Fermi level pinning self-consistently. The cation antisite defects are found to have significantly lower formation energy than the cation vacancies. At a typical growth temperature of 1200 K, the charge neutrality condition pins the Fermi level close to the crossing of the formation energies of the ZnGe-1 acceptor with the GeZn2 + shallow donor. Since this point lies closer to the valence-band maximum (VBM), intrinsic p -type doping would result at the growth temperature and will persist at room temperature if the defect concentrations are frozen in. It is the highest and of order 1016cm-3 for the most Ge-poor condition. On the other hand, for the most Ge-poor condition, it drops to 1013cm-3 at 1200 K and to almost zero at 300 K because then the Fermi level is too close to the middle of the gap. Oxygen impurities are found to strongly prefer the ON substitutional site and are found to be shallow donors with a very low energy of formation. It can only be suppressed by strongly reducing the oxygen partial pressure relative to that of nitrogen. At high temperatures, however, introduction of oxygen will be accompanied by compensating ZnGe-2 acceptors and would lead to negligible net doping. The prospects for Ga base p -type doping are evaluated. While good solubility is expected, site competition between Zn and Ge sites is found to lead to a

  12. X-ray scattering and magnetic susceptibility study of doped CuGeO sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y J; Lamarra, S C; Chou, F C; Kim, Y J; Masuda, T; Tsukada, I; Uchinokura, K; Birgeneau, R J

    2003-01-01

    We report comprehensive synchrotron x-ray scattering and magnetic susceptibility studies of the doped spin-Peierls materials Cu sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x GeO sub 3 and CuGe sub 1 sub - sub y Si sub y O sub 3. Temperature versus dopant concentration phase diagrams are mapped out for both Zn and Si dopants. The phase diagrams of both Cu sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x GeO sub 3 and CuGe sub 1 sub - sub y Si sub y O sub 3 closely resemble that of Cu sub 1 sub - sub x Mg sub x GeO sub 3 , including the observation that the spin gap is established at a much higher temperature than the temperature at which the spin-Peierls dimerization attains long-range order. The spin-Peierls transitions in doped samples exhibit unusual phase transition behavior, characterized by highly rounded phase transitions, Lorentzian squared lineshapes, and very long relaxation times. Phenomenological explanations for these observations are given by considering the effects of competing random bond interactions as well as random fields generate...

  13. Eu-doped ZnO-HfO2 hybrid nanocrystal-embedded low-loss glass-ceramic waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhabrata; Bhaktha B N, Shivakiran

    2016-03-11

    We report on the sol-gel fabrication, using a dip-coating technique, of low-loss Eu-doped 70SiO2 -[Formula: see text] HfO2-xZnO (x = 2, 5, 7 and 10 mol%) ternary glass-ceramic planar waveguides. Transmission electron microscopy and grazing incident x-ray diffraction experiments confirm the controlled growth of hybrid nanocrystals with an average size of 3 nm-25 nm, composed of ZnO encapsulated by a thin layer of nanocrystalline HfO2, with an increase of ZnO concentration from x = 2 mol% to 10 mol%  in the SiO2-HfO2 composite matrix. The effect of crystallization on the local environment of Eu ions, doped in the ZnO-HfO2 hybrid nanocrystal-embedded glass-ceramic matrix, is studied using photoluminescence spectra, wherein an intense mixed-valence state (divalent as well as trivalent) emission of Eu ions is observed. The existence of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) in the SiO2-HfO2-ZnO ternary matrix is confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Importantly, the Eu[Formula: see text]-doped ternary waveguides exhibit low propagation losses (0.3 ± 0.2 dB cm(-1) at 632.8 nm) and optical transparency in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which makes ZnO-HfO2 nanocrystal-embedded SiO2-HfO2-ZnO waveguides a viable candidate for the development of on-chip, active, integrated optical devices.

  14. Photoconductive gain and quantum efficiency of remotely doped Ge/Si quantum dot photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimov, A. I.; Kirienko, V. V.; Armbrister, V. A.; Bloshkin, A. A.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Shklyaev, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    We study the effect of quantum dot charging on the mid-infrared photocurrent, optical gain, hole capture probability, and absorption quantum efficiency in remotely delta-doped Ge/Si quantum dot photodetectors. The dot occupation with holes is controlled by varying dot and doping densities. From our investigations of samples doped to contain from about one to nine holes per dot we observe an over 10 times gain enhancement and similar suppression of the hole capture probability with increased carrier population. The data are explained by quenching the capture process and increasing the photoexcited hole lifetime due to formation of the repulsive Coulomb potential of the extra holes inside the quantum dots. The normal incidence quantum efficiency is found to be strongly asymmetric with respect to applied bias polarity. Based on the polarization-dependent absorption measurements it is concluded that, at a positive voltage, when holes move toward the nearest δ-doping plane, photocurrent is originated from the bound-to-continuum transitions of holes between the ground state confined in Ge dots and the extended states of the Si matrix. At a negative bias polarity, the photoresponse is caused by optical excitation to a quasibound state confined near the valence band edge with subsequent tunneling to the Si valence band. In a latter case, the possibility of hole transfer into continuum states arises from the electric field generated by charge distributed between quantum dots and delta-doping planes.

  15. Phosphine-free synthesis of high quality ZnSe, ZnSe/ZnS, and Cu-, Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huaibin; Wang, Hongzhe; Li, Xiaomin; Niu, Jin Zhong; Wang, Hua; Chen, Xia; Li, Lin Song

    2009-12-21

    High quality zinc blende ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals have been synthesized by two converse injection methods (i.e. zinc precursor injection or selenium precursor injection) when Se-ODE complex was chosen as the phosphine-free selenium precursor. Absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the as-synthesized ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS nanocrystals. The quality of the as-prepared ZnSe nanocrystals reached the same high level compared with the method using phosphine selenium precursors since the quantum yields were between 40 and 60% and photoluminescence (PL) full width at half-maximum (FWHM) was well controlled between 14 and 17 nm. The parameter window for the growth of high quality ZnSe nanocrystals was found to be much broader and monodisperse ZnSe nanocrystals were synthesized successfully even when the reaction temperature was set as low as 240 degrees C. As cores, such zinc blende ZnSe nanocrystals were also used to synthesize ZnSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals with high fluorescence quantum yields of 70%. Cu(2+) or Mn(2+) doped ZnSe nanocrystals were also synthesized by simply modifying this phosphine-free method. The emission range has been extended to 500 and 600 nm with the use of Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) dopants compared with the emission coverage of ZnSe at around 400 nm. This is the first totally "green approach" (i.e. phosphine-free synthesis) for the synthesis of high quality ZnSe, ZnSe/ZnS, and Cu(2+) or Mn(2+) doped ZnSe nanocrystals.

  16. Charge storage characteristics and tunneling mechanism of amorphous Ge-doped HfO{sub x} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, X.Y.; Zhang, S.Y.; Zhang, T.; Wang, R.X.; Li, L.T.; Zhang, Y. [Southwest University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Chongqing (China); Dai, J.Y. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Applied Physics, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-09-15

    Amorphous Ge-doped HfO{sub x} films have been deposited on p-Si(100) substrates by means of RF magnetron sputtering. Microstructural investigations reveal the partial oxidation of doped Ge atoms in the amorphous HfO{sub x} matrix and the existence of HfSiO{sub x} interfacial layer. Capacitance-voltage hysteresis of the Ag-/Ge-doped HfO{sub x}/Si/Ag memory capacitor exhibits a memory window of 3.15 V which can maintain for >5 x 10{sup 4} cycles. Current-voltage characteristics reveal that Poole-Frenkel tunneling is responsible for electron transport in the Ge-doped HfO{sub x} film. (orig.)

  17. N-doped GeTe phase change material for high-temperature data retention and low-power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhao; Hu, Yifeng; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zou, Hua; Yuan, Li; Xue, Jianzhong; Sui, Yongxing; Wu, Weihua; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2016-10-01

    The amorphous-to-crystalline transitions of N-doped GeTe films are investigated by in situ film resistance measurements. Both the crystallization temperature and resistance of the N-doped films increase. The analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement indicates that the grain size of the films with more nitrogen content can be refined, leading to the improvement in the resistance and thermal stability of the phase change films. The N-doped GeTe films have higher activation energy for crystallization. The 10-year lifetime is raised from 90°C of undoped GeTe film to 138°C of the N-doped GeTe film. The better surface roughness is confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The phase change speed is evaluated by the picosecond laser pump-probe technology.

  18. P-doped carbon nanotube and Ge-doped boron nitride nanotube as a real catalysts for N2O + SiO reaction: DFT examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Meysam

    2017-10-01

    The mechanisms of N2O reduction via SiO on surfaces of P-doped carbon nanotube (CNT) and Si-doped boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) by density functional theory were investigated. The P and Si adsorption energies on surfaces of CNT and BNNT were calculated to be -314.6 and -347.2 kcal/mol, respectively. The decomposition of CNT-P-N2O and BNNT-Ge-N2O and reduction of CNT-P-O* and BNNT-Ge-O* by SiO molecule were investigated. The BNNT-Ge-O* has lower activation energy and more negative ΔGad rather than CNT-P-O* and therefore the process of BNNT-Ge-O* + SiO → BNNT-Ge + SiO2 was spontaneous more than CNT-P-O* + SiO → CNT-P + SiO2 from thermodynamic view point. Results show that activation energy for BNNT-Ge-O* + N2O → BNNT-Ge-O2 + N2 and CNT-P-O* + N2O → CNT-P-O2 + N2 reactions were 27.89 and 31.56 kcal/mol, respectively. The results show that P-doped CNT and Ge-doped BNNT can be observed as a real catalyst for the reduction of N2O.

  19. Laser annealed in-situ P-doped Ge for on-chip laser source applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Ashwyn; Pantouvaki, Marianna; Shimura, Yosuke; Porret, Clement; Van Deun, Rik; Loo, Roger; Van Thourhout, Dries; Van Campenhout, Joris

    2016-05-01

    Realization of a monolithically integrated on-chip laser source remains the holy-grail of Silicon Photonics. Germanium (Ge) is a promising semiconductor for lasing applications when highly doped with Phosphorous (P) and or alloyed with Sn [1, 2]. P doping makes Ge a pseudo-direct band gap material and the emitted wavelengths are compatible with fiber-optic communication applications. However, in-situ P doping with Ge2H6 precursor allows a maximum active P concentration of 6×1019 cm-3 [3]. Even with such active P levels, n++ Ge is still an indirect band gap material and could result in very high threshold current densities. In this work, we demonstrate P-doped Ge layers with active n-type doping beyond 1020 cm-3, grown using Ge2H6 and PH3 and subsequently laser annealed, targeting power-efficient on-chip laser sources. The use of Ge2H6 precursors during the growth of P-doped Ge increases the active P concentration level to a record fully activated concentration of 1.3×1020 cm-3 when laser annealed with a fluence of 1.2 J/cm2. The material stack consisted of 200 nm thick P-doped Ge grown on an annealed 1 µm Ge buffer on Si. Ge:P epitaxy was performed with PH3 and Ge2H6 at 320oC. Low temperature growth enable Ge:P epitaxy far from thermodynamic equilibrium, resulting in an enhanced incorporation of P atoms [3]. At such high active P concentration, the n++ Ge layer is expected to be a pseudo-direct band gap material. The photoluminescence (PL) intensities for layers with highest active P concentration show an enhancement of 18× when compared to undoped Ge grown on Si as shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. The layers were optically pumped with a 640 nm laser and an incident intensity of 410 mW/cm2. The PL was measured with a NIR spectrometer with a Hamamatsu R5509-72 NIR photomultiplier tube detector whose detectivity drops at 1620 nm. Due to high active P concentration, we expect band gap narrowing phenomena to push the PL peak to wavelengths beyond the detection limit

  20. Preparation and structural, optical, magnetic, and electrical characterization of Mn{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+}/Cu{sup 2+} doped hematite nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikrishna Ramya, S.I., E-mail: ramyaskr@gmail.com; Mahadevan, C.K.

    2014-03-15

    Pure and Mn{sup 2+} / Co{sup 2+} / Cu{sup 2+} doped (1 and 2 at.%) spherical hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})nanocrystals have been synthesized by a simple solvothermal method using a domestic microwave oven. XRD measurements confirm that all the seven nanocrystals prepared consist of nanocrystalline hematite phase without any other phases. The energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses confirm the phase purity of the nanocrystals prepared. TEM analysis shows the average particle sizes within the range 33–51 nm. Optical absorption measurements indicate that all the three dopants enhance the optical transmittance and reflectance. A red shift is observed in the bandgap energy values estimated from optical absorption and reflectance spectra. Results of magnetic measurements made at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer indicate significant changes in the magnetic properties (coercivity, retentivity and saturationmagnetization) due to doping. Results of magnetic measurements indicate significant changes in the magnetic properties. Results of AC electrical measurements made at various temperatures in the range 40–130 °C and frequencies in the range 100 Hz –1 MHz indicate low dielectric constants and AC electrical conductivities and consequently show the occurrence of nanoconfined states. -- Graphical abstract: The indexed X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all the seven nanocrystals indicate the rhombohedral structure of hematite (JCPDS card No.13-0534). No impurity phase like oxides of Mn or Co or Cu was detected above equipment limit. The average crystallite (grain) sizes estimated using the Scherrer's formula. Highlights: • Pure and Mn/Co/Cu-doped hematite nanocrystals have been prepared. • The method adopted for the preparation is simple, economical and scalable. • Prepared nanocrystals are spherical in shape with good crystallinity and phase purity. • Mn/Co/Cu-doping enhances the optical

  1. Fiber Bragg Gratings in Small-Core Ge-Doped Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiping Wang; Hartmut Bartelt; Wolfgang Ecke; Reinhardt Willsch; Jens Kobelke; Michael Kautz; Sven Brueckner; Manfred Rothhardt

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) inscribed in a small-core Ge-doped photonic crystal fibers with a UV laser and a Talbot inter-ferometer. The responses of such FBGs to temper-ature, strain, bending, and transverse-loading were systematically investigated. The Bragg wavelength of the FBGs shifts toward longer wavelengths with increasing temperature, tensile strain, and trans-verse-loading. The bending and transverse- loading properties of the FBGs are sensitive to the fiber orientations.

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Up-Conversion Luminescence of Yb3+/Ho3+ Co-doped Y6WO12 Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Weifeng; Zhu, Qiansheng; Ren, Qiang; Wu, Chenchen; Miao, Juhong

    2017-08-01

    Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped Y6WO12 nanocrystals with different concentrations of Ho3+ ions have been synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method followed by a subsequent heat treatment. The nanostructures, morphologies, and up-conversion luminescent properties of the as-prepared Y6WO12:Yb3+/Ho3+ nanocrystals were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence spectra. XRD results indicate that all the diffraction peaks of the samples match well with the cubic phase of Y6WO12. SEM images demonstrate that the samples consist of spherical-like nanoparticles ranging in size from about 30 nm to 50 nm, which increases slightly with the increase of sintering temperature. Under the excitation of a 980 nm diode laser, the as-prepared nanocrystals show bight red and green luminescence, which is attributed to the transition of 5F5 → 5I8 and 5F4, 5S2 → 5I8 of Ho3+, respectively. With the elevation of the heat treatment temperature from 700°C to 900°C, the up-conversion emission intensity goes up significantly. Additionally, the decay lifetimes data follow a bi-exponential nature. Both the emission intensity (red and green) and their corresponding decay lifetimes increase with increasing Ho3+ concentration, maximizing at 1.0 mol.%, and then decrease, which is mainly attributed to the concentration quenching effect.

  3. Dynamically tuning the optical properties of Europium-doped sodium niobate nano-crystals through magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Quanlan; Zhang, Yuanhao; Zhang, Junpei; Zhang, Han; Dong, Guoping; Han, Junbo; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-11-01

    We have fabricated high quality NaNbO3:Eu3+ nano-crystals based on the Pechini sol-gel method and realized its magneto-optical effect under external pulsed magnetic field. Our results show that magnetic field can induce the suppression of luminescence, the splitting of peaks, and shifting of peak locations due to the expansion of electric dipole emission in Europium ions, and further demonstrate that the magnetic dipole emission plays an insignificant role in effect on the magnetic dipole emission for Eu3+:5 D 0 → 7 F 1, 5 D 0 → 7 F 3 transitions in NaNbO3:Eu3+ nano-crystals. These magnetic-optical interactions are attributed to the results of the Zeeman effect by high magnetic field that could result in the change of the symmetry of Eu3+ ions, and there is different sensitivity to changes of symmetry for Eu3+:5 D 0 → 7 F J (J = 1-4) transitions in NaNbO3 nano-crystals. This work might provide a viable magneto-optical approach in tuning the optical properties (luminescence intensity, peak location, profile, etc) of the rare-earth ions doped nano-particles.

  4. Elaboration and characterization of a KCl single crystal doped with nanocrystals of a Sb2O3 semiconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Bouhdjer; S.Addala; A.Chala; O.Halimi; B.Boudine; M.Sebais

    2013-01-01

    Undoped and doped KCl single crystals have been successfully elaborated via the Czochralski (Cz)method.The effects of dopant Sb2O3 nanocrystals on structural and optical properties were investigated by a number of techniques,including X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis,UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometers.An XRD pattern of KCl:Sb2O3 reveals that the Sb2O3 nanocrystals are in the well-crystalline orthorhombic phase.The broadening of diffraction peaks indicated the presence of a Sb2O3 semiconductor in the nanometer size regime.The shift of absorption and PL peaks is observed near 334 nm and 360 nm respectively due to the quantum confinement effect in Sb2O3 nanocrystals.Particle sizes calculated from XRD studies agree fairly well with those estimated from optical studies.An SEM image of the surface KCl:Sb2O3 single crystal shows large quasi-spherical of Sb2O3 crystallites scattered on the surface.The elemental analysis from EDAX demonstrates that the KCl:Sb2O3 single crystal is slightly rich in oxygen and a source of excessive quantities of oxygen is discussed.

  5. Theoretical study of the catalytic CO oxidation by Pt catalyst supported on Ge-doped grapheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanan; Yang, Zongxian; Dai, Xianqi; Lu, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yanxing; Fu, Zhaoming

    2014-09-01

    The geometry, electronic structure and catalytic properties of the anchored Pt atom on the Ge-doped graphene (Pt/Ge-graphene) substrates are investigated using the first-principles computations. It is found that Ge atoms can form strong covalent bonds with the carbon atoms at the vacancy site on the defective graphene. The Ge-graphene as substrate can effectively anchored Pt atoms and form supported Pt catalyst, which exhibits good catalytic activity for CO oxidation with a two-step route, starting with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) reaction followed by the Eley-Rideal (ER) reaction. The Ge dopant in graphene plays a vital role in enhancing the substrate-adsorbate interaction through facilitating the charge redistribution at their interfaces. The Ge-graphene can be used as the reactive support to control the stability and activity of the Pt catalysts. This work provides valuable guidance on fabricating carbon-based catalysts for CO oxidation, and validates the reactivity of single-atom catalyst for designing atomic-scale catalysts.

  6. One Pot Synthesis and Characterization of Cesium Doped SnO2 Nanocrystals via a Hydrothermal Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Kaviyarasu; Prem Anand Devarajan; S. Stanly John Xavier; S. Augustine Thomas; S. Se]vakumar

    2012-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of cesium doped SnO2 nanocrystals synthesized by wet chemical method have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) analyses, UV-vis-NIR spectral studies and dielectric studies were carried out for both pure SnO2 and cesium doped SnO2 nano-samples. All samples of SnO2 did not show any metallic cluster, but the sample containing cesium as a dopant displayed significant activity. The products formed were chloride and water representing a competitive advantage from the stand point of environmental protection.

  7. Fabrication, photoluminescence, and potential application in white light emitting diode of Dy3+-Tm3+ doped transparent glass ceramics containing GdSr2F7 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Yan, X. H.; Bu, Y. Y.; Zhen, J.; Xuan, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Dy3+-Tm3+ doped transparent glass ceramics containing GdSr2F7 nanocrystals were fabricated successfully by a melt-quenching method and subsequent heating. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses show that tetragonal GdSr2F7 nanocrystals are homogeneously precipitated among the borosilicate glass matrix. If excited with 354 nm UV light, the photoluminescence spectrum of Dy3+ single-doped transparent glass ceramics shows white-light emission. With doping of Tm3+, the overall emission color of Tm3+-Dy3+ co-doped transparent glass ceramics can be tuned from white to blue through energy transfer between Dy3+ and Tm3+. CIE chromaticity and color temperature measurements show that the resulting TGCS may be a candidate as a white LED material pumped by a UV InGaN chip.

  8. Luminescent properties of Ce3+/Tb3+co-doped glass ceramics containing YPO4 nanocrystals for W-LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志雄; 张约品; 冯治刚; 王成; 夏海平; 张新民

    2016-01-01

    Ce3+/Tb3+ co-doped transparent glass ceramics containing YPO4 nanocrystals were prepared using high temperature melt-ing method, and their structural and luminous properties were investigated. XRD analysis and TEM images confirmed the existence of YPO4 nanocrystals in glass ceramics. The transmission spectra proved that the glass ceramics specimens still maintained a high transparency. Then the excitation and emission spectra of the Ce3+ and Tb3+ single-doped and co-doped glass and glass ceramics were discussed, which proved that the glass ceramics had better luminescent properties. Under the near ultraviolet (331 nm) excitation, the broadband emission located at 385 nm was observed which was ascribed to 5d→2F5/2 and2F7/2 transition of Ce3+ ions. Several char-acteristic sharp peaks centered at 489, 543, 578 and 620 nm originated from the5D4 to7FJ (J=6, 5, 4, 3) of Tb3+ ions. The decay time of Tb3+ ions at 543 nm and the relevant energy levels of Ce3+ ions and Tb3+ ions illustrated the transfer process from Ce3+ ions to Tb3+ ions. The best CIE chromaticity coordinate of the glass ceramics specimen was calculated as (x=0.3201,y=0.3749), which was close to the NTSC standard values for white (x=0.333,y=0.333). All the results suggested that the YPO4-based Ce3+/Tb3+ co-doped glass ceramics could act as potential luminescent materials for white light-emitting diodes.

  9. Effect of lithium halide on glass network structure and upconversion luminescence in Er3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing NaGdF4 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Peng; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Dacheng; Li, Zhencai; Qiu, Jianbei

    2017-10-01

    LiR(R = Br, Cl, F) co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing NaGdF4 nanocrystals were prepared. The effect on glass network structure by dopants was investigated through the Raman spectra. The crystallization temperature and integrity of the glass network structure was gradually reduced by introducing halogen ions. The types and distribution of nanocrystals were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The size of nanocrystals were shown in column type distribution map. The mean size of nanocrystals was bigger from SABr to SAF. The upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in SABr, SACl and SAF were study. The intensity ratio of red and green light was reduced in glass ceramics when the content from LiBr turn to LiF.

  10. Luminescent properties of Ce3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing BaGdF5 nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩; 欧阳绍业; 张为欢; 杨斌; 张约品; 夏海平

    2015-01-01

    The transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing BaGdF5 nanocrystals were prepared with a composition of 42SiO2-12Na2O-16Al2O3-24BaF2-4Gd2O3-2CeF3 (mol.%) by thermal treatment technology. The typical DSC curve, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) patterns were measured. The transmission spectra and luminescent properties were in-vestigated. The decay times of the Gd3+ions at 312 nm excited with 275 nm for the Ce3+ions doped glass and glass ceramics speci-mens and the energy transfer process between Gd3+ions and Ce3+ions were also studied. The XRD analysis and the TEM images confirmed the generation of the spherical BaGdF5 nanocrystals. Compared with the PG specimen, the intensity of the luminescence spectra of the glass ceramics specimens was apparently enhanced with the heat treatment temperature increasing, and a blue shift in the excitation spectra and the emission spectra of glass ceramics specimens was obviously observed. In the fluorescence decay curves of the Gd3+ions, it could be obviously observed that the fluorescent intensity decays in the Ce3+ions doped glass and glass ceramics specimens decreased rapidly with the increase of the heat treatment temperature. In addition, the energy transfer efficiency from Gd3+ions to Ce3+ions was also calculated.

  11. Formation of SiGe nanocrystals embedded in Al2O3 for the application of write-once-read-many-times memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Lin; Wu, Yung-Hsien; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chen, Lun-Lun

    2012-10-01

    The structure of SiGe nanocrystals embedded in Al2O3 formed by sequential deposition of Al2O3/Si/Ge/Al2O3 and a subsequent annealing was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and its application for write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices was explored in this study. By applying a -10 V pulse for 1 s, a large amount of holes injected from Si substrate are stored in the nanocrystals and consequently, the current at +1.5 V increases by a factor of 104 as compared to that of the initial state. Even with a smaller -5 V pulse for 1 μs, a sufficiently large current ratio of 36 can still be obtained, verifying the low power operation. Since holes are stored in nanocrystals which are isolated from Si substrate by Al2O3 with good integrity and correspond to a large valence band offset with respect to Al2O3, desirable read endurance up to 105 cycles and excellent retention over 100 yr are achieved. Combining these promising characteristics, WORM memory devices are appropriate for high-performance archival storage applications.

  12. Formation of SiGe nanocrystals embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the application of write-once-read-many-times memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Min-Lin; Wu, Yung-Hsien; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chen, Lun-Lun [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing-Hua University, 300 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-15

    The structure of SiGe nanocrystals embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed by sequential deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si/Ge/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a subsequent annealing was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and its application for write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices was explored in this study. By applying a -10 V pulse for 1 s, a large amount of holes injected from Si substrate are stored in the nanocrystals and consequently, the current at +1.5 V increases by a factor of 10{sup 4} as compared to that of the initial state. Even with a smaller -5 V pulse for 1 {mu}s, a sufficiently large current ratio of 36 can still be obtained, verifying the low power operation. Since holes are stored in nanocrystals which are isolated from Si substrate by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with good integrity and correspond to a large valence band offset with respect to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, desirable read endurance up to 10{sup 5} cycles and excellent retention over 100 yr are achieved. Combining these promising characteristics, WORM memory devices are appropriate for high-performance archival storage applications.

  13. Pulsed laser annealing of highly doped Ge:Sb layers deposited on different substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalov, R. I.; Bayazitov, R. M.; Faizrakhmanov, I. A.; Lyadov, N. M.; Shustov, V. A.; Ivlev, G. D.

    2016-10-01

    Germanium (Ge) is a promising material for micro- and optoelectronics to produce high speed field-effect transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and lasers. For such applications tensile-strained and/or highly n-doped Ge layers are needed. The authors have performed the formation of such layers by ion-beam sputtering of composite Sb/Ge target, deposition of thin amorphous Ge:Sb films (~200 nm thick) on different substrates (c-Si, c-Al2O3, α-SiO2) followed by pulsed laser annealing (PLA) for their crystallization and Sb dopant activation. Structural, electrical and optical characterization of Ge:Sb films was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry methods and by measuring sheet resistance, carrier concentration and photoluminescence. The obtained polycrystalline n-Ge:Sb layers (N Sb ~ 1 at.%) are characterized by increased values of tensile strain (up to 1%) and homogenious Sb dopant distribution within layer thickness. The electrical measurements at 300 K revealed the low sheet resistance (up to 40 Ω/□) and extremely high electron concentration (up to 5.5  ×  1020 cm-3) in Ge:Sb/SiO2 samples that indicated full electrical activation of Sb dopant on SiO2 substrate. The increased values of tensile strain and electron concentration of Ge:Sb films on α-SiO2 are explained by low values of thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficients of quartz substrate.

  14. Magnetic performance of orthorhombic Mn35Ge35Te30 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Iman A.

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic Mn35Ge35Te30 diluted magnetic semiconductors powder syntheses by the conventional direct reaction of pure metals. Nanocrystalline nature of the prepared sample confirmed using various techniques, where x-Ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements shows ~96 nm particle size, while transmission electron microscope (TEM) shows 92 nm particle size. XRD analysis show orthorhombic symmetry with lattice parameters a=7.386611±(0.0066) Å, b=8.962502±(0.0090) Å and c=7.027349±(0.0040) Å. Electron Spin resonance (ESR) show a broad asymmetric line whereas the remnant Mn2+ six-hyperfine lines are broadened within |+1/2>→|-1/2> line according to high anisotropy; calculated Landé g-factor is 2.047. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis, field-moment characteristics revealed a hysteresis loop with small coercive field indicating that Mn35Ge35Te30 is a soft magnetic material. Moreover, hysteresis measurements at different temperatures show increasing magnetization with increasing temperature up to 150 K followed by decreased with increasing temperature up to 300 K. This behavior indicated to the antiferromagnetic nature of the prepared nanocrystalline materials. Magnetic moment - temperature measurements show Néel temperature TN=172.6 K. Magnetic force microscope revealed magnetic domains as a result of interaction between magnetic dipole moments of magnetic cantilever and pressed powder.

  15. Preparation of well-dispersed Mg-doped LaCoO3 nanocrystals with controllable particle size and high visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangmei; Pang, Guangsheng; Huang, Yuliang; Li, Chunguang; Feng, Shouhua

    2010-08-01

    Mg-doped LaCoO3 nanocrystals are prepared by a modified sol-gel method. Excess MgO is used to inhibit the crystal growth and agglomeration during the calcination process. A series of Mg-doped LaCoO3 nanocrystals with average crystallite size varying from 13.4 to 31.6 nm can be obtained by changing the molar ratio of Mg:La from 4:1 to 1:10 in the reaction mixture. The largest BET surface area observed is 64.5 m2/g if the molar ratio of Mg:La is 4:1. The product can be well dispersed in water and a very stable colloid formed without any stabilizer. The photocatalytic performance of Mg-doped LaCoO3 nanocrystals is evaluated by the degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B solution. The well-dispersed Mg-doped LaCoO3 nanocrystals exhibit high visible-light photocatalytic activity.

  16. Aqueous-phase synthesis and color-tuning of core/shell/shell inorganic nanocrystals consisting of ZnSe, (Cu, Mn)-doped ZnS, and ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongwan; Yoon, Sujin [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Felix Sunjoo, E-mail: fskim@cau.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nakjoong, E-mail: kimnj@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-25

    We report synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals based on ZnSe core, (Cu,Mn)-doped ZnS inner-shell, and ZnS outer-shell by using an eco-friendly method and their optical properties. Synthesis of core/shell/shell nanocrystals was performed by using a one-pot/three-step colloidal method with 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a stabilizer in aqueous phase at low temperature. A double-shell structure was employed with inner-shell as a host for doping and outer-shell as a passivation layer for covering surface defects. Copper and manganese were introduced as single- or co-dopants during inner-shell formation, providing an effective means to control the emission color of the nanocrystals. The synthesized nanocrystals showed fluorescent emission ranging from blue to green, to white, and to orange, adjusted by doping components, amounts, and ratios. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the core/doped-shell/shell nanocrystals approached 36%. - Highlights: • ZnSe/ZnS:(Cu,Ms)/ZnS core/(doped)shell/shell nanocrystals were synthesized in an aqueous phase. • Emission color of nanocrystals was controlled from blue to white to orange by adjusting the atomic ratio of Cu and Mn co-dopants. • Photoluminescence quantum yields of the colloidal nanocrystals approached 36%.

  17. Linear and nonlinear refractive index of As-Se-Ge and Bi doped As-Se-Ge thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Katyal, S. C.

    2010-06-01

    The present work reports the linear and nonlinear refractive index for (As2Se3)90Ge10 and [(As2Se3)90Ge10]95Bi5 thin films. The formulation proposed by Fournier and Snitzer has been used to predict the nonlinear behavior of refractive index. The linear refractive index and Wemple-DiDomenico parameters were used for the determination of nonlinear refractive index in the wavelength region 0.4 to 1.5 μm. Linear refractive index has been determined using the well known Swanepoel method. This is observed that nonlinear refractive index increases linearly with increasing linear refractive index. With Bi addition this has been found that nonlinear refractive index increases by 2.4 times, while on comparing with pure and doped silica glasses results are 2-3 orders higher. Density and molar volume has also been calculated. The obtained results may lead to yield more sensitive optical limiting devices and these glasses may be used as an optical material for high speed communication fibers.

  18. Charge transfer of single laser crystallized intrinsic and phosphorus-doped Si-nanocrystals visualized by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Xu, Jun; Lu, Peng; Shan, Dan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kunji

    2014-10-01

    Isolated intrinsic and phosphorus doped (P-doped) Si-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) on n- and p-Si substrates are fabricated by excimer laser crystallization techniques. The formation of Si-NCs is confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductive AFM measurements. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is then carried out to visualize the trapped charges in a single Si-NC dot which derives from the charge transfer between Si-NCs and Si substrates due to their different Fermi levels. The laser crystallized P-doped Si-NCs have a similar Fermi level around the mid-gap to the intrinsic counterparts, which might be caused by the inactivated impurity atoms or the surface states-related Fermi level pinning. A clear rise of the Fermi level in P-doped Si-NCs is observed after a short time thermal annealing treatment, indicating the activation of dopants in Si-NCs. Moreover, the surface charge quantity can be estimated using a simple parallel plate capacitor model for a quantitative understanding of the KPFM results at the nanoscale.

  19. Charge transfer of single laser crystallized intrinsic and phosphorus-doped Si-nanocrystals visualized by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jie; Xu, Jun, E-mail: junxu@nju.edu.cn; Lu, Peng; Shan, Dan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-10-07

    Isolated intrinsic and phosphorus doped (P-doped) Si-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) on n- and p-Si substrates are fabricated by excimer laser crystallization techniques. The formation of Si-NCs is confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductive AFM measurements. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is then carried out to visualize the trapped charges in a single Si-NC dot which derives from the charge transfer between Si-NCs and Si substrates due to their different Fermi levels. The laser crystallized P-doped Si-NCs have a similar Fermi level around the mid-gap to the intrinsic counterparts, which might be caused by the inactivated impurity atoms or the surface states-related Fermi level pinning. A clear rise of the Fermi level in P-doped Si-NCs is observed after a short time thermal annealing treatment, indicating the activation of dopants in Si-NCs. Moreover, the surface charge quantity can be estimated using a simple parallel plate capacitor model for a quantitative understanding of the KPFM results at the nanoscale.

  20. Effect of InP Doping on the Phase Transition of Thin GeSbTe Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ki Su; Oh, Yong Jun; Lee, Seung-Yun

    2015-08-01

    We report the crystallization and phase-transition behavior of GeSbTe thin films doped with indium phosphorus (InP). Pure GeSbTe thin films and InP-doped GeSbTe thin films were prepared by use of an rf magnetron sputtering method. After thermal annealing, electrical and optical changes in the thin films were observed. Sheet resistance and reflectance measurements revealed that InP doping suppresses crystallization of GeSbTe. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that addition of In and P atoms inhibits the phase transition from face-centered cubic to hexagonal closed-packed. Nucleation of the doped GeSbTe thin films was delayed at an annealing temperature of 100°C; after thermal annealing, neither segregation nor formation of a secondary phase occurred. These results indicate that InP doping improves the amorphous stability of GeSbTe thin films. It is believed this enhanced amorphous stability is a result of the formation of multiple, strong crosslinks by the In and P atoms.

  1. Study on the electromagnetic behavior evaluation of Y{sup 3+} doped cobalt nanocrystals synthesized via co-precipitation route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishaque, M., E-mail: ishaqdgk1@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Azhar Khan, Muhammad, E-mail: azhar.khan@iub.edu.pk [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Ali, Irshad; Khan, Hasan M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Asif Iqbal, M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); College of E and ME, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Islam, M.U. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan)

    2014-12-15

    A series of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites doped with yttrium ions were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that all the samples exhibit cubic spinel phase as main phase along with few traces of orthorhombic phase (YFeO{sub 3}). The crystallite size calculated by Scherrer’s formula is found in the range of 48–34 nm. This crystallite size is small enough to obtain the suitable signal to noise ratio in the high density recording media applications. The lattice constant was found to decrease from 8.385 Å to 8.348 Å with the increase of yttrium contents which may be attributed to the solubility limit of yttrium ions. The dc electrical resistivity was found to increases from 4.95×10{sup 6} Ω-cm to 8.39×10{sup 7} Ω-cm with the increase of yttrium contents. Yttrium doped samples exhibit lower dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent as compared to pure CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. An appreciable increase in coercivity has been observed by the Y{sup 3+} addition. The enhanced dc electrical resistivity and coercivity (H{sub c}=1273 Oe) of cobalt nanoparticles (5 wt% doped Y{sup 3+}) are favorable for their potential use in microwave devices and high density recording media applications. - Graphical abstract: Yttrium doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystalline (48–34 nm) ferrites were synthesized by co-precipitation technique. About two fold increase in coercivity was observed for CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}+x Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x=5 wt%) nanocrystalline ferrites. - Highlights: • Y{sup 3+} doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals are fabricated by co-precipitation technique. • Impact of yttrium addition on various properties has been studied in detail. • These Y{sup 3+} doped nanomaterials exhibited optimized properties.

  2. Ge doping of β-Ga2O3 films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Elaheh; Koksaldi, Onur S.; Kaun, Stephen W.; Oshima, Yuichi; Short, Dane B.; Mishra, Umesh K.; Speck, James S.

    2017-04-01

    The Ge doping of β-Ga2O3(010) films was investigated using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy as the growth method. The dependences of the amount of Ge incorporated on the substrate temperature, Ge-cell temperature, and growth regime were studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The electron concentration and mobility were investigated using Van der Pauw Hall patterns. Hall measurement confirmed that Ge acts as an n-dopant in β-Ga2O3(010) films. These results were compared with similar films doped by Sn. The Hall data showed an improved electron mobility for the same electron concentration when Ge is used instead of Sn as the dopant.

  3. Properties of Boron-dopedμc-Ge:H Films Deposited by Hot-wire CVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Haibin; SHEN Honglie; WU Tianru; LU Linfeng; TANG Zhengxia; SHEN Jiancang

    2015-01-01

    Boron-doped hydrogenated microcrystalline Germanium (μc-Ge:H)fi lms were deposited by hot-wire CVD. H2 diluted GeH4 and B2H6 were used as precursors and the substrate temperature was kept at 300ć. The properties of the samples were analyzed by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and Hall Effect measurement with Van der Pauw method. It is found that thefi lms are partially crystallized, with crystalline fractions larger than 45% and grain sizes smaller than 50 nm. The B-doping can enhance the crystallization but reduce the grain sizes, and also enhance the preferential growth of Ge (220). The conductivity of thefi lms increases and tends to be saturated with increasingdiborane-to-germane ratio . All the Hall mobilities of the samples are larger than 3.8 cm2·V-1·s-1. A high conductivity of 41.3Ω-1ίcm-1 is gained at=6.7%.

  4. Influence of delta-doping on the hole capture probability in Ge/Si quantum dot mid-infrared photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimov, Andrew; Kirienko, Victor; Timofeev, Vyacheslav; Bloshkin, Aleksei; Dvurechenskii, Anatolii

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of delta-doping on the hole capture probability in ten-period p-type Ge quantum dot photodetectors. The boron concentration in the delta-doping layers is varied by either passivation of a sample in a hydrogen plasma or by direct doping during the molecular beam epitaxy. The devices with a lower doping density is found to exhibit a lower capture probability and a higher photoconductive gain. The most pronounced change in the trapping characteristics upon doping is observed at a negative bias polarity when the photoexcited holes move toward the δ-doping plane. The latter result implies that the δ-doping layers are directly involved in the processes of hole capture by the quantum dots.

  5. Radiotherapy dosimetry and the thermoluminescence characteristics of Ge-doped fibres of differing germanium dopant concentration and outer diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, N. Mohd; Fadzil, M. S. Ahmad; Ung, N. M.; Maah, M. J.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    We examine the influence of elevated dopant concentration on the thermoluminescence characteristics of novel Ge-doped silica fibres. Basic dosimetric characteristics of the TL media were obtained, including linearity, reproducibility, energy dependence, fading, minimum detectable dose and glow curve analysis, use being made of a 60Co gamma irradiation facility (mean energy 1.25 MeV) and an electron linear accelerator producing photons at an accelerating potential of 6 and 10 MV. The 6 mol% Ge-doped fibres were found to provide TL response superior to that of 8- and 10 mol% Ge-doped fibres, both for fibres with outer diameter of 241 μm and 604 μm. Concerning reproducibility, obtained under three different test conditions, at days post irradiation; the 6 mol% Ge doped cylindrical fibres showed the least TL signal loss, at 21% for the 241 μm cylindrical fibre and <40% for the 604 μm cylindrical fibres. The results also revealed that the 6 mol% optical fibres provided the lowest minimum detectable dose, at 0.027 Gy for 6 MV photon beams. Evaluations of these characteristics are supporting development of novel Ge-doped optical fibres for dosimetry in radiotherapy.

  6. Ferromagnetism modulation by phase change in Mn-doped GeTe chalcogenide magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Adam Abdalla Elbashir [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Wuhan (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Wuhan (China); Alneelain University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Khartoum (Sudan); Cheng, Xiaomin; Guan, Xiawei; Miao, Xiangshui [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Wuhan (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Wuhan (China)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, an effective method to modulate the ferromagnetic properties of Mn-doped GeTe chalcogenide-based phase change materials is presented. The microstructure of the phase change magnetic material Ge{sub 1-x} Mn{sub x} Te thin films was studied. The X-ray diffraction results demonstrate that the as-deposited films are amorphous, and the crystalline films are formed after annealing at 350 C for 10 min. Crystallographic structure investigation shows the existence of some secondary magnetic phases. The lattice parameters of Ge{sub 1-x} Mn{sub x} Te (x = 0.04, 0.12 and 0.15) thin films are found to be slightly different with changes of Mn compositions. The structural analysis clearly indicates that all the films have a stable rhombohedral face-centered cubic polycrystalline structure. The magnetic properties of the amorphous and crystalline Ge{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.04}Te were investigated. The measurements of magnetization (M) as a function of the magnetic field (H) show that both amorphous and crystalline phases of Ge{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.04}Te thin film are ferromagnetic and there is drastic variation between amorphous and crystalline states. The temperature (T) dependence of magnetizations at zero field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) conditions of the crystalline Ge{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.04}Te thin film under different applied magnetic fields were performed. The measured data at 100 and 300 Oe applied magnetic fields show large bifurcations in the ZFC and FC curves while on the 5,000 Oe magnetic field there is no deviation. (orig.)

  7. A first-principles study of the electronic and structural properties of Sb and F doped SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjung; Scott Bobbitt, N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Marom, Noa [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Chelikowsky, James R. [Center for Computational Materials, Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, Departments of Physics and Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-01-28

    We examine the electronic properties of Sb and F doped SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals up to 2.4 nm in diameter. A real-space pseudopotential implementation of density functional theory is employed within the local density approximation. We calculate electron binding energies and dopant formation energies as function of nanocrystal size, dopant concentration, and dopant species. Structural changes for different dopant species are also investigated. Our study should provide useful information for the design of transparent conducting oxides at the nanoscale.

  8. The new piezoelectric single crystal obtained by the Ge doping in the α-quartz structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclau, M.; Grozescu, A.; Bucur, R.; Poienar, M.; Vlazan, P.; Grozescu, I.; Miclau, N.; Muscutariu, I.

    2009-03-01

    The most interesting properties of the quartz-like crystals are its piezoelectric properties, which are strongly influenced by the intrinsic structural distortions of the material and the crystal growth conditions. Thus, physical properties such as coupling coefficient, the αβ transition can be directly related to structural distortions in terms of the bridging angle. We propose a new way to increase the structural distortion, using Ge to dope the SiO2 structure with respect to α-quartz structure type. Growth of α -SixGe1-xO2 crystal was realized hydrothermally using a temperature gradient method. Single crystals were investigated by electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The results open the possibility to tune the piezoelectric properties of these materials by varying the chemical composition.

  9. Emergence of competing magnetic interactions induced by Ge doping in the semiconductor FeGa3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Quiceno, J. C.; Cabrera-Baez, M.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Avila, M. A.; Dalpian, G. M.; Osorio-Guillén, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    FeGa3 is an unusual intermetallic semiconductor that presents intriguing magnetic responses to the tuning of its electronic properties. When doped with Ge, the system evolves from diamagnetic to paramagnetic to ferromagnetic ground states that are not well understood. In this work, we have performed a joint theoretical and experimental study of FeGa3 -xGex using density functional theory and magnetic susceptibility measurements. For low Ge concentrations we observe the formation of localized moments on some Fe atoms and, as the dopant concentration increases, a more delocalized magnetic behavior emerges. The magnetic configuration strongly depends on the dopant distribution, leading even to the appearance of antiferromagnetic interactions in certain configurations.

  10. A simple method to obtain Fe-doped CeO{sub 2} nanocrystals at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J.M.A.; Santos, P.E.C. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Fisica, Campus prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Cardoso, L.P. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Quimica, Campus prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Meneses, C.T., E-mail: ctmeneses@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Fisica, Campus prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    Ce{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} nanocrystals (0doped samples exhibit a weak ferromagnetism at room temperature, which increases with the increasing of the Fe content. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe-doped CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles with spherical-like were synthesized at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural and magnetic properties were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples present a ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increasing in the moment has been observed with the increasing of doping.

  11. Growth kinetic and doping of Si and SiGe epi layers on fullsheet substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, Alexandre [STMicroelectronicsonic, 850 rue jean Monnet, BP 38921 Crolles (France)]. E-mail: alexandre.talbot@st.com; Avenier, Gregory [STMicroelectronicsonic, 850 rue jean Monnet, BP 38921 Crolles (France); Vincent, Gilbert [UJF, LTM, LETI-DTS, CEA Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Dutartre, Didier [STMicroelectronicsonic, 850 rue jean Monnet, BP 38921 Crolles (France)

    2004-12-15

    As the critical size of MOSFET becomes smaller and smaller and complexity of architectures increases, selective and non-selective depositions of in situ doped film become extremely attractive for the realisation of new devices architectures like, elevated sources/drains in CMOS or extrinsic bases in bipolar. Epitaxial layers were grown in a 200 mm industrial single wafer reactor. Firstly, we investigate the boron incorporation in Si/SiGe non-selective epitaxy based on SiH{sub 4}/GeH{sub 4}/B{sub 2}H{sub 6}/H{sub 2} chemistry at low temperature (550-750 deg. C). The influence of temperature and germanium content on the boron incorporation is presented. Sheet conductivity deduced from four probes measurements varied from 1.8 x 10{sup 4} to 1.9 x 10{sup 5} S m{sup -1} as deposited. We demonstrate that both the boron incorporation and the film conductivity are improved in SiGe compared to Si. In addition, combining the dose of substitutional boron atoms, deduced from the X-ray diffraction shift, with the resistivity results, we could infer a significant enhancement of the hole mobility in SiGe compared to Si (at least for moderate doping levels around 1 x 10{sup 20} h/cm{sup 3}). In a second part, the high boron-doping of selective Si epitaxy based on SiH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}/B{sub 2}H{sub 6}/HCl/H{sub 2} chemistry at reduced pressure (<20 Torr) and at low temperature (700-850 deg. C) is examined. Boron incorporation is observed to decrease with increasing HCl flow and the electrical doping level to increase with temperature. We also report a strong increase of the growth rate with the dopant flow (six times higher for B{sub 2}H{sub 6}/DCS = 0.01) that will be discussed. Epitaxies that are fully selective against Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} have been demonstrated with conductivity as high as 7.8 x 10{sup 4} S m{sup -1}.

  12. High quality, giant crystalline-Ge stripes on insulating substrate by rapid-thermal-annealing of Sn-doped amorphous-Ge in solid-liquid coexisting region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matsumura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of large-grain (≥30 μm Ge crystals on insulating substrates is strongly desired to achieve high-speed thin-film transistors. For this purpose, we propose the methods of Sn-doping into amorphous-Ge combined with rapid-thermal-annealing (RTA in the solid-liquid coexisting temperature region for the Ge-Sn alloy system. The densities of micro-crystal-nuclei formed in this temperature region become low by tuning the RTA temperature close to the liquidus curve, which enhances the lateral growth of GeSn. Thanks to the very small segregation coefficient of Sn, almost all Sn atoms segregate toward edges of the stripes during growth. Agglomeration of GeSn degrades the surface morphologies; however, it is significantly improved by lowering the initial Sn concentration. As a result, pure Ge with large crystal grains (∼40 μm with smooth surface are obtained by optimizing the initial Sn concentration as low as 3 ∼ 5%. Lateral growth lengths are further increased through decreasing the number of nuclei in stripes by narrowing stripe width. In this way, high-crystallinity giant Ge crystals (∼200 μm are obtained for the stripe width of 3 μm. This “Si-seed free” technique for formation of large-grain pure Ge crystals is very useful to realize high-performance thin-film devices on insulator.

  13. High quality, giant crystalline-Ge stripes on insulating substrate by rapid-thermal-annealing of Sn-doped amorphous-Ge in solid-liquid coexisting region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Ryo; Kai, Yuki; Chikita, Hironori; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu

    2015-06-01

    Formation of large-grain (≥30 μm) Ge crystals on insulating substrates is strongly desired to achieve high-speed thin-film transistors. For this purpose, we propose the methods of Sn-doping into amorphous-Ge combined with rapid-thermal-annealing (RTA) in the solid-liquid coexisting temperature region for the Ge-Sn alloy system. The densities of micro-crystal-nuclei formed in this temperature region become low by tuning the RTA temperature close to the liquidus curve, which enhances the lateral growth of GeSn. Thanks to the very small segregation coefficient of Sn, almost all Sn atoms segregate toward edges of the stripes during growth. Agglomeration of GeSn degrades the surface morphologies; however, it is significantly improved by lowering the initial Sn concentration. As a result, pure Ge with large crystal grains (˜40 μm) with smooth surface are obtained by optimizing the initial Sn concentration as low as 3 ˜ 5%. Lateral growth lengths are further increased through decreasing the number of nuclei in stripes by narrowing stripe width. In this way, high-crystallinity giant Ge crystals (˜200 μm) are obtained for the stripe width of 3 μm. This "Si-seed free" technique for formation of large-grain pure Ge crystals is very useful to realize high-performance thin-film devices on insulator.

  14. Characterization of Er{sup 3+}-doped fluoride glass ceramics waveguides containing LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulard, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.boulard@univ-lemans.f [Laboratoire des Oxydes et Fluorures, UMR CNRS 6010, Universite du Maine, Av. O. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans (France); Peron, O. [Laboratoire des Oxydes et Fluorures, UMR CNRS 6010, Universite du Maine, Av. O. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans (France); Jestin, Y.; Ferrari, M. [CNR-IFN, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CSMFO Group, via alla Cascata 56/C, 38050 Povo (Italy); Duverger-Arfuso, C. [Laboratoire des Oxydes et Fluorures, UMR CNRS 6010, Universite du Maine, Av. O. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans (France)

    2009-12-15

    Highly Er{sup 3+}-doped fluoride glass ceramics planar waveguides containing LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals have been fabricated by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The solubility of Er{sup 3+} in the segregated nanocrystals can reach 30 mol% which is much larger than the value found in LaF{sub 3}-oxide glass ceramics. A quantitative analysis of the photoluminescence of the 1.54 {mu}m emission band of Er{sup 3+} ions has demonstrated that erbium ions are partitioned in both crystals and vitreous phase. The short lifetime (2.2 ms) measured for erbium incorporated in LaF{sub 3} crystal lattice is a consequence of concentration quenching while the lifetime is close to 10 ms in the glassy phase. The emission bandwidth has been found to be greater than that of the precursor glass (71 nm at the half-height width). The high Er{sup 3+} concentration and spectral width could make this nanostructured fluoride material suitable for planar amplifier in the C telecommunication band.

  15. Thermoluminescence response of Ge-doped SiO2 fibres to electrons, X- and γ-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezam, A.; Khandaker, M. U.; Amin, Y. M.; Ung, N. M.; Maah, J.; Bradley, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    For doses from 10 cGy to 80 Gy, we investigate the thermoluminescence (TL) response of tailor-made Ge-doped SiO2 fibres for accelerated electrons (6, 12 and 20 MeV), megavoltage X-rays (6, 10 MV) and 1.25 MeV γ-rays, delivered by a linear accelerator (LINAC) and a Co-60 irradiator respectively. Fibres of various dimensions were fabricated, obtained with doping concentrations from 6% to 10% Ge. The fibres are observed to provide a linear response with radiation dose, an overall reproducibility of 1-5%, and inappreciable dependence on energy, field-size and angular variation. For fibres exposed to 6 MV X-rays, the response increases with core size, the 6% Ge-doped fibres providing the greatest TL yield. The fibres exhibit uniformity of response and provide the basis of a promising TL system for radiotherapy applications, offering high spatial resolution and sensitivity.

  16. [Crystal structure and upconversion emission of Yb3+/Er(3+) -co-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li-Li; Luo, Li; Dong, Guo-Shuai; Wang, Yin-Hai

    2013-11-01

    Yb3+/EP(3+) -co-doped cubic NaYF4 and Yb3+/Er3+/Gd(3+) -tri-doped hexagonal NaYF4 nanocrystals were synthesized by a modified coprecipitation method with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The samples' morphology, crystal phase and upconversion emission were measured with transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and upconversion luminescence spectrum. TEM and XRD results showed that the phase transition from cubic to hexagonal was promoted through Gd3+ doping. It has been reported that the upconversion efficiency of hexagonal NaYF4 is higher than that of cubic NaYF4, however, the effect of crystal phase on upconversion luminescence has not been well understood. This work focuses analysis of measurement results to compare the effect of, crystal phase on the crystal field energy splitting and upconversion emission intensity as well as emission color, and a mechanism of luminescence enhancement and color tunability are revealed. Strong visible upconversion luminescence can be seen clearly by the naked eyes in both cubic phase and hexagonal phase samples upon excitation by a 980 nm laser diode with power of 10 mW, consisting of green emissions centered at around 525/550 nm originating from the transitions of 2H11/2/4 S3/2 --> 4 I15/2 and red emission at about 657 nm from 4F9/2 to 4 I15/2 of Er3+ ions respectively. In comparison to cubic sample, the hexagonal phase sample presented much stronger and sharper upconversion luminescence, whose emission efficiency was enhanced 10 times with an additional transition of 2 H9/2 --> 4I13/2 at 557 nm, furthermore, the intensity ratio of red to green emission increased from 2 :1 to 3 : 1. Doping NaYF4 nanocrystals with Gd3+ ions induced the hexagonal-to-cubic phase transition and thus decreased the crystal symmetry, consequently increased absorption cross-section and 4f-4f transition probabilities by relaxing forbidden selection rules, resulting in stronger emission. In the

  17. Synthesis of Cu-doped InP nanocrystals (d-dots) with ZnSe diffusion barrier as efficient and color-tunable NIR emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Renguo; Peng, Xiaogang

    2009-08-05

    Efficient Cu-doped InP quantum dots (Cu:InP d-dots) emitters were successfully synthesized by epitaxial growth of a ZnSe diffusion barrier for the dopants. The Cu dopant emission of the Cu:InP/ZnSe core/shell d-dots covered the important red and near-infrared (NIR) window for biomedical applicaitons, from 630 to 1100 nm, by varying the size of the InP host nanocrystals. These new d-dots emitters not only compensate for the emission wavelength of the existing noncadmium d-dots emitters, Cu- and Mn-doped ZnSe d-dots (450-610 nm), but also offer a complete series of efficient nanocrystal emitters based on InP nanocrystals. The one-pot synthetic scheme for the formation of Cu:InP/ZnSe core/shell d-dots was successfully established by systematically studying the doping process, the dopant concentration-dependent photophysical properties, and the dopant diffusion during shell epitaxy, etc. Complete elimination of InP bandgap emission and efficient pure dopant emission (with photoluminescence quantum yield as high as between 35-40%) of the core/shell d-dots were achieved by optimizing the final doping level and the diffusion barrier thickness.

  18. Enhanced coercivity in Co-doped α-Fe2O3 cubic nanocrystal assemblies prepared via a magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal Gandha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic Co-doped α-Fe2O3 cubic shaped nanocrystal assemblies (NAs with a high coercivity of 5.5 kOe have been synthesized via a magnetic field (2 kOe assisted hydrothermal process. The X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectra of α-Fe2O3 and Co-doped α-Fe2O3 NAs confirms the formation of single-phase α-Fe2O3 with a rhombohedral crystal structure. Electron microscopy analysis depict that the Co-doped α-Fe2O3 NAs synthesized under the influence of the magnetic field are consist of aggregated nanocrystals (∼30 nm and of average assembly size 2 μm. In contrast to the NAs synthesized with no magnetic field, the average NAs size and coercivity of the Co-doped α-Fe2O3 NAs prepared with magnetic field is increased by 1 μm and 1.4 kOe, respectively. The enhanced coercivity could be related to the well-known spin–orbit coupling strength of Co2+ cations and the redistribution of the cations. The size increment indicates that the small ferromagnetic nanocrystals assemble into cubic NAs with increased size in the magnetic field that also lead to the enhanced coercivity.

  19. Elemental boron-doped p(+)-SiGe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for infrared detector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.

  20. Preparation, characterization of Sb-doped ZnO nanocrystals and their excellent solar light driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramzi; Othmen, Walid Ben Haj; Elhouichet, Habib; Férid, Mokhtar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, undoped and antimony (Sb) doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared by a simple and economical sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the purity of the obtained phase and its high crystallinity. Raman analysis confirms the hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO structure. According to the diffuse reflectance results, the band gap was found to decrease up to 3% of Sb doping (ZSb3 sample). The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that Sb ions occupied both Zn and interstitials sites. The successful substitution of antimony in ZnO lattice suggests the formation of the complex (SbZn-2 VZn) acceptor level above the valence band. Particularly for ZSb3 sample, the UV photoluminescence (PL) band presents an obvious red-shift attributed to the formation of this complex. Rhodamine B (RhB) was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped ZnO NCs under sunlight irradiation. It was found that oxygen vacancies play a major role in the photocatalytic process by trapping the excited electrons and inhibiting the radiative recombination. During the photocatalytic mechanism, the Sb doping, expressed through the apparition of the (SbZn-2 VZn) correspondent acceptor level, enhances the sunlight absorption within the ZnO band gap, which stimulates the generation of hydroxyl radicals and promotes the photocatalytics reaction rates. Such important contribution of the hydroxyl radicals was confirmed experimentally when using ethanol as scavenger in the photocatalytic reaction. The photodegradation experiments reveal that ZSb3 sample exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity among all the prepared samples and presents a good cycling stability and reusability. The influence of the initial pH in the photodegradation efficiency was also monitored and discussed.

  1. Structural and electromagnetic behavior evaluation of Nd-doped lithium–cobalt nanocrystals for recording media applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Zaheer Abbas, E-mail: zaheer.abbas@buitms.edu.pk [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Quetta 87300 (Pakistan); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq, E-mail: farooq.warsi@iub.edu.pk [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Anjum, Muhammad Naeem [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Deanship of scientific research, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Naseem, Shahzad; Riaz, Saira [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan)

    2015-08-05

    Graphical abstract: Li{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} nanocrystals having size about 50–100 nm were synthesized via micro-emulsion route. Six fold increase in Hc was achieved for Li{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.105}Fe{sub 1.895}O{sub 4} nanocrystals that suggest the potential candidates for high density recording media applications. - Highlights: • New Li{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized via micro-emulsion route. • The average size of nanocrystals was about 50–100 nm. • Six fold increase in Hc was achieved for Li{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.105}Fe{sub 1.895}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline Li{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.035, 0.070, 0.105, 0.140, 0.175) ferrites have been synthesized via micro-emulsion technique. Thermal analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetometer analysis and a.c. electrical studies are employed to observe the impact of Nd{sup 3+} doping in Li{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} on crystallite size, spectral bands, dielectric and magnetic parameters. Thermal analysis depicts the weight loss with various temperatures and it illustrates that there is no further weight loss above 950 °C. XRD analysis establishes the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. Although for x = 0.0 and thereafter for x ⩾ 0.035 a peak of second phase (NdFeO{sub 3}) occurs. The XRD data analysis revealed that the Nd substituted Li{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites revealed crystallite size 52.02–106 nm ranges. The lattice parameter and crystallite size show a nonlinear behavior. The FTIR data between 400 and 1000 cm{sup −1} defined the intrinsic cation vibrations of the characteristic spinel structure. The dielectric parameters are investigated in the range of 1 MHz–3 GHz frequency. A damping effect in the dielectric parameters is observed by Nd{sup 3+} incorporation

  2. Establishment of Ge-doped optical fibres as thermoluminescence dosimeters for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, Fatma, E-mail: f.issa@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Radiotherapy, Tripoli Medical Centre (TMC), Tripoli (Libya); Abdul Rahman, A.T. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Material Studies, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, Campus of Negeri Sembilan, 72000 Kuala Pilah (Malaysia); Hugtenburg, Richard P. [Department of Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg UHB and School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Bradley, David A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Radiological Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11432 (Saudi Arabia); Nisbet, Andrew [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    This study aims to establish the sensitive, {approx}120 {mu}m high spatial resolution, high dynamic range Ge-doped optical fibres as thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeters for brachytherapy dose distribution. This requires investigation to accommodate sensitivity of detection, both for the possibility of short range dose deposition from beta components as well as gamma/x-mediated dose. In-air measurements are made at distances close to radionuclide sources, evaluating the fall off in dose along the transverse axis of {sup 133}Ba and {sup 60}Co radioactive sources, at distances from 2 mm up to 20 mm from their midpoints. Measurements have been compared with Monte Carlo code DOSRZnrc simulations for photon-mediated dose only, agreement being obtained to within 3% and 1% for the {sup 133}Ba and {sup 60}Co sources, respectively. As such, in both cases it is determined that as intended, beta dose has been filtered out by source encapsulation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We seek to establish Ge-doped optical fibres as TLDs for brachytherapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dose was evaluated along the central axis of {sup 133}Ba and {sup 60}Co, at 2 mm-20 mm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We verify values using DOSRZnrc Monte Carlo code simulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement is between dose measurements and calculation to within 3% and 1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methodology is to be used in obtaining doses around {sup 125}I and {sup 192}Ir sources.

  3. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the properties of Ge2Sb2Te5 and indium-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman; Mukul, Monika; Singh, Janpreet; Tripathi, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    We have carried out comprehensive computational and experimental study on the face-centered cubic Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and indium (In)-doped GST phase change materials. Structural calculations, total density of states and crystal orbital Hamilton population have been calculated using first-principle calculation. 5 at.% doping of In weakens the Ge-Te, Sb-Te and Te-Te bond lengths. In element substitutes Sb to form In-Te-like structure in the GST system. In-Te has a weaker bond strength compared with the Sb-Te bond. However, both GST and doped alloy remain in rock salt structure. It is more favorable to replace Sb with In than with any other atomic position. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has been carried out on thin film of In-doped GST phase change materials. XRD graph reveals that In-doped phase change materials have rock salt structure with the formation of In2Te3 crystallites in the material. Temperature dependence of impedance spectra has been calculated for thin films of GST and doped material. Thickness of the as-deposited films is calculated from Swanepoel method. Absorption coefficient (α) has been calculated for amorphous and crystalline thin films of the alloys. The optical gap (indirect band gap) energy of the amorphous and crystalline thin films has also been calculated by the equation α hν = β (hν - E_{{g }} )2 . Optical contrast (C) of pure and doped phase change materials have also been calculated. Sufficient optical contrast has been found for pure and doped phase change materials.

  4. Electrical Properties of Ag-Doped Ge2Sb2Te5 Films Used for Phase Change Random Access Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ji-Lin; LIU Bo; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin; CHEN Bomy

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ag-doped Ge2Sb2 Te5 films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering on SiO2/Si substrates.The content of Ag ranging from 4.5 to 11.3 at.% is determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.The crystallization temperature of Ag-doped Ge2Sb2 Te5 increases with the increasing Ag content and the stability of phase change film is improved greatly.Structures were measured by x-ray diffraction and the face-centered-cubic structure was more stable after Ag doping.Four-point probe was used to measure the sheet resistance of Agdoped Ge2Sb2 Te5 films annealed at different temperatures and it is indicated that Ag atoms increase the sheet resistance of Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin film when the annealing temperature is higher than about 360℃, which is beneficial for reducing the reset current.Current-voltage curves were tested and it is demonstrated that 4.5 at.% Ag doping into the Ge2Sb2Te5 film can reduce the threshold current from 1.46mA to 0.25mA and can only increase the threshold voltage slightly, which is very useful for low energy consumption.

  5. Ellipsometric characterization of doped Ge0.95Sn0.05 films in the infrared range for plasmonic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augel, L; Fischer, I A; Hornung, F; Dressel, M; Berrier, A; Oehme, M; Schulze, J

    2016-09-15

    GeSn as a group-IV material opens up new possibilities for realizing photonic device concepts in Si-compatible fabrication processes. Here we present results of the ellipsometric characterization of highly p- and n-type doped Ge0.95Sn0.05 alloys deposited on Si substrates investigated in the wavelength range from 1 to 16 μm. We discuss the suitability of these films for integrated plasmonic applications in the infrared region.

  6. Ge and B doped collapsed photonic crystal optical fibre, a potential TLD material for low dose measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaila, Z. Siti; Alyahyawi, Amjad; Khandaker, M. U.; Amin, Y. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Maah, M. J.

    2016-09-01

    Offering a number of advantageous features, tailor-made silica-based fibres are attracting attention as thermoluminesence (TL) dosimeters. We have performed a detailed study of the TL properties of Ge-doped and Ge-B-doped collapsed photonic crystal fibres (PCFc), most particularly with regard to their potential use for the environmental and X-ray diagnostic dose monitoring. Extrinsic doping and defects generated by strain at the fused inner walls of the collapsed fibres result in the PCFc-Ge-B and PCFc-Ge fibres producing markedly greater TL response than that of the phosphor-based dosimeter TLD-100, by some 9 and 7×, respectively. The linearity of TL yield has been investigated for X-ray doses from 0.5 mGy to 10 mGy. For a dose of 1 Gy, the energy response of the PCFs and TLD-100 has been studied using X-rays generated at accelerating potentials from 20 kVp through to 200 kVp and for the 1.25 MeV mean gamma-ray energy from 60Co. The effective atomic number , Zeffof PCFc-Ge and PCFc-Ge-B was estimated to be 12.5 and 14.4, respectively. Some 35 days post-irradiation, fading of the stored TL signal from PCFc-Ge-B and PCFc-Ge were found to be ∼15% and 20% respectively, with mean loss in TL emission of 0.4-0.5% per day. The present doped-silica collapsed PCFs provide greatly improved TLD performance compared to that of previous fibre designs and phosphor-based TLD-100.

  7. Thermoluminescence characteristics of different dimensions of Ge-doped optical fibers in radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, M.; Mizanur R, A. K. M.; Abdul R, H. A.; Yusoff, Z. [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Begum, M. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, E-12/A, Agargaon, Sher-e-Blanga Nagar Dhaka-1207 (Bangladesh); Mat-Sharif, K. A. [Lingkaran Teknokrat Timur, Telekom Research and Development, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Amin, Y. M. [University of Malaya, Faculty of Science, Depatment of Physics, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bradley, D. A., E-mail: go2munmun@yahoo.com [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Important thermoluminescence (Tl) properties of five (5) different core sizes Ge doped optical fibers have been studied to develop new Tl material with better response. These are drawn from same preform applying different speed and tension during drawing phase. The results of the investigations are also compared with most commonly used standard TLD-100 chips (LiF:Mg,Ti) and commercial multimode Ge doped optical fiber (Yangtze Optical Fiber, China). Scanning Electron Microscope (Sem) and EDX analysis of the fibers are also performed to map Ge distribution across the deposited region. Standard Gamma radiation source in SSDL (Secondary Standard Dosimetry Lab) was used for irradiation covering dose range from 1 Gy to 10 Gy. The essential dosimetric parameters that have been studied are Tl linearity, reproducibility and fading. Prior to irradiation all samples ∼0.5 cm length are annealed at temperature of 400 grades C for 1 hour period to standardize their sensitivities and background. Standard TLD-100 chips are also annealed for 1 hour at 400 grades C and subsequently 2 hours at 100 grades C to yield the highest sensitivity. Tl responses of these fibers show linearity over a wide gamma radiation dose that is an important property for radiation dosimetry. Among all fibers used in this study, 100 μm core diameter fiber provides highest response that is 2.6 times than that of smallest core (20 μm core) optical fiber. These fiber-samples demonstrate better response than commercial multi-mode optical fiber and also provide low degree of fading about 20% over a period of fifteen days for gamma radiation. Effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) is found in the range (13.25 to 13.69) that is higher than soft tissue (7.5) however within the range of human-bone (11.6-13.8). All the fibers can also be re-used several times as a detector after annealing. Tl properties of the Ge-doped optical fibers indicate promising applications in ionizing radiation dosimetry. (author)

  8. Thermoelectric Properties of In-Doped Cu2ZnGeSe4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, R.; Bali, A.; Femi, O. E.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Mallik, R. C.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, much research has been focused on finding new thermoelectric materials. Cu-based quaternary chalcogenides that belong to A2BCD4 (A = Cu; B = Zn, Cd; C = Sn, Ge; D = S, Se, Te) are wide band gap materials and one of the potential thermoelectric materials due to their complex crystal structures. In this study, In-doped quaternary compounds Cu2ZnGe1- x In x Se4 ( x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1) were prepared by a solid state synthesis method. Powder x-ray diffraction patterns of all the samples showed a tetragonal crystal structure (space group I- 42m) of the main phase with a trace amount of impurity phases, which was further confirmed by Rietveld analysis. The elemental composition of all the samples showed a slight deviation from the nominal composition with the presence of secondary phases. All the transport properties were measured in the temperature range 373-673 K. The electrical resistivity of all the samples initially decreased up to ˜470 K and then increased with increase in temperature upto 673 K, indicating the transition from semiconducting to metallic behavior. Positive Seebeck coefficients for all the samples revealed that holes are the majority carriers in the entire temperature range. The substitution of In3+ on Ge4+ introduces holes and results in the decrease of resistivity as well as the Seebeck coefficient, thereby leading to the optimization of the power factor. The lattice thermal conductivity of all the samples decreased with increasing temperature, indicating the presence of phonon-phonon scattering. As a result, the thermoelectric figure of merit ( zT) of the doped sample showed an increase as compared to the undoped compound.

  9. White upconversion of rare-earth doped ZnO nanocrystals and its dependence on size of crystal particles and content of Yb3+ and Tm3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunxin; Xu, Changfu; Yang, Qibin

    2009-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical combustion method. Bright white upconversion (UC) luminescence with the CIE coordinates close to (0.33, 0.33) was obtained in Er+Tm+Yb tridoped ZnO nanocrystals under the excitation of a cost-effective 980 nm single-wavelength laser diode. The overall and relative UC luminescence intensities of RE doped ZnO nanocrystals were found to be depended highly on the diameter of crystal particles and the concentration of Yb3+ and Tm3+, for which the involved mechanisms were demonstrated. The investigation based on UC spectra, simplified energy level diagram, and excitation power dependence indicated that the remarkable enhancement of the green emission of the RE tridoped sample was due to a dual sensitization of Er3+ by Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions. The RE tridoped ZnO nanocrystals with the CIE coordinates close to (0.33, 0.33) are potentially suitable for the widely realistic application as the multicolor fluorescent labels, due to a fact that they could be cheaply and easily obtained and excited cost effectively.

  10. Green synthesis of Pt-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed (001) facets and mesoscopic void space for photo-splitting of water under solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Biplab; Amoli, Vipin; Maurya, Abhayankar; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-06-21

    We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 sorption studies. These Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets are employed as efficient and benign catalysts for hydrogen production from pure water and methanol-water systems under one AM 1.5G sunlight illumination. The effect of platinum loading and methanol-water ratio on the photocatalytic activity of the faceted TiO2 nanocrystals are investigated and it is found that hydrogen evolution rates have been enhanced significantly upon Pt loading. Under optimized reaction conditions the highest photocatalytic activity of 11.2 mmol h(-1) g(-1) has been achieved over ca. 1.0 wt% Pt loaded Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets, which is one of the highest hydrogen evolution rates over the noble metal/TiO2 system reported to date in the literature.

  11. Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots via dewetting of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouassa, Mansour; Jadli, Imen; Bandyopadhyay, Anup; Kim, Sung Kyu; Karaman, Ibrahim; Lee, Jeong Yong

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrate an original elaboration route for producing a Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots on SiO2 thin layer for MOS structure. These magnetic quantum dots are elaborated using dewetting phenomenon at solid state by Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) annealing at high temperature of an amorphous Ge:Mn (Mn: 40%) nanolayer deposed at very low temperature by high-precision Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy on SiO2 thin film. The size of quantum dots is controlled with nanometer scale precision by varying the nominal thickness of amorphous film initially deposed. The magnetic properties of the quantum-dots layer have been investigated by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the nanostructure of these materials. Obtained results indicate that GeMn QDs are crystalline, monodisperse and exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature (TC) above room temperature. They could be integrated into spintronic technology.

  12. Magnetism of carbon doped Mn5Si3 and Mn5Ge3 films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sürgers; K Potzger; G Fischer

    2009-03-01

    The magnetic properties of Mn5Si3C and Mn5Ge3C films prepared by magnetron cosputtering or C+-ion implantation are studied. The carbon-doped films exhibit ferromagnetic properties with Curie temperatures C well above room temperature and metallic conductivity, making them possible candidates for future magnetic semiconductor-based devices. In Mn5Si3C, the carbon gives rise to a lattice expansion and a concomitant change of the magnetic order from antiferromagnetic Mn5Si3 to ferromagnetic Mn5Si3C0.8 with C = 350 K. Likewise, C of ferromagnetic Mn5Ge3 is strongly enhanced in Mn5Ge3C0.8. However, in this case the lattice is slightly compressed by carbon. This demonstrates that the effect of carbon on the magnetic behaviour in these compounds is not simply due to a change of the various interatomic distances by carbon but also due to a modification of the electronic band structure.

  13. Electroluminescence of zinc selenium (ZnSe) nanocrystals co-doped with poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)] (MEH-PPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuehong; Deng, Zhenbo; Lü, Zhaoyue; Zou, Ye; Chen, Zheng; Du, Hailiang; Wang, Yongsheng

    2011-11-01

    We have synthesized water soluble zinc selenium (ZnSe) nanocrystals by using mercaotoacetic acid (TGA) as the stabilizer. The synthesized ZnSe nanocrystals were co-doped with poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)] (MEH-PPV) to fabricate an organic/ inorganic hybrid multilayer light-emitting device (LED). The structure of the device was indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/poly (ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesul-fonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/MEH-PPV:ZnSe/bathocuproine (BCP)/tris-(8-hydroxylquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3)/Al. We demonstrate that the device has a lower driving voltage and increased current densities and power efficiencies owing to the co-doped ZnSe quantum dots. We obtained good efficiency of the devices when the quality ratio of MEH-PPV and ZnSe quantum dots was 1:1.

  14. Upconversion Luminescence Properties of Ho3+, Tm3+, Yb3+ Co-Doped Nanocrystal NaYF4 Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystal of upconversion (UC) phosphor Ho3+, Tm3+, and Yb3+ co-doped NaYF4 was prepared by the hydrothermal method in the presence of the complexing agent EDTA. Under 980 nm diode laser excitation, the impact of different concentrations of Ho3+ ion on the UC luminescence intensity was discussed. The law of luminescence intensity versus pump power shows that the 474 nm blue emission, 538 nm green emission, and 642 nm red emission are all due to the two-photon process, while the 450 nm blue emission is a three-photon process. The UC mechanism and processes were also analyzed. The sample was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The result shows that Ho3+, Tm3+, and Yb3+ co-doped NaYF4 prepared by the hydrothermal method exhibits a hexagonal nanocrystal.

  15. Site spectroscopy of Eu3+ doped- ZnS nanocrystals embedded in sodium carboxymethyl cellulose matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahemen, I.; Meludu, O.; Dejene, F. B.; Viana, B.

    2016-11-01

    The work investigates the incorporation of Eu3+ ion in ZnS crystal through spectroscopic studies. ZnS: Eu3+ nanocrystals was synthesized via the precipitation technique. Elemental composition analysis indicates a non-stoichiometric distribution between Zn and S. X-ray diffraction studies show lattice expansion demonstrating that Eu3+ ions were incorporated in the host lattice. Annealing temperature gave rise to lattice contraction relative to the as-synthesized indicating a partial expulsion of the ion from the crystal due to heat treatment. Eu3+ ions site symmetry probing from optical features show that trivalent europium were situated both at the nanocrystals surface and at the Zn2+ ion site. Weak energy transfer from host to activator ion occurred probably mainly through exchange interaction and the transfer process was defect mediated.

  16. Efficient dual-wavelength excitation of Tb3+ emission in rare-earth doped KYF4 cubic nanocrystals dispersed in silica sol-gel matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Castillo, J.; Yanes, A. C.; Santana-Alonso, A.; Méndez-Ramos, J.

    2014-11-01

    Energy transfer from Ce3+ to Tb3+ ions under UV excitation, giving rise to visible emissions, is investigated in sol-gel derived transparent nano-glass-ceramics containing cubic KYF4 nanocrystals, for different doping concentrations of rare-earth ions. Moreover, visible emissions of Tb3+ are also obtained under near-infrared excitation through energy transfer from Yb3+ ions by means of cooperative up-conversion processes. Thus, Ce3+-Tb3+-Yb3+ doped nano-glass-ceramics can be activated in a dual-wavelength mode yielding efficient blue-green emissions of particular interest in photovoltaic silicon solar cells and white-light emitting diodes.

  17. Thermal conductivity of carbon doped GeTe thin films in amorphous and crystalline state measured by modulated photo thermal radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusiak, Andrzej; Battaglia, Jean-Luc; Noé, Pierre; Sousa, Véronique; Fillot, F.

    2016-09-01

    The thermal conductivity and thermal boundary resistance of GeTe and carbon doped GeTe thin films, designed for phase change memory (PCM) applications, were investigated by modulated photo thermal radiometry. It was found that C doping has no significant effect on the thermal conductivity of these chalcogenides in amorphous state. The thermal boundary resistance between the amorphous films and SiO2 substrate is also not affected by C doping. The films were then crystallized by an annealing at 450°C as confirmed by optical reflectivity analysis. The thermal conductivity of non-doped GeTe significantly increases after crystallization annealing. But, surprisingly the thermal conductivity of the crystallized C doped GeTe was found to be similar from that of the amorphous state and independent of C concentration. As for the amorphous phase, C doping does not affect the thermal boundary resistance between the crystalline GeTe films and SiO2 substrate. This behaviour is discussed thanks to XRD and FTIR analysis. In particular, XRD shows a decrease of crystalline grain size in crystalline films as C concentration is increased. FTIR analysis of the film before and after crystallization evidenced that this evolution could be attributed to the disappearing of Ge-C bonds and migration of C atoms out of the GeTe phase upon crystallization, limiting then the growth of GeTe crystallites in C-doped films.

  18. Up-conversion of Er3+/Yb3+co-doped transparent glass-ceramics containing Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金民; 周大成; 王荣飞; 陈明厚; 焦清; 余雪; 邱建备

    2013-01-01

    The up-conversion of Er3+/Yb3+co-doped transparent glass-ceramics 50SiO2-10AlF3-5TiO2-30BaF2-4LaF3-0.5ErF3-0.5YbF3 containing Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals under the changing of heat treatment temperature and time were investigated. The Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals precipitated from the glass matrix was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural investigation carried out by XRD and trans-mission electron microscopy (TEM) evidenced the formation of cubic Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals with crystal size of about 14 nm. Comparing with the samples before heat treatment, the high efficiency up-conversion emission of Er3+/Yb3+co-doped samples was observed in the glass-ceramics under 980 nm laser diode excitation. The increase in red emission intensity bands was stronger than the green bands when the crystal size increased. The mechanism for the up-conversion process in the glass-ceramics and the reasons for the increase of Er3+/Yb3+co-doped up-conversion intensity after heat treatment were discussed.

  19. The upconversion luminescence and magnetism in Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped LaF3 nanocrystals for potential bimodal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamchand, Sasidharanpillai S.; George, Sony

    2016-12-01

    Biocompatible upconversion nanoparticles with multifunctional properties can serve as potential nanoprobes for multimodal imaging. Herein, we report an upconversion nanocrystal based on lanthanum fluoride which is developed to address the imaging modalities, upconversion luminescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Lanthanide ions (Yb3+ and Ho3+) doped LaF3 nanocrystals (LaF3 Yb3+/Ho3+) are fabricated through a rapid microwave-assisted synthesis. The hexagonal phase LaF3 nanocrystals exhibit nearly spherical morphology with average diameter of 9.8 nm. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis estimated the doping concentration of Yb3+ and Ho3+ as 3.99 and 0.41%, respectively. The nanocrystals show upconversion luminescence when irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) photons of wavelength 980 nm. The emission spectrum consists of bands centred at 542, 645 and 658 nm. The stronger green emission at 542 nm and the weak red emissions at 645 and 658 nm are assigned to 5S2 → 5I8 and 5F5 → 5I8 transitions of Ho3+, respectively. The pump power dependence of luminescence intensity confirmed the two-photon upconversion process. The nanocrystals exhibit paramagnetism due to the presence of lanthanide ion dopant Ho3+ and the magnetization is 19.81 emu/g at room temperature. The nanocrystals exhibit a longitudinal relaxivity ( r 1) of 0.12 s-1 mM-1 and transverse relaxivity ( r 2) of 28.18 s-1 mM-1, which makes the system suitable for developing T2 MRI contrast agents based on holmium. The LaF3 Yb3+/Ho3+ nanocrystals are surface modified by PEGylation to improve biocompatibility and enhance further functionalisation. The PEGylated nanocrystals are found to be non-toxic up to 50 μg/mL for 48 h of incubation, which is confirmed by the MTT assay as well as morphological studies in HeLa cells. The upconversion luminescence and magnetism together with biocompatibility enables the adaptability of the present system as a nanoprobe for potential

  20. Characteristics of Sn-Doped Ge2Sb2Te5 Films Used for Phase-Change Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Cheng; LIU Bo; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin; CHEN Bomy

    2005-01-01

    @@ Sn-doped Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin films deposited on Si(100)/SiO2 substrates by rf magnetron sputtering are investigatedby a differential scanning calorimeter, x-ray diffraction and sheet resistance measurement. The crystallizationtemperatures of the 3.58 at. %, 6.92 at. % and 10.04 at. % Sn-doped Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin films have decreases of 5.3,6.1 and 0.9 ℃, respectively, which is beneficial to reduce the switching current for the amorphous-to-crystallinephase transition. Due to Sn-doping, the sheet resistance of crystalline Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin films increases about 2-10times, which may be useful to reduce the switching current for the amorphous-to-crystalline phase change. Inaddition, an obvious decreasing dispersibility for the sheet resistance of Sn-doped Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin films in thecrystalline state has been observed, which can play an important role in minimizing resistance difference for thephase-change memory cell element arrays.

  1. Effect of Substrate Doping in Relaxed SiGe Buffers on Strained Si 2DEG Quantum Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kun; Gaevski, Mikhail; Chernyshov, Alexander; Rokhinson, Leonid; Mike, Curtin; Park, Ji-Soo; Fiorenza, James; Lochtefeld, Anthony; Sturm, James

    2009-03-01

    We describe the impact of Si substrate doping on the substrate leakage in strained Si two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) on SiGe relaxed graded buffers and on quantum devices fabricated from the 2DEG. The best commercially available high quality SiGe relaxed buffers with 30% Ge content, grown at temperature above 1000^oC, have very low threading dislocation density (heterostructures were grown at 625-700^oC in a rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD). However, it is shown that the substrate doping (Arsenic) contributes to leakage current origin in relaxed buffers at liquid helium temperatures if the starting Si substrate is heavily doped (˜5E17cm-2). The leakage can be attributed to enhanced dopant diffusion along misfit dislocations and high diffusion rate of As in SiGe. The leakage current makes side gating of nanostructures in the 2DEG impossible. With a lightly doped substrate, to avoid leakage, we achieved a high quality 2DEG and successful side gating of a 2DEG quantum dot for a quantum point contact. This work is supported by the NSA under ARO contract number W911NF-05-1-0437.

  2. Mn-doped Zinc Sulphide nanocrystals for immunofluorescent labeling of epidermal growth factor receptors on cells and clinical tumor tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    J, Aswathy; V, Seethalekshmy N.; R, Hiran K.; R, Bindhu M.; K, Manzoor; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Menon, Deepthy

    2014-11-01

    The field of molecular detection and targeted imaging has evolved considerably with the introduction of fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Manganese-doped zinc sulphide nanocrystals (ZnS:Mn NCs), which are widely used in electroluminescent displays, have been explored for the first time for direct immunofluorescent (IF) labeling of clinical tumor tissues. ZnS:Mn NCs developed through a facile wet chemistry route were capped using amino acid cysteine, conjugated to streptavidin and thereafter coupled to biotinylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody utilizing the streptavidin-biotin linkage. The overall conjugation yielded stable EGFR antibody conjugated ZnS:Mn NCs (EGFR ZnS:Mn NCs) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 65 ± 15 nm, and having an intense orange-red fluorescence emission at 598 nm. Specific labeling of EGF receptors on EGFR+ve A431 cells in a co-culture with EGFR-ve NIH3T3 cells was demonstrated using these nanoprobes. The primary antibody conjugated fluorescent NCs could also clearly delineate EGFR over-expressing cells on clinical tumor tissues processed by formalin fixation as well as cryopreservation with a specificity of 86% and accuracy of 88%, in comparison to immunohistochemistry. Tumor tissues labeled with EGFR ZnS:Mn NCs showed good fluorescence emission when imaged after storage even at 15 months. Thus, ZnS nanobioconjugates with dopant-dependent and stable fluorescence emission show promise as an efficient, target-specific fluorophore that would enable long term IF labeling of any antigen of interest on clinical tissues.

  3. Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of narrow-band distributed Bragg reflectors realized by GaN:Ge modulation doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christoph; Lesnik, Andreas; Zettler, Thomas; Schmidt, Gordon; Veit, Peter; Dadgar, Armin; Bläsing, Jürgen; Christen, Jürgen; Strittmatter, André

    2016-04-01

    We report on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) applying a periodic modulation of the GaN doping concentration only. The doping modulation changes the refractive index of GaN via the Burstein-Moss-effect. MOVPE growth of highly doped GaN:Ge and modulation of the dopant concentration by at least two orders of magnitude within few nanometers is required to achieve a refractive index contrast of 2-3%. Such modulation characteristic is achieved despite the presence of Ge memory effects and incorporation delay. We realized DBRs with up to 100 layer pairs by combining GaN:Ge with a nominal doping concentration of 1.6×1020 cm-3 as low-refractive index material with unintentionally doped GaN as high-refractive index layer. Scanning transmission electron microscope images reveal DBR structures with abrupt interfaces and homogenous layer thicknesses in lateral and vertical direction. Reflectance measurements of DBRs designed for the blue and near UV-spectral region show a narrow stopband with a maximum reflectivity of 85% at 418 nm and even 95% at 370 nm. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structures grown on top of such DBRs exhibit narrow emission spectra with linewidths below 3 nm and significantly increased emission intensity.

  4. Novel Electro-Optical Modulator Utilizing GeO2-Doped Silica Waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiusheng; JIA Dagong

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve a modulator with broad bandwidth and perfect impedance match,a novel electro-optical modulator based on GeO2-doped silica waveguides on silicon substrate is designed.The finite element model of the whole electro-optical modulator is established by means of ANSYS.With the finite element method analysis,the performance of the novel modulator is predicted.The simulation reveals that the designed modulator operates with a product of 3 dB optical bandwidth and modulating length of 226.59 GHz-cm,and a characteristic impedance of 51.6 Ω at 1 550 nm wavelength.Moreover,the calculated electrical reflected power of coplanar waveguide electrode is below -20 dB in the frequency ranging from 45 MHz to 65 GHz.Therefore,the designed modulator has wide modulation bandwidth and perfect impedance match.

  5. Supercontinuum generation in Ge-doped Y-shaped microstructured tapered fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascante-Vindas, J [Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad de Costa Rica (Costa Rica); DIez, A; Cruz, J L; Andres, M V [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada-ICMUV, Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the generation of supercontinuum in tapered Y-shaped fibers in the nanosecond pump regime. This fiber used to fabricate the tapers has, in addition, a Ge-doped core which enhances the nonlinearity of the material and the Raman gain. The fiber was pumped at 1064 nm in the ns pump regime (0.6 ns pulses and up to 3.2 kW peak power). The taper had a uniform waist of 0.9 {mu}m diameter and 130 mm length, and the adiabatic transitions were 110 mm long. A flat spectrum spanning from 420 nm to 1870 nm was obtained using a single tapered fiber.

  6. Silicon doping effect on the crystallization behavior of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yifan; Xu, Ling; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Su, Weining; Yu, Yao; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, Nanjing University (China)

    2013-10-15

    Pure Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films and Si-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films were deposited by electron beam evaporation method. The property of Si-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films are compared with that of pure Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films. Through in situ resistance measurement and I-V characteristic tests, an improvement of amorphous stability and an increase of crystalline resistivity are observed. The phase-separation phenomenon is observed in TEM pictures and a distinct decrease of crystal grain size in Si-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film can be seen in HRTEM pictures. A blueshift and broadening of peaks after Si doping in Raman spectra are found and from absorption spectra, the broadening of crystalline optical bandgap in Si-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film is proved. Finally, the behavior of doped Si atoms is proposed to explain the effect of Si doping in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Memory characteristics and tunneling mechanism of Ag nanocrystal embedded HfAlO{sub x} films on Si{sub 83}Ge{sub 17}/Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, X.Y., E-mail: qxy2001@swu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhou, G.D.; Li, J. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chen, Y.; Wang, X.H.; Dai, J.Y. [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-07-01

    A nano-floating gate memory capacitor consisting of a stack of 3 nm-thick HfAlO{sub x} tunneling layer, self-organized Ag nanocrystals (NCs), and a 6 nm-thick HfAlO{sub x} control layer, has been fabricated on compressively strained p-type Si{sub 83}Ge{sub 17}/Si(100) substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The Ag-NCs with a size of 5–8 nm and a density of 5.7 × 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} are well dispersed in the amorphous HfAlO{sub x} matrix. Counterclockwise hysteresis capacitance–voltage curve with a memory window of ∼ 2 V, corresponding to a charge storage density of about 1.3 × 10{sup 13} electrons/cm{sup 2}, is observed in this memory capacitor. The accumulation capacitance of this memory capacitor has no obvious decrease during electrical stressing process within a period of 10{sup 4} s, but the memory window gradually becomes narrower, and only 54% stored charges are retained in the Ag-NCs after 10{sup 5} s stressing. Defect-enhanced Poole–Frenkel tunneling is found to be responsible for the degradation of memory properties. - Highlights: • Dispersed Ag nanocrystals act as memory nodes. • Realize a 2 V memory window • Illustrate the memory degradation process • Identify a defect-enhanced tunneling mechanism.

  8. Swift heavy ion irradiation effect on Cu-doped CdS nanocrystals embedded in PMMA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shweta Agrawal; Subodh Srivastava; Sumit Kumar; S S Sharma; B Tripathi; M Singh; Y K Vijay

    2009-12-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have received much interest for their optical and electronic properties. When these NCs dispersed in polymer matrix, brightness of the light emission is enhanced due to their quantum dot size. The CdCuS NCs have been synthesized by chemical route method and then dispersed in PMMA matrix. These nanocomposite polymer films were irradiated by swift heavy ion (SHI) (100 MeV, Si+7 ions beam) at different fluences of 1 × 1010 and 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 and then compared their structural and optical properties by XRD, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence, and UV-Vis spectroscopy before and after irradiation. The XRD spectra showed a broad hump around 2 ≈ 11.83° due to amorphous PMMA and other peaks corresponding to hexagonal structure of CdS nanocrystals in PMMA matrix. The photoluminescence spectra shows a broad peak at 530 nm corresponding to green emission due to Cu impurities in CdS. The UV-Vis measurement showed red shift in optical absorption and bandgap changed from 4.38–3.60 eV as the irradiation fluency increased with respect to pristine CdCuS nanocomposite polymer film.

  9. Erbium-doped slot waveguides containing size-controlled silicon nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, R.; Beyer, J., E-mail: jan.beyer@physik.tu-freiberg.de; Heitmann, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Klemm, V.; Rafaja, D. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Johnson, B. C.; McCallum, J. C. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-04-28

    Silicon based slot waveguides with a slot containing Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) and Erbium ions (Er{sup 3+}) inside a silica matrix were prepared using sputter deposition and low-energy ion implantation. This sequence enabled independent optimization of nanocrystal formation and Er{sup 3+} incorporation parameters. Using a superlattice approach, the size of the Si-nc inside the slot could be controlled and optimized for maximum Er{sup 3+} luminescence yield at 1.54 μm. Er{sup 3+} is found to be efficiently pumped by Si-nc of sizes around 3 to 4 nm. Increasing Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence at 1.54 μm with increasing post-implantation annealing temperatures up to 1000 °C is attributed to annealing of matrix or Si-nc interface defects mainly. Additionally, a dependence of the Er{sup 3+} luminescence intensity on both the excitation and emission linear polarization orientation is shown, which demonstrates efficient field enhancement in sputtered slot waveguide structures.

  10. N-type doping of Ge by As implantation and excimer laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milazzo, R.; Napolitani, E., E-mail: enrico.napolitani@unipd.it; De Salvador, D.; Mastromatteo, M.; Carnera, A. [CNR-IMM MATIS and Dipartimento di Fisica Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Impellizzeri, G.; Boninelli, S.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V. [CNR-IMM MATIS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Fisicaro, G.; Italia, M.; La Magna, A. [CNR-IMM, Z.I. VIII Strada 5, 95121 Catania (Italy); Cuscunà, M.; Fortunato, G. [CNR-IMM, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    The diffusion and activation of arsenic implanted into germanium at 40 keV with maximum concentrations below and above the solid solubility (8 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) have been studied, both experimentally and theoretically, after excimer laser annealing (λ = 308 nm) in the melting regime with different laser energy densities and single or multiple pulses. Arsenic is observed to diffuse similarly for different fluences with no out-diffusion and no formation of pile-up at the maximum melt depth. The diffusion profiles have been satisfactorily simulated by assuming two diffusivity states of As in the molten Ge and a non-equilibrium segregation at the maximum melt depth. The electrical activation is partial and decreases with increasing the chemical concentration with a saturation of the active concentration at 1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, which represents a new record for the As-doped Ge system.

  11. Ionizing Radiation Detectors Based on Ge-Doped Optical Fibers Inserted in Resonant Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Avino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of ionizing radiation (IR is a crucial issue in different areas of interest, from environmental safety and industrial monitoring to aerospace and medicine. Optical fiber sensors have recently proven good candidates as radiation dosimeters. Here we investigate the effect of IR on germanosilicate optical fibers. A piece of Ge-doped fiber enclosed between two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs is irradiated with gamma radiation generated by a 6 MV medical linear accelerator. With respect to other FBG-based IR dosimeters, here the sensor is only the bare fiber without any special internal structure. A near infrared laser is frequency locked to the cavity modes for high resolution measurement of radiation induced effects on the fiber optical parameters. In particular, we observe a variation of the fiber thermo-optic response with the radiation dose delivered, as expected from the interaction with Ge defect centers, and demonstrate a detection limit of 360 mGy. This method can have an impact in those contexts where low radiation doses have to be measured both in small volumes or over large areas, such as radiation therapy and radiation protection, while bare optical fibers are cheap and disposable.

  12. Ge-doped optical fibres as thermoluminescence dosimeters for kilovoltage X-ray therapy irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, Fatma, E-mail: f.issa@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Latip, Nur Atiqah Abd; Bradley, David A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Nisbet, Andrew [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    We investigate key dosimetric parameters for the thermoluminescence (TL) of Ge-doped silica optical fibres irradiated by X-rays generated at 90 and 300 kVp. The parameters include dose response, reproducibility and fading. Relative dose measurements were performed, obtaining central axis percentage depth dose (PDD) values, use being made of doped fibres irradiated in water and solid water phantoms. TL yields were compared with published data and ionisation chamber measurements. Linearity to dose was demonstrated over the investigated range (0.1-6 Gy), with reproducibility to within{+-}2%. TL fading was found to be minimal, at <1.5% over a 12 h period. The RMI 457 solid water phantom correction factor was found to be 1.155{+-}0.152 and 0.955{+-}0.221 at 90 and 300 kVp, respectively. The maximum discrepancy between PDD values obtained using optical fibres and ionisation chamber measurements was 2.1% at 90 kVp, while the maximum discrepancy between tabulated data and measurements was 1.1% at 300 kVp.

  13. Effect of Mn doping on structural, optical and photocatalytic behaviors of hydrothermal Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}S nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasser, Ramzi [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux (Tunisia); Elhouichet, Habib, E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux (Tunisia); Department of Physics, Sciences Faculty of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar (Tunisia); Férid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux (Tunisia)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • ZnS nanocrystals doped with Mn{sup 2+} were synthesized from hydrothermal method. • Structural behaviors are analyzed from XRD, Raman and PL measurements. • We report on long PL lifetimes of Mn levels due to excitation transfer from ZnS. • High photocatalytic efficiency was reported for ZnS-doped 3%Mn. - Abstract: Undoped and Mn-doped ZnS nanocrystals (Ncs) have been synthesized by using the hydrothermal method at 200 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed that the synthesized Ncs have cubic zinc blende structure. Typical SEM images show that undoped and Mn-doped ZnS Ncs are agglomerated in microspheres. Raman spectra informed that the Mn doping has improved the crystallinity of the ZnS Ncs up to the concentration 3%. The optical properties of Mn-doped ZnS Ncs were studied through UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), PL decay and PL excitation (PLE) measurements. The optical band gap was found to decrease from 3.59 to 3.35 eV with increasing the Mn doping concentration. PL spectra demonstrate clearly that Mn{sup 2+} ions reduce the density of defect in both ZnS lattice and surface. An efficient excitation transfer from the ZnS host to Mn{sup 2+} ions is evidenced from PL decays. ZnS:Mn Ncs were found to be good photocatalyst for sunlight degradation of Rhodamine B. The optimum Mn dopant concentration was 3%, above which photocatalytic activity decreased. The degradation reaction obeyed pseudo-first-order kinetics.

  14. Characterizations and thermal stability improvement of phase-change memory device containing Ce-doped GeSbTe films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu-Jen; Tsai, Min-Chuan; Wang, Chiung-Hsin; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong, E-mail: tehsieh@mail.nctu.edu.tw

    2012-02-29

    Phase-transition temperature of GeSbTe (GST) chalcogenide film was drastically increased from 159 to 236 Degree-Sign C by cerium (Ce) doping (up to 8.6 at.%) without altering the resistivity property of GST. Grain refinement via the solid-solution mechanism and the amplification of p-type semiconducting behavior in Ce-doped GST were observed. They were correlated with the enhancement of thermal stability and data retention property of GST as revealed by exothermal and isothermal analyses. Phase-change memory (PCM) device characterized at various temperatures revealed an effective thermal stability improvement on the threshold voltage of PCM device by Ce doping. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce doping increased phase-change temperature of GST from 159 to 236 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No suppression of resistivity level in amorphous Ce-doped GST. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistance ratio of amorphous and crystalline Ce-doped GST was preserved at 10{sup 5}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p-type semiconducting behavior of GST was enhanced by Ce-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce-doping improved the thermal stability of threshold voltage of GST PCM device.

  15. Analysis of the optical properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped strontium barium niobate nanocrystals using time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalska, D.; Haro-Gonzalez, P. [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin, I.R. [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Malta Consolider Team, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Caceres, J.M. [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento de Edafologia y Geologia, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    This paper reports the results obtained in strontium barium niobate (SBN) nanocrystals in glasses doped with 1, 2.5 and 5 mol% of Er{sup 3+} ions. The melt-quenching method was applied to fabricate the glasses with composition SrO-BaO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and further thermal treatment was used to obtain glass ceramic samples from the glass precursor. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of SBN nanocrystals with an average size of about 50 nm in diameter. Time-resolved fluorescence spectra for the emission of Er{sup 3+} ions at 1550 nm have been analyzed in order to confirm the incorporation of the Er{sup 3+} ions into the nanocrystals. Green frequency upconversion emission under excitation at 975 nm coming from the ions in the nanocrystals has been obtained. This intense upconversion is about a factor of 500 higher than that obtained from the ions which reside in the glassy phase. Moreover, temporal evolution studies have been carried out with the purpose of determining the involved upconversion mechanism and the importance of these processes as a source of losses for the optical amplification at 1550 nm. (orig.)

  16. Photocatalytic enhancement of Mg-doped ZnO nanocrystals hybridized with reduced graphene oxide sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linqin Wang; Yan Wun; Fangyuan Chen; Xiang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization of Mg-doped ZnO and reduced graphene oxide (MZO-RGO) were synthesized through one pot reaction process. Crystallization of MZO-RGO upon thermal decomposition of the stearate precursors was investigated by X-ray diffraction technique. XRD studies point toward the particles size with 10-15 nm, which was confirmed by transmittance electronic microscopy, and also indicates that graphene oxide has been directly reduced into its reduced state graphene during the synthesis. Graphene hybridized MZO photocatalyst showed enhanced catalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The degree of photocatalytic activity enhancement strongly depended both on the coverage of graphene on the surface of MZO nanoparticles and the Mg doping concentration. The sample of 2 wt%graphene hybridized 5 at%Mg-doped ZnO showed the highest photocatalytic activity, which remained good photocatalytic activity after nine cycling runs.

  17. Poly (acrylic acid)-capped lanthanide-doped BaFCl nanocrystals: synthesis and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Qiang; Luo, Wenqin; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhu, Haomiao; Li, Renfu; Chen, Xueyuan

    2010-07-01

    Water-soluble lanthanide-doped BaFCl nanophosphors with the surface functionalized by a layer of poly (acrylic acid) are synthesized via a facile one-step solvothermal method. Intense long-lived luminescence is realized from visible to near-infrared (NIR) by doping with different lanthanide ions. The emission and excitation spectra of Eu(3+) indicate that the doped lanthanide ions occupy a site close to the surface of the nanoparticles. Strong NIR emissions of Nd(3+) and green luminescence of Tb(3+) using Ce(3+) as sensitizers are also achieved in BaFCl nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles featuring long-lived luminescence in either visible or NIR regions may have potential applications as luminescent labels for biological applications.

  18. "Quantized" Doping of Individual Colloidal Nanocrystals Using Size-Focused Metal Quantum Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-González, Beatriz; Monguzzi, Angelo; Pinchetti, Valerio; Casu, Alberto; Prato, Mirko; Lorenzi, Roberto; Campione, Marcello; Chiodini, Norberto; Santambrogio, Carlo; Meinardi, Francesco; Manna, Liberato; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-06-27

    The insertion of intentional impurities, commonly referred to as doping, into colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is a powerful paradigm for tailoring their electronic, optical, and magnetic behaviors beyond what is obtained with size-control and heterostructuring motifs. Advancements in colloidal chemistry have led to nearly atomic precision of the doping level in both lightly and heavily doped QDs. The doping strategies currently available, however, operate at the ensemble level, resulting in a Poisson distribution of impurities across the QD population. To date, the synthesis of monodisperse ensembles of QDs individually doped with an identical number of impurity atoms is still an open challenge, and its achievement would enable the realization of advanced QD devices, such as optically/electrically controlled magnetic memories and intragap state transistors and solar cells, that rely on the precise tuning of the impurity states (i.e., number of unpaired spins, energy and width of impurity levels) within the QD host. The only approach reported to date relies on QD seeding with organometallic precursors that are intrinsically unstable and strongly affected by chemical or environmental degradation, which prevents the concept from reaching its full potential and makes the method unsuitable for aqueous synthesis routes. Here, we overcome these issues by demonstrating a doping strategy that bridges two traditionally orthogonal nanostructured material systems, namely, QDs and metal quantum clusters composed of a "magic number" of atoms held together by stable metal-to-metal bonds. Specifically, we use clusters composed of four copper atoms (Cu4) capped with d-penicillamine to seed the growth of CdS QDs in water at room temperature. The elemental analysis, performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, side by side with optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy

  19. Nitrogen-Doped Nanoporous Carbon Membranes with Co/CoP Janus-Type Nanocrystals as Hydrogen Evolution Electrode in Both Acidic and Alkaline Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-03-31

    Self-supported electrocatalysts being generated and employed directly as electrodes for energy conversion has been intensively pursued in the fields of materials chemistry and energy. Herein, we report a synthetic strategy to prepare freestanding hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped nanoporous graphitic carbon membranes functionalized with Janus-type Co/CoP nanocrystals (termed as HNDCM-Co/CoP), which were successfully applied as a highly efficient, binder-free electrode in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Benefited from multiple structural merits, such as a high degree of graphitization, three-dimensionally interconnected micro/meso/macropores, uniform nitrogen doping, well-dispersed Co/CoP nanocrystals, as well as the confinement effect of the thin carbon layer on the nanocrystals, HNDCM-Co/CoP exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity and long-term operation stability for HER under both acidic and alkaline conditions. As a proof-of-concept of practical usage, a 5.6 cm × 4 cm × 60 μm macroscopic piece of HNDCM-Co/CoP was prepared in our laboratory. Driven by a solar cell, electroreduction of water in alkaline conditions (pH 14) was performed, and H was produced at a rate of 16 mL/min, demonstrating its potential as real-life energy conversion systems.

  20. Efficient Dual-Modal NIR-to-NIR Emission of Rare Earth Ions Co-doped Nanocrystals for Biological Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiajia; Shirahata, Naoto; Sun, Hong-Tao; Ghosh, Batu; Ogawara, Makoto; Teng, Yu; Zhou, Shifeng; Sa Chu, Rong Gui; Fujii, Minoru; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-02-07

    A novel approach has been developed for the realization of efficient near-infrared to near-infrared (NIR-to-NIR) upconversion and down-shifting emission in nanophosphors. The efficient dual-modal NIR-to-NIR emission is realized in a β-NaGdF4/Nd(3+)@NaGdF4/Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) core-shell nanocrystal by careful control of the identity and concentration of the doped rare earth (RE) ion species and by manipulation of the spatial distributions of these RE ions. The photoluminescence results reveal that the emission efficiency increases at least 2-fold when comparing the materials synthesized in this study with those synthesized through traditional approaches. Hence, these core-shell structured nanocrystals with novel excitation and emission behaviors enable us to obtain tissue fluorescence imaging by detecting the upconverted and down-shifted photoluminescence from Tm(3+) and Nd(3+) ions, respectively. The reported approach thus provides a new route for the realization of high-yield emission from RE ion doped nanocrystals, which could prove to be useful for the design of optical materials containing other optically active centers.

  1. Spectroscopic properties and mechanism of Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+co-doped oxyfluorogermanate glass ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-Bo; Qiu, Jian-Bei; Zhou, Da-Cheng; Song, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Zheng-Wen; Wang, Rong-Fei; Jiao, Qing; Zhou, Da-Li

    2014-02-01

    Transparent Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluorogermanate glass ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals are prepared. Under excitation of a 980-nm laser diode (LD), compared with the glass before heat treatment, the Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+co-doped oxyfluorogermanate glass ceramics can emit intense blue, green and red up-conversion luminescence and Stark-split peaks; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) results show that BaF2 nanocrystals with an average diameter of 20 nm are precipitated from the glass matrix. Stark splitting of the up-conversion luminescence peaks in the glass ceramics indicates that Tm3+, Er3+ and (or) Yb3+ ions are incorporated into the BaF2 nanocrystals. The up-conversion luminescence intensities of Tm3+, Er3+ and the splitting degree of luminescence peaks in the glass ceramics increase significantly with the increase of heat treat temperature and heat treat time extension. In addition, the possible energy transfer process between rare earth ions and the up-conversion luminescence mechanism are also proposed.

  2. Optical properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped strontium barium niobate nanocrystals obtained by thermal treatment in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haro-Gonzalez, P. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: patharo@ull.es; Lahoz, F. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Platas, J. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental II, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Caceres, J.M. [Dep. of Edafologia y Geologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Perez, S. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dep. of Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Capuj, N. [Dep. of Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Martin, I.R. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Measurements of the optical properties of Er{sup 3+} ions in strontium barium niobate glass and glass ceramics have been carried out. The glasses have been fabricated using a melt-quenching method, and the glass ceramic samples have been obtained from the glass precursor by a thermal treatment. The ceramic samples formed by a glassy phase, and a crystalline phase contains nanocrystals of Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN) doped with Er{sup 3+} ions with a mean size of {approx}50 nm, as confirmed with XRD. Green up-conversion emission has been obtained under excitation at 800 nm, and the temporal evolution of this emission has been reported with the purpose of determining the involved up-conversion mechanism. These optical measures have confirmed that the Er{sup 3+} ions have been incorporated into the SBN matrix, after a thermal treatment, which produced an increment of the up-conversion efficiency.

  3. Low thermal budget n-type doping into Ge(001) surface using ultraviolet laser irradiation in phosphoric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kouta, E-mail: ktakahas@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kurosawa@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Wakana; Nakatsuka, Osamu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kurosawa, Masashi, E-mail: ktakahas@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kurosawa@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Institute for Advanced Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Zaima, Shigeaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated phosphorus (P) doping into Ge(001) surfaces by using ultraviolet laser irradiation in phosphoric acid solution at room temperature. We demonstrated that the diffusion depth of P in Ge and the concentration of electrically activated P can be controlled by the number of laser shots. Indeed, a high concentration of electrically activated P of 2.4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} was realized by 1000-times laser shots at a laser energy of 1.0 J/cm{sup 2}, which is comparable or better than the counterparts of conventional n-type doping using a high thermal budget over 600 °C. The generation current is dominant in the reverse bias condition for the laser-doped pn-junction diodes independent on the number of laser shots, thus indicating low-damage during the pn-junction formation. These results open up the possibility for applicable low thermal budget doping process for Ge-based devices fabricated on flexible substrates as well as Si electronics.

  4. High power, ultra-broadband supercontinuum source based on highly GeO2 doped silica fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Deepak; Sidharthan, Raghuraman; Moselund, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a 74 mol % GeO2 doped fiber for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. Experiments ensure a highest output power for a broadest spectrum from 700nm to 3200nm from this fiber, while being pumped by a broadband 4 stage Erbium fiber based MOPA. The effect of repetition rate of pump...... source and length of Germania-doped fiber has also been investigated. Further, Germania doped fiber has been pumped by conventional Silica based photonic crystal fiber supercontinuum source. At low power, a considerable broadening of 200-300nm was observed. Further broadening of spectrum was limited due...... to limited power of pump source. Our investigations reveal the unexploited potential of Germania doped fiber for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. This measurement ensures a possibility of Germania based photonic crystal fiber or a step-index fiber supercontinuum source for high power ultra-broad band...

  5. Microstructural and photoluminescence properties of sol–gel derived Tb3+ doped ZnO nanocrystals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kabongo, GL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available to further elucidate the wurtzitic structure of the prepared samples. PL study revealed that among different Tb(sup3+) concentrations, 0.5 mol% Tb(sup3+) doped ZnO nanoparticles showed clear emission from the dopant originating from the 4f–4f intra...

  6. Investigation on the crystallization properties and structure of oxygen-doped Ge8Sb92 phase change thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weihua; He, Zifang; Chen, Shiyu; Zhai, Jiwei; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2017-03-01

    Effects of oxygen incorporation on the crystallization characteristics and crystal structure of Ge8Sb92 films were systematically investigated. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition was studied by in situ resistance measurement. The thermal stability, electrical resistance and band gap of Ge8Sb92 material increase significantly by the addition of oxygen. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy illustrate that a small amount of oxygen dopant can inhibit the grain growth and limit the grain size because of the formation of Ge and Sb oxide. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray reflectivity results indicate that the film surface becomes smoother and the film thickness change becomes smaller after oxygen doping. Phase change memory cells based on oxygen-doped Ge8Sb92 film were fabricated to evaluate the electrical properties as well. All the results demonstrate that suitable incorporation of oxygen is an effective way to enhance the comprehensive performance of Ge8Sb92 thin films for phase change memory application.

  7. Green synthesis of Pt-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed (001) facets and mesoscopic void space for photo-splitting of water under solar irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Biplab; Amoli, Vipin; Maurya, Abhayankar; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-06-01

    We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 sorption studies. These Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets are employed as efficient and benign catalysts for hydrogen production from pure water and methanol-water systems under one AM 1.5G sunlight illumination. The effect of platinum loading and methanol-water ratio on the photocatalytic activity of the faceted TiO2 nanocrystals are investigated and it is found that hydrogen evolution rates have been enhanced significantly upon Pt loading. Under optimized reaction conditions the highest photocatalytic activity of 11.2 mmol h-1 g-1 has been achieved over ca. 1.0 wt% Pt loaded Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets, which is one of the highest hydrogen evolution rates over the noble metal/TiO2 system reported to date in the literature.We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and

  8. Influence of absorber doping in a-SiC:H/a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Ahmad, Ashfaq

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the design evaluation and influence of absorber doping for a-Si:H/a-SiC:H/a-SiGe:H based thin-film solar cells using a two-dimensional computer aided design (TCAD) tool. Various physical parameters of the layered structure, such as doping and thickness of the absorber layer, have been studied. For reliable device simulation with realistic predictability, the device performance is evaluated by implementing necessary models (e.g., surface recombinations, thermionic field emission tunneling model for carrier transport at the heterojunction, Schokley—Read Hall recombination model, Auger recombination model, bandgap narrowing effects, doping and temperature dependent mobility model and using Fermi—Dirac statistics). A single absorber with a graded design gives an efficiency of 10.1% for 800 nm thick multiband absorption. Similarly, a tandem design shows an efficiency of 10.4% with a total absorber of thickness of 800 nm at a bandgap of 1.75 eV and 1.0 eV for the top a-Si and bottom a-SiGe component cells. A moderate n-doping in the absorber helps to improve the efficiency while p doping in the absorber degrades efficiency due to a decrease in the VOC (and fill factor) of the device.

  9. Influence of absorber doping in a-SiC:H/a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Nawaz; Ashfaq Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the design evaluation and influence of absorber doping for a-Si:H/a-SiC:H/a-SiGe:H based thin-film solar cells using a two-dimensional computer aided design (TCAD) tool.Various physical parameters of the layered structure,such as doping and thickness of the absorber layer,have been studied.For reliable device simulation with realistic predictability,the device performance is evaluated by implementing necessary models (e.g.,surface recombinations,thermionic field emission tunneling model for carrier transport at the heterojunction,Schokley-Read Hall recombination model,Auger recombination model,bandgap narrowing effects,doping and temperature dependent mobility model and using Fermi-Dirac statistics).A single absorber with a graded design gives an efficiency of 10.1% for 800 nm thick multiband absorption.Similarly,a tandem design shows an efficiency of 10.4% with a total absorber of thickness of 800 nm at a bandgap of 1.75 eV and 1.0 eV for the top a-Si and bottom a-SiGe component cells.A moderate n-doping in the absorber helps to improve the efficiency while p doping in the absorber degrades efficiency due to a decrease in the Voc (and fill factor) of the device.

  10. Structural, morphological and optical properties of Mn doped ZnS nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Mote

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mn doped ZnS samples with composition formula Zn1-xMn xS where x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.10 were prepared by chemical method. Samples characterized for its structural, morphological and optical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and UV-vis spectrometer. XRD patterns confirm cubic zinc blend structure with no secondary phases for pure and Mn doped ZnS. Lattice constant value increases slightly with Mn concentration due to the substitution of Mn in ZnS lattice. TEM images show that the particles have spherical in shape with an average particle size between 3-4 nm. The chemical species of the grown crystals are identified by FTIR spectra. Optical absorption spectra show decrement in band gap with increasing Mn concentration.

  11. EPR investigation of pure and Co-doped ZnO oriented nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoyant, A.; Alnoor, H.; Bertaina, S.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2017-01-01

    Pure and cobalt-doped zinc oxide aligned nanorods have been grown by the low-temperature (90 °C) aqueous chemical method on amorphous ZnO seed layer, deposited on a sapphire substrate. High crystallinity of these objects is demonstrated by the electron paramagnetic resonance investigation at liquid helium temperature. The successful incorporation of Co2+ ions in substitution of Zn2+ ones in the ZnO matrix has also been confirmed. A drastic reduction of intrinsic ZnO nanorods core defects is observed in the Co-doped samples, which enhances the structural quality of the NRs. The quantification of substitutional Co2+ ions in the ZnO matrix is achieved by comparison with a reference sample. The findings in this study indicate the potential of using the low-temperature aqueous chemical approach for synthesizing material for spintronics applications.

  12. Structural, morphological and optical properties of Mn doped ZnS nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Mote

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mn doped ZnS samples with composition formula Zn1-xMn xS where x = 0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.10 were prepared by chemical method. Samples characterized for its structural, morphological and optical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and UV-vis spectrometry. XRD patterns confirm cubic zinc blend structure with no secondary phases for pure and Mn doped ZnS. Lattice constant value increases slightly with Mn concentration due to the substitution of Mn in ZnO lattice. TEM images show that the particles have spherical in shape with an average particle size 3-4 nm. The chemical species of the grown crystals are identified by FTIR spectra. Optical absorption spectra show decrement in band gap with increasing Mn concentration.

  13. Improvement of Electrical Properties of the Ge2Sb2Te5 Film by Doping Si for Phase-Change Random Access Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Bao-Wei; FENG Jie; LAI Yun-Feng; LING Yun; LIN Yin-Yin; TANG Ting-Ao; CAI Bing-Chu; CHEN Bomy

    2006-01-01

    Si-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 films have been prepared by dc magnetron co-sputtering with Ge2Sb2Te5 and Si targets. The addition of Si in the Ge2Sb2Te5 film results in the increase of both crystallization temperature and phasetransition temperature from face-centred-cubic (fcc) phase to hexagonal (hex) phase. The resistivity of the Ge2Sb2Te5 film shows a significant increase with the Si doping. When doping 11.8 at.% of Si in the film, the resistivity after 460℃ annealing increases from 1 to 11mΩ·cm and dynamic resistance increase from 64 to 99Ω compared to the undoped Ge2Sb2Te5 film. This is very helpful to writing current reduction of phase-change random access memory.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Ho{sup 3+}-doped strontium titanate downconversion nanocrystals and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.Y. [Department of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Liaoning Provincial College Key Laboratory of New Materials and Material Modification, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Hao, H.S., E-mail: beike1952@163.com [Department of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Liaoning Provincial College Key Laboratory of New Materials and Material Modification, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Qin, L. [National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Wang, H.L.; Nie, M.Q.; Hu, Z.Q.; Gao, W.Y.; Liu, G.S. [Department of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Liaoning Provincial College Key Laboratory of New Materials and Material Modification, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A new downconversion (DC) nanocrystal (SrTiO{sub 3}:Ho{sup 3+}) was synthesized. • The effect of SrTiO{sub 3}:Ho{sup 3+} as a photoanode in DSSCs was investigated. • SrTiO{sub 3}:Ho{sup 3+} absorb ultraviolet light and downconvert it to visible light. • DC SrTiO{sub 3}:Ho{sup 3+} as a photoanode achieve the higher photoelectric conversion efficiency. - Abstract: Ho{sup 3+}-doped strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}:Ho{sup 3+}) downconversion (DC) nanocrystals are synthesized by the solid state interaction of titanium dioxide, strontium nitrate, holmium oxide and sodium chloride and then used as a photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to investigate the effect of DC nanocrystals in DSSCs. Differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis confirmed the formation of cubic structured SrTiO{sub 3}:Ho{sup 3+} nanocrystals with diameters of 40-400 nm, pore size of ∼45 nm, sintering temperature of 950 °C. The photofluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectra of the SrTiO{sub 3}:Ho{sup 3+} nanocrystals revealed strong emission intensity and visible light absorption when doped content of holmium oxide was between 1 wt% and 3 wt%. Compared with the pure SrTiO{sub 3} photoanode, SrTiO{sub 3}:Ho{sup 3+} DC photoanode showed a greater photovoltaic efficiency. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSCs with a SrTiO{sub 3}:Ho{sup 3+} photoanode doped with 1 wt% holmium oxide was 59% higher than that with a pure SrTiO{sub 3} photoanode. This phenomenon could be explained by SrTiO{sub 3}:Ho{sup 3+} nanocrystals’ ability to absorb ultraviolet light and downconvert it to visible light, which extends spectral response range of DSSC to the ultraviolet region and increased the short-circuit current density (Jsc) of DSSCs.

  15. Evolution of magnetostructural transition and magnetocaloric effect with Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Lifu

    2014-01-03

    The effect of Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds has been investigated. The substitution of Al for Ge enhances Mn-Mn covalent bonding by shortening the distance of nearest Mn atom layers, and thus stabilizes the hexagonal structure. As a result, first-order magnetostructural transition between ferromagnetic martensite and paramagnetic austenite takes place for the optimized compositions (x = 0.01, 0.02). Accompanied with the magnetostructural transition, large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is observed. More doping of Al(x = 0.03, 0.04) leads to the separation of magnetic and structural transitions and remarkable reduction of MCE. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Influence of peripheral vibrations and traveling magnetic fields on VGF growth of Sb-doped Ge crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropka, Natasha; Frank-Rotsch, Christiane; Rudolph, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We performed 3D numerical and experimental studies to assess the potential of peripheral low frequency mechanical vibrations for improving the homogeneity of Sb-doped 4″ Ge crystals grown by vertical gradient freeze (VGF). For this study, a novel bell-shaped graphite vibrator was developed for the generation of the axial vibrations in the direction of three-phase junction. Melt stirring by downward traveling magnetic field (TMF) was used as a benchmark. The results showed superiority of peripheral vibrations to TMF stirring concerning radial and longitudinal doping distribution and initial stirring rate. Experimentally observed standing free surface waves in Ge were caused by shielding effect of the vibrator on TMF.

  17. Threshold pressure for mechanoluminescence of macrocrystals, microcrystals and nanocrystals of doped zinc sulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, B.P. [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, C.G. (India); Chandra, V.K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Shivaji Nagar, Kolihapuri, Durg 491001, C.G. (India); Jha, Piyush, E-mail: piyushjha22@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Raipur Institute of Technology, Chhatauna, Mandir Hasuad, Raipur 492101, C.G. (India); Sonwane, V.D. [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, C.G. (India)

    2016-06-15

    The threshold pressure for elastico-mechanoluminescence (EML) of ZnS:Mn macrocrystals is 20 MPa, and ZnS:Cu,Al macrocrystals do not show ML during elastic deformation. However, the threshold pressure for EML of ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu,Cl microcrystals and nanocrystals is nearly 1 MPa. Thus, it seems that high concentration of defects in microcrystalline and nanocrystalline ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu,Cl produces disorder and distortion in lattice and changes the local crystal-structure near impurities, and consequently, the enhanced piezoelectric constant of local region produces EML for low value of applied pressure. The threshold pressure for the ML of ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu,Al single macrocrystals is higher because such crystals possess comparatively less number of defects near the impurities where the phase-transition is not possible and their ML is caused for high value of stress because the bulk piezoelectric constant is less. Thus, size-dependent threshold pressure for ML supports the origin of EML from piezoelectricity in local region of the crystals. The finding of present investigation may be useful in tailoring phosphors emitting intense EML of different colours.

  18. An Electro-Optic Modulator Based on GeO2-Doped Silica Ridge Waveguides with Thermal Poling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹霞; 何赛灵

    2003-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator is designed and fabricated based on upper-clad GeO2-doped silica ridge waveguides with thermal poling. The electro-optic coefficient obtained is about 0.05 pm/V and is polarizationinsensitive. An extinction ratio of over 17dB is achieved. The transmission loss of the modulator for the TE mode is 2-3 dB higher than that for the TM mode after the poling.

  19. 镧系掺杂上转换发光纳米材料的研究进展%Research Progress of Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莲; 冯建

    2013-01-01

    上转换发光纳米材料在生物分析和医学成像中具有优异的应用前景.对上转换过程的研究正迅速发展为光化学、生物物理学、固体物理学和材料学的交叉领域.与有机荧光染料和量子点相比,镧系掺杂纳米晶体在生物荧光标记方面具有更少的限制条件.概述了镧系掺杂纳米晶体的结构和上转换发光机理,综述了镧系掺杂上转换发光纳米材料的合成、发光颜色调控方法及其生物分析应用方面的研究进展.%Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals have remarkable potential utility in the fields of bio logical assays and medical imaging. The study of these upconversion processes has evolved into a highly inter disciplinary field that has rapidly expanded at the frontiers of photochemistry,biophysics,solid state physics, and materials science. In particular,upconversion emission from lanthanide-doped nanocrystals offers an attrac tive optical labeling technique in biological studies without many of the constraints as contracted with organic fluorophores and quantum dots. This review aims to highlight the advances in the structures, the principle for upconversion emission,preparations,the adjusting method of emission colour and the applications to the bioana-lytical studies of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals.

  20. Super-Resolution Near-Field Disk with Phase-Change Sn-Doped GeSbTe Mask Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei Ling; Thong Yong, Kok; Lip Gan, Chee; Hou Ting, Lee; Shi, Lu Ping

    2009-03-01

    A new mask layer of Sn-doped (7 at. %) Ge2Sb2Te5 was developed and used on super-resolution near-field phase-change optical disks (super-RENS). Temperature-dependent reflectivity result showed a reflectivity change at 169 °C with Sn doping into Ge2Sb2Te5. The mask material also showed high thermal stability. Optical study indicated the suitability of the film for use in blue-laser recording and as a mask layer. Fast crystallization within 90 ns was achieved using a pulsed high-power laser beam of 405 nm wavelength. Dynamic recording performance of the new structure showed carrier-to-noise ratios (CNR) of 37 and 18 dB obtained for 80 and 50 nm mark sizes, respectively. Readout thermal stability of 12,000 cycles was realized for 80 nm mark sizes. The incorporation of Sn-doped GeSbTe (GST) as mask layer in the super-RENS structure significantly improved the CNR and thermal stability of the disk.

  1. A novel contractive effect of KTaO{sub 3} nanocrystals via La{sup 3+} doping and an enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Lv, Juanjuan; Wang, Shuo; Li, Xin; Lang, Junyu; Su, Yiguo; Chai, Zhanli; Wang, Xiaojing, E-mail: wang_xiao_jing@hotmail.com

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The incorporation of La{sup 3+} ions in KTaO{sub 3} host lattice led to a monotonous lattice contraction and particle size reduction, showing an excellent photocatalytic performance. - Highlights: • La{sup 3+} incorporation in KTaO{sub 3} led to a lattice contraction, particle size reduction. • Oxidative capacity of the photo-excited carriers increases after La{sup 3+} ions doping. • Ta{sup 4+} appearance was helpful for the separation of electron-hole pairs. • Photocatalytic performance of K{sub 1−x}La{sub x}TaO{sub 3} optimized by La{sup 3+} doping. - Abstract: La{sup 3+}-doped cubic potassium tantalate photocatalysts were prepared by a hydrothermal treatment process. It is found that the La{sup 3+} ions were homogeneously incorporated in the KTaO{sub 3} host lattice, leading to a monotonous lattice contraction and particle size reduction. Meanwhile, the BET surface areas were also enlarged from 4.9 to ∼9.8 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Consistently, La{sup 3+}-doped KTaO{sub 3} nanocrystals showed a broadened band gap, which can be well-defined as a consequence of the contractive particle size. DFT calculation predicted a deeper band edge and a dispersive dense state of valance state by La{sup 3+} ions doping due to the hybridization of O 2p and La 6p orbitals, increasing the oxidative capacity and mobility of photogenerated charge carriers, thus enhance the photocatalytic activity. The mixed state of Ta{sup 5+} and Ta{sup 4+} was found to appear in the K{sub 1−x}La{sub x}TaO{sub 3} nanocrystals, which may suppress the formation of cationic vacancies. The superior photocatalytic performance of K{sub 1−x}La{sub x}TaO{sub 3} nanocrystals was achieved by well-controlled contractive particle size and optimized La{sup 3+} doping level.

  2. Application of photo-doping phenomenon in amorphous chalcogenide GeS2 film to optical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yoshihisa; Arai, Katsuya; Wakaki, Moriaki; Shibuya, Takehisa; Shintaku, Toshihiro

    2015-03-01

    Photodoping phenomenon is observed when a double-layer consisting of an amorphous chalcogenide film (As2S3, GeS2, GeSe2 etc.) and a metal (Ag, Cu etc.) film is illuminated by light. The metal diffuses abnormally into the amorphous chalcogenide layer. Amorphous chalcogenide films of GeS2 with an Ag over layer exhibited large increase of refractive index through the abnormal doping of Ag by irradiating the light around the absorption edge of the GeS2 chalcogenide. In this study, we aimed the application of this effect for the fabrication of optical devices and fabricated various micro doped patterns by using a laser beam. Mask less pattering with refractive index modified films are possible by manipulating the scanning of the laser beam. Micro gratings were fabricated using a confocal laser microscope to work as both fabrication and observation system. Waveguides were also fabricated by scanning the laser beam for photodoping. Holographic gratings were fabricated by utilizing the photodoping of the two beam interference pattern, which showed the possibility to produce large scale optical devices or mass production.

  3. A study of the effects of the base doping profile on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor performance for all levels of injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanduri, Gagan; Panwar, Brishbhan

    2006-04-01

    The effects of two different base doping profiles on the current gain and cut-off frequency for all levels of current injection have been studied for NPN Si/SiGe/Si double heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe DHBTs). The two-dimensional simulation results for a SiGe DHBT with uniform base doping and a fixed base Gummel number are compared with a non-uniform base doping profile SiGe drift-DHBT device. The study explains the performance of SiGe HBTs at different injection levels by analysing the electron and hole mobility, drift velocity, electric field, junction capacitances and intrinsic and extrinsic base region conductivities. The base doping profile in the SiGe drift-DHBT is controlled in such a way that it creates a net accelerating drift field in the quasi-neutral base for minority electrons. This accelerating field subsequently improves the current gain and cut-off frequency for the SiGe drift-DHBT in comparison with the SiGe DHBT for all levels of injection.

  4. Effect of doping and stoichiometric profile on transport in SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilov, S.

    2016-09-01

    Based on analytical consideration and numerical simulations, it is shown how the mutually adjusted doping and stoichiometric profile results in improved frequency response and current gain in Si1-x Ge x -based heterojunction bipolar transistor. The closed-form expressions are derived for the dopant distribution within a certain mobility model which is parametrized in terms of the impurity concentration and stoichiometric grading on the same footing. With proper parametrization of the mobility, the method is suitable in both limits of high alloy scattering/low crystal ordering and low alloy scattering/highly ordered stoichiometrically graded structure. The work is corroborated by device simulations of a single-side HBT 30% stoichiometrically graded base, with detailed IV-curve, Gummel and AC analysis. It is shown that the distinct impurity distribution results in a reduced space-charge region, contributes to an effective electric field assisting the diffusion of the minority carriers and results in the saturation current density increased by 50%, the AC gain increased by 90%, the four-fold increase of the DC current gain, and improves the transition frequency from 274 to 358 GHz as compared to the case of the uniformly distributed acceptors. The obtained results may serve as a practical guide in design of highly-graded heterojunction bipolar transistors with efficient frequency response, high gain and enhanced power.

  5. The Thermoluminescence Response of Ge-Doped Flat Fibers to Gamma Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurasiah Binti Mat Nawi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Study has been undertaken of the thermoluminescence (TL yield of various tailor-made flat cross-section 6 mol% Ge-doped silica fibers, differing only in respect of external dimensions. Key TL dosimetric characteristics have been investigated, including glow curves, dose response, sensitivity, fading and reproducibility. Using a 60Co source, the samples were irradiated to doses within the range 1 to 10 Gy. Prior to irradiation, the flat fibers were sectioned into 6 mm lengths, weighed, and annealed at 400 °C for 1 h. TL readout was by means of a Harshaw Model 3500 TLD reader, with TLD-100 chips (LiF:Mg, Ti used as a reference dosimeter to allow the relative response of the fibers to be evaluated. The fibers have been found to provide highly linear dose response and excellent reproducibility over the range of doses investigated, demonstrating high potential as TL-mode detectors in radiation medicine applications. Mass for mass, the results show the greatest TL yield to be provided by fibers of the smallest cross-section, analysis indicating this to be due to minimal light loss in transport of the TL through the bulk of the silica medium.

  6. Compressibility and structural behavior of pure and Fe-doped SnO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinblat, F.; Ferrari, S.; Pampillo, L. G.; Saccone, F. D.; Errandonea, D.; Santamaria-Perez, D.; Segura, A.; Vilaplana, R.; Popescu, C.

    2017-02-01

    We have performed high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on nanoparticles of pure tin dioxide (particle size ∼30 nm) and 10 mol % Fe-doped tin dioxide (particle size ∼18 nm). The structural behavior of undoped tin dioxide nanoparticles has been studied up to 32 GPa, while the Fe-doped tin dioxide nanoparticles have been studied only up to 19 GPa. We have found that both samples present at ∼13 GPa a second-order structural phase transition from the ambient pressure tetragonal rutile-type structure (P42/mnm) to an orthorhombic CaCl2-type structure (space group Pnnm). No phase coexistence was observed for this transition. Additionally, pure SnO2 presents a phase transition to a cubic structure at ∼24 GPa. The evolution of the lattice parameters with pressure and the room-temperature equations of state are reported for the different phases. The reported results suggest that the partial substitution of Sn by Fe induces an enhancement of the bulk modulus of SnO2. Results are compared with previous studies on bulk and nanocrystalline SnO2. The effects of pressure on Sn-O bonds are also analyzed.

  7. Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Nanocrystal/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as Lithium Ion Battery Anode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiping; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Jiefang; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2015-12-16

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is a kind of anode material with high theoretical capacity. However, the volume expansion and fast capability fading during cycling have prevented its practical application in lithium ion batteries. Herein, we report that the nanocomposite of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an ideal anode material with high capacity, high rate capability, and high stability. The FTO conductive nanocrystals were successfully anchored on RGO nanosheets from an FTO nanocrystals colloid and RGO suspension by hydrothermal treatment. As the anode material, the FTO/RGO composite showed high structural stability during the lithiation and delithiation processes. The conductive FTO nanocrystals favor the formation of stable and thin solid electrolyte interface films. Significantly, the FTO/RGO composite retains a discharge capacity as high as 1439 mAhg(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mAg(-1). Moreover, its rate capacity displays 1148 mAhg(-1) at a current density of 1000 mAg(-1).

  8. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth of tensile-strained and n-doped Ge/Si(001) films using a GaP decomposition source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luong, T.K.P. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS CINaM-UMR 7325, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Ghrib, A. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 220, F-91405 Orsay (France); Dau, M.T.; Zrir, M.A. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS CINaM-UMR 7325, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Stoffel, M. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy-Université, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Le Thanh, V., E-mail: lethanh@cinam.univ.mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS CINaM-UMR 7325, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Daineche, R. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS IM2NP-UMR 6242, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Le, T.G.; Heresanu, V.; Abbes, O.; Petit, M. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS CINaM-UMR 7325, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); El Kurdi, M.; Boucaud, P. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 220, F-91405 Orsay (France); Rinnert, H. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy-Université, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Murota, J. [Res. Inst. Elec. Comm., Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-04-30

    We have combined numerous characterization techniques to investigate the growth of tensile-strained and n-doped Ge films on Si(001) substrates by means of solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy. The Ge growth was carried out using a two-step growth method: a low-temperature growth to produce strain relaxed and smooth buffer layers, followed by a high-temperature growth to get high crystalline quality Ge layers. It is shown that the Ge/Si Stranski–Krastanov growth mode can be completely suppressed when the growth is performed at substrate temperatures ranging between 260 °C and 300 °C. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the Ge films grown at temperatures of 700–770 °C are tensile-strained with typical values lying in the range of 0.22–0.24%. Cyclic annealing allows further increase in the tensile strain up to 0.30%, which represents the highest value ever reported in the Ge/Si system. n-Doping of Ge was carried out using a GaP decomposition source. It is shown that heavy n-doping levels are obtained at low substrate temperatures (210–250 °C). For a GaP source temperature of 725 °C and a substrate temperature of 210 °C, a phosphorus concentration of about 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} can be obtained. Photoluminescence measurements reveal an intensity enhancement of about 16 times of the direct band gap emission and display a redshift of 25 meV that can be attributed to band gap narrowing due to a high n-doping level. Finally, we discuss about growth strategies allowing optimizing the Ge growth/doping process for optoelectronic applications. - Highlights: • We investigate the effect of tensile strain and n-doping on Ge optical properties. • We show that cyclic annealing allows getting a tensile strain up to 0.30% in Ge. • n-Doping of Ge/Si films is performed using a GaP decomposition source. • We show that n-doping is more important to enhance the photoluminescence intensity. • We present new growth strategies to develop Ge

  9. Mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals co-modified with graphene and Mg2+ doping as superior cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xu, Binghui; Liu, Tiefeng; Liu, Peng; Guo, Chenfeng; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qiuming; Xiong, Zhigang; Wang, Dianlong; Zhao, X S

    2014-01-21

    In this work, mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals further co-modified with graphene and Mg(2+) doping (G/LFMP) were synthesized by a modified rheological phase method to improve the speed of lithium storage as well as cycling stability. The mesoporous structure of LiFePO4 nanocrystals was designed and realized by introducing the bead milling technique, which assisted in forming sucrose-pyrolytic carbon nanoparticles as the template for generating mesopores. For comparison purposes, samples modified only with graphene (G/LFP) or Mg(2+) doping (LFMP) as well as pure LiFePO4 (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the mesoporous morphologies of the as-prepared composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement data demonstrated that the Mg-doped LiFePO4 is a single olivine-type phase and well crystallized with shortened Fe-O and P-O bonds and a lengthened Li-O bond, resulting in an enhanced Li(+) diffusion velocity. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the as-prepared composites as the cathode active materials. Remarkably, the G/LFMP composite has exhibited the best electrochemical properties, including fast lithium storage performance and excellent cycle stability. That is because the modification of graphene provided active sites for nuclei, restricted the in situ crystallite growth, increased the electronic conductivity and reduced the interface reaction current density, while, Mg(2+) doping improved the intrinsically electronic and ionic transfer properties of LFP crystals. Moreover, in the G/LFMP composite, the graphene component plays the role of "cushion" as it could quickly realize capacity response, buffering the impact to LFMP under the conditions of high-rate charging or discharging, which results in a pre-eminent rate capability and cycling stability.

  10. Thermoluminescence of Ge- and Al-Doped SiO2 Optical Fibers Subjected to 0.2-4.0 Gy External Photon Radiotherapeutic Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, I.; Wagiran, H.; Yaakob, N. H.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we studied the thermoluminescence response of Ge- and Al-doped optical fibers, its linearity, energy dependence, and sensitivity. The Ge-doped optical fibers demonstrate useful TL properties and represent an excellent candidate for use in TL dosimetry of ionizing radiation. The TL response increases monotonically over a wide photon dose range, from 0.2 Gy to 4.0 Gy. The TL results for these fibers have been compared with similar TL data for phosphor TLD-100. Commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibers have both been found to yield a linear dose-TL signal relationship, although the Al-doped fiber provides only 5 % of the sensitivity of the Ge-doped fibers. The TL characteristics of Ge-doped optical fiber, plus its small size (125 μm diameter), high flexibility, ease of handling, and low cost compared with other TL materials, make this commercial optical fiber a very promising TL material for use in medicine, industry, reactor operation, and a variety of other areas.

  11. Optical properties of bismuth-doped SiO2- or GeO2-based glass core optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Firstova, Elena G

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of optical properties of bismuth-doped fibers based on SiO2 and GeO2 glasses containing no other dopants has been carried out. To provide important information about spectroscopic properties of IR bismuth-related active centers (BAC) the excitation-emission fluorescence spectra for a spectral region of 220-2000 nm have been measured. The obtained three-dimensional spectra have been presented for different host glass compositions: silicate, germanate, aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate. Energy-level configuration and main radiative transitions associated with BACs in GeO2 and SiO2 glasses have been revealed. Fluorescence lifetime analysis of the basic radiative transitions of BAC have been carried out. It has been shown that the energy-level schemes of BAC-Si and BAC-Ge (BAC associated with silicon and germanium, respectively) are similar, corresponding BAC-Ge energy levels lying 10-16% lower than those of BAC-Si. It has been determined that BAC-Si, BAC-Ge and BAC-Si, BAC-P can exist simultan...

  12. First-principles calculations on the origin of ferromagnetism in transition-metal doped Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinya, Hikari; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Masago, Akira; Sato, Kazunori; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Many researchers have shown an interest in Ge-based dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) due to potential advantages for semiconductor spintronics applications. There has been great discussion about mechanisms of experimentally observed ferromagnetism in (Ge,Fe) and (Ge,Mn). We investigate the electronic structures, structural stabilities, magnetic exchange coupling constants, and Curie temperature of Ge-based DMSs, and clarify origins of the ferromagnetism, on the basis of density functional theory calculations. In both the (Ge,Fe) and (Ge,Mn) cases, the inhomogeneous distribution of the magnetic impurities plays an important role to determine the magnetic states; however, physical mechanisms of the ferromagnetism in these two materials are completely different. By the spinodal nanodecomposition, the Fe impurities in Ge gather together with keeping the diamond structure, so that the number of the first-nearest-neighbor Fe pairs with strong ferromagnetic interaction increases. Therefore, the Curie temperature drastically increases with the progress of the annealing. Our cluster expansion method clearly reveals that the other ordered compounds with different crystal structures such as Ge3Mn5 and Ge8Mn11 are easily generated in the (Ge,Mn) system. The estimated Curie temperature of Ge3Mn5 is in agreement with the observed Curie temperature in experiments. It should be considered that the precipitation of the ferromagnetic Ge3Mn5 clusters is an origin of high Curie temperature in (Ge,Mn).

  13. Azobenzene mesogens mediated preparation of SnS nanocrystals encapsulated with in-situ N-doped carbon and their enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhou, Yang; Duan, Junfei; Chen, Dongzhong

    2016-09-01

    In this work, azobenzene mesogen-containing tin thiolates have been synthesized, which possess ordered lamellar structures persistent to higher temperature and serve as liquid crystalline precursors. Based on the preorganized tin thiolate precursors, SnS nanocrystals encapsulated with in-situ N-doped carbon layer have been achieved through a simple solventless pyrolysis process with the azobenzene mesogenic thiolate precursor served as Sn, S, N, and C sources simultaneously. Thus prepared nanocomposite materials as anode of lithium ion batteries present a large specific capacity of 604.6 mAh·g-1 at a current density of 100 mA·g-1, keeping a high capacity retention up to 96% after 80 cycles, and display high rate capability due to the synergistic effect of well-dispersed SnS nanocrystals and N-doped carbon layer. Such encouraging results shed a light on the controlled preparation of advanced nanocomposites based on liquid crystalline metallomesogen precursors and may boost their novel intriguing applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21574062) and the Huaian High-Technology Research Institute of Nanjing University, China (Grant No. 2011Q1).

  14. Mass production and photoelectric performances of P and Al Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals under different cooling post-processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ya-Juan; Lu, Yi [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Jin-Ku, E-mail: jkliu@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yang, Xiao-Hong, E-mail: yxh6110@yeah.net [Department of Chemistry, Chizhou University, Chizhou 247000 (China)

    2015-11-05

    The phosphorus and aluminum co-doped in zinc oxide (ZnO) called PAZO nano-crystals (NCs) have been mass synthesized by a combustion method, which shows a preferable photocatalytic capability and conductive ability. This article focuses on the properties of PAZO NCs experienced by three cooling-down aftertreatments, which were the normalizing, quenching and annealing process, respectively. The influences of different cooling processes on the photocatalytic and conductive performances are discussed in details. From the research, we found the quenched-PAZO NCs showed the most unappealing photocatalysis and conductivity, because excessive defects as the recombination center of electron–hole pairs were generated in the quenching process. - Graphical abstract: This research focuses on the PAZO NCs experienced by different cooling-down aftertreatments, which were the normalizing, quenching and annealing process, respectively. The quenched-PAZO NCs had the most unappealing photocatalysis and conductivity, because of generating excessive defects as the recombination center of electron–hole pairs in the quenching process. - Highlights: • We presented a method to mass synthesize co-doped P and Al in ZnO nanocrystals. • The PAZO NCs have novel photoelectric performances. • The cooling post-process influence on the photoelectric properties was studied. • The excessive defects decline the photocatalytic and conductive activities.

  15. Regulating Mid-infrared to Visible Fluorescence in Monodispersed Er3+-doped La2O2S (La2O2SO4) Nanocrystals by Phase Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiwen; Yang, Dandan; Kang, Shiliang; Qiu, Jianrong; Dong, Guoping

    2016-11-01

    Rare earth doped mid-infrared (MIR) fluorescent sources have been widely investigated due to their various potential applications in the fields of communication, chemical detecting, medical surgery and so forth. However, with emission wavelength extended to MIR, multiphonon relaxation process that strongly quenched the MIR emission is one of the greatest challenges for such practical applications. In our design, we have described a controllable gas-aided annealing strategy to modulate the phase, crystal size, morphology and fluorescent performance of a material simultaneously. Uniform and monodispersed Er3+-doped La2O2S and La2O2SO4 nanocrystals with a similar lattice structure, crystallinity, diameter and morphology have been introduced to investigate the impact of multiphonon relaxation on luminescence performance. Detailed spectroscopic evolutions in the region of MIR, near-infrared (NIR), visible upconversion (UC) and their corresponding decay times provide insight investigation into the fluorescent mechanism caused by multiphonon relaxation. A possible energy transfer model has also been established. Our results present direct observation and mechanistic investigation of fluorescent evolution in multiphonon relaxation process, which is conductive to design MIR fluorescent materials in the future. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first investigation on MIR fluorescent performance of La2O2S nanocrystals, which may find various applications in many photoelectronic fields.

  16. Rare-earth doped YF{sub 3} nanocrystals embedded in sol-gel silica glass matrix for white light generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Ramos, J. [Departamento Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Santana-Alonso, A. [Departamento Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Yanes, A.C., E-mail: ayanesh@ull.e [Departamento Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Castillo, J. del [Departamento Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Rodriguez, V.D. [Departamento Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    YF{sub 3} nanocrystals triply-doped with Yb{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions embedded in amorphous silica matrix have been successfully obtained by heat treatment of precursor sol-gel glasses for the first time to our knowledge and confirmed by X-ray diffraction and luminescence measurements. Simultaneous UV and visible efficient up-conversion emissions, with well-resolved Stark structure, under 980 nm infrared pump are observed, indicating the effective partition of rare-earth ions into a crystalline-like environment of the YF{sub 3} nanocrystals. Corresponding energy transfer mechanisms have been analyzed and overall colour emission has been quantified in terms of standard chromaticity diagram. By an adequate doping level and heat treatment temperature of precursor sol-gel glasses, a bright white colour has been accomplished, close to the standard equal energy white light illumination point, with potential applications in photo-electronic devices and information processing.

  17. Effects of surface functionalization of hydrophilic NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ on glutamate and GABA transport in brain synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Kociołek, Daria; Banski, Mateusz; Borisova, Tatiana; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Borysov, Arsenii; Dudarenko, Marina; Podhorodecki, Artur

    2017-08-01

    Specific rare earth doped nanocrystals (NCs), a recent class of nanoparticles with fluorescent features, have great bioanalytical potential. Neuroactive properties of NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ were assessed based on the analysis of their effects on glutamate- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport process in nerve terminals isolated from rat brain (synaptosomes). Two types of hydrophilic NCs were examined in this work: (i) coated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and (ii) with OH groups at the surface. It was found that NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH within the concentration range of 0.5-3.5 and 0.5-1.5 mg/ml, respectively, did not influence Na+-dependent transporter-dependent l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA uptake and the ambient level of the neurotransmitters in the synaptosomes. An increase in NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH concentrations up to 7.5 and 3.5 mg/ml, respectively, led to the (1) attenuation of the initial velocity of uptake of l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA and (2) elevation of ambient neurotransmitters in the suspension of nerve terminals. In the mentioned concentrations, nanocrystals did not influence acidification of synaptic vesicles that was shown with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange, however, decreased the potential of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes. In comparison with other nanoparticles studied with similar methodological approach, NCs start to exhibit their effects on neurotransmitter transport at concentrations several times higher than those shown for carbon dots, detonation nanodiamonds and an iron storage protein ferritin, whose activity can be registered at 0.08, 0.5 and 0.08 mg/ml, respectively. Therefore, NCs can be considered lesser neurotoxic as compared to above nanoparticles.

  18. White light up-conversion in transparent sol-gel derived glass-ceramics containing Yb{sup 3+}-Er{sup 3+}-Tm{sup 3+} triply-doped YF{sub 3} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana-Alonso, A. [Departamento Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mendez-Ramos, J. [Departamento Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Yanes, A.C., E-mail: ayanesh@ull.es [Departamento Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Castillo, J. del [Departamento Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Rodriguez, V.D. [Departamento Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    Transparent glass-ceramics containing YF{sub 3} nanocrystals triply-doped with Yb{sup 3+}-Er{sup 3+}-Tm{sup 3+} ions have been successfully obtained under adequate thermal treatment of precursor sol-gel glasses for the first time to our knowledge. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis pointed out the precipitation of YF{sub 3} nanocrystals. Up-conversion luminescence features confirm the effective partition of luminescent ions into precipitated nanocrystals. Corresponding energy transfer up-conversion mechanisms and the dependence of the overall emitting colour have been analyzed as a function of doping ions, with varying concentration. In particular, very bright and efficient up-conversion emission, almost matching the standard equal energy white light illumination point of the standard chromaticity diagram, has been achieved showing up as promising candidate material for potential applications in photonic integrated devices and infrared tuneable phosphors.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Cu doped cobalt oxide nanocrystals as methane gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikhi Mehrabadi, Z; Ahmadpour, A [Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahtahmasebi, N [Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri Mohagheghi, M M, E-mail: m_mohagheghee@yahoo.co.uk [School of Physics, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, nanoparticles of copper-cobalt compound oxide have been prepared by the sol-gel technique with different mole ratios of Cu/Co (ranging from 0.05 to 0.15) for the detection of methane gas, which is chemically a very stable hydrocarbon. The structural properties and morphology of the powders were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By XRD analysis, we confirm that Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and (CuO{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 0.7}) Co{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases are formed and mean grain size is decreased with increasing Cu doping (from 28 to 24 nm). On the basis of TEM images, it is found that these particles possess a cubic structure with nearly uniform distribution. Also, gas-sensing measurements reveal that the optimal operating temperature is 300 {sup 0}C, that the use of Cu as a dopant improved the sensing properties of cobalt oxide and that the sensitivity increased considerably with Cu concentration. The best sensitivity properties of nanosensors have been found at the mole ratios of Cu/Co of 0.125 and 0.15.

  20. Hot-Injection Synthesis of Cu-Doped Cu₂ZnSnSe₄ Nanocrystals to Reach Thermoelectric zT of 0.70 at 450°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Yani; Wang, Biao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jun; Liang, Ziqi

    2015-11-11

    As a new class of potential midrange temperature thermoelectric materials, quaternary chalcogenides like Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) suffer from low electrical conductivity due to insufficient doping. In this work, Cu-doped CZTSe nanocrystals consisting of polygon-like nanoparticles are synthesized with sufficient Cu doping contents. The hot-injection synthetic method, rather than the traditional one-pot method, in combination with the hot-pressing method is employed to produce the CZTSe nanocrystals. In Cu-doped CZTSe nanocrystals, the electrical conductivity is enhanced by substitution of Zn(2+) with Cu(+), which introduces additional holes as charge carriers. Meanwhile, the existence of boundaries between nanoparticles in as-synthesized CZTSe nanocrystals collectively results in intensive phonon-boundary scatterings, which remarkably reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. As a result, an average thermoelectric figure of merit of 0.70 is obtained at 450 °C, which is significantly larger than that of the state-of-the-art quaternary chalcogenides thermoelectric materials. The theoretical calculations from the Boltzmann transport equations and the modified effective medium approximation are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Lanthanide-doped Na xScF 3+ x nanocrystals: Crystal structure evolution and multicolor tuning

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Xue

    2012-05-23

    Rare-earth-based nanomaterials have recently drawn considerable attention because of their unique energy upconversion (UC) capabilities. However, studies of Sc 3+-based nanomaterials are still absent. Herein we report the synthesis and fine control of Na xScF 3+x nanocrystals by tuning of the ratio of oleic acid (OA, polar surfactant) to 1-octadecene (OD, nonpolar solvent). When the OA:OD ratio was increased from low (3:17) to high (3:7), the nanocrystals changed from pure monoclinic phase (Na 3ScF 6) to pure hexagonal phase (NaScF 4) via a transition stage at an intermediate OA:OD ratio (3:9) where a mixture of nanocrystals in monoclinic and hexagonal phases was obtained and the coexistence of the two phases inside individual nanocrystals was also observed. More significantly, because of the small radius of Sc 3+, Na xScF 3+x:Yb/Er nanocrystals show different UC emission from that of NaYF 4:Yb/Er nanocrystals, which broadens the applications of rare-earth-based nanomaterials ranging from optical communications to disease diagnosis. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Second harmonic generation from Ge doped SiO{sub 2} (Ge{sub x}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 1−x}) thin films grown by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Ibuki; Imakita, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru; Hayashi, Shinji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-11

    Second-order nonlinear optical properties of sputter-deposited Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} thin films were investigated. It was shown that the second-order nonlinearity of SiO{sub 2}, which vanishes in the electric-dipole approximation due to the centrosymmetric structure, can be significantly enhanced by Ge doping. The observed maximum value of d{sub 33} was 8.2 pm/V, which is 4 times larger than d{sub 22} of β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal. Strong correlation was observed between the d{sub eff} values and the electron spin resonance signals arising from GeP{sub b} centers, suggesting that GeP{sub b} centers are the most probable origin of the large second-order nonlinearity.

  3. Greener process to synthesize water-soluble Mn.sup.2+-doped CdSSe(ZnS) core(shell) nanocrystals for ratiometric temperature sensing, nanocrystals, and methods implementing nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haw; Hsia, Chih-Hao

    2017-07-04

    Novel Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots are provided. These Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots exhibit excellent temperature sensitivity in both organic solvents and water-based solutions. Methods of preparing the Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots are provided. The Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots may be prepared via a stepwise procedure using air-stable and inexpensive chemicals. The use of air-stable chemicals can significantly reduce the cost of synthesis, chemical storage, and the risk associated with handling flammable chemicals. Methods of temperature sensing using Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots are provided. The stepwise procedure provides the ability to tune the temperature-sensing properties to satisfy specific needs for temperature sensing applications. Water solubility may be achieved by passivating the Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots, allowing the Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots to probe the fluctuations of local temperature in biological environments.

  4. Reduction of RESET current in phase change memory devices by carbon doping in GeSbTe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, J. H.; Wu, Z.; Cho, S. L.; Ahn, D.; Ahn, D. H.; Lee, J. M.; Nam, S. U.; Ko, D.-H.

    2015-03-01

    Phase Change Memory (PCM) has been proposed for use as a substitute for flash memory to satisfy the huge demands for high performance and reliability that promise to come in the next generation. In spite of its high scalability, reliability, and simple structure, high writing current, e.g., RESET current, has been a significant obstacle to achieving a high density in storage applications and the low power consumption required for use in mobile applications. We report herein on an attempt to determine the level of carbon incorporated into a GeSbTe (GST) film that is needed to reduce the RESET current of PCM devices. The crystal structure of the film was transformed into an amorphous phase by carbon doping, the stability of which was enhanced with increasing carbon content. This was verified by the small grain size and large band gap that are typically associated with carbon. The increased level of C-Ge covalent bonding is responsible for these enhancements. Thus, the resistance of the carbon doped Ge2Sb2Te5 film was higher than that for an undoped GST film by a factor of 2 orders of magnitude after producing a stable face-centered cubic phase by annealing. As a consequence, the PCM devices showed a significant reduction in RESET current as low as 23% when the carbon content was increased to 11.8 at. %. This can be attributed to the elevated SET resistance, which is proportional to the dynamic resistance of the PCM device, caused by the high resistance due to a carbon doped GST film.

  5. A 4F2-cross-point phase change memory using nano-crystalline doped GeSbTe material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaura, Norikatsu; Kinoshita, Masaharu; Tai, Mitsuharu; Ohyanagi, Takasumi; Akita, Kenichi; Morikawa, Takahiro

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports on the use of nano-crystalline doped GeSbTe, or nano-GST, to fabricate a cross-point phase change memory with 4F2 cell size and test results obtained for it. We show the characteristics of a poly-Si diode select device with a high on-off ratio and data writing in a 4F2 memory cell array. The advantages of nano-GST over conventional GeSbTe are presented in terms of neighboring disturbance and 4F2 cross-point array formation. The memory cells’ high drivability, low power, and selective write and read performances are demonstrated. The scalability of the diode current density is also presented.

  6. Effect of high-temperature annealing on the microstructure and thermoelectric properties of GaP doped SiGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Annealing of GaP doped SiGe will significantly alter the thermoelectric properties of the material resulting in increased performance as measured by the figure of merit Z and the power factor P. The microstructures and corresponding thermoelectric properties after annealing in the 1100 to 1300 C temperature range have been examined to correlate performance improvement with annealing history. The figure of merit and power factor were both improved by homogenizing the material and limiting the amount of cross-doping. Annealing at 1215 C for 100 hr resulted in the best combination of thermoelectric properties with a resultant figure of merit exceeding 1x10 to the -3 deg C to the -1 and a power factor of 44 microW/cm/deg C sq for the temperature range of interest for space power: 400 to 1000 C.

  7. Thermomechanical Analysis on the Phase Stability of Nitrogen-Doped Amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Mok; Cho, Ju-Young; Yang, Tae-Youl; Park, Eun Soo; Joo, Young-Chang

    2011-06-01

    The phase stability of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) films affects the performance and reliability of phase change memory (PRAM) devices. The viscosity and the glass forming ability of nitrogen (N)-doped amorphous GST films were investigated in terms of thermomechanical behavior using wafer curvature measurements. The viscosity which increased by two orders of magnitude was observed in the N-doped amorphous GST film by measuring the stress relaxation accompanied by bimolecular structural relaxation. The glass forming ability (ΔTx), difference between the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the crystallization temperature (Tc), of GST increased as the nitrogen contents increased. These increases in the viscosity and ΔTx indicate the retardation of atomic diffusion in amorphous GST and the stabilization of the amorphous phase.

  8. Impact of In doping on GeTe phase-change materials thin films obtained by means of an innovative plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkutnik, P. D.; Aoukar, M.; Todorova, V.; Angélidès, L.; Pelissier, B.; Jourde, D.; Michallon, P.; Vallée, C.; Noé, P.

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the deposition and the phase-change properties of In-doped GeTe thin films obtained by plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and doped with indium using a solid delivery system. The sublimated indium precursor flow rate was calculated as a function of sublimation and deposition parameters. Indium related optical emission recorded by means of optical emission spectroscopy during deposition plasma allowed proposing the dissociation mechanisms of the [In(CH3)2N(CH3)2]2 solid precursor. In particular, using an Ar + H2 + NH3 deposition plasma, sublimated indium molecules are completely dissociated and do not induce by-product contamination by addition of nitrogen or carbon in the films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy evidences the formation of In-Te bonds in amorphous as-deposited In-doped GeTe films. The formation of an InTe phase after 400 °C annealing is also evidenced by means of X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystallization temperature Tx, deduced from monitoring of optical reflectivity of In-doped GeTe films with doping up to 11 at. % slightly varies as a function of the In dopant level with a decrease of Tx down to a minimum value for an In doping level of about 6-8 at. %. In this In doping range, the structure of crystallized In-GeTe films changes and is dominated by the presence of a crystalline In2Te3 phase. Finally, the Kissinger activation energy for crystallization Ea is showing to monotonically decrease as the indium content in the GeTe film is increased indicating a promising effect of In doping on crystallization speed in memory devices while keeping a good thermal stability for data retention.

  9. Raman Spectroscopy of SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass doped with Nd{sup 3+} and CdS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serqueira, E.O.; Dantas, N.O. [Laboratório de Novos Materiais Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902 (Brazil); Anjos, V. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiais, Departamento de Física, ICE – UFJF, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil); Bell, M.J.V., E-mail: mjvbell@yahoo.com.br [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiais, Departamento de Física, ICE – UFJF, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • The formation of CdS nanocrystals in the glassy host is shown by Raman measurements. • Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} modifies the growth of CdS nanocrystals in the SNAB glass. • Nd{sup 3+} ions are not incorporated inside the semiconductor nanocrystals. -- Abstract: We report the Raman spectroscopic characterization of a SNAB glass system doped with neodymium and CdS nanocrystals and fabricated by the fusion process. Raman spectra revealed CdS nanocrystals in the glass host and bands associated with Si–O vibrational modes with five structural configurations, boroxol modes of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al–O and Cd–S vibrational modes. Additionally, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} modifies the growth of CdS nanocrystals in the SNAB glass and Nd{sup 3+} ions are not incorporated inside the semiconductor nanocrystals.

  10. Epitaxial growth and characterization of Gd2O3-doped HfO2 film on Ge (001) substrates with zero interface layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张心强; 屠海令; 魏峰; 熊玉华; 杨萌萌; 赵洪滨; 杜军; 王文武

    2013-01-01

    The GHO (Gd2O3-doped HfO2) films were epitaxially grown on Ge (001) substrates adopting cube-on-cube mode with zero interface layer using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observation revealed a sharp interface of GHO/Ge and orientation relationship corre-sponding to (001)GHO//(001)Ge and [011] GHO//[011]Ge. The band offset for GHO/Ge stack was evaluated to be 3.92 eV for va-lence band and 1.38 eV for conduction band by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. Small equivalent oxide thickness (0.49 nm) and inter-face state density (7×1011 cm-2) were achieved from Au/Ti/GHO/Ge/Al capacitors.

  11. Formation of Si or Ge nanodots in Si3N4 with in-situ donor modulation doping of adjacent barrier material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. König

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional doping of small nanodots does not provide majority carriers due to self-purification effects and much increased ionisation energies of dopants presenting point defects. Adjacent barrier layers to Si-rich Si3N4 can be doped by excess Si in-situ with the segregation anneal for Si nanodot formation. Donor doping of AlxGa1−xN (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1 with Si is an established process. Material properties and process compatibility of AlxGa1−xN render it suitable as barrier for Si nanodot superlattices. Ab-initio calculations showed that Ge also works as a donor in AlN, extending the material range to Ge and SiGe nanodots in Si3N4.

  12. Hole confinement and dynamics in delta-doped Ge quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsall, M. P.; Dunbar, A. D. F.; Shiraki, Y.; Miura, M.; Wells, J. P. R.

    2004-01-01

    We report picosecond pump-probe studies of the dynamics of inter-level transitions in p-type Ge quantum dot structures using a free electron laser as a source of intense mid-infrared pulses. The wavelength-independent lifetime of around 210 ps is much longer than have been recently reported in SiGe/

  13. Effect of nanocrystals on up-conversion luminescence of Er3+,Yb3+ co-doped glass-ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Yu; Lijuan Zhao; Jie Meng; Qin Liang; Xuanyi Yu; Baiquan Tang; Jingjun Xu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Different up-conversion luminescent spectra of Er3+ ions were observed in the oxyfluoride glass-ceramics.The ratio of two fluorides in the original compositions was modified in order to form different nanocrystals.The intensity of up-conversion luminescence increased sharply when the ratio of PbF2 and CdF2 was 40:10.The data of differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to explain the optimization fluoride ratio. The intensity of up-conversion luminescence is not only decided by the crystallizability but also mainly related with the stoichiometric proportion of fluoride nanocrystals in the glass-ceramics.

  14. Influence of the dopant concentration on structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of Cu-doped ZnS nanocrystals based bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Pathak, Dinesh; Wagner, Tomas; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) and Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by the wet chemical method. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Scanning electron microscopy supplemented with EDAX was employed to observe the morphology and chemical composition of the un-doped and doped samples. A significant blue shift of the absorption band with respect to the un-doped zinc sulphide was sighted by increasing the Cu concentration in the doped sample with decreasing the size of nanoparticles. Consequently, the band gap was tuned from 3.13 to 3.49 eV due to quantum confinement. The green emission arises from the recombination between the shallow donor level (sulfur vacancy) and the t2 level of Cu2+. However, the fluorescence emission spectrum of the undoped ZnS nanoparticles was deconvoluted into two bands, which are centered at 419 and 468 nm. XRD analysis showed that the nanomaterials were in cubic crystalline state. XRD peaks show that there were no massive crystalline distortions in the crystal lattice when the Cu concentration (0.05-0.1 M) was increased in the ZnS lattice. However, in the case of Cu-doped samples (0.15-0.2 M), the XRD pattern showed an additional peak at 37° due to incomplete substitution occurring during the experimental reaction step. A comparative study of surfaces of undoped and Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The synthesized nanomaterial in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was used in the fabrication of solar cells. The devices with ZnS nanoparticles showed an efficiency of 0.31%. The overall power conversion efficiency of the solar cells at 0.1 M Cu content in doped ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 1.6 times higher than the

  15. Complex quantum transport in a modulation doped strained Ge quantum well heterostructure with a high mobility 2D hole gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C.; Casteleiro, C.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.

    2016-09-01

    The complex quantum transport of a strained Ge quantum well (QW) modulation doped heterostructure with two types of mobile carriers has been observed. The two dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in the Ge QW exhibits an exceptionally high mobility of 780 000 cm2/Vs at temperatures below 10 K. Through analysis of Shubnikov de-Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance of this 2DHG below 2 K, the hole effective mass is found to be 0.065 m0. Anomalous conductance peaks are observed at higher fields which deviate from standard Shubnikov de-Haas and quantum Hall effect behaviour due to conduction via multiple carrier types. Despite this complex behaviour, analysis using a transport model with two conductive channels explains this behaviour and allows key physical parameters such as the carrier effective mass, transport, and quantum lifetimes and conductivity of the electrically active layers to be extracted. This finding is important for electronic device applications, since inclusion of highly doped interlayers which are electrically active, for enhancement of, for example, room temperature carrier mobility, does not prevent analysis of quantum transport in a QW.

  16. Electronic and magnetic properties of Mn-doped BeSiAs{sub 2} and BeGeAs{sub 2} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivosheeva, A V; Shaposhnikov, V L; Borisenko, V E [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Browka 6, 220013 Minsk (Belarus); Arnaud D' Avitaya, F; Lazzari, J-L [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille CINAM, UPR CNRS 3118 conventionnee a Aix-Marseille Universite, Case 913, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: anna@nano.bsuir.edu.by

    2009-01-28

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of BeSiAs{sub 2} and BeGeAs{sub 2} chalcopyrite ternary compounds doped with manganese were investigated by means of ab initio calculations. It was found that substitution of Be atoms by Mn increases the lattice constants of both compounds that provide acceptable mismatch with conventional Si, Ge and GaAs substrates. In spite of the increase of the spin polarization upon doping, both compounds possess antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering with the impurity in the group II position whereas ferromagnetic (FM) ordering is obtained in the case of an impurity in the group IV position.

  17. The Upconversion Luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+/Nd3+ Triply-Doped β-NaYF4 Nanocrystals under 808-nm Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lijiao; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Suling; Cui, Yue; Liang, Zhiqin; Zhang, Junjie; Xu, Xurong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, Nd3+–Yb3+–Er3+-doped β-NaYF4 nanocrystals with different Nd3+ concentrations are synthesized, and the luminescence properties of the upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been studied under 808-nm excitation for sensitive biological applications. The upconversion luminescence spectra of NaYF4 nanoparticles with different dopants under 808-nm excitation proves that the Nd3+ ion can absorb the photons effectively, and the Yb3+ ion can play the role of an energy-transfer bridging ion between the Nd3+ ion and Er3+ ion. To investigate the effect of the Nd3+ ion, the decay curves of the 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transition at 540 nm are measured and analyzed. The NaYF4: 20% Yb3+, 2% Er3+, 0.5% Nd3+ nanocrystals have the highest emission intensity among all samples under 808-nm excitation. The UC (upconversion) mechanism under 808-nm excitation is discussed in terms of the experimental results. PMID:28788246

  18. Fabrication of high color rendering index white LED using Cd-free wavelength tunable Zn doped CuInS2 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonkeun; Jung, Hyunchul; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2012-10-22

    Highly luminescent Cd-free Zn doped CuInS(2) nanocrystals (ZCIS NCs) were synthesized, and their properties were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, Raman, UV, and photoluminescence. The crystal structure of the ZCIS NCs was similar to the zinc blende, and the lattice constant decreased with increasing Zn concentration. By incorporation of Zn, the emission wavelength was tuned from 536 to 637 nm with concomitant enhancement of the quantum yield up to 45%. A white light emitting diodes, integrating dual ZCIS NCs (λ(em) = 567, and 617 nm) and a 460 nm InGaN LED, exhibited a high color rendering index of 84.1 with a warm color temperature of 4256.2K. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates were slightly shifted from (0.3626, 0.3378) at 20 mA to (0.3480, 0.3206) at 50 mA.

  19. Structural and compositional study of Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals by HAADF, EELS and HRTEM techniques in an aberration corrected STEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashtiban, R J; Bangert, U; Harvey, A J; Eccles, J [Nanostructured Materials Research Group, School of Materials, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester, M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Crowe, I; Halsall, M P; Sherliker, B [Microelectronics and Nanostructures Research Group, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Knights, A P [Department of Engineering Physics and Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton L8S 4L7, Ontario (Canada); Gwilliam, R [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 5XH (United Kingdom); Gass, M, E-mail: Reza.jalilikashtiban@postgrad.manchester.ac.u [SuperSTEM, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-01

    Er-doped SiO{sub 2} and Si nano-crystals (NCs) embedded in a SiO{sub 2} matrix were produced by ion beam implantation of Si (100) substrates. After annealing Er ions agglomerate in different positions with different compositional properties in samples with and without Si implants. HAADF and EELS show that in the sample with Si implants the Si and Er distribution is identical and within a band of {approx}110nm width {approx}75nm below theSiO{sub 2} surface whereas in the sample with no excess Si, Er forms on average much larger, amorphous aggregates, presumably an Er-oxide, in the SiO{sub 2} matrix with tendency to move towards the surface of the SiO{sub 2} layer.

  20. Dopant concentration and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of tailor-made Ge-doped SiO2 fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahaimi, Nurul Arina; Ooi Abdullah, Mohd Haris Ridzuan; Zin, Hafiz; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Lutfi; Hashim, Suhairul; Saripan, Mohd Iqbal; Paul, Mukul Chandra; Bradley, D. A.; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Taufek

    2014-11-01

    Study focuses on characterisation of diverse concentrations of Ge-doped SiO2 fibre as a potential thermoluminescence (TL) system for radiotherapy dosimetry. Irradiations were made using a linear accelerator providing 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams. Investigation has been done on various doped core diameter Ge-doped SiO2 glass fibres such as commercial telecommunication fibres of 8 μm and 9 μm (CorActive High Tech, Canada), tailor-made fibres of 23 and 50 μm produced by the Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Kolkata, and tailor-made fibres of 11 μm produced by the University of Malaya Photonics Research Centre. The fibres have been characterised for TL sensitivity, reproducibility, dose- and energy-dependence. The area under the TL glow curve increases with increasing core diameter. For repeat irradiations at a fixed dose the dosimeter produces a flat response better than 4% (1SD) of the mean of the TL distribution. Minimal TL signal fading was found, less than 0.5% per day post irradiation. Linearity of TL has been observed with a correlation coefficient (r2) of better than 0.980 (at 95% confidence level). For particular dopant concentrations, the least square fits show the change in TL yield, in counts per second per unit mass, obtained from 50 μm core diameter fibres irradiated at 6 MV of photon to be 8 times greater than that of 8 μm core diameter fibre. With respect to energy response, the TL yield at 10 MV decreases by~5% compared to that at 6 MV, primarily due to the lower mass energy absorption coefficient at higher photon energy. These early results indicate that selectively screened fibres can be developed into a promising TL system, offering high spatial resolution capability and, with this, verification of complex radiotherapy dose distributions.

  1. Structural details of Ge-rich and silver-doped chalcogenide glasses for nanoionic nonvolatile memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitkova, Maria [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); JAEA, 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tenne, Dmitri [Department of Physics, Boise State University, 1910 University Dr., Boise, Idaho 83725-1570 (United States); Bhagat, Shekhar Kumar; Alford, Terry L. [School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8706 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We are reporting our results of Raman and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on amorphous Ge{sub 46}S{sub 54} thin films and the films after silver photodiffusion. Based on the Raman scattering studies, a structural model for amorphous Ge{sub 46}S{sub 54} is suggested including the formation of single Ge-S chains with a vibrational mode at 410 cm{sup -1}. The result of XRD measurement indicates that there exists a medium-range order with about 6 A and acute; even at such Ge-rich composition. After the introduction of silver, the medium-range order is lost and there was a change in the diffraction curve indicative of the change in the local atomic order. The experimental results are explained in terms of our structural model, in connection with the application for fast switching memory devices. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Doping the Buckminsterfullerene by Substitution: Density Functional Theory Studies of C59X (X = B, N, Al, Si, P, Ga, Ge, and As

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcun Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterofullerenes C59X (X = B, N, Al, Si, P, Ga, Ge, and As were investigated by quantum chemistry calculations based on density functional theory. These hybrid cages can be seen as doping the buckminsterfullerene by heteroatom substitution. The geometrical structures, relative stabilities, electronic properties, vibrational frequencies, dielectric constants, and aromaticities of the doped cages were studied systemically and compared with those of the pristine C60 cage. It is found that the doped cages with different heteroatoms exhibit various electronic, vibrational, and aromatic properties. These results imply the possibility to modulate the physical properties of these fullerene-based materials by tuning substitution elements.

  3. Frequency upconversion in Nd{sup 3+} doped PbO–GeO{sub 2} glasses containing silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diego S. da, E-mail: di.silverio@yahoo.com [Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletrônicos, Escola Politécnica da USP, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Assumpção, Thiago A.A. de [Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletrônicos, Escola Politécnica da USP, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kassab, Luciana R.P. [Laboratório de Tecnologia em Materiais Fotônicos e Optoeletrônicos, Faculdade de Tecnologia de São Paulo (FATEC-SP, CEETEPS), 01124-060 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Araújo, Cid B. de [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Frequency upconversion in Nd{sup 3+} doped glasses with silver nanoparticles was investigated. • Photoluminescence bands centered at 535, 600 and 670 nm were observed in the emission spectrum. • Measurements show that two laser photons contribute for the emission of each upconverted photon. • The results show for the first time the influence of silver nanoparticles in Nd{sup 3+} doped glasses. -- Abstract: Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion (UC) in Nd{sup 3+}-doped PbO–GeO{sub 2} (PGO) glasses containing silver nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. The excitation was made at 805 nm, in resonance with the Nd{sup 3+} transition {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} → {sup 4}F{sub 5/2}. Photoluminescence (PL) bands centered at 535 nm, 600 nm and 670 nm were observed corresponding to the electronic transitions {sup 4}G{sub 7/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, [{sup 4}G{sub 7/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}], and [{sup 4}G{sub 7/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 11/2}], respectively. The quadratic dependence of the UC intensity versus the laser intensity indicates that two laser photons contribute for the emission of each upconverted photon. The results show for the first time that the nucleation of silver NPs in Nd{sup 3+}-doped PGO glasses contributes to increase the UC efficiency and the PL enhancement reached ≈50% for the samples with the maximum concentration of NPs.

  4. One-step thermal-treatment route to fabricate well-dispersed ZnO nanocrystals on nitrogen-doped graphene for enhanced electrochemiluminescence and ultrasensitive detection of pentachlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ding; Du, Xiaojiao; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Lei; Qian, Jing; Wang, Kun

    2015-02-11

    Heteroatom doping enables graphene with novel properties and thus may broaden the potential of graphene-based materials. In this paper, novel ZnO-nanocrystal-decorated nitrogen-doped graphene (N-GR) composites were prepared through a one-step thermal-treatment route using glycine as the nitrogen source. ZnO nanocrystals with a size about 8 nm were well-dispersed and tightly anchored on the N-GR sheet. Compared with ZnO-nanocrystal-decorated undoped graphene, the ZnO/N-GR nanocomposites could not only enhance the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity by 4.3-fold but also moved the ECL onset potential positively for ∼200 mV. All these results could be ascribed to the presence of nitrogen in graphene which decreased the barrier of ZnO nanocrystals reduction. Furthermore, the ECL sensor based on ZnO/N-GR nanocomposites was fabricated for the ultrasensitive detection of pentachlorophenol (PCP). This recyclable and eco-friendly sensor has excellent performances including wide linear range (0.5 pM to ∼61.1 nM), low detection limit (0.16 pM, S/N=3), good selectivity, and stability, which is a promising sensor for practical application in environment analysis.

  5. Three-dimensional fabrication and characterisation of core-shell nano-columns using electron beam patterning of Ge-doped SiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel C.; Jinschek, Joerg R.; Ou, Haiyan;

    2012-01-01

    A focused electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is used to create arrays of core-shell structures in a specimen of amorphous SiO2 doped with Ge. The same electron microscope is then used to measure the changes that occurred in the specimen in three dimensions using e...

  6. Preparation and Optical Absorption Performance of Si Single Quantum Dots and Si/Ge Double Quantum Dots Doped TiO2 Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixia; He, Fang; Sun, Zuwen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Fengjiao; Huang, Yuan; Gu, Ruisona

    2015-02-01

    Si single quantum dots (QDs) and Si/Ge double QDs doped TiO2 films were successfully fabricated via layer-by-layer ion beam sputtering assisted by annealing treatment, and their morphology and optical absorption performance were analyzed in this paper. TEM images show that Si QDs and Si/Ge double QDs prepared in the TiO2 matrix are in a uniform size distribution and high density, especially after annealed at 500 °C. XPS results indicate that Si in the TiO2 films mainly exists in the form of elemental Si and SiO2, and Ge is in elemental form. From the optical absorption spectra, the optical response of the TiO2 films is shifted from ultraviolet to visible and near infrared region when they are doped by the QDs, and the Si/Ge double QDs co-doped TiO2 films show better optical response compared with the Si QDs doped TiO2 films, suggesting a hybrid enhanced effect of double QDs.

  7. Chemiluminescence of Mn-Doped ZnS Nanocrystals Induced by Direct Chemical Oxidation and Ionic Liquid-Sensitized Effect as an Efficient and Green Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Naser Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel chemiluminescence (CL method was proposed for doping water-soluble Mn in ZnS quantum dots (QDs as CL emitter. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solution. These nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, dynamic light scattering (DLS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL emission spectroscopy. The CL of ZnS QDs was induced directly by chemical oxidation and its ionic liquid-sensitized effect in aqueous solution was then investigated. It was found that oxidants, especially hydrogen peroxide, could directly oxidize ZnS QDs to produce weak CL emission in basic solutions. In the presence of 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide/copper, a drastic light emission enhancement was observed which is related to a strong interaction between Cu2+ and the imidazolium ring. In these conditions, an efficient CL light was produced at low pH which is suggested to be beneficial to the biological analysis. The CL properties of QDs not only will be helpful to study physical chemistry properties of semiconductor nanocrystals but also they are expected to find use in many fields such as luminescence devices, bioanalysis, and multicolor labeling probes.

  8. CdTe Nanocrystal Hetero-Junction Solar Cells with High Open Circuit Voltage Based on Sb-doped TiO₂ Electron Acceptor Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaozi; Liu, Xinyan; Wen, Shiya; Liu, Songwei; Heng, Jingxuan; Qin, Donghuan; Hou, Lintao; Wu, Hongbin; Xu, Wei; Huang, Wenbo

    2017-05-03

    We propose Sb-doped TiO₂ as electron acceptor material for depleted CdTe nanocrystal (NC) hetero-junction solar cells. Novel devices with the architecture of FTO/ZnO/Sb:TiO₂/CdTe/Au based on CdTe NC and TiO₂ precursor are fabricated by rational ambient solution process. By introducing TiO₂ with dopant concentration, we are able to tailor the optoelectronic properties of NC solar cells. Our novel devices demonstrate a very high open circuit voltage of 0.74 V, which is the highest Voc reported for any CdTe NC based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells increases with the increase of Sb-doped content from 1% to 3%, then decreases almost linearly with further increase of Sb content due to the recombination effect. The champion device shows Jsc, Voc, FF, and PCE of 14.65 mA/cm², 0.70 V, 34.44, and 3.53% respectively, which is prospective for solution processed NC solar cells with high Voc.

  9. Defect evolution and its impact on the ferromagnetism of Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals upon thermal treatment: A positron annihilation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Yuqian; Zhang, Q. K.; Qi, N.; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, S. J.; Li, P. H.; Mascher, P.

    2017-01-01

    CuO/ZnO nanocomposites with 4 at. % CuO were annealed in air at various temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C to produce Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals. X-ray diffraction shows that a CuO phase can be observed in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites annealed at different temperatures, and the Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals are identified to be of wurtzite structure. The main peak (101) appears at slightly lower diffraction angles with increasing annealing temperature from 400 up to 1200 °C, which confirms the successful doping of Cu into the ZnO lattice above 400 °C. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that most particles in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites are isolated when annealing at 100-400 °C, but these particles have a tendency to form clusters or aggregates as the annealing temperature increases from 700 to 1000 °C. Positron annihilation measurements reveal a large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature up to 1000 °C. Room-temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites, and the magnetization decreases continuously with increasing annealing temperature. However, there may be several different origins of ferromagnetism in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. At low annealing temperatures, the ferromagnetism originates from the CuO nanograins, and the ferromagnetism of CuO nanograins decreases with an increase in the grain size after subsequent higher temperature annealing, which leads to the weakening of ferromagnetism in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. After annealing from 400 to 1000 °C, the ferromagnetism gradually vanishes. The ferromagnetism is probably induced by Cu substitution but is mediated by vacancy defects in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. The disappearance of ferromagnetism coincides well with the recovery of vacancy defects. It can be inferred that the ferromagnetism is mediated by vacancy defects that are distributed in the interface region.

  10. Characterization of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) Ge for low temperature sensor development

    CERN Document Server

    Mathimalar, S; Dokania, N; Nanal, V; Pillay, R G; Pal, S; Ramakrishnan, S; Shrivastava, A; Maheshwari, Priya; Pujari, P K; Ojha, S; Kanjilal, D; Jagadeesan, K C; Thakare, S V

    2014-01-01

    Development of NTD Ge sensors has been initiated for low temperature (mK) thermometry in The India-based Tin detector (TIN.TIN). NTD Ge sensors are prepared by thermal neutron irradiation of device grade Ge samples at Dhruva reactor, BARC, Mumbai. Detailed measurements have been carried out in irradiated samples for estimating the carrier concentration and fast neutron induced defects. The Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) measurements indicated monovacancy type defects for all irradiated samples, while Channeling studies employing RBS with 2 MeV alpha particles, revealed no significant defects in the samples exposed to fast neutron fluence of $\\sim 4\\times10^{16}/cm^2$. Both PALS and Channeling studies have shown that vacuum annealing at 600 $^\\circ$C for $\\sim2$ hours is sufficient to recover the damage in the irradiated samples, thereby making them suitable for the sensor development.

  11. A controllable growth-doping approach to synthesize bright white-light-emitting Cd:In2S3 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian; Zhu, Hui; Yang, Xiurong

    2013-06-01

    A new type of doped Cd:In2S3 NC, which exhibits bright white-light emission with a QY of about 18%, synthesized by a one-pot G-doping synthesis approach is presented. The successful realization of temporal separation of nucleation doping and growth doping makes this approach a facile method to synthesize the In2S3/Cd:In2S3 core/shell nanostructure.A new type of doped Cd:In2S3 NC, which exhibits bright white-light emission with a QY of about 18%, synthesized by a one-pot G-doping synthesis approach is presented. The successful realization of temporal separation of nucleation doping and growth doping makes this approach a facile method to synthesize the In2S3/Cd:In2S3 core/shell nanostructure. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthetic procedure, ICP-MS, TEM, HRTEM, PL decay curves, CIE coordinates and CCT of Cd:In2S3 NCs, and PL spectra of In2S3 and CdS. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00878a

  12. Exploiting the colloidal nanocrystal library to construct electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Wang, Han; Oh, Soong Ju; Paik, Taejong; Sung, Pil; Sung, Jinwoo; Ye, Xingchen; Zhao, Tianshuo; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Murray, Christopher B.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high-dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second.

  13. Doped and Undoped Zinc Oxide Nanostructures on Silicon Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubenko, E.; Bondarenko, V.

    2013-05-01

    We present results of hydrothermal deposition of undoped and Al doped ZnO nanocrystals on nanocrystalline silicon. ZnO nanocrystals were deposited in an equimolar zinc nitride and hexamethylenetetramine solution. Aluminum nitride was used as Al precursor. The difference of the morphology of doped and undoped ZnO nanocrystals is discussed. Photoluminescence properties of the obtained nanocrystals are shown.

  14. Germanene termination of Ge2Pt crystals on Ge(110)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Zhang, Lijie; Safaei, A.; van Gastel, Raoul; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the growth of Pt on Ge(1 1 0) using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The deposition of several monolayers of Pt on Ge(1 1 0) followed by annealing at 1100 K results in the formation of 3D metallic Pt-Ge nanocrystals. The outermost layer of these crystals exhibits

  15. Microstructure and magnetic behavior of Mn doped GeTe chalcogenide semiconductors based phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Adam Abdalla Elbashir; Cheng, Xiaomin; Abuelhassan, Hassan H.; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2017-06-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) are the most promising candidates to be used as an active media in the universal data storage and spintronic devices, due to their large differences in physical properties of the amorphous-crystalline phase transition behavior. In the present study, the microstructure, magnetic and electrical behaviors of Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film were investigated. The crystallographic structure of Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film was studied sing X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM). The XRD pattern showed that the crystallization structure of the film was rhombohedral phase for GeTe with a preference (202) orientation. The HR-TEM image of the crystalline Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film demonstrated that, there were two large crystallites and small amorphous areas. The magnetization as a function of the magnetic field analyses of both amorphous and crystalline states showed the ferromagnetic hysteretic behaviors. Then, the hole carriers concentration of the film was measured and it found to be greater than 1021 cm-3 at room temperature. Moreover, the anomalous of Hall Effect (AHE) was clearly observed for the measuring temperatures 5, 10 and 50 K. The results demonstrated that the magnitude of AHE decreased when the temperature was increasing.

  16. Electron transport in n-doped Si/SiGe quantum cascade structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazic, I.; Ikonic, Z.; Milanovic, V.; Kelsall, R.W.; Indjin, D.; Harrison, P.

    2007-01-01

    An electron transport model in n-Si/SiGe quantum cascade or superlattice structures is described. The model uses the electronic structure calculated within the effective-mass complex-energy framework, separately for perpendicular (Xz) and in-plane (Xxy) valleys, the degeneracy of which is lifted by

  17. Electron transport in n-doped Si/SiGe quantum cascade structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazic, I.; Ikonic, Z.; Milanovic, V.; Kelsall, R.W.; Indjin, D.; Harrison, P.

    2007-01-01

    An electron transport model in n-Si/SiGe quantum cascade or superlattice structures is described. The model uses the electronic structure calculated within the effective-mass complex-energy framework, separately for perpendicular (Xz) and in-plane (Xxy) valleys, the degeneracy of which is lifted by

  18. Pack cementation Cr-Al coating of steels and Ge-doped silicide coating of Cr-Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.R.; Zheng, M.H.; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Carbon steels or low-alloy steels used in utility boilers, heat exchangers, petrochemical plants and coal gasification systems are subjected to high temperature corrosion attack such as oxidation, sulfidation and hot corrosion. The pack cementation coating process has proven to be an economical and effective method to enhance the corrosion resistance by modifying the surface composition of steels. With the aid of a computer program, STEPSOL, pack cementation conditions to produce a ferrite Cr-Al diffusion coating on carbon-containing steels by using elemental Cr and Al powders have been calculated and experimentally verified. The cyclic oxidation kinetics for the Cr-Al coated steels are presented. Chromium silicide can maintain high oxidation resistance up to 1100{degrees}C by forming a SiO{sub 2} protective scale. Previous studies at Ohio State University have shown that the cyclic oxidation resistance of MOSi{sub 2} and TiSi{sub 2} can be further improved by Ge addition introduced during coating growth. The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating in a single processing step for the ORNL-developed Cr-Nb advanced intermetallic alloy. The oxidation behavior of the silicide-coated Cr-Nb alloy was excellent: weight gain of about 1 mg/cm{sup 2} upon oxidation at 1100{degrees}C in air for 100 hours.

  19. Photoluminescence of transparent glass-ceramics based on ZnO nanocrystals and co-doped with Eu3+, Yb3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzumanyan, Grigory M.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny A.; Zhilin, Aleksandr A.; Dymshits, Olga S.; Shemchuk, Daria V.; Alekseeva, Irina P.; Mudryi, Alexandr V.; Zhivulko, Vadim D.; Borodavchenko, Olga M.

    2016-12-01

    Glasses of the K2Osbnd ZnOsbnd Al2O3sbnd SiO2 system co-doped with Eu2O3 and Yb2O3 were prepared by the melt-quenching technique. Transparent zincite (ZnO) glass-ceramics were obtained by secondary heat-treatments at 680-860 °C. At 860 °C, traces of Eu oxyapatite appeared in addition to ZnO nanocrystals. The average crystal size obtained from the X-ray diffraction data was found to range between 14 and 35 nm. Absorption spectra of the initial glasses are composed of an absorption edge and absorption bands due to electronic transitions of Eu3+ ions. With heat-treatment, the absorption edge pronouncedly shifts to the visible spectral range. The luminescence properties of the glass and glass-ceramics were studied by measuring their excitation and emission spectra at 300, 78, and 4.2 K. Strong red emission of Eu3+ ions dominated by the 5D0-7F2 (612 nm) electric dipole transition was detected. Changes in the luminescence properties of the Eu3+-related excitation and emission bands were observed after heat-treatments at 680 °C and 860 °C. The ZnO nanocrystals showed both broad luminescence (400-850 nm) and free-exciton emission near 3.3 eV at room temperature. The upconversion luminescence spectrum of the initial glass was obtained under excitation of the 976 nm laser source.

  20. Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances exploiting heavily-doped Ge on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P.; Sakat, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Calandrini, E.; Samarelli, A.; Gallacher, K.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G.; Paul, D. J.; Ortolani, M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the behavior of mid-infrared localized plasmon resonances in elongated germanium antennas integrated on silicon substrates. Calculations based on Mie theory and on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constant allow us to study the tunability and the figures of merit of plasmon resonances in heavily-doped germanium and to preliminarily compare them with those of the most established plasmonic material, gold.

  1. Theoretical Modeling for the Interaction of Tin Alloying With N-Type Doping and Tensile Strain for GeSn Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhdeo, David; Kim, Yeji; Gupta, Shashank; Saraswat, Krishna; Dutt, Birendra; Nam, Donguk

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the interaction of tin alloying with tensile strain and n-type doping for improving the performance of a Ge-based laser for on-chip optical interconnects. Using a modified tight-binding formalism that incorporates the effect of tin alloying on conduction band changes, we calculate how threshold current density and slope efficiency are affected by tin alloying in the presence of tensile strain and n-type doping. Our results show that while there exists a negative interaction between tin alloying and n-type doping, tensile strain can be effectively combined with tin alloying to dramatically improve the Ge gain medium in terms of both reducing the threshold and increasing the expected slope efficiency. Through quantitative modeling we find the best design to include large amounts of both tin alloying and tensile strain but only moderate amounts of n-type doping if researchers seek to achieve the best possible performance in a Ge-based laser.

  2. XRD and EXAFS studies on the structure of Er{sup 3+}-doped SiO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} glass-ceramic waveguides: Er{sup 3+}-activated HfO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afify, N D; Dalba, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Rocca, F [IFN-CNR, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sezione ' FBK-CeFSA' di Trento, Via alla Cascata 56/C, I-38123 Povo (Trento) (Italy)], E-mail: rocca@science.unitn.it

    2009-06-07

    This paper describes the structure of Er{sup 3+}-doped SiO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} waveguides containing nanocrystals of HfO{sub 2}. Pure and 1 mol% Er{sup 3+}-doped 70SiO{sub 2}-30HfO{sub 2} films were deposited by the sol-gel method on amorphous SiO{sub 2} substrates using the dip-coating technique. Each waveguide has experienced a single thermal treatment at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 deg. C, for either short (30 min) or long (24 h) durations. Crystallization and microstructure were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The local environments of hafnium and erbium ions were determined, respectively, from Hf and Er L{sub 3}-edges extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments. Both XRD and EXAFS results demonstrate the substitution of Hf{sup 4+} by Er{sup 3+} ions in the crystalline structure. XRD shows the nucleation of tetragonal HfO{sub 2} nanocrystals after heat treatment at 1000 deg. C for 30 min in the pure waveguide, and at 900 deg. C for 24 h in the waveguide doped with Er{sup 3+}. In both series, partial transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic HfO{sub 2} nanocrystals starts after heat treatment at 1100 deg. C for 24 h. The average crystallite size and size distribution can be controlled by thermal annealing temperature and duration, respectively, with brief treatment yielding a more homogeneous nanocrystal size.

  3. A study on the properties of C-doped Ge8Sb2Te11 thin films during an amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol-Jin; Kong, Heon; Lee, Hyun-Yong; Yeo, Jong-Bin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we evaluated the structural, electrical and optical properties of carbon-doped Ge8Sb2Te11 thin films. In a previous work, GeSbTe alloys were doped with different materials in an attempt to improve the thermal stability. Ge8Sb2Te11 and carbon-doped Ge8Sb2Te11 films of 250 nm in thickness were deposited on p-type Si (100) and glass substrates by using a RF magnetron reactive co-sputtering system at room temperature. The fabricated films were annealed in a furnance in the 0 ~ 400°C temperature range. The structural properties were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the result showed that the carbon-doped Ge8Sb2Te11 had a face-centeredcubic (fcc) crystalline structure and an increased crystallization temperature ( T c ). An increase in the T c leads to thermal stability in the amorphous state. The optical properties were analyzed by using an UV-Vis-IR spectrophotometer, and the result showed an increase in the optical-energy band gap ( E op ) in the crystalline materials and an increase in the E op difference (Δ E op ), which is a good effect for reducing the noise in the memory device. The electrical properties were analyzed by using a 4-point probe, which showed an increase in the sheet resistance ( R s ) in the amorphous state and the crystalline state, which means a reduced programming current in the memory device.

  4. Room temperature ferromagnetism in low dose ion implanted counter-doped Ge:Mn, As

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donarelli, M.; Kazakova, O.; Ortolani, L.; Morandi, V.; Impellizzeri, G.; Priolo, F.; Passacantando, M.; Ottaviano, L.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate room-temperature ferromagnetism in germanium counter-doped with manganese and arsenic at concentrations up to approximately 2.1 × 1020 at/cm3: these values are one order of magnitude lower than those at which ferromagnetic behavior has previously been observed. Synthesis proceeded by ion implantation at 513 K followed by annealing in argon at 673 K. High resolution TEM, STEM, and EDX show single-phase diamond cubic material lacking Mn or As precipitates. These findings are consistent with the prediction of Chen et al. that counter-doping with approximately equal concentrations of a single-electron donor permits Mn, a two-electron acceptor, to be incorporated at high enough concentrations to yield a diluted magnetic semiconductor with a Curie temperature above room temperature.

  5. Optical investigations of InGaN heterostructures and GeSn nanocrystals for photonic and phononic applications: light emitting diodes and phonon cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Shopan din Ahmad

    InGaN heterostructures are at the core of blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) which are the basic building blocks for energy efficient and environment friendly modern white light generating sources. Through quantum confinement and electronic band structure tuning on the opposite end of the spectrum, Ge1-xSnx alloys have recently attracted significant interest due to its potential role as a silicon compatible infra-red (IR) optical material for photodetectors and LEDs owing to transition to direct bandgap with increasing Sn. This thesis is dedicated to establishing an understanding of the optical processes and carrier dynamics in InGaN heterostructures for achieving more efficient visible light emitters and terahertz generating nanocavities and in colloidal Ge1-xSnx quantum dots (QDs) for developing efficient silicon compatible optoelectronics. To alleviate the electron overflow, which through strong experimental evidence is revealed to be the dominating mechanism responsible for efficiency degradation at high injection in InGaN based blue LEDs, different strategies involving electron injectors and optimized active regions have been developed. Effectiveness of optimum electron injector (EI) layers in reducing electron overflow and increasing quantum efficiency of InGaN based LEDs was demonstrated by photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence spectroscopy along with numerical simulations. Increasing the two-layer EI thickness in double heterostructure LEDs substantially reduced the electron overflow and increased external quantum efficiency (EQE) by three fold. By incorporating delta p-doped InGaN barriers in multiple quantum well (MQW) LEDs, 20% enhancement in EQE was achieved due to improved hole injection without degrading the layer quality. Carrier diffusion length, an important physical parameter that directly affects the performance of optoelectronic devices, was measured in epitaxial GaN using PL spectroscopy. The obtained diffusion lengths at room

  6. Photoelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide using Ge doped GaN nanowire photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the direct conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2 in a photoelectrochemical cell consisting of germanium doped gallium nitride nanowire anode and copper (Cu cathode. Various products including methane (CH4, carbon monoxide (CO, and formic acid (HCOOH were observed under light illumination. A Faradaic efficiency of ∼10% was measured for HCOOH. Furthermore, this photoelectrochemical system showed enhanced stability for 6 h CO2 reduction reaction on low cost, large area Si substrates.

  7. Effect of Al Doping on ZnO Nanocrystals Synthesized by Methanol Alcoholysis Method%Al掺杂对甲醇醇解法合成ZnO纳米粉体的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义川; 胡跃辉; 张效华; 杨丰; 陈新华; 陈俊

    2011-01-01

    采用醇解法,在130℃的甲醇溶液中分别合成纯的和Al掺杂纳米氧化锌(ZnO)晶体.使用X射线衍射仪,透射电子显微镜,Fourier红外光谱和偏振稳态荧光光谱对其晶体结构和光学性能进行了表征.结果表明:在甲醇溶液中,在较低的温度(130℃)下,成功制备出纳米ZnO晶体.Fourier红外吸收光谱表明醇解法合成的ZnO纳米晶体含有较少的有机物杂质.荧光光谱结果可以看出,纯ZnO和Al掺杂的ZnO纳米晶体在可见光范围(400nm~700nm)内有一个高的蓝光发光带(峰位为440nm)和一个绿光发光带(纯的和Al掺杂的峰位分别为520nm和530nm).通过对比发现掺杂Al可以有效的改变ZnO纳米粉体的可见光发光特性.%Undoped ZnO and Al doped ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by the methanol alcoholysis method at 130℃. Structure, morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanocrystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The results show that ZnO nanocrystals can be obtained in methanol solution at low temperature (130℃)). FTIR spectra show that ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by the methanol alcoholysis include a little organic impurity. PL spectra reveal that pure ZnO and Al doped ZnO nanocrystals have a blue band emission at 440 nm and a green band emission at 520 nm and 530 nm, respectively. Compared with the pure ZnO nanocrystals, the Al doping improves the luminescent properties.

  8. Hydrophobic sodium fluoride-based nanocrystals doped with lanthanide ions: assessment of in vitro toxicity to human blood lymphocytes and phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Bartusova, Maria; Banski, Mateusz; Misiewicz, Jan; Dusinska, Maria; Horvathova, Mira; Jahnova, Eva; Ilavska, Silvia; Szabova, Michaela; Rollerova, Eva; Podhorodecki, Artur; Tulinska, Jana

    2014-11-01

    In vitro immunotoxicity of hydrophobic sodium fluoride-based nanocrystals (NCs) doped with lanthanide ions was examined in this study. Although there is already a significant amount of optical and structural data on NaYF4 NCs, data on safety assessment are missing. Therefore, peripheral whole blood from human volunteers was used to evaluate the effect of 25 and 30 nm hydrophobic NaYF4 NCs dissolved in cyclohexane (CH) on lymphocytes, and of 10 nm NaYF4 NCs on phagocytes. In the concentration range 0.12-75 µg cm(-2) (0.17-106 µg ml(-1) ), both 25 and 30nm NaYF4 NCs did not induce cytotoxicity when measured as incorporation of [(3) H]-thymidine into DNA. Assessment of lymphocyte function showed significant suppression of the proliferative activity of T-lymphocytes and T-dependent B-cell response in peripheral blood cultures (n = 7) stimulated in vitro with mitogens phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed (PWM) (PHA > PWM). No clear dose-response effect was observed. Phagocytic activity and respiratory burst of leukocytes (n = 5-8) were generally less affected. A dose-dependent suppression of phagocytic activity of granulocytes in cultures treated with 25 nm NCs was observed (vs. medium control). A decrease in phagocytic activity of monocytes was found in cells exposed to higher doses of 10 and 30 nm NCs. The respiratory burst of phagocytes was significantly decreased by exposure to the middle dose of 30 nm NCs only. In conclusion, our results demonstrate immunotoxic effects of hydrophobic NaYF4 NCs doped with lanthanide ions to lymphocytes and to lesser extent to phagocytes. Further research needs to be done, particularly faze transfer of hydrophobic NCs to hydrophilic ones, to eliminate the solvent effect.

  9. Highly Emissive Divalent-Ion-Doped Colloidal CsPb1-xMxBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Cation Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stam, Ward; Geuchies, Jaco J; Altantzis, Thomas; van den Bos, Karel H W; Meeldijk, Johannes D; Van Aert, Sandra; Bals, Sara; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; de Mello Donega, Celso

    2017-03-22

    Colloidal CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising phosphors and solar cell materials due to their remarkable optoelectronic properties. These properties can be tailored by not only controlling the size and shape of the NCs but also postsynthetic composition tuning through topotactic anion exchange. In contrast, property control by cation exchange is still underdeveloped for colloidal CsPbX3 NCs. Here, we present a method that allows partial cation exchange in colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs, whereby Pb(2+) is exchanged for several isovalent cations, resulting in doped CsPb1-xMxBr3 NCs (M= Sn(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+); 0 cells upon incorporation of the guest cations. The partial Pb(2+) for M(2+) exchange leads to a blue-shift of the optical spectra, while maintaining the high photoluminescence quantum yields (>50%), sharp absorption features, and narrow emission of the parent CsPbBr3 NCs. The blue-shift in the optical spectra is attributed to the lattice contraction that accompanies the Pb(2+) for M(2+) cation exchange and is observed to scale linearly with the lattice contraction. This work opens up new possibilities to engineer the properties of halide perovskite NCs, which to date are demonstrated to be the only known system where cation and anion exchange reactions can be sequentially combined while preserving the original NC shape, resulting in compositionally diverse perovskite NCs.

  10. Worm-Shape Pt Nanocrystals Grown on Nitrogen-Doped Low-Defect Graphene Sheets: Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Methanol Oxidation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huajie; Ma, Lulu; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Jiang, Quanguo; Yin, Kuibo; Zhou, Wu; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-12-27

    Although direct methanol fuel cell offers high energy use efficiency and low pollution emission, the lack of suitable electrode materials poses a great challenge to its commercial application. Herein, a facile and scalable approach is developed to fabricate a hybrid electrocatalyst consisting of strongly coupled worm-shape Pt nanocrystals and nitrogen-doped low-defect graphene (N-LDG) sheets. Interestingly, it is found that the formation of Pt nanoworms (NWs) is induced by the N atoms in the high-quality carbon matrix, which also allows the integration of their respective structural advantages and leads to a strong synergetic coupling effect. As a result, the obtained Pt NW/N-LDG catalyst exhibits an extremely high mass activity of 1283.1 mA mg(-1) toward methanol oxidation reaction, accompanied by reliable long-term stability and good antipoisoning ability, which are dramatically enhanced as compared with conventional Pt nanoparticle catalysts dispersed on undoped LDG, reduced graphene oxide, and commercial carbon black supports.

  11. Highly transparent conductive electrode with ultra-low HAZE by grain boundary modification of aqueous solution fabricated alumina-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nian, Qiong; Cheng, Gary J. [Birck Nanotechnology Center and School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Callahan, Michael; Bailey, John [Greentech Solutions, Inc., Hanson, Massachusetts 02341 (United States); Look, David [Semiconductor Research Center, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Efstathiadis, Harry [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE), University of Albany, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Commercial production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) polycrystalline films requires high electrical conductivity with minimal degradation in optical transparency. Aqueous solution deposited TCO films would reduce production costs of TCO films but suffer from low electrical mobility, which severely degrades both electrical conductivity and optical transparency in the visible spectrum. Here, we demonstrated that grain boundary modification by ultra-violet laser crystallization (UVLC) of solution deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals results in high Hall mobility, with a corresponding dramatic improvement in AZO electrical conductance. The AZO films after laser irradiation exhibit electrical mobility up to 18.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} with corresponding electrical resistivity and sheet resistances as low as 1 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and 75 Ω/sq, respectively. The high mobility also enabled a high transmittance (T) of 88%-96% at 550 nm for the UVLC films. In addition, HAZE measurement shows AZO film scattering transmittance as low as 1.8%, which is superior over most other solution deposited transparent electrode alternatives such as silver nanowires. Thus, AZO films produced by the UVLC technique have a combined figure of merit for electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and optical HAZE higher than other solution based deposition techniques and comparable to vacuumed based deposition methods.

  12. Highly Emissive Divalent-Ion-Doped Colloidal CsPb1–xMxBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Cation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising phosphors and solar cell materials due to their remarkable optoelectronic properties. These properties can be tailored by not only controlling the size and shape of the NCs but also postsynthetic composition tuning through topotactic anion exchange. In contrast, property control by cation exchange is still underdeveloped for colloidal CsPbX3 NCs. Here, we present a method that allows partial cation exchange in colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs, whereby Pb2+ is exchanged for several isovalent cations, resulting in doped CsPb1–xMxBr3 NCs (M= Sn2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+; 0 50%), sharp absorption features, and narrow emission of the parent CsPbBr3 NCs. The blue-shift in the optical spectra is attributed to the lattice contraction that accompanies the Pb2+ for M2+ cation exchange and is observed to scale linearly with the lattice contraction. This work opens up new possibilities to engineer the properties of halide perovskite NCs, which to date are demonstrated to be the only known system where cation and anion exchange reactions can be sequentially combined while preserving the original NC shape, resulting in compositionally diverse perovskite NCs. PMID:28260380

  13. Highly transparent conductive electrode with ultra-low HAZE by grain boundary modification of aqueous solution fabricated alumina-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Nian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercial production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO polycrystalline films requires high electrical conductivity with minimal degradation in optical transparency. Aqueous solution deposited TCO films would reduce production costs of TCO films but suffer from low electrical mobility, which severely degrades both electrical conductivity and optical transparency in the visible spectrum. Here, we demonstrated that grain boundary modification by ultra-violet laser crystallization (UVLC of solution deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO nanocrystals results in high Hall mobility, with a corresponding dramatic improvement in AZO electrical conductance. The AZO films after laser irradiation exhibit electrical mobility up to 18.1 cm2 V−1 s−1 with corresponding electrical resistivity and sheet resistances as low as 1 × 10−3 Ω cm and 75 Ω/sq, respectively. The high mobility also enabled a high transmittance (T of 88%-96% at 550 nm for the UVLC films. In addition, HAZE measurement shows AZO film scattering transmittance as low as 1.8%, which is superior over most other solution deposited transparent electrode alternatives such as silver nanowires. Thus, AZO films produced by the UVLC technique have a combined figure of merit for electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and optical HAZE higher than other solution based deposition techniques and comparable to vacuumed based deposition methods.

  14. Optical and structural characterisation of pure and Pr{sup 3+} doped LaPO{sub 4} and CePO{sub 4} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macalik, L., E-mail: L.Macalik@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okolna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Tomaszewski, P.E. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okolna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Matraszek, A.; Szczygiel, I. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Economics, Wroclaw University of Economics, ul. Komandorska 118/120, 53-345 Wroclaw (Poland); Solarz, P. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okolna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Godlewska, P. [Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Economics, Wroclaw University of Economics, ul. Komandorska 118/120, 53-345 Wroclaw (Poland); Sobczyk, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Hanuza, J. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okolna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Economics, Wroclaw University of Economics, ul. Komandorska 118/120, 53-345 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2011-07-07

    Highlights: > The nanoparticles (12-30 nm) of hydrated (hexagonal) and water-free (monoclinic) phases of lanthanum and cerium orthophosphates La(Ce)PO{sub 4} were obtained by the hydrothermal method. > Differences between hexagonal and monoclinic nanocrystals are very well reflected in the vibrational spectra and a slight influence of the environment conditions (pH) of the crystallisation is found. > The structure differences and environment conditions of the crystallisation (pH) play role in the luminescent properties. - Abstract: The rod- and stick-shaped nanocrystalline cerium and lanthanum orthophosphates, pure and Pr{sup 3+} doped, have been synthesised by the hydrothermal method in acidic (pH 1) or alkaline (pH 11) environment. Subsequent calcination of as-obtained powders at different temperatures, 500 and 900 deg. C, led to the formation of hexagonal and monoclinic phases, respectively. The hexagonal phase at room temperature has been identified as hydrated orthophosphate with zeolite water inside the channels of the structure. The monoclinic phase is free of water. The average grain size is about 12-30 nm depending on the calcination temperature and preparation conditions. The structural, morphological and optical (vibrational and luminescent) properties have been characterised and their changes due to the temperature and different acidity in the starting materials have been studied.

  15. Ag掺杂对Ge2 Sb2 Te5结晶行为的影响%Crystallization behavior of phase change material Ge2 Sb2 Te5 doped with Ag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滔; 郑坤; 张斌; 邵瑞文; 韩晓东; 张泽

    2014-01-01

    通过磁控溅射仪制备了Ge2 Sb2 Te5( GST)和Ag10�6( GST)89�4薄膜,利用X射线衍射( XRD)、电阻-温度( R-T)测试、透射电子显微学以及径向分布函数(RDF)等方法对比研究了GST和Ag10�6(GST)89�4的结晶过程和微观结构及其演化的差异。发现掺Ag的薄膜非晶态、晶态电阻均比GST更高,而且结晶过程只有非晶相到面心立方相( fcc)的转变,没有出现GST的非晶到fcc再到六方相( hcp)的过程,XRD分析进一步证实了这一结果。同时,透射电镜原位加热实验证实了在300℃时,Ag10�6( GST)89�4仍然保持着fcc结构,而GST中已经出现了hcp相。通过统计230℃下时效处理的晶态薄膜的晶粒尺寸,发现Ag10�6( GST)89�4的平均晶粒尺寸小于Ge2 Sb2 Te5薄膜的,这可能是造成其晶态电阻高于GST的主要原因。%Ag-doped Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films have been prepared, and the influence of Ag doping on the crystallization behavior, structure was investigated through X-ray diffraction techniques, electrical resistivity measurement and in situ TEM annealing techniques. The results show that the addition of Ag into GST films could result in an enhancement in electrical resistance compared with Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films. Ag doping can lead to one-step crystallization process from amorphous to single face-centered cubic ( fcc ) phase without any other crystalline phase. HRTEM images show that the grain size in Ag-doped Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films is smaller than that in conventional Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films.

  16. Antibacterial action of doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals on multidrug resistant bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velho-Pereira, S.; Noronha, A.; Mathias, A.; Zakane, R.; Naik, V.; Naik, P. [Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier' s College, Goa (India); Salker, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Goa (India); Naik, S.R., E-mail: srnaik19@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, St. Xavier' s College, Goa (India)

    2015-07-01

    The bactericidal effect of pristine and doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles has been evaluated against multiple drug resistant clinical strains by assessing the number of colony-forming units (CFU). Monophasic polycrystalline ferrites have been prepared by the malate–glycolate sol–gel autocombustion method as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction study. Various changes occurring during the preparative stages have been demonstrated using TG–DTA analysis which is well complemented by the FTIR spectroscopy. The antibacterial studies carried out demonstrate a bactericidal effect of the nanoparticles wherein the number of CFU has been found to decrease with doping. Cellular distortions have been revealed through SEM. Variation in the number of CFU with dopant type has also been reported herein. - Graphical abstract: Antibacterial action of doped cobalt ferrites resulting in the lyses of multi-drug resistant bacterial strains. - Highlights: • The paper reports an antibacterial study of rare earth doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. • Monophasic compounds have been prepared by the sol–gel autocombustion method. • Bactericidal property has been evaluated based on the number of colony forming units. • Variation in bactericidal action with respect to the dopant type has been observed. • Cellular distortions resulting in cell lysis are confirmed from the SEM images.

  17. Structure and photoluminescence of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals doped and co-doped with N and rare earths (Y{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, P.C., E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, S.P. Monserrato-Sestu Km 0,700, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Carbonaro, C.M.; Geddo Lehmann, A.; Congiu, F.; Puxeddu, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, S.P. Monserrato-Sestu Km 0,700, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Cappelletti, G.; Spadavecchia, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-06-05

    Highlights: ► We studied singly and co-doped N, Y and Pr:TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. ► A mixed anatase-brookite phase with average dimension lower than 10 nm was revealed. ► The nature of defects in the TiO{sub 2} structures depends on the doping elements. ► Bulk and surface defects are related to nitrogen in the TiO{sub 2} matrix. ► Y{sup 3+} ion acts as a surface stabilizer, Pr{sup 3+} generates surface recombination centers. -- Abstract: The structural and optical properties of sol–gel synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles doped and co-doped with N and rare earth ions (Y{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+}) are presented. Crystal structures, phase composition, and crystallite sizes are analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The analysis of intragap excited photoluminescence indicates the formation of radiative recombinations related to different defect centers in the TiO{sub 2} structure, generated by the presence of doping elements. In particular we assign the formation of bulk and surface defects to the presence of nitrogen in the TiO{sub 2} matrix, whereas we observe different effects on the defective TiO{sub 2} structure related to the two rare earths: the presence of Y{sup 3+} ion acts as a stabilizer of the TiO{sub 2} surface whereas the presence of Pr{sup 3+} generates surface recombination centers.

  18. Electron transport in n-doped Si/SiGe quantum cascade structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, I.; Ikonic, Z.; Milanovic, V.; Kelsall, R. W.; Indjin, D.; Harrison, P.

    2007-05-01

    An electron transport model in n-Si/SiGe quantum cascade or superlattice structures is described. The model uses the electronic structure calculated within the effective-mass complex-energy framework, separately for perpendicular (Xz) and in-plane (Xxy) valleys, the degeneracy of which is lifted by strain, and additionally by size quantization. The transport is then described via scattering between quantized states, using a rate equations approach and tight-binding expansion, taking the coupling with two nearest-neighbor periods. Acoustic phonon, optical phonon, alloy disorder, and interface roughness scattering are taken into account. The calculated current/voltage dependence and gain profiles are presented for two simple superlattice structures.

  19. Enabling n-type polycrystalline Ge junctionless FinFET of low thermal budget by in situ doping of channel and visible pulsed laser annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hsien; Shieh, Jia-Min; Kao, Ming-Hsuan; Shen, Chang-Hong; Huang, Tzu-En; Wang, Hsing-Hsiang; Yang, Chih-Chao; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Hsieh, Jin-Long; Yu, Peichen; Yeh, Wen-Kuan

    2017-02-01

    A low-thermal-budget n-type polycrystalline Ge (poly-Ge) channel that was prepared by plasma in-situ-doped nanocrystalline Ge (nc-Ge) and visible pulsed laser annealing exhibits a high electrically active concentration of 2 × 1019 cm-3 and a narrow Raman FWHM of 3.9 cm-1. Furthermore, the fabricated n-type poly-Ge junctionless FinFET (JL-FinFET) shows an I on/I off ratio of 6 × 104, V th of -0.3 V, and a subthreshold swing of 237 mV/dec at V d of 1 V and DIBL of 101 mV/V. The poly-Ge JL-FinFET with a high-aspect-ratio fin channel is less sensitive to V th roll-off and subthreshold-swing degradation as the gate length is scaled down to 50 nm. This low-thermal-budget JL-FinFET can be integrated into three-dimensional sequential-layer integration and flexible electronics.

  20. The computational study of adsorption of carbon monoxide on pristine and Ge-doped (6,0 zigzag models of BNNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rezaei Sameti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is studying the effects of Ge-doped on CO adsorption on the outer and inner surfaces of (6, 0 zigzag model of boron nitride nanotube (BNNTs by using DFT theory. For this purpose, eight models of CO adsorption on the surfaces of BNNTs are considered. At first step, all structures were optimized at B3LYP and 6-31G (d standard base set and then the electronic structure, adsorption energy, HOMO - LUMO orbitals, gap energy, quantum molecular descriptors, and NQR parameters were determined. The bond lengths neighborhood sites of Ge-doped of BNNTs at all models were increased and the bond angles decreased. The small ad-sorption energy value and large interaction distance show that the adsorption of CO on BNNTs is weakly physical adsorption due to weak Van der Waals interaction. Our calculated results show that the adsorption of CO on the surface of undoped models is more favorable than Ge-doped models. The NQR parameters of the first layer in all the models are larger than those other layers.

  1. GeS2-In2S3-CsI Chalcogenide Glasses Doped with Rare Earth Ions for Near- and Mid-IR Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Legang; Bian, Junyi; Jiao, Qing; Liu, Zijun; Dai, Shixun; Lin, Changgui

    2016-11-21

    Chalcogenide glass has been considered as a promising host for the potential laser gain and amplifier media operating in near- and mid-IR spectral region. In this work, the IR luminescence spectra of rare earth ions (Tm(3+), Er(3+), and Dy(3+)) doped 65GeS2-25In2S3-10CsI chalcogenide glasses were measured under the excitation of an 808 nm laser diode. To the best of our knowledge, it firstly provides the luminescence spectra of a full near- and mid-IR spectral range from 1 to 4 μm in rare earth ions doped chalcogenide glasses. The results of absorption spectra, luminescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curves were obtained in these samples with singly-, co- and triply-doping behaviors of Tm(3+), Er(3+), and Dy(3+) ions. In order to search possible efficient IR emissions, the luminescence behavior was investigated specifically with the variation of doping behaviors and dopant ions, especially in the samples co- and triply-doped active ions. The results suggest that favorable near- and mid-IR luminescence of rare earth ions can be further modified in chalcogenide glasses through an elaborated design of doping behavior and optically active ions.

  2. GeS2–In2S3–CsI Chalcogenide Glasses Doped with Rare Earth Ions for Near- and Mid-IR Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Legang; Bian, Junyi; Jiao, Qing; Liu, Zijun; Dai, Shixun; Lin, Changgui

    2016-11-01

    Chalcogenide glass has been considered as a promising host for the potential laser gain and amplifier media operating in near- and mid-IR spectral region. In this work, the IR luminescence spectra of rare earth ions (Tm3+, Er3+, and Dy3+) doped 65GeS2–25In2S3–10CsI chalcogenide glasses were measured under the excitation of an 808 nm laser diode. To the best of our knowledge, it firstly provides the luminescence spectra of a full near- and mid-IR spectral range from 1 to 4 μm in rare earth ions doped chalcogenide glasses. The results of absorption spectra, luminescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curves were obtained in these samples with singly-, co- and triply-doping behaviors of Tm3+, Er3+, and Dy3+ ions. In order to search possible efficient IR emissions, the luminescence behavior was investigated specifically with the variation of doping behaviors and dopant ions, especially in the samples co- and triply-doped active ions. The results suggest that favorable near- and mid-IR luminescence of rare earth ions can be further modified in chalcogenide glasses through an elaborated design of doping behavior and optically active ions.

  3. Microstructure and conduction behavior of BiFeO3 thin film deposited on Ge-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Chinnambedu Murugesan; Choi, Ji Ya; Kim, Sang Su

    2017-02-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films were deposited on a Ge-doped ZnO (GZO)/Si(100) and a Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) using a pulsed laser deposition technique. An improved crystal growth property was observed for the BFO thin film deposited on the GZO/Si(100). The BFO thin film, which was deposited on the (00 l) textured GZO/Si(100), exhibited preferred ( l00) orientated grains, while randomly orientated grains were observed for the thin film deposited on the Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100). When compared with the Pt/BFO/Pt capacitor, the GZO/BFO/GZO capacitor exhibited improved conduction behaviors, such as a low leakage current density and high stability against electrical breakdown. From the J-E curves, conduction of the GZO/BFO/GZO and the Pt/BFO/Pt capacitors was found to be dominated by Ohmic and space charge limited conductions at low and high electric field, respectively.

  4. Heat-Treatment-Induced Switching of Magnetic States in the Doped Polar Semiconductor Ge1‑xMnxTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriener, M.; Nakajima, T.; Kaneko, Y.; Kikkawa, A.; Yu, X. Z.; Endo, N.; Kato, K.; Takata, M.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.; Taguchi, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Cross-control of a material property - manipulation of a physical quantity (e.g., magnetisation) by a nonconjugate field (e.g., electrical field) – is a challenge in fundamental science and also important for technological device applications. It has been demonstrated that magnetic properties can be controlled by electrical and optical stimuli in various magnets. Here we find that heat-treatment allows the control over two competing magnetic phases in the Mn-doped polar semiconductor GeTe. The onset temperatures Tc of ferromagnetism vary at low Mn concentrations by a factor of five to six with a maximum Tc ≈ 180 K, depending on the selected phase. Analyses in terms of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy indicate a possible segregation of the Mn ions, which is responsible for the high-Tc phase. More importantly, we demonstrate that the two states can be switched back and forth repeatedly from either phase by changing the heat-treatment of a sample, thereby confirming magnetic phase-change-memory functionality.

  5. Effect of interstitial air holes on Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibre with a Ge-doped core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hui-Jia; Li Shu-Guang; Hou Lan-Tian

    2009-01-01

    The effect of interstitial air holes on Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibre (PCF) with a Ge-doped core is numerically investigated by using thc beam propagation method (BPM). It is shown that the interstitial air holes (IAHs) can make Bragg resonance wavelength λ3 shift a little towards short wavelengths and incrcase λB - λ1 (the wavelength spacing between the main peak with Bragg resonance wavelength λB and the first side peak with wavelength λ1) and the coupling coefficient κ of Bragg resonance. Moreover, when the ratio of air hole diameter (d) to pitch (A),d/A, is small, IAHs can suppress the cladding mode resonance. When d/A is large, IAHs increase the number of mode that could strongly interact with the fundamental mode. By comparing the transmission spectral characteristics of PCF-based fibrc Bragg grating (FBG) with IAHs with those without IAtIs at the same air-filling fraction, it is clarified that the change of transmission spectral characteristics of PCF-based FBG with IAHs is not due to a simple change in air-filling fraction. It is also closely related to the distribution of interstitial air holes.

  6. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study of defects introduced in antimony doped Ge by 2 MeV proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamhere, C.; Das, A. G. M.; Auret, F. D.; Chawanda, A.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Venter, A.

    2011-08-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS have been used to investigate the defects created in Sb doped Ge after irradiation with 2 MeV protons having a fluence of 1×10 13 protons/cm 2. The results show that proton irradiation resulted in primary hole traps at E V +0.15 and E V +0.30 eV and electron traps at E C -0.38, E C -0.32, E C -0.31, E C -0.22, E C -0.20, E C -0.17, E C -0.15 and E C -0.04 eV. Defects observed in this study are compared with those introduced in similar samples after MeV electron irradiation reported earlier. E C -0.31, E C -0.17 and E C -0.04, and E V +0.15 eV were not observed previously in similar samples after high energy irradiation. Results from this study suggest that although similar defects are introduced by electron and proton irradiation, traps introduced by the latter are dose dependent.

  7. Nanocrystals for luminescent solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Liam R; Knowles, Kathryn E; McDowall, Stephen; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2015-02-11

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) harvest sunlight over large areas and concentrate this energy onto photovoltaics or for other uses by transporting photons through macroscopic waveguides. Although attractive for lowering solar energy costs, LSCs remain severely limited by luminophore reabsorption losses. Here, we report a quantitative comparison of four types of nanocrystal (NC) phosphors recently proposed to minimize reabsorption in large-scale LSCs: two nanocrystal heterostructures and two doped nanocrystals. Experimental and numerical analyses both show that even the small core absorption of the leading NC heterostructures causes major reabsorption losses at relatively short transport lengths. Doped NCs outperform the heterostructures substantially in this critical property. A new LSC phosphor is introduced, nanocrystalline Cd(1-x)Cu(x)Se, that outperforms all other leading NCs by a significant margin in both small- and large-scale LSCs under full-spectrum conditions.

  8. Metastable Ge nanocrystalline in SiGe matrix for photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Yao-Tsung; Su, Chien-Hao [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jenq-Yang [Department of Optics and Photonics, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Shao-Liang; Lin, Po-Chen [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Wu, Albert T., E-mail: atwu@ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Amorphous Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} films were prepared by co-sputtering by using rapid thermal annealing to form nanocrystal films. • Si–Ge alloy does not form total solid solution that is shown in phase diagram. • HRTEM images indicated that Ge atoms segregated and formed Ge clusters that are embedded in the amorphous Si–Ge matrix. • Ge segregation permitted high mobility; the grain size increased and the resistivity decreased with higher Ge content. • The rectifying property became stronger with the Ge fraction in the Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} diodes. Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} diodes are used as photodetectors, which provide a greater output current under illumination. - Abstract: Amorphous Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} films were prepared by co-sputtering on an oxidized Si wafer, followed by rapid thermal annealing to form nanocrystal films. The formation of Ge nanocrystals was not at thermodynamic equilibrium formed in the amorphous Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} matrix. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the increase in the size of the grains in the Ge nanocrystals as the Ge content increased. The Ge nanocrystals have a greater absorption in the near-infrared region and higher carrier mobility than SiGe crystals, and the variation in their grain sizes can be used to tune the bandgap. This characteristic was exploited herein to fabricate n-Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}/p-Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} p–n diodes on insulating substrates, which were then examined by analyzing their current–voltage characteristics. The rectifying property became stronger as the fraction of Ge in the Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} films increased. The Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} diodes are utilized as photodetectors that have a large output current under illumination. This paper elucidates the correlations between the structural, optical and electrical properties and the p–n junction performance of the film.

  9. Microwave-Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of High-Purity Nb Doped BaTiO3 Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanfekr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Nb doped BaTiO3 has been investigated under Microwave-Hydrothermal (MH conditions in the temperature of 150°C for only 2 h using C16H36O4Ti, BaH2O2.8H2O and NbCl5 as Ba, Ti and  Nb sources, respectively.  Typical experiments performed on MH processing have not yet reported for Nb doped BaTiO3.  In the MH process, the formation of high purity nano tetragonal Nb-BaTiO3 was strongly enhanced. New hydrothermal method was used instead of the previous solid state reaction for the BaTiO3±Nb2O3 system. The new method uses high pressure to create nano dimension particles in a lower time and temperature. In case of the phase evolution studies, the XRD pattern measurements and Raman spectroscopy were performed. TEM and FE-SEM images were taken for the detailed analysis of the particle size, surface and morphology.  Synthesis of Nb doped BaTiO3 with the Microwave-hydrothermal provides an advantage of fast crystallization and reduced crystal size when compared to existing methods.

  10. Tunable mid IR plasmon in GZO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, M K; Bluet, J-M; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Canut, B; Boisron, O; Melinon, P; Masenelli, B

    2015-07-28

    Degenerate metal oxide nanoparticles are promising systems to expand the significant achievements of plasmonics into the infrared (IR) range. Among the possible candidates, Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals are particularly suited for mid IR, considering their wide range of possible doping levels and thus of plasmon tuning. In the present work, we report on the tunable mid IR plasmon induced in degenerate Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are produced by a plasma expansion and exhibit unprotected surfaces. Tuning the Ga concentration allows tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the plasmon resonance is characterized by a large damping. By comparing the plasmon of nanocrystal assemblies to that of nanoparticles dispersed in an alumina matrix, we investigate the possible origins of such damping. We demonstrate that it partially results from the self-organization of the naked particles and also from intrinsic inhomogeneity of dopants.

  11. Anchoring Nitrogen-Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals on Nitrogen-Doped 3D Graphene Frameworks for Enhanced Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Wu; Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Pan, Fu-Sen; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2017-02-03

    An advanced architecture design of nitrogen-doped TiO2 anchored on nitrogen-doped 3D graphene framework composites (denoted as N-TiO2 /N-3D GFs) have been fabricated by a facile template process and further NH3 treatment. The 3D graphene framework allows the electrolyte to penetrate into the inverse opal structure, and possesses high electronic conductivity. The close contact between the N-TiO2 and the graphene suppresses the growth and aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles during heating process, leading to decreased Li(+) diffusion length. The N-doping in both TiO2 and the graphene matrix could improve the electronic conductivity on the TiO2 particle surface and between adjacent particles. As expected, when used as an anode for Li-ion batteries (LIBs), the N-TiO2 /N-3D GFs composite delivers an excellent reversible capacity of 165 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) and an outstanding rate capability of 114 mA h g(-1) after 1000 cycles at 1 Ag(-1) . With rational design, this strategy could be extended to other electrode materials that may hold great promise for the development of high energy storage systems.

  12. Blue cooperative emission in Yb3+ - doped GeO2 - PbO glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Duarte Del Cacho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the blue cooperative luminescence in a binary composition of GeO2-PbO glasses with different Yb3+ concentrations is reported. High refractive index (1.96 and large transmission window (0.4 up to 5.0 µm are characteristics of this vitreous system. Luminescence and lifetime measurements in the visible and near infrared regions were performed to investigate the spectroscopic characteristics of the glasses. Visible emission around 507 nm was detected in all samples. The visible emission intensity increases with the Yb2O3 content at least up to 2.0 wt. (%, that represents the maximum Yb2O3 concentration possible for this glass system. The visible lifetimes are about half of their respective near infrared ones, and the blue luminescence comes from a cooperative process. A rate equation was used to describe the behavior of the cooperative emission intensity as a function of Yb2O3 concentration; a good agreement with the calculated and measured cooperative luminescence was achieved.

  13. Boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon germanium alloy nanocrystals—Nonthermal plasma synthesis and gas-phase thin film deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Rowe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alloyed silicon-germanium (SiGe nanostructures are the topic of renewed research due to applications in modern optoelectronics and high-temperature thermoelectric materials. However, common techniques for producing nanostructured SiGe focus on bulk processing; therefore little is known of the physical properties of SiGe nanocrystals (NCs synthesized from molecular precursors. In this letter, we synthesize and deposit thin films of doped SiGe NCs using a single, flow-through nonthermal plasma reactor and inertial impaction. Using x-ray and vibrational analysis, we show that the SiGe NC structure appears truly alloyed for Si1−xGex for 0.16 < x < 0.24, and quantify the atomic dopant incorporation within the SiGe NC films.

  14. Yb{sup 3+}-Er{sup 3+} co-doped sol-gel transparent nano-glass-ceramics containing NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals for tuneable up-conversion phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanes, A.C. [Dpto. Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: ayanesh@ull.es; Santana-Alonso, A. [Dpto. Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mendez-Ramos, J. [Dpto. Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Castillo, J. del [Dpto. Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Rodriguez, V.D. [Dpto. Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2009-07-08

    Transparent nano-glass-ceramics containing Yb{sup 3+}-Er{sup 3+} co-doped NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals have been successfully developed for the first time by thermal treatment of precursor bulk glasses obtained by sol-gel technique. Precipitation of NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements and their sizes have been determined by Scherrer's equation. Luminescence measurements confirm the partition of rare-earth ions in NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals. Visible up-conversion luminescence has been obtained under infrared excitation at 980 nm. Up-conversion mechanisms have been discussed and the ratio between red and green up-conversion emission bands can be varied as a function of temperature of heat treatment and pump power resulting in colour tuneable up-conversion phosphors with applications in optical integrated devices. Colour tuneability has been also analyzed and quantified in terms of CIE standard chromaticity diagram.

  15. Rare-earth containing nanocrystal precipitation and up-conversion luminescence in oxyfluoride glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianbei; Makishima, Akio

    2005-09-01

    Rare-earth ion doped oxyfluoride glass with a composition of 25SiO2 x 5GeO2 x 15AIO1.5 x 40PbF2 x 10PbO x (4.9 - x)GdF3 x 0.1HoF3 x xYbF3 (x = 0, 0.1,0.2, 0.5,1,2, 3, and 4) in molar ratio was developed. When the oxyfluoride glasses are heat-treated at the first crystallization temperature, the glasses give transparent glass-ceramics in which rare-earth-containing fluorite-type nanocrystals of about 17.2 nm in diameter uniformly precipitated in the glass matrix. Comparing with the glasses before heat treatment, the glass ceramics exhibit very strong up-conversion luminescence under 980-nm light excitation. Rare-earth-containing nanocrystals were also space selectively precipitated upon laser irradiation in an oxyfluoride glass; the size of precipitated nanocrystals can be controlled by laser power and scan speed. The intensity of the green up-conversion luminescence is strongly dependent on the precipitation of beta-PbF2 nanocrystals and the YbF3 concentration. The reasons for the highly efficient Ho3+ up-conversion luminescence are discussed.

  16. Aqueous synthesis of internally doped Cu:ZnSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals with good stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Zhang, Haisheng; Yang, Jing; Xu, Qinying; Shao, Haibao; Li, Rongqing; Lei, Wei; Cui, Yiping

    2011-07-08

    To prepare biologically available Zn-based NCs in aqueous solution, we herein reported the synthesis of aqueous Cu:ZnSe/ZnS NCs with internally doped aqueous Cu:ZnSe NCs as the core template. Due to the dual protection of Cu impurities by the ZnSe core and ZnS shells, the as-prepared Cu:ZnSe/ZnS NCs show excellent stability in the open air, which overcomes the intrinsic instability of traditional aqueous Cu:ZnSe NCs. The as-prepared Cu:ZnSe/ZnS NCs possess extremely good stability, good biocompatibility and lower cytotoxicity, and thus can be used as a promising candidate for fluorescent NC-based biological applications.

  17. A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Lianchao; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Luo, Binbin; Li, Yishan

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region. We investigate the effects of the content and morphology of the GeO2 particles on the sensitivity of the FOEW sensors by using glucose solutions. In addition, we examine the response of sensors incubated with staphylococcal protein A plus mouse IgG isotype to goat anti-mouse IgG solutions. Results indicate very good sensitivity of the three-layer FOEW sensor, which showed a 3.91-fold improvement in the detection of the target antibody relative to a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure, and the novel sensor showed a lower limit of detection of 0.2ng/l and a response time around 320s. The application of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, biomedical and biochemical analysis.

  18. Characterisation of the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of tailor-made Ge-doped silica glass fibre for applications in medical radiation therapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahaimi, N. A.; Zin, H.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Rahman, A. L. Abdul; Bradley, D. A.; Rahman, A. T. Abdul

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the characterisation of new fabricated material Ge doped silica glass thermoluminescence TL dosimeter (Photonic Research Centre, University of Malaya) for medical radiation dosimetry at therapy energy. Previously, the dosimeter has been studied to provide ideal dosimetry system, suitable to ensure an accurate delivery of radiation doses to tumour tissue while minimising the amount of radiation administrated to healthy tissue. Both energies of photon and electron were used in this experiment for a dose range of 1 to 5 Gy. The various sizes of core diameter Ge doped silica glass (120, 241, 362, 483 and 604 μm) were exposed by using linear accelerator at Pantai Medical Centre. For both energies, the optical fibres were found to produce a flat response to a fixed photon and electron doses to within 4% (S.D) of the mean of the TL distribution. In terms of dose response, the fibres provide linear response over the range investigated, from a fraction of 1-5 Gy. The finding shows 120 μm fibres have 1.82 greater dose response than 604 pm fibres irradiated at 6 MV photon with a fixed dose of 3 Gy. While for electron energy 12 MeV, the response shows 120 μm fibres have 1.58 greater dose response compared to 604 μm fibres. The good responses are suitable to make these tailor-made doped silica fibres a promising TL material for use as a dosimetric system in medical radiation therapy.

  19. Core-clad Pr(3+)-doped Ga(In)-Ge-As-Se-(I) glass fibers: Preparation, investigation, simulation of laser characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaksina, E. V.; Shiryaev, V. S.; Churbanov, M. F.; Anashkina, E. A.; Kotereva, T. V.; Snopatin, G. E.

    2017-10-01

    Core-clad fibers on the basis of high-purity 1300 ppmw Pr(3+)-doped Ga-Ge-As-Se and 2000 ppmw Pr(3+) -doped In-Ge-As-Se-I glasses have been prepared. The minimum optical losses of the fibers are at the level of 1 dB/m in the wavelength range, where there is no influence of the praseodymium absorption. At present, it is the best result obtained for core-clad rare- earth-doped chalcogenide fibers with high dopant concentration. The fibers exhibit the broadband luminescence in the spectral range of 3.5-5.5 micron. The values of luminescence lifetime at the wavelength of 4.7 micron are within 6.5-8.2 ms closed to those for the bulk glasses obtained previously. Simulation of laser properties for these core-clad fibers in the three-level cascade scheme was carried out. The low level of optical losses experimentally achieved in these fibers is one of main criteria for development of mid-IR fiber systems.

  20. Nanocrystal synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisdale, William; Prins, Ferry; Weidman, Mark; Beck, Megan

    2016-11-01

    A method of preparing monodisperse MX semiconductor nanocrystals can include contacting an M-containing precursor with an X donor to form a mixture, where the molar ratio between the M containing precursor and the X donor is large. Alternatively, if additional X donor is added during the reaction, a smaller ratio between the M containing precursor and the X donor can be used to prepare monodisperse MX semiconductor nanocrystals.

  1. Chemical environment of rare earth ions in Ge28.125Ga6.25S65.625 glass-ceramics doped with Dy3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongping; Yan, Kunlun; Zhang, Mingjie; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixun; Yang, Xinyu; Yang, Zhiyong; Yang, Anping; Zhang, Bin; Luther-Davies, Barry

    2015-10-01

    We have annealed Ge28.125Ga6.25S65.625 glasses doped with 0.5% Dy to create glass-ceramics in order to examine the local chemical environment of the rare earth ions (REI). More than 12 times enhancement of the emission at 2.9 and 3.5 μm was achieved in glass-ceramics produced using prolonged annealing time. Elemental mapping showed clear evidence that Ga2S3 crystalline grains with a size of 50 nm were dispersed in a Ge-S glass matrix in the glass-ceramics, and the REI could only be found near the Ga2S3 crystalline grains. From the unchanged lineshape of the emissions at 2.9 and 3.5 μm and lack of splitting of the absorption peaks, we concluded that the REI were bonded to Ga on the surface of the Ga2S3 crystals.

  2. Infrared study of Er(3+)/Yb(3+) Co-Doped GeO(2)-PbO-Bi(2)O(3) glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Hamid-Reza; Sidek, Hj A A; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq M; Yunus, Wan M M; Halimah, Mohamed K

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal oxide glasses, containing bismuth and/or lead in their glass structure are new alternatives for rare eart (RE) doped hosts. Hence, the study of the structure of these vitreous systems is of great interest for science and technology. In this research work, GeO(2)-PbO-Bi(2)O(3) glass host doped with Er(3+)/Yb(3+) ions was synthesized by a conventional melt quenching method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results showed that PbO and Bi(2)O(3) participate with PbO(4) tetragonal pyramids and strongly distort BiO(6) octahedral units in the glass network, which subsequently act as modifiers in glass structure. These results also confirmed the existence of both four and six coordination of germanium oxide in glass matrix.

  3. Visible up-conversion and near-infrared luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped SbPO4-GeO2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzani, D.; Montesso, M.; Mathias, C. F.; Krishanaiah, K. Venkata; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Nalin, M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in glass chemistry have led to new multifunctional optical glasses of great technological importance. Glasses containing high amounts of antimony have been studied for use in nonlinear optics, near-infrared transmission, and as hosts for rare-earth ions in photonic devices. This work describes a luminescence study of Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doping in a new SbPO4-GeO2 binary glass system. Near-infrared and visible up-conversion emissions were observed in the green and red regions, which are enhanced when the samples are co-doped with Yb3+. Near-infrared emissions have good quantum efficiency and full width half maximum of 61 nm. Visible up-conversion emissions are governed by two photons and described by excited state absorption, energy transfer and cross-relaxation processes.

  4. The change of electric field and of some other insulating properties during isochronal annealing in thermally poled Ge-doped silica films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Q.M.; Poumellec, B.; Braga, D.;

    2005-01-01

    The secondary electron emission contrast between poled and unpoled regions in thermally poled Ge-doped silica films were measured according to different annealing temperatures and electron doses with electron acceleration energy of 5 keV. It is used for measuring the change on annealing of poling...... induced electric field and other insulating properties like electron traps population and conductivity in high field. Concerning the change of the contrast at low dose arising from the poling electric field, we show that this field begins to disappear at around 450 degrees C and is erased completely...

  5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of Ag-doped thin amorphous Ge{sub x}Sb{sub 40-x}S{sub 60} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, R.K.; Fitzgerald, A.G.; Christova, K

    2002-12-30

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to determine the binding energies of the core electrons in Ag-doped amorphous thin Ge{sub x}Sb{sub 40-x}S{sub 60} films (x=15, 20, 25 and 27). Chemical shifts of the constituent elements have revealed that electrons are transferred from chalcogenide to metal and compounds such as Ag{sub 2}S and Ag{sub 2}O are likely to foue to photo-induced chemical modification and oxidation, respectively. Charge defects are induced in the amorphous system.

  6. Three-dimensional fabrication and characterisation of core-shell nano-columns using electron beam patterning of Ge-doped SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontard, Lionel C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC), 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jinschek, Joerg R. [FEI Europe, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ou Haiyan [Department of Photonics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Verbeeck, Jo [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2012-06-25

    A focused electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is used to create arrays of core-shell structures in a specimen of amorphous SiO{sub 2} doped with Ge. The same electron microscope is then used to measure the changes that occurred in the specimen in three dimensions using electron tomography. The results show that transformations in insulators that have been subjected to intense irradiation using charged particles can be studied directly in three dimensions. The fabricated structures include core-shell nano-columns, sputtered regions, voids, and clusters.

  7. Optical transmission damage of undoped and Ce doped Y3Al5O12 scintillation crystals under 24 GeV protons high fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffray, E.; Fedorov, A.; Dormenev, V.; Houžvička, J.; Korjik, M.; Lucchini, M. T.; Mechinsky, V.; Ochesanu, S.

    2017-06-01

    This report presents results on the optical transmission damage of undoped and Ce doped Y3Al5O12 scintillation crystals under high fluence of 24 GeV protons. We observed that, similarly to other middle heavy scintillators, it possesses the unique radiation hardness at fluence values as high as 5×1014 p/cm2 and it is thus promising for the application in the detectors at High Luminosity LHC. The crystalline structure of the garnet scintillator allows to control and further optimize its scintillation parameters, such as scintillation decay time and emission wavelength, and shows a limited set of the radioisotopes after the irradiation with protons.

  8. An investigation of the thermoluminescence of Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibres for application in interface radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Rahman, A.T., E-mail: a.t.abdulrahman@surrey.ac.uk [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Material Studies, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (UiTM), Campus of Negeri Sembilan, 72000 Kuala Pilah (Malaysia); Hugtenburg, R.P. [Department of Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg UHB and School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Abdul Sani, Siti Fairus; Alalawi, A.I.M. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom); Issa, Fatma [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom); Department of Radiotherapy, Tripoli Medical Centre (TMC), Tripoli (Libya); Thomas, R. [Radiation Dosimetry Team, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom); Barry, M.A. [Department of Medical Physics, The Royal Surrey County Hospital (RSCH) NHS Trust, Guildford, GU2 7XX Surrey (United Kingdom); Nisbet, A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, The Royal Surrey County Hospital (RSCH) NHS Trust, Guildford, GU2 7XX Surrey (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom); Department of Radiological Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11432 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-07-15

    We investigate the ability of high spatial resolution ({approx} 120 {mu}m) Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} TL dosimeters to measure photoelectron dose enhancement resulting from the use of a moderate to high-Z target (an iodinated contrast media) irradiated by 90 kVp X-rays. We imagine its application in a novel radiation synovectomy technique, modelled by a phantom containing a reservoir of I{sub 2} molecules at the interface of which the doped silica dosimeters are located. Measurements outside of the iodine photoelectron range are provided for using a stepped-design that allows insertion of the fibres within the phantom. Monte Carlo simulation (MCNPX) is used for verification. At the phantom medium I{sub 2}-interface additional photoelectron generation is observed, {approx}60% above that in the absence of the I{sub 2}, simulations providing agreement to within 3%. Percentage depth doses measured away from the iodine contrast medium reservoir are bounded by published PDDs at 80 kVp and 100 kVp. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Studies of dosimetric characteristic of commercially available doped silica optical fibres. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Investigation of the potential of the dosimeter in dose enhancement measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Use of photoelectron dose enhancement as might be applied in radiation synovectomy. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Measurement of the percentage depth dose recorded by Ge-doped silica optical fibres. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle The Monte Carlo simulation provides comparison against measured data.

  9. Luminescent Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystals Containing Copper: Synthesis, Photophysics, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Kathryn E; Hartstein, Kimberly H; Kilburn, Troy B; Marchioro, Arianna; Nelson, Heidi D; Whitham, Patrick J; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2016-09-28

    Copper-doped semiconductors are classic phosphor materials that have been used in a variety of applications for many decades. Colloidal copper-doped semiconductor nanocrystals have recently attracted a great deal of interest because they combine the solution processability and spectral tunability of colloidal nanocrystals with the unique photoluminescence properties of copper-doped semiconductor phosphors. Although ternary and quaternary semiconductors containing copper, such as CuInS2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have been studied primarily in the context of their photovoltaic applications, when synthesized as colloidal nanocrystals, these materials have photoluminescence properties that are remarkably similar to those of copper-doped semiconductor nanocrystals. This review focuses on the luminescent properties of colloidal copper-doped, copper-based, and related copper-containing semiconductor nanocrystals. Fundamental investigations into the luminescence of copper-containing colloidal nanocrystals are reviewed in the context of the well-established luminescence mechanisms of bulk copper-doped semiconductors and copper(I) molecular coordination complexes. The use of colloidal copper-containing nanocrystals in applications that take advantage of their luminescent properties, such as bioimaging, solid-state lighting, and luminescent solar concentrators, is also discussed.

  10. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} doped/co-doped PbS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthi Sudar Saravanan, R., E-mail: rsakthiss@yahoo.com [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002 (India); Department of Physics, Satyam College of Engineering and Technology, Aralvaimozhi 629 301 (India); Meena, M. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002 (India); Pukazhselvan, D. [Nanotechnology Research Division, Centre for Mechanical Technology and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Mahadevan, C.K. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002 (India)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • Mn and Cd doped/codoped nano PbS was synthesized by SMI method. • The observed stress is ∼90% lower, and the strain is only in the order of 10{sup −6}. • Band gap value can be enhanced from 0.5 eV to 2.025–2.235 eV (±0.012 eV). • Role of two conduction activation barriers was observed. - Abstract: The strain and stress minimized nanoparticles of PbS, Pb{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}S, Pb{sub 0.95}Cd{sub 0.05}S and Pb{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.05}Cd{sub 0.05}S were successfully synthesized using solvothermal microwave irradiation (SMI) method. The quality/performance of the materials was found to be in the series Pb{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.05}Cd{sub 0.05}S > Pb{sub 0.95}Cd{sub 0.05}S > Pb{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}S > PbS. The average crystallite size in the best material Pb{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.05}Cd{sub 0.05}S was found to be ∼18 nm where the particles are distributed within the range 20–60 nm. Optical studies reveals the existence of direct band gap in the range of 2.025–2.235 eV (±0.012 eV). This is one of the widest E{sub g} values reported for this system. Electrical measurements were performed on compacts of nanoparticles in the temperature range 313–433 K and frequency range 100 Hz–1 MHz. The conductivity profile exhibits two components; in which the activation energy (ΔE) values obtained for the temperature range 373–433 K is almost twice as compared to the ΔE value obtained for 313–373 K. Nonetheless, the conductivity at the higher temperatures was always higher than at the low temperatures and interestingly, the nanoparticles exhibits higher conductivity than their bulk counterpart. The feasible mechanism of conduction is discussed.

  11. Evolution of E-centers during the annealing of Sb-doped Si0.8Ge0.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, S.; Tuomisto, F.; Slotte, J.

    2011-01-01

    evolution was observed at the temperature range 450–650 K. Both treatments were shown to induce changes in the chemical surroundings of the E-centers via introduction of Ge near the defects. Moreover, Sb was found to hinder these changes by stabilizing the E-centers and thus preventing them from finding Ge...

  12. Effects of manganese doping on magnetocaloric effect in Ge-rich Gd5Ge2.05Si1.95 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Yüzüak; I.Dincer; Y.Elerman

    2012-01-01

    The structure,magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the Ge-rich Gd5Ge2.05-xSi1.95-xMn2x (x=0.01 and 0.03) alloys were investigated by scanning electron microscopy,X-ray powder diffraction,differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and magnetization measurements.The results of energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the composition and crystal structure of the alloys were desired.DSC measurements were performed to determine the transformation temperatures for each alloy.Both alloys exhibited the first order phase transition around room temperature.The alloys showed an anti-ferromagnetic transition around 60 K.The isothermal magnetic entropy changes of the alloys were determined from the isothermal magnetization measurements by using the Maxwell relation.The maximum values of isothermal magnetic entropy change of the Gd5Ge2.05-xSi1.95-xMn2x alloy with x=0.01 was found to be -12.1 and -19.8 J/(kg·K) using Maxwell equation around 268 K in applied fields of 2 and 5 T,respectively.

  13. Optical characterization of Tm3+ doped Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glasses in absence and presence of BaF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kexuan; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Shunbin; Guo, Yanyan; Zhou, Dechun; Yu, Fengxia

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, Two new Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glasses (one presence of BaF2) doped with 1mol% Tm2O3 were prepared by melt-quenching technique. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), the absorption, Raman, IR spectra and fluorescence spectra were measured. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, emission cross section, absorption cross section, and gain coefficient of Tm3+ ions were comparatively investigated. After the BaF2 introduced, the glass showed a better thermal stability, lower phonon energy and weaker OH- absorption coefficient, meanwhile, a larger ~1.8 μm emission cross section σem (7.56 × 10-21 cm2) and a longer fluorescence lifetime τmea (2.25 ms) corresponding to the Tm3+: 4F3 → 3H6 transition were obtained, which is due to the addition of fluoride in glass could reduce the quenching rate of hydroxyls and raise the cross-relaxation (3H6 + 3H4 → 3F4 + 3F4) rate. Our results suggest that the Tm3+ doped Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glass with BaF2 might be potential to the application in efficient ~1.8 μm lasers system.

  14. Simultaneous aluminizing and chromizing of steels to form (Fe,Cr){sub 3}Al coatings and Ge-doped silicide coatings of Cr-Zr base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M.; He, Y.R.; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    A halide-activated cementation pack involving elemental Al and Cr powders has been used to achieve surface compositions of approximately Fe{sub 3}Al plus several percent Cr for low alloy steels (T11, T2 and T22) and medium carbon steel (1045 steel). A two-step treatment at 925 C and 1150 C yields the codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium to form dense and uniform ferrite coatings of about 400 {micro}m thickness, while preventing the formation of a blocking chromium carbide at the substrate surfaces. Upon cyclic oxidation in air at 700 C, the coated steel exhibits a negligible 0.085 mg/cm{sup 2} weight gain for 1900 one-hour cycles. Virtually no attack was observed on coated steels tested at ABB in simulated boiler atmospheres at 500 C for 500 hours. But coatings with a surface composition of only 8 wt% Al and 6 wt% Cr suffered some sulfidation attack in simulated boiler atmospheres at temperatures higher than 500 C for 1000 hours. Two developmental Cr-Zr based Laves phase alloys (CN129-2 and CN117(Z)) were silicide/germanide coated. The cross-sections of the Ge-doped silicide coatings closely mimicked the microstructure of the substrate alloys. Cyclic oxidation in air at 1100 C showed that the Ge-doped silicide coating greatly improved the oxidation resistance of the Cr-Zr based alloys.

  15. Record power, ultra-broadband supercontinuum source based on highly GeO2 doped silica fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Deepak; Sidharthan, R.; Moselund, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate highly germania doped fibers for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. Experiments ensure a highest output power of 1.44 W for a broadest spectrum from 700 nm to 3200 nm and 6.4 W for 800 nm to 2700 nm from these fibers, while being pumped by a broadband Erbium-Ytterbium doped...... fiber based master oscillator power amplifier. The effect of repetition frequency of pump source and length of germania-doped fiber has also been investigated. Further, germania doped fiber has been pumped by conventional supercontinuum source based on silica photonic crystal fiber supercontinuum source....... At low power, a considerable broadening of 200-300 nm was observed. Further broadening of spectrum was limited due to limited power of pump source. Our investigations reveal the unexploited potential of germania doped fiber for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. These measurements ensure...

  16. Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er{sup 3+}-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazabal, V., E-mail: virginie.nazabal@univ-rennes1.f [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), UMR CNRS 6226, Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Nemec, P. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Legions Sq. 565, 53210, Pardubice (Czech Republic); Jurdyc, A.M [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents (LPCML), UMR CNRS 5620, Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Zhang, S.; Charpentier, F. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), UMR CNRS 6226, Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Lhermite, H. [IETR-Microelectronique, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Charrier, J. [FOTON, UMR 6082-ENSSAT, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Guin, J.P. [LARMAUR, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Moreac, A. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Frumar, M. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Legions Sq. 565, 53210, Pardubice (Czech Republic); Adam, J.-L. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), UMR CNRS 6226, Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2010-06-30

    Amorphous chalcogenide films play a motivating role in the development of integrated planar optical circuits due to their potential functionality in near infrared (IR) and mid-IR spectral regions. More specifically, the photoluminescence of rare earth ions in amorphous chalcogenide films can be used in laser and amplifier devices in the IR spectral domain. The aim of the present investigation was to optimize the deposition conditions for the fabrication of undoped and Er{sup 3+} doped sulphide and selenide thin films with nominal composition Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 20}Sb{sub 10}S(Se){sub 65} or Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 23}Sb{sub 5}S{sub 67} by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The study of compositional, morphological and structural characteristics of the layers was realized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy analyses, respectively. Some optical properties (transmittance, index of refraction, optical band gap, etc.) of prepared chalcogenide films and optical losses were investigated as well. The clear identification of near-IR photoluminescence of Er{sup 3+} ions was obtained for both selenide and sulphide films. The decay of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition at 1.54 {mu}m in Er{sup 3+} doped Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 20}Sb{sub 10}S{sub 65} PLD sulphide films was studied to assess the effects of film thickness, rare earth concentration and multilayer PLD deposition on their spectroscopic properties.

  17. Photoluminescence characterization of Ce{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} doped Li{sub 2}CaGeO{sub 4} phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Jianxin, E-mail: tmjx@jnu.edu.c [Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yang Chuangtao; Chen Qingqing [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Ce{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} activated Li{sub 2}CaGeO{sub 4} phosphors were prepared by a solid-state reaction method, and characterized by XRD (X-ray diffraction) and photoluminescence techniques. The characteristic emission bands of Dy{sup 3+} due to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} (blue) and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} (yellow) transitions were detected in the emission spectra of Li{sub 2}CaGeO{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+}. Ce{sup 3+} broad band emission was observed in Li{sub 2}CaGeO{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} phosphors at 372 and 400 nm due to 5d->4f transition when excited at 353 nm. Co-doping of Ce{sup 3+} enhanced the luminescence of Dy{sup 3+} significantly and concentration quenching occurs when Dy{sup 3+} is beyond 0.04 mol%. White-light with different hues can be realized by tuning Dy{sup 3+} concentration in the phosphors.

  18. Galvanic displacement of metals on semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Melanie; Kelly, Joel A.; Henderson, Eric J.; Veinot, Jonathan G. C.

    2009-11-01

    We report the galvanic displacement (GD) of germanium from germanium nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) with silver. The Ge-NCs are synthesized by reductive thermal processing of germanium suboxide sol-gel prepolymers. Thermal processing yields size-controlled oxide-embedded Ge-NCs, which are liberated by dissolution of the germanium oxide matrix in water. Subsequent exposure of the freestanding Ge-NCs to aqueous solutions of AgNO3 leads to deposition of silver nanostructures by GD. The resulting metal structures were analyzed by XRD, XPS, TEM and EDX, confirming deposition of elemental silver in a variety of shapes and sizes.

  19. Galvanic displacement of metals on semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Melanie; Kelly, Joel A; Henderson, Eric J; Veinot, Jonathan G C, E-mail: jveinot@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Chemistry, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    We report the galvanic displacement (GD) of germanium from germanium nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) with silver. The Ge-NCs are synthesized by reductive thermal processing of germanium suboxide sol-gel prepolymers. Thermal processing yields size-controlled oxide-embedded Ge-NCs, which are liberated by dissolution of the germanium oxide matrix in water. Subsequent exposure of the freestanding Ge-NCs to aqueous solutions of AgNO{sub 3} leads to deposition of silver nanostructures by GD. The resulting metal structures were analyzed by XRD, XPS, TEM and EDX, confirming deposition of elemental silver in a variety of shapes and sizes.

  20. Gas phase grown silicon germanium nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, A.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Kaiser, M.; Verheijen, M. A.; Schropp, R. E. I.; Rath, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the gas phase synthesis of highly crystalline and homogeneously alloyed Si1-xGex nanocrystals in continuous and pulsed plasmas. Agglomerated nanocrystals have been produced with remarkable control over their composition by altering the precursor GeH4 gas flow in a continuous plasma. We specially highlight that in the pulsed plasma mode, we obtain quantum-sized free standing alloy nanocrystals with a mean size of 7.3 nm. The presence of Si1-xGex alloy particles is confirmed with multiple techniques, i.e. Raman spectroscopy, XRD (Xray diffraction) and HRTEM (high resolution transmission electron microscopy) studies, with each of these methods consistently yielding the same composition. The nanocrystals synthesized here have potential applications in band-gap engineering for multijunction solar cells.

  1. Unusual broadening of the NIR luminescence of Er{sup 3+}-doped Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals embedded in silica host: Preparation and their structural and spectroscopic study for photonics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Felipe Thomaz; Pereira, Rafael R. [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, CEP 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, CEP 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, 36301-160 São João Del Rei, MG (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima [Laboratório de Materiais Fotônicos, Instituto de Química, UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Ferrier, Alban; Goldner, Philippe [Chimie-Paristech, Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, CNRS-UMR 7574, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); and others

    2014-10-15

    This paper reports on the preparation of novel sol-gel erbium-doped SiO{sub 2}-based nanocomposites embedded with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals fabricated using a bottom-up method and describes their structural, morphological, and luminescence characterization. To prepare the glass ceramics, we synthesized xerogels containing Si/Nb molar ratios of 90:10 up to 50:50 at room temperature, followed by annealing at 900, 1000, or 1100 °C for 10 h. We identified crystallization accompanying host densification in all the nanocomposites with orthorhombic (T-phase) or monoclinic (M-phase) Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals dispersed in the amorphous SiO{sub 2} phase, depending on the niobium content and annealing temperature. A high-intensity broadband emission in the near-infrared region assigned to the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition of the Er{sup 3+} ions was registered for all the nanocomposites. The shape and the bandwidth changed with the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} crystalline phase, with values achieving up to 81 nm. Er{sup 3+} ions were located mainly in Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-rich regions, and the complex structure of the different Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} polymorphs accounted for the broadening in the emission spectra. The materials containing the T-phase, displayed higher luminescence intensity, longer {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} lifetime and broader bandwidth. In conclusion, these nanostructured materials are potential candidates for photonic applications like optical amplifiers and WDM devices operating in the S, C, and L telecommunication bands. - Highlights: • Rare earth doped Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals prepared from a bottom-up approach. • Unusual broadband NIR emission in glass ceramic system. • Structural features tuning the luminescence properties. • Potential as optical amplifiers and WDM devices. • Photonic devices operating in the S, C, and L telecommunication.

  2. Electrical Set-Reset Phenomenon in Thallium Doped Ge-Te Glasses Suitable for Phase Change Memory Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ge17Te83-xTlx (x = 2, 3, 6, 8, 10 glasses have been prepared by melt quenching method and their amorphous nature was confirmed by XRD spectra. I-V characteristics and repeatability of electrical switching were investigated for all the glasses in order to find out their suitability for phase change memory applications. A comparison has been given with Ge2Sb2Te5 the most commonly used material for phase change memory application. The entire series of glasses exhibited memory type of electrical switching but only the composition Ge17Te81Tl2 was able to withstand SET-RESET pulses for more than 10 cycles. The other samples show repeatability for only a few cycles with the degradation of threshold voltage.

  3. Thermoelectric Performance of Yb-Doped Ba8Ni0.1Zn0.54Ga13.8Ge31.56 Type-I Clathrate Synthesized by High-Pressure Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Long; Dong, Jianying; Xu, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Type I clathrates are a promising thermoelectric (TE) material for waste heat recovery applications. However, the TE figure-of-merit of type I clathrates still needs further improvement. In this study, Yb-doped Ba8-x Yb x Ni0.1Zn0.54 Ga13.8Ge31.56 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) type I clathrates were synthesized using a high-pressure technique. Energy dispersive spectrometry confirmed successful Yb doping. An increased Yb doping level reduces electrical resistivity and suppresses lattice thermal conductivity while keeping the Seebeck coefficient almost unchanged. TE figure-of-merit of Ba7.7Yb0.3Ni0.1Zn0.54Ga13.8Ge31.56 type I clathrate was improved by 15% (0.91) at the highest measured temperature (900 K) compared with a Yb-free sample.

  4. High strain amount in recessed junctions induced by selectively deposited boron-doped SiGe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radamson, H.H. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology) Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: rad@kth.se; Kolahdouz, M.; Ghandi, R.; Ostling, M. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology) Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)

    2008-12-05

    This work presents the selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x = 0.15-0.315) layers with high amount of boron (1 x 10{sup 20}-1 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}) in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. The influence of the growth rate and strain on boron incorporation has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and boron incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers.

  5. Nitrogen and Silicon Co-Doping of Ge2Sb2Te5 Thin Films for Improving Phase Change Memory Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yan-Fei; CAI Bing-Chu; CHEN Bomy; ZHOU Peng; LIN Yin-Yin; TANG Ting-Ao; CHEN Liang-Yao; LI Jing; QIAO Bao-Wei; LAI Yun-Feng; FENG Jie

    2007-01-01

    Electrical properties and phase structures of (Si+N)-codoped Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) for phase change memory are investigated to improve the memory performance. Compared to the films with N or Si dopants only in previous reports, the (Si+N)-doped GST has a remarkable improvement of crystalline resistivity of about 104mΩcm. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum reveals the Si-N bonds formation in the film. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the grain size is reduced due to the crystallization inhibition of the amorphous GST by SiNx,which results in higher crystalline resistivity. This is very useful to reduce writing current for phase change memory applications.

  6. Characterization of defects introduced in Sb doped Ge by 3 keV Ar sputtering using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS (LDLTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamhere, C.; Das, A. G. M.; Auret, F. D.; Chawanda, A.; Mtangi, W.; Odendaal, Q.; Carr, A.

    2009-12-01

    We have used deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and Laplace-DLTS to investigate the defects created in antimony doped germanium (Ge) by sputtering with 3 keV Ar ions. Hole traps at EV+0.09 eV and EV+0.31 eV and an electron trap at EC-0.38 eV ( E-center) were observed soon after the sputtering process. Room temperature annealing of the irradiated samples over a period of a month revealed a hole trap at EV+0.26 eV. Above room temperature annealing studies revealed new hole traps at EV+0.27 eV, EV+0.30 eV and EV+0.40 eV.

  7. Characterization of defects introduced in Sb doped Ge by 3 keV Ar sputtering using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS (LDLTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamhere, C., E-mail: cloud.nyamhere@up.ac.z [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Das, A.G.M. [School of Information Technology, Monash South Africa, Roodepoort 1725 (South Africa); Auret, F.D.; Chawanda, A.; Mtangi, W.; Odendaal, Q.; Carr, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    We have used deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and Laplace-DLTS to investigate the defects created in antimony doped germanium (Ge) by sputtering with 3 keV Ar ions. Hole traps at E{sub V}+0.09 eV and E{sub V}+0.31 eV and an electron trap at E{sub C}-0.38 eV (E-center) were observed soon after the sputtering process. Room temperature annealing of the irradiated samples over a period of a month revealed a hole trap at E{sub V}+0.26 eV. Above room temperature annealing studies revealed new hole traps at E{sub V}+0.27 eV, E{sub V}+0.30 eV and E{sub V}+0.40 eV.

  8. Zirconia nanocrystals as submicron level biological label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, K.; Liepins, J.; Gavare, M.; Patmalnieks, A.; Gruduls, A.; Jankovica, D.

    2012-08-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals are of increasing interest for their usage in biology and pharmacology research. Our interest was to justify ZrO2 nanocrystal usage as submicron level biological label in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia culture. For the first time (to our knowledge) images with sub micro up-conversion luminescent particles in biologic media were made. A set of undoped as well as Er and Yb doped ZrO2 samples at different concentrations were prepared by sol-gel method. The up-conversion luminescence for free standing and for nanocrystals with baker's yeast cells was studied and the differences in up-conversion luminescence spectra were analyzed. In vivo toxic effects of ZrO2 nanocrystals were tested by co-cultivation with baker's yeast.

  9. Cr-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} for ultra-long data retention phase change memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qing; Xia, Yangyang; Zheng, Yonghui; Zhang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Nanofabrication Technology for Memory, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, Bo, E-mail: liubo@mail.sim.ac.cn; Song, Sannian; Cheng, Yan; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Nanofabrication Technology for Memory, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Huo, Ruru [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Nanofabrication Technology for Memory, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Phase change memory is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the next-generation non-volatile memory. Its storage medium, phase change material, has attracted continuous exploration. Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST) is the most popular phase change material, but its thermal stability needs to be improved when used in some fields at high temperature (more than 120 °C). In this paper, we doped Cr atoms into GST and obtained Cr{sub 10}(Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}){sub 90} (labeled as Cr-GST) with high thermal stability. For Cr-GST film, the sheet resistance ratio between amorphous and crystalline states is high up to 3 orders of magnitude. The crystalline Cr-GST film inherits the phase structure of GST, with metastable face-centered cubic phase and/or stable hexagonal phase. The doped Cr atoms not only bond with other atoms but also help to improve the anti-oxidation property of Cr-GST. As for the amorphous thermal stability, the calculated temperature for 10-year-data-retention of Cr-GST film, based on the Arrhenius equation, is about 180 °C. The threshold current and threshold voltage of a cell based on Cr-GST are about 6 μA and 2.7 V. The cell could be operated by suitable voltages for more than 40 000 cycles. Thus, Cr-GST is proved to be a promising phase change material with ultra-long data retention.

  10. Nonthermal Plasma Synthesis of Nanocrystals: Fundamental Principles, Materials, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortshagen, Uwe R; Sankaran, R Mohan; Pereira, Rui N; Girshick, Steven L; Wu, Jeslin J; Aydil, Eray S

    2016-09-28

    Nonthermal plasmas have emerged as a viable synthesis technique for nanocrystal materials. Inherently solvent and ligand-free, nonthermal plasmas offer the ability to synthesize high purity nanocrystals of materials that require high synthesis temperatures. The nonequilibrium environment in nonthermal plasmas has a number of attractive attributes: energetic surface reactions selectively heat the nanoparticles to temperatures that can strongly exceed the gas temperature; charging of nanoparticles through plasma electrons reduces or eliminates nanoparticle agglomeration; and the large difference between the chemical potentials of the gaseous growth species and the species bound to the nanoparticle surfaces facilitates nanocrystal doping. This paper reviews the state of the art in nonthermal plasma synthesis of nanocrystals. It discusses the fundamentals of nanocrystal formation in plasmas, reviews practical implementations of plasma reactors, surveys the materials that have been produced with nonthermal plasmas and surface chemistries that have been developed, and provides an overview of applications of plasma-synthesized nanocrystals.

  11. Surface etching mechanism of carbon-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase change material in fluorocarbon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lanlan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Shanghai (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang; Li, Le; Guo, Tianqi; Cheng, Yan; Lv, Shilong; Wu, Liangcai; Liu, Bo; Feng, Songlin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2016-09-15

    Recently, carbon-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 (CGST) phase change material has been widely researched for being highly promising material for future phase change memory application. In this paper, the reactive-ion etching of CGST film in CF{sub 4}/Ar plasma is studied. Compared with GST, the etch rate of CGST is relatively lower due to the existence of carbon which reduce the concentration of F or CF{sub x} reactive radicals. It was found that Argon plays an important role in defining the sidewall edge acuity. Compared with GST, more physical bombardment is required to obtain vertical sidewall of CGST. The effect of fluorocarbon gas on the damage of the etched CGST film was also investigated. A Ge- and Sb-deficient layer with tens of nanometers was observed by TEM combining with XPS analysis. The reaction between fluorocarbon plasma and CGST is mainly dominated by the diffusion and consumption of reactive fluorine radicals through the fluorocarbon layer into the CGST substrate material. The formation of damage layer is mainly caused by strong chemical reactivity, low volatility of reaction compounds and weak ion bombardment. (orig.)

  12. B, N-co-doped graphene supported sulfur for superior stable Li-S half cell and Ge-S full battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenlong; Zhou, Jianbin; Li, Gaoran; Zhang, Kailong; Liu, Xianyu; Wang, Can; Zhou, Heng; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2016-10-03

    B, N-co-doped graphene supported sulfur (S@BNG) composite is synthesized by using melamine diborate as precursor. XPS spectra illustrates that BNG with a high percentage and dispersive B, N (B: 13.47 %, N: 9.17 %) and abundant pyridinic-N and N-B/N=B bond, which show strong interaction with Li2Sx proved by simulation experiments. As cathode for Li-S half cell, S@BNG with a sulfur content of 75 % displays a high capacity of 765 mA h g-1 at 1 C even after 500 cycles with a low fading rate of 0.027 % per cycle. Even at a high sulfur loading of 4.73 mg cm-2, S@BNG still shows a high reversible areal capacity of 3.5 mA h cm-2 after 50 cycles. When S@BNG composite as cathode combines with high performance lithiated Ge anode (discharge capacity of 1138 mA h g-1 at 1 C over 1000 cycles in half cell), the assembled Ge-S full battery exhibits a superior capacity of 530 mA h g-1 at 1 C over 500 cycles.

  13. Spectroscopic properties of B2O3-PbO-Bi2O3-GeO2 glass doped with Sm3+ and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A.; Buchner, S.; Camerini, R. V.; Jacinto, C.; Balzaretti, N. M.

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metal oxide B2O3-PbO-Bi2O3-GeO2 transparent glass doped with Sm3+ was synthesized and implanted with Au+ using energy of 300 keV and fluence of 1 × 1016 cm-2. The annealing of the implanted glass at moderate temperature below the glass transition temperature induced the nucleation of gold nanoparticles, confirmed by the characteristic absorption band in the visible range and by transmission electron microscopy. Using Miés and Doylés theories for the surface plasmon resonance, the average size of the gold nanoparticles was about 4.6 nm, similar to the values observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was also observed the crystallization of a thin layer of the glass at the implanted surface after annealing, detected by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. Visible and near-infrared emission of Sm3+ was enhanced after annealing of the glass implanted with gold. Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative parameters were calculated for the glass doped with Sm3+ with and without gold nanoparticles.

  14. Multicolor light emitters based on energy exchange between Tb and Eu ions co-doped into ultrasmall β-NaYF 4 nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Podhorodecki, Artur P.

    2012-01-01

    Multicolor emission is reported from ultrasmall (<10 nm) β-NaYF4:Eu,Tb nanocrystals depending on the excitation wavelengths or emission detection delay time. Detailed optical investigations of three samples (NaYF4:Eu, NaYF4:Tb and NaYF4:Eu,Tb) obtained by a co-thermolysis method have been carried out. Photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation and emission decay time obtained at different excitation wavelengths have been measured. Excitation mechanisms of Eu and Tb ions have been explained based on the experimental results and calculations using Judd-Ofelt theory. It has been shown that efficient energy transfer from Tb to Eu ions accounts for the efficient red emission of NaYF4:Tb,Eu nanocrystals. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  15. 退火对Ge掺杂SiO2薄膜的影响%Effect of Thermal Annealing on Properties of Ge-doped SiO2 Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪加兴; 韩军; 邢艳辉; 邓旭光; 王逸群; 邢政; 姜春宇; 方运

    2013-01-01

    用等离子体增强化学气相淀积制备了Ge掺杂SiO2薄膜,并对薄膜进行了不同温度的退火处理.采用棱镜耦合仪、原子力显微镜和傅里叶变换红外光谱分析技术研究了不同退火温度对Ge掺杂SiO2薄膜性质的影响.通过1 100℃退火处理后,正的折射率变化量和负的体积变化量随着GeH4流量增加而增大,Ge-O-Ge键增多;而通过900℃退火处理后,折射率没有随着GeH4流量增加而增大;薄膜的表面粗糙度随着退火温度升高而降低.研究结果表明,SiO2薄膜中Ge掺杂过量,其折射率反常下降;通过1 100℃退火处理后,折射率随着GeH4流量增加而增大,折射率的增大主要是由于薄膜密实化和Ge-O-Ge键的形成.%The Ge-doped SiO2 films were fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,and annealed at different temperatures.The effects of thermal annealing on the properties of Ge-doped SiO2 films were investigated with prism coupler,atomic force microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.It is found that for the Ge-doped SiO2 films annealed at 1 100 ℃,the change of both the positive refractive index and the negative volume increases with GeH4 flow,and the formation of Ge-O-Ge bond also increases,while for the films annealed at 900 ℃,the refractive index does not increase with GeH4 flow,and the surface roughness of the films decreases with the increase of annealing temperature.The results indicate that when too much Ge doping into SiO2 films will decrease the refractive index,but after annealed at 1 100 ℃,the refractive index of the films increases with GeH4 flow,and it is mainly due to the densification and formation of the Ge-O-Ge bond.

  16. Strongly enhanced Curie temperature in carbon-doped Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajdzik, M.; Suergers, C. E-mail: christoph.suergers@physik.uni-karlsruhe.de; Kelemen, M.T.; Loehneysen, H. von

    2000-11-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}C{sub x} films prepared at elevated substrate temperatures T{sub S} are investigated. In particular, films with x{>=}0.5 and T{sub S}=680 K exhibit a strongly enhanced Curie temperature T{sub C}=445 K compared to bulk Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} with T{sub C}=304 K while at the same time the average Mn moment decreases from 2.6 to 1 {mu}{sub B}. Structural analysis of these films suggests that the carbon is interstitially incorporated into the voids of Mn octahedra of the hexagonal Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure giving rise to a lattice compression. The enhanced ferromagnetic stability in connection with the lattice compression is interpreted in terms of an Mn-Mn interaction mediated by C based on a change in the electronic structure.

  17. Electron Spin Resonance on Mobile and Confined States in Gated Modulation Doped Si/SiGe Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianhua; Malissa, H.; Lu, Tzu-Ming; Shankar, S.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.; Chen, Hung-Ming; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung

    2010-03-01

    Electron spins in quantum dots in Si/SiGe heterostructures are promising qubits but controlling and measuring spins in gated dots is challenging. Fortunately, electrons confined into natural quantum dots by interface disorder can capture the spin physics with minimal processing, exhibiting long T1 and T2 at the Si/SiO2 interface^1. Natural quantum dots in the Si/SiGe system may be similarly useful. As a first step, we have fabricated a 2.2 x 13mm^2 Hall bar on a Si/SiGe substrate gated with an Al gate above an Al2O3 insulator, and performed electron spin resonance (ESR) at gate voltages above and below threshold. The ESR signal arising from the Si quantum well evolves with gate voltage, and its intensity (spin susceptibility) is measured as a function of temperature down to 0.4K. The susceptibility follows a Pauli dependence when the gate is biased above threshold, while it is Curie-like below threshold, indicating an evolution from a mobile 2D system towards localized states confined in natural dots by the intrinsic disorder in the quantum well. This work is supported by LPS and ARO. [1] S. Shankar, et al., Physica E, 40, 1659-1661 (2008).

  18. CO2 laser-inscribed low-cost, shortest-period long-period fibre grating in B–Ge co-doped fibre for high-sensitivity strain measurement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smita Chaubey; Sanjay Kher; Jai Kishore; S M Oak

    2014-02-01

    We have developed high sensitivity long-period fibre gratings (LPGs) in B–Ge codoped fibre for strain sensing application. These LPGs are shortest grating period (180 m) LPGs inscribed in B–Ge co-doped fibre using CO2 laser-based grating inscription set-up. Strain sensitivity of 1.77 dB/mε has been obtained for attenuation band corresponding to the turnaround point mode. TAP operation of LPG facilitates intensity-based detection using simple optical power meter instead of wavelength-based detection.

  19. SET and RESET states of As2Se3 doped GeTe4 bulk glasses probed by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumlianmunga, Ramesh, K.

    2016-12-01

    Te based chalcogenide glasses are being explored for non-volatile memory applications. We report the electrical switching studies on bulk Ge0.20Te0.80 glass alloyed with As0.40Se0.60 in different proportions. The addition of As0.40Se0.60 increases the electrical resistivity and the threshold voltage of (As0.4Se0.6)x(Ge0.2Te0.8)1-x glasses in the composition range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.40. Glasses in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 are found to exhibit memory switching, whereas glasses with x ≥ 0.15 exhibit threshold switching. The memory (SET) state can be brought back to RESET state by passing a current of 3-5 mA. Particularly, the glass with x = 0.10 is identified to be very stable, and it can be cycled between the SET and RESET state consistently with 3 mA current. The Raman spectra of SET and RESET states indicate that the SET sample has GeTe and Te crystalline units while the structure of RESET state is analogous to the as-quenched glass. Interestingly, the variation in the local structure is minimal for SET and RESET states for x = 0.10. And also the resistance of the SET state is relatively high. So they can be set to RESET state with less current and can be explored for low power phase change memory applications.

  20. Optical and fluorescent properties of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sol-gel planar waveguides containing Tb{sup 3+} doped nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.C.; Garapon, C.; Bazzi, R.; Pillonnet, A.; Tillement, O.; Mugnier, J. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, Villeurbanne (France)

    2007-06-15

    Terbium doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} planar waveguides were fabricated by sol-gel process and dip-coating using yttrium acetate as precursor. Two different doping modes were compared, i.e. introduction in the sol of dispersed Tb{sup 3+}ions from dissolved Tb(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, or of nanoparticles of Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3} or [Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:50% Tb] from an alcoholic suspension. The chemical and nanostructural properties were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Tb{sup 3+} fluorescence properties were studied as a function of temperature and atmosphere of the thermal treatments, and of the Tb{sup 3+} concentration. The fluorescence properties are discussed in relation to the quenching mechanisms induced by Tb{sup 4+} transformation, residual OH groups, and crystallites size and structure. Optical propagation losses of the Tb doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} planar waveguides related to the doping modes and Tb{sup 3+} concentration are presented. Doping sol-gel films by nanoparticles is shown to be a valuable alternative to the conventional doping from dissolved terbium salt. (orig.)

  1. Controlled Synthesis and Optical Properties of Mn-doped Semiconductor Nanocrystals%过渡金属Mn离子掺杂的半导体纳米晶研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金桔; 曹盛; 黄金霞

    2012-01-01

    Doped nanocrystals (NCs) have become an important class of optical materials that exhibit efficient,stable and tunable dopant emissions in visible and near infra-red (NIR) spectral windows,and the large ensemble Stokes shift for avoiding the self-absorption process.In this paper,we focus on some key issues in several selected topics on the most widely investigated Mn-doped semiconductor NCs.It is started with an overview of important advances in synthesis methods of high quality Mn-doped NCs and emphasize on the recently proposed methods of nucleation-doping strategy and growth-doping strategy.Then by dealing with the fundamental principles and mechanism studies for the doping process,this paper has discussed the difficulties for insertion of more dopants in the semiconductor host.This paper pointed out that in order to prepare Mn-doped NCs with controllable dopants concentration,it should consider following factors such as the NCs surface self-purification function; the shape,crystal structures,crystal plane and surface ligand of the NCs; as well as the lattice pressure induced by the size difference of Mn ions and the host cation.At last the theoretical explanation and experimental demonstration are provided to in-depth understanding of their optical properties,and point out that the fast energy transferred from the host to the Mn d-states is the key factor for obtaining Mn-doped NCs with high emission quantum yields.This paper have presented here the important advances in synthetic techniques,Mn ions doping mechanism,and photophysical properties of Mn-doped semiconductor nanocrystals,and thus can help to synthesis high quality Mn-doped NCs with controllable concentration and location.%过渡金属掺杂的纳米材料具有高效、稳定和可调谐的可见-近红外发射光谱的特点,尤其是由于大的斯托克斯位移而抑制了发光材料自吸收的问题,已经成为光学材料中一个重要的分支.回顾了关于Mn离子掺杂纳米晶研

  2. Effects of Li+ ions on the enhancement of up-conversion emission in Ho3+-Yb3+ co-doped transparent glass-ceramics containing Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhencai; Zhou, Dacheng; Yang, Yong; Gao, Yuan; Ren, Peng; Qiu, Jianbei

    2016-10-01

    The up-conversion (UC) emission of Ho3+-Yb3+ and Li+ co-doped transparent glass ceramics 45SiO2-15Al2O3-12Na2CO3-21BaF2-7LaF3-0.2HoF3-1YbF3-xLi2CO3 (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 mol%) containing Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals were investigated. These glass ceramics samples were prepared using the conventional quenching techniques. The Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals precipitated from the glass matrix was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compared with the glass ceramics sample without Li+, the UC emission intensity of glass ceramics samples with Li+ were enhanced. It can be proved that the Li+ can affect the enhancement up-conversion (UC) emission. Particularly, the green UC emission intensity band centered at 546 nm was strongly increased twice with the concentration of Li+ increasing up to 4 mol%. Through the comparison and analysis of the energy graph, it was shown that the 5F4/5S2→5I8 transition of Ho3+ ion obtained the green (546 nm) light. There are two weak fluorescences in the red (657 nm) region and near infrared (753 nm) region of spectrum, which is the 5F4/5S2→5I7 and 5F5→5I8 transition of Ho3+. Therefore, the emission results showed that the incorporation of Li+ ions into the Ba2LaF7:Eu3+ lattice could induce a remarkable change of the emission intensity in red region (R = IED/IMD) with 393 nm excitation wavelength. It was indicated that the symmetry of the lattice was destroyed by Li+ in glass ceramics. The possible mechanism responsible for the enhancement of UC emission in Ho-Yb co-doped was discussed.

  3. Effect of Annealing Temperature and Spin Coating Speed on Mn-Doped ZnS Nanocrystals Thin Film by Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azie Azura Mohd Arif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnS:Mn nanocrystals thin film was fabricated at 300°C and 500°C via the spin coating method. Its sol-gel was spin coated for 20 s at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm with metal tape being used to mold the shape of the thin film. A different combination of these parameters was used to investigate their influences on the fabrication of the film. Optical and structural characterizations have been performed. Optical characterization was analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectrophotometer while the structural and compositional analysis of films was measured via field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. From UV-vis spectra, the wavelength of the ZnS:Mn was 250 nm and the band gap was within the range 4.43 eV–4.60 eV. In room temperature PL spectra, there were two emission peaks centered at 460 nm and 590 nm. Under higher annealing temperature and higher speed used in spin coating, an increase of 0.05 eV was observed. It was concluded that the spin coating process is able to synthesize high quality spherical ZnS:Mn nanocrystals. This conventional process can replace other high technology methods due to its synthesis cost.

  4. Magnetocaloric effect and negative thermal expansion in hexagonal Fe doped MnNiGe compounds with a magnetoelastic AFM-FM-like transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Li, Zhe; Liu, Enke; Zhou, Haichun; Zhang, Yuanlei; Jing, Chao

    2017-01-30

    We report a detailed study of two successive first-order transitions, including a martensitic transition (MT) and an antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM)-like transition, in Mn1-xFexNiGe (x = 0, 0.06, 0.11) alloys by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization and linear thermal expansion measurements. Such an AFM-FM-like transition occurring in the martensitic state has seldom been observed in the M(T) curves. The results of Arrott plot and linear relationship of the critical temperature with M(2) provide explicit evidence of its first-order magnetoelastic nature. On the other hand, their performances as magnetocaloric and negative thermal expansion materials were characterized. The isothermal entropy change for a field change of 30 kOe reaches an impressive value of -25.8 J/kg K at 203 K for x = 0.11 compared to the other two samples. It demonstrates that the magneto-responsive ability has been significantly promoted since an appropriate amount of Fe doping can break the local Ni-6Mn AFM configuration. Moreover, the Fe-doped samples reveal both the giant negative thermal expansion and near-zero thermal expansion for different temperature ranges. For instance, the average thermal expansion coefficient ā of x = 0.06 reaches -60.7 × 10(-6)/K over T = 231-338 K and 0.6 × 10(-6)/K over T = 175-231 K during cooling.

  5. Effect of La doping on interface barrier between Si-passivated Ge and insulating HfO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomiiets, Nadiia M.; Afanas' ev, Valery V.; Madia, Oreste; Stesmans, Andre [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cott, Daire J.; Collaert, Nadine [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Thean, Aaron [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-12-15

    By analyzing internal photoemission of electrons from Si/SiO{sub x}-passivated Ge into insulating HfO{sub 2} we found that insertion of additional La interlayer between SiO{sub x} and HfO{sub 2} leads to dramatic increase (more than by factor of 20) of the barrier transparency. However, no measurable variation of the interface barrier height is observed suggesting that La induces intermixing of near-interface oxide stack resulting in development of additional density of states corresponding to conduction band of LaO{sub x} and HfO{sub x} sub-networks. At the same time, photoemission results indicate the presence of discrete positive charges in the near-interface oxide layer which may explain the observed ∝1 V shift of capacitance-voltage curves. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Enhancement of Curie temperature and transition temperature range induced by Al doping in Mn1-xAlxCoGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xiaodong; Liu, Yongsheng; Lei, Wei; Xu, Juan; Du, Wenlong; Lin, Jia; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Xiaofei

    2016-12-01

    Mn1-xAlxCoGe alloys with a second order transition were produced by arc-melting method. The substitution of Mn by Al increased the Curie temperature (TC) from 260.5 K to 300.8 K, the magnetic entropy change (|ΔSM|) decreased from 3.78 J·Kg-1K-1 to 2.35 J·Kg-1K-1 under a field change of Δμ0H=5 T. In addition, the |ΔSM| well linearly depends on the H2/3 around TC. Furthermore, the relative cooling power (RCP) can reach 242.3 J·Kg-1 with a large full width at half maximum of |ΔSM| (75.5 K) for x=0.02. The decrease of |ΔSM| is explained by the corresponding monotonical decrease of magnetic moment per formula unit.

  7. Charge-tunable quantum plasmons in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Alina M; Thakkar, Niket; Gunthardt, Carolyn E; Masiello, David J; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2014-01-28

    Nanomaterials exhibiting plasmonic optical responses are impacting sensing, information processing, catalysis, solar, and photonics technologies. Recent advances have expanded the portfolio of plasmonic nanostructures into doped semiconductor nanocrystals, which allow dynamic manipulation of carrier densities. Once interpreted as intraband single-electron transitions, the infrared absorption of doped semiconductor nanocrystals is now commonly attributed to localized surface plasmon resonances and analyzed using the classical Drude model to determine carrier densities. Here, we show that the experimental plasmon resonance energies of photodoped ZnO nanocrystals with controlled sizes and carrier densities diverge from classical Drude model predictions at small sizes, revealing quantum plasmons in these nanocrystals. A Lorentz oscillator model more adequately describes the data and illustrates a closer link between plasmon resonances and single-electron transitions in semiconductors than in metals, highlighting a fundamental contrast between these two classes of plasmonic materials.

  8. Co-Doped Zn1-xCdxS nanocrystals from metal-organic framework precursors: porous microstructure and efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiu; Zhao, Jia-Hui; Li, Yu-Han; Zhou, Zi-Ji; Li, Kui; Liu, Fu-Tian; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2017-08-15

    Nanoporous Co-doped Zn1-xCdxS were facilely fabricated via adopting ZIFs as templates, and Cd(NO3)2 and thiourea as precursors. The highly porous microstructure and uniform Co-doping of the photocatalyst afford a high H2-production rate (45.2 and 422.2 times larger than those of Zn0.5Cd0.5S and CdS), providing an effective way for the development of high performance nanoporous photocatalysts.

  9. Tm 3+ doped Bi 2O 3-GeO 2-Na 2O glasses for 1.8 μm fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Huiyan; Gao, Guojun; Wang, Guonian; Hu, Junjiang; Hu, Lili

    2010-03-01

    53.3BiO 1.5-33.3GeO 2-13.4NaO 0.5 (cation%) glasses with various Tm 3+ concentration were prepared by melt-quenching method. These glasses show high density, high refractive index, low phonon energy and good stability against crystallization. Absorption spectra of Tm 3+-doped bismuthate glass were measured to obtain the radiative lifetimes by Judd-Ofelt theory. The absorption (4.5 × 10 -21 cm 2) and emission (6.7 × 10 -21 cm 2) cross-sections were calculated by Beer-Lambert and McCumber theory. The results show that the Tm 3+ ( 3F 4 → 3H 6) in these glasses have high spontaneous radiative transition probabilities and large stimulated emission cross-section. Then the fluorescence emission spectra were measured under 808 nm excitation and the maximum emission intensity at 1.8 μm is obtained at 0.9 mol% Tm 2O 3 in the glasses.

  10. Brilliant blue, green and orange-red emission band on Tm{sup 3+}-, Tb{sup 3+}- and Eu{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, V H; De la Rosa, E; Lopez-Luke, T [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, Leon Gto., 37160 (Mexico); Salas, P [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C, E-mail: elder@cio.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de IngenierIa Molecular, A.P. 11-848, Mexico, D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2010-11-24

    Tm{sup 3+}-, Tb{sup 3+}- and Eu{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals were prepared by a facile precipitation method with a hydrothermal process. Structural characterization showed a crystallite size ranging from 30 to 40 nm, and monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia phases were observed depending on the dopant concentration. The monoclinic phase was dominant for 0.5 mol% of Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}, and the tetragonal phase was 100% stabilized for 2 mol% of Tm{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}. The structure of emission bands associated with Eu{sup 3+} confirms the substitution of Zr{sup 4+} located at C{sub 1} and D{sub 2h} symmetry sites for the monoclinic and tetragonal phases. The emission of three primary colours, red, green and blue, was obtained from Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}, respectively, which makes this nanophosphor an excellent candidate for use in photonics applications. The emitted signal was analysed as a function of ion concentration and the optimum concentration was determined.

  11. 50GeSe2-25In2Se3-25CsI glass doped with Tm3+, Tm3+/Ho3+ and Tm3+/Er3+ for amplifiers working at 1.22 μm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Huihua; TANG Gao; LUO Lan; CHEN Wei

    2011-01-01

    Se-based chalcohalide glass of 50GeSe2-25In2Se3-25CsI was prepared.The thermal and optical characterizations revealed that this host was thermally and optically superior for practical applications.Strong emission centered at 1.22 μm was observed in all Tm3+ single-doped,Tm3+/Ho3+ and Tm3+/Er3+ co-doped samples with an excitation of 808 nm wavelength.The emission was attributed to the Tm3+:3H5→3H6 transition.The co-doping of Ho3+ or Er3+ largely broadened the width and slightly strengthened the intensity of the 1.22 μm emission.The possible energy transfer processes and luminescence kinetics were figured.In addition,its potential application as the host material for novel optical amplifiers was discussed.

  12. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    ""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do

  13. Colour tuning and energy transfer pathways in MgAl2O4 triply doped with 0.1% Ce3+, 0.1% Eu2+, x% Tb3+ (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 2 %) nanocrystals synthesized using sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motloung, S. V.; Dejene, B. F.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Swart, H. C.; Kroon, R. E.

    2017-04-01

    A series of the undoped, 0.1% Ce3+, 0.1% Eu2+, 0.1% Tb3+ singly doped and 0.1% Ce3+, 0.1% Eu2+, x% Tb3+ (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 2 %) triply doped MgAl2O4 nanophosphors were synthesized by the sol-gel technique and thereafter annealed at 800 °C. The nanocrystals consist of the pure cubic structures. The type of the dopant and varying the Tb3+ mol% influence the crystallites size and morphology of the prepared powders. Photoluminescence (PL) results showed a red emission from Ce3+ singly doped MgAl2O4. Furthermore, the PL results revealed the existence of the energy transfer from Eu2+ → Tb3+ → Ce3+. CIE colour chromaticity showed that the colour can be tuned from bluish → greenish by changing the Tb3+ mol% and the excitation wavelength.

  14. Sol-gel derived precursors to Group 14 semiconductor nanocrystals - Convenient materials for enabling nanocrystal-based applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, Jonathan G C; Henderson, Eric J; Hessel, Colin M, E-mail: jveinot@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are intriguing because of their electronic, optical, and chemical characteristics. Silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) of sub-5 nm dimension are of particular interest due to their intense photoluminescent response and the promise of linking silicon photonics and electronics. Other related nanomaterials of technological importance include SiC and Ge. The following contribution describes key experimental findings pertaining to synthetic methodology, investigation of nanodomain formation and growth, as determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for a series of sol-gel derived prepolymers suitable for preparing Group 14 based nanocrystal containing composites.

  15. Sol-gel derived precursors to Group 14 semiconductor nanocrystals - Convenient materials for enabling nanocrystal-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, Jonathan G. C.; Henderson, Eric J.; Hessel, Colin M.

    2009-11-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are intriguing because of their electronic, optical, and chemical characteristics. Silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) of sub-5 nm dimension are of particular interest due to their intense photoluminescent response and the promise of linking silicon photonics and electronics. Other related nanomaterials of technological importance include SiC and Ge. The following contribution describes key experimental findings pertaining to synthetic methodology, investigation of nanodomain formation and growth, as determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for a series of sol-gel derived prepolymers suitable for preparing Group 14 based nanocrystal containing composites.

  16. Novel Nanocrystal Floating Gate Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Huimei

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigating the feasibility of engineering nanocrystals and tunnel oxide layer with a novel structure. Several novel devices are demonstrated to improve the performance of the novel nanocrystal memories.A novel TiSi2 nanocrystal memory was demonstrated. TiSi2 nanocrystals were synthesized on SiO2 by annealing Ti covered Si nanocrystals. Compared to the reference Si nanocrystal memory, both experiment and simulation results show that TiSi2 nanocrystal memory exhibits ...

  17. Silicon nanocrystal films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, Robert W.

    2009-02-06

    Whether nanoparticles of silicon are really suited for such applications, whether layers fabricated from this exhibit semiconducting properties, whether they can be doped, and whether for instance via the doping the conductivity can be tuned, was studied in the present thesis. Starting material for this were on the one hand spherical silicon nanocrystals with a sharp size distribution and mean diameters in the range from 4-50 nm. Furthermore silicon particle were available, which are with 50-500 nm distinctly larger and exhibit a broad distribution of the mean size and a polycrystalline fine structure with strongly bifurcated external morphology. The small conductivities and tje low mobility values of the charge carriers in the layers of silicon nanocrystals suggest to apply suited thermal after-treatment procedures. So was found that the aluminium-induced layer exchange (ALILE) also can be transferred to the porous layers of nanocrystals. With the deuteron passivation a method was available to change the charge-carrier concentration in the polycrystalline layers. Additionally to ALILE laser crystallization as alternative after-treatment procedure of the nanocrystal layers was studied.

  18. Effect of (Fe, Co) co-doping on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of ZnO nanocrystals prepared by solution combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Mast, E-mail: mastram1999@yahoo.com; Negi, N.S.

    2016-01-15

    The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub 0.05}Fe{sub x}O (where, x=0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mol%) nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method are reported. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX) have been used for structural and compositional analysis. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the existence of hexagonal wurtzite structure of parent ZnO with co-doping. The microstructural studies reveal the dense nanostructured morphology of these samples. The DC electrical conductivity measurements have been carried out in the temperature range of 300–450 K. The DC electrical conductivity decreases with the increasing Fe concentration. The magnetic studies reveal room temperature ferromagnetisation in doped ZnO nanoparticles. The magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles improve with increasing Fe dopant concentration.

  19. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO4@B0.4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g-1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g-1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Enhanced upconversion luminescence and single-band red emission of NaErF{sub 4} nanocrystals via Mn{sup 2+} doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haibo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Materials and Application Technology (Ministry of Education), Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Lu, Wei [Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Center, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Yi, Zhigao; Rao, Ling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Materials and Application Technology (Ministry of Education), Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Zeng, Songjun, E-mail: songjunz@hunnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Information Science and Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of the Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Li, Zheng, E-mail: zhengli58@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Materials and Application Technology (Ministry of Education), Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The structure and upconversion luminescence can be readily tuned by Mn{sup 2+} doping. • The upconversion luminescence intensity can be remarkably enhanced by doping Mn{sup 2+}. • The single-band red emission can be achieved when the Mn{sup 2+}-doped contents reached 20%. - Abstract: In this paper, the monodispersed NaErF{sub 4}:Yb, Mn nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by a simple and mild solvothermal method. The as-prepared NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and spectrophotometer. The crystal phase, size, morphology, and upconversion (UC) properties of these NPs can be readily tuned by doping Mn{sup 2+}. With increasing Mn{sup 2+} contents, the crystal phase of NaErF{sub 4}:Yb NPs was transferred from hexagonal to cubic, and then a new orthorhombic phase NaMn{sub 3}F{sub 10} appeared. The morphology of NaErF{sub 4}:Yb was tuned from nanodisks to nanocubes and then to large nanoflakes with increasing Mn{sup 2+} dopant contents. Moreover, the UC luminescence (UCL) intensity can be enhanced by increasing Mn{sup 2+} content. Interestingly, single-band red emission can be achieved when the Mn{sup 2+} content reaches 20%. This is mainly ascribed to the efficient energy transfer between Er{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+}. The enhanced UCL intensity and single-band red UCL make these NaErF{sub 4}:Yb/Mn NPs ideal probes for optical bioimaging owing to the low tissue absorption and deep tissue penetration of red light.

  1. EPR and optical study of Yb3+-doped β-PbF2 single crystals and nanocrystals of glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantelle, G.; Mortier, M.; Goldner, Ph; Vivien, D.

    2006-08-01

    β-PbF2 single crystals doped with YbF3 (0.2% and 2%) were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical spectroscopy. EPR revealed the presence of only one kind of paramagnetic ion Yb3+, in a cubic symmetry site. The optical absorption, emission and excitation spectra enabled us to identify the transitions attributed to Yb3+ in the cubic site and to determine its energy level diagram. Site-selective laser spectroscopy also evidenced the presence of another type of Yb3+ ions, undetectable by classical EPR. This second type, which dominates in the 2%-doped crystal and exhibits cooperative luminescence, was attributed to Yb3+ ions forming clusters. Transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics, containing β-Pb1-yYbyF2+y nanocrystallites, were also synthesized and studied by XRD, EPR and optical spectroscopy. Two types of Yb3+ ions were found, as in β-PbF2 single crystals. The optical properties of the oxyfluoride glass-ceramics turn out to be similar to those of ytterbium activated β-PbF2 single crystals. Moreover, the Yb environments found in PbF2 single crystals seem to already occur in the parent glass. Therefore, these materials are expected to be good laser media, like the rare-earth doped fluorite crystals, either in bulk or fibre form.

  2. Removal of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solution using Ni (15 wt.%)-doped α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals: equilibrium, thermodynamic, and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OuldM'hamed, Mohamed; Khezami, L; Alshammari, Abdulrahman G; Ould-Mame, S M; Ghiloufi, I; Lemine, O M

    2015-01-01

    The present publication investigates the performance of nanocrystalline Ni (15 wt.%)-doped α-Fe2O3 as an effective nanomaterial for the removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The nanocrystalline Ni-doped α-Fe2O3 powders were prepared by mechanical alloying, and characterized by X-ray diffraction and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Batch-mode experiments were realized to determine the adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamic parameters of toxic heavy metal ions by Ni (15 wt.%)-doped α-Fe2O3. The adsorption isotherms data were found to be in good agreement with the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion reached a maximum value of about 90.91 mg g(-1) at 328 K and pH 7. The adsorption process kinetics was found to comply with pseudo-second-order rate law. Thermodynamic parameters related to the adsorption reaction, free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change, were evaluated. The found values of free energy and enthalpy revealed a spontaneous endothermic adsorption-process. Moreover, the positive entropy suggests an increase of randomness during the process of heavy metal removal at the adsorbent-solution interface.

  3. Surface chemical modification of nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, Brett Anthony; Milliron, Delia Jane; Rosen, Evelyn Louise; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Llordes, Anna

    2017-03-14

    Nanocrystals comprising organic ligands at surfaces of the plurality of nanocrystals are provided. The organic ligands are removed from the surfaces of the nanocrystals using a solution comprising a trialkyloxonium salt in a polar aprotic solvent. The removal of the organic ligands causes the nanocrystals to become naked nanocrystals with cationic surfaces.

  4. Sm doped mesoporous CeO2 nanocrystals: aqueous solution-based surfactant assisted low temperature synthesis, characterization and their improved autocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bappaditya; Mondal, Aparna; Ray, Sirsendu Sekhar; Kundu, Amar

    2016-01-28

    Mesoporous Sm(3+) doped CeO2 (Ce-Sm) with a nanocrystalline framework, a high content of Ce(3+) and surface area (184 m(2) g(-1)), have been synthesized through a facile aqueous solution-based surfactant assisted route by using inorganic precursors and sodium dodecyl sulphate as a template. The XRD results indicate that the calcined Ce-Sm and even the as-prepared material have a cubic fluorite structure of CeO2 with no crystalline impurity phase. XRD studies along with HRTEM results confirmed the formation of mesoporous nanocrystalline CeO2 at a lower temperature as low as 100 °C. A detailed analysis revealed that Sm(3+) doping in CeO2 has increased the lattice volume, surface area, mesopore volume and engineered the surface defects. Higher concentrations of Ce(3+) and oxygen vacancies of Ce-Sm resulted in lowering of the band gap. It is evident from the H2-TPR results that Sm(3+) doping in CeO2 strongly modified the reduction behavior of CeO2 by shifting the bulk reduction at a much lower temperature, indicating increased oxygen mobility in the sample which enables enhanced oxygen diffusion at lower temperatures, thus promoting reducibility, i.e., the process of Ce(4+)→ Ce(3+). UV-visible transmission studies revealed improved autocatalytic performance due to easier Ce(4+)/Ce(3+) recycling in the Sm(3+) doped CeO2 nanoparticles. From the in vitro cytotoxicity of both pure CeO2 and Sm(3+) doped CeO2 calcined at 500 °C in a concentration as high as 100 μg mL(-1) (even after 120 h) on MG-63 cells, no obvious decrease in cell viability is observed, confirming their excellent biocompatibility. The presence of an increased amount of surface hydroxyl groups, mesoporosity, and surface defects have contributed towards an improved autocatalytic activity of mesoporous Ce-Sm, which appear to be a potential candidate for biomedical (antioxidant) applications.

  5. Reddish-orange, neutral and warm white emissions in Eu3+, Dy3+ and Dy3+/Eu3+ doped CdO-GeO2-TeO2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carvajal, David A.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Caldiño, U.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Álvarez, E.; Zayas, Ma. E.

    2016-11-01

    Eu3+, Dy3+ and Dy3+/Eu3+ doped CdO-GeO2-TeO2 glasses were prepared using the melt-quenching process and analyzed by X-diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, excitation and emission spectra, and emission decay time profiles. The lack of X ray diffraction peaks revealed that all samples are amorphous. Vibrational modes associated with Tesbnd Osbnd Te and Gesbnd Osbnd Ge related bonds and molecular oxygen were detected by Raman spectroscopy. The luminescence characteristics were studied upon excitations that correspond with the emission of InGaN (370-420 nm) based LEDs. The Eu3+ singly doped glass displayed reddish-orange global emission, with x = 0.601 and y = 0.349 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, upon 393 nm excitation. Neutral emission with x = 0.373 and y = 0.412 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4400 K, was achieved in the Dy3+ singly doped glass excited at 388 nm. The Dy3+/Eu3+ co-doped glass exhibited warm, neutral and soft warm white emissions with CCT values of 3435, 4153 and 2740 K, under excitations at 382, 388 and 393 nm, respectively, depending mainly on the Dy3+ and Eu3+ relative excitation. The Dy3+ excitation bands observed in the Dy3+/Eu3+ glass by monitoring the 611 nm Eu3+ emission, suggest that Dy3+ → Eu3+ energy transfer takes place, despite the fact that the Dy3+ emission decays in the Dy3+ and Dy3+/Eu3+ doped glass, remain without changes. The shortening of Eu3+ decay in presence of Dy3+ was attributed to an Eu3+ → Dy3+ non-radiative energy transfer process, which according with the Inokuti-Hirayama model might be dominated through an electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction, with efficiency and probability of 5.5% and 51.6 s-1, respectively.

  6. Spectroscopic Properties of Ho3+-DOped Ge-In-Sb-S Glass-Ceramics%HO3+ 杂Ge-In-Sb-S玻璃陶瓷光谱特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应磊; 戴世勋; 聂秋华; 林常规; 陈飞飞; 徐铁峰

    2011-01-01

    采用熔融淬冷法和热处理工艺制备了系列掺Ho3+的透明G eS2-In2S3-Sb2S3硫系玻璃陶瓷.测试了Ho3掺杂的基质玻璃和玻璃陶瓷样品的密度、显微硬度、红外光谱以及在900 nm激光泵浦下的近红外及中红外荧光光谱.结果表明:热处理后样品析出的晶相为In2S3和Sb2S3颗粒的混合体,晶粒尺寸限制在~100 nm以内;而原本掺杂在玻璃基质中的Ho3+富集在析出的In2S3晶体周围引起了Ho3+局部浓度的增加.因此,热处理后玻璃陶瓷样品的近红外和中红外荧光强度增加.%Ho3 + -doped chalcogenide glass-ceramics in GeS2-In2S3-Sb2S3 system were prepared by appropriate heat treatment, and their properties including density, microhardness, infrared transmittance spectrum and fluorescence in the near- and mid-infrared region under 900 ran excitation, were measured. The results showed that the crystalline phases in the obtained glass-ceramics were mixture of In2S3 and Sb2S3 with the grain sizes about 100 nm. The Ho3+ , in the host glass network, was aggregated around the In2S3 grains after crystallization processing, which caused the increase of local concentration of Ho3 +. Therefore, the intensities of near- and mid-infrared luminescence in the samples were enhanced.

  7. Effect of alkali metal oxides R2O (R=Na, K) on 1.53 μm luminescence of Er3+-doped Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses for optical amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵营刚; 石冬梅

    2013-01-01

    This paper reported the thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of Ga2O3-GeO2-Na2O-K2O (GGNK) glasses doped with Er3+. The GGNK glasses were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectra, absorption and infra-red-visible fluorescence spectra. Measured DSC result showed that these glasses possessed an excellent stability (ΔT=188.6 oC). The relationship between glass composition and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters and other optical properties of Er3+, such as the absorption and stimulated emission cross-sections, were clarified. Meanwhile an intense broadband 1.53-μm emission with a full width at half-maximum of 51 nm and peak emission cross-section of 9.32×10-21 cm2 of Er3+-doped GGNK glass was obtained upon 980 nm di-ode-laser excitation. Effects of K2O replacing Na2O on the thermal stability and spectroscopic properties were investigated. It was found that the incorporation of K2O into Er3+-doped Ga2O3-GeO2-Na2O glass could effectively improve the 1.53μm emission luminescence. The results showed that GGNK glass might be more attractive host material for their application in C-band optical fiber amplifiers.

  8. Surface energy effects on the stability of anatase and rutile nanocrystals: A predictive diagram for Nb2O5-doped-TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andre Luiz; Hotza, Dachamir; Castro, Ricardo H. R.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely used for photocatalysis, and the relative fraction of titanium dioxide polymorph, i.e. anatase, rutile, or brookite, significantly affects the final performance. Even though conventional phase diagrams indicate a higher stability for the rutile polymorph, it is well established that nanosizes benefit the anatase phase due to its smaller surface energy. However, doping elements are expected to change this behavior, once changes in both surface and bulk energies may occur. Nb2O5 is commonly added to TiO2 to allow property control. However, the effect of niobium on the relative stability of anatase and rutile phases is not well understood from the thermodynamic point of view. The objective of this work was to build a new predictive nanoscale phase diagram for Nb2O5-doped TiO2. Water adsorption microcalorimetry and high temperature oxide melt solution were used to obtain the surface and bulk enthalpies. The phase diagram obtained shows the stable titania polymorph as a function of the composition and size.

  9. Nanocrystals in compression: unexpected structural phase transition and amorphization due to surface impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Kong, Lingping; Yan, Jinyuan; Liu, Zhenxian; Zhang, Hengzhong; Lei, Pei; Xu, Tao; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Chen, Bin

    2016-06-01

    We report an unprecedented surface doping-driven anomaly in the compression behaviors of nanocrystals demonstrating that the change of surface chemistry can lead to an interior bulk structure change in nanoparticles. In the synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction experiments, titania nanocrystals with low concentration yttrium dopants at the surface are found to be less compressible than undoped titania nanocrystals. More surprisingly, an unexpected TiO2(ii) phase (α-PbO2 type) is induced and obvious anisotropy is observed in the compression of yttrium-doped TiO2, in sharp contrast to the compression behavior of undoped TiO2. In addition, the undoped brookite nanocrystals remain with the same structure up to 30 GPa, whereas the yttrium-doped brookite amorphizes above 20 GPa. The abnormal structural evolution observed in yttrium-doped TiO2 does not agree with the reported phase stability of nano titania polymorphs, thus suggesting that the physical properties of the interior of nanocrystals can be controlled by the surface, providing an unconventional and new degree of freedom in search for nanocrystals with novel tunable properties that can trigger applications in multiple areas of industry and provoke more related basic science research.We report an unprecedented surface doping-driven anomaly in the compression behaviors of nanocrystals demonstrating that the change of surface chemistry can lead to an interior bulk structure change in nanoparticles. In the synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction experiments, titania nanocrystals with low concentration yttrium dopants at the surface are found to be less compressible than undoped titania nanocrystals. More surprisingly, an unexpected TiO2(ii) phase (α-PbO2 type) is induced and obvious anisotropy is observed in the compression of yttrium-doped TiO2, in sharp contrast to the compression behavior of undoped TiO2. In addition, the undoped brookite nanocrystals remain with the same structure up to 30 GPa, whereas the yttrium-doped

  10. Infrared Study of Er3+/Yb3+ Co-Doped GeO2-PbO-Bi2O3 Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Halimah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal oxide glasses, containing bismuth and/or lead in their glass structure are new alternatives for rare eart (RE doped hosts. Hence, the study of the structure of these vitreous systems is of great interest for science and technology. In this research work, GeO2-PbO-Bi2O3 glass host doped with Er3+/Yb3+ ions was synthesized by a conventional melt quenching method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR results showed that PbO and Bi2O3 participate with PbO4 tetragonal pyramids and strongly distort BiO6 octahedral units in the glass network, which subsequently act as modifiers in glass structure. These results also confirmed the existence of both four and six coordination of germanium oxide in glass matrix.

  11. The use of imidazolium ionic liquid/copper complex as novel and green catalyst for chemiluminescent detection of folic acid by Mn-doped ZnS nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Seyed Naser; Shakeri, Parmis; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza; Taghavi, Mehdi; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2014-03-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as CL emitter is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The CL of ZnS QDs induced by directly chemical oxidation and its ionic liquid-sensitized effect in aqueous solution were then investigated. It was found that oxidants, especially hydrogen peroxide, could directly oxidize ZnS QDs to produce weak CL emission in basic conditions. In the presence of 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide/copper a drastic light emission enhancement is observed, related to a strong interaction between Cu2+ and the imidazolium ring. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of folic acid. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative CL intensity and the concentration of folic acid in the range of 1 × 10-9-1 × 10-6 M of folic acid with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9991. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 1 × 10-10 M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications.

  12. (N, F)-codoped TiO2 Nanocrystals as Visible Light-activated Photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanling Meng; Jiansong Chen; Ying Wang; Hanming Ding; Yongkui Shan

    2009-01-01

    (N, F)-codoped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with active visible light response were prepared by using a simple sol-gel approach. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements suggested that the substitutional N and F species replaced the lattice oxygen atoms in TiO2 nanocrystals. Such nanocrystals showed strong absorption from 400 to 550 nm, which was mainly induced by nitrogen doping. The phase transformation from anatase to rutile was hindered by fluorine doping at high calcination temperatures, which was verified by XRD patterns. The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms revealed the absence of mesopores in these nanocrystals. The (N, F)-codoped TiO2 nanocrystals showed satisfying photocatalytic activity on the photo-degradation of methylene blue under visible light.

  13. White light generation controlled by changing the concentration of silver nanoparticles hosted by Ho{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} doped GeO{sub 2}–PbO glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilo, Mauricio E. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de São Paulo (FATEC-SP), CEETEPS/UNESP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletrônicos, Escola Politécnica da USP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Elton de O.; Kassab, Luciana R.P. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de São Paulo (FATEC-SP), CEETEPS/UNESP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Garcia, José A.M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de São Paulo (FATEC-SP), CEETEPS/UNESP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletrônicos, Escola Politécnica da USP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Araújo, Cid B. de, E-mail: cid@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Successful fabrication of Ho{sup 3+}–Tm{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} doped lead–germanate glasses containing silver nanoparticles. • Efficient color control of Ho{sup 3+}–Tm{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} doped glass by changing the concentration of silver nanoparticles. • Surface plasmon enhanced multicolor upconversion emission in Ho{sup 3+}–Tm{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} doped lead–germanate glass. • White light generation due to the presence of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Frequency upconversion (UC) experiments were performed with GeO{sub 2}–PbO glasses, containing silver nanoparticles (NPs), doped with holmium (Ho{sup 3+}), thulium (Tm{sup 3+}) and ytterbium (Yb{sup 3+}) ions. The samples were excited using a continuous-wave diode laser operating at 980 nm. The UC intensities and the colors of the samples were controlled by changing the concentrations of the rare-earth ions (REI) and the silver NPs nucleated inside the samples. The colors observed spanned the visible range from the red–yellow to the blue. For a particular combination of silver NPs and REI concentrations it was obtained white light generation corresponding to the CIE coordinates X = 0.33 and Y = 0.33.

  14. MD SIMULATION FOR NANOCRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新玲; 杨卫

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamic (MD) provided an ab initio simulation for nano-scale mechanical behavior of materials, provided that the inter-atomic potential is accurately prescribed. MD is particularly suitable in simulating the formation, the deformation, and the evolution of nanocrystals under a fast strain rate. To tackle large scale system and nano-seconds time duration, parallel algorithm is desired. The present paper reviews the recent advances in MD simulation for nanocrystals with attention focused on the applications toward nanomechanics. The examined issues are: formation of nanocrystalline metals, nanoindentation on nanocrystals, fast deformation of nanocrystals, orderdisorder transition, and nano-particle impact.

  15. SiGe layer thickness effect on the structural and optical properties of well-organized SiGe/SiO2 multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, E. M. F.; Toudert, J.; Rolo, A. G.; Parisini, A.; Leitão, J. P.; Correia, M. R.; Franco, N.; Alves, E.; Chahboun, A.; Martín-Sánchez, J.; Serna, R.; Gomes, M. J. M.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we report on the production of regular (SiGe/SiO2)20 multilayer structures by conventional RF-magnetron sputtering, at 350 °C. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, raman spectroscopy, and x-ray reflectometry measurements revealed that annealing at a temperature of 1000 °C leads to the formation of SiGe nanocrystals between SiO2 thin layers with good multilayer stability. Reducing the nominal SiGe layer thickness (t SiGe) from 3.5-2 nm results in a transition from continuous SiGe crystalline layer (t SiGe ˜ 3.5 nm) to layers consisting of isolated nanocrystals (t SiGe ˜ 2 nm). Namely, in the latter case, the presence of SiGe nanocrystals ˜3-8 nm in size, is observed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to determine the evolution of the onset in the effective optical absorption, as well as the dielectric function, in SiGe multilayers as a function of the SiGe thickness. A clear blue-shift in the optical absorption is observed for t SiGe ˜ 2 nm multilayer, as a consequence of the presence of isolated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the observed near infrared values of n = 2.8 and k = 1.5 are lower than those of bulk SiGe compounds, suggesting the presence of electronic confinement effects in the nanocrystals. The low temperature (70 K) photoluminescence measurements performed on annealed SiGe/SiO2 nanostructures show an emission band located between 0.7-0.9 eV associated with the development of interface states between the formed nanocrystals and surrounding amorphous matrix.

  16. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices additionally rely on efficient transport of ionic charge in and around metal oxides. Colloidal synthesis has enabled metal oxide nanocrystals to emerge as a relatively new but highly tunable class of materials. Certain metal oxide nanocrystals, particularly highly doped metal oxides, have been enjoying rapid development in the last decade. As in myriad other materials systems, structure dictates the properties of metal oxide nanocrystals, but a full understanding of how nanocrystal synthesis, the processing of nanocrystal-based materials, and the structure of nanocrystals relate to the resulting properties of nanocrystal-based materials is still nascent. Gaining a fundamental understanding of and control over these structure-property relationships is crucial to developing a holistic understanding of metal oxide nanocrystals. The unique ability to tune metal oxide nanocrystals by changing composition through the introduction of dopants or by changing size and shape affords a way to study the interplay between structure, processing, and properties. This overall goal of this work is to chemically synthesize colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, process them into useful materials, characterize charge transport in materials based on colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, and develop ways to manipulate charge transport. In particular, this dissertation characterizes how the charge transport properties of metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials depend on their processing and

  17. Epitaxial Stabilization of Ferromagnetism in the Nanophase of FeGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Changgan [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Kent, P. R. C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Eisenbach, Markus [ORNL; Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL; Torija Juana, Maria Asuncion [ORNL; Shen, Jian [ORNL; Weitering, Harm H [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Epitaxial nanocrystals of FeGe have been stabilized on Ge(111). The nanocrystals assume a quasi-one-dimensional shape as they grow exclusively along the (110) direction of the Ge(111) substrate, culminating in a compressed monoclinic modification of FeGe. Whereas monoclinic FeGe is antiferromagnetic in the bulk, the nanowires are surprisingly strong ferromagnets below ~200 K with an average magnetic moment of 0.8?? per Fe atom. Density functional calculations indicate an unusual stabilization mechanism for the observed in the bulk while increased p-d hybridization suppresses the magnetic moments and stabilizes ferromagnetism.

  18. Multi-functionality of fluorescent nanocrystals in glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, S; Henke, B; Miclea, P T; Ahrens, B; Johnson, J A

    2010-03-01

    Thermal processing of as-made fluorozirconate glasses, which were additionally doped with rare-earth and chlorine ions, results in the formation of fluorescent nanocrystals therein. For medical applications, the glasses were doped with divalent europium ions as the fluorescent rare-earth ion, while trivalent neodymium was used to develop up-conversion systems. The samples were annealed up to 290 °C to initiate the growth of hexagonal or orthorhombic phase BaCl2 nanocrystals therein. Upon annealing some of the rare-earth ions were incorporated into the BaCl2 nanocrystals leading to enhanced fluorescence properties. The particle diameters were in the range of a few nanometers to several tens of nanometers.

  19. Recent Progress on Spectroscopy of Lanthanide Ions Incorporated in Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Doping luminescent lanthanide ions into semiconductor nanocrystals is an ideal approach for developing nano-devices for various applications. Quantum confinement effects are expected for lanthanide ions doped in small semiconductor nanocrystals. The most recent progress on the synthesis and spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in various semiconductor nanocrystals such as Ⅱ-Ⅵ, Ⅲ-Ⅴ and Ⅳ-Ⅵ families were systematically reviewed, focusing on our recent findings on the optical spectroscopy of Eu3+ doped in ZnO and TiO2 nanocrystals by wet chemical synthesis. The energy transfer from the band-gap excitation to lanthanides further confirmed that lanthanide ions could be successfully incorporated into the lattice sites in spite of the mismatch in ionic radii.

  20. Evidence of Bound Magnetic Polaron-Mediated Weak Ferromagnetism in co-doped SnO2 Nanocrystals: Microstructural, Optical, Hyperfine, and Magnetic Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpasalini, M. S.; Choubey, Ravi Kant; Mukherjee, Samrat

    2016-07-01

    Phase-pure rutile SnO2 nanoparticles doped with various pairs of transition metals such as Fe-Ni, Fe-Mn, Ni-Mn, and Co-Mn have been synthesized using a sol-gel method. Average crystallite size of 22 nm to 29 nm with no impurity secondary phase was observed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The morphologies of the particles were studied and their sizes calculated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Emission at 338 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was observed and attributed to band-edge emission, while the peak at 470 nm was ascribed to doubly ionized oxygen vacancies. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the phase purity of the sample. The effects of oxygen vacancies broaden the E g mode of the Raman spectrum. In 119Sn Mössbauer spectra, broadened line width was observed and the singlet was attributed to Sn4+ valence state. The interaction between singly ionized oxygen vacancies and 3 d dopant ion is the reason behind the ferromagnetic ordering observed in magnetic studies. Spins pinned at the surface orient randomly, which decreases the total moment.

  1. Formation and characterization of varied size germanium nanocrystals by electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Liu, Chuan

    2011-01-01

    and crystallization. The samples of different size Ge nanocrystals embedded in the SiO2 matrix were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Interplayed size and strain effect of Ge nanocystals was demonstrated by Raman spectroscopy after excluding the thermal effect with proper excitation laser...

  2. Syntheses of optically efficient (La{sub 1-x-y}Ce{sub x}Tb{sub y})F{sub 3} nanocrystals via a hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); You Yumin; Ludescher, Richard D. [Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Ju Yiguang, E-mail: yju@princeton.ed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Optically efficient cerium and terbium doped lanthanide fluoride (La{sub 1-x-y}Ce{sub x}Tb{sub y})F{sub 3} nanocrystals with different doping concentrations have been synthesized by a hydrothermal route in the presence of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA). The results showed that the formation of nanocrystals with different morphologies depends on terbium ion Tb{sup 3+} doping concentration, but independent of cerium ion Ce{sup 3+} doping concentration. With increase in Tb{sup 3+} doping concentration, the morphologies of nanocrystals evolved from a spherical shape to a plated-like one. In addition, both the photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) and the fluorescence lifetime of nanocrystals increased with the increase in Ce{sup 3+} doping concentration in cerium and terbium co-doped system. The PL QY reached up to 55%, and the lifetime up to 7.3 ms. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies were employed to characterize the properties of nanocrystals. The growth mechanism of nanocrystals with different morphologies and optical properties of nanocrystals with different doping concentrations were investigated.

  3. NiO gate GaN-based enhancement-mode hetrojunction field-effect transistor with extremely low on-resistance using metal organic chemical vapor deposition regrown Ge-doped layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Asamira; Choe, Songbeak; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present a normally-off GaN-based transistor with an extremely low on-resistance (R on) fabricated by using a Ge-doped n++-GaN layer for ohmic contacts. We developed a novel GaN regrowth technique using Ge as a dopant, which achieved an extremely high doping concentration of 1 × 1020 cm-3, and thereby the lowest specific contact resistance of 1.5 × 10-6 Ω·cm2. The NiO gate fabricated using an atomic layer deposition technique reduced the spacing between the source and drain electrodes. The fabricated device showed the record-breaking R on of 0.95 Ω·mm with the maximum drain current and transconductance of 1.1 A/mm and 490 mS/mm, respectively. Note that the obtained threshold voltage was 0.55 V. This extremely low R on characteristic indicates the great potential of NiO-gate GaN-based heterojunction field-effect transistors.

  4. Optical Spectroscopy of Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ Co-doped Bi2O3-GeO2-B2O3-ZnO Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The (60-x)Bi2O3-xGeO2-30B2O3-10ZnO (x=5, 10, 20, 30 molar percent) glasses doped with Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ were fabricated using the melting method. The thermal stability of the glasses was studied with their DTA curves. The results show that the difference between the glass transition temperature and the crystallization onset temperature increases with the increase of GeO2 content, indicating that the thermal stability of the glass has become better. The absorption spectra were recorded and the stimulated emission cross sections were calculated using the McCumber theory. The Ω2, Ω4, and Ω6 parameters,the transition probability, the radiative lifetime, and the fluorescence branch ratio of Er3+ for optical transition were calculated from their absorption spectra in terms of reduced matrix U(t) (λ=2, 4, 6) character for optical transitions. The infrared emission of Er3+ was measured upon excitation with 970 nm light and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) was estimated from the emission spectra. The pumping efficiency and the intensity of the emission at the 1.54 μm band of Er3+ were enhanced considerably by co-doping Yb3+.

  5. The influence of Te on thermal properties of Er-doped (Ge{sub 30}(Se{sub 1-x}Te {sub x}){sub 70}){sub 94}Ga{sub 6} chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Miyazaki University, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai, Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)]. E-mail: t0b153u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp; Sakai, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Miyazaki University, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai, Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Tonchev, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Munzar, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Ikari, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Miyazaki University, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai, Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Kasap, S.O. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2005-08-25

    We have studied the thermal properties of Er{sub 2}S{sub 3} doped (Ge{sub 0.30}(Se{sub 1-x}Te {sub x}){sub 0.70}){sub 94}Ga{sub 6} chalcogenide glasses alloyed with different amounts of Te (x = 0.005-0.4). All the samples were doped with 1 at.% of initial amount of Er{sup 3+} ions. The glass composition was chosen with respect to the possible use of this material system in optical amplifier applications operating in the 1550 nm telecommunications window. We have prepared the glass samples by means of melt-quenching techniques using two different synthesis procedures and starting materials. The actual concentrations of glass constituents have been measured by EDX/SEM and WDX/SEM microanalysis techniques. We have carried out temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) measurements to evaluate the thermal stability of these glasses in terms of their glass transformation and crystallization behaviors. Thermal properties of these (Ge{sub 0.30}(Se{sub 1-x}Te {sub x}){sub 0.70}){sub 94}Ga{sub 6} glasses changed substantially for Te content x {>=} 0.01 because of the inability of the original glass structure to accommodate the Te atoms with substantially larger atomic radius.

  6. Light emission and floating gate memory characteristics of germanium nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Samaresh; Manna, Santanu; Singha, Rajkumar; Dhar, Achintya; Ray, Samit Kumar [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Anopchenko, Aleksei; Daldosso, Nicola; Pavesi, Lorenzo [Laboratorio di Nanoscienze, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38100 Povo (Trento) (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    We report Ge nanocrystals (NCs) based dual functional light emitting and metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) flash memory devices, fabricated by rf sputtering. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the formation of spherically shaped Ge NCs. We have observed broad electroluminescence (EL) around 760 nm, which is attributed to electron-hole recombination in quantum confined Ge NCs. The dependence of integrated EL intensity on drive currents has also been studied. An anti-clockwise hysteresis behaviour is observed in capacitance-voltage measurements of MIS devices for different sweep voltages, indicating net electron trapping in NC based floating gates. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Effect of nanocavities on Ge nanoclustering and out-diffusion in SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Feng, Honglei; Liu, Bin; Liang, Wenshuang; Liu, Guiju; Ross, Guy G.; Wang, Yiqian; Barba, David

    2017-01-01

    Germanium nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) were synthesized by implantation of Ge+ ions into the fused silica, followed by a thermal annealing at 1000 °C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was employed to characterize both the morphology of the formed Ge-ncs and the evolution of their depth-distribution as a function of annealing durations. The formation of nanocavities in the vicinity of nanocrystal/SiO2 interface is evidenced, as well as their influence on the release of the compressive stress exerted on Ge-ncs by surrounding SiO2. Some Ge-ncs are found inside nanocavities, and can move into the implanted layer through a nanocavity-assisted diffusion mechanism. This finding sheds light on a new process that can explain the non-uniformity of the Ge-nanocrystal spatial distribution.

  8. Synthesis and characterisation of polygonal indium tin oxide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Ryul; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Chang Yeoul; Oh, Sung-Tag; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2013-11-01

    Polygon ITO (Sn-doped In2O3) nanocrystals were synthesised via electrospinning, and their morphology, structural properties, and chemical composition were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To determine the optimum conditions for the fabrication of polygon ITO nanocrystals, calcination temperature after the electrospinning process was controlled at 500 degrees C, 600 degrees C, 700 degrees C, and 800 degrees C, and the amount of PVP polymer was controlled at 4 wt%, 7 wt%, and 10 wt%. For comparison purposes, single In2O3 nanocrystals were also synthesised via electrospinning and calcination. The results show that ITO nanocrystals fabricated at a calcination temperature of 800 degrees C and with 10 wt% of PVP poly