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Sample records for gdp dissociation inhibitor

  1. Recognition and stabilization of geranylgeranylated human Rab5 by the GDP Dissociation Inhibitor (GDI).

    Edler, Eileen; Stein, Matthias

    2017-10-25

    The small GTPase Rab5 is the key regulator of early endosomal fusion. It is post-translationally modified by covalent attachment of two geranylgeranyl (GG) chains to adjacent cysteine residues of the C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR). The GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) recognizes membrane-associated Rab5(GDP) and serves to release it into the cytoplasm where it is kept in a soluble state. A detailed new structural and dynamic model for human Rab5(GDP) recognition and binding with human GDI at the early endosome membrane and in its dissociated state is presented. In the cytoplasm, the GDI protein accommodates the GG chains in a transient hydrophobic binding pocket. In solution, two different binding modes of the isoprenoid chains inserted into the hydrophobic pocket of the Rab5(GDP):GDI complex can be identified. This equilibrium between the two states helps to stabilize the protein-protein complex in solution. Interprotein contacts between the Rab5 switch regions and characteristic patches of GDI residues from the Rab binding platform (RBP) and the C-terminus coordinating region (CCR) reveal insight on the formation of such a stable complex. GDI binding to membrane-anchored Rab5(GDP) is initially mediated by the solvent accessible switch regions of the Rab-specific RBP. Formation of the membrane-associated Rab5(GDP):GDI complex induces a GDI reorientation to establish additional interactions with the Rab5 HVR. These results allow to devise a detailed structural model for the process of extraction of GG-Rab5(GDP) by GDI from the membrane and the dissociation from targeting factors and effector proteins prior to GDI binding.

  2. Posttranslational modifications of Rab proteins cause effective displacement of GDP dissociation inhibitor.

    Oesterlin, Lena K; Goody, Roger S; Itzen, Aymelt

    2012-04-10

    Intracellular vesicular trafficking is regulated by approximately 60 members of the Rab subfamily of small Ras-like GDP/GTP binding proteins. Rab proteins cycle between inactive and active states as well as between cytosolic and membrane bound forms. Membrane extraction/delivery and cytosolic distribution of Rabs is mediated by interaction with the protein GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) that binds to prenylated inactive (GDP-bound) Rab proteins. Because the Rab:GDP:GDI complex is of high affinity, the question arises of how GDI can be displaced efficiently from Rab protein in order to allow the necessary recruitment of the Rab to its specific target membrane. While there is strong evidence that DrrA, as a bacterially encoded GDP/GTP exchange factor, contributes to this event, we show here that posttranslational modifications of Rabs can also modulate the affinity for GDI and thus cause effective displacement of GDI from Rab:GDI complexes. These activities have been found associated with the phosphocholination and adenylylation activities of the enzymes AnkX and DrrA/SidM, respectively, from the pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila. Both modifications occur after spontaneous dissociation of Rab:GDI complexes within their natural equilibrium. Therefore, the effective GDI displacement that is observed is caused by inhibition of reformation of Rab:GDI complexes. Interestingly, in contrast to adenylylation by DrrA, AnkX can covalently modify inactive Rabs with high catalytic efficiency even when GDP is bound to the GTPase and hence can inhibit binding of GDI to Rab:GDP complexes. We therefore speculate that human cells could employ similar mechanisms in the absence of infection to effectively displace Rabs from GDI.

  3. Kindlin-2 Association with Rho GDP-Dissociation Inhibitor α Suppresses Rac1 Activation and Podocyte Injury.

    Sun, Ying; Guo, Chen; Ma, Ping; Lai, Yumei; Yang, Fan; Cai, Jun; Cheng, Zhehao; Zhang, Kuo; Liu, Zhongzhen; Tian, Yeteng; Sheng, Yue; Tian, Ruijun; Deng, Yi; Xiao, Guozhi; Wu, Chuanyue

    2017-12-01

    Alteration of podocyte behavior is critically involved in the development and progression of many forms of human glomerular diseases. The molecular mechanisms that control podocyte behavior, however, are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of Kindlin-2, a component of cell-matrix adhesions, in podocyte behavior in vivo Ablation of Kindlin-2 in podocytes resulted in alteration of actin cytoskeletal organization, reduction of the levels of slit diaphragm proteins, effacement of podocyte foot processes, and ultimately massive proteinuria and death due to kidney failure. Through proteomic analyses and in vitro coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we identified Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor α (RhoGDI α ) as a Kindlin-2-associated protein. Loss of Kindlin-2 in podocytes significantly reduced the expression of RhoGDI α and resulted in the dissociation of Rac1 from RhoGDI α , leading to Rac1 hyperactivation and increased motility of podocytes. Inhibition of Rac1 activation effectively suppressed podocyte motility and alleviated the podocyte defects and proteinuria induced by the loss of Kindlin-2 in vivo Our results identify a novel Kindlin-2-RhoGDI α -Rac1 signaling axis that is critical for regulation of podocyte structure and function in vivo and provide evidence that it may serve as a useful target for therapeutic control of podocyte injury and associated glomerular diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Placenta-specific novel splice variants of Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor β are highly expressed in cancerous cells

    Hatakeyama Keiichi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA transcripts not only plays a role in normal molecular processes but is also associated with cancer development. While normal transcripts are ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues, splice variants created through abnormal alternative splicing events are often expressed in cancer cells. Although the Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor β (ARHGDIB gene has been found to be ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues and involved in cancer development, the presence of splice variants of ARHGDIB has not yet been investigated. Results Validation analysis for the presence of and exon structures of splice variants of ARHGDIB, performed using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, successfully identified novel splice variants of ARHGDIB, that is, 6a, 6b, and 6c, in colon, pancreas, stomach, and breast cancer cell lines. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that these variants were also highly expressed in normal placental tissue but not in other types of normal tissue. Conclusions Expression of ARHGDIB variants 6a, 6b, and 6c appears to be restricted to cancer cells and normal placental tissue, suggesting that these variants possess cancer-specific functions and, as such, are potential cancer-related biomarkers.

  5. eIF2β is critical for eIF5-mediated GDP-dissociation inhibitor activity and translational control.

    Jennings, Martin D; Kershaw, Christopher J; White, Christopher; Hoyle, Danielle; Richardson, Jonathan P; Costello, Joseph L; Donaldson, Ian J; Zhou, Yu; Pavitt, Graham D

    2016-11-16

    In protein synthesis translation factor eIF2 binds initiator tRNA to ribosomes and facilitates start codon selection. eIF2 GDP/GTP status is regulated by eIF5 (GAP and GDI functions) and eIF2B (GEF and GDF activities), while eIF2α phosphorylation in response to diverse signals is a major point of translational control. Here we characterize a growth suppressor mutation in eIF2β that prevents eIF5 GDI and alters cellular responses to reduced eIF2B activity, including control of GCN4 translation. By monitoring the binding of fluorescent nucleotides and initiator tRNA to purified eIF2 we show that the eIF2β mutation does not affect intrinsic eIF2 affinities for these ligands, neither does it interfere with eIF2 binding to 43S pre-initiation complex components. Instead we show that the eIF2β mutation prevents eIF5 GDI stabilizing nucleotide binding to eIF2, thereby altering the off-rate of GDP from eIF2•GDP/eIF5 complexes. This enables cells to grow with reduced eIF2B GEF activity but impairs activation of GCN4 targets in response to amino acid starvation. These findings provide support for the importance of eIF5 GDI activity in vivo and demonstrate that eIF2β acts in concert with eIF5 to prevent premature release of GDP from eIF2γ and thereby ensure tight control of protein synthesis initiation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Biochemical analysis of leishmanial and human GDP-Mannose Pyrophosphorylases and selection of inhibitors as new leads.

    Mao, Wei; Daligaux, Pierre; Lazar, Noureddine; Ha-Duong, Tâp; Cavé, Christian; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Loiseau, Philippe M; Pomel, Sébastien

    2017-04-07

    Leishmaniases are an ensemble of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. Current antileishmanial treatments are limited and present main issues of toxicity and drug resistance emergence. Therefore, the generation of new inhibitors specifically directed against a leishmanial target is an attractive strategy to expand the chemotherapeutic arsenal. GDP-Mannose Pyrophosphorylase (GDP-MP) is a prominent therapeutic target involved in host-parasite recognition which has been described to be essential for parasite survival. In this work, we produced and purified GDP-MPs from L. mexicana (LmGDP-MP), L. donovani (LdGDP-MP), and human (hGDP-MP), and compared their enzymatic properties. From a rationale design of 100 potential inhibitors, four compounds were identified having a promising and specific inhibitory effect on parasite GDP-MP and antileishmanial activities, one of them exhibits a competitive inhibition on LdGDP-MP and belongs to the 2-substituted quinoline series.

  7. A RhoGDP dissociation inhibitor spatially regulates growth in root hair cells

    Carol, R.J.; Takeda, S.; Linstead, P.; Durrant, M.C.; Toupalová, Hana; Derbyshire, P.; Drea, S.; Žárský, Viktor; Dolan, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 438, č. 7070 (2005), s. 1013-1016 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/02/1461 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : NADPH OXIDASE * MEDICAGO-TRUNCATULA * TIP GROWTH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 29.273, year: 2005

  8. Abolishing GDP

    Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Expectations and information about the growth of GDP per capita have a large influence on decisions made by private and public economic agents. It will be argued here that GDP (per capita) is far from a robust indicator of social welfare, and that its use as such must be regarded as a serious form

  9. Yersinia Virulence Depends on Mimicry of Host Rho-Family Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors

    Prehna,G.; Ivanov, M.; Blisha, J.; Stebbins, C.

    2006-01-01

    Yersinia spp. cause gastroenteritis and the plague, representing historically devastating pathogens that are currently an important biodefense and antibiotic resistance concern. A critical virulence determinant is the Yersinia protein kinase A, or YpkA, a multidomain protein that disrupts the eukaryotic actin cytoskeleton. Here we solve the crystal structure of a YpkA-Rac1 complex and find that YpkA possesses a Rac1 binding domain that mimics host guanidine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) of the Rho GTPases. YpkA inhibits nucleotide exchange in Rac1 and RhoA, and mutations that disrupt the YpkA-GTPase interface abolish this activity in vitro and impair in vivo YpkA-induced cytoskeletal disruption. In cell culture experiments, the kinase and the GDI domains of YpkA act synergistically to promote cytoskeletal disruption, and a Y. pseudotuberculosis mutant lacking YpkA GDI activity shows attenuated virulence in a mouse infection assay. We conclude that virulence in Yersinia depends strongly upon mimicry of host GDI proteins by YpkA.

  10. Crystal Structures of the Scaffolding Protein LGN Reveal the General Mechanism by Which GoLoco Binding Motifs Inhibit the Release of GDP from Gαi *

    Jia, Min; Li, Jianchao; Zhu, Jinwei; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie; Wang, Wenning

    2012-01-01

    GoLoco (GL) motif-containing proteins regulate G protein signaling by binding to Gα subunit and acting as guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors. GLs of LGN are also known to bind the GDP form of Gαi/o during asymmetric cell division. Here, we show that the C-terminal GL domain of LGN binds four molecules of Gαi·GDP. The crystal structures of Gαi·GDP in complex with LGN GL3 and GL4, respectively, reveal distinct GL/Gαi interaction features when compared with the only high resolution structure known with GL/Gαi interaction between RGS14 and Gαi1. Only a few residues C-terminal to the conserved GL sequence are required for LGN GLs to bind to Gαi·GDP. A highly conserved “double Arg finger” sequence (RΨ(D/E)(D/E)QR) is responsible for LGN GL to bind to GDP bound to Gαi. Together with the sequence alignment, we suggest that the LGN GL/Gαi interaction represents a general binding mode between GL motifs and Gαi. We also show that LGN GLs are potent guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors. PMID:22952234

  11. Negative cooperativity in binding of muscarinic receptor agonists and GDP as a measure of agonist efficacy.

    Jakubík, J; Janíčková, H; El-Fakahany, E E; Doležal, V

    2011-03-01

    Conventional determination of agonist efficacy at G-protein coupled receptors is measured by stimulation of guanosine-5'-γ-thiotriphosphate (GTPγS) binding. We analysed the role of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) in the process of activation of the M₂ muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and provide evidence that negative cooperativity between agonist and GDP binding is an alternative measure of agonist efficacy. Filtration and scintillation proximity assays measured equilibrium binding as well as binding kinetics of [³⁵S]GTPγS and [³H]GDP to a mixture of G-proteins as well as individual classes of G-proteins upon binding of structurally different agonists to the M₂ muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Agonists displayed biphasic competition curves with the antagonist [³H]-N-methylscopolamine. GTPγS (1 µM) changed the competition curves to monophasic with low affinity and 50 µM GDP produced a similar effect. Depletion of membrane-bound GDP increased the proportion of agonist high-affinity sites. Carbachol accelerated the dissociation of [³H]GDP from membranes. The inverse agonist N-methylscopolamine slowed GDP dissociation and GTPγS binding without changing affinity for GDP. Carbachol affected both GDP association with and dissociation from G(i/o) G-proteins but only its dissociation from G(s/olf) G-proteins. These findings suggest the existence of a low-affinity agonist-receptor conformation complexed with GDP-liganded G-protein. Also the negative cooperativity between GDP and agonist binding at the receptor/G-protein complex determines agonist efficacy. GDP binding reveals differences in action of agonists versus inverse agonists as well as differences in activation of G(i/o) versus G(s/olf) G-proteins that are not identified by conventional GTPγS binding. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Dynamic regulation of GDP binding to G proteins revealed by magnetic field-dependent NMR relaxation analyses.

    Toyama, Yuki; Kano, Hanaho; Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2017-02-22

    Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signalling pathways, by coupling the activation of cell surface receptors to intracellular responses. Mutations in the G protein α-subunit (Gα) that accelerate guanosine diphosphate (GDP) dissociation cause hyperactivation of the downstream effector proteins, leading to oncogenesis. However, the structural mechanism of the accelerated GDP dissociation has remained unclear. Here, we use magnetic field-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analyses to investigate the structural and dynamic properties of GDP bound Gα on a microsecond timescale. We show that Gα rapidly exchanges between a ground-state conformation, which tightly binds to GDP and an excited conformation with reduced GDP affinity. The oncogenic D150N mutation accelerates GDP dissociation by shifting the equilibrium towards the excited conformation.

  13. ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 enhances the survivability of dissociated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell-like cells.

    Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of supplementation of culture medium with 10 μM Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho kinase activity, for 6 days on self-renewal of buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells at Passage 50-80. Y-27632 increased mean colony area (P<0.05) although it did not improve their survival. It decreased OCT4 expression (P<0.05), increased NANOG expression (P<0.05), but had no effect on SOX2 expression. It also increased expression of anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2 (P<0.05) and decreased that of pro-apoptotic genes BAX and BID (P<0.05). It increased plating efficiency of single-cell suspensions of ES cells (P<0.05). Following vitrification, the presence of Y-27632 in the vitrification solution or thawing medium or both did not improve ES cell colony survival. However, following seeding of clumps of ES cells transfected with pAcGFP1N1 carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP), Y-27632 increased colony formation rate (P<0.01). ES cell colonies that formed in all Y-27632-supplemented groups were confirmed for expression of pluripotency markers alkaline phosphatase, SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60, and for their ability to generate embryoid bodies containing cells that expressed markers of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. In conclusion, Y-27632 improves survival of buffalo ES cells under unfavourable conditions such as enzymatic dissociation to single cells or antibiotic-assisted selection after transfection, without compromising their pluripotency.

  14. Dissociation of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) from branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) by BDK inhibitors.

    Murakami, Taro; Matsuo, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ayako; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2005-02-01

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) phosphorylates and inactivates the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid catabolism. BDK has been believed to be bound to the BCKDC. However, recent our studies demonstrated that protein-protein interaction between BDK and BCKDC is one of the factors to regulate BDK activity. Furthermore, only the bound form of BDK appears to have its activity. In the present study, we examined effects of BDK inhibitors on the amount of BDK bound to the BCKDC using rat liver extracts. The bound form of BDK in the extracts of liver from low protein diet-fed rats was measured by an immunoprecipitation pull down assay with or without BDK inhibitors. Among the BDK inhibitors. alpha-ketoisocaproate, alpha-chloroisocaproate, and a-ketoisovalerate released the BDK from the complex. Furthermore, the releasing effect of these inhibitors on the BDK appeared to depend on their inhibition constants. On the other hand, clofibric acid and thiamine pyrophosphate had no effect on the protein-protein interaction between two enzymes. These results suggest that the dissociation of the BDK from the BCKDC is one of the mechanisms responsible for the action of some inhibitors to BDK.

  15. Phorbol-ester-induced activation of the NF-κB transcription factor involves dissociation of an apparently cytoplasmic NF-κB/inhibitor complex

    Baeuerle, P.A.; Lenardo, M.; Pierce, J.W.; Baltimore, D.

    1988-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that inducible transcription of genes is mediated through the induction of the activity of trans-acting protein factors. The NF-κB transcription factor provides a model system to study the posttranslational activation of a phorbol-ester-inducible transcription factor. The finding that NF-κB activity is undectable in subcellular fractions from unstimulated cells suggests that NF-κB exists as an inactive precursor. The authors showed that NF-κB is detectable in two different forms. After selective removal of endogenous NF-κB, they demonstrate the existence of a protein inhibitor in cytosolic fractions of unstimulated cells that is able in vitro to convert NF-κB into an inactive desoxycholate-dependent form. The data are consistent with a molecular mechanism of inducible gene expression by which an apparently cytoplasmic transcription factor-inhibitor complex is dissociated by the action of TPA-activated protein kinase C

  16. GDP per capita since 1820

    Bolt, Jutta; Timmer, Marcel; van Zanden, Jan Luiten

    2014-01-01

    Since 1820, the world economy experienced spectacular growth in output and income. This chapter builds upon the work by Angus Maddison and shows that the world’s average GDP per capita increased by a factor of 10 between 1820 and the 2010. Yet, this growth was spread very unevenly, resulting in a

  17. Prediction of Malaysian monthly GDP

    Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei

    2015-12-01

    The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.

  18. Inhibitors

    ... JM, and the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study Investigators. Validation of Nijmegen-Bethesda assay modifications to allow inhibitor ... webinars on blood disorders Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  19. Cancer Drug-Resistance and a Look at Specific Proteins: Rho GDP-Dissociation Inhibitor 2, Y-Box Binding Protein 1, and HSP70/90 Organizing Protein in Proteomics Clinical Application

    Skalníková, Helena; Martinková, Jiřina; Hrabáková, Rita; Halada, Petr; Dziechciarková, M.; Hajdúch, M.; Gadher, S. J.; Hammar, A.; Enetoft, D.; Ekefjard, A.; Forsstrom-Olsson, O.; Kovářová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2011), s. 404-415 ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Grant - others:Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cancer * anti-cancer drugs * drug resistance Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.113, year: 2011

  20. The GDP-Energy Link

    Bourdaire, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of primary or final energy consumptions as a function of total regional GDP, aggregated on the basis of purchasing power parities, does not bring significant results for the transition economies because of the poor quality of their data. Conversely, for the market economies, such an analysis highlights the regularity of the trends as long as final prices remain unchanged, the nature of energy shock impacts and the close relationship between the energy intensity and the level of final prices. French energy evolutions are similar and lead to question what the benefits brought by energy efficiency policies are. These benefits seem to be qualitative only, i.e. more comfort and well-being, with no indication of lesser energy consumption as long as the final prices remain unchanged. The conclusion is three-fold: importance of prices reflecting all costs, choice of supply policies which can shoulder energy shocks, and need to continue and deepen the energy debate. (authors)

  1. Modulation of GDP-fucose level for generating proteins with reduced rate of fucosylation (WO2010141855).

    Taupin, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The application (WO2010141855) is in the field of glycobiology, and involves the control of the rate of fucosylation of proteins by exogenous factors. It aims at controlling the rate of protein fucosylation with inhibitors (drugs or nucleic acid antagonists) of enzymes involved in the synthesis of GDP-fucose. Mammalian cell lines were cultured in the presence of inhibitors, for example, siRNA. The rates of GDP-fucose in cells and during protein fucosylation were characterized. The level of protein fucosylation decreases rapidly in response to a decrease in GDP-fucose level. The relationship between the rate of fucosylation of proteins and the level of GDP-fucose in a cell is non-linear. Reduction in the rate of protein fucosylation can be achieved with a minimal reduction of the level of GDP-fucose in cells. The paradigm may be used to synthesize proteins and antibodies, with a reduced rate of fucosylation. The application claims that the use of drugs or nucleic acid antagonists that inhibit the enzymes involved in GDP-fucose biosynthesis optimizes the level of GDP-fucose present in cells, and reduces the rate of fucosylation of glycoproteins.

  2. Different effects of guanine nucleotides (GDP and GTP) on protein-mediated mitochondrial proton leak.

    Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the influence of GDP and GTP on isolated mitochondria respiring under conditions favoring oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and under conditions excluding this process, i.e., in the presence of carboxyatractyloside, an adenine nucleotide translocase inhibitor, and/or oligomycin, an FOF1-ATP synthase inhibitor. Using mitochondria isolated from rat kidney and human endothelial cells, we found that the action of GDP and GTP can differ diametrically depending on the conditions. Namely, under conditions favoring OXPHOS, both in the absence and presence of linoleic acid, an activator of uncoupling proteins (UCPs), the addition of 1 mM GDP resulted in the state 4 (non-phosphorylating respiration)-state 3 (phosphorylating respiration) transition, which is characteristic of ADP oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, the addition of 1 mM GTP resulted in a decrease in the respiratory rate and an increase in the membrane potential, which is characteristic of UCP inhibition. The stimulatory effect of GDP, but not GTP, was also observed in inside-out submitochondrial particles prepared from rat kidney mitochondria. However, the effects of GDP and GTP were more similar in the presence of OXPHOS inhibitors. The importance of these observations in connection with the action of UCPs, adenine nucleotide translocase (or other carboxyatractyloside-sensitive carriers), carboxyatractyloside- and purine nucleotide-insensitive carriers, as well as nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDPK) are considered. Because the measurements favoring oxidative phosphorylation better reflect in vivo conditions, our study strongly supports the idea that GDP cannot be considered a significant physiological inhibitor of UCP. Moreover, it appears that, under native conditions, GTP functions as a more efficient UCP inhibitor than GDP and ATP.

  3. Dissociation of the role of the prelimbic cortex in interval timing and resource allocation: beneficial effect of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor nomifensine on anxiety-inducing distraction

    Alexander R Matthews

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotional distracters impair cognitive function. Emotional processing is dysregulated in affective disorders such as depression, phobias, schizophrenia, and PTSD. Among the processes impaired by emotional distracters, and whose dysregulation is documented in affective disorders, is the ability to time in the seconds-to-minutes range, i.e. interval timing. Presentation of task-irrelevant distracters during a timing task results in a delay in responding suggesting a failure to maintain subjective time in working memory, possibly due to attentional and working memory resources being diverted away from timing, as proposed by the Relative Time-Sharing model. We investigated the role of the prelimbic cortex in the detrimental effect of anxiety-inducing task-irrelevant distracters on the cognitive ability to keep track of time, using local infusions of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor nomifensine in a modified peak-interval procedure with neutral and anxiety-inducing distracters. Given that some antidepressants have beneficial effects on attention and working memory, e.g., decreasing emotional response to negative events, we hypothesized that nomifensine would improve maintenance of information in working memory in trials with distracters, resulting in a decrease of the disruptive effect of emotional events on the timekeeping abilities. Our results revealed a dissociation of the effects of nomifensine infusion in prelimbic cortex between interval timing and resource allocation, and between neutral and anxiety-inducing distraction. Nomifensine was effective only during trials with distracters, but not during trials without distracters. Nomifensine reduced the detrimental effect of the distracters only when the distracters were anxiety-inducing, but not when they were neutral. Results are discussed in relation to the brain circuits involved in Relative Time-Sharing of resources, and the pharmacological management of affective disorders.

  4. GDP growth and the yield curvature

    Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....

  5. GDP and efficiency of Russian economy

    Borodachev, Sergey M.

    2018-01-01

    The goal is to study GDP (gross domestic product) as an unobservable characteristic of the Russian national economy state on the basis of more reliable observed data on gross output (systems output) and final consumption (systems control). To do this, the dynamic Leontief model is presented in a system-like form and its parameters and GDP dynamics are estimated by the Kalman filter (KF). We consider that all previous year's investments affect the growth of the gross output by the next year. The weights of these investments in the sum are equal to unity and decrease in geometric progression. The estimation of the model parameters was carried out by the maximum likelihood method. The original data on the gross output and final consumption in the period from 1995 to 2015 years where taken from the Rosstat website, where maximally aggregated economy of Russia is reflected in the system of national accounts. The growth of direct costs and capital expenditures at gross output increase has been discovered, which indicates the extensive character of the development of the economy. Investments are being absorbed 2 - 4 years; any change of them causes a surge of commissioned fixed assets fluctuation with a period of 2 years. Then these parameter values were used in the KF to estimate the states of the system. The emerging tendency of the transition of GDP growth to its fall means that the rate of growth of final consumption is higher than the rate of GDP growth. In general, the behavior of the curve of Rosstat GDP obviously follows the declared investments, whereas in the present calculation it is closer to the behavior of final consumption. Estimated GDP and investments that really increased it were significantly less after the crisis of 2008-2009 years than officially published data.

  6. Beyond GDP: Classifying Alternative Measures for Progress

    Bleys, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Both the potential pitfalls of macro-economic policies focused on stimulating economic growth and the problems involved in using GDP as a measure of well-being or economic welfare have long been recognized by economists and researchers from other social sciences. Therefore, it is no surprise that alternative measures for policy-making have been…

  7. A High-Throughput Assay for Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Based on the Transcreener GDP Assay.

    Reichman, Melvin; Schabdach, Amanda; Kumar, Meera; Zielinski, Tom; Donover, Preston S; Laury-Kleintop, Lisa D; Lowery, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Ras homologous (Rho) family GTPases act as molecular switches controlling cell growth, movement, and gene expression by cycling between inactive guanosine diphosphate (GDP)- and active guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound conformations. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) positively regulate Rho GTPases by accelerating GDP dissociation to allow formation of the active, GTP-bound complex. Rho proteins are directly involved in cancer pathways, especially cell migration and invasion, and inhibiting GEFs holds potential as a therapeutic strategy to diminish Rho-dependent oncogenesis. Methods for measuring GEF activity suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) are limited. We developed a simple, generic biochemical assay method for measuring GEF activity based on the fact that GDP dissociation is generally the rate-limiting step in the Rho GTPase catalytic cycle, and thus addition of a GEF causes an increase in steady-state GTPase activity. We used the Transcreener GDP Assay, which relies on selective immunodetection of GDP, to measure the GEF-dependent stimulation of steady-state GTP hydrolysis by small GTPases using Dbs (Dbl's big sister) as a GEF for Cdc42, RhoA, and RhoB. The assay is well suited for HTS, with a homogenous format and far red fluorescence polarization (FP) readout, and it should be broadly applicable to diverse Rho GEF/GTPase pairs. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  8. Comparative study of structural models of Leishmania donovani and human GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylases.

    Daligaux, Pierre; Bernadat, Guillaume; Tran, Linh; Cavé, Christian; Loiseau, Philippe M; Pomel, Sébastien; Ha-Duong, Tâp

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania is the parasite responsible for the neglected disease leishmaniasis. Its virulence and survival require biosynthesis of glycoconjugates, whose guanosine diphospho-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GDP-MP) is a key player. However, experimentally resolved structures of this enzyme are still lacking. We herein propose structural models of the GDP-MP from human and Leishmania donovani. Based on a multiple sequences alignment, the models were built with MODELLER and then carefully refined with all atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. Their quality was evaluated against several standard criteria, including their ability to bind GDP-mannose assessed by redocking calculations. Special attention was given in this study to interactions of the catalytic site residues with the enzyme substrate and competitive inhibitors, opening the perspective of medicinal chemistry developments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Decoupling of CO2 emissions and GDP

    Yves Rocha de Salles Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work is to analyze the variation of CO2 emissions and GDP per capita throughout the years and identify the possible interaction between them. For this purpose, data from the International Energy Agency was collected on two countries, Brazil and the one with the highest GDP worldwide, the United States. Thus, the results showed that CO2 emissions have been following the country’s economic growth for many years. However, these two indicators have started to decouple in the US in 2007 while in Brazil the same happened in 2011. Furthermore, projections for CO2 emissions are made until 2040, considering 6 probable scenarios. These projections showed that even if the oil price decreases, the emissions will not be significantly affected as long as the economic growth does not decelerate.

  10. Base-modified GDP-mannose derivatives and their substrate activity towards a yeast mannosyltransferase.

    Collier, Alice; Wagner, Gerd K

    2017-11-27

    We have previously developed a new class of inhibitors and chemical probes for glycosyltransferases through base-modification of the sugar-nucleotide donor. The key feature of these donor analogues is the presence of an additional substituent at the nucleobase. To date, the application of this general concept has been limited to UDP-sugars and UDP-sugar-dependent glycosyltransferases. Herein, we report for the first time the application of our approach to a GDP-mannose-dependent mannosyltransferase. We have prepared four GDP-mannose derivatives with an additional substituent at either position 6 or 8 of the nucleobase. These donor analogues were recognised as donor substrates by the mannosyltransferase Kre2p from yeast, albeit with significantly lower turnover rates than the natural donor GDP-mannose. The presence of the additional substituent also redirected enzyme activity from glycosyl transfer to donor hydrolysis. Taken together, our results suggest that modification of the donor nucleobase is, in principle, a viable strategy for probe and inhibitor development against GDP-mannose-dependent GTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biochemical characterization of an isoform of GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase from Mortierella alpina.

    Wang, Hongchao; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Haiqin; Yang, Qin; Zhou, Xin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2016-10-01

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina. Analysis of the M. alpina genome suggests that there were two isofunctional GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase genes (GMD1 and GMD2) that have never been found in a microorganism before. GMD2 was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The addition of exogenous NAD(+) or NADP(+) was not essential for GMD2 activity. GMD2 may have considerable importance for GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis under nitrogen starvation. The transcriptional regulation of GMD1 may be more susceptible to GDP and GTP than that of GMD2. Significant changes were observed in the concentration of GDP-L-fucose (30 and 36 % inhibition respectively) and total fatty acids (18 and 12 % inhibition respectively) in M. alpina grown on GMD inhibitors medium, which suggests that GDP-L-fucose is functionally significant in lipid metabolism. This is the first time that an isofunctional GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase has been characterized in a microorganism.

  12. Implementing US GDP in Chained Prices for Cross-country GDP Growth and Sectoral Comparisons: Application to Selected ASEAN Countries

    Dumagan, Jesus C.

    2008-01-01

    GDP in constant prices of ASEAN countries suffers from substitution bias by ignoring relative price changes and makes GDP growth and shares dependent on the base year. These analytical deficiencies led the US since the mid-1990s to convert GDP from constant to chained prices. Thus, cross-country comparisons in constant prices are analytically shaky even with the same base year. Therefore, this paper implements US GDP in chained prices in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand to allev...

  13. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, GDP AND STOCK MARKET

    Caus Vasile Aurel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is affected by the size and dynamics of underground economy. Determining this size is a subject of research for many authors. In this paper we present the relationship between underground economy dynamics and the dynamics of stock markets. The observations are based on regression used by Tanzi (1983 and the relationship between GDP and stock market presented in Tudor (2008. The conclusion of this paper is that the dynamics of underground economy is influenced by dynamic of financial markets. Thus, using specific stock market mathematical tools analysis, one can analyze the dynamic of underground economy

  14. Digital Transformation and Its Influence on GDP

    Mićić Ljubiša

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital transformation as integration of digital technology into business results in fundamental changes of way world does business, communicate and develops on national and international level. There is increase of high-tech public spending which is connected with increase of need for high-tech as well as importance and benefits that it brings to development of economy. This so called digital or high-tech sector is one of the strategic sectors in the leading world economies, starting from the US and the European Union. EU recognized it in strategic document “Europe 2020” which sees this sector as key factor in smart growth based on tech knowledge and innovation. Europe, especially western and northern Europe, is trying to keep its competitiveness in global tech arena with USA and fast developing countries such as China and India as well as Asian tech giants such are Japan, South Korea and Singapore. There is increase of European countries investment in digital transformation through private and public ICT sector development which usually has positive impact on economic growth as well as key indicators such are GDP, productivity and employment. This paper provides basic review of digital transformation and high-tech sector in Europe as well as comparison between EU and Western Balkan countries. Additionally, there is analysis of influence of ICT spending on GDP growth. Paper could serve as basic for further research in area of influence of tech investment on key macroeconomics indicators.

  15. Backbone resonance assignments for G protein α(i3) subunit in the GDP-bound state.

    Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-10-01

    Guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signaling pathways, by coupling the activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the cell surface to intracellular responses. In the resting state, G protein forms a heterotrimer, consisting of the G protein α subunit with GDP (Gα·GDP) and the G protein βγ subunit (Gβγ). Ligand binding to GPCRs promotes the GDP-GTP exchange on Gα, leading to the dissociation of the GTP-bound form of Gα (Gα·GTP) and Gβγ. Then, Gα·GTP and Gβγ bind to their downstream effector enzymes or ion channels and regulate their activities, leading to a variety of cellular responses. Finally, Gα hydrolyzes the bound GTP to GDP and returns to the resting state by re-associating with Gβγ. The G proteins are classified with four major families based on the amino acid sequences of Gα: i/o, s, q/11, and 12/13. Here, we established the backbone resonance assignments of human Gαi3, a member of the i/o family with a molecular weight of 41 K, in complex with GDP. The chemical shifts were compared with those of Gα(i3) in complex with a GTP-analogue, GTPγS, which we recently reported, indicating that the residues with significant chemical shift differences are mostly consistent with the regions with the structural differences between the GDP- and GTPγS-bound states, as indicated in the crystal structures. The assignments of Gα(i3)·GDP would be useful for the analyses of the dynamics of Gα(i3) and its interactions with various target molecules.

  16. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND REAL GDP IN IRAN

    Ali Akbar Naji Meidani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important production factors and one of the most urgent final products, energy has a special position in the growth and development of the country. This paper examines the causal relationship between Real GDP and energy consumption in various economic sectors including (household and commercial, industry, transportation and agriculture sectors for Iran during 1967–2010 using the time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method. Moreover, an error correction model is also estimated so that the results of these two methods are compared. We found a strong unidirectional causality from energy consumption in industry sector to real gross domestic product. Energy consumption in industry sector can observably promote the development of economy.

  17. TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE AND GDP /JIPP CURVE/

    Mariana Kaneva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between telecommunications infrastructure and economic activity is under discussion in many scientific papers. Most of the authors use for research and analysis the Jipp curve. A lot of doubts about the correctness of the Jipp curve appear in terms of applying econometric models. The aim of this study is a review of the Jipp curve, refining the possibility of its application in modern conditions. The methodology used in the study is based on dynamic econometric models, including tests for nonstationarity and tests for causality. The focus of this study is directed to methodological problems in measuring the local density types of telecommunication networks. This study offers a specific methodology for assessing the Jipp law, through VAR-approach and Granger causality tests. It is proved that mechanical substitution of momentary aggregated variables (such as the number of subscribers of a telecommunication network at the end of the year and periodically aggregated variables (such as GDP per capita in the Jipp�s curve is methodologically wrong. Researchers have to reconsider the relationship set in the Jipp�s curve by including additional variables that characterize the Telecommunications sector and the economic activity in a particular country within a specified time period. GDP per capita should not be regarded as a single factor for the local density of telecommunications infrastructure. New econometric models studying the relationship between the investments in telecommunications infrastructure and economic development may be not only linear regression models, but also other econometric models. New econometric models should be proposed after testing and validating with sound economic theory and econometric methodology.

  18. Experimental dissociation of the effects of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in the rat.

    Bartoli, E; Branca, G F; Faedda, R; Olmeo, N A; Satta, A; Soggia, G

    1982-07-01

    1 The relative importance of the effect of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption was assessed in rats. 2 Clearance experiments were performed on 24 anaesthetized rats divided into 3 groups. Each group was infused throughout either with Ringer solution at 9 ml/h (Protocol I), or at 3 ml/h (Protocol II) or with hypotonic fluid at 5 ml/h (Protocol III). Clearance periods were performed before and after intravenous injection of indomethacin (5 mg/kg) and then of aspirin (20 mg/kg). The natriuretic response to different degrees of volume expansion was not modified during the action of the inhibitors. 3 When baseline urine osmolality (Uosm) was high (Protocol II) no further increase occurred in the presence of prostaglandin inhibition. Conversely, Uosm rose from 771 +/- 134 to 1356 +/- 414 and from 575 +/- 245 to 841 +/- 407 mosm/kg (P less than 0.05) in Protocol I and Protocol III respectively, when antidiuretic hormone secretion was inhibited by the higher degree of volume expansion. 4 There was a significant correlation between the change in urine flow rate induced by cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the attendant variations in Na excretion, r = 0.42, n = 41, P less than 0.01. 5 Thus, prostaglandins affect Na loss during saline load as a side effect of their action on water permeability. They could play an important role in volume depletion by counterbalancing the large secretion rate of renal vasoconstrictors.

  19. Experimental dissociation of the effects of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in the rat.

    Bartoli, E.; Branca, G. F.; Faedda, R.; Olmeo, N. A.; Satta, A.; Soggia, G.

    1982-01-01

    1 The relative importance of the effect of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption was assessed in rats. 2 Clearance experiments were performed on 24 anaesthetized rats divided into 3 groups. Each group was infused throughout either with Ringer solution at 9 ml/h (Protocol I), or at 3 ml/h (Protocol II) or with hypotonic fluid at 5 ml/h (Protocol III). Clearance periods were performed before and after intravenous injection of indomethacin (5 mg/kg) and then of aspirin (20 mg/kg). The natriuretic response to different degrees of volume expansion was not modified during the action of the inhibitors. 3 When baseline urine osmolality (Uosm) was high (Protocol II) no further increase occurred in the presence of prostaglandin inhibition. Conversely, Uosm rose from 771 +/- 134 to 1356 +/- 414 and from 575 +/- 245 to 841 +/- 407 mosm/kg (P less than 0.05) in Protocol I and Protocol III respectively, when antidiuretic hormone secretion was inhibited by the higher degree of volume expansion. 4 There was a significant correlation between the change in urine flow rate induced by cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the attendant variations in Na excretion, r = 0.42, n = 41, P less than 0.01. 5 Thus, prostaglandins affect Na loss during saline load as a side effect of their action on water permeability. They could play an important role in volume depletion by counterbalancing the large secretion rate of renal vasoconstrictors. PMID:6809089

  20. Geographic origin of publications in radiological journals as a function of GDP and percentage of GDP spent on research.

    Halpenny, Darragh; Burke, John; McNeill, Graeme; Snow, Aisling; Torreggiani, William C

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the geographic origin of publications in the highest impacting radiology journals and to examine the link between the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on research by a country and the output of radiology publications. The five highest impacting general radiology journals (according to the ISI Web of Knowledge database) were selected over a 6-year period from January 2002 to December 2007. Publications were totaled according to the country of the corresponding author. Publications (total and corrected for population size) were assessed according to the GDP of a given country and the percentage of GDP spent on research in that country. Correlation was determined using Spearman's rank. In total, 10,925 papers were identified. The top 10 nations produced 83.9% of the total number of papers. The United States was the most prolific country, with 41.7% of the total. The second-ranked and third-ranked countries were Germany (11.6%) and Japan (6.7%). Corrected for GDP, smaller European countries outperformed larger nations. Switzerland (0.925 publications per billion of GDP), Austria (0.694 publications per billion of GDP), and Belgium (0.648 publications per billion of GDP) produced the most papers per billion of GDP. When corrected for percentage of GDP spent on research, European countries again ranked highest, with Greece, Turkey, and Belgium having the best ratios. The percentage of GDP spent on research was positively correlated with the number of publications in high-ranking radiology journals (r = 0.603, P GDP and the percentage of GDP spent on research may give more meaningful results. When GDP is taken into consideration, smaller European countries are more productive. The importance of investment in radiologic research is emphasized by the association between increased funding of research and the number of publications in high-impacting radiology journals. Copyright (c) 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Is Decoupling GDP Growth from Environmental Impact Possible?

    Ward, James D; Sutton, Paul C; Werner, Adrian D; Costanza, Robert; Mohr, Steve H; Simmons, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    The argument that human society can decouple economic growth-defined as growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP)-from growth in environmental impacts is appealing. If such decoupling is possible, it means that GDP growth is a sustainable societal goal. Here we show that the decoupling concept can be interpreted using an easily understood model of economic growth and environmental impact. The simple model is compared to historical data and modelled projections to demonstrate that growth in GDP ultimately cannot be decoupled from growth in material and energy use. It is therefore misleading to develop growth-oriented policy around the expectation that decoupling is possible. We also note that GDP is increasingly seen as a poor proxy for societal wellbeing. GDP growth is therefore a questionable societal goal. Society can sustainably improve wellbeing, including the wellbeing of its natural assets, but only by discarding GDP growth as the goal in favor of more comprehensive measures of societal wellbeing.

  2. Causality relationship between electricity consumption and GDP in Bangladesh

    Mozumder, Pallab; Marathe, Achla

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the causal relationship between the per capita electricity consumption and the per capita GDP for Bangladesh using cointegration and vector error correction model. Our results show that there is unidirectional causality from per capita GDP to per capita electricity consumption. However, the per capita electricity consumption does not cause per capita GDP in case of Bangladesh. The finding has significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation, emission reduction and economic development

  3. How much have electricity shortages hampered China's GDP growth?

    Cheng, Y.S.; Wong, W.K.; Woo, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    Based on an econometric analysis of the annual growth data for China's GDP and electricity generation from 1953 to 2010, we find that electricity generation growth Granger causes GDP growth, but not vice versa. We also find that the GDP elasticity of electricity generation is about 0.6, implying that a 1% increase in China's electricity generation growth would increase GDP growth by 0.6%. While Deng's reform raised China's GDP growth rate by about 5% per year, it did not alter the GDP elasticity of electricity generation. Hence, an obvious strategy to promote China's economic growth would be accelerating electricity generation expansion. Rapidly adding thermal generation units, however, could have large-scale, adverse environmental impacts. We therefore support China's 2011 five-year plan, which calls for expanding investments in renewable energy, conservation and energy efficiency as well as improving China's integrated electricity planning and cost-based pricing decisions. - Highlights: ► China's electricity generation growth is found to Granger cause GDP growth, but not vice versa. ► The estimate of the GDP elasticity of electricity generation is about 0.6. ► A 1% increase in China's electricity generation growth would increase GDP growth by 0.6%

  4. Mammalian translation elongation factor eEF1A2: X-ray structure and new features of GDP/GTP exchange mechanism in higher eukaryotes.

    Crepin, Thibaut; Shalak, Vyacheslav F; Yaremchuk, Anna D; Vlasenko, Dmytro O; McCarthy, Andrew; Negrutskii, Boris S; Tukalo, Michail A; El'skaya, Anna V

    2014-11-10

    Eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A transits between the GTP- and GDP-bound conformations during the ribosomal polypeptide chain elongation. eEF1A*GTP establishes a complex with the aminoacyl-tRNA in the A site of the 80S ribosome. Correct codon-anticodon recognition triggers GTP hydrolysis, with subsequent dissociation of eEF1A*GDP from the ribosome. The structures of both the 'GTP'- and 'GDP'-bound conformations of eEF1A are unknown. Thus, the eEF1A-related ribosomal mechanisms were anticipated only by analogy with the bacterial homolog EF-Tu. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the mammalian eEF1A2*GDP complex which indicates major differences in the organization of the nucleotide-binding domain and intramolecular movements of eEF1A compared to EF-Tu. Our results explain the nucleotide exchange mechanism in the mammalian eEF1A and suggest that the first step of eEF1A*GDP dissociation from the 80S ribosome is the rotation of the nucleotide-binding domain observed after GTP hydrolysis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. GDP vs. GNH. A NEW PARADIGM

    CHEPTEA MADALINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human being should be seen as the most important asset of economic life, and its well-being should be considered as an important indicator in having a realistic account regarding the level of prosperity and evolution of a nation. Although the concept of GNH (Gross National Happiness has been introduced by economists like Richard Layard, and we have the example of Kingdom of Buthan where happiness is the only measurement means for quantifying the well-being of the population, governments and even economy tend to completely ignore such a parameter. We are more involved in an increasing consumeristic society, in wars, fighting for supremacy, gaining more territories, producing and spreading disease and medicines and we are less and less preoccupied by the inner being, by the human beings around us, by our fellow creatures. This paper is an attempt to prove that GNH (Gross National Happiness should be the means of measuring the prosperity of a nation, and replace at least partially GDP (Gross Domestic Product.

  6. The Underground Economy and GDP Estimation in Developing ...

    The estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) in most developing countries portrays a lot of meaning; most often it is very low. This could be true or false. The existence of underground economy in this economies tend to undermine the estimation of GDP in developing economies, because the size of such economy is ...

  7. GDP-tubulin incorporation into growing microtubules modulates polymer stability.

    Valiron, Odile; Arnal, Isabelle; Caudron, Nicolas; Job, Didier

    2010-06-04

    Microtubule growth proceeds through the endwise addition of nucleotide-bound tubulin dimers. The microtubule wall is composed of GDP-tubulin subunits, which are thought to come exclusively from the incorporation of GTP-tubulin complexes at microtubule ends followed by GTP hydrolysis within the polymer. The possibility of a direct GDP-tubulin incorporation into growing polymers is regarded as hardly compatible with recent structural data. Here, we have examined GTP-tubulin and GDP-tubulin incorporation into polymerizing microtubules using a minimal assembly system comprised of nucleotide-bound tubulin dimers, in the absence of free nucleotide. We find that GDP-tubulin complexes can efficiently co-polymerize with GTP-tubulin complexes during microtubule assembly. GDP-tubulin incorporation into microtubules occurs with similar efficiency during bulk microtubule assembly as during microtubule growth from seeds or centrosomes. Microtubules formed from GTP-tubulin/GDP-tubulin mixtures display altered microtubule dynamics, in particular a decreased shrinkage rate, apparently due to intrinsic modifications of the polymer disassembly properties. Thus, although microtubules polymerized from GTP-tubulin/GDP-tubulin mixtures or from homogeneous GTP-tubulin solutions are both composed of GDP-tubulin subunits, they have different dynamic properties, and this may reveal a novel form of microtubule "structural plasticity."

  8. Shock compression of glow discharge polymer (GDP): density functional theory (DFT) simulations and experiments on Sandia's Z machine

    Cochrane, Kyle R.; Ao, T.; Lemke, R. W.; Hamel, S.; Schoff, M. E.; Blue, B. E.; Herrmann, M. C.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2014-03-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) is used extensively as capsule/ablation material in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules. Accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) under shock and release is particularly important for high-fidelity design, analysis, and optimization of ICF experiments since the capsule material is subject to several converging shocks as well as release towards the cryogenic fuel. We performed Density Functional Theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, to gain knowledge of the behavior of GDP - for example regarding the role of chemical dissociation during shock compression, we find that the dissociation regime along the Hugoniot extends from 50 GPa to 250 GPa. The shock pressures calculated from DFT are compared experimental data taken at Sandia's Z-machine. The GDP samples were grown in a planar geometry to improve the sample quality and maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere following manufacturing, thus allowing for a direct comparison to the DFT/QMD simulations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Effect of exchange rate policy on GDP and GDP components: The Kyrgyz Republic Case

    Fuat SEKMEN; Nurbek MADMAROV

    2018-01-01

    The choice of exchange rate regimes in the countries to take advantage of stabilization policies was quite difficult. After the breakdown of the USSR, the KR among the former member countries in the Central Asia was the first to introduce its national currency on 10th of May 1993. After that time, it has done several adjustments in the exchange rate policy to preserve the value of the som from external shocks. In the study, the effectiveness of the exchange rate policy on GDP a...

  10. 7-methylguanosine diphosphate (m(7)GDP) is not hydrolyzed but strongly bound by decapping scavenger (DcpS) enzymes and potently inhibits their activity.

    Wypijewska, Anna; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Stepinski, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek; Davis, Richard E; Darzynkiewicz, Edward

    2012-10-09

    Decapping scavenger (DcpS) enzymes catalyze the cleavage of a residual cap structure following 3' → 5' mRNA decay. Some previous studies suggested that both m(7)GpppG and m(7)GDP were substrates for DcpS hydrolysis. Herein, we show that mononucleoside diphosphates, m(7)GDP (7-methylguanosine diphosphate) and m(3)(2,2,7)GDP (2,2,7-trimethylguanosine diphosphate), resulting from mRNA decapping by the Dcp1/2 complex in the 5' → 3' mRNA decay, are not degraded by recombinant DcpS proteins (human, nematode, and yeast). Furthermore, whereas mononucleoside diphosphates (m(7)GDP and m(3)(2,2,7)GDP) are not hydrolyzed by DcpS, mononucleoside triphosphates (m(7)GTP and m(3)(2,2,7)GTP) are, demonstrating the importance of a triphosphate chain for DcpS hydrolytic activity. m(7)GTP and m(3)(2,2,7)GTP are cleaved at a slower rate than their corresponding dinucleotides (m(7)GpppG and m(3)(2,2,7)GpppG, respectively), indicating an involvement of the second nucleoside for efficient DcpS-mediated digestion. Although DcpS enzymes cannot hydrolyze m(7)GDP, they have a high binding affinity for m(7)GDP and m(7)GDP potently inhibits DcpS hydrolysis of m(7)GpppG, suggesting that m(7)GDP may function as an efficient DcpS inhibitor. Our data have important implications for the regulatory role of m(7)GDP in mRNA metabolic pathways due to its possible interactions with different cap-binding proteins, such as DcpS or eIF4E.

  11. The Impact of Corruption on GDP Per Capita

    Nazar Mustapha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the impact of corruption on the GDP per capita. A panel data covers the period between 2003 and 2011. The objective is to test the hypothesis that there is a strong negative impact of corruption on the GDP per capita. Three tests were conducted, the pool OLS, The Fixed Effect and the Random effect estimations. The main result of this study is that all three tests had shown strong statistically significant negative impact of corruption on the GDP per capita.

  12. Inflation, GDP growth and population change in the USA

    Ivan Kitov

    2005-01-01

    Inflation in the USA between 1960 and 2004 is studied in the framework of the revealed rigidity of the personal income distribution normalized to the total nominal GDP. Inflation is found to be a mechanism, which prevents changes in the relative incomes induced by economic growth and population changes - both in number and age structure. A model is developed linking CPI to GDP growth rate and relative change of the number of people of some specific age. The GDP growth rate is characterized by...

  13. Dissociation dynamics of methylal

    Beaud, P; Frey, H -M; Gerber, T; Mischler, B; Radi, P P; Tzannis, A -P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The dissociation of methylal is investigated using mass spectrometry, combined with a pyrolytic radical source and femtosecond pump probe experiments. Based on preliminary results two reaction paths of methylal dissociation are proposed and discussed. (author) 4 fig., 3 refs.

  14. Causal Relationship between Construction Production and GDP in Turkey

    Hakkı Kutay Bolkol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the causal relationship between construction production and GDP for Turkey during 2005Q1-2013Q4 period. Because it is found that, there is no cointegration which means there is no long run relationship between variables, VAR Granger Causality Method is used to test the causality in short run. The findings reveal that, the causality runs from GDP to Building Production and Building Production to Non-Building Production (i.e. bidirectional relationship. Findings of this paper suggest that, because there is no long run relationship between Construction Production (Building and Non-Building and GDP and also in short run the causality runs from GDP to Construction Production, the growth strategy based on mainly Construction Sector growth is not a good idea for Turkey.

  15. Causal Relationship between Construction Production and GDP in Turkey

    Hakkı Kutay Bolkol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the causal relationship between construction production and GDP for Turkey during 2005Q1-2013Q4 period. Because it is found that, there is no cointegration which means there is no long run relationship between variables, VAR Granger Causality Method is used to test the causality in short run. The findings reveal that, the causality runs from GDP to Building Production and Building Production to Non-Building Production (i.e. bidirectional relationship. Findings of this paper suggest that, because there is no long run relationship between Construction Production (Building and Non-Building and GDP and also in short run the causality runs from GDP to Construction Production, the growth strategy based on mainly Construction Sector growth is not a good idea for Turkey.

  16. On the relationship between GDP and energy consumption

    Sudarsono, B.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of a coupling between the growth in GDP and the growth in energy consumption is reviewed and its importance is discussed. The usefulness of a GDP energy consumption relationship for energy projections is investigated with particular reference to the case of Indonesia. A particular form of such a relationship is obtained for Indonesia with income elasticity decreasing as a function of time and its use is compared with other results. (author)

  17. Was the Recent Downturn in US GDP Predictable?

    Mehmet Balcilar; Rangan Gupta; Anandamayee Majumdar; Stephen M. Miller

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses small set of variables-- real GDP, the inflation rate, and the short-term interest rate -- and a rich set of models -- athoeretical and theoretical, linear and nonlinear, as well as classical and Bayesian models -- to consider whether we could have predicted the recent downturn of the US real GDP. Comparing the performance by root mean squared errors of the models to the benchmark random-walk model, the two theoretical models, especially the nonlinear model, perform well on th...

  18. Exploiting the Oil-GDP Effect to Support Renewables Deployment

    Shimon Awerbuch; Raphael Sauter

    2005-01-01

    The empirical evidence from a growing body of academic literature clearly suggests that oil price increases and volatility dampen macroeconomic growth by raising inflation and unemployment and by depressing the value of financial and other assets. Surprisingly, this issue seems to have received little attention from energy policy makers. In percentage terms, the Oil-GDP effect is relatively small, producing losses in the order of 0.5% of GDP for a 10% oil price increase. In absolute terms how...

  19. Exploiting the oil-GDP effect to support renewables deployment

    Awerbuch, Shimon; Sauter, Raphael

    2006-01-01

    The empirical evidence from a growing body of academic literature clearly suggests that oil price increases and volatility dampen macroeconomic growth by raising inflation and unemployment and by depressing the value of financial and other assets. Surprisingly, this issue seems to have received little attention from energy policy makers. In percentage terms, the oil-GDP effect is relatively small, producing losses in the order of 0.5% of GDP for a 10% oil price increase. In absolute terms however, even a 10% oil price rise-oil has risen at least 50% in the last year alone-produces GDP losses that, could they have been averted, would significantly offset the cost of increased RE deployment. This paper draws on the empirical oil-GDP literature, which we summarize, to show that (i) by displacing gas and oil, renewable energy investments can help nations avoid costly macroeconomic losses produced by the oil-GDP effect and (ii) that these avoided losses represent a significant external macroeconomic benefit of such investments. We show that a 10% increase in RE share avoids GDP losses in the range of $29-$53 billion in the US and the EU ($49-$90 billion for OECD). These avoided losses offset one-fifth of the RE investment needs projected by the EREC and half the OECD investment projected by a G-8 Task Force. For the US, the figures further suggest that each additional kW of renewables, on average, avoids $250-$450 in GDP losses, a figure that varies across technologies as a function of annual capacity factors. We approximate that the offset is worth $200/kW for wind and solar and $800/kW for geothermal and biomass. While we focus only on renewables, the GDP offset will apply in some measure to other non-fossil technologies including energy efficiency, DSM and nuclear. The societal valuation of non-fossil alternatives must reflect these avoided GDP losses, whose benefit is not fully captured by private investors. This said, we fully recognize that wealth created in this

  20. Exploiting the oil-GDP effect to support renewables deployment

    Awerbuch, S.; Sauter, R.

    2006-01-01

    The empirical evidence from a growing body of academic literature clearly suggests that oil price increases and volatility dampen macroeconomic growth by raising inflation and unemployment and by depressing the value of financial and other assets. Surprisingly, this issue seems to have received little attention from energy policy makers. In percentage terms, the oil-GDP effect is relatively small, producing losses in the order of 0.5% of GDP for a 10% oil price increase. In absolute terms however, even a 10% oil price rise-oil has risen at least 50% in the last year alone-produces GDP losses that, could they have been averted, would significantly offset the cost of increased RE deployment. This paper draws on the empirical oil-GDP literature, which we summarize, to show that (i) by displacing gas and oil, renewable energy investments can help nations avoid costly macroeconomic losses produced by the oil-GDP effect and, (ii) that these avoided losses represent a significant external macroeconomic benefit of such investments. We show that a 10% increase in RE share avoids GDP losses in the range of $29-$53 billion in the US and the EU ($49-$90 billion for OECD). These avoided losses offset one-fifth of the RE investment needs projected by the EREC and half the OECD investment projected by a G-8 Task Force. For the US, the figures further suggest that each additional kW of renewables, on average, avoids $250-$450 in GDP losses, a figure that varies across technologies as a function of annual capacity factors. We approximate that the offset is worth $200/kW for wind and solar and $800/kW for geothermal and biomass. While we focus only on renewables, the GDP offset will apply in some measure to other non-fossil technologies including energy efficiency, DSM and nuclear. The societal valuation of non-fossil alternatives must reflect these avoided GDP losses, whose benefit is not fully captured by private investors. This said, we fully recognize that wealth created in this

  1. GDP Structure and Economic Performance in Sub-Saharan Countries

    Luboš Smutka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Africa belongs to important regions of the world economy with specific problems distinguishing this part of the world from other regions. The region is suffering because of limited economy structure and high level of poverty. Low economic performance ranks most of African countries among the worldwide poorest ones (both from the point of view of total economy performance and also individuals living standards; the development is hindered by political instability and also by other accompanied problems as high level of corruption, deficit of democracy, low level of education, limited investments, criminality, local conflicts, civil wars etc. On the other hand, African natural, economy and social resources and unexploited opportunities in many areas offer a potential for a considerable economic development. Understanding the current economic position of African states thus may reveal causes of problematic development and outline ways to overcome existing shortcomings. The aim of the paper is to analyze main changes in area of GDP structure formation (agricultural, industrial and services sector share in GDP and value performance which have occurred in selected African (Sub-Saharan countries. Changes are analyzed both in relation to the total GDP and GDP per capita. The authors identify main trends of economic development in the Sub-Saharan region and to specify differences among Sub-Saharan countries with the intention to identify particular groups of African countries according to their economic structure and to identify differences in their GDP formation.

  2. Dissociation in small molecules

    Dehmer, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    The study of molecular dissociation processes is one of the most interesting areas of modern spectroscopy owing to the challenges presented bt even the simplest of diatomic molecules. This paper reviews the commonly used descriptions of molecular dissociation processes for diatomic molecules, the selection rules for predissociation, and a few of the principles to be remembered when one is forced to speculate about dissociation mechanisms in a new molecule. Some of these points will be illustrated by the example of dissociative ionization in O 2

  3. Renewable energy: An efficient mechanism to improve GDP

    Chien Taichen; Hu Jinli

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the effects of renewable energy on GDP for 116 economies in 2003 through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. In order to decipher the mechanism of how the use of renewables improves macroeconomic efficiency, we decompose GDP by the 'expenditure approach'. Although previous theory predicts positive effects of renewables on capital formation and trade balance, the SEM results show that renewables have a significant positive influence on capital formation only. The result that renewables do not have a significant impact on trade balance implies that renewables do not have an import substitution effect. Thus, we confirm the positive relationship between renewable energy and GDP through the path of increasing capital formation, but not for the path of increasing trade balance

  4. Policy relevance of various proposals for greening GDP

    De Wit, G.

    1996-02-01

    From the study on the title subject it appears that the use of a number of separate physical indicators is valuable for policy making but that it would be helpful for policy to develop (alongside the conventional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and these environmental indicators) an extra 'green' GDP. The analysis of the various surveyed proposals of greening GDP results into the conclusion that adjustments should be made as follows: (1) adjustment for the net depletion of natural resources according to the net price method, (2) adjustment for the degradation of nature by polluting emissions with the aid of shadow prices derived from politics, and (3) adjustment for certain categories of environmental defensive expenditures. The major reasons for this recommendation are: (1) such a GDP can facilitate government in decisions where trade-offs between production and a clean environment are at stake, (2) the recommended way of valuation minimizes the inherent subjectiveness of valuing nature, (3) the way of valuation of nature is not likely to lead to an overestimation, and (4) at least for the Netherlands the proposal is operational in the near future. In Chapter 2 a set of evaluation criteria is designed. One evaluation criterion is the potential policy relevance of a proposed indicator, i.e. its relevance when the indicator measures exactly what it is intended to measure. In Chapter 3 the potential policy relevance of an adjusted GDP is elaborated. Another evaluation criterion is the scientific validity of a proposed indicator: is the indicator really measuring what it is intended to measure? To judge whether this is the case for the various proposals for adjusting GDP, a theoretical framework that facilitates such a judgement is discussed in Chapter 4. In Chapters 5, 6 and 7 actual evaluation of the various proposals for environmental indicators is carried out. In Chapter 5 proposals regarding the depletion of natural resources are evaluated. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. A reassessment of the relationship between GDP and life satisfaction.

    Eugenio Proto

    Full Text Available The scientific debate on the relation between Gross Domestic Product (GDP and self reported indices of life satisfaction is still open. In a well-known finding, Easterlin reported no significant relationship between happiness and aggregate income in time-series analysis. However, life satisfaction appears to be strictly monotonically increasing with income when one studies this relation at a point in time across nations. Here, we analyze the relation between per capita GDP and life satisfaction without imposing a functional form and eliminating potentially confounding country-specific factors. We show that this relation clearly increases in country with a per capita GDP below 15,000 USD (2005 in Purchasing Power Parity, then it flattens for richer countries. The probability of reporting the highest level of life satisfaction is more than 12% lower in the poor countries with a per capita GDP below 5,600 USD than in the counties with a per capita GDP of about 15,000 USD. In countries with an income above 17,000 USD the probability of reporting the highest level of life satisfaction changes within a range of 2% maximum. Interestingly enough, life satisfaction seems to peak at around 30,000 USD and then slightly but significantly decline among the richest countries. These results suggest an explanation of the Easterlin paradox: life satisfaction increases with GDP in poor country, but this relation is approximately flat in richer countries. We explain this relation with aspiration levels. We assume that a gap between aspiration and realized income is negatively perceived; and aspirations to higher income increase with income. These facts together have a negative effect on life satisfaction, opposite to the positive direct effect of the income. The net effect is ambiguous. We predict a higher negative effect in individuals with higher sensitivity to losses (measured by their neuroticism score and provide econometric support of this explanation.

  6. A reassessment of the relationship between GDP and life satisfaction.

    Proto, Eugenio; Rustichini, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    The scientific debate on the relation between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and self reported indices of life satisfaction is still open. In a well-known finding, Easterlin reported no significant relationship between happiness and aggregate income in time-series analysis. However, life satisfaction appears to be strictly monotonically increasing with income when one studies this relation at a point in time across nations. Here, we analyze the relation between per capita GDP and life satisfaction without imposing a functional form and eliminating potentially confounding country-specific factors. We show that this relation clearly increases in country with a per capita GDP below 15,000 USD (2005 in Purchasing Power Parity), then it flattens for richer countries. The probability of reporting the highest level of life satisfaction is more than 12% lower in the poor countries with a per capita GDP below 5,600 USD than in the counties with a per capita GDP of about 15,000 USD. In countries with an income above 17,000 USD the probability of reporting the highest level of life satisfaction changes within a range of 2% maximum. Interestingly enough, life satisfaction seems to peak at around 30,000 USD and then slightly but significantly decline among the richest countries. These results suggest an explanation of the Easterlin paradox: life satisfaction increases with GDP in poor country, but this relation is approximately flat in richer countries. We explain this relation with aspiration levels. We assume that a gap between aspiration and realized income is negatively perceived; and aspirations to higher income increase with income. These facts together have a negative effect on life satisfaction, opposite to the positive direct effect of the income. The net effect is ambiguous. We predict a higher negative effect in individuals with higher sensitivity to losses (measured by their neuroticism score) and provide econometric support of this explanation.

  7. Analysis of the Correlation between GDP and the Final Consumption

    Constantin ANGHELACHE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the researches performed by the author regarding the evolution of Gross Domestic Product. One of the main aspects of GDP analysis is the correlation with the final consumption, an important macroeconomic indicator. The evolution of the Gross Domestic Product is highly influenced by the evolution of the final consumption. To analyze the correlation, the paper proposes the use of the linear regression model, as one of the most appropriate instruments for such scientific approach. The regression model described in the article uses the GDP as resultant variable and the final consumption as factorial variable.

  8. GDP Growth and the Interdependency of Volatility Spillovers

    Martin O’Brien

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamics of cross-country GDP volatility transmission and their conditional correlations. We use quarterly data (1961-2008 for Australia, Canada, the UK and the US to construct and estimate a multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (MGARCH model. According to the results from the mean growth equations, we identified significant cross-country GDP growth spillover among these countries. Furthermore, the growth volatility between the US and Canada indicates the highest conditional correlation. As expected, we also found that the shock influences are mainly exerted by the larger economies onto the smaller economies.

  9. Catalytic methanol dissociation

    Alcinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Shindler, Y.; Tatrtakovsky, L.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the methanol dissociation study on copper/potassium catalyst with alumina support at various temperatures are presented. The following gaseous and liquid products at. The catalytic methanol dissociation is obtained: hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and dimethyl ether. Formation rates of these products are discussed. Activation energies of corresponding reactions are calculated

  10. Structures of NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland); Dauter, Zbigniew [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland); A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Crystal structures of the bacterial α1,6-fucosyltransferase NodZ in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose are presented. Rhizobial NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase (α1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5′-diphosphate-β-l-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signalling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two α1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of α1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 Å resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme–product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-l-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 Å resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among α1,2-, α1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop

  11. Dissociation in mediation

    Daniela Muraru

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches several texts that are part of the so-called discourse of mediation, adopting a pragma-dialectical perspective of the theory of dissociation. It is an attempt to identify the uses of dissociative patterns, with special emphasis on the indicators of dissociation. The paper investigates the various uses of the concept of dissociation as a discursive technique in the argumentation on the different aspects that are involved in international conflict, such as the discussion of the notion of peace. The purpose is to identify the role of dissociation, as a device strategically used by the mediator to help the parties minimize the disagreement space, and come to a conflict resolution.

  12. Web Supplement to "Teaching Chain-Weight Real GDP Measures."

    Cahill, Miles B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a Web site that is a companion to the Miles Cahill article, "Teaching Chain-Weight Real GDP Measures." States that the exercises are useful because intermediate level textbooks treat this topic casually. Indicates that the Web site contains the comment tool, an overview of the concepts, and links to article references. (JEH)

  13. The crystal structure of human GDP-L-fucose synthase.

    Zhou, Huan; Sun, Lihua; Li, Jian; Xu, Chunyan; Yu, Feng; Liu, Yahui; Ji, Chaoneng; He, Jianhua

    2013-09-01

    Human GDP-l-fucose synthase, also known as FX protein, synthesizes GDP-l-fucose from its substrate GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-mannose. The reaction involves epimerization at both C-3 and C-5 followed by an NADPH-dependent reduction of the carbonyl at C-4. In this paper, the first crystal structure of human FX protein was determined at 2.37 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit of the crystal structure contains four molecules which form two homodimers. Each molecule consists of two domains, a Rossmann-fold NADPH-binding motif and a carboxyl terminal domain. Compared with the Escherichia coli GDP-l-fucose synthase, the overall structures of these two enzymes have four major differences. There are four loops in the structure of human FX protein corresponding to two α-helices and two β-sheets in that of the E. coli enzyme. Besides, there are seven different amino acid residues binding with NAPDH comparing human FX protein with that from E. coli. The structure of human FX reveals the key catalytic residues and could be useful for the design of drugs for the treatment of inflammation, auto-immune diseases, and possibly certain types of cancer.

  14. Geographic origin of publications in radiological journals as a function of GDP and percentage of GDP spent on research.

    Halpenny, Darragh

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the geographic origin of publications in the highest impacting radiology journals and to examine the link between the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on research by a country and the output of radiology publications.

  15. Exploring the correlation between the sequence composition of the nucleotide binding G5 loop of the FeoB GTPase domain (NFeoB) and intrinsic rate of GDP release.

    Guilfoyle, Amy P; Deshpande, Chandrika N; Schenk, Gerhard; Maher, Megan J; Jormakka, Mika

    2014-12-12

    GDP release from GTPases is usually extremely slow and is in general assisted by external factors, such as association with guanine exchange factors or membrane-embedded GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors), which accelerate the release of GDP by several orders of magnitude. Intrinsic factors can also play a significant role; a single amino acid substitution in one of the guanine nucleotide recognition motifs, G5, results in a drastically altered GDP release rate, indicating that the sequence composition of this motif plays an important role in spontaneous GDP release. In the present study, we used the GTPase domain from EcNFeoB (Escherichia coli FeoB) as a model and applied biochemical and structural approaches to evaluate the role of all the individual residues in the G5 loop. Our study confirms that several of the residues in the G5 motif have an important role in the intrinsic affinity and release of GDP. In particular, a T151A mutant (third residue of the G5 loop) leads to a reduced nucleotide affinity and provokes a drastically accelerated dissociation of GDP.

  16. Estimation of real GDP and unrecorded economy in Turkey based on environmental data

    Karanfil, Fatih; Ozkaya, Ata

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the real gross domestic product (GDP) and unrecorded economy for Turkey using the Kalman filter technique. Using different tests, most of the research articles on energy policy investigate the causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP for different countries. On the other hand, other studies on climate change try to show the effects of both energy consumption and GDP on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission. Since the unreported economy has an important weight in developing countries where the recorded (or official) GDP suffers from considerable measurement problems, investigation of the relationship between the recorded GDP and energy consumption may lead to biased results. In this paper, the economic variables (GDP, country population) as well as environmental variables (CO 2 emission, forest area) are used in order to estimate GDP, which is an unobserved variable in our model. The results clearly indicate that: first, the true GDP in Turkey, that our model estimates, is higher than the observed (recorded) GDP in the whole period of observation (1973-2003) and the size of unrecorded economy varies between 12 and 30 percent of the observed GDP; second, the gap between the true GDP and the observed GDP has an increasing trend; third, if the change in GDP per primary energy supply is smaller than the change in CO 2 per primary energy supply, then there may exist unrecorded economy

  17. GDP Growth, Potential Output, and Output Gaps in Mexico

    Ebrima A Faal

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of Mexico's economic growth since the 1960s and compares various decompositions of historical growth into its trend and cyclical components. The role of the implied output gaps in the inflationary process is then assessed. Looking ahead, the paper presents medium-term paths for GDP based on alternative assumptions for productivity growth rates. The results indicate that the most important factor underlying the slowdown in output growth was a decline in trend to...

  18. Oil price fluctuations and Its effect on GDP growth

    Gonzalez , Aaron; Nabiyev, Sherzod

    2009-01-01

    During the year of 2008, the world has experienced historically high oil prices reaching an all time high of 147 USD per barrel in midsummer. The extreme volatility of what is consider the number one source of energy reopened discussions about energy sustainability and the plausible effects of an oil shock in the global economy.   How reliable oil price is as an economic variable predicting fluctuations in GDP growth remains controversial. Several models have been developed by scholars target...

  19. Structures of NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose.

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-02-01

    Rhizobial NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase (α1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5'-diphosphate-β-L-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signalling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two α1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of α1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 Å resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme-product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-L-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 Å resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among α1,2-, α1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand βC2 and helix αC3. In addition, there is a shift of the αC3 helix itself upon GDP

  20. Evidence that the primary effect of phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2(alpha) in rabbit reticulocyte lysate is inhibition of the release of eukaryotic initiation factor-2.GDP from 60 S ribosomal subunits

    Gross, M.; Redman, R.; Kaplansky, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2 alpha that occurs when rabbit reticulocyte lysate is incubated in the absence of hemin or with poly(I.C) causes inhibition of polypeptide chain initiation by preventing a separate factor (termed RF) from promoting the exchange of GTP for GDP on eIF-2. When lysate was incubated in the presence of hemin and [ 14 C] eIF-2 or [alpha- 32 P]GTP, the authors observed binding of eIF-2 and GDP or GTP to 60 S ribosomal subunits that was slightly greater than that bound to 40 S subunits and little binding to 80 S ribosomes. When incubation was in the absence of hemin or in the presence of hemin plus 0.1 microgram/ml poly(I.C), eIF-2 and GDP binding to 60 S subunits was increased 1.5- to 2-fold, that bound to 80 S ribosomes was almost as great as that bound to 60 S subunits, and that bound to 40 S subunits was unchanged. The data indicate that about 40% of the eIF-2 that becomes bound to 60 S subunits and 80 S ribosomes in the absence of hemin or with poly(I.C) is eIF-2(alpha-P) and suggest that the eIF-2 and GDP bound is probably in the form of a binary complex. The rate of turnover of GDP (presumably eIF-2.GDP) on 60 S subunits and 80 S ribosomes in the absence of hemin is reduced to less than 10% the control rate, because the dissociation of eIF-2.GDP is inhibited. Our findings suggest that eIF-2.GTP binding to and eIF-2.GDP release from 60 S subunits may normally occur and serve to promote subunit joining

  1. Rescue of Notch signaling in cells incapable of GDP-L-fucose synthesis by gap junction transfer of GDP-L-fucose in Drosophila.

    Ayukawa, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O; Ishio, Akira; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Aoyama, Naoki; Suzuki, Takuya; Matsuno, Kenji

    2012-09-18

    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates cell-cell interactions to determine many cell-fate decisions. N contains EGF-like repeats, many of which have an O-fucose glycan modification that regulates N-ligand binding. This modification requires GDP-L-fucose as a donor of fucose. The GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic pathways are well understood, including the de novo pathway, which depends on GDP-mannose 4,6 dehydratase (Gmd) and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose 3,5-epimerase/4-reductase (Gmer). However, the potential for intercellularly supplied GDP-L-fucose and the molecular basis of such transportation have not been explored in depth. To address these points, we studied the genetic effects of mutating Gmd and Gmer on fucose modifications in Drosophila. We found that these mutants functioned cell-nonautonomously, and that GDP-L-fucose was supplied intercellularly through gap junctions composed of Innexin-2. GDP-L-fucose was not supplied through body fluids from different isolated organs, indicating that the intercellular distribution of GDP-L-fucose is restricted within a given organ. Moreover, the gap junction-mediated supply of GDP-L-fucose was sufficient to support the fucosylation of N-glycans and the O-fucosylation of the N EGF-like repeats. Our results indicate that intercellular delivery is a metabolic pathway for nucleotide sugars in live animals under certain circumstances.

  2. Duality in diffraction dissociations

    Santoro, Alberto.

    1977-01-01

    Diffractive dissociations (aN→a*πN) are naturally explained and a model that accounts for the three-variable correlation (mass-transfer-Jackson angle correlation) is presented. This model takes into account the three possible exchanges: t (pion), u(a*) and s(a) channel exchanger. The physical consequences of the model are: a strong mass-slope correlation due to the zeros of the amplitude, a factorization of diffractive dissociations (factorization of the Pomeron), the possibility of extending this model to double diffractive dissociation and diffraction by nuclei. This model was applied to the NN→NπN reaction. Using the usual parameters of the Deck model, a comparison is made with experiments for all available distributions. the strong slope of the peak at 1400 MeV is naturally explained [fr

  3. Dissociative symptoms in kleptomania.

    Grant, Jon E

    2004-02-01

    Many patients with kleptomania report an altered state of consciousness during acts of theft. The purpose of this investigation was to clarify a possible link between dissociation and kleptomania, a disabling disorder whose phenomenology remains understudied. 26 adult outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for kleptoania were administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale and compared to 22 normal controls. The patients with kleptomania had scores that differed significantly from those reported by normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences by sex. Because kleptomania patients seeking treatment with medication may differ from others with kleptomania, further studies are needed.

  4. A structural VAR analysis of electricity consumption and real GDP: Evidence from the G7 countries

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Narayan, Seema; Prasad, Arti

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we depart from the literature on electricity consumption-real GDP in that for the first time we examine the reaction of real GDP to shocks in electricity consumption. To achieve this goal, we use the structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) model and examine the impact of electricity consumption shocks on real GDP for the G7 countries. We find that except for the USA, electricity consumption has a statistically significant positive impact on real GDP over short horizons. This finding implies that except for the USA, electricity conservation policies will hurt real GDP in the G7 countries

  5. Regional GDP in Britain, 1871-1911: some estimates

    Nicholas Crafts

    2004-01-01

    The paper builds on a method proposed by Geary and Stark (2002) for estimating regional incomes in Victorian Britain. This is modified by using tax data to allocate non-wage income across regions. The results suggest that the coefficient of variation of regional GDP per head was rising rapidly prior to World War I in similar fashion to the late twentieth century such that its level in 1911 and 2001 was about the same. In both episodes of globalization there were big winners and big losers amo...

  6. Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia.

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms, first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and delusions were assessed in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients with the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). Schizophrenia patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; DID patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised. DID patients obtained significantly (a) higher dissociation scores; (b) higher passive-influence scores (first-rank symptoms); and (c) higher scores on scales that measure child voices, angry voices, persecutory voices, voices arguing, and voices commenting. Schizophrenia patients obtained significantly higher delusion scores than did DID patients. What is odd is that the dissociation scores of schizophrenia patients were unrelated to their reports of childhood maltreatment. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 81% of the variance in DID patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Ego-Alien Experiences Scale, whereas 92% of the variance in schizophrenia patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Voices Scale. We propose that schizophrenia patients' responses to the MID do not index the same pathology as do the responses of DID patients. We argue that neither phenomenological definitions of dissociation nor the current generation of dissociation instruments (which are uniformly phenomenological in nature) can distinguish between the dissociative phenomena of DID and what we suspect are just the dissociation-like phenomena of schizophrenia.

  7. Cloning and characterization of GDP-perosamine synthetase (Per) from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and synthesis of GDP-perosamine in vitro

    Zhao Guohui; Liu Jun; Liu Xiang; Chen Min; Zhang Houcheng; Wang, Peng George

    2007-01-01

    GDP-perosamine synthetase (Per, E.C. not yet classified) is important to the synthesis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 O-antigen. The mutant in per gene can disrupt the synthesis of O157 O-antigen. In this study, GDP-perosamine synthetase was cloned from E. coli O157:H7 and over-expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant His-tagged Per fusion protein was a decamer with molecular weight of 431 kDa. The optimal pH value of this recombinant protein was 7.5. The divalent ions had no significant effect on Per-catalyzed reaction. The K m and K cat /K m for GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose were 0.09 mM and 2.1 x 10 5 M -1 S -1 , and those for L-glutamate were 2 mM and 0.52 x 10 5 M -1 S -1 , respectively. Per was used to synthesize GDP-perosamine from GDP-mannose together with recombinant GDP-mannose dehydratase (GMD, E.C. 4.2.1.47). The purified GDP-perosamine was identified by MS and NMR. In summary, this work provided a feasible approach for the synthesis of GDP-perosamine which can lead to the study of LPS biosynthesis of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7

  8. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  9. Neurophysiological correlates of dissociative symptoms

    Kruijs, van der S.J.M.; Bodde, N.M.G; Carrette, E.C.B.; Lazeron, R.H.C; Vonck, K.E.J.; Boon, P.A.J.M.; Langereis, G.R.; Cluitmans, P.J.M.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Backes, W.H.; Jansen, J.F.A.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Dissociation is a mental process with psychological and somatoform manifestations, which is closely related to hypnotic suggestibility and essentially shows the ability to obtain distance from reality. An increased tendency to dissociate is a frequently reported characteristic of patients

  10. Estimation of Potential GDP and output Gap. Comparative Perspective

    Dorin Măntescu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis is to assess the impact of the crisis on the potential output and output gaps, to study their evolution by using a comparative approach for a sample of EU countries that were in majority included recently in financial assistance and macroeconomic adjustment programmes. The potential GDP growth rates calculated using the Cobb Douglas production function and Hodrick-Prescott methodology, decelerated substantially across the board in the countries studied once the international economic and financial crisis hit, recording even negative rates of growth in Cyprus, Greece, Portugal, Italy and Spain. In addition to the specific factors that characterise each country, there is a series of common features that will affect the developments of the potential GDP on a long-term basis, such as the increase of global risk aversion correlated with the reduction of the banking exposures, the slow economic recovery in the EU, and last but not least the incoming ageing process, which will exert an additional negative impact on the growth potential of the EU member states. The article makes a series of economic policy recommendations to promote key measures aiming to increase the flexibility of the goods, services, and labour markets, to improve the prioritisation of public expenditures especially capital spending, and to improve the management of the public assets including real estate and public buildings by promoting a mix of measures including privatisation, monetisation and a wider involvement of the private sector in their management.

  11. Democracy, GDP, and the Impact of Natural Disasters

    van der Vink, G.; Brett, A. P.; Burgess, E.; Cecil-Cockwell, D.; Chicoine, A.; Difiore, P.; Harding, J.; Millian, C.; Olivi, E.; Piaskowy, S.; Sproat, J.; van der Hoop, H.; Walsh, P.; Warren, A.; West, L.; Wright, G.

    2007-05-01

    In 1998 Amartya Sen won the Nobel Prize in economics for the observation that there has never been a famine in a nation with a democratic form of government and a free press. We find that a similar relationship can be demonstrated for all natural disasters. Data from the United Nations Food Programme and the United States Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is used to display strong correlations between the democracy index, GDP, and the humanitarian impact of natural disasters. We find that nations in which disasters have high humanitarian impact, approximated by lives lost, are also nations which are below the median per capita GDP and the median democracy level. While the response to natural disasters varies from country to country, several additional global trends are observed. Since 1964, the number of recorded natural disasters has increased by a factor of five. During this same time period the number of deaths has decreased significantly. In particular, the humanitarian impact of the 'typical' natural disaster has decreased by a factor of five. Post-disaster foreign aid is the common response from the international community when a natural disaster strikes. Our study also compares the history of foreign aid grants distributed by the US Office of Foreign Disaster Aid (OFDA) with the number of deaths worldwide from natural disasters. We find that the amount of aid given is responsive to the degree of global humanitarian impact.

  12. Three dimensions of dissociative amnesia.

    Dell, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation extracted 3 factors from the 42 memory and amnesia items of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) database (N = 2,569): Discovering Dissociated Actions, Lapses of Recent Memory and Skills, and Gaps in Remote Memory. The 3 factors' shared variance ranged from 36% to 64%. Construed as scales, the 3 factor scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .96, .94, and .93, respectively. The scales correlated strongly with mean Dissociative Experiences Scale scores, mean MID scores, and total scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R). What is interesting is that the 3 amnesia factors exhibited a range of correlations with SCID-D-R Amnesia scores (.52, .63, and .70, respectively), suggesting that the SCID-D-R Amnesia score emphasizes gaps in remote memory over amnesias related to dissociative identity disorder. The 3 amnesia factor scales exhibited a clinically meaningful pattern of significant differences among dissociative identity disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified-1, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, and nonclinical participants. The 3 amnesia factors may have greater clinical utility for frontline clinicians than (a) amnesia as discussed in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nosology of the dissociative disorders or (b) P. Janet's (1893/1977 ) 4-fold classification of dissociative amnesia. The author recommends systematic study of the phenomenological differences within specific dissociative symptoms and their differential relationship to specific dissociative disorders.

  13. FX enzyme and GDP-L-Fuc transporter expression in colorectal cancer.

    Villar-Portela, Susana; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Cuevas, Elisa; Gil-Martín, Emilio; Fernández-Briera, Almudena

    2013-08-01

    Fucosylation is regulated by fucosyltransferases, the guanosine diphosphate-L-fucose (GDP-L-Fuc) synthetic pathway, and the GDP-L-fucose transporter (GDP-L-Fuc Tr). We have reported previously an increased level of α(1,6)fucosyltransferase activity and expression in colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study aimed to analyse the expression profiles of the FX enzyme and GDP-L-Fuc Tr in a cohort of operated CRC patients to elucidate their role in α(1,6)fucosylation in this neoplasm. We assessed the immunohistochemical expression of FX and GDP-L-Fuc Tr in a series of tumour samples and healthy tissues from CRC specimens. FX expression was observed in 58 of 91 (63.7%) tumours and 23 of 28 (82.1%) corresponding healthy samples. GDP-L-Fuc Tr expression was detected in 86 of 102 (84.3%) colorectal tumours, and 13 of 27 (48.1%) healthy tissue specimens. The expression of GDP-L-Fuc Tr was statistically higher in tumours than in healthy tissues (P GDP-L-Fuc Tr expression in tumour samples (P = 0.003). GDP-L-Fuc Tr overexpression in the tumour tissue of CRC patients suggests that GDP-L-Fuc transport to the Golgi apparatus may be an important factor associated with increased α(1,6)fucosylation in CRC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. KONTRIBUSI SEKTOR PARIWISATA TERHADAP GDP INDONESIA TAHUN 2004 - 2009

    Alfiah Mudrikah

    2014-10-01

    negara. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ Indonesia has a rich and abundant natural resources as well as supported by oceans and thousands of islands that surrounds it. A variety of natural resource wealth has become its own potential for Indonesia to develop a tourism especially in the field of nature. Indonesia as the world's largest archipelago country which comprises 17,508 islands or also known as nusantara maritime or country, has realized the importance of tourism to the economy because the growth of tourism in Indonesia is always on top of the Indonesia's economic growth (Soebagyo 2012. Therefore, tourism has always been the center of attention for tourists to visit the tourist attractions.The tourism industry is one of the right ways in increasing the economic progress of society like locally and globally. Tourism has many benefits and influence, among others, in addition to generating foreign exchange the country and expand employment, the tourism sector aims to maintain the sustainability of nature and local culture developed (Dritasto and Anggraeni goddess 2013. In 2008 Indonesia tourism contributes to the gross domestic product (GDP amounting to Rp. 153,25 billion or 3.09% of the total GDP of Indonesia (BPS, 2010. In 2009, his contribution was increased to 3.25%. Any tourism GDP growth since 2001 always indicates a growth rate higher than the national GDP. Although still show numbers in 2009, while GDP growth of tourism reached 8.18% of the national GDP, while only 4.37%. In the same year, foreign exchange from tourism is the third largest contributor of foreign exchange of the country, after oil and gas and palm oil. This ranking shows increasing trend since 2006 which was only ranked 6th of 11 commodities foreign exchange source countries.                                                                                         

  15. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  16. Characterization of the GDP-D-mannose biosynthesis pathway in Coxiella burnetii: the initial steps for GDP-β-D-virenose biosynthesis.

    Narasaki, Craig T; Mertens, Katja; Samuel, James E

    2011-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of human Q fever, is a gram-negative and naturally obligate intracellular bacterium. The O-specific polysaccharide chain (O-PS) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of C. burnetii is considered a heteropolymer of the two unusual sugars β-D-virenose and dihydrohydroxystreptose and mannose. We hypothesize that GDP-D-mannose is a metabolic intermediate to GDP-β-D-virenose. GDP-D-mannose is synthesized from fructose-6-phosphate in 3 successive reactions; Isomerization to mannose-6-phosphate catalyzed by a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI), followed by conversion to mannose-1-phosphate mediated by a phosphomannomutase (PMM) and addition of GDP by a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP). GDP-D-mannose is then likely converted to GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-hex-4-ulopyranose (GDP-Sug), a virenose intermediate, by a GDP-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (GMD). To test the validity of this pathway in C. burnetii, three open reading frames (CBU0671, CBU0294 and CBU0689) annotated as bifunctional type II PMI, as PMM or GMD were functionally characterized by complementation of corresponding E. coli mutant strains and in enzymatic assays. CBU0671, failed to complement an Escherichia coli manA (PMM) mutant strain. However, complementation of an E. coli manC (GMP) mutant strain restored capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. CBU0294 complemented a Pseudomonas aeruginosa algC (GMP) mutant strain and showed phosphoglucomutase activity (PGM) in a pgm E. coli mutant strain. Despite the inability to complement a manA mutant, recombinant C. burnetii PMI protein showed PMM enzymatic activity in biochemical assays. CBU0689 showed dehydratase activity and determined kinetic parameters were consistent with previously reported data from other organisms. These results show the biological function of three C. burnetii LPS biosynthesis enzymes required for the formation of GDP-D-mannose and GDP-Sug. A fundamental understanding of C. burnetii genes that encode PMI, PMM and GMP is

  17. Enzymatic Synthesis of GDP-α-l-fucofuranose by MtdL and Hyg20.

    Qin, Xiangjing; Xie, Yunchang; Huang, Hongbo; Chen, Qi; Ma, Junying; Li, Qinglian; Ju, Jianhua

    2018-02-16

    Two mutases, MtdL and Hyg20, are reported. Both are able to functionally drive the biosynthesis of GDP-α-l-fucofuranose. Both enzymes catalyze similar functions, catalytically enabling the bidirectional reaction between GDP-β-l-fucopyranose and GDP-α-l-fucofuranose using only divalent cations as cofactors. This realization is but one of a number of important insights into fucofuranose biosynthesis presented herein.

  18. THE IMPLICATIONS OF EMERGENCE OF CHINA TOWARDS ASEAN-5: FDI-GDP PERSPECTIVE

    Puah, Chin-Hong; Kueh, Jerome Swee-Hui; Lau, Evan

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Gross Domestic Products (GDP) had become the centre piece of recent researches in identifying the short run and long run implications between the two variables. Using the hypotheses of FDI led GDP and GDP led FDI as theoretical framework, this study intends to analyze the implications of the rise of China towards the ASEAN-5 countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand from the perspective of FDI an...

  19. Does electricity consumption panel Granger cause GDP? A new global evidence

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Economics, Deakin University, Melbourne (Australia); Narayan, Seema [School of Economics, Finance, and Marketing, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Popp, Stephan [Department of Economics, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    The goal of this paper is to undertake a panel data investigation of long-run Granger causality between electricity consumption and real GDP for seven panels, which together consist of 93 countries. We use a new panel causality test and find that in the long-run both electricity consumption and real GDP have a bidirectional Granger causality relationship except for the Middle East where causality runs only from GDP to electricity consumption. Finally, for the G6 panel the estimates reveal a negative sign effect, implying that increasing electricity consumption in the six most industrialised nations will reduce GDP. (author)

  20. Modulation of guanosine nucleotides biosynthetic pathways enhanced GDP-L-fucose production in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Lee, Won-Heong; Shin, So-Yeon; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Han, Nam Soo; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2012-03-01

    Guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) is the key substrate for biosynthesis of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-L-fucose. In this study, improvement of GDP-L-fucose production was attempted by manipulating the biosynthetic pathway for guanosine nucleotides in recombinant Escherichia coli-producing GDP-L-fucose. The effects of overexpression of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) synthetase (GuaB and GuaA), GMP reductase (GuaC) and guanosine-inosine kinase (Gsk) on GDP-L-fucose production were investigated in a series of fed-batch fermentations. Among the enzymes tested, overexpression of Gsk led to a significant improvement of GDP-L-fucose production. Maximum GDP-L-fucose concentration of 305.5 ± 5.3 mg l(-1) was obtained in the pH-stat fed-batch fermentation of recombinant E. coli-overexpressing Gsk, which corresponds to a 58% enhancement in the GDP-L-fucose production compared with the control strain overexpressing GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic enzymes. Such an enhancement of GDP-L-fucose production could be due to the increase in the intracellular level of GMP.

  1. Energy-GDP relationship revisited: An example from GCC countries using panel causality

    Al-Iriani, Mahmoud A.

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the causality relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and energy consumption in the six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Recently developed panel cointegration and causality techniques are used to uncover the direction of energy-GDP causality in the GCC. Empirical results indicate a unidirectional causality running from GDP to energy consumption. Evidence shows no support for the hypothesis that energy consumption is the source of GDP growth in the GCC countries. Such results suggest that energy conservation policies may be adopted without much concern about their adverse effects on the growth of GCC economies

  2. Enhanced production of GDP-L-fucose by overexpression of NADPH regenerator in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Lee, Won-Heong; Chin, Young-Wook; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2011-08-01

    Biosynthesis of guanosine 5'-diphosphate-L-fucose (GDP-L-fucose) requires NADPH as a reducing cofactor. In this study, endogenous NADPH regenerating enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (Icd), and NADP(+)-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MaeB) were overexpressed to increase GDP-L-fucose production in recombinant Escherichia coli. The effects of overexpression of each NADPH regenerating enzyme on GDP-L-fucose production were investigated in a series of batch and fed-batch fermentations. Batch fermentations showed that overexpression of G6PDH was the most effective for GDP-L-fucose production. However, GDP-L-fucose production was not enhanced by overexpression of G6PDH in the glucose-limited fed-batch fermentation. Hence, a glucose feeding strategy was optimized to enhance GDP-L-fucose production. Fed-batch fermentation with a pH-stat feeding mode for sufficient supply of glucose significantly enhanced GDP-L-fucose production compared with glucose-limited fed-batch fermentation. A maximum GDP-L-fucose concentration of 235.2 ± 3.3 mg l(-1), corresponding to a 21% enhancement in the GDP-L-fucose production compared with the control strain overexpressing GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic enzymes only, was achieved in the pH-stat fed-batch fermentation of the recombinant E. coli overexpressing G6PDH. It was concluded that sufficient glucose supply and efficient NADPH regeneration are crucial for NADPH-dependent GDP-L-fucose production in recombinant E. coli.

  3. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiphoton dissociation of polyatomic molecules

    Schulz, P.A.

    1979-10-01

    The dynamics of infrared multiphoton excitation and dissociation of SF 6 was investigated under collision free conditions by a crossed laser-molecular beam method. In order to understand the excitation mechanism and to elucidate the requirements of laser intensity and energy fluence, a series of experiments were carried out to measure the dissociation yield dependences on energy fluence, vibrational temperature of SF 6 , the pulse duration of the CO 2 laser and the frequency in both one and two laser experiments. Translational energy distributions of the SF 5 dissociation product measured by time of flight and angular distributions and the dissociation lifetime of excited SF 6 as inferred from the observation of secondary dissociation of SF 5 into SF 4 and F during the laser pulse suggest that the dynamics of dissociation of excited molecules is dominated by complete energy randomization and rapid intramolecular energy transfer on a nanosecond timescale, and can be adequately described by RRKM theory. An improved phenomenological model including the initial intensity dependent excitation, a rate equation describing the absorption and stimulated emission of single photons, and the unimolecular dissociation of excited molecules is constructed based on available experimental results. The model shows that the energy fluence of the laser determines the excitation of molecules in the quasi-continuum and the excess energy with which molecules dissociate after the laser pulse. The role played by the laser intensity in multiphoton dissociation is more significant than just that of overcoming the intensity dependent absorption in the lowest levels. 63 references

  5. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  6. Analysis of European Union Economy in Terms of GDP Components

    Simona VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the crises on national economies represented a subject of analysis and interest for a wide variety of research studies. Thus, starting from the GDP composition, the present research exhibits an analysis of the impact of European economies, at an EU level, of the events that followed the crisis of 2007 – 2008. Firstly, the research highlighted the existence of two groups of countries in 2012 in European Union, namely segments that were compiled in relation to the structure of the GDP’s components. In the second stage of the research, a factor analysis was performed on the resulted segments, that showed that the economies of cluster A are based more on personal consumption compared to the economies of cluster B, and in terms of government consumption, the situation is reversed. Thus, between the two groups of countries, a different approach regarding the role of fiscal policy in the economy can be noted, with a greater emphasis on savings in cluster B. Moreover, besides the two groups of countries resulted, Ireland and Luxembourg stood out because these two countries did not fit in either of the resulted segments and their economies are based, to a large extent, on the positive balance of the external balance.

  7. Kinesin expands and stabilizes the GDP-microtubule lattice

    Peet, Daniel R.; Burroughs, Nigel J.; Cross, Robert A.

    2018-05-01

    Kinesin-1 is a nanoscale molecular motor that walks towards the fast-growing (plus) ends of microtubules, hauling molecular cargo to specific reaction sites in cells. Kinesin-driven transport is central to the self-organization of eukaryotic cells and shows great promise as a tool for nano-engineering1. Recent work hints that kinesin may also play a role in modulating the stability of its microtubule track, both in vitro2,3 and in vivo4, but the results are conflicting5-7 and the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report a new dimension to the kinesin-microtubule interaction, whereby strong-binding state (adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-bound and apo) kinesin-1 motor domains inhibit the shrinkage of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) microtubules by up to two orders of magnitude and expand their lattice spacing by 1.6%. Our data reveal an unexpected mechanism by which the mechanochemical cycles of kinesin and tubulin interlock, and so allow motile kinesins to influence the structure, stability and mechanics of their microtubule track.

  8. Dissociative State and Competence

    Yu-Ju Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the results of forensic evaluation of the civil competence of a case of alleged dissociative identity disorder (DID and discusses whether such dissociative states substantially jeopardize civil competence. A 40-year-old woman claimed that she had had many personalities since her college days. From the age of 37 to 40, she shopped excessively, which left her with millions of dollars of debt. She ascribed her shopping to a certain identity state, over which she had no control. (In this article, we use the term identity state to replace personality as an objective description of a mental state. She thus raised the petition of civil incompetence. During the forensic evaluation, it was found that the identity states were relatively stable and mutually aware of each other. The switch into another identity state was sometimes under voluntary control. The subject showed consistency and continuity in behavioral patterns across the different identity states, and no matter which identity state she was in, there was no evidence of impairment in her factual knowledge of social situations and her capacity for managing personal affairs. We hence concluded that she was civilly competent despite the claimed DID. Considering that the existence and diagnosis of DID are still under dispute and a diagnosis of DID alone is not sufficient to interdict a person's civil right, important clinical and forensic issues remain to be answered.

  9. Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the ...

    Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO ... capital (K), educational enrolment (EN) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while labor ... Maternal mortality of a single person was found to reduce per capita GDP by ...

  10. Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the ...

    WHO African region has got the highest maternal mortality rate compared to the other five regions. Maternal mortality is hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on the gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of the current study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to maternal mortality in the WHO ...

  11. The relationship between health and GDP in OECD countries in the very long run.

    Swift, Robyn

    2011-03-01

    This paper uses Johansen multivariate cointegration analysis to examine the relationship between health and GDP for 13 OECD countries over the last two centuries, for periods ranging from 1820-2001 to 1921-2001. A similar, long run, cointegrating relationship between life expectancy and both total GDP and GDP per capita was found for all the countries estimated. The relationships have a significant influence on both total GDP and GPD per capita in most of the countries estimated, with 1% increase in life expectancy resulting in an average 6% increase in total GDP in the long run, and 5% increase in GDP per capita. Total GDP and GDP per capita also have a significant influence on life expectancy for most countries. There is no evidence of changes in the relationships for any country over the periods estimated, indicating that shifts in the major causes of illness and death over time do not appear to have influenced the link between health and economic growth. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Energy consumption and GDP in Turkey : Is there a co-integration relationship?

    Montfort, van K.; Lise, W.

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption and GDP are expected to grow by 5.9% and 7% annually until 2025 in Turkey. This paper tries to unfold the linkage between energy consumption and GDP by undertaking a co-integration analysis for Turkey with annual data over the period 1970-2003. The analysis shows that energy

  13. Energy consumption and GDP in Turkey: is there a co-integration relationship?

    van Montfort, C.A.G.M.; Lise, W.

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption and GDP are expected to grow by 5.9% and 7% annually until 2025 in Turkey. This paper tries to unfold the linkage between energy consumption and GDP by undertaking a co-integration analysis for Turkey with annual data over the period 1970-2003. The analysis shows that energy

  14. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder) in an elderly.

    Ram, Dushad; Ashoka, H G; Gowdappa, Basavnna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed.

  15. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder) in an elderly

    Ram, Dushad; Ashoka, H. G; Gowdappa, Basavnna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed.

  16. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder in an elderly

    Dushad Ram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed.

  17. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN GDP SHELLS USED AS CRYOGENIC DIRECT DRIVE TARGETS AT OMEGA

    NIKROO, A.; CZECHOWICZ, D.; CHEN, K.C.; DICKEN, M.; MORRIS, C.; ANDREWS, R.; GREENWOOD, A.L; CASTILLO, E.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D 2 and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D 2 . In this paper, they present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters (standard GDP) using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters (strong GDP) of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells

  18. Biosynthesis of GDP-fucose and other sugar nucleotides in the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Sanz, Sílvia; Bandini, Giulia; Ospina, Diego; Bernabeu, Maria; Mariño, Karina; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Izquierdo, Luis

    2013-06-07

    Carbohydrate structures play important roles in many biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, and host-pathogen interactions. Sugar nucleotides are activated forms of sugars used by the cell as donors for most glycosylation reactions. Using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method, we identified and quantified the pools of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, GDP-mannose, and GDP-fucose in Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic life stages. We assembled these data with the in silico functional reconstruction of the parasite metabolic pathways obtained from the P. falciparum annotated genome, exposing new active biosynthetic routes crucial for further glycosylation reactions. Fucose is a sugar present in glycoconjugates often associated with recognition and adhesion events. Thus, the GDP-fucose precursor is essential in a wide variety of organisms. P. falciparum presents homologues of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-L-fucose synthase enzymes that are active in vitro, indicating that most GDP-fucose is formed by a de novo pathway that involves the bioconversion of GDP-mannose. Homologues for enzymes involved in a fucose salvage pathway are apparently absent in the P. falciparum genome. This is in agreement with in vivo metabolic labeling experiments showing that fucose is not significantly incorporated by the parasite. Fluorescence microscopy of epitope-tagged versions of P. falciparum GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-L-fucose synthase expressed in transgenic 3D7 parasites shows that these enzymes localize in the cytoplasm of P. falciparum during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle. Although the function of fucose in the parasite is not known, the presence of GDP-fucose suggests that the metabolite may be used for further fucosylation reactions.

  19. Biosynthesis of GDP-fucose and Other Sugar Nucleotides in the Blood Stages of Plasmodium falciparum*

    Sanz, Sílvia; Bandini, Giulia; Ospina, Diego; Bernabeu, Maria; Mariño, Karina; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Izquierdo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures play important roles in many biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, and host-pathogen interactions. Sugar nucleotides are activated forms of sugars used by the cell as donors for most glycosylation reactions. Using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method, we identified and quantified the pools of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, GDP-mannose, and GDP-fucose in Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic life stages. We assembled these data with the in silico functional reconstruction of the parasite metabolic pathways obtained from the P. falciparum annotated genome, exposing new active biosynthetic routes crucial for further glycosylation reactions. Fucose is a sugar present in glycoconjugates often associated with recognition and adhesion events. Thus, the GDP-fucose precursor is essential in a wide variety of organisms. P. falciparum presents homologues of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-l-fucose synthase enzymes that are active in vitro, indicating that most GDP-fucose is formed by a de novo pathway that involves the bioconversion of GDP-mannose. Homologues for enzymes involved in a fucose salvage pathway are apparently absent in the P. falciparum genome. This is in agreement with in vivo metabolic labeling experiments showing that fucose is not significantly incorporated by the parasite. Fluorescence microscopy of epitope-tagged versions of P. falciparum GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-l-fucose synthase expressed in transgenic 3D7 parasites shows that these enzymes localize in the cytoplasm of P. falciparum during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle. Although the function of fucose in the parasite is not known, the presence of GDP-fucose suggests that the metabolite may be used for further fucosylation reactions. PMID:23615908

  20. Biochemical characterization of GDP-L-fucose de novo synthesis pathway in fungus Mortierella alpina

    Ren, Yan; Perepelov, Andrei V.; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Hao; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Mortierella alpina is a filamentous fungus commonly found in soil, which is able to produce large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. L-Fucose is an important sugar found in a diverse range of organisms, playing a variety of biological roles. In this study, we characterized the de novo biosynthetic pathway of GDP-L-fucose (the nucleotide-activated form of L-fucose) in M. alpina. Genes encoding GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-keto-6-deoxymannose 3,5-epimerase/4-reductase (GMER) were expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes were produced as His-tagged fusion proteins. Conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose by GMD and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose to GDP-L-fucose by GMER were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, electro-spray ionization-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The k m values of GMD for GDP-mannose and GMER for GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose were determined to be 0.77 mM and 1.047 mM, respectively. Both NADH and NADPH may be used by GMER as the coenzyme. The optimum temperature and pH were determined to be 37 o C and pH 9.0 (GMD) or pH 7.0 (GMER). Divalent cations are not required for GMD and GMER activity, and the activities of both enzymes may be enhanced by DTT. To our knowledge this is the first report on the characterization of GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  1. Dissociation: a developmental psychoneurobiological perspective

    Adele

    ... the stream of con- sciousness and memory.1 It is a frequent symptom of a range ... infant for long time spans in an extremely disturbed psycho- biological state that ... Advantage: Dissociation is adaptive in the short-term. Dissociation can be ...

  2. Dissociative recombination of dications

    Seiersen, K.; Heber, O.; Jensen, M.J.; Safvan, C.P.; Andersen, L. H.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of doubly-charged positive ions has been studied at the heavy ion storage ring ASTRID. Low-energy electrons were scattered on the dication of the N 2 molecule, and the absolute cross section was measured in the energy range of 10 -4 -50 eV. From the measured cross section, a thermal rate coefficient of 5.8x10 -7 cm 3 s -1 at 300 K was extracted. Furthermore, we present new results on the CO 2+ DR rate, and a summary and comparison of measured DR rate coefficients for both the singly and doubly-charged ions of CO, CO 2 , and N 2 is presented

  3. Quarkonium dissociation by anisotropy

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We compute the screening length for quarkonium mesons moving through an anisotropic, strongly coupled mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma by means of its gravity dual. We present the results for arbitrary velocities and orientations of the mesons, as well as for arbitrary values of the anisotropy. The anisotropic screening length can be larger or smaller than the isotropic one, and this depends on whether the comparison is made at equal temperatures or at equal entropy densities. For generic motion we find that: (i) mesons dissociate above a certain critical value of the anisotropy, even at zero temperature; (ii) there is a limiting velocity for mesons in the plasma, even at zero temperature; (iii) in the ultra-relativistic limit the screening length scales as (1 - v 2)ɛ with ɛ = 1 /2, in contrast with the isotropic result ɛ = 1 /4.

  4. Dissociation - a preliminary contextual model

    C Krüger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM system has certain limitations when applied to two South African examples of dissociation, because it is descriptive (non-explanatory and focuses on intrapsychic (non-communal processes. Even the existing Western explanatory models of dissociation fail to accommodate fully the communal aspects of dissociation in our South African context. Objectives and methods. The aim was to explore an expanded perspective on dissociation that does not limit it to an intrapsychic phenomenon, but that accounts for the interrelatedness of individuals within their social context. Auto-ethnography was used. In this article a collective, socially orientated, contextual hermeneutic was applied to two local examples of dissociation. Three existing Western models were expanded along multicontextual, collective lines, for them to be more useful in the pluralistic South African context. Results. This preliminary contextual model of dissociation includes a person’s interpersonal, socio-cultural, and spiritual contexts, in addition to the intrapsychic context. Dissociation is considered to be a normal information-processing tool that maintains balanced, coherent selves-in-society, i.e. individuals connected to each other. In the South African context dissociation appears mostly as a normal phenomenon and seldom as a sign of mental illness. Dissociation is pivotal for the normal construction of individual and communal identities in the face of conflicting sets of information from various contexts. Dissociation may help individuals or communities to survive in a world of conflicting messages, where conflict is often interpersonal/cultural/societal in nature, rather than primarily intrapsychic. Conclusions. This model should be developed and evaluated further. Such evaluation would require suitable new local terminology.

  5. Exploring the relationship between energy consumption and GDP: Evidence from Croatia

    Borozan, Djula

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between total energy consumption and real gross domestic product (GDP) covering the period between 1992 and 2010 in Croatia. The methodology employed in this paper is based on the bivariate vector autoregression (VAR) and Granger causality tests. Moreover, the impulse response function and variance decomposition analysis are employed to trace the dynamic response paths of shocks to the system. The empirical analysis shows that, when it is allowed for any deterministic component in the data, total energy consumption and real GDP are not co-integrated in the period observed. Furthermore, there is a unidirectional causality running from total energy consumption to GDP, and an impulse response to GDP caused by energy consumption, being mainly embodied in the first years. The results indicate that total energy consumption is an important component determining economic growth in Croatia and that energy conservation policy should be formulated and implemented wisely. This paper also tests the causality between real GDP and consumption of the five energy variables by using the bivariate VAR. The main implication of these tests is that individual energy forms matter when it comes to energy policy formulation. - Highlights: • There is a unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to real GDP in Croatia. • There is an impulse response to real GDP caused by energy consumption, being mainly embodied in the first years. • Energy consumption is an important component determining economic growth. • Individual energy forms matter when it comes to energy policy formulation

  6. Enhancing GDP-fucose production in recombinant Escherichia coli by metabolic pathway engineering.

    Zhai, Yafei; Han, Donglei; Pan, Ying; Wang, Shuaishuai; Fang, Junqiang; Wang, Peng; Liu, Xian-wei

    2015-02-01

    Guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-fucose is the indispensible donor substrate for fucosyltransferase-catalyzed synthesis of fucose-containing biomolecules, which have been found involving in various biological functions. In this work, the salvage pathway for GDP-fucose biosynthesis from Bacterioides fragilis was introduced into Escherichia coli. Besides, the biosynthesis of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), an essential substrate for GDP-fucose biosynthesis, was enhanced via overexpression of enzymes involved in the salvage pathway of GTP biosynthesis. The production capacities of metabolically engineered strains bearing different combinations of recombinant enzymes were compared. The shake flask fermentation of the strain expressing Fkp, Gpt, Gmk and Ndk obtained the maximum GDP-fucose content of 4.6 ± 0.22 μmol/g (dry cell mass), which is 4.2 fold that of the strain only expressing Fkp. Through fed-batch fermentation, the GDP-fucose content further rose to 6.6 ± 0.14 μmol/g (dry cell mass). In addition to a better productivity than previous fermentation processes based on the de novo pathway for GDP-fucose biosynthesis, the established schemes in this work also have the advantage to be a potential avenue to GDP-fucose analogs encompassing chemical modification on the fucose residue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum to produce GDP-L-fucose from glucose and mannose.

    Chin, Young-Wook; Park, Jin-Byung; Park, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum was metabolically engineered to convert glucose and mannose into guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-L-fucose, a precursor of fucosyl-oligosaccharides, which are involved in various biological and pathological functions. This was done by introducing the gmd and wcaG genes of Escherichia coli encoding GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose-3,5-epimerase-4-reductase, respectively, which are known as key enzymes in the production of GDP-L-fucose from GDP-D-mannose. Coexpression of the genes allowed the recombinant C. glutamicum cells to produce GDP-L-fucose in a minimal medium containing glucose and mannose as carbon sources. The specific product formation rate was much higher during growth on mannose than on glucose. In addition, the specific product formation rate was further increased by coexpressing the endogenous phosphomanno-mutase gene (manB) and GTP-mannose-1-phosphate guanylyl-transferase gene (manC), which are involved in the conversion of mannose-6-phosphate into GDP-D-mannose. However, the overexpression of manA encoding mannose-6-phosphate isomerase, catalyzing interconversion of mannose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate showed a negative effect on formation of the target product. Overall, coexpression of gmd, wcaG, manB and manC in C. glutamicum enabled production of GDP-L-fucose at the specific rate of 0.11 mg g cell(-1) h(-1). The specific GDP-L-fucose content reached 5.5 mg g cell(-1), which is a 2.4-fold higher than that of the recombinant E. coli overexpressing gmd, wcaG, manB and manC under comparable conditions. Well-established metabolic engineering tools may permit optimization of the carbon and cofactor metabolisms of C. glutamicum to further improve their production capacity.

  8. Demonstration Analysis of Relationship Between R&D Investment and GDP

    HAN Bo-tang; LIU Bai-shan; CHEN Keng

    2005-01-01

    To reveal the quantitative relationship between research and development (R&D) investment and gross domestic product (GDP) in China, we have demonstrated and analyzed the relationship between R&D investment and science and technology (S&T) progress, and based on a mount of S&T statistical data, have proceeded demonstration research of the relationship between R&D investment and GDP in China with Solow and vector auto regression (VAR) models. Cubic curve fitting and cross-correlation analysis of them with SPSS have shown that there is a strong synchronic relationship between R&D investment and GDP.

  9. News Related to Future GDP Growth as a Risk Factor in Equity Returns

    Vassalou, Maria

    2001-01-01

    A model that includes a factor that captures news related to future Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth along with the market factor can explain the cross-section of equity returns about as well as the Fama-French model can. Furthermore, the Fama-French factors HML and SMB appear to contain mainly news related to future GDP growth. When news related to future GDP growth is present in the asset-pricing model, HML and SMB lose their ability to explain the cross-section.

  10. Dissociative symptomatology in cancer patients

    Civilotti, Cristina; Castelli, Lorys; Binaschi, Luca; Cussino, Martina; Tesio, Valentina; Di Fini, Giulia; Veglia, Fabio; Torta, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The utilization of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic spectrum is currently being debated to categorize psychological adjustment in cancer patients. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the presence of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology in a sample of cancer patients; (2) examine the correlation of cancer-related dissociation and sociodemographic and medical variables, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology; (3) investigate the predictors of cancer-related dissociation. Methods: Ninety-two mixed cancer patients (mean age: 58.94, ds = 10.13) recruited from two hospitals in northern Italy were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic and medical characteristics, the Karnofsky Scale to measure the level of patient activity and medical care requirements, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate the presence of anxiety and depression, the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) to assess the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and hypervigilance, and the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) to quantify the traumatic dissociative symptomatology. Results: 31.5% of participants report a PDEQ score above the cutoff. The results indicated that dissociative symptomatology was positively correlated with HADS scores (HADS-Anxiety: r = 0.476, p dissociative symptomatology. The results converged on a three predictor model revealing that IES-R-Intrusion, IES-R-Avoidance, and IES-R-Hyperarousal accounted for 53.9% of the explained variance. Conclusion: These findings allow us to hypothesize a specific psychological reaction which may be ascribed to the traumatic spectrum within the context of cancer, emphasizing the close relationship between the origin of dissociative constituents which, according to the scientific literature, compose the traumatic experience. Our results have implications for understanding dissociative symptomatology in a cancer

  11. Cointegration, error-correction, and the relationship between GDP and energy. The case of South Korea and Singapore

    Glasure, Yong U.; Lee, Aie-Rie

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the causality issue between energy consumption and GDP for South Korea and Singapore, with the aid of cointegration and error-correction modeling. Results of the cointegration and error-correction models indicate bidirectional causality between GDP and energy consumption for both South Korea and Singapore. However, results of the standard Granger causality tests show no causal relationship between GDP and energy consumption for South Korea and unidirectional causal relationship from energy consumption to GDP for Singapore

  12. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures......Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport...... accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development....

  14. A Probit Model for the State of the Greek GDP Growth

    Stavros Degiannakis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides probability estimates of the state of the GDP growth. A regime-switching model defines the probability of the Greek GDP being in boom or recession. Then probit models extract the predictive information of a set of explanatory (economic and financial variables regarding the state of the GDP growth. A contemporaneous, as well as a lagged, relationship between the explanatory variables and the state of the GDP growth is conducted. The mean absolute distance (MAD between the probability of not being in recession and the probability estimated by the probit model is the function that evaluates the performance of the models. The probit model with the industrial production index and the realized volatility as the explanatory variables has the lowest MAD value of 6.43% (7.94% in the contemporaneous (lagged relationship.

  15. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development.

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L

    2016-07-06

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development.

  16. Electricity supply, employment and real GDP in India: evidence from cointegration and Granger-causality tests

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2009-01-01

    This study probes nexus between electricity supply, employment and real GDP for India within a multivariate framework using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Long-run equilibrium relationship has been established among these variables for the time span 1970-71 to 2005-06. The study further establishes long- and short-run Granger causality running from real GDP and electricity supply to employment without any feedback effect. Thus, growth in real GDP and electricity supply are responsible for the high level of employment in India. The absence of causality running from electricity supply to real GDP implies that electricity demand and supply side measures can be adopted to reduce the wastage of electricity, which would not affect future economic growth of India.

  17. Analysis of The Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P) of Nigeria:1960-2012

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Gross Domestic Product takes into account the market value of ... economic growth of Nigeria using GDP as an indicator and ... where the best opportunity of investors lies. Paul [6] ... the information encoded in past events and.

  18. Dissociation Energies of Diatomic Molecules

    Qun-Chao, Fan; Wei-Guo, Sun

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dissociation energies of 10 electronic states of alkali molecules of KH, 7 LiD, 7 LiH, 6 LiH, NaK, NaLi and NaRb are studied using the highest three accurate vibrational energies of each electronic state, and an improved parameter-free analytical formula which is obtained starting from the LeRoy–Bernstein vibrational energy expression near the dissociation limit. The results show that as long as the highest three vibrational energies are accurate, the current analytical formula will give accurate theoretical dissociation energies D e theory , which are in excellent agreement with the experimental dissociation energies D e expt . (atomic and molecular physics)

  19. Neural complexity, dissociation, and schizophrenia

    Bob, P.; Šusta, M.; Chládek, Jan; Glaslová, K.; Fedor-Ferybergh, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2007), HY1-5 ISSN 1234-1010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : neural complexity * dissociation * schizophrenia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2007

  20. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  1. Atrioventricular Dissociation after Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Siegfried William Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is increasingly used as a treatment for psychiatric disorders. Cardiac effects are the principal cause of medical complications in these patients. We report a case of atrioventricular (AV dissociation that occurred after ECT that was treated with pacemaker implantation. The mechanisms contributing to the onset of AV dissociation in this patient, and the management and rationale for device therapy, in light of the most recent guidelines, are reviewed.

  2. GDP Spatialization and Economic Differences in South China Based on NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Imagery

    Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate data on gross domestic product (GDP) at pixel level are needed to understand the dynamics of regional economies. GDP spatialization is the basis of quantitative analysis on economic diversities of different administrative divisions and areas with different natural or humanistic attributes. Data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), carried by the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite, are capable of estimating GDP, but few studies have been conducted for mapping GDP at pixel level and further pattern analysis of economic differences in different regions using the VIIRS data. This paper produced a pixel-level (500 m × 500 m) GDP map for South China in 2014 and quantitatively analyzed economic differences among diverse geomorphological types. Based on a regression analysis, the total nighttime light (TNL) of corrected VIIRS data were found to exhibit R2 values of 0.8935 and 0.9243 for prefecture GDP and county GDP, respectively. This demonstrated that TNL showed a more significant capability in reflecting economic status (R2 > 0.88) than other nighttime light indices (R2 simple linear correlations at both prefecture and county levels. The corrected NPP-VIIRS data showed a better fit than the original data, and the estimation at the county level was better than at the prefecture level. The pixel-level GDP map indicated that: (a) economic development in coastal areas was higher than that in inland areas; (b) low altitude plains were the most developed areas, followed by low altitude platforms and low altitude hills; and (c) economic development in middle altitude areas, and low altitude hills and mountains remained to be strengthened.

  3. Causal linkages between electricity consumption and GDP in Thailand: evidence from the bounds test

    Jiranyakul, Komain

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP by applying the bounds testing for cointegration in a multivariate framework. The error correction mechanism is employed to detect causal relationship in the presence of cointegration among three variables. Empirical results for Thailand during 2001Q1 and 2014Q2 suggest that there is long-run bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and real GDP. The source of causation in the long run ...

  4. Impact of GDP and tax revenue on health care financing: An empirical investigation from Indian states

    Deepak Kumar BEHERA; Umakant DASH

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the long run impact of GDP and tax revenue on public health care expenditure using panel FMOLS and DOLS models for sixteen major states of India over the period 1980-2013. This study is more relevant in order to measure the progress in universal health care financing across the states of India because states are heterogeneous in terms of health care spending, associated with low tax bases and low level of GDP growth. The empirical result shows that healt...

  5. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  6. GTP- and GDP-Dependent Rab27a Effectors in Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    Small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) participate in a wide variety of cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and intracellular transport. Conventionally, only the guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-bound small GTPase interacts with effector proteins, and the resulting downstream signals control specific cellular functions. Therefore, the GTP-bound form is regarded as active, and the focus has been on searching for proteins that bind the GTP form to look for their effectors. The Rab family small GTPase Rab27a is highly expressed in some secretory cells and is involved in the control of membrane traffic. The present study reviews recent progress in our understanding of the roles of Rab27a and its effectors in pancreatic beta-cells. In the basal state, GTP-bound Rab27a controls insulin secretion at pre-exocytic stages via its GTP-dependent effectors. We previously identified novel guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-bound Rab27-interacting proteins. Interestingly, GDP-bound Rab27a controls endocytosis of the secretory membrane via its interaction with these proteins. We also demonstrated that the insulin secretagogue glucose converts Rab27a from its GTP- to GDP-bound forms. Thus, GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate pre-exocytic and endocytic stages in membrane traffic, respectively. Since the physiological importance of GDP-bound GTPases has been largely overlooked, we consider that the investigation of GDP-dependent effectors for other GTPases is necessary for further understanding of cellular function.

  7. Functional expression of a human GDP-L-fucose transporter in Escherichia coli.

    Förster-Fromme, Karin; Schneider, Sarah; Sprenger, Georg A; Albermann, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the translocation of nucleotide-activated sugars from the cytosol across a membrane into the endoplasmatic reticulum or the Golgi apparatus which is an important step in the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids in eukaryotes. The heterologous expression of the recombinant and codon-adapted human GDP-L-fucose antiporter gene SLC35C1 (encoding an N-terminal OmpA-signal sequence) led to a functional transporter protein located in the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. The in vitro transport was investigated using inverted membrane vesicles. SLC35C1 is an antiporter specific for GDP-L-fucose and depending on the concomitant reverse transport of GMP. The recombinant transporter FucT1 exhibited an activity for the transport of 3 H-GDP-L-fucose with a V max of 8 pmol/min mg with a K m of 4 µM. The functional expression of SLC35C1 in GDP-L-fucose overproducing E. coli led to the export of GDP-L-fucose to the culture supernatant. The export of GDP-L-fucose by E. coli provides the opportunity for the engineering of a periplasmatic fucosylation reaction in recombinant bacterial cells.

  8. The influence of energy consumption of China on its real GDP from aggregated and disaggregated viewpoints

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Shuyun

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the causal relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) in China at both aggregated and disaggregated levels during the period of 1978–2009 by using a modified version of the Granger (1969) causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) within a multivariate framework. The empirical results suggested the existence of a negative bi-directional Granger causality running from aggregated energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated level of energy consumption, the results were complicated. For coal, empirical findings suggested that there was a negative bi-directional Granger causality running from coal consumption to real GDP. However, for oil and gas, empirical findings suggested a positive bi-directional Granger causality running from oil as well as gas consumption to real GDP. Though these results supported the feedback hypothesis, the negative relationship might be attributed to the growing economy production shifting towards less energy intensive sectors and excessive energy consumption in relatively unproductive sectors. The results indicated that policies with reducing aggregated energy consumption and promoting energy conservation may boost China's economic growth. - Highlights: ► A negative bi-directional Granger causality runs from energy consumption to real GDP. ► The same result runs from coal consumption to real GDP, but oil and gas it does not. ► The results partly derive from excessive energy consumption in unproductive sectors. ► Reducing aggregated energy consumption probably promotes the development of China's economy

  9. Selected aspects of GDP value and structure development in sub-Saharan Africa

    Luboš Smutka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Africa belongs to the poorest regions of the world. This statement may be applied especially to its sub-Saharan part. The paper analyses some basic structural characteristics related to the economic development of sub-Saharan region. The article reveals existing differences between countries and regions of sub-Saharan Africa and analyses key problems which influence economic development of individual states. An emphasis is placed on analysing an unsuitable GDP structure and on external economic relations which affect this structure. Results of an investigation show that the GDP of sub-Saharan countries is to a large extend generated by the primary sector of their economies, which is dominant in the total GDP value and its position is continuously strengthening due to a high dynamics of its growth. Having regard to the external environment, there can be stated that the foreign trade has contributed to the GDP growth of the whole region only to a limited degree (this does not apply to all countries seen as individuals. The integration process in sub-Saharan Africa may be characterized as questionable. Many integration groupings are operating in the region, but their influence on economic growth is limited due a low potential for mutual cooperation based on specialisation and use of comparative advantages. The economies of sub-Saharan countries are very sensitive to changes in their external economic environment. In this regard, there is important to highlight the very strong sensitivity of the GDP in the sub-Saharan region in relation to the World GDP (mainly to European and US GDP because both regions belong to the most important trading partners of Africa as a whole.

  10. GDP PER CAPITA, PROTEST INTENSITY AND REGIME TYPE: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    A. V. Korotayev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study suggests that the relationship between per capita GDP and intensity of antigovernment demonstrations is not negative as tends to be believed; we are rather dealing with an inverted U-shaped relationship: the highest levels of antigovernment demonstration intensity are typical for countries with neither the lowest nor the highest values of GDP per capita, but rather with intermediate values of this indicator. Thus, for higher values of per capita GDP we observe a negative correlation between GDP per capita and the antigovernment demonstration intensity, and for lower values it is positive. This correlation is partly explained by the following points: (1 GDP growth in authoritarian regimes leads to increased pro-democracy movement, and hence to intensifi cation of the anti-government demonstrations. And since in our database (as well as in reality authoritarian states constitute a very high percentage of the number of states with the lowest values of per capita income, the effect of the growth of internal pressure on authoritarian regimes towards democracy with economic growth to some extent (but no not completely explains a strong correlation between GDP per capita and the intensity of antigovernment demonstrations for low and middle income countries. (2 In the range of per capita GDP up to $ 20000, the increase in per capita GDP is quite strongly correlated with a decrease in the proportion of authoritarian regimes and the increasing share of nonauthoritarian regimes (democratic and intermediate. The presence of non-authoritarian regimes in this range is signifi cantly positively correlated with the higher intensity of anti-government demonstrations. This is another mechanism that contributes to the presence of a strong positive correlation between GDP per capita and the intensity of anti-government demonstrations in the range of interest to us. At the same time we have done a further analysis that has

  11. Impact of GDP Information Technology in Developing of Regional Central Business (Case 50 Airports IT City Development in Indonesia)

    Suyono, Joko; Sukoco, Agus; Ikhsan Setiawan, M.; Suhermin; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia a great number of populations and demand of air transportation services keep increasing by the year in line with the increasing of population and welfare its people. Need for telematics solutions to support goods transport and distribution in cities is mainly due to the complexity of the processes taking place in urban transport systems and the importance of the optimisation of transport operations via ensuring adequate availability of linear and point infrastructure, while reducing the adverse impacts of the transport system on the environment. Efficient infrastructure supports economic growth, improves quality of life, and it is important for national security. Impact of GDP Information Technology in developing of Regional Central Business especially SME Business, are very large correlations and very significant supported by Passenger Arrival and Departure, Baggage Loaded and Unloaded, Cargo Loaded and Unloaded, Separated regional asset, Grant, Capital Expenditure, Investment of Regional Gov., GDP Agriculture-Forestry-Fishing, GDP Manufacturing, GDP Electricity-Gas, GDP Water supply- Sewerage-Waste Management-Remediation Activities, GDP Financial-Insurance Activities, GDP Business Activities, GDP Public Administration and Defense-Compulsory Social Security, GDP Education and GDP Other Services Activities

  12. GDP Release Preferentially Occurs on the Phosphate Side in Heterotrimeric G-proteins

    Louet, Maxime; Martinez, Jean; Floquet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    After extra-cellular stimulation of G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), GDP/GTP exchange appears as the key, rate limiting step of the intracellular activation cycle of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Despite the availability of a large number of X-ray structures, the mechanism of GDP release out of heterotrimeric G-proteins still remains unknown at the molecular level. Starting from the available X-ray structure, extensive unconstrained/constrained molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the complete membrane-anchored Gi heterotrimer complexed to GDP, for a total simulation time overcoming 500 ns. By combining Targeted Molecular Dynamics (TMD) and free energy profiles reconstruction by umbrella sampling, our data suggest that the release of GDP was much more favored on its phosphate side. Interestingly, upon the forced extraction of GDP on this side, the whole protein encountered large, collective motions in perfect agreement with those we described previously including a domain to domain motion between the two ras-like and helical sub-domains of Gα. PMID:22829757

  13. GDP-D-mannose epimerase regulates male gametophyte development, plant growth and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Qi, Tiancong; Liu, Zhipeng; Fan, Meng; Chen, Yan; Tian, Haixia; Wu, Dewei; Gao, Hua; Ren, Chunmei; Song, Susheng; Xie, Daoxin

    2017-09-04

    Plant GDP-D-mannose epimerase (GME) converts GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, a precursor of both L-ascorbate (vitamin C) and cell wall polysaccharides. However, the genetic functions of GME in Arabidopsis are unclear. In this study, we found that mutations in Arabidopsis GME affect pollen germination, pollen tube elongation, and transmission and development of the male gametophyte through analysis of the heterozygous GME/gme plants and the homozygous gme plants. Arabidopsis gme mutants also exhibit severe growth defects and early leaf senescence. Surprisingly, the defects in male gametophyte in the gme plants are not restored by L-ascorbate, boric acid or GDP-L-galactose, though boric acid rescues the growth defects of the mutants, indicating that GME may regulate male gametophyte development independent of L-ascorbate and GDP-L-galactose. These results reveal key roles for Arabidopsis GME in reproductive development, vegetative growth and leaf senescence, and suggest that GME regulates plant growth and controls male gametophyte development in different manners.

  14. Low GDP Solution and Glucose-Sparing Strategies for Peritoneal Dialysis.

    Szeto, Cheuk Chun; Johnson, David W

    2017-01-01

    Long-term exposure to a high glucose concentration in conventional peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution has a number of direct and indirect (via glucose degradation products [GDP]) detrimental effects on the peritoneal membrane, as well as systemic metabolism. Glucose- or GDP-sparing strategies often are hypothesized to confer clinical benefits to PD patients. Icodextrin (glucose polymer) solution improves peritoneal ultrafiltration and reduces the risk of fluid overload, but these beneficial effects are probably the result of better fluid removal rather than being glucose sparing. Although frequently used for glucose sparing, the role of amino acid-based solution in this regard has not been tested thoroughly. When glucose-free solutions are used in a combination regimen, published studies showed that glycemic control was improved significantly in diabetic PD patients, and there probably are beneficial effects on peritoneal function. However, the long-term effects of glucose-free solutions, used either alone or as a combination regimen, require further studies. On the other hand, neutral pH-low GDP fluids have been shown convincingly to preserve residual renal function and urine volume. The cost effectiveness of these solutions supports the regular use of neutral pH-low GDP solutions. Nevertheless, further studies are required to determine whether neutral pH-low GDP solutions exert beneficial effects on patient-level outcomes, such as peritonitis, technique survival, and patient survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The energy-GDP nexus: Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell; Sharma, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Island countries are small island economies that are increasingly dependent on energy for growth and development, yet highly susceptible to climate change. Thus, the relationship between energy consumption and GDP is crucial for realizing their future development and growth objectives. This article tests for Granger causality and provides long-run structural estimates for the relationship between energy consumption, GDP and urbanization for a panel of Pacific Island countries. For the panel as a whole in the long-run there is bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption and GDP and these variables exert a positive impact on each other. A 1% increase in energy consumption increases GDP by 0.11%, while a 1% increase in GDP increases energy consumption by 0.23%. The findings suggest that for the panel as a whole these countries should increase investment in energy infrastructure and regulatory reform of energy infrastructure to improve delivery efficiency, continue to promote alternative energy sources and put in place energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage. These strategies seek to realize the dual objectives of reducing the adverse effects of energy use on the environment, while avoiding the negative effect on economic growth of reducing energy consumption. (author)

  16. Granger Causalities Between Interest Rate, Price Level, Money Supply and Real Gdp in the Czech Republic

    Tomáš Urbanovský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate relationships between selected macroeconomic variables – interest rate, price level, money supply and real GDP – in the Czech Republic in order to find out definite implications of its interactions and give recommendations to macroeconomic policy authorities. Two implemented vector autoregression models with different lag length reached slightly different conclusions. VAR(1 suggests that three pairs of Granger causality exist, in particular between price level and interest rate, between real GDP and interest rate and between real GDP and price level. VAR(2 uncovered two more pairs of Granger causality between money supply and interest rate and between money supply and price level. Despite better prediction power of VAR(2 in case of money supply, low correlation coefficient comprising variable money supply raises doubts about the factual existence of causality between money supply and other variables. However, both models allow forecasting the direction of change in case of variables interest rate and real GDP with the same success rate nearly 82 %. Both VARs also agreed that interest rate could be changed by change of price level and that interest rate could be changed by change of real GDP. These conclusions represent potential recommendations to macroeconomic policy authorities. For the purpose of further research, exchange rate variable will be included in the model instead of interest rate, because effect of interest rate turned out to be limited in times of weakened state of Czech economy.

  17. [Dissociative identity disorder or schizophrenia?].

    Tschöke, S; Steinert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of dissociative identity disorder in which Schneiderian first rank symptoms were present besides of various states of consciousness. Thus the diagnosis of schizophrenia had to be considered. Formally, the symptoms met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. However, taking into account the lack of formal thought disorder and of negative symptoms as well as a typical history of severe and prolonged traumatisation, we did not diagnose a co-morbid schizophrenic disorder. There is good evidence for the existence of psychotic symptoms among patients with dissociative disorders. However, in clinical practice this differential diagnosis is rarely considered.

  18. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP), Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev, 03680, Ukraine and Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences 1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary); Orava, Risto [Institute of Physics, Division of Elementary Particle Physics, P.O. Box 64 (Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2a), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland and CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Salii, Andrii [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP), Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2013-04-15

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  19. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    Jenkovszky, László; Orava, Risto; Salii, Andrii

    2013-01-01

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  20. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative expe...

  1. Dissociative symptoms and neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression.

    Bob, Petr; Fedor-Freybergh, Peter; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Susta, Marek; Pavlat, Josef; Zima, Tomas; Benakova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri

    2008-10-01

    Dissociative symptoms are traditionally attributed to psychological stressors that produce dissociated memories related to stressful life events. Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms including psychogenic amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity-disorder, depersonalization, derealization and other symptoms or syndromes have been reported as an epidemic psychiatric condition that may be coexistent with various psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder or anxiety disorders. According to recent findings also the somatic components of dissociation may occur and influence brain, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis functioning indexed by basal cortisol and prolactin and test their relationship to psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Basal cortisol and prolactin and psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms were assessed in 40 consecutive inpatients with diagnosis of unipolar depression mean age 43.37 (SD=12.21). The results show that prolactin and cortisol as indices of HPA axis functioning manifest significant relationship to dissociative symptoms. Main results represent highly significant correlations obtained by simple regression between psychic dissociative symptoms (DES) and serum prolactin (R=0.55, p=0.00027), and between somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20) and serum cortisol (R=-0.38, p=0.015). These results indicate relationship between HPA-axis reactivity and dissociative symptoms in unipolar depressive patients that could reflect passive coping behavior and disengagement.

  2. The Remittance-GDP Relationship in the Liberalized Regime of Bangladesh: Cointegration and Innovation Accounting

    Biru Paksha PAUL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh, being one of the top remittance-recipient countries in the world, has drawn attention to the remittance-output relationship in recent years. The results on this aspect are nevertheless inconclusive. Working on a relatively liberalized regime from 1979 to 2009, this study finds a long run positive relationship between remittances and GDP in Bangladesh. The adjustment of this relation, however, goes against traditional belief in that GDP does not respond to the movements in remittances while correcting disequilibrium after a shock in the system, but the reverse is true. There is no evidence on remittance-led growth in the short run. Innovation accounting shows that the impact of output on remittances is remarkably stronger than that of remittances on output. These findings have policy implications for other emerging nations in that GDP growth is capable of attracting further remittances arguably through increasing investment demand and initiating institutional reforms in the economy.

  3. Systems GMM estimates of the health care spending and GDP relationship: a note.

    Kumar, Saten

    2013-06-01

    This paper utilizes the systems generalized method of moments (GMM) [Arellano and Bover (1995) J Econometrics 68:29-51; Blundell and Bond (1998) J Econometrics 87:115-143], and panel Granger causality [Hurlin and Venet (2001) Granger Causality tests in panel data models with fixed coefficients. Mime'o, University Paris IX], to investigate the health care spending and gross domestic product (GDP) relationship for organisation for economic co-operation and development countries over the period 1960-2007. The system GMM estimates confirm that the contribution of real GDP to health spending is significant and positive. The panel Granger causality tests imply that a bi-directional causality exists between health spending and GDP. To this end, policies aimed at raising health spending will eventually improve the well-being of the population in the long run.

  4. Disaggregated energy consumption and GDP in Taiwan: A threshold co-integration analysis

    Hu, J.-L.; Lin, C.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Energy consumption growth is much higher than economic growth for Taiwan in recent years, worsening its energy efficiency. This paper provides a solid explanation by examining the equilibrium relationship between GDP and disaggregated energy consumption under a non-linear framework. The threshold co-integration test developed with asymmetric dynamic adjusting processes proposed by Hansen and Seo [Hansen, B.E., Seo, B., 2002. Testing for two-regime threshold cointegration in vector error-correction models. Journal of Econometrics 110, 293-318.] is applied. Non-linear co-integrations between GDP and disaggregated energy consumptions are confirmed except for oil consumption. The two-regime vector error-correction models (VECM) show that the adjustment process of energy consumption toward equilibrium is highly persistent when an appropriately threshold is reached. There is mean-reverting behavior when the threshold is reached, making aggregate and disaggregated energy consumptions grow faster than GDP in Taiwan

  5. Nonlinear Effects of Remittances on Per Capita GDP Growth in Bangladesh

    Gazi Mainul Hassan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of inward remittances flows on per capita gross domestic product (GDP growth in Bangladesh during 1976–2012. We find that the growth effect of remittances is negative at first but becomes positive at a later stage, evidence of a non-linear relationship. Unproductive use of remittances was rampant in the beginning when they were received by migrant families, but better social and economic investments led to more productive utilization of remittances receipts at later periods. This suggests a U-shaped relationship between remittances and per capita GDP growth. Unlike what is suggested in the literature, that the effect of remittances is more pronounced in a less financially developed economy, our evidence does not show that the effect of remittances on per capita GDP growth in Bangladesh is conditional on the level of financial development.

  6. Analysis of value added services on GDP Growth Rate using Data Mining Techniques

    Douglas KUNDA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Information Technology has spawned large amount of databases and huge data in numerous areas. The research in databases and information technology has given rise to an approach to store and manipulate this data for further decision making. In this paper certain data mining techniques were adopted to analyze the data that shows relevance with desired attributes. Regression technique was adopted to help us find out the influence of Agriculture, Service and Manufacturing on the performance of gross domestic product (GDP. Trend and time series technique was applied to the data to help us find out what trend of GDP with respect to service, agriculture and manufacturing sector for the past decade has been. Finally Correlation was also used to help us analyze the relationship among the variables (service, agriculture and manufacturing sector. From the three techniques analyzed, service value added variable was the most prominent variable which showed the strong influence on GDP growth rate.

  7. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  8. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS IN DSM-5

    Spiegel, David; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Sar, Vedat; Simeon, Daphne; Vermetten, Eric; Cardena, Etzel; Dell, Paul F.

    Background: We present recommendations for revision of the diagnostic criteria for the Dissociative Disorders (DDs) for DSM-5. The periodic revision of the DSM provides an opportunity to revisit the assumptions underlying specific diagnoses and the empirical support, or lack of it, for the defining

  9. Hydrogen dissociation on metal surfaces

    Wijzenbroek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative chemisorption is an important reaction step in many catalytic reactions. An example of such a reaction is the Haber-Bosch process, which is used commercially to produce ammonia, an important starting material in the production of fertilisers. In theoretical descriptions of such chemical

  10. Energy localization and molecular dissociation

    Takeno, S.; Tsironis, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    We study analytically as well as numerically the role that large-amplitude vibrations play during the process of molecular dissociation. Our model consists of a linear three-atom molecule composed of identical atoms interacting with their nearest neighbors by Morse potentials. We find a close relation between energy localization and bond breaking and evaluate numerically the corresponding reaction paths

  11. Genetic metabolic complementation establishes a requirement for GDP-fucose in Leishmania.

    Guo, Hongjie; Novozhilova, Natalia M; Bandini, Giulia; Turco, Salvatore J; Ferguson, Michael A J; Beverley, Stephen M

    2017-06-23

    To survive in its sand fly vector, the trypanosomatid protozoan parasite Leishmania first attaches to the midgut to avoid excretion, but eventually it must detach for transmission by the next bite. In Leishmania major strain Friedlin, this is controlled by modifications of the stage-specific adhesin lipophosphoglycan (LPG). During differentiation to infective metacyclics, d-arabinopyranose (d-Ara p ) caps the LPG side-chain galactose residues, blocking interaction with the midgut lectin PpGalec, thereby leading to parasite detachment and transmission. Previously, we characterized two closely related L. major genes ( FKP40 and AFKP80 ) encoding bifunctional proteins with kinase/pyrophosphorylase activities required for salvage and conversion of l-fucose and/or d-Ara p into the nucleotide-sugar substrates required by glycosyltransferases. Whereas only AFKP80 yielded GDP-d-Ara p from exogenous d-Ara p , both proteins were able to salvage l-fucose to GDP-fucose. We now show that Δ afkp80 - null mutants ablated d-Ara p modifications of LPG as predicted, whereas Δ fkp40 - null mutants resembled wild type (WT). Fucoconjugates had not been reported previously in L. major , but unexpectedly, we were unable to generate fkp40 - / afkp80 - double mutants, unless one of the A/FKPs was expressed ectopically. To test whether GDP-fucose itself was essential for Leishmania viability, we employed "genetic metabolite complementation." First, the trypanosome de novo pathway enzymes GDP-mannose dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-fucose synthetase (GMER) were expressed ectopically; from these cells, the Δ fkp40 - /Δ afkp80 - double mutant was now readily obtained. As expected, the Δ fkp40 - /Δ afkp80 - /+ TbGMD-GMER line lacked the capacity to generate GDP-Ara p , while synthesizing abundant GDP-fucose. These results establish a requirement for GDP-fucose for L. major viability and predict the existence of an essential fucoconjugate(s). © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  12. Global functioning and disability in dissociative disorders.

    Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Rufibach, Kaspar; Perron, Noelle; Wyss, Daniela; Kuenzler, Cornelia; Prezewowsky, Cornelia; Pitman, Roger K; Rufer, Michael

    2012-12-30

    Dissociative disorders are frequent comorbid conditions of other mental disorders. Yet, there is controversy about their clinical relevance, and little systematic research has been done on how they influence global functioning. Outpatients and day care patients (N=160) of several psychiatric units in Switzerland were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II. The association between subjects with a dissociative disorder (N=30) and functional impairment after accounting for non-dissociative axis I disorders was evaluated by linear regression models. We found a proportion of 18.8% dissociative disorders (dissociative amnesia=0%, dissociative fugue=0.6%, depersonalization disorder=4.4%, dissociative identity disorder=7.5%, dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified=6.3%) across treatment settings. Adjusted for other axis I disorders, subjects with a comorbid dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified had a median global assessment of functioning score that was 0.86 and 0.88 times, respectively, the score of subjects without a comorbid dissociative disorder. These findings support the hypothesis that complex dissociative disorders, i.e., dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified, contribute to functional impairment above and beyond the impact of co-existing non-dissociative axis I disorders, and that they qualify as "serious mental illness". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial disparity dynamics of ecosystem service values and GDP in Shaanxi Province, China in the last 30 years.

    Li, Tianhong; Ding, Yao

    2017-01-01

    The regional policy in China is shifting from solely gross domestic product (GDP) orientation to development that is more balanced between economic growth and ecological protection, as well as achieving equality among regions. Using land use maps and the adjusted value coefficients to assess ecosystem service values (ESV) for the 1980s, 1995, 2000, and 2010, we estimated the ESV in Shaanxi Province for different years, and characterized the spatial and temporal distribution of ESV and GDP. The results demonstrated that the total value of ecosystem services in Shaanxi Province increased from 208.95 billion Yuan in the 1980s to 309.76 billion Yuan in 2010. Variation Coefficient (Cv) and Theil index (T) were used to reflect the disparities of GDP or ESV within the study area. The values of Cv in descending order are GDP, ESV per capita, ESV, and GDP per capita. The Theil indexes of GDP were much greater than the ones of ESV. Variations of Cv and T showed that disparity in GDP kept increasing from the 1980s to 2000, then decreased; while no significant change in regional disparity of ESV were detected in parallel. The cities with higher GDP usually contributed little to ESV, and vice versa. The variation in GDP and ESV, in terms of the prefectural totals and per capita values, increased from the 1980s to 2010. This study provides an accessible way for local decision makers to evaluate the regional balance between economic growth and ecosystem services.

  14. Electricity consumption-real GDP causality nexus: Evidence from a bootstrapped causality test for 30 OECD countries

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Prasad, Arti

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine any causal effects between electricity consumption and real GDP for 30 OECD countries. We use a bootstrapped causality testing approach and unravel evidence in favour of electricity consumption causing real GDP in Australia, Iceland, Italy, the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, Korea, Portugal, and the UK. The implication is that electricity conservation policies will negatively impact real GDP in these countries. However, for the rest of the 22 countries our findings suggest that electricity conversation policies will not affect real GDP

  15. Dissociative Functions in the Normal Mourning Process.

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Sees dissociative functions in mourning process as occurring in conjunction with integrative trends. Considers initial shock reaction in mourning as model of normal dissociation in mourning process. Dissociation is understood to be related to traumatic significance of death in human consciousness. Discerns four psychological categories of…

  16. Correlations in the hadronic double diffractive dissociation

    Goldegol, Alexandre.

    1991-05-01

    A given reaction of double diffractive dissociation is studied based on the three-component Deck Model. The correlations among the diffractive slope, the effective mass of the dissociated particle sub-system and the dissociation angle in the Gottfried-Jackson are studied based in this model. 9 refs, 19 figs

  17. An Empirical Analysis of Differences in GDP per Capita and the Role of Human Capital

    Sfakianakis, George; Magoutas, Anastasios I.; Georgopoulos, Demosthenes

    2010-01-01

    Using a generalized production function approach and insights from empirical research on the determinants of growth, this paper assesses the relative importance of specific factors in explaining differences in the levels of per capita GDP. Emphasis is placed on education, physical capital accumulation, the share of the public sector in economic…

  18. Developing a comprehensive time series of GDP per capita for 210 countries from 1950 to 2015

    James Spencer L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Income has been extensively studied and utilized as a determinant of health. There are several sources of income expressed as gross domestic product (GDP per capita, but there are no time series that are complete for the years between 1950 and 2015 for the 210 countries for which data exist. It is in the interest of population health research to establish a global time series that is complete from 1950 to 2015. Methods We collected GDP per capita estimates expressed in either constant US dollar terms or international dollar terms (corrected for purchasing power parity from seven sources. We applied several stages of models, including ordinary least-squares regressions and mixed effects models, to complete each of the seven source series from 1950 to 2015. The three US dollar and four international dollar series were each averaged to produce two new GDP per capita series. Results and discussion Nine complete series from 1950 to 2015 for 210 countries are available for use. These series can serve various analytical purposes and can illustrate myriad economic trends and features. The derivation of the two new series allows for researchers to avoid any series-specific biases that may exist. The modeling approach used is flexible and will allow for yearly updating as new estimates are produced by the source series. Conclusion GDP per capita is a necessary tool in population health research, and our development and implementation of a new method has allowed for the most comprehensive known time series to date.

  19. A Rac1--GDP trimer complex binds zinc with tetrahedral and octahedral coordination, displacing magnesium

    Prehna, G.; Stebbins, C

    2007-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases represent well characterized signaling molecules that regulate many cellular functions such as actin cytoskeletal arrangement and the cell cycle by acting as molecular switches. A Rac1-GDP-Zn complex has been crystallized in space group P3221 and its crystal structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. These trigonal crystals reveal the unexpected ability of Rac1 to coordinate Zn atoms in a tetrahedral fashion by use of its biologically relevant switch I and switch II regions. Upon coordination of zinc, the switch I region is stabilized in the GDP-bound conformation and contributes to a Rac1 trimer in the asymmetric unit. Zinc coordination causes switch II to adopt a novel conformation with a symmetry-related molecule. Additionally, zinc was found to displace magnesium from its octahedral coordination at switch I, although GDP binding remained stable. This structure represents the first reported Rac1-GDP-Zn complex, which further underscores the conformational flexibility and versatility of the small GTPase switch regions.

  20. A Rac1-GDP Trimer Complex Binds Zinc with Tetrahedral and Octahedral Coordination, Displacing Magnesium

    Prehna,G.; Stebbins, E.

    2007-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases represent well characterized signaling molecules that regulate many cellular functions such as actin cytoskeletal arrangement and the cell cycle by acting as molecular switches. A Rac1-GDP-Zn complex has been crystallized in space group P3{sub 2}21 and its crystal structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. These trigonal crystals reveal the unexpected ability of Rac1 to coordinate Zn atoms in a tetrahedral fashion by use of its biologically relevant switch I and switch II regions. Upon coordination of zinc, the switch I region is stabilized in the GDP-bound conformation and contributes to a Rac1 trimer in the asymmetric unit. Zinc coordination causes switch II to adopt a novel conformation with a symmetry-related molecule. Additionally, zinc was found to displace magnesium from its octahedral coordination at switch I, although GDP binding remained stable. This structure represents the first reported Rac1-GDP-Zn complex, which further underscores the conformational flexibility and versatility of the small GTPase switch regions.

  1. Growth under Extractive Institutions? Latin American Per Capita GDP in Colonial Times

    Abad, Leticia Arroyo; Zanden, Jan Luiten van

    2016-01-01

    This article presents new estimations of per capita GDP in colonial times for the two pillars of the Spanish empire: Mexico and Peru. We find dynamic economies as evidenced by increasing real wages, urbanization, and silver mining. Their growth trajectories are such that both regions reduced the gap

  2. Short-term forecasting of Czech quarterly GDP using monthly indicators

    Arnoštová, K.; Havrlant, D.; Růžička, L.; Tóth, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2011), s. 566-583 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : GDP forecasting * bridge models * principal components Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1235_toth.pdf

  3. GDP-L-fucose is required for boundary definition in plants.

    Gonçalves, Beatriz; Maugarny-Calès, Aude; Adroher, Bernard; Cortizo, Millán; Borrega, Nero; Blein, Thomas; Hasson, Alice; Gineau, Emilie; Mouille, Grégory; Laufs, Patrick; Arnaud, Nicolas

    2017-12-16

    The CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) transcription factors control plant boundary formation, thus allowing the emergence of novel growth axes. While the developmental roles of the CUC genes in different organs and across species are well characterized, upstream and downstream events that contribute to their function are still poorly understood. To identify new players in this network, we performed a suppressor screen of CUC2g-m4, a line overexpressing CUC2 that has highly serrated leaves. We identified a mutation that simplifies leaf shape and affects MURUS1 (MUR1), which is responsible for GDP-L-fucose production. Using detailed morphometric analysis, we show that GDP-L-fucose has an essential role in leaf shape acquisition by sustaining differential growth at the leaf margins. Accordingly, reduced CUC2 expression levels are observed in mur1 leaves. Furthermore, genetic analyses reveal a conserved role for GDP-L-fucose in different developmental contexts where it contributes to organ separation in the same pathway as CUC2. Taken together, our results reveal that GDP-L-fucose is necessary for proper establishment of boundary domains in various developmental contexts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Regional GDP Convergence in the European Regions in the light of the Economic Recession

    Sørensen, Nils Karl; Cornett, Andreas P.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the implications of the slowdown of the European economies since 2007 on the process of GDP convergence at the regional NUTS 2 level. We use a nominal data set on GPD per capita divided into the periods 1995-2006 and 2007-2010. Using the notion of β-convergence we find...

  5. A check of Maddison’s gdp data. Benford’s Law with some range problems

    Paldam, Martin

    The paper studies if the Maddison set of data for GDP per capita follows a statistical regu-larity, known as Benford’s Law. It is a simple logarithmic relation on the frequency of the first digit in a data set. These data ought to follow the law as they are Maddison’s calibration of data compiled...

  6. Carbon emissions, logistics volume and GDP in China: empirical analysis based on panel data model.

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Ren, Dongfang; Shi, Jiaxing

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the relationship among carbon emissions, GDP, and logistics by using a panel data model and a combination of statistics and econometrics theory. The model is based on the historical data of 10 typical provinces and cities in China during 2005-2014. The model in this paper adds the variability of logistics on the basis of previous studies, and this variable is replaced by the freight turnover of the provinces. Carbon emissions are calculated by using the annual consumption of coal, oil, and natural gas. GDP is the gross domestic product. The results showed that the amount of logistics and GDP have a contribution to carbon emissions and the long-term relationships are different between different cities in China, mainly influenced by the difference among development mode, economic structure, and level of logistic development. After the testing of panel model setting, this paper established a variable coefficient model of the panel. The influence of GDP and logistics on carbon emissions is obtained according to the influence factors among the variables. The paper concludes with main findings and provides recommendations toward rational planning of urban sustainable development and environmental protection for China.

  7. GDP per capita and the biological standard of living in contemporary developing countries

    Brinkman, Henk-Jan; Drukker, J.W.; Slot, Brigitte

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates whether a divergence between the biological standard of living (commonly measured by some anthropometric indicator) and GDP per capita during the early phases of industrialization, as observed for many now-developed countries in the nineteenth century, can also be found for

  8. Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview

    XU, Yi; Ni, Yuping; van Leeuwen, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, thanks to the concerted efforts of domestic and international scholars, the research on China’s historical GDP that began in the 1930s has received widespread attention, and is becoming a widely discussed issue at the forefront of research on world economic history. At the same

  9. Economic Growth and the Environment - or the Extinction of the GDP-dinosaur

    Røpke, Inge

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Market economies are fundamentally characterized by economic growth. Growth rates may be higher or lower, but the GDP seldom stagnates or diminishes - and when it does, this is considered a symptom of crisis. During the past few decades environmental problems have caused increasing conce...

  10. Moving Beyond GDP: Cost Effectiveness of Cochlear Implantation and Deaf Education in Latin America.

    Emmett, Susan D; Tucci, Debara L; Bento, Ricardo F; Garcia, Juan M; Juman, Solaiman; Chiossone-Kerdel, Juan A; Liu, Ta J; de Muñoz, Patricia Castellanos; Ullauri, Alejandra; Letort, Jose J; Mansilla, Teresita; Urquijo, Diana P; Aparicio, Maria L; Gong, Wenfeng; Francis, Howard W; Saunders, James E

    2016-09-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI) and deaf education are cost effective management strategies of childhood profound sensorineural hearing loss in Latin America. CI has been widely established as cost effective in North America and Europe and is considered standard of care in those regions, yet cost effectiveness in other economic environments has not been explored. With 80% of the global hearing loss burden existing in low- and middle-income countries, developing cost effective management strategies in these settings is essential. This analysis represents the continuation of a global assessment of CI and deaf education cost effectiveness. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela participated in the study. A Disability Adjusted Life Years model was applied with 3% discounting and 10-year length of analysis. Experts from each country supplied cost estimates from known costs and published data. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of device cost, professional salaries, annual number of implants, and probability of device failure. Cost effectiveness was determined using the World Health Organization standard of cost effectiveness ratio/gross domestic product per capita (CER/GDP)GDP 0.07-0.93). CI was cost effective in all countries (CER/GDP 0.69-2.96), with borderline cost effectiveness in the Guatemalan sensitivity analysis (Max CER/GDP 3.21). Both cochlear implantation and deaf education are widely cost effective in Latin America. In the lower-middle income economy of Guatemala, implant cost may have a larger impact. GDP is less influential in the middle- and high-income economies included in this study.

  11. Radiative capture versus Coulomb dissociation

    Esbensen, H.; Physics

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8 B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7 Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed

  12. Radiative Capture versus Coulomb Dissociation

    Esbensen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed

  13. Hydrogen dissociation on metal surfaces

    Wijzenbroek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative chemisorption is an important reaction step in many catalytic reactions. An example of such a reaction is the Haber-Bosch process, which is used commercially to produce ammonia, an important starting material in the production of fertilisers. In theoretical descriptions of such chemical processes often approximations need to be made in order to keep the computational cost feasible, such as fixing the surface atoms in place, rather than allowing them to vibrate. In this work, seve...

  14. Diffraction dissociation and elastic scattering

    Verebryusov, V.S.; Ponomarev, L.A.; Smorodinskaya, N.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    In the framework of Regge scheme with supercritical pomeron a model is suggested for the NN-scattering amplitude which takes into account the contribution introduced to the intermediate state by diffraction dissociation (DD) processes. The DD amplitude is written in terms of the Deck model which has been previously applied to describing the main DD features. The calculated NN cross sections are compared with those obtained experimentally. Theoretical predictions for higher energy are presented

  15. Dissociative Photoionization of Diethyl Ether.

    Voronova, Krisztina; Mozaffari Easter, Chrissa M; Covert, Kyle J; Bodi, Andras; Hemberger, Patrick; Sztáray, Bálint

    2015-10-29

    The dissociative photoionization of internal energy selected diethyl ether ions was investigated by imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy. In a large, 5 eV energy range Et2O(+) cations decay by two parallel and three sequential dissociative photoionization channels, which can be modeled well using statistical theory. The 0 K appearance energies of the CH3CHOCH2CH3(+) (H-loss, m/z = 73) and CH3CH2O═CH2(+) (methyl-loss, m/z = 59) fragment ions were determined to be 10.419 ± 0.015 and 10.484 ± 0.008 eV, respectively. The reemergence of the hydrogen-loss ion above 11 eV is attributed to transition-state (TS) switching, in which the second, outer TS is rate-determining at high internal energies. At 11.81 ± 0.05 eV, a secondary fragment of the CH3CHOCH2CH3(+) (m/z = 73) ion, protonated acetaldehyde, CH3CH═OH(+) (m/z = 45) appears. On the basis of the known thermochemical onset of this fragment, a reverse barrier of 325 meV was found. Two more sequential dissociation reactions were examined, namely, ethylene and formaldehyde losses from the methyl-loss daughter ion. The 0 K appearance energies of 11.85 ± 0.07 and 12.20 ± 0.08 eV, respectively, indicate no reverse barrier in these processes. The statistical model of the dissociative photoionization can also be used to predict the fractional ion abundances in threshold photoionization at large temperatures, which could be of use in, for example, combustion diagnostics.

  16. Autonoesis and dissociative identity disorder.

    Morton, John

    2018-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder is characterised by the presence in one individual of two or more alternative personality states (alters). For such individuals, the memory representation of a particular event can have full episodic, autonoetic status for one alter, while having the status of knowledge or even being inaccessible to a second alter. This phenomenon appears to create difficulties for a purely representational theory and is presented to Mahr & Csibra (M&C) for their consideration.

  17. [Clinical Handling of Patients with Dissociative Disorders].

    Okano, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the way informed psychiatrists are expected to handle dissociative patients in clinical situations, with a specific focus on dissociative identity disorders and dissociative fugue. On the initial interview with dissociative patients, information on their history of trauma and any nascent dissociative symptoms in their childhood should be carefully obtained. Their level of stress in their current life should also be assessed in order to understand their symptomatology, as well as to predict their future clinical course. A psychoeducational approach is crucial; it might be helpful to give information on dissociative disorder to these patients as well as their family members in order to promote their adherence to treatment. Regarding the symptomatology of dissociative disorders, detailed symptoms and the general clinical course are presented. It was stressed that dissociative identity disorder and dissociative fugue, the most high-profile dissociative disorders, are essentially different in their etiology and clinical presentation. Dissociative disorders are often confused with and misdiagnosed as psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. Other conditions considered in terms of the differential diagnosis include borderline personality disorder as well as temporal lobe epilepsy. Lastly, the therapeutic approach to dissociative identity disorder is discussed. Each dissociative identity should be understood as potentially representing some traumatically stressful event in the past. The therapist should be careful not to excessively promote the creation or elaboration of any dissociative identities. Three stages are proposed in the individual psychotherapeutic process. In the initial stage, a secure environment and stabilization of symptoms should be sought. The second stage consists of aiding the "host" personality to make use of other more adaptive coping skills in their life. The third stage involves coaching as well as continuous awareness of

  18. A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF GDP AND FINAL CONSUMPTION USING SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION. THE CASE OF ROMANIA 1990–2010

    Aniela Balacescu; Marian Zaharia

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the causal relationship between GDP and final consumption. The authors used linear regression model in which GDP is considered variable results, and final consumption variable factor. In drafting article we used Excel software application that is a modern computing and statistical data analysis.

  19. CORRECTION OF CHAIN-LINKING METHOD BY MEANS OF LLOYD-MOULTON-FISHER-TÖRNQVIST INDEX ON CROATIAN GDP DATA

    Ante Rozga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available National statistical agencies of European Union use chain-linking method to achieve the best possible decomposition of GDP. The main advantage of this method is its simplicity, thus it can be applied in practice, which makes it particularly attractive in the situation when GDP has to be compiled on due time. By this method transformation-substitution effect – inherent to rational producers and consumers, has been implicitly built into GDP compilation, which is prior assumption of normative economic theory. On empirical (ex-post ground it gives more precise volume-price decomposition. In this paper, by means of constructing LMTF index and Fisher index derived from the previous one, it is suggested how to improve chain linking method, due to following reasons: a it is theoretically restrictive, b it gives only rough GDP decomposition into volume and price and, what seems to be its main disadvantage, c it gives additively inconsistent GDP.

  20. The effect of low-GDP solution on ultrafiltration and solute transport in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Cho, Kyu-Hyang; Do, Jun-Young; Park, Jong-Won; Yoon, Kyung-Woo; Kim, Yong-Lim

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported benefits for human peritoneal mesothelial cell function of a neutral-pH dialysate low in glucose degradation products (GDPs). However, the effects of low-GDP solution on ultrafiltration (UF), transport of solutes, and control of body water remain elusive. We therefore investigated the effect of low-GDP solution on UF, solute transport, and control of body water. Among 79 new continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, 60 completed a 12-month protocol (28 in a lactate-based high-GDP solution group, 32 in a lactate-based low-GDP solution group). Clinical indices--including 24-hour UF volume (UFV), 24-hour urine volume (UV), residual renal function, and dialysis adequacy--were measured at months 1, 6, and 12. At months 1, 6, and 12, UFV, glucose absorption, 4-hour dialysate-to-plasma (D/P) creatinine, and 1-hour D/P Na(+) were assessed during a modified 4.25% peritoneal equilibration test (PET). Body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis was measured at months 1 and 12 in 26 CAPD patients. Daily UFV was lower in the low-GDP group. Despite similar solute transport and aquaporin function, the low-GDP group also showed lower UFV and higher glucose absorption during the PET. Factors associated with UFV during the PET were lactate-based high-GDP solution and 1-hour D/P Na(+). No differences in volume status and obesity at month 12 were observed, and improvements in hypervolemia were equal in both groups. Compared with the high-GDP group, the low-GDP group had a lower UFV during a PET and a lower daily UFV during the first year after peritoneal dialysis initiation. Although the low-GDP group had a lower daily UFV, no difficulties in controlling edema were encountered.

  1. Exploring the oil price and real GDP nexus for a small island economy, the Fiji Islands

    Prasad, Arti; Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Narayan, Jashwini

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the relationship between real GDP and oil prices using time series data for the period 1970-2005. Our main finding is that an increase in oil has a positive, albeit inelastic, impact on real GDP, inconsistent with the bulk of the literature. We argue that this is not a surprising result for the Fiji Islands. Our central argument focuses on two aspects of the Fijian economy: (1) the fact that actual output in Fiji has been around 50 per cent less than potential output; thus, Fiji's actual output has not reached a threshold level at which oil prices can negatively impact output; and (2) a rise in oil prices filters through to value added, which in turn is reflected in a larger actual output

  2. The effect of carbon tax on carbon emission abatement and GDP: a case study

    Liu, Xiao; Leung, Yee; Xu, Yuan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing

    2017-10-01

    Carbon tax has been advocated as an effective economic instrument for the abatement of CO2 emission by various countries, including China, the world's biggest carbon emission country. However, carbon emission abatement cannot be done while ignoring the impact on economic growth. A delicate balance needs to be achieved between the two to find an appropriate pathway for sustainable development. This paper applies a multi-objective optimization approach to analyze the impact of levying carbon tax on the energy-intensive sectors of Guangdong province in China under the constraint of emission reduction target. This approach allows us to evaluate carbon emission minimization while maximizing GDP. For policy analysis, we construct five scenarios for evaluation and optimal choice. The results of the analysis show that a lower initial carbon tax rate is not necessarily better, and that a carbon tax is an effective means to reduce CO2 emissions while maintaining a certain level of GDP growth.

  3. Micronutrient deficiencies in early childhood can lower a country's GDP: The Myanmar example.

    Win, Aung Zaw

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is a developing country in South East Asia. While Myanmar is among the 20 countries where 80% of the world's malnourished children live, its military consumes the majority of the national budget. Children who are malnourished between conception and age two are at high risk for impaired physical and mental development, which adversely affects the country's productivity and growth. Myanmar is facing three major micronutrient deficiencies which are iodine, iron and vitamin A deficiencies. The three micronutrient deficiencies can cost about 2.4% of the country's GDP. Children are the future of Myanmar and persistent micronutrient deficiencies will hamper its economic growth and lower its GDP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diffractive dissociation and new quarks

    White, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    We argue that the chiral limit of QCD can be identified with the strong (diffractive dissociation) coupling limit of reggeon field theory. Critical Pomeron scaling at high energy must then be directly related to an infra-red fixed-point of massless QCD and so requires a large number of flavors. This gives a direct argument that the emergence of diffraction-peak scaling, KNO scaling etc. at anti p-p colliders are evidence of a substantial quark structure still to be discovered

  6. [Characteristics of Bacillus cereus dissociants].

    Doroshenko, E V; Loĭko, N G; Il'inskaia, O N; Kolpakov, A I; Gornova, I B; Klimanova, E V; El'-Registan, G I

    2001-01-01

    The autoregulation of the phenotypic (populational) variability of the Bacillus cereus strain 504 was studied. The isolated colonial morphotypes of this bacterium were found to differ in their growth characteristics and the synthesis of extracellular proteases. The phenotypic variabilities of vegetative proliferating cells and those germinated from endospores and cystlike refractory cells were different. Bacterial variants also differed in the production of the d1 and d2 factors (the autoinducers of dormancy and autolysis, respectively) and sensitivity to them. The possible role of these factors in the dissociation of microorganisms is discussed.

  7. The O-H Bond Dissociation Energies of Substituted Phenols and Proton Affinities of Substituted Phenoxide Ions: A DFT Study

    Tadafumi Uchimaru

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The accurate O-H bond dissociation enthalpies for a series of meta and para substituted phenols (X-C6H4-OH, X=H, F, Cl, CH3, OCH3, OH, NH2, CF3, CN, and NO2 have been calculated by using the (ROB3LYP procedure with 6-311G(d,p and 6-311++G(2df,2p basis sets. The proton affinities of the corresponding phenoxide ions (XC6H4-O- have also been computed at the same level of theory. The effect of change of substituent position on the energetics of substituted phenols has been analyzed. The correlations of Hammett’s substituent constants with the bond dissociation enthalpies of the O-H bonds of phenols and proton affinities of phenoxide ions have been explored.

  8. Temporal causal relationship between stock market capitalization, trade openness and real GDP: evidence from Thailand

    Jiranyakul, Komain

    2014-01-01

    This study examines both short-run and long-run causal relationship between stock market capitalization, trade openness and economic growth in Thailand. Quarterly data over the period from the first quarter of 1993 to the fourth quarter of 2013 are used in the analysis. The results from this study show that there exists a unidirectional long-run causality running from stock market capitalization and trade openness to real GDP. In the short run, stock market capitalization does not causes econ...

  9. GDP Matters: Cost Effectiveness of Cochlear Implantation and Deaf Education in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Emmett, Susan D; Tucci, Debara L; Smith, Magteld; Macharia, Isaac M; Ndegwa, Serah N; Nakku, Doreen; Mukara, Kaitesi B; Kaitesi, Mukara B; Ibekwe, Titus S; Mulwafu, Wakisa; Gong, Wenfeng; Francis, Howard W; Saunders, James E

    2015-09-01

    Cochlear implantation and deaf education are cost effective in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cost effectiveness of pediatric cochlear implantation has been well established in developed countries but is unknown in low resource settings, where access to the technology has traditionally been limited. With incidence of severe-to-profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss 5 to 6 times higher in low/middle-income countries than the United States and Europe, developing cost-effective management strategies in these settings is critical. Costs were obtained from experts in Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, and Malawi using known costs and published data, with estimation when necessary. A disability adjusted life years (DALY) model was applied using 3% discounting and 10-year length of analysis. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of device cost, professional salaries, annual number of implants, and probability of device failure. Cost effectiveness was determined using the WHO standard of cost-effectiveness ratio/gross domestic product per capita (CER/GDP) less than 3. Cochlear implantation was cost effective in South Africa and Nigeria, with CER/GDP of 1.03 and 2.05, respectively. Deaf education was cost effective in all countries investigated, with CER/GDP ranging from 0.55 to 1.56. The most influential factor in the sensitivity analysis was device cost, with the cost-effective threshold reached in all countries using discounted device costs that varied directly with GDP. Cochlear implantation and deaf education are equally cost effective in lower-middle and upper-middle income economies of Nigeria and South Africa. Device cost may have greater impact in the emerging economies of Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Malawi.

  10. GDP-to-GTP exchange on the microtubule end can contribute to the frequency of catastrophe.

    Piedra, Felipe-Andrés; Kim, Tae; Garza, Emily S; Geyer, Elisabeth A; Burns, Alexander; Ye, Xuecheng; Rice, Luke M

    2016-11-07

    Microtubules are dynamic polymers of αβ-tubulin that have essential roles in chromosome segregation and organization of the cytoplasm. Catastrophe-the switch from growing to shrinking-occurs when a microtubule loses its stabilizing GTP cap. Recent evidence indicates that the nucleotide on the microtubule end controls how tightly an incoming subunit will be bound (trans-acting GTP), but most current models do not incorporate this information. We implemented trans-acting GTP into a computational model for microtubule dynamics. In simulations, growing microtubules often exposed terminal GDP-bound subunits without undergoing catastrophe. Transient GDP exposure on the growing plus end slowed elongation by reducing the number of favorable binding sites on the microtubule end. Slower elongation led to erosion of the GTP cap and an increase in the frequency of catastrophe. Allowing GDP-to-GTP exchange on terminal subunits in simulations mitigated these effects. Using mutant αβ-tubulin or modified GTP, we showed experimentally that a more readily exchangeable nucleotide led to less frequent catastrophe. Current models for microtubule dynamics do not account for GDP-to-GTP exchange on the growing microtubule end, so our findings provide a new way of thinking about the molecular events that initiate catastrophe. © 2016 Piedra et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Structural insights into GDP-mediated regulation of a bacterial acyl-CoA thioesterase.

    Khandokar, Yogesh B; Srivastava, Parul; Cowieson, Nathan; Sarker, Subir; Aragao, David; Das, Shubagata; Smith, Kate M; Raidal, Shane R; Forwood, Jade K

    2017-12-15

    Thioesterases catalyze the cleavage of thioester bonds within many activated fatty acids and acyl-CoA substrates. They are expressed ubiquitously in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and are subdivided into 25 thioesterase families according to their catalytic active site, protein oligomerization, and substrate specificity. Although many of these enzyme families are well-characterized in terms of function and substrate specificity, regulation across most thioesterase families is poorly understood. Here, we characterized a TE6 thioesterase from the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis Structural analysis with X-ray crystallographic diffraction data to 2.0-Å revealed that each protein subunit harbors a hot dog-fold and that the TE6 enzyme forms a hexamer with D3 symmetry. An assessment of thioesterase activity against a range of acyl-CoA substrates revealed the greatest activity against acetyl-CoA, and structure-guided mutagenesis of putative active site residues identified Asn 24 and Asp 39 as being essential for activity. Our structural analysis revealed that six GDP nucleotides bound the enzyme in close proximity to an intersubunit disulfide bond interactions that covalently link thioesterase domains in a double hot dog dimer. Structure-guided mutagenesis of residues within the GDP-binding pocket identified Arg 93 as playing a key role in the nucleotide interaction and revealed that GDP is required for activity. All mutations were confirmed to be specific and not to have resulted from structural perturbations by X-ray crystallography. This is the first report of a bacterial GDP-regulated thioesterase and of covalent linkage of thioesterase domains through a disulfide bond, revealing structural similarities with ADP regulation in the human ACOT12 thioesterase. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Meta-Analysis of the Oil Price Elasticity of the GDP for Policy Analysis: Documentation

    Leiby, Paul Newsome [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, David Charles [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Megan M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Given the important role of oil in economic activities, policy makers are interested in estimates of the potential damage to the economy from oil price shocks, particularly during periods of rapid and large increases that accompany severe shocks. Such estimates are needed to quantify the economic costs of oil price shocks, and to evaluate the potential benefits of alternative policy responses. Although research on the economic impacts of oil price shocks is extensive and has generally found that large increases in oil prices exert negative economic impacts, the range of estimates, summarized by the oil price elasticity of the GDP or other aggregate measure of economic activity, is very wide. There are also conditions under which the relationship between the oil price and the economy could be positive. The range of estimates of the oil price elasticity of the GDP for the United States is typified by averages from the studies of Hamilton (2005, 2012) and Kilian and Vigfusson (2014), in which the implied elasticities were -0.014 to - 0.069 and +0.004 to -0.052, respectively. We employ a meta-regression approach to systematically summarize available estimates of the oil price elasticity of the GDP for oil importing economies, and examine the role of key factors. The resulting regression model was used to estimate the oil price elasticity of the GDP for the United States. Based on this we estimate the mean elasticity for the United States at -0.0238, with a 68% confidence interval of -0.0075 to -0.0402, four quarters after a shock.

  13. Collision-induced dissociation of diatomic ions

    Los, J.; Govers, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt is made to illustrate how mass spectrometric studies of dissociation in diatomic molecular ions can provide information on the dynamics of these collisions and on the predissociative states involved. Restriction is made to primary beam energies of the order of at least keV. The review covers the dynamics of dissociation, experimental techniques, direct dissociation in heavy-particle collisions, and translational spectroscopy. 120 references

  14. Mirror Writing and a Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Le, Catherine; Smith, Joyce; Cohen, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam—mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror...

  15. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity

    Minako Ogino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The large (L protein of rabies virus (RABV plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5′-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5′-triphosphorylated but not 5′-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5′-AACA(C/U, with GDP to generate the 5′-terminal cap structure G(5′ppp(5′A. The 5′-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286 in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents.

  16. Health insurance or subsidy has universal advantage for management of hospital malnutrition unrelated to GDP.

    Klek, Stanislaw; Chourdakis, Michael; Abosaleh, Dima Abdulqudos; Amestoy, Alejandra; Baik, Hyun Wook; Baptista, Gertrudis; Barazzoni, Rocco; Fukushima, Ryoji; Hartono, Josef; Jayawardena, Ranil; Garcia, Rafael Jimenez; Krznaric, Zeljko; Nyulasi, Ibolya; Parallada, Gabriela; Francisco, Eliza Mei Perez; Panisic-Sekeljic, Marina; Perman, Mario; Prins, Arina; Del Rio Requejo, Isabel Martinez; Reddy, Ravinder; Singer, Pierre; Sioson, Marianna; Ukleja, Andrew; Vartanian, Carla; Fuentes, Nicolas Velasco; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky; Zoungrana, Steve Leonce; Galas, Aleksander

    2017-03-01

    Protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition are global public health problems which, when not prevented and severe, require medical management by clinicians with nutrition expertise, preferably as a collectively skilled team, especially when disease-related. This study aimed to investigate barriers and facilitators of clinical nutrition services (CNS), especially the use of oral, enteral (EN) and parenteral (PN) nutrition in institutional and home settings. An international survey was performed between January and December 2014 in twenty-six countries from all continents. Electronic questionnaires were distributed to 28 representatives of clinical nutrition (PEN) societies, 27 of whom responded. The questionnaire comprised questions regarding a country's economy, reimbursement for CNS, education about and the use of EN and PN. The prevalence of malnutrition was not related to gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita (p=0.186). EN and PN were used in all countries surveyed (100%), but to different extents. Reimbursement of neither EN nor PN use depended on GDP, but was associated with increased use of EN and PN in hospitals (p=0.035), although not evident for home or chronic care facilities. The size of GDP did not affect the use of EN (p=0.256), but it mattered for PN (p=0.019). A worldwide survey by nutrition support societies did not find a link between national economic performance and the implementation of medical nutrition services. Reimbursement for CNS, available through health insurance systems, is a factor in effective nutrition management.

  17. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity.

    Ogino, Minako; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-05-21

    The large (L) protein of rabies virus (RABV) plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5'-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5'-triphosphorylated but not 5'-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5'-AACA(C/U), with GDP to generate the 5'-terminal cap structure G(5')ppp(5')A. The 5'-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286) in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents.

  18. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence From OPEC Data, 1995-2012.

    Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Ghaderi, Hossein; Salehi, Masoud; Fazaeli, Ali Reza

    2015-06-11

    There is a large body of literature examining income in relation to health expenditures. The share of expenditures in health sector from GDP in developed countries is often larger than in non-developed countries, suggesting that as the level of economic growth increases, health spending increase, too. This paper estimates long-run relationships between health expenditures and GDP based on panel data of a sample of 12 countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), using data for the period 1995-2012. We use panel data unit root tests, cointegration analysis and ECM model to find long-run and short-run relation. This study examines whether health is a luxury or a necessity for OPEC countries within a unit root and cointegration framework. Panel data analysis indicates that health expenditures and GDP are co-integrated and have Engle and Granger causality. In addition, in oil countries that have oil export income, the share of government expenditures in the health sector is often greater than in private health expenditures similar developed countries. The findings verify that health care is not a luxury good and income has a robust relationship to health expenditures in OPEC countries.

  19. A Model for Urban Environment and Resource Planning Based on Green GDP Accounting System

    Linyu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment and resources are currently on course that is unsustainable in the long run due to excessive human pursuit of economic goals. Thus, it is very important to develop a model to analyse the relationship between urban economic development and environmental resource protection during the process of rapid urbanisation. This paper proposed a model to identify the key factors in urban environment and resource regulation based on a green GDP accounting system, which consisted of four parts: economy, society, resource, and environment. In this model, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method and a modified Pearl curve model were combined to allow for dynamic evaluation, with higher green GDP value as the planning target. The model was applied to the environmental and resource planning problem of Wuyishan City, and the results showed that energy use was a key factor that influenced the urban environment and resource development. Biodiversity and air quality were the most sensitive factors that influenced the value of green GDP in the city. According to the analysis, the urban environment and resource planning could be improved for promoting sustainable development in Wuyishan City.

  20. Mirror Writing and a Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Catherine Le

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam—mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror writing had a deeper level of meaning; however, it does emphasize the idiosyncratic nature of dissociative identity disorder.

  1. Mirror writing and a dissociative identity disorder.

    Le, Catherine; Smith, Joyce; Cohen, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam-mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror writing had a deeper level of meaning; however, it does emphasize the idiosyncratic nature of dissociative identity disorder.

  2. The Production and Utilization of GDP-glucose in the Biosynthesis of Trehalose 6-Phosphate by Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Asención Diez, Matías D; Miah, Farzana; Stevenson, Clare E M; Lawson, David M; Iglesias, Alberto A; Bornemann, Stephen

    2017-01-20

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilize ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudoglycosyltransferase enzyme. Comparison of the donor binding sites reveals that the amino acids associated with the binding of diphosphoribose are almost all identical in these three enzymes. By contrast, the amino acids associated with binding guanine in VldE (Asn, Thr, and Val) are similar in S. venezuelae OtsA (Asp, Ser, and Phe, respectively) but not conserved in E. coli OtsA (His, Leu, and Asp, respectively), providing a rationale for the purine base specificity of S. venezuelae OtsA. To establish which donor is used in vivo, we generated an otsA null mutant in S. venezuelae The mutant had a cell density-dependent growth phenotype and accumulated galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and GDP-glucose when grown on galactose. To determine how the GDP-glucose is generated, we characterized three candidate GDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. SVEN_3027 is a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, SVEN_3972 is an unusual ITP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, and SVEN_2781 is a pyrophosphorylase that is capable of generating GDP-glucose as well as GDP-mannose. We have therefore established how S. venezuelae can make and utilize GDP-glucose in the biosynthesis of trehalose 6-phosphate. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The Production and Utilization of GDP-glucose in the Biosynthesis of Trehalose 6-Phosphate by Streptomyces venezuelae*

    Asención Diez, Matías D.; Miah, Farzana; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Lawson, David M.; Iglesias, Alberto A.; Bornemann, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilize ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli. However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudoglycosyltransferase enzyme. Comparison of the donor binding sites reveals that the amino acids associated with the binding of diphosphoribose are almost all identical in these three enzymes. By contrast, the amino acids associated with binding guanine in VldE (Asn, Thr, and Val) are similar in S. venezuelae OtsA (Asp, Ser, and Phe, respectively) but not conserved in E. coli OtsA (His, Leu, and Asp, respectively), providing a rationale for the purine base specificity of S. venezuelae OtsA. To establish which donor is used in vivo, we generated an otsA null mutant in S. venezuelae. The mutant had a cell density-dependent growth phenotype and accumulated galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and GDP-glucose when grown on galactose. To determine how the GDP-glucose is generated, we characterized three candidate GDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. SVEN_3027 is a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, SVEN_3972 is an unusual ITP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, and SVEN_2781 is a pyrophosphorylase that is capable of generating GDP-glucose as well as GDP-mannose. We have therefore established how S. venezuelae can make and utilize GDP-glucose in the biosynthesis of trehalose 6-phosphate. PMID:27903647

  4. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yesılyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fatıh

    2012-10-01

    The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissociative identity disorder: Medicolegal challenges.

    Farrell, Helen M

    2011-01-01

    Persons with dissociative identity disorder (DID) often present in the criminal justice system rather than the mental health system and perplex experts in both professions. DID is a controversial diagnosis with important medicolegal implications. Defendants have claimed that they committed serious crimes, including rape or murder, while they were in a dissociated state. Asserting that their alter personality committed the bad act, defendants have pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). In such instances, forensic experts are asked to assess the defendant for DID and provide testimony in court. Debate continues over whether DID truly exists, whether expert testimony should be allowed into evidence, and whether it should exculpate defendants for their criminal acts. This article reviews historical and theoretical perspectives on DID, presents cases that illustrate the legal implications and controversies of raising an insanity defense based on multiple personalities, and examines the role of forensic experts asked to comment on DID with the goal of assisting clinicians in the medicolegal assessment of DID in relation to crimes.

  6. From dissociation to trauma? Individual differences in dissociation as predictor of 'trauma' perception

    Rassin, Eric; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2006-01-01

    In clinical literature, dissociative complaints are generally considered to be the result of traumatic experiences. However, it has been argued that dissociative complaints, in turn, may indulge over-reporting of traumatic experiences. Hence, correlations between dissociation and self-reported

  7. Dissociation in patients with dissociative seizures: relationships with trauma and seizure symptoms.

    Pick, S; Mellers, J D C; Goldstein, L H

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to extend the current understanding of dissociative symptoms experienced by patients with dissociative (psychogenic, non-epileptic) seizures (DS), including psychological and somatoform types of symptomatology. An additional aim was to assess possible relationships between dissociation, traumatic experiences, post-traumatic symptoms and seizure manifestations in this group. A total of 40 patients with DS were compared with a healthy control group (n = 43), matched on relevant demographic characteristics. Participants completed several self-report questionnaires, including the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory (MDI), Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20, Traumatic Experiences Checklist and the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale. Measures of seizure symptoms and current emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were also administered. The clinical group reported significantly more psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, trauma, perceived impact of trauma, and post-traumatic symptoms than controls. Some dissociative symptoms (i.e. MDI disengagement, MDI depersonalization, MDI derealization, MDI memory disturbance, and somatoform dissociation scores) were elevated even after controlling for emotional distress; MDI depersonalization scores correlated positively with trauma scores while seizure symptoms correlated with MDI depersonalization, derealization and identity dissociation scores. Exploratory analyses indicated that somatoform dissociation specifically mediated the relationship between reported sexual abuse and DS diagnosis, along with depressive symptoms. A range of psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, traumatic experiences and post-traumatic symptoms are elevated in patients with DS relative to healthy controls, and seem related to seizure manifestations. Further studies are needed to explore peri-ictal dissociative experiences in more detail.

  8. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  9. Inflight dissociation of zircon in air plasma

    Yugeswaran, S; Selvarajan, V [Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ananthapadmanabhan, P V; Thiyagarajan, T K [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400 085 (India); Nair, Janardhanan [Ion Arc Technologies Pvt Ltd, Coimbatore (India)

    2010-02-01

    Thermal dissociation of zircon can be conveniently carried out in a plasma reactor, which is characterized by high temperature, high energy density and high quench rate. Zirconia is recovered from this partially dissociated zircon by alkali leaching. Dissociation of zircon has been conventionally carried out in argon gas, which is expensive. The present paper reports experimental results on thermal dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium. Process simulation for 'inflight' dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium is also presented. The experimental system consists of a central hollow graphite electrode, which acts as the cathode and a graphite anode. The material to be processed is fed centrally through the cathode. The unique feature of the system is that it uses air as the working gas to generate the thermal plasma. The system has been used to study in-flight dissociation of zircon in the thermal plasma jet. Dissociation was carried out over 10-25 kW power range. Results of the study indicate that complete dissociation of zircon to ZrO{sub 2} and silica could be accomplished at 25 kW in air plasma.

  10. Inflight dissociation of zircon in air plasma

    Yugeswaran, S; Selvarajan, V; Ananthapadmanabhan, P V; Thiyagarajan, T K; Nair, Janardhanan

    2010-01-01

    Thermal dissociation of zircon can be conveniently carried out in a plasma reactor, which is characterized by high temperature, high energy density and high quench rate. Zirconia is recovered from this partially dissociated zircon by alkali leaching. Dissociation of zircon has been conventionally carried out in argon gas, which is expensive. The present paper reports experimental results on thermal dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium. Process simulation for 'inflight' dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium is also presented. The experimental system consists of a central hollow graphite electrode, which acts as the cathode and a graphite anode. The material to be processed is fed centrally through the cathode. The unique feature of the system is that it uses air as the working gas to generate the thermal plasma. The system has been used to study in-flight dissociation of zircon in the thermal plasma jet. Dissociation was carried out over 10-25 kW power range. Results of the study indicate that complete dissociation of zircon to ZrO 2 and silica could be accomplished at 25 kW in air plasma.

  11. Coulomb dissociation of N-20,N-21

    Roeder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Goebel, Kathrin; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Rigollet, Catherine; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Van de Walle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N-20,N-21 are reported. Relativistic N-20,N-21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a

  12. Dissociative depression among women in the community.

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Oztürk, Erdinç; Alioğlu, Firdevs

    2013-01-01

    This study screened the prevalence and correlates of dissociative disorders among depressive women in the general population. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The prevalence of current major depressive episode was 10.0%. Of the women, 26 (40.6%) had the lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV, dissociative disorder, yielding a prevalence of 4.1% for dissociative depression. This group was younger (mean age = 30.7 years) than the nondissociative depression women (mean age = 39.6 years). There was no difference between the 2 groups on comorbid somatization disorder, PTSD, or borderline personality disorder. Besides suicide attempts, the dissociative group was characterized by secondary features of dissociative identity disorder; Schneiderian symptoms; borderline personality disorder criteria; and extrasensory perceptions, including possession experiences. They reported suicidality, thoughts of guilt and worthlessness, diminished concentration and indecisiveness, and appetite and weight changes more frequently than the nondissociative group. Early cessation of school education and childhood sexual abuse were frequently reported by the dissociative depression group. With its distinct features, the concept of dissociative depression may facilitate understanding of treatment resistance in, development of better psychotherapy strategies for, and new thinking on the neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders.

  13. The relationship between pollutant emissions, renewable energy, nuclear energy and GDP: empirical evidence from 18 developed and developing countries

    Ben Mbarek, Mounir; Saidi, Kais; Amamri, Mounira

    2018-07-01

    This document investigates the causal relationship between nuclear energy (NE), pollutant emissions (CO2 emissions), gross domestic product (GDP) and renewable energy (RE) using dynamic panel data models for a global panel consisting of 18 countries (developed and developing) covering the 1990-2013 period. Our results indicate that there is a co-integration between variables. The unit root test suggests that all the variables are stationary in first differences. The paper further examines the link using the Granger causality analysis of vector error correction model, which indicates a unidirectional relationship running from GDP per capita to pollutant emissions for the developed and developing countries. However, there is a unidirectional causality from GDP per capita to RE in the short and long run. This finding confirms the conservation hypothesis. Similarly, there is no causality between NE and GDP per capita.

  14. Dissociation of ethane by electron impact

    Winters, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    The absolute total dissociation cross section for ethane is reported for electron energies between 10 and 600 eV. A maximum value of 7.6 X 10 -16 cm 2 occurs at 80 eV while the apparent threshold is approximately 10 eV. Dissociative ionization is more probable than dissociation into neutral fragments at all energies except in the threshold region. The data indicates that fragmentation involving methane elimination (e - +C 2 H 6 → CH 4 + CH 2 ) occurs in less than 2% of the dissociative events for 50 < E < 600 eV. Arguments are presented which suggest that some of the lower excited states of ethane are stable against dissociation. (Auth.)

  15. 5'-Phospho-RNA Acceptor Specificity of GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in mRNA Capping.

    Ogino, Minako; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2017-03-15

    The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5'-phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5'-triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5'-cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0.03 and 0.4 μM, respectively. A competition assay between GDP and GDP analogues in the GpppA formation and pRNA transfer assay using GDP analogues as pRNA acceptors indicated that the PRNTase domain recognizes the C-2-amino group, but not the C-6-oxo group, N-1-hydrogen, or N-7-nitrogen, of GDP for the cap formation. 2,6-Diaminopurine-riboside (DAP), 7-deazaguanosine (7-deaza-G), and 7-methylguanosine (m 7 G) diphosphates efficiently accepted pRNA, resulting in the formation of DAPpppA, 7-deaza-GpppA, and m 7 GpppA (cap 0), respectively. Furthermore, either the 2'- or 3'-hydroxyl group of GDP was found to be required for efficient pRNA transfer. A 5'-diphosphate form of antiviral ribavirin weakly inhibited the GpppA formation but did not act as a pRNA acceptor. These results indicate that the PRNTase domain has a unique guanosine-binding mode different from that of eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. IMPORTANCE mRNAs of nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, such as VSV, possess a fully methylated cap structure, which is required for mRNA stability, efficient translation, and evasion of antiviral innate immunity in host cells. GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) is an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme of NNS RNA viruses that is distinct from the eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. In this study, we studied the pRNA acceptor specificity of VSV PRNTase using various GDP analogues and identified chemical groups of GDP as

  16. 5′-Phospho-RNA Acceptor Specificity of GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in mRNA Capping

    Ogino, Minako

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5′-phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5′-triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5′-cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0.03 and 0.4 μM, respectively. A competition assay between GDP and GDP analogues in the GpppA formation and pRNA transfer assay using GDP analogues as pRNA acceptors indicated that the PRNTase domain recognizes the C-2-amino group, but not the C-6-oxo group, N-1-hydrogen, or N-7-nitrogen, of GDP for the cap formation. 2,6-Diaminopurine-riboside (DAP), 7-deazaguanosine (7-deaza-G), and 7-methylguanosine (m7G) diphosphates efficiently accepted pRNA, resulting in the formation of DAPpppA, 7-deaza-GpppA, and m7GpppA (cap 0), respectively. Furthermore, either the 2′- or 3′-hydroxyl group of GDP was found to be required for efficient pRNA transfer. A 5′-diphosphate form of antiviral ribavirin weakly inhibited the GpppA formation but did not act as a pRNA acceptor. These results indicate that the PRNTase domain has a unique guanosine-binding mode different from that of eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. IMPORTANCE mRNAs of nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, such as VSV, possess a fully methylated cap structure, which is required for mRNA stability, efficient translation, and evasion of antiviral innate immunity in host cells. GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) is an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme of NNS RNA viruses that is distinct from the eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. In this study, we studied the pRNA acceptor specificity of VSV PRNTase using various GDP analogues and identified chemical groups

  17. Ca-C backbone fragmentation dominates in electron detachment dissociation of gas-phase polypeptide polyanions

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Silivra, Oleg A; Ivonin, Igor A

    2005-01-01

    the dissociation of oxidized radical anions [M-nH]((n-1)-*. We demonstrate that C(alpha)-C cleavages, which are otherwise rarely observed in tandem mass spectrometry, can account for most of the backbone fragmentation, with even-electron x fragments dominating over radical a* ions. Ab initio calculations at the B3...... LYP level of theory with the 6-311+G(2 p,2 d)//6-31+G(d,p) basis set suggested a unidirectional mechanism for EDD (cleavage always N-terminal to the radical site), with a*, x formation being favored over a, x* fragmentation by 74.2 kJ mol(-1). Thus, backbone C(alpha)-C bonds N-terminal to proline...

  18. Renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions nexus: a structural VAR approach in Pakistan

    Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir; Muhammad, Zeshan; Muhammad, Shahbaz

    2011-01-01

    Any rise in real GDP crafts higher energy demand in Pakistan. This short-term rising energy requirement is fulfilled with the help of nonrenewable and renewable energy consumption, but nonrenewable energy consumption adds more in it. The rise in nonrenewable energy consumption lifts real GDP up in short-run. Forecast error variance decomposition illustrates nonrenewable energy consumption alone passes 87% variation in the CO2 emissions. This verifies fossil fuels are accountable for environme...

  19. Thermodynamics of the GTP-GDP-operated conformational switch of selenocysteine-specific translation factor SelB.

    Paleskava, Alena; Konevega, Andrey L; Rodnina, Marina V

    2012-08-10

    SelB is a specialized translation factor that binds GTP and GDP and delivers selenocysteyl-tRNA (Sec-tRNA(Sec)) to the ribosome. By analogy to elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), SelB is expected to control the delivery and release of Sec-tRNA(Sec) to the ribosome by the structural switch between GTP- and GDP-bound conformations. However, crystal structures of SelB suggested a similar domain arrangement in the apo form and GDP- and GTP-bound forms of the factor, raising the question of how SelB can fulfill its delivery function. Here, we studied the thermodynamics of guanine nucleotide binding to SelB by isothermal titration calorimetry in the temperature range between 10 and 25 °C using GTP, GDP, and two nonhydrolyzable GTP analogs, guanosine 5'-O-(γ-thio)triphosphate (GTPγS) and guanosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)-triphosphate (GDPNP). The binding of SelB to either guanine nucleotide is characterized by a large heat capacity change (-621, -467, -235, and -275 cal × mol(-1) × K(-1), with GTP, GTPγS, GDPNP, and GDP, respectively), associated with compensatory changes in binding entropy and enthalpy. Changes in heat capacity indicate a large decrease of the solvent-accessible surface area in SelB, amounting to 43 or 32 amino acids buried upon binding of GTP or GTPγS, respectively, and 15-19 amino acids upon binding GDP or GDPNP. The similarity of the GTP and GDP forms in the crystal structures can be attributed to the use of GDPNP, which appears to induce a structure of SelB that is more similar to the GDP than to the GTP-bound form.

  20. The Suitability of Different Nighttime Light Data for GDP Estimation at Different Spatial Scales and Regional Levels

    Zhaoxin Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nighttime light data offer a unique view of the Earth’s surface and can be used to estimate the spatial distribution of gross domestic product (GDP. Historically, using a simple regression function, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS has been used to correlate regional and global GDP values. In early 2013, the first global Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS nighttime light data were released. Compared with DMSP/OLS, they have a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range. This paper aims to study the suitability of the two nighttime light data sources for estimating the GDP relationship between the provincial and city levels in Mainland China, as well as of different regression functions. First, NPP/VIIRS nighttime light data for 2014 are corrected with DMSP/OLS data for 2013 to reduce the background noise in the original data. Subsequently, three regression functions are used to estimate the relationship between nighttime light data and GDP statistical data at the provincial and city levels in Mainland China. Then, through the comparison of the relative residual error (RE and the relative root mean square error (RRMSE parameters, a systematical assessment of the suitability of the GDP estimation is provided. The results show that the NPP/VIIRS nighttime light data are better than the DMSP/OLS data for GDP estimation, whether at the provincial or city level, and that the power function and polynomial models are better for GDP estimation than the linear regression model. This study reveals that the accuracy of GDP estimation based on nighttime light data is affected by the resolution of the data and the spatial scale of the study area, as well as by the land cover types and industrial structures of the study area.

  1. Is the dissociative adult suggestible? A test of the trauma and fantasy models of dissociation.

    Kluemper, Nicole S; Dalenberg, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Psychologists have long assumed a connection between traumatic experience and psychological dissociation. This hypothesis is referred to as the trauma model of dissociation. In the past decade, a series of papers have been published that question this traditional causal link, proposing an alternative fantasy model of dissociation. In the present research, the relationship among dissociation, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness was examined. Suggestibility was measured through the Gudjonsson Scale of Interrogative Suggestibility (GSS) as well as an autobiographically based version of this measure based on the events of September 11, 2001. Consistent with prior research and with the trauma model, dissociation correlated positively with trauma severity (r = .32, p suggestibility measure. Although some participants did become quite emotional during the procedure, the risk/benefit ratio was perceived by almost all participants to be positive, with more reactive individuals evaluating the procedure more positively. The results consistently support the trauma model of dissociation and fail to support the fantasy model of dissociation.

  2. Dissociation and Memory Fragmentation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Evaluation of the Dissociative Encoding Hypothesis

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review, we summarize the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus, initial evidence points more toward a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation. PMID:22348400

  3. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

    Schalinski, Inga; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding. PMID:25976478

  4. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D

    Inga Schalinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010 provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity.A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups from healthy controls.The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding.

  5. One-pot synthesis of GDP-l-fucose by a four-enzyme cascade expressed in Lactococcus lactis.

    Li, Ling; Kim, Seul-Ah; Heo, Ji Eun; Kim, Tae-Jip; Seo, Jin-Ho; Han, Nam Soo

    2017-12-20

    GDP-l-fucose is an l-fucose donor to synthesize fucosylated compounds such as human milk oligosaccharides or Lewis antigen. In this study, we used Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000 to express 4 enzymes, ManB, ManC, Gmd, and WcaG and produced GDP-l-fucose by using one-pot synthesis method with mannose-6-phosphate as substrate and the enzymes as biocatalyst. For preparation of enzyme mixture, 4 genes (manB, manC, gmd, and wcaG) cloned from Escherichia coli were transformed into L. lactis strains using pNZ8008 and the recombinant cell lysates were obtained after cultivation. When mannose-6-phosphate was used as the substrate, the consecutive reactions with ManB, ManC, Gmd, and WcaG resulted in the successful production of GDP-l-fucose (0.13mM). When GDP-d-mannose was used as the substrate, it was entirely converted to GDP-l-fucose (0.2mM; 0.12g/L) via 2 enzymatic reactions mediated by Gmd and WcaG. This is the first report of GDP-l-fucose production by using multiple enzymes expressed in lactic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of GDP-mannose dehydrogenase from the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus providing the precursor for the alginate polymer.

    Tenhaken, Raimund; Voglas, Elena; Cock, J Mark; Neu, Volker; Huber, Christian G

    2011-05-13

    Alginate is a major cell wall polymer of brown algae. The precursor for the polymer is GDP-mannuronic acid, which is believed to be derived from a four-electron oxidation of GDP-mannose through the enzyme GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (GMD). So far no eukaryotic GMD has been biochemically characterized. We have identified a candidate gene in the Ectocarpus siliculosus genome and expressed it as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. The GMD from Ectocarpus differs strongly from related enzymes in bacteria and is as distant to the bacterial proteins as it is to the group of UDP-glucose dehydrogenases. It lacks the C-terminal ∼120 amino acid domain present in bacterial GMDs, which is believed to be involved in catalysis. The GMD from brown algae is highly active at alkaline pH and contains a catalytic Cys residue, sensitive to heavy metals. The product GDP-mannuronic acid was analyzed by HPLC and mass spectroscopy. The K(m) for GDP-mannose was 95 μM, and 86 μM for NAD(+). No substrate other than GDP-mannose was oxidized by the enzyme. In gel filtration experiments the enzyme behaved as a dimer. The Ectocarpus GMD is stimulated by salts even at low molar concentrations as a possible adaptation to marine life. It is rapidly inactivated at temperatures above 30 °C.

  7. Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Gentile, Julie P.; Dillon, Kristy S.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called “dissociative disorders,” including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma rep...

  8. The rates measurement of methane hydrate formation and dissociation using micro-drilling system application for gas hydrate exploration

    Bin Dou [Engineering Faculty, China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China)]|[Inst. of Petroleum Engineering, Technology Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Reinicke, K.M. [Inst. of Petroleum Engineering, Technology Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Guosheng Jiang; Xiang Wu; Fulong Ning [Engineering Faculty, China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China)

    2006-07-01

    When drilling through gas hydrate bearing formations, the energy supplied by virtue of the drilling process may lead to a destabilization of the hydrates surrounding the wellbore. Therefore, as the number of oil and gas fields being development in deepwater and onshore arctic environments increases, greater emphasis should be placed on quantifying the risks, gas hydrates pose to drilling operations. The qualification of these risks requires a comprehensive understanding of gas hydrate-formation and dissociation as a result of drilling induced processes. To develop the required understanding of gas hydrat formation and dissociation, the authors conducted laboratory experiments by using a micro-drilling system, to study the dissociation rates of methane hydrates contained in a tank reactor. The test facility used is a development of China University of Geosciences. The rates of methane hydrate formation and dissociation in the tank reactor were measured at steady-state conditions at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 25 MPa and temperatures ranging from -5 to 20 C. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by the fluid system used to form the hydrates, pressure and temperature, with the influence of the temperature on methane hydrate dissociation being stronger than that of the pressure. Drilling speed, drilling fluids and hydrate dissociation inhibitors were also shown to influence hydrate dissociation rate. The derived results have been used to predict hydrate drilling stability for several drilling fluid systems.

  9. Evidence of A Bimodal US GDP Growth Rate Distribution: A Wavelet Approach

    Sandro Claudio Lera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative characterisation of the fluctuations of the annualized growth rate of the real US GDP per capita at many scales, using a wavelet transform analysis of two data sets, quarterly data from 1947 to 2015 and annual data from 1800 to 2010. The chosen mother wavelet (first derivative of the Gaussian function applied to the logarithm of the real US GDP per capita provides a robust estimation of the instantaneous growth rate at different scales. Our main finding is that business cycles appear at all scales and the distribution of GDP growth rates can be well approximated by a bimodal function associated to a series of switches between regimes of strong growth rate $\\rho_\\text{high}$ and regimes of low growth rate $\\rho_\\text{low}$. The succession of such two regimes compounds to produce a remarkably stable long term average real annualized growth rate of 1.6% from 1800 to 2010 and $\\approx 2.0\\%$ since 1950, which is the result of a subtle compensation between the high and low growth regimes that alternate continuously. Thus, the overall growth dynamics of the US economy is punctuated, with phases of strong growth that are intrinsically unsustainable, followed by corrections or consolidation until the next boom starts. We interpret these findings within the theory of "social bubbles" and argue as a consequence that estimations of the cost of the 2008 crisis may be misleading. We also interpret the absence of strong recovery since 2008 as a protracted low growth regime $\\rho_\\text{low}$ associated with the exceptional nature of the preceding large growth regime.

  10. The Effects of Oil Price Shocks on real GDP in Iran

    Mohammad Taghi Khosravi Larijani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks on GDP have been investigated by co-integration analysis in Iran economy during the period 1960-2010. We used Hodrick-Prescott filtering to separate positive shocks from negative shocks. The results showed that in long run the negative shocks have stronger effects on output than positive ones that can have damaging repercussions on economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts

  11. The relationship between electricity consumption, electricity prices and GDP in Pakistan

    Jamil, Faisal; Ahmad, Eatzaz

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship among electricity consumption, its price and real GDP at the aggregate and sectoral level in Pakistan. Using annual data for the period 1960-2008, the study finds the presence of unidirectional causality from real economic activity to electricity consumption. In particular, growth in output in commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors tend to increase electricity consumption, while in residential sector, growth in private expenditures is the cause of rising electricity consumption. The study concludes that electricity production and management needs to be better integrated with overall economic planning exercises. This is essential to avoid electricity shortfalls and unplanned load shedding.

  12. Discovering the Impact of ICT, FDI and Human Capital on GDP: a Cross-sectional Analysis

    Domenico Campisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact that human capital, information and communication technology (ICT and foreign direct investment (FDI have on GDP. Crosssectional data from a set of 20 OECD and 24 non-OECD countries in 2007 are analysed employing data envelopment analysis (DEA and classification and regression tree (CART techniques. The paper illustrates that the level and quality of access to ICT infrastructures plays an important role in determining a country’s level of technical efficiency. The paper also indicates the presence of a catch-up process, led by technological innovation, on the part of emerging countries.

  13. The crystal structure of elongation factor G complexed with GDP, at 2.7 A resolution.

    Czworkowski, J; Wang, J; Steitz, T A; Moore, P B

    1994-01-01

    Elongation factor G (EF-G) catalyzes the translocation step of protein synthesis in bacteria, and like the other bacterial elongation factor, EF-Tu--whose structure is already known--it is a member of the GTPase superfamily. We have determined the crystal structure of EF-G--GDP from Thermus thermophilus. It is an elongated molecule whose large, N-terminal domain resembles the G domain of EF-Tu, except for a 90 residue insert, which covers a surface that is involved in nucleotide exchange in E...

  14. Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in Dissociative Identity Disorder : A Controlled fMRI Perfusion Study

    Schlumpf, Yolanda R.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Luechinger, Roger; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Jaencke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP), studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the "Emotional Part'' (EP) and the "Apparently Normal Part'' (ANP), have

  15. From state dissociation to status dissociatus.

    Antelmi, Elena; Ferri, Raffaele; Iranzo, Alex; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves; Bhatia, Kailash P; Liguori, Rocco; Schenck, Carlos H; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    The states of being are conventionally defined by the simultaneous occurrence of behavioral, neurophysiological and autonomic descriptors. State dissociation disorders are due to the intrusion of features typical of a different state into an ongoing state. Disorders related to these conditions are classified according to the ongoing main state and comprise: 1) Dissociation from prevailing wakefulness as seen in hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, automatic behaviors, sleep drunkenness, cataplexy and sleep paralysis 2) Dissociation from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as seen in REM sleep behavior disorder and lucid dreaming and 3) Dissociation from NREM sleep as seen in the disorders of arousal. The extreme expression of states dissociation is characterized by the asynchronous occurrence of the various components of the different states that prevents the recognition of any state of being. This condition has been named status dissociatus. According to the underlying disorders/diseases and to their severity, among status dissociatus we may recognize disorders in which such an extreme dissociation occurs only at night time or intermittently (i.e., autoimmune encephalopathies, narcolepsy type 1 and IgLON5 parasomnia), and others in which it occurs nearly continuously with complete loss of any conventionally defined state of being, and of the circadian pattern (agrypnia excitata). Here, we render a comprehensive review of all diseases/disorders associated with state dissociation and status dissociatus and propose a critical classification of this complex scenario. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dissociation in Psychiatric Disorders: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using the Dissociative Experiences Scale.

    Lyssenko, Lisa; Schmahl, Christian; Bockhacker, Laura; Vonderlin, Ruben; Bohus, Martin; Kleindienst, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    Dissociation is a complex, ubiquitous construct in psychopathology. Symptoms of dissociation are present in a variety of mental disorders and have been connected to higher burden of illness and poorer treatment response, and not only in disorders with high levels of dissociation. This meta-analysis offers a systematic and evidence-based study of the prevalence and distribution of dissociation, as assessed by the Dissociative Experiences Scale, within different categories of mental disorders, and it updates an earlier meta-analysis. More than 1,900 original publications were screened, and 216 were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 15,219 individuals in 19 diagnostic categories. The largest mean dissociation scores were found in dissociative disorders (mean scores >35), followed by posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and conversion disorder (mean scores >25). Somatic symptom disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders, feeding and eating disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, OCD, and most affective disorders also showed mean dissociation scores >15. Bipolar disorders yielded the lowest dissociation scores (mean score, 14.8). The findings underline the importance of careful psychopathological assessment of dissociative symptoms in the entire range of mental disorders.

  17. Energy distribution in dissociations of polyatomic molecules

    Koernig, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis studies are reported of fragmentation processes in polyatomic molecules. In order to find out which dessocaciation reactions take place, how they are brought about by the internal energy of the reactant, and to investigate the structure of the dissociating 'transition state', the fragment mass and the corresponding kinetic energy release (KER) are determined by differential translational spectroscopy using a position and time sensitive two-particle coincidence detector. The results are interpreted using the statistical theory of unimolecular dissociation. It turns out that the standard assumptions of the theory, especially in calculating KER-distributions, are not realistic in all molecules considered. Dissociation is induced by the neutralization with alkali metal vapour. In ch. 2 the experimental method and the analysis of the data (dissociation pathways, branching ratios and ε-d-distributions) are introduced and exemplified by measurements of cyclohexane, which represents the upper limit in precursor and fragment mass accessible in the apparatus. In ch. 3 a study is reported of the molecules methylchloride (CH 3 Cl) and the acetylradical (CH 3 CO). In spite of their similar geometric structures, completely different dissociation mechanisms have been found. Methylchloride dissociates via a repulsive state; acetyl radicals show energy scrambling. The energy distribution from dissociating acetyl exemplifies dynamical effects in the dissociation. In ch. 4 an investigation of a number of prototype hydrocarbons is presented. The dissociation pathways of several small linear alkanes indicate that neutralization takes place to unknown repulsive potentials, of which the position and steepness are determined from the kinetic energy release. (author). 118 refs.; 40 figs.; 5 tabs

  18. Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.

    Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2009-03-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment.

  19. Dissociative recombination of molecular ions H2+

    Abarenov, A.V.; Marchenko, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    The total cross sections of dissociation and dissociative recombination of slow electrons and molecular ions H 2 + have been calculated in terms of the quasiclassical and dipole approximations. In the calculations allowance was made for the quantum nature of vibrational motion of heavy particles and presence of autoionization of divergence states of the H 2 (Σ u , nl) molecules. It is shown that the H 2 + ion dissociation cross sections are dominant in increase of the electron energy in the ε >or approx. 2-3 eV region for H 2 + (v) ion distribution over the vibrational levels characteristic for the beam experiments. 15 refs.; 5 figs

  20. Wavepacket theory of collisional dissociation in molecules

    Kulander, K.

    1980-01-01

    An explicit integration scheme is used to solve the time dependent Schroedinger equation for wavepackets which model collisions in the collinear H + H 2 system. A realistic LEPS-type potential energy surface is used. Collision energies considered are above the dissociation threshold and probabilities for collision induced dissociation are reported. Also quantum mechanical state-to-state transition probabilities are generated. These results are compared to extensive classical trajectory calculations performed on this same system. The time evolution of the wavepacket densities is studied to understand the dynamics of the collinear collisional dissociation process

  1. Is It What You Measure That Really Matters? The Struggle to Move beyond GDP in Canada

    Anders Hayden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In light of Gross Domestic Product’s (GDP well-known limitations as a wellbeing indicator, many alternative measures have been developed around the world. Some advocates of “beyond GDP” measures argue that they are key to shifting societal priorities away from economic growth toward sustainability, equity, and well-being. Is there any evidence to date that alternative indicators have lived up to their supporters’ expectations, whether the hope is for a radical transformation of social priorities away from GDP growth or a reformist vision of better policymaking without challenging the growth paradigm? What are the obstacles to fulfilling those expectations? This article examines the Canadian experience, drawing on interviews with researchers, non-governmental organization (NGO leaders, public-sector officials, and politicians, along with analysis of relevant documents. The hopes of Canadian proponents of new wellbeing measures have been largely disappointed to date, as no impact on federal or provincial policy is evident. Obstacles facing both a transformative and more limited reformist vision are examined. The Canadian case also suggests that use of new socio-economic indicators is best seen as one product of political efforts to bring ecological and social values into decision-making, rather than as the transformative force that will cause a change in societal priorities.

  2. Vehicle Ownership Analysis Based on GDP per Capita in China: 1963–2050

    Tian Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Gompertz function of per capita GDP and vehicle stock to forecast the vehicle ownership of China through to 2050 against a background of increasing energy use and CO2 emissions associated with the potential demands of on-road vehicles. We forecast the level of vehicle stock in China based on the extant patterns of vehicle development in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD countries, Europe, the United States and Japan. The results show that the OECD pattern and European pattern are more suitable for describing China’s vehicle stock growth when compared with Japanese and U.S. patterns. The study finds that China’s vehicle stock has developed as an S-shaped curve. During the forecast period, the inflection point of the increasing curve appears around the year 2030, with the annual growth of vehicle ownership increasing from 6.13% to 9.50% in the prior period prior and subsequently dropping to 0.45% in 2050. Based on the sensitivity analysis and robustness check, the impact of different Gompertz curve parameters and GDP growth rates on vehicle stock projection are analyzed.

  3. The Impact of the Airline Freight Transportation on GDP in Turkey

    Okşan Kibritçi Artar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand of passenger and freight transportation has been increasing tremendously each day due to the globalization process. Therefore, the acceleration in the transportation demand has a natural impact on the distances that the freights have been carried through in overall. In this prospect, international logistics provides an economic utility from the sustainability viewpoint in the global competition arena. World-wide supply and distribution channels have become so sophisticated, resulting in having vitality in the field therefore boosting its share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP. High impact of liberalization in the air transportation markets has been affecting the market of Turkey as well as USA and EU. Moreover, it is one of the industries that have survived from the global financial crises which is also critical from the competition based strategies. In this study, the relation between the GDP and the air freight traffic of Turkey has been analyzed by using an econometric model. As a result, it has been found that there is a statistically significant relationship between those parameters.

  4. Expression and crystallographic studies of the Arabidopsis thaliana GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase VTC1.

    Zhao, Shun; Liu, Lin

    2016-10-01

    GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the production of GDP-D-mannose, an intermediate product in the plant ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathway. This enzyme is a key regulatory target in AsA biosynthesis and is encoded by VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE 1 (VTC1) in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Here, recombinant VTC1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were obtained from VTC1 crystals grown in the absence and presence of substrate using X-rays. The ligand-free VTC1 crystal diffracted X-rays to 3.3 Å resolution and belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 183.6, c = 368.5 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°; the crystal of VTC1 in the presence of substrate diffracted X-rays to 1.75 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 70.8, b = 83.9, c = 74.5 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 114.9°.

  5. The Drosophila Neurally Altered Carbohydrate Mutant Has a Defective Golgi GDP-fucose Transporter*

    Geisler, Christoph; Kotu, Varshika; Sharrow, Mary; Rendić, Dubravko; Pöltl, Gerald; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Studying genetic disorders in model organisms can provide insights into heritable human diseases. The Drosophila neurally altered carbohydrate (nac) mutant is deficient for neural expression of the HRP epitope, which consists of N-glycans with core α1,3-linked fucose residues. Here, we show that a conserved serine residue in the Golgi GDP-fucose transporter (GFR) is substituted by leucine in nac1 flies, which abolishes GDP-fucose transport in vivo and in vitro. This loss of function is due to a biochemical defect, not to destabilization or mistargeting of the mutant GFR protein. Mass spectrometry and HPLC analysis showed that nac1 mutants lack not only core α1,3-linked, but also core α1,6-linked fucose residues on their N-glycans. Thus, the nac1 Gfr mutation produces a previously unrecognized general defect in N-glycan core fucosylation. Transgenic expression of a wild-type Gfr gene restored the HRP epitope in neural tissues, directly demonstrating that the Gfr mutation is solely responsible for the neural HRP epitope deficiency in the nac1 mutant. These results validate the Drosophila nac1 mutant as a model for the human congenital disorder of glycosylation, CDG-IIc (also known as LAD-II), which is also the result of a GFR deficiency. PMID:22745127

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND GROSS DOMESTIC INCOME (GDP IN TURKEY

    ÖZGE KORKMAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reach a sustainable economic growth of countries initially depends on the usage of energy resources efficiently. But an unequal  distribution of energy resources in the world increases the dependency on energy in countries which have insufficient energy resources such as Turkey. Therefore, it has a great importance to analyze the share of imported energy resources for economic growth. The correlation between energy consumption and changes in gross domestic product, increases the importance of energy policies while determining  the economical policies of countries. In this study, the causality relationship between energy consumption, energy generation  and GDP in Turkey are examined using annual data for the period 1960-2009. Johansen Cointegration Causality Test and Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM is used for this study. Empirical results for the period under discussion there is a relationship between the variables and error correction mechanism based on long-term Granger causality test. It showed that  bileteral causality  with the energy consumption to GDP.

  7. CO2, GDP and RET: An aggregate economic equilibrium analysis for Turkey

    Kumbaroglu, Guerkan; Karali, Nihan; Arikan, Yildiz

    2008-01-01

    There is a worldwide interest in renewable electricity technologies (RETs) due to growing concerns about global warming and climate change. As an EU candidate country whose energy demand increases exponentially, Turkey inevitably shares this common interest on RET. This study, using an aggregate economic equilibrium model, explores the economic costs of different policy measures to mitigate CO 2 emissions in Turkey. The model combines energy demands, capital requirements and labor inputs at a constant elasticity of substitution under an economy-wide nested production function. Growing energy demand, triggered by economic growth, is met by increased supply and initiates new capacity additions. Investment into RET is encouraged via the incorporation of (a) endogenous technological learning through which the RET cost declines as a function of cumulative capacity, and (b) a willingness to pay (WTP) function which imposes the WTP of consumers as a lower bound on RET installation. The WTP equation is obtained as a function of consumer income categories, based on data gathered from a pilot survey in which the contingent valuation methodology was employed. The impacts of various emission reduction scenarios on GDP growth and RET diffusion are explored. As expected, RET penetration is accelerated under faster technological learning and higher WTP conditions. It is found that stabilizing CO 2 emissions to year 2005 levels causes economic losses amounting to 17% and 23% of GDP in the years 2020 and 2030, respectively

  8. The Impact of E-Commerce and GDP on the Revenue of “One”

    Rezarta Zhaku - Hani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to e-commerce it has never been easier to conduct business throughout the world and it has never been timelier enriching international customers. E-commerce is also an incurable tool for new businesses as it allows them to rapidly broaden their customers, interact with customers in businesses throughout the world, an inexpensive market and advertise the company worldwide. In the other hand the impact of GDP, positive or negative, is a very important one for the revenue of organizations within a country. Given the fact that e-commerce has become a very profitable way to conduct business and GDP is another important factor for organizations, we have decided through this paper to analyze their impact on the revenue of one of the biggest mobile operators in Macedonia called “ONE”. At the end of the research we will be able to show whether investing in e-commerce has been profitable for the Macedonian mobile operator “ONE”.

  9. GDP and environment pressure: The role of energy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Zilio, Mariana; Recalde, Marina

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption for a sample of 21 Latin American and Caribbean countries during the 1970–2007 period. The investigation is made on the bases of the Energy Environmental Kuznets Curve (EEKC) hypothesis, using a panel data analysis. Energy consumption at aggregate level is used as an indicator of human environmental pressure and GDP per capita as an indicator of economic activity. Based in a cointegration approach, our results does not support the existence of a stable long run relationship between the series, rejecting the validity of such hypothesis for the selected sample over the 1970–2007 period. - Highlights: ► We analyze the relationship between energy consumption and per capita GDP. ► The main objective is to study the environmental pressure of energy consumption. ► We use the theoretical framework of EKC hypothesis. ► We found a U-shaped pattern instead of an inverted one. ► Socio-economic and institutional factors of the sample could explain our results.

  10. Dissociative electron attachment to the gas-phase nucleobase hypoxanthine

    Dawley, M. Michele [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Tanzer, Katrin; Denifl, Stephan, E-mail: Stephan.Denifl@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Sylwia.Ptasinska.1@nd.edu [Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck (CMBI), Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Carmichael, Ian [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Ptasińska, Sylwia, E-mail: Stephan.Denifl@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Sylwia.Ptasinska.1@nd.edu [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    We present high-resolution measurements of the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to isolated gas-phase hypoxanthine (C{sub 5}H{sub 4}N{sub 4}O, Hyp), a tRNA purine base. The anion mass spectra and individual ion efficiency curves from Hyp were measured as a function of electron energy below 9 eV. The mass spectra at 1 and 6 eV exhibit the highest anion yields, indicating possible common precursor ions that decay into the detectable anionic fragments. The (Hyp − H) anion (C{sub 5}H{sub 3}N{sub 4}O{sup −}) exhibits a sharp resonant peak at 1 eV, which we tentatively assign to a dipole-bound state of the keto-N1H,N9H tautomer in which dehydrogenation occurs at either the N1 or N9 position based upon our quantum chemical computations (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) and U(MP2-aug-cc-pVDZ+)) and prior studies with adenine. This closed-shell dehydrogenated anion is the dominant fragment formed upon electron attachment, as with other nucleobases. Seven other anions were also observed including (Hyp − NH){sup −}, C{sub 4}H{sub 3}N{sub 4}{sup −}/C{sub 4}HN{sub 3}O{sup −}, C{sub 4}H{sub 2}N{sub 3}{sup −}, C{sub 3}NO{sup −}/HC(HCN)CN{sup −}, OCN{sup −}, CN{sup −}, and O{sup −}. Most of these anions exhibit broad but weak resonances between 4 and 8 eV similar to many analogous anions from adenine. The DEA to Hyp involves significant fragmentation, which is relevant to understanding radiation damage of biomolecules.

  11. Characterization of an fungal l-fucokinase involved in Mortierella alpina GDP-l-fucose salvage pathway.

    Wang, Hongchao; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Haiqin; Yang, Qin; Zhou, Xin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2016-08-01

    GDP-l-fucose functions as a biological donor for fucosyltransferases, which are required for the catalysis of l-fucose to various acceptor molecules including oligosaccharides, glycoproteins and glycolipids. Mortierella alpina is one of the highest lipid-producing fungi and can biosynthesis GDP-l-fucose in the de novo pathway. Analysis of the M. alpina genome suggests that there is a gene encoding l-fucokinase (FUK) for the conversion of fucose to l-fucose-1-phosphate in the GDP-l-fucose salvage pathway, which has never been found in fungi before. This gene was characterized to explore its role in GDP-l-fucose synthesis. The yield of GDP-l-fucose is relatively higher in lipid accumulation phase (0.096 mg per g cell) than that in cell multiplication phase (0.074 mg per g cell) of M. alpina Additionally, the transcript level of FUK is up regulated by nitrogen exhaustion when M. alpina starts to accumulate lipid, highlights the functional significance of FUK in the GDP-l-fucose biosynthesis in M. alpina Gene encoding FUK was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and the resulting protein was purified to homogeneity. The product of FUK reaction was analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters and other properties of FUK were investigated. Comparative analyses between the FUK protein and other homologous proteins were performed. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a comprehensive characterization of FUK in a fungus. Mortierella alpina could be used as an alternative source for the production of GDP-l-fucose. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Syk inhibitors].

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-07-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in the University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is known to be essential for the various physiological functions, especially in hematopoietic lineage cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Recently, novel Syk inhibitors were developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure, and function of Syk, and then describe the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. Furthermore, we will introduce our findings of the adaptor protein 3BP2 (c-Abl SH3 domain-binding protein-2), as a novel target of Syk.

  13. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  14. The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD.

    Armour, Cherie; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Richardson, J Don

    2014-08-01

    A dissociative-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype has been included in the DSM-5. However, it is not yet clear whether certain socio-demographic characteristics or psychological/clinical constructs such as comorbid psychopathology differentiate between severe PTSD and dissociative-PTSD. The current study investigated the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype and explored whether a number of trauma and clinical covariates could differentiate between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The current study utilized a sample of 432 treatment seeking Canadian military veterans. Participants were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and self-report measures of traumatic life events, depression, and anxiety. CAPS severity scores were created reflecting the sum of the frequency and intensity items from each of the 17 PTSD and 3 dissociation items. The CAPS severity scores were used as indicators in a latent profile analysis (LPA) to investigate the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Subsequently, several covariates were added to the model to explore differences between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The LPA identified five classes: one of which constituted a severe PTSD group (30.5 %), and one of which constituted a dissociative-PTSD group (13.7 %). None of the included, demographic, trauma, or clinical covariates were significantly predictive of membership in the dissociative-PTSD group compared to the severe PTSD group. In conclusion, a significant proportion of individuals report high levels of dissociation alongside their PTSD, which constitutes a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Further investigation is needed to identify which factors may increase or decrease the likelihood of membership in a dissociative-PTSD subtype group compared to a severe PTSD only group.

  15. Syk inhibitors.

    Chihara, Kazuyasu; Kimura, Yukihiro; Honjo, Chisato; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-01-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is most highly expressed by haemopoietic cells and known to play crucial roles in the signal transduction through various immunoreceptors of the adaptive immune response. However, recent reports demonstrate that Syk also mediates other biological functions, such as innate immune response, osteoclast maturation, platelet activation and cellular adhesion. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Because of its critical roles on the cellular functions, the development of Syk inhibitors for clinical use has been desired. Although many candidate compounds were produced, none of them had progressed to clinical trials. However, novel Syk inhibitors were finally developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure and function of Syk, and then the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. In addition, we will introduce our research focused on the functions of Syk on Dectin-1-mediated mast cell activation.

  16. Dissociation of NF3 in shock waves

    Breshears, W.D.; Bird, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    The thermal dissociation rate of NF 3 in mixtures of 5% and 10%NF 3 in Ar has been measured behind incident shock waves over the temperature range 1330-2000 K. Dissociation rates were determined from postshock density gradients measured by laser beam deflection. The second order rate coefficient determined for NF 3 -Ar collisions is k/sub d/=2.31 x 10 15 exp(-20500/T) cm 3 mole sec

  17. Dissociation and decay of ultracold sodium molecules

    Mukaiyama, T.; Abo-Shaeer, J.R.; Xu, K.; Chin, J.K.; Ketterle, W.

    2004-01-01

    The dissociation of ultracold molecules was studied by ramping an external magnetic field through a Feshbach resonance. The observed dissociation energies directly yielded the strength of the atom-molecule coupling. They showed nonlinear dependence on the ramp speed. This was explained by a Wigner threshold law which predicts that the decay rate of the molecules above threshold increases with the density of states. In addition, inelastic molecule-molecule and molecule-atom collisions were characterized

  18. Schizophrenia masquerading as Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Jegan Yogaratnam; Rajesh Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms can dominate the clinical picture in many psychiatric conditions and possess a huge challenge to the clinicians in management. We present a case report of a female with a strong family history of schizophrenia who initially presented with features suggestive of dissociative identity disorder, which is itself a rare clinical entity, was later diagnosed to have schizophrenia. Authors would like to emphasise that clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for schizoph...

  19. [Screening for major dissociative disorders with the FDS, the German version of the Dissociative Experience Scale].

    Rodewald, Frauke; Gast, Ursula; Emrich, Hinderk M

    2006-06-01

    The prevalence of major dissociative disorders (dissociative identity disorder, DID and similar forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, DDNOS) in clinical samples is about 5 %. Despite their frequency, major dissociative disorders are often overseen for a long time. Screening-scales have proved to be effective to support clinical diagnosis. The aim of this study was to test, whether the Fragebogen für dissoziative Symptome (FDS), the German version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), differentiates between patients with dissociative disorders, non-dissociative disorders and non-clinical controls. Additionally, an optimal FDS-cutoff for a more detailed differential-diagnostic evaluation of the dissociative symptomatology should be identified. 150 participants with DID (group DID: n = 44), DDNOS (DDNOS: n = 22), posttraumatic disorders (TRAUMA: n = 20), other non-dissociative disorders (non-TRAUMA: n = 34) and non-clinical controls (KG: n = 30) completed the FDS. In the five diagnostic groups, mean values were calculated and compared for the FDS, DES and FDS-20. Via receiver-operating-curves the cutoff-scores, which differentiated best between participants with and without major dissociative disorders, were identified. FDS, DES and FDS-20 differentiate significantly between patients with and without major dissociative disorders. For all scales, there were significant differences between the diagnostic groups, with mean-scores decreasing continuously from the groups DID to DDNOS and TRAUMA. Between the groups non-TRAUMA and KG tendencies were found in the predicted direction. The optimal cutoff-scores to differentiate between participants with and without major dissociative disorders were 13 (FDS/FDS-20) and 15 (DES). Using these cutoff-scores, at least 90 % of the patients with major dissociative disorders could be identified correctly (sensitivity). The specifity of the scales was 0.89 to 0.90. Screening for major dissociative disorders

  20. Biosynthesis of the Common Polysaccharide Antigen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: Characterization and Role of GDP-D-Rhamnose:GlcNAc/GalNAc-Diphosphate-Lipid α1,3-D-Rhamnosyltransferase WbpZ.

    Wang, Shuo; Hao, Youai; Lam, Joseph S; Vlahakis, Jason Z; Szarek, Walter A; Vinnikova, Anna; Veselovsky, Vladimir V; Brockhausen, Inka

    2015-06-15

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces two major cell surface lipopolysaccharides, characterized by distinct O antigens, called common polysaccharide antigen (CPA) and O-specific antigen (OSA). CPA contains a polymer of D-rhamnose (D-Rha) in α1-2 and α1-3 linkages. Three putative glycosyltransferase genes, wbpX, wbpY, and wbpZ, are part of the CPA biosynthesis cluster. To characterize the enzymatic function of the wbpZ gene product, we chemically synthesized the donor substrate GDP-D-Rha and enzymatically synthesized GDP-D-[(3)H]Rha. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we showed that WbpZ transferred one D-Rha residue from GDP-D-Rha in α1-3 linkage to both GlcNAc- and GalNAc-diphosphate-lipid acceptor substrates. WbpZ is also capable of transferring D-mannose (D-Man) to these acceptors. Therefore, WbpZ has a relaxed specificity with respect to both acceptor and donor substrates. The diphosphate group of the acceptor, however, is required for activity. WbpZ does not require divalent metal ion for activity and exhibits an unusually high pH optimum of 9. WbpZ from PAO1 is therefore a GDP-D-Rha:GlcNAc/GalNAc-diphosphate-lipid α1,3-D-rhamnosyltransferase that has significant activity of GDP-D-Man:GlcNAc/GalNAc-diphosphate-lipid α1,3-D-mannosyltransferase. We used site-directed mutagenesis to replace the Asp residues of the two DXD motifs with Ala. Neither of the mutant constructs of wbpZ (D172A or D254A) could be used to rescue CPA biosynthesis in the ΔwbpZ knockout mutant in a complementation assay. This suggested that D172 and D254 are essential for WbpZ function. This work is the first detailed characterization study of a D-Rha-transferase and a critical step in the development of CPA synthesis inhibitors. This is the first characterization of a D-rhamnosyltransferase and shows that it is essential in Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the synthesis of the common polysaccharide antigen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for

  1. Influence of GDP on interaction of transducin with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and rhodopsin from bovine retinal rods

    Rybin, V.O.

    1986-01-01

    In the presence of guanine nucleotides and rhodopsin-containing membranes from bovine retinal rod outer segments transducin stimulates light-sensitive cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 5.5- to 7-fold. The activation constant (K/sub act/) for GTP and Gpp(NH)p is equal to 0.25 μM, while that for GDP and GDPβS is 14 and 110 μM, respectively. GDP free of admixtures of other nucleotides does not activate phosphodiesterase at concentrations up to 1 mM, but is bound to transducin and inhibits the Gpp(NH)p-dependent activation of phosphodiesterase. The nature of the interaction of transducin with depolarized rhodopsin also depends on the type of guanine nucleotide bound: in the presence of GDP rhodopsin-containing membranes bind 70-100% of the transducin, whereas in the presence of Gpp(NH)p only 13% of the protein is bound. The data obtained indicate that GDP and GTP convert transducin to two different functional states: the transducin-GTP complex is bound to phosphodiesterase and activates it, while the transducin-GDP complex is bound primarily to rhodopsin

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth: a multivariate and causality analysis for Ghana, 1971-2013.

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth in Ghana was investigated from 1971 to 2013 by comparing the vector error correction model (VECM) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). Prior to testing for Granger causality based on VECM, the study tested for unit roots, Johansen's multivariate co-integration and performed a variance decomposition analysis using Cholesky's technique. Evidence from the variance decomposition shows that 21 % of future shocks in carbon dioxide emissions are due to fluctuations in energy use, 8 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in GDP, and 6 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in population. There was evidence of bidirectional causality running from energy use to GDP and a unidirectional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to energy use, carbon dioxide emissions to GDP, carbon dioxide emissions to population, and population to energy use. Evidence from the long-run elasticities shows that a 1 % increase in population in Ghana will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.72 %. There was evidence of short-run equilibrium relationship running from energy use to carbon dioxide emissions and GDP to carbon dioxide emissions. As a policy implication, the addition of renewable energy and clean energy technologies into Ghana's energy mix can help mitigate climate change and its impact in the future.

  3. Dissociative Spectrum Disorders in the Primary Care Setting

    Elmore, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Dissociative disorders have a lifetime prevalence of about 10%. Dissociative symptoms may occur in acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization disorder, substance abuse, trance and possession trance, Ganser's syndrome, and dissociative identity disorder, as well as in mood disorders, psychoses, and personality disorders. Dissociative symptoms and disorders are observed frequently among patients attending our rural South Carolina community mental health center. Given the...

  4. Fast kinetics of calcium dissociation from calsequestrin

    MARIANELA BELTRÁN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured the kinetics of calcium dissociation from calsequestrin in solution or forming part of isolated junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes by mixing calsequestrin equilibrated with calcium with calcium-free solutions in a stopped-flow system. In parallel, we measured the kinetics of the intrinsic fluorescence changes that take place following calcium dissociation from calsequestrin. We found that at 25ºC calcium dissociation was 10-fold faster for calsequestrin attached to junctional membranes (k = 109 s-1 than in solution. These results imply that calcium dissociation from calsequestrin in vivo is not rate limiting during excitation-contraction coupling. In addition, we found that the intrinsic fluorescence decrease for calsequestrin in solution or forming part of junctional membranes was significantly slower than the rates of calcium dissociation. The kinetics of intrinsic fluorescence changes had two components for calsequestrin associated to junctional membranes and only one for calsequestrin in solution; the faster component was 8-fold faster (k = 54.1 s-1 than the slower component (k = 6.9 s-1, which had the same k value as for calsequestrin in solution. These combined results suggest that the presence of calsequestrin at high concentrations in a restricted space, such as when bound to the junctional membrane, accelerates calcium dissociation and the resulting structural changes, presumably as a result of cooperative molecular interactions.

  5. A New Neutral-pH Low-GDP Peritoneal Dialysis Fluid

    Himmele, Rainer; Jensen, Lynn; Fenn, Dominik; Ho, Chih-Hu; Sawin, Dixie-Ann; Diaz-Buxo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: Conventional peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) consist of ready-to-use solutions with an acidic pH. Sterilization of these fluids is known to generate high levels of glucose degradation products (GDPs). Although several neutral-pH, low-GDP PD solutions have been developed, none are commercially available in the United States. We analyzed pH and GDPs in Delflex Neutral pH (Fresenius Medical Care North America, Waltham, MA, USA), the first neutral-pH PDF to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. ♦ Methods: We evaluated whether patients (n = 26; age range: 18 - 78 years) could properly mix the Delflex Neutral pH PDF after standardized initial training. We further analyzed the concentrations of 10 different glucose degradation products in Delflex Neutral pH PDF and compared the results with similar analyses in other commercially available biocompatible PDFs. ♦ Results: All pH measurements (n = 288) in the delivered Delflex Neutral pH solution consistently fell within the labeled range of 7.0 ± 0.4. Analysis of mixing errors showed no significant impact on the pH results. Delflex Neutral pH, Balance (Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany), BicaVera (Fresenius Medical Care), and Gambrosol Trio (Gambro Lundia AB, Lund, Sweden) exhibited similar low total GDP concentrations, with maximums in the 4.25% solutions of 88 μmol/L, 74 μmol/L, 74 μmol/L, and 79 μmol/L respectively; the concentration in Physioneal (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA) was considerably higher at 263.26 μmol/L. The total GDP concentration in Extraneal (Baxter Healthcare Corporation) was 63 μmol/L, being thus slightly lower than the concentrations in the 4.25% glucose solutions, but higher than the concentrations in the 1.5% and 2.5% glucose solutions. ♦ Conclusions: The new Delflex Neutral pH PDF consistently delivers neutral pH with minimal GDPs. PMID:22383632

  6. Alcohol-Attributable Fraction in Liver Disease: Does GDP Per Capita Matter?

    Kröner, Paul T; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Dalapathi, Vijay; Shroff, Kavin; Abed, Jean; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF) quantifies alcohol's disease burden. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is influenced by alcohol consumption per capita, duration, gender, ethnicity, and other comorbidities. In this study, we investigated the association between AAF/alcohol-related liver mortality and alcohol consumption per capita, while stratifying to per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). Data obtained from the World Health Organization and World Bank for both genders on AAF on liver disease, per-capita alcohol consumption (L/y), and per-capita GDP (USD/y) were used to conduct a cross-sectional study. Countries were classified as "high-income" and "very low income" if their respective per-capita GDP was greater than $30,000 or less than $1,000. Differences in total alcohol consumption per capita and AAF were calculated using a 2-sample t test. Scatterplots were generated to supplement the Pearson correlation coefficients, and F test was conducted to assess for differences in variance of ALD between high-income and very low income countries. Twenty-six and 27 countries met the criteria for high-income and very low income countries, respectively. Alcohol consumption per capita was higher in high-income countries. AAF and alcohol consumption per capita for both genders in high-income and very low income countries had a positive correlation. The F test yielded an F value of 1.44 with P = .357. No statistically significant correlation was found among alcohol types and AAF. Significantly higher mortality from ALD was found in very low income countries relative to high-income countries. Previous studies had noted a decreased AAF in low-income countries as compared to higher-income countries. However, the non-statistically significant difference between AAF variances of low-income and high-income countries was found by this study. A possible explanation is that both high-income and low-income populations will consume sufficient amount of alcohol, irrespective of its

  7. Kinetics of Huperzine A Dissociation from Acetylcholinesterase via Multiple Unbinding Pathways.

    Rydzewski, Jakub; Jakubowski, Rafal; Nowak, Wieslaw; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2018-05-01

    The dissociation of huperzine A (hupA) from Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) was investigated by 4-microsecond unbiased and biased all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit solvent. We performed our study using memetic sampling (MS) for the determination of reaction pathways (RPs), metadynamics to calculate free energy, and maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) to recover kinetic rates from unbiased MD simulations. Our simulations suggest that the dissociation of hupA occurs mainly via two RPs: a front-door along the axis of the active-site gorge (pwf) and through a new transient side-door (pws), i.e., formed by the Omega-loop (residues 67--94 of TcAChE). Analysis of the inhibitor unbinding along the RPs suggests that pws is opened transiently after hupA and the Omega-loop reach a low free-energy transition state characterized by the orientation of the pyridone group of the inhibitor directed toward the Omega-loop plane. Unlike pws, pwf does not require large structural changes of TcAChE to be accessible. The estimated free energies and rates agree well with available experimental data. The dissociation rates along the unbinding pathways are similar, suggesting that the dissociation of hupA along pws is likely to be relevant. This indicates that perturbations to hupA-TcAChE interactions could potentially induce pathway hopping. In summary, out results characterize the slow-onset inhibition of TcAChE by hupA, which may provide the structural and energetic basis for the rational design of the next-generation slow-onset inhibitors with optimized pharmacokinetic properties for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Why Globally GDP, Trade, Profits, Wages, Employment Decrease and Why Poverty Increases?

    Peter Štrukelj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to propose a scientific explanation ofwhy GDP, trade, profits, wages and employment have been globallydecreasing and why poverty has been globally increasing betweenthe 2nd quarter of 2008 and the 3rd quarter of 2009. I explainthese facts in a scientific manner, that is, by deriving thepresent state of the global economy (crisis from the principles ofthe present global economy (predominately organized in a capitalisticmanner. I therefore prove that the crisis necessarily followsfrom the way the present global economy functions. I arguethat the reason for the crisis is the fundamental contradiction betweenthe purpose of companies (increasing profits and necessaryways in which companies try to increase profits, and that theconsequences of this fundamental contradiction are triggered bya general lack of credits.

  9. Account for sector heterogeneity in China's energy consumption. Sector price indices vs. GDP deflator

    Ma, Chunbo

    2010-01-01

    A common practice in decomposition analyses is to deflate output indicators to purge the impact of inflation by using a general deflator. This practice fails to account for sector heterogeneity and can be hazardous. Although the general identified patterns are largely correct, the calculated magnitudes can be misleading or even wrongly signed. Instead, it is strongly recommended that sector heterogeneity is accounted for by using individual sector price indices for all relevant sectors instead of one general (GDP) deflator. This paper analyzes this advanced decomposition using Chinese data and compares to the usual method of using only one deflator. It is found that while most differences are only of quantitative quality, some show even a qualitative difference. Furthermore, the rising energy intensity in the early 2000s, which has been discussed by previous studies, vanishes completely. (author)

  10. The contribution of tourism industry on the GDP growth of Western Balkan countries

    Čerović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry records various economic, social, political and others influences and provides itself important position in the overall economic development of many countries. The analysis of the available data of tourist arrivals and number of tourist overnight stays in observed countries of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro led us to conduct research in order to determine tourism contribution to the overall economic growth. Based on the modified methodology used by Brida et al. (2008 for calculating real GDP growth rates and tourism contribution to the overall economic growth, the paper indicates that tourism makes a modest direct contribution to the overall economic growth in the examined countries, regardless of the continuous increase in the number of foreign tourist arrivals. The level of tourism contribution to the overall economic growth varies and it is primarily related to diversity and quality of supply (the highest contribution is recorded in Montenegro, while lowest contribution is observed in Macedonia.

  11. The relationship between GDP and electricity consumption in 10 Asian countries

    Chen, S.-T.; Kuo, H.-I; Chen, C.-C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationships between GDP and electricity consumption in 10 newly industrializing and developing Asian countries using both single data sets and panel data procedures. The empirical results from single data set indicate that the causality directions in the 10 Asian countries are mixed while there is a uni-directional short-run causality running from economic growth to electricity consumption and a bi-directional long-run causality between electricity consumption and economic growth if the panel data procedure is implemented. These empirical findings imply that electricity conservation policies through both rationalizing the electricity supply efficiency improvement to avoid the wastage of electricity and managing demand side to reduce the electricity consumption without affecting the end-user benefits could be initiated without adverse effect on economic growth. The findings on the long-run relationship indicate that a sufficiently large supply of electricity can ensure that a higher level of economic growth

  12. CAUSALITY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GDP AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN GEORGIA, AZERBAIJAN AND ARMENIA

    Huseyin Kalyoncu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia during the period of 1995–2009. The Engle-Granger cointegration and Granger causality tests are used in order to analyse the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. It is crucial to see the directions of causality between two variables for the policy makers. For Georgia and Azerbaijan it is found that these two variables are not cointegrated. In case of Armenia these two variables are cointegrated. Accordingly, causality analysis is conducted for Armenia. The research outcomes reveal that there is unidirectional causality from per capita GDP to per capita energy consumption for Armenia.

  13. Interaction effects of region-level GDP per capita and age on labour market transition rates in Italy

    Luca Zanin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to measure the effect of the interaction between age for the population of males and females aged 18 to 74 and region-level GDP per capita on labour market transition probabilities in Italy. We compare different occupational states in a sample of males and females who remained in their region of residence at two points in time (12 months apart. We estimate the transition probabilities using a flexible hierarchical logit model with interaction effects between worker age and region-level GDP per capita. We apply this model using longitudinal data from the Italian Labour Force Survey that cover the 2004–2013 period. We find empirical support for the assumption that people in the same age cohort have different labour market opportunities based on the level of GDP per capita in their region of residence. These differences are particularly relevant among younger workers.

  14. Prediction of net energy consumption based on economic indicators (GNP and GDP) in Turkey

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2007-01-01

    The most important theme in this study is to obtain equations based on economic indicators (gross national product-GNP and gross domestic product-GDP) and population increase to predict the net energy consumption of Turkey using artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to determine future level of the energy consumption and make correct investments in Turkey. In this study, three different models were used in order to train the ANN. In one of them (Model 1), energy indicators such as installed capacity, generation, energy import and energy export, in second (Model 2), GNP was used and in the third (Model 3), GDP was used as the input layer of the network. The net energy consumption (NEC) is in the output layer for all models. In order to train the neural network, economic and energy data for last 37 years (1968-2005) are used in network for all models. The aim of used different models is to demonstrate the effect of economic indicators on the estimation of NEC. The maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 2.322732, 1.110525 and 1.122048 for Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. R 2 values were obtained as 0.999444, 0.999903 and 0.999903 for training data of Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The ANN approach shows greater accuracy for evaluating NEC based on economic indicators. Based on the outputs of the study, the ANN model can be used to estimate the NEC from the country's population and economic indicators with high confidence for planing future projections

  15. Short-term and long-term effects of GDP on traffic deaths in 18 OECD countries, 1960-2011.

    Dadgar, Iman; Norström, Thor

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that increases in gross domestic product (GDP) lead to increases in traffic deaths plausibly due to the increased road traffic induced by an expanding economy. However, there also seems to exist a long-term effect of economic growth that is manifested in improved traffic safety and reduced rates of traffic deaths. Previous studies focus on either the short-term, procyclical effect, or the long-term, protective effect. The aim of the present study is to estimate the short-term and long-term effects jointly in order to assess the net impact of GDP on traffic mortality. We extracted traffic death rates for the period 1960-2011 from the WHO Mortality Database for 18 OECD countries. Data on GDP/capita were obtained from the Maddison Project. We performed error correction modelling to estimate the short-term and long-term effects of GDP on the traffic death rates. The estimates from the error correction modelling for the entire study period suggested that a one-unit increase (US$1000) in GDP/capita yields an instantaneous short-term increase in the traffic death rate by 0.58 (pGDP leads to an immediate increase in traffic deaths. However, after the mid-1970s this short-term effect is more than outweighed by a markedly stronger protective long-term effect, whereas the reverse is true for the period before the mid-1970s. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. The Effects of Tourism on the GDP of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia in the Process of European Integration

    Slobodan Čerović

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a socio-economic phenomenon exerting considerable economic, social and political impact, thus securing itself an important position in the overall economic growth. The principal purpose of this paper is to present the effects of the EU integration process on tourist movements in Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro during the period 2006-2014, as 2006 was the year when one of the surveyed countries initiated EU accession negotiations, and tourism sector contribution to GDP in these countries in the period from 2002-2013 based on the data available for these years. To that end, the authors have compared the relationship between the number of foreign tourist arrivals and overnight stays and the GDP rates in the surveyed countries. Upon reviewing the available sources, the authors have reached the conclusion that during the EU integration period, an increase in the number of foreign tourists and overnight stays positively correlated with the GDP growth. EU integration process has had a positive bearing on tourism movements in the surveyed countries. The panel regression method has shown that despite a continuous increase in the number of foreign tourist arrivals, tourism sector still makes a modest direct contribution to the overall economic growth of the surveyed countries (Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia. Also, the Granger causality test was applied to demonstrate that it is not possible to predict GDP values in any of the surveyed countries based on the tourism revenue growth, while tourism contribution to GDP in Macedonia and Montenegro can be predicted based on their GDP.

  17. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  18. Superoxide activates a GDP-sensitive proton conductance in skeletal muscle mitochondria from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Talbot, Darren A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rey, Benjamin; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Brand, Martin D

    2003-12-26

    We present the partial nucleotide sequence of the avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) gene from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), showing that the protein is 88-92% identical to chicken (Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), and hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura). We show that superoxide activates the proton conductance of mitochondria isolated from king penguin skeletal muscle. GDP abolishes the superoxide-activated proton conductance, indicating that it is mediated via avUCP. In the absence of superoxide there is no GDP-sensitive component of the proton conductance from penguin muscle mitochondria demonstrating that avUCP plays no role in the basal proton leak.

  19. Increasing household debts and its relation to GDP, interest rate and house price: Malaysia’s perspective

    Rahman, Sharezan; Masih, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    The increase in household debts in Malaysia which has escalated to about 86% of total GDP is deemed to be at worrying stage as it may in turn trigger another financial crisis. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the increase in household debts and its relation to GDP, interest rate and house price via time series techniques. Data collected from Datastream and monthly statistical bulletin span from 1999 to 2014 on quarterly basis. The results show that there is a cointegrating long run r...

  20. Transforming growth factor β signaling upregulates the expression of human GDP-fucose transporter by activating transcription factor Sp1.

    Xu, Yu-Xin; Ma, Anna; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    GDP-fucose transporter plays a crucial role in fucosylation of glycoproteins by providing activated fucose donor, GDP-fucose, for fucosyltransferases in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. Fucose-containing glycans are involved in many biological processes, which are essential for growth and development. Mutations in the GDP-fucose transporter gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome II, a disease characterized by slow growth, mental retardation and immunodeficiency. However, no information is available regarding its transcriptional regulation. Here, by using human cells, we show that TGF-β1 specifically induces the GDP-fucose transporter expression, but not other transporters tested such as CMP-sialic acid transporter, suggesting a diversity of regulatory pathways for the expression of these transporters. The regulatory elements that are responsive to the TGF-β1 stimulation are present in the region between bp -330 and -268 in the GDP-fucose transporter promoter. We found that this region contains two identical octamer GC-rich motifs (GGGGCGTG) that were demonstrated to be essential for the transporter expression. We also show that the transcription factor Sp1 specifically binds to the GC-rich motifs in vitro and Sp1 coupled with phospho-Smad2 is associated with the promoter region covering the Sp1-binding motifs in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. In addition, we further confirmed that Sp1 is essential for the GDP-fucose transporter expression stimulated by TGF-β1 using a luciferase reporter system. These results highlight the role of TGF-β signaling in regulation of the GDP-fucose transporter expression via activating Sp1. This is the first transcriptional study for any nucleotide sugar transporters that have been identified so far. Notably, TGF-β1 receptor itself is known to be modified by fucosylation. Given the essential role of GDP-fucose transporter in fucosylation, the finding that TGF-β1 stimulates the expression of

  1. The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD

    Armour, C.; Karstoft, K. I.; Richardson, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    A dissociative-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype has been included in the DSM-5. However, it is not yet clear whether certain socio-demographic characteristics or psychological/clinical constructs such as comorbid psychopathology differentiate between severe PTSD and dissociative-PTSD....... The current study investigated the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype and explored whether a number of trauma and clinical covariates could differentiate between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The current study utilized a sample of 432 treatment seeking Canadian military veterans. Participants...... were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and self-report measures of traumatic life events, depression, and anxiety. CAPS severity scores were created reflecting the sum of the frequency and intensity items from each of the 17 PTSD and 3 dissociation items. The CAPS severity...

  2. The disruption of GDP-fucose de novo biosynthesis suggests the presence of a novel fucose-containing glycoconjugate in Plasmodium asexual blood stages.

    Sanz, Sílvia; López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Bandini, Giulia; Damerow, Sebastian; Absalon, Sabrina; Dinglasan, Rhoel R; Samuelson, John; Izquierdo, Luis

    2016-11-16

    Glycosylation is an important posttranslational protein modification in all eukaryotes. Besides glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors and N-glycosylation, O-fucosylation has been recently reported in key sporozoite proteins of the malaria parasite. Previous analyses showed the presence of GDP-fucose (GDP-Fuc), the precursor for all fucosylation reactions, in the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum. The GDP-Fuc de novo pathway, which requires the action of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-L-fucose synthase (FS), is conserved in the parasite genome, but the importance of fucose metabolism for the parasite is unknown. To functionally characterize the pathway we generated a PfGMD mutant and analyzed its phenotype. Although the labelling by the fucose-binding Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) was completely abrogated, GDP-Fuc was still detected in the mutant. This unexpected result suggests the presence of an alternative mechanism for maintaining GDP-Fuc in the parasite. Furthermore, PfGMD null mutant exhibited normal growth and invasion rates, revealing that the GDP-Fuc de novo metabolic pathway is not essential for the development in culture of the malaria parasite during the asexual blood stages. Nonetheless, the function of this metabolic route and the GDP-Fuc pool that is generated during this stage may be important for gametocytogenesis and sporogonic development in the mosquito.

  3. The disruption of GDP-fucose de novo biosynthesis suggests the presence of a novel fucose-containing glycoconjugate in Plasmodium asexual blood stages

    Sanz, Sílvia; López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Bandini, Giulia; Damerow, Sebastian; Absalon, Sabrina; Dinglasan, Rhoel R.; Samuelson, John; Izquierdo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation is an important posttranslational protein modification in all eukaryotes. Besides glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors and N-glycosylation, O-fucosylation has been recently reported in key sporozoite proteins of the malaria parasite. Previous analyses showed the presence of GDP-fucose (GDP-Fuc), the precursor for all fucosylation reactions, in the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum. The GDP-Fuc de novo pathway, which requires the action of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-L-fucose synthase (FS), is conserved in the parasite genome, but the importance of fucose metabolism for the parasite is unknown. To functionally characterize the pathway we generated a PfGMD mutant and analyzed its phenotype. Although the labelling by the fucose-binding Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) was completely abrogated, GDP-Fuc was still detected in the mutant. This unexpected result suggests the presence of an alternative mechanism for maintaining GDP-Fuc in the parasite. Furthermore, PfGMD null mutant exhibited normal growth and invasion rates, revealing that the GDP-Fuc de novo metabolic pathway is not essential for the development in culture of the malaria parasite during the asexual blood stages. Nonetheless, the function of this metabolic route and the GDP-Fuc pool that is generated during this stage may be important for gametocytogenesis and sporogonic development in the mosquito. PMID:27849032

  4. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron

    Stevens, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule is described. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, 235 UF 6 is separated from a UF 6 mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into 235 UF 5 - and F

  5. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for patients with dissociative identity disorder.

    Gentile, Julie P; Dillon, Kristy S; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-02-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called "dissociative disorders," including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma report "dissociative" symptoms. Prevalence of dissociative disorders is unknown, but current estimates are higher than previously thought. This paper reviews clinical, phenomenological, and epidemiological data regarding diagnosis in general, and illustrates possible treatment interventions for dissociative identity disorder, with a focus on psychotherapy interventions and a review of current psychopharmacology recommendations as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment plan.

  6. Reconsidering the autohypnotic model of the dissociative disorders.

    Dell, Paul F

    2018-03-22

    The dissociative disorders field and the hypnosis field currently reject the autohypnotic model of the dissociative disorders, largely because many correlational studies have shown hypnotizability and dissociation to be minimally related (r = .12). Curiously, it is also widely accepted that dissociative patients are highly hypnotizable. If dissociative patients are highly hypnotizable because only highly hypnotizable individuals can develop a dissociative disorder - as the author proposes - then the methodology of correlational studies of hypnotizability and dissociation in random clinical and community samples would necessarily be constitutively unable to detect, and statistically unable to reflect, that fact. That is, the autohypnotic, dissociative distancing of that small subset of highly hypnotizable individuals who repeatedly encountered intolerable circumstances is statistically lost among the data of (1) the highly hypnotizable subjects who do not dissociate and (2) subjects (of all levels of hypnotizability) who manifest other kinds of dissociation. The author proposes that, when highly hypnotizable individuals repeatedly engage in autohypnotic distancing from intolerable circumstances, they develop an overlearned, highly-motivated, automatized pattern of dissociative self-protection (i.e., a dissociative disorder). The author urges that theorists of hypnosis and the dissociative disorders explicitly include in their theories (a) the trait of high hypnotizability, (b) the phenomena of autohypnosis, and (c) the manifestations of systematized, autohypnotic pathology. Said differently, the author is suggesting that autohypnosis and autohypnotic pathology are unacknowledged nodes in the nomothetic networks of both hypnosis and dissociation.

  7. Studies of neutron dissociation at Fermilab energies

    Ferbel, T.

    1975-01-01

    The latest results obtained in a continuing investigation of neutron dissociation in (pπ - ) systems in neutron--nucleus collisions between 50 and 300 GeV/c are summarized. The nuclear coherent dissociation data are discussed first; then new measurements of total cross sections of neutrons on nuclei in the Fermilab momentum range are presented; finally, neutron dissociation using a hydrogen target is considered, and the hydrogen data are compared with expectations from simple Deck models. A substantial correlation was observed between the mass and the t of the system produced. The spin structure of the pπ - amplitudes at low mass was described surprisingly well by the simple Deck mechanism. The t-channel helicity amplitudes contained comparable contributions from flip and nonflip terms, and the states produced were not restricted to those expected on the basis of the Morrison rule. (19 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  8. Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.

  9. Interconversion of two GDP-bound conformations and their selection in an Arf-family small G protein.

    Okamura, Hideyasu; Nishikiori, Masaki; Xiang, Hongyu; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Katoh, Etsuko

    2011-07-13

    ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) and other Arf-family small G proteins participate in many cellular functions via their characteristic GTP/GDP conformational cycles, during which a nucleotide(∗)Mg(2+)-binding site communicates with a remote N-terminal helix. However, the conformational interplay between the nucleotides, the helix, the protein core, and Mg(2+) has not been fully delineated. Herein, we report a study of the dynamics of an Arf-family protein, Arl8, under various conditions by means of NMR relaxation spectroscopy. The data indicated that, when GDP is bound, the protein core, which does not include the N-terminal helix, reversibly transition between an Arf-family GDP form and another conformation that resembles the Arf-family GTP form. Additionally, we found that the N-terminal helix and Mg(2+), respectively, stabilize the aforementioned former and latter conformations in a population-shift manner. Given the dynamics of the conformational changes, we can describe the Arl8 GTP/GDP cycle in terms of an energy diagram. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global impact of a climate treaty if the Human Development Index replaces GDP as a welfare proxy

    van den Bergh, Jeroen; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the implications of shifting the narrative of climate policy evaluation from one of costs/benefits or economic growth to a message of improving social welfare. Focusing on the costs of mitigation and the associated impacts on gross domestic product (GDP) may translate into a

  11. Concentration of rat brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein may not be correlated with 3H-GDP binding

    Henningfield, M.F.; Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Rats fed diets low in protein or exposed to cold show an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial 3 H-GDP binding. To investigate this phenomenon further, the uncoupling protein associated with BAT function was measured immunochemically on nitrocellulose blots. Quantitation of uncoupling protein was achieved by densitometer scanning with a BioRad densitometer. Peaks were integrated with Chromatochart software and an Apple IIe computer. A standard curve of purified uncoupling protein (50 to 500 ng) was used to calculate uncoupling protein concentration. There is a 1.5-fold increase in uncoupling protein per mg of protein in BAT mitochondria from rats exposed to cold for 15 days. There was no decrease in uncoupling protein from rats exposed to the cold followed by 24 h at 27 0 C although 3 H-GDP binding had decreased by half. Rats fed diets containing either 5 or 15% lactalbumin for 3 weeks did not show differences in uncoupling protein concentration although 3 H-GDP binding was 1.5-fold greater in BAT mitochondria from the low protein group. These results indicate that GDP binding does not necessarily reflect the concentration of uncoupling protein in BAT mitochondria

  12. Disease-Causing Mutations in the G Protein Gαs Subvert the Roles of GDP and GTP.

    Hu, Qi; Shokat, Kevan M

    2018-05-17

    The single most frequent cancer-causing mutation across all heterotrimeric G proteins is R201C in Gαs. The current model explaining the gain-of-function activity of the R201 mutations is through the loss of GTPase activity and resulting inability to switch off to the GDP state. Here, we find that the R201C mutation can bypass the need for GTP binding by directly activating GDP-bound Gαs through stabilization of an intramolecular hydrogen bond network. Having found that a gain-of-function mutation can convert GDP into an activator, we postulated that a reciprocal mutation might disrupt the normal role of GTP. Indeed, we found R228C, a loss-of-function mutation in Gαs that causes pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP-Ia), compromised the adenylyl cyclase-activating activity of Gαs bound to a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog. These findings show that disease-causing mutations in Gαs can subvert the canonical roles of GDP and GTP, providing new insights into the regulation mechanism of G proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Book Review: "The Road to Sustainability, GDP and Future Generations" Pulselli et al, WIT Press, Southhampton, UK 197p 2008

    “The Road to Sustainability, GDP and future generations” by Pulselli, F.M., Bastianoni, S., Marchettini, N. Tiezzi, E. was reviewed upon request by the journal’s editor. Briefly, this book presents the authors’ perspective on the complex and important topic of sustainability. Su...

  14. Multivariate granger causality between electricity consumption, exports and GDP: Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the causal relationship between electricity consumption, exports and gross domestic product (GDP) for a panel of Middle Eastern countries. We find that for the panel as a whole there are statistically significant feedback effects between these variables. A 1 per cent increase in electricity consumption increases GDP by 0.04 per cent, a 1 per cent increase in exports increases GDP by 0.17 per cent and a 1 per cent increase in GDP generates a 0.95 per cent increase in electricity consumption. The policy implications are that for the panel as a whole these countries should invest in electricity infrastructure and step up electricity conservation policies to avoid a reduction in electricity consumption adversely affecting economic growth. Further policy implications are that for the panel as a whole promoting exports, particularly non-oil exports, is a means to promote economic growth and that expansion of exports can be realized without having adverse effects on energy conservation policies

  15. Dissociative amnesia: a case with management challenges

    Priti Singh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of dissociative amnesia with regressed behaviour was diagnosed applying the existing criteria for dissociative disorder in the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10. Though there are number of cases of such condition, but when coupled with regressed behaviour it adds to new dimension in the management. An applied strategy in lines with both pharmacological and non pharmacological was used, and we found that it helped our patient to gradually improve her behaviour. This is one of the few cases reported and we hope more such cases should be reported in understanding the psychopathology.

  16. Coulomb dissociation of N 20,21

    Röder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N20,21 are reported. Relativistic N20,21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the N19(n,γ)N20 and N20(n,γ)N21 excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The N19(n,γ)N20 rate is...

  17. Objective documentation of child abuse and dissociation in 12 murderers with dissociative identity disorder.

    Lewis, D O; Yeager, C A; Swica, Y; Pincus, J H; Lewis, M

    1997-12-01

    The skepticism regarding the existence of dissociative identity disorder as well as the abuse that engenders it persists for lack of objective documentation. This is doubly so for the disorder in murderers because of issues of suspected malingering. This article presents objective verification of both dissociative symptoms and severe abuse during childhood in a series of adult murderers with dissociative identity disorder. This study consisted of a review of the clinical records of 11 men and one woman with DSM-IV-defined dissociative identity disorder who had committed murder. Data were gathered from medical, psychiatric, social service, school, military, and prison records and from records of interviews with subjects' family members and others. Handwriting samples were also examined. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Signs and symptoms of dissociative identity disorder in childhood and adulthood were corroborated independently and from several sources in all 12 cases; objective evidence of severe abuse was obtained in 11 cases. The subjects had amnesia for most of the abuse and underreported it. Marked changes in writing style and/or signatures were documented in 10 cases. This study establishes, once and for all, the linkage between early severe abuse and dissociative identity disorder. Further, the data demonstrate that the disorder can be distinguished from malingering and from other disorders. The study shows that it is possible, with great effort, to obtain objective evidence of both the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder and the abuse that engenders it.

  18. Labelled drug-related public expenditure in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) in Europe: a luxury good?

    Prieto, Luis

    2010-01-01

    "Labelled drug-related public expenditure" is the direct expenditure explicitly labelled as related to illicit drugs by the general government of the state. As part of the reporting exercise corresponding to 2005, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction\\'s network of national focal points set up in the 27 European Union (EU) Member States, Norway, and the candidates countries to the EU, were requested to identify labelled drug-related public expenditure, at the country level. This was reported by 10 countries categorised according to the functions of government, amounting to a total of EUR 2.17 billion. Overall, the highest proportion of this total came within the government functions of Health (66%), and Public Order and Safety (POS) (20%). By country, the average share of GDP was 0.023% for Health, and 0.013% for POS. However, these shares varied considerably across countries, ranging from 0.00033% in Slovakia, up to 0.053% of GDP in Ireland in the case of Health, and from 0.003% in Portugal, to 0.02% in the UK, in the case of POS; almost a 161-fold difference between the highest and the lowest countries for Health, and a 6-fold difference for POS. Why do Ireland and the UK spend so much in Health and POS, or Slovakia and Portugal so little, in GDP terms? To respond to this question and to make a comprehensive assessment of drug-related public expenditure across countries, this study compared Health and POS spending and GDP in the 10 reporting countries. Results found suggest GDP to be a major determinant of the Health and POS drug-related public expenditures of a country. Labelled drug-related public expenditure showed a positive association with the GDP across the countries considered: r = 0.81 in the case of Health, and r = 0.91 for POS. The percentage change in Health and POS expenditures due to a one percent increase in GDP (the income elasticity of demand) was estimated to be 1.78% and 1.23% respectively. Being highly income elastic

  19. A novel GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase involved in quality control of the nucleoside diphosphate sugar pool in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals.

    Adler, Lital N; Gomez, Tara A; Clarke, Steven G; Linster, Carole L

    2011-06-17

    The plant VTC2 gene encodes GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in plant vitamin C biosynthesis. Genes encoding apparent orthologs of VTC2 exist in both mammals, which produce vitamin C by a distinct metabolic pathway, and in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans where vitamin C biosynthesis has not been demonstrated. We have now expressed cDNAs of the human and worm VTC2 homolog genes (C15orf58 and C10F3.4, respectively) and found that the purified proteins also display GDP-hexose phosphorylase activity. However, as opposed to the plant enzyme, the major reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is the phosphorolysis of GDP-D-glucose to GDP and D-glucose 1-phosphate. We detected activities with similar substrate specificity in worm and mouse tissue extracts. The highest expression of GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase was found in the nervous and male reproductive systems. A C. elegans C10F3.4 deletion strain was found to totally lack GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase activity; this activity was also found to be decreased in human HEK293T cells transfected with siRNAs against the human C15orf58 gene. These observations confirm the identification of the worm C10F3.4 and the human C15orf58 gene expression products as the GDP-D-glucose phosphorylases of these organisms. Significantly, we found an accumulation of GDP-D-glucose in the C10F3.4 mutant worms, suggesting that the GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase may function to remove GDP-D-glucose formed by GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase, an enzyme that has previously been shown to lack specificity for its physiological D-mannose 1-phosphate substrate. We propose that such removal may prevent the misincorporation of glucosyl residues for mannosyl residues into the glycoconjugates of worms and mammals.

  20. A Novel GDP-d-glucose Phosphorylase Involved in Quality Control of the Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugar Pool in Caenorhabditis elegans and Mammals*

    Adler, Lital N.; Gomez, Tara A.; Clarke, Steven G.; Linster, Carole L.

    2011-01-01

    The plant VTC2 gene encodes GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in plant vitamin C biosynthesis. Genes encoding apparent orthologs of VTC2 exist in both mammals, which produce vitamin C by a distinct metabolic pathway, and in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans where vitamin C biosynthesis has not been demonstrated. We have now expressed cDNAs of the human and worm VTC2 homolog genes (C15orf58 and C10F3.4, respectively) and found that the purified proteins also display GDP-hexose phosphorylase activity. However, as opposed to the plant enzyme, the major reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is the phosphorolysis of GDP-d-glucose to GDP and d-glucose 1-phosphate. We detected activities with similar substrate specificity in worm and mouse tissue extracts. The highest expression of GDP-d-glucose phosphorylase was found in the nervous and male reproductive systems. A C. elegans C10F3.4 deletion strain was found to totally lack GDP-d-glucose phosphorylase activity; this activity was also found to be decreased in human HEK293T cells transfected with siRNAs against the human C15orf58 gene. These observations confirm the identification of the worm C10F3.4 and the human C15orf58 gene expression products as the GDP-d-glucose phosphorylases of these organisms. Significantly, we found an accumulation of GDP-d-glucose in the C10F3.4 mutant worms, suggesting that the GDP-d-glucose phosphorylase may function to remove GDP-d-glucose formed by GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase, an enzyme that has previously been shown to lack specificity for its physiological d-mannose 1-phosphate substrate. We propose that such removal may prevent the misincorporation of glucosyl residues for mannosyl residues into the glycoconjugates of worms and mammals. PMID:21507950

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet excited luminescence properties of sol–gel derived GdP5O14:Eu3+ powders

    Mbarek, Aïcha; Chadeyron, Geneviève; Boyer, Damien; Avignant, Daniel; Fourati, Mohieddine; Zambon, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sol–gel route has successfully been used to synthesize pure and Eu 3+ doped polycrystalline samples of the GdP 5 O 14 pentaphosphates. The as-prepared samples have structurally been characterized using X-ray diffraction. Optical properties in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) of Eu 3+ activated GdP 5 O 14 samples prepared either by sol–gel process or solid-state reaction were investigated at room temperature for comparison. In this GdP 5 O 14 host matrix the P 5 O 14 ultraphosphate groups were proved to exhibit an efficient absorption in the VUV range. The excitation spectra recorded in the VUV-UV spectral region from 120 nm to 350 nm have revealed the presence of Gd 3+ 4f–5d interconfiguration transitions, Gd 3+ –O 2− and Eu 3+ –O 2− charge transfer states(CTS)in addition to intraconfiguration transitions of Gd 3+ ions.Furthermore the Gd 3+ →Eu 3+ energy transfer process was investigated and discussed in the framework of the multiphonon relaxation process. Besides, the GdP 5 O 14 :Eu 3+ phosphor led to a strong red emission under 147/172 nm excitation, so that it can be considered as a promising red phosphor for mercury-free lamps and plasma display panels applications. -- Highlights: • Lanthanide pentaphosphates were synthesized by the sol–gel process. • A broad absorption was evidenced in the VUV range for GdP 5 O 14 :Eu 3+ . • An efficient energy transfer was proved from pentaphosphate lattice to Eu 3+ ions

  2. Analysis of Correlations between Economic Growth (Rate of Real GDP and the Underground Economy

    Pripoaie Silviu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of performance of any economy involves the measurement and correlation of threebasic elements: the rate of economic growth, the rate of inflation and unemployment rate. When the rateof growth (rate of real GDP is high, the production of goods and services is growing and thereforeincreasing the number of jobs, decrease unemployment and raise living standards. If the economy is inrecession phase, increasing fiscal pressure to ensure the necessary budgetary funds triggers complexeconomic mechanisms. Rules more strictly is that those who are not able to operate in the normaleconomy to slide towards the underground economy, and this not because he wants to tax evasion, butbecause they simply can not cope with new regulations. It is widely accepted in economic theory andpractice the idea that reliability scale macroeconomic indicators of a country is affected by size ofunderground economy and the various tests made so far on this subject, focusing either on the socialaspect or the economic or moral, or emphasizes the illegal or the edge of legality. This has led to variousstudies in this area do not provide comparable data or provide data to the contrary. Worldwide were putin place, however, some calculation methods provided that applied the same country and same period,the results are rarely consistent, sometimes even in fundamentally different.

  3. Family-wide characterization of the DENN domain Rab GDP-GTP exchange factors.

    Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Linford, Andrea; Rigden, Daniel J; Barr, Francis A

    2010-10-18

    A key requirement for Rab function in membrane trafficking is site-specific activation by GDP-GTP exchange factors (GEFs), but the majority of the 63 human Rabs have no known GEF. We have performed a systematic characterization of the 17 human DENN domain proteins and demonstrated that they are specific GEFs for 10 Rabs. DENND1A/1B localize to clathrin patches at the plasma membrane and activate Rab35 in an endocytic pathway trafficking Shiga toxin to the trans-Golgi network. DENND2 GEFs target to actin filaments and control Rab9-dependent trafficking of mannose-6-phosphate receptor to lysosomes. DENND4 GEFs target to a tubular membrane compartment adjacent to the Golgi, where they activate Rab10, which suggests a function in basolateral polarized sorting in epithelial cells that compliments the non-DENN GEF Sec2 acting on Rab8 in apical sorting. DENND1C, DENND3, DENND5A/5B, MTMR5/13, and MADD activate Rab13, Rab12, Rab39, Rab28, and Rab27A/27B, respectively. Together, these findings provide a basis for future studies on Rab regulation and function.

  4. Visualization of time series statistical data by shape analysis (GDP ratio changes among Asia countries)

    Shirota, Yukari; Hashimoto, Takako; Fitri Sari, Riri

    2018-03-01

    It has been very significant to visualize time series big data. In the paper we shall discuss a new analysis method called “statistical shape analysis” or “geometry driven statistics” on time series statistical data in economics. In the paper, we analyse the agriculture, value added and industry, value added (percentage of GDP) changes from 2000 to 2010 in Asia. We handle the data as a set of landmarks on a two-dimensional image to see the deformation using the principal components. The point of the analysis method is the principal components of the given formation which are eigenvectors of its bending energy matrix. The local deformation can be expressed as the set of non-Affine transformations. The transformations give us information about the local differences between in 2000 and in 2010. Because the non-Affine transformation can be decomposed into a set of partial warps, we present the partial warps visually. The statistical shape analysis is widely used in biology but, in economics, no application can be found. In the paper, we investigate its potential to analyse the economic data.

  5. Direct evidence for GTP and GDP-Pi intermediates in microtubule assembly

    Melki, R.; Carlier, M.F.; Pantaloni, D.

    1990-01-01

    Identification of the kinetic intermediates in GTP hydrolysis on microtubules and characterization of their assembly properties is essential in understanding microtubule dynamics. By using an improved glass filter assay that selectively traps microtubules with a dead time of 2 s and monitoring taxol-induced rapid assembly of microtubules from [γ- 32 P, 3 H]GTP-tubulin 1:1 complex, direct evidence has been obtained for GTP- and GDP-P i -microtubule transient states in the early stages of the polymerization process. A simple kinetic analysis of GTP hydrolysis on microtubules within two sequential pseudo-first-order processes led to apparent first-order rate constants of 0.065 s -1 for the cleavage of the γ-phosphate and 0.02 s -1 for the liberation of P i , assuming a simple random model. Apparent rate constants for GTP hydrolysis and P i release were independent of the composition of the buffer used to polymerize tubulin. The significance of these values with respect to those derived from previous studies from this and other laboratories and the possibility of a vectorial model for GTP hydrolysis are discussed

  6. The causality relationship between energy consumption and GDP in G-11 countries revisited

    Lee, C.-C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores whether energy conservation policies can be implemented in countries with the same level of development. That is, is restraining energy consumption without compromising economic growth feasible in all industrialized countries? A new Granger non-causality testing procedure developed by Toda and Yamamoto [1995, Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] is applied to re-investigate the relationship, if any, between energy consumption and income in 11 major industrialized countries. The results clearly do not support the view that energy consumption and income are neutral with respect to each other, except in the case of the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden where a neutral relationship is found. Bi-directional causality in the United States and uni-directional running from energy consumption to GDP in Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland are found. This indicates that energy conservation may hinder economic growth in the latter five countries. Further, the causality relationship appears to be uni-directional but reversed for France, Italy and Japan which implies that, in these three countries, energy conservation may be viable without being detrimental to economic growth

  7. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Huang Weiming; Lee, Grace W.M.; Wu Chihcheng

    2008-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced

  8. The Energy-GDP Nexus. Addressing an old question with new methods

    Coers, R.J.; Sanders, M.

    2012-01-15

    This paper reassesses the causal relationship between per capita energy use and gross domestic product, while controlling for capital and labour (productivity) inputs in a panel of 30 OECD countries over the past 40 years. The paper uses panel unit root and cointegration testing and specifies an appropriate vector error correction model to analyse the nexus between income and energy use. In doing so we contribute to an old debate using modern tools that shed a new light. There is some evidence that over the short-run bidirectional causality exists. Our results also show a strong unidirectional causality running from capital formation and GDP to energy usage. In the long run the reverse causality, found in recent work, is lost. We then show that we can reproduce these earlier results in our data if we reproduce a slightly misspecified model for the Engle-Granger two-step procedure used in these earlier papers. Our findings thus imply that results are very sensitive to model misspecification and careful testing of specifications is required. Our results have some strong policy implications. They suggest that policies aimed at reducing energy usage or promoting energy efficiency are not likely to have a detrimental effect on economic growth, except over the very short run.

  9. Biosynthesis of the fungal cell wall polysaccharide galactomannan requires intraluminal GDP-mannose.

    Engel, Jakob; Schmalhorst, Philipp S; Routier, Françoise H

    2012-12-28

    Fungal cell walls frequently contain a polymer of mannose and galactose called galactomannan. In the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, this polysaccharide is made of a linear mannan backbone with side chains of galactofuran and is anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol or is covalently linked to the cell wall. To date, the biosynthesis and significance of this polysaccharide are unknown. The present data demonstrate that deletion of the Golgi UDP-galactofuranose transporter GlfB or the GDP-mannose transporter GmtA leads to the absence of galactofuran or galactomannan, respectively. This indicates that the biosynthesis of galactomannan probably occurs in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and thus contrasts with the biosynthesis of other fungal cell wall polysaccharides studied to date that takes place at the plasma membrane. Transglycosylation of galactomannan from the membrane to the cell wall is hypothesized because both the cell wall-bound and membrane-bound polysaccharide forms are affected in the generated mutants. Considering the severe growth defect of the A. fumigatus GmtA-deficient mutant, proving this paradigm might provide new targets for antifungal therapy.

  10. GDP-bound and nucleotide-free intermediates of the guanine nucleotide exchange in the Rab5·Vps9 system.

    Uejima, Tamami; Ihara, Kentaro; Goh, Tatsuaki; Ito, Emi; Sunada, Mariko; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2010-11-19

    Many GTPases regulate intracellular transport and signaling in eukaryotes. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activate GTPases by catalyzing the exchange of their GDP for GTP. Here we present crystallographic and biochemical studies of a GEF reaction with four crystal structures of Arabidopsis thaliana ARA7, a plant homolog of Rab5 GTPase, in complex with its GEF, VPS9a, in the nucleotide-free and GDP-bound forms, as well as a complex with aminophosphonic acid-guanylate ester and ARA7·VPS9a(D185N) with GDP. Upon complex formation with ARA7, VPS9 wedges into the interswitch region of ARA7, inhibiting the coordination of Mg(2+) and decreasing the stability of GDP binding. The aspartate finger of VPS9a recognizes GDP β-phosphate directly and pulls the P-loop lysine of ARA7 away from GDP β-phosphate toward switch II to further destabilize GDP for its release during the transition from the GDP-bound to nucleotide-free intermediates in the nucleotide exchange reaction.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Dissociative Experiences Scale.

    Dubester, K A; Braun, B G

    1995-04-01

    The test-retest reliability of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; Bernstein EM, Putnam FW [1986] Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 174:727-735) in a clinical sample was found to be .93 for the total DES score and .95, .89, and .82 for the three subscale scores of amnesia, depersonalization-derealization, and absorption (dissociative identity disorder [DID], DSM-IV), respectively. Test-retest reliabilities within diagnostic groups of multiple personality disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and a general other category of psychiatric diagnoses were obtained for total and subscale scores on the DES. These ranged from .78 to .96. Tests of mean scores across the two test sessions showed the total and subscale scores to be temporally stable. The DES was also found to be highly internally consistent: Cronbach's alphas of .96 and .97 were observed for the total DES scores taken at times 1 and 2, respectively. Construct validity of the DES was demonstrated by differentiation among the subscale scores in a repeated-measures analysis of variance (F[2,154] = 32.03, p < or = .001). Normality and general distribution issues were also addressed and provided a rationale for using the DES with parametric statistics. Reasons why the DES (as it was originally designed) is not appropriate as a dependent measure in outcome research are discussed, along with needed future research. Implications of the findings for the clinical usefulness of the DES as a diagnostic instrument are noted.

  12. Process Dissociation and Mixture Signal Detection Theory

    DeCarlo, Lawrence T.

    2008-01-01

    The process dissociation procedure was developed in an attempt to separate different processes involved in memory tasks. The procedure naturally lends itself to a formulation within a class of mixture signal detection models. The dual process model is shown to be a special case. The mixture signal detection model is applied to data from a widely…

  13. From dissociated hegemony towards embedded hegemony

    Gaay Fortman, B. de; Dhanrajgir, Nikhil

    2005-01-01

    An earlier paper by the second author, entitled ‘Bella Americana: Some Consequences for the International Community’ [1], dealt with the background and consequences of the American dissociation from the international legal and political order created after World War II. The current article

  14. Theory of the dissociation process, ch. 1

    Asselt, N.P.F.B. van

    1976-01-01

    The formalism of Moeller operators and channel Hamiltonians, originating from scattering theory, is used for the description of the dissociation process. The proper choice of the initial state wave function is discussed. A method is given which accounts for the symmetry requirements which appear in the case of a homonuclear molecule where identical particles are present

  15. Dissociative charge exchange of H2+

    Bruijn, D. de.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to molecular dissociation, in particular the dissociation of the hydrogen molecule H 2 arising from electron capture of its ion H 2 + in a collision. Thereby the important practical question how a chemical bond can be broken is implicitly addressed. This thesis opens (chapter I) with an overview of the available experimental approaches in molecular physics. Further the simple Demkov model for NRCE is described. In chapter II a novel experimental technique for measurements on dissociative processes is introduced which combines a high efficiency with a high energy resolution. A detailed description of the techniques applied in the detector, which has a high spatial and timing resolution with 30 μm and 350 psec FWHM respectively for the detection of one particle, is given in chapter III. A semi-classical theory for NRCE in the medium energy range between a diatomic molecular ion and an atom is developed in chapter IV. The experiments on dissociative charge exchange of H 2 + with Ar, Mg, Na and Cs targets at keV energies are described in Chapter V. The predissociation of the c 3 PIsub(u)-state of H 2 populated after charge exchange of H 2 with several targets at keV energies; is the subject of chapter VI. In chapter VII, orientational oscillations in the cross section for charge exchange of H 2 + with alkali targets are discussed. The last chapter deals with predissociation of highly excited states in H 2 . (Auth.)

  16. CO dissociation on magnetic Fen clusters

    Jedidi, Abdesslem; Markovits, Alexis; Minot, Christian; Abderrabba, Manef Ben; Van Hove, Michel A.

    2014-01-01

    triangular facet of the nanoparticle. Dissociation becomes easier when the cluster size increases. Then, the C atom is bonded to a square facet that is generated as a result of the adsorption if it does not yet exist in the bare cluster, while the O atom

  17. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; J ψ; suppression; dissociation; colour screening. PACS No. 12.38.M. 1. Introduction. The last two decades have seen hectic activity towards identifying unique signatures ...

  18. Dissociative electron attachment to ozone: rate constant

    Skalny, J.D.; Cicman, P.; Maerk, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    The rate constant for dissociative electron attachment to ozone has been derived over the energy range of 0-10 eV by using previously measured cross section data revisited here in regards to discrimination effect occurring during the extraction of ions. The obtained data for both possible channels exhibit the maximum at mean electron energies close to 1 eV. (author)

  19. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size

    Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in

  20. Resonances in dissociative recombination: Trends and patterns

    Orel, A E; Ngassam, V; Royal, J [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis (United States); Roos, J B; Larson, A, E-mail: aeorel@ucdavis.ed [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    In dissociative recombination, the kinetic energy of the incident electron is transferred into excitation of the electrons of the target ion and then into kinetic energy of the fragments. In general, this proceeds via a resonance where the electron is temporarily trapped by the ion, leading to efficient energy transfer. The study of dissociative recombination is the study of these resonances, Rydberg states converging to the ground and excited states of the ion. For a number of systems, we have studied the electronic states involved in dissociative recombination, including the ground and excited states of the ion, the resonant states and the bound Rydberg states of the system, by combining electron scattering calculations with multi-reference configuration interaction quantum chemistry calculations. We will report on trends and patterns in these resonance states. We will discuss studies of dissociative recombination of the rare-gas ions, moving down the periodic table from He{sup +}{sub 2} to Ne{sup +}{sub 2} to Ar{sup +}{sub 2}, where the ground electronic state of the ion is constant, but its polarizability increases. We will also present results on isoelectronic polyatomic systems, such as HCO{sup +} and HCNH{sup +}, as well as the effects of changing the electronic structure slightly such as HCN{sup +}/HNC{sup +} and H{sub 2}CO{sup +}.

  1. Dissociation in undergraduate students: disruptions in executive functioning.

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald; Geraerts, Elke; Smeets, Ellen

    2004-08-01

    The concept of dissociation refers to disruptions in attentional control. Attentional control is an executive function. Few studies have addressed the link between dissociation and executive functioning. Our study investigated this relationship in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 185) who completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Random Number Generation Task. We found that minor disruptions in executive functioning were related to a subclass of dissociative experiences, notably dissociative amnesia and the Dissociative Experiences Scale Taxon. However, the two other subscales of the Dissociative Experiences Scale, measuring depersonalization and absorption, were unrelated to executive functioning. Our findings suggest that a failure to inhibit previous responses might contribute to the pathological memory manifestations of dissociation.

  2. Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Dissociative Symptoms, and Dissociative Disorder Comorbidity Among Patients With Panic Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    Ural, Cenk; Belli, Hasan; Akbudak, Mahir; Tabo, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed childhood trauma history, dissociative symptoms, and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with panic disorder (PD). A total of 92 psychotropic drug-naive patients with PD, recruited from outpatient clinics in the psychiatry department of a Turkish hospital, were involved in the study. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D), Dissociation Questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Panic Disorder Severity Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Of the patients with PD, 18 (19%) had a comorbid dissociative disorder diagnosis on screening with the SCID-D. The most prevalent disorders were dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorders. Patients with a high degree of dissociation symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity had more severe PD than those without (p dissociation and PD. Among all of the subscales, the strongest relationship was with childhood emotional abuse. Logistic regression analysis showed that emotional abuse and severity of PD were independently associated with dissociative disorder. In our study, a significant proportion of the patients with PD had concurrent diagnoses of dissociative disorder. We conclude that the predominance of PD symptoms at admission should not lead the clinician to overlook the underlying dissociative process and associated traumatic experiences among these patients.

  3. Titration ELISA as a Method to Determine the Dissociation Constant of Receptor Ligand Interaction.

    Eble, Johannes A

    2018-02-15

    The dissociation constant describes the interaction between two partners in the binding equilibrium and is a measure of their affinity. It is a crucial parameter to compare different ligands, e.g., competitive inhibitors, protein isoforms and mutants, for their binding strength to a binding partner. Dissociation constants are determined by plotting concentrations of bound versus free ligand as binding curves. In contrast, titration curves, in which a signal that is proportional to the concentration of bound ligand is plotted against the total concentration of added ligand, are much easier to record. The signal can be detected spectroscopically and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This is exemplified in a protocol for a titration ELISA that measures the binding of the snake venom-derived rhodocetin to its immobilized target domain of α2β1 integrin. Titration ELISAs are versatile and widely used. Any pair of interacting proteins can be used as immobilized receptor and soluble ligand, provided that both proteins are pure, and their concentrations are known. The difficulty so far has been to determine the dissociation constant from a titration curve. In this study, a mathematical function underlying titration curves is introduced. Without any error-prone graphical estimation of a saturation yield, this algorithm allows processing of the raw data (signal intensities at different concentrations of added ligand) directly by mathematical evaluation via non-linear regression. Thus, several titration curves can be recorded simultaneously and transformed into a set of characteristic parameters, among them the dissociation constant and the concentration of binding-active receptor, and they can be evaluated statistically. When combined with this algorithm, titration ELISAs gain the advantage of directly presenting the dissociation constant. Therefore, they may be used more efficiently in the future.

  4. Assessment of complex dissociative disorder patients and simulated dissociation in forensic contexts.

    Brand, Bethany L; Webermann, Aliya R; Frankel, A Steven

    Few assessors receive training in assessing dissociation and complex dissociative disorders (DDs). Potential differential diagnoses include anxiety, mood, psychotic, substance use, and personality disorders, as well as exaggeration and malingering. Individuals with DDs typically elevate on many clinical and validity scales on psychological tests, yet research indicates that they can be distinguished from DD simulators. Becoming informed about the testing profiles of DD individuals and DD simulators can improve the accuracy of differential diagnoses in forensic settings. In this paper, we first review the testing profiles of individuals with complex DDs and contrast them with DD simulators on assessment measures used in forensic contexts, including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and the Structured Inventory of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), as well as dissociation-specific measures such as the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D-R). We then provide recommendations for assessing complex trauma and dissociation through the aforementioned assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does phasic trauma treatment make patients with dissociative identity disorder treatment more dissociative?

    Brand, Bethany; Loewenstein, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Proponents of the iatrogenic model of the etiology of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have expressed concern that treatment focused on direct engagement and interaction with dissociated self-states harms DID patients. However, empirical data have shown that this type of DID treatment is beneficial. Analyzing data from the prospective Treatment of Patients With Dissociative Disorders (TOP DD) Study, we test empirically whether DID treatment is associated with clinically adverse manifestations of dissociated self-states: acting so differently that one feels like different people, hearing voices, and dissociative amnesia. We show that, over the course of the study, there were significant decreases in feeling like different people and hearing voices. These results indicate that this form of DID treatment does not lead to symptomatic worsening in these dimensions, as predicted by the iatrogenic model. Indeed, treatment provided by TOP DD therapists reduced, rather than increased, the extent to which patients experienced manifestations of pathological dissociation. Because severe symptomatology and impairment are associated with DID, iatrogenic harm may come from depriving DID patients of treatment that targets DID symptomatology.

  6. Dissociation of acetaldehyde in intense laser field: Coulomb explosion or field-assisted dissociation?

    Elshakre, Mohamed E.; Gao, Lirong; Tang, Xiaoping; Wang, Sufan; Shu, Yafei; Kong, Fanao

    2003-09-01

    Dissociation of acetaldehyde in moderate strong laser field of 1013-1014W/cm2 was investigated. Singly charged parent ion CH3CHO+ and fragmental ions CH3+, CHO+, C2H4+, O+, CH2CHO+, and H+ were produced by 800 nm laser of 100 fs pulse duration and recorded by time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CH3+ fragment further dissociated to CH2+, CH+, and C+ ions at higher intensity. Ab initio calculated results show that the singly-, doubly-, and triply charged parent ions are stable. So, the dissociation mechanism was not due to Coulomb explosion of multicharged ion. A field-assisted dissociation (FAD) theory, which assumes that only one bond undergoes dissociation while the rest of the molecular geometry stays unchanged, was employed to treat the dissociation dynamics. Accordingly, the dressed potential energy surfaces of the ground state for the parent and the fragment ions were calculated. Corresponding quasiclassical trajectory calculations show that the bond ruptures take place in the order of C-C, C-O, and C-H, agreeing with the observation. The observed angular dependence and charge distribution of the product ions can also be interpreted by the FAD theory.

  7. Predictors of trait dissociation and peritraumatic dissociation induced via cold pressor.

    Gómez-Pérez, Lydia; López-Martínez, Alicia Eva; Asmundson, Gordon John Glenn

    2013-11-30

    Understanding which factors predict individual dissociative response during stressful situations is important to clarify the nature of dissociation and the mechanisms associated to its use as a coping strategy. The present study examined (1) whether experiential avoidance (EA), anxiety sensitivity (AS), depressive symptoms, and state anxiety concurrently predicted trait dissociation (TD)-absorption, amnesia, depersonalization, and total TD scores-and laboratory induced dissociation (LID); and (2) whether TD and catastrophizing predicted LID. We also examined whether catastrophizing mediated the relationships between both AS and depressive symptoms and LID. A total of 101 female undergraduate students participated in a cold pressor task, which significantly induced dissociation. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that AS at Time 1 (9 months before the experimental session), as well as depressive symptoms and catastrophizing at the time of the experiment (Time 2), predicted LID at Time 2. Depressive symptoms at Time 2 predicted total TD, absorption, and amnesia scores. AS at Time 1 and depressive symptoms at Time 2 predicted depersonalization. AS, depressive symptoms, and catastrophizing seem to facilitate the use of dissociative strategies by healthy individuals, even in response to non-traumatic but discomforting stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Contribution of Art Therapy to the Dissociative Disorders.

    Murphy, Patricia S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored concepts of brain hemispheric lateralization and distinct right brain functioning in extensive dissociation by administering Dissociative Experiences Scale to 114 engineering students and 92 university drawing students. Chi-square calculation found differences in dissociative scoring levels between groups that approached significance at…

  9. The Parenting Experiences of Mothers with Dissociative Disorders.

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)

  10. Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Child Dissociation Scale.

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of the Child Dissociative Checklist found it to be a reliable and valid observer report measure of dissociation in children, including sexually abused girls and children with dissociative disorder and with multiple personality disorder. The checklist, which is appended, is intended as a clinical screening instrument and research measure…

  11. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In their recent review "Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions," published in "Psychological Bulletin", Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so,…

  12. Speech-Language Dissociations, Distractibility, and Childhood Stuttering

    Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Method Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. Results More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. Conclusions The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations). PMID:26126203

  13. Rate coefficients for dissociative attachment and resonant electron-impact dissociation involving vibrationally excited O{sub 2} molecules

    Laporta, V. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari, Italy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Celiberto, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e di Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Italy and Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari (Italy); Tennyson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-09

    Rate coefficients for dissociative electron attachment and electron-impact dissociation processes, involving vibrationally excited molecular oxygen, are presented. Analytical fits of the calculated numerical data, useful in the applications, are also provided.

  14. Energy-dependent dissociation of ATP from high affinity catalytic sites of beef heart mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase

    Penefsky, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    Incubation of [gamma- 32 P]ATP with a molar excess of the membrane-bound form of mitochondrial ATPase (F1) results in binding of the bulk of the radioactive nucleotide in high affinity catalytic sites (Ka = 10(12) M-1). Subsequent initiation of respiration by addition of succinate or NADH is accompanied by a profound decrease in the affinity for ATP. About one-third of the bound radioactive ATP appears to dissociate, that is, the [gamma- 32 P]ATP becomes accessible to hexokinase. The NADH-stimulated dissociation of [gamma- 32 P]ATP is energy-dependent since the stimulation is inhibited by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and is prevented by respiratory chain inhibitors. The rate of the energy-dependent dissociation of ATP that occurs in the presence of NADH, ADP, and Pi is commensurate with the measured initial rate of ATP synthesis in NADH-supported oxidative phosphorylation catalyzed by the same submitochondrial particles. Thus, the rate of dissociation of ATP from the high affinity catalytic site of submitochondrial particles meets the criterion of kinetic competency under the conditions of oxidative phosphorylation. These experiments provide evidence in support of the argument that energy conserved during the oxidation of substrates by the respiratory chain can be utilized to reduce the very tight binding of product ATP in high affinity catalytic sites and to promote dissociation of the nucleotide

  15. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Huang, Wei Ming; Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106 (China); Wu, Chih Cheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233 (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced. (author)

  16. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Huang Weiming [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gracelee@ntu.edu.tw; Wu Chihcheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233, Taiwan (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced.

  17. NDK Interacts with FtsZ and Converts GDP to GTP to Trigger FtsZ Polymerisation--A Novel Role for NDK.

    Mishra, Saurabh; Jakkala, Kishor; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Arumugam, Muthu; Ranjeri, Raghavendra; Gupta, Prabuddha; Rajeswari, Haryadi; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), conserved across bacteria to humans, synthesises NTP from NDP and ATP. The eukaryotic homologue, the NDPK, uses ATP to phosphorylate the tubulin-bound GDP to GTP for tubulin polymerisation. The bacterial cytokinetic protein FtsZ, which is the tubulin homologue, also uses GTP for polymerisation. Therefore, we examined whether NDK can interact with FtsZ to convert FtsZ-bound GDP and/or free GDP to GTP to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. Recombinant and native NDK and FtsZ proteins of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as the experimental samples. FtsZ polymersation was monitored using 90° light scattering and FtsZ polymer pelleting assays. The γ32P-GTP synthesised by NDK from GDP and γ32P-ATP was detected using thin layer chromatography and quantitated using phosphorimager. The FtsZ bound 32P-GTP was quantitated using phosphorimager, after UV-crosslinking, followed by SDS-PAGE. The NDK-FtsZ interaction was determined using Ni2+-NTA-pulldown assay and co-immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and native proteins in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. NDK triggered instantaneous polymerisation of GDP-precharged recombinant FtsZ in the presence of ATP, similar to the polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) upon the direct addition of GTP. Similarly, NDK triggered polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) in the presence of free GDP and ATP as well. Mutant NDK, partially deficient in GTP synthesis from ATP and GDP, triggered low level of polymerisation of MsFtsZ, but not of MtFtsZ. As characteristic of NDK's NTP substrate non-specificity, it used CTP, TTP, and UTP also to convert GDP to GTP, to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. The NDK of one mycobacterial species could trigger the polymerisation of the FtsZ of another mycobacterial species. Both the recombinant and the native NDK and FtsZ showed interaction with each other in vitro and ex vivo, alluding to the possibility of direct

  18. NDK Interacts with FtsZ and Converts GDP to GTP to Trigger FtsZ Polymerisation - A Novel Role for NDK

    Mishra, Saurabh; Jakkala, Kishor; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Arumugam, Muthu; Ranjeri, Raghavendra; Gupta, Prabuddha; Rajeswari, Haryadi; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), conserved across bacteria to humans, synthesises NTP from NDP and ATP. The eukaryotic homologue, the NDPK, uses ATP to phosphorylate the tubulin-bound GDP to GTP for tubulin polymerisation. The bacterial cytokinetic protein FtsZ, which is the tubulin homologue, also uses GTP for polymerisation. Therefore, we examined whether NDK can interact with FtsZ to convert FtsZ-bound GDP and/or free GDP to GTP to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. Methods Recombinant and native NDK and FtsZ proteins of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as the experimental samples. FtsZ polymersation was monitored using 90° light scattering and FtsZ polymer pelleting assays. The γ32P-GTP synthesised by NDK from GDP and γ32P-ATP was detected using thin layer chromatography and quantitated using phosphorimager. The FtsZ bound 32P-GTP was quantitated using phosphorimager, after UV-crosslinking, followed by SDS-PAGE. The NDK-FtsZ interaction was determined using Ni2+-NTA-pulldown assay and co-immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and native proteins in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. Results NDK triggered instantaneous polymerisation of GDP-precharged recombinant FtsZ in the presence of ATP, similar to the polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) upon the direct addition of GTP. Similarly, NDK triggered polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) in the presence of free GDP and ATP as well. Mutant NDK, partially deficient in GTP synthesis from ATP and GDP, triggered low level of polymerisation of MsFtsZ, but not of MtFtsZ. As characteristic of NDK’s NTP substrate non-specificity, it used CTP, TTP, and UTP also to convert GDP to GTP, to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. The NDK of one mycobacterial species could trigger the polymerisation of the FtsZ of another mycobacterial species. Both the recombinant and the native NDK and FtsZ showed interaction with each other in vitro and ex vivo, alluding

  19. A step function model to evaluate the real monetary value of man-sievert with real GDP

    Na, Seong H.; Kim, Sun G.

    2009-01-01

    For use in a cost-benefit analysis to establish optimum levels of radiation protection in Korea under the ALARA principle, we introduce a discrete step function model to evaluate man-sievert monetary value in the real economic value. The model formula, which is unique and country-specific, is composed of real GDP, the nominal risk coefficient for cancer and hereditary effects, the aversion factor against radiation exposure, and average life expectancy. Unlike previous researches on alpha-value assessment, we show different alpha values in the real term, differentiated with respect to the range of individual doses, which would be more realistic and informative for application to the radiation protection practices. GDP deflators of economy can reflect the society's situations. Finally, we suggest that the Korean model can be generalized simply to other countries without normalizing any country-specific factors.

  20. CO2 Emissions, Real GDP, Renewable Energy and Tourism: Evidence from Panel of the Most-Visited Countries

    Eyüp Doğan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the energy-environment-growth literature overlook the investigation of the most-visited countries. Since these countries do not only belong to the largest economies and the top carbon dioxide (CO2 emitters in the world but are also listed in renewable energy country attractiveness index, this study analyzes the impacts of real GDP, renewable energy and tourism on the level of CO2 emissions for the top 10 mostvisited countries. Applying several panel econometric approaches, we find out that renewable energy mitigates the pollution whereas real GDP and tourism contribute to the level of emissions. Thus, regulatory policies are necessary to increase the awareness of sustainable tourism. In addition, the use of renewable energy and the adoption of clean technologies in tourism sector as well as in producing goods and services play a significant role in CO2 mitigation.

  1. A step function model to evaluate the real monetary value of man-sievert with real GDP

    Na, Seong H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shna@kins.re.kr; Kim, Sun G. [School of Business, Daejeon University, Yong Woon-dong, Dong-gu, Daejeon 300-716 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sunkim@dju.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    For use in a cost-benefit analysis to establish optimum levels of radiation protection in Korea under the ALARA principle, we introduce a discrete step function model to evaluate man-sievert monetary value in the real economic value. The model formula, which is unique and country-specific, is composed of real GDP, the nominal risk coefficient for cancer and hereditary effects, the aversion factor against radiation exposure, and average life expectancy. Unlike previous researches on alpha-value assessment, we show different alpha values in the real term, differentiated with respect to the range of individual doses, which would be more realistic and informative for application to the radiation protection practices. GDP deflators of economy can reflect the society's situations. Finally, we suggest that the Korean model can be generalized simply to other countries without normalizing any country-specific factors.

  2. Causal relationship between CO₂ emissions, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness, and urbanization in Tunisia.

    Farhani, Sahbi; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the causal relationship between CO2 emissions, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness, and urbanization in Tunisia over the period of 1971-2012. The long-run relationship is investigated by the auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration and error correction method (ECM). The results of the analysis reveal a positive sign for the coefficient of financial development, suggesting that the financial development in Tunisia has taken place at the expense of environmental pollution. The Tunisian case also shows a positive monotonic relationship between real GDP and CO2 emissions. This means that the results do not support the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. In addition, the paper explores causal relationship between the variables by using Granger causality models and it concludes that financial development plays a vital role in the Tunisian economy.

  3. One recommendation of nuclear power export. GDP model application to the countries which expressed nuclear power introduction and consideration

    Iida, Tekehiko

    2010-01-01

    South Korea has been excited in nuclear business after the success in the contract to build nuclear power plants in UAE. Since more than 60 countries expressed nuclear power introduction and new countries were on the rise with exporting reactor technology accumulated, new era over nuclear renaissance seems to begin. This article at first classified countries, which expressed nuclear power introduction, with an economic level of GDP per capita. Then each classified country's requirements of nuclear power introduction were taken into consideration such as economic development, consumption pattern and technology attitude. As a result recommendation of nuclear power export was proposed. Different approach to each country targeted was suggested as shown in 'nuclear power GDP model'. (T. Tanaka)

  4. A step function model to evaluate the real monetary value of man-sievert with real GDP.

    Na, Seong H; Kim, Sun G

    2009-01-01

    For use in a cost-benefit analysis to establish optimum levels of radiation protection in Korea under the ALARA principle, we introduce a discrete step function model to evaluate man-sievert monetary value in the real economic value. The model formula, which is unique and country-specific, is composed of real GDP, the nominal risk coefficient for cancer and hereditary effects, the aversion factor against radiation exposure, and average life expectancy. Unlike previous researches on alpha-value assessment, we show different alpha values in the real term, differentiated with respect to the range of individual doses, which would be more realistic and informative for application to the radiation protection practices. GDP deflators of economy can reflect the society's situations. Finally, we suggest that the Korean model can be generalized simply to other countries without normalizing any country-specific factors.

  5. Study of correlation between the growth of micro and small business, the evolution of brazilian GDP and unemployment

    Erica Vieira Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aim to study the correlation between the growth of micro and small businesses and the evolution of the national GDP. In order to develop this study, the period from 2003 to 2013 of both variables was considered. Thus, GDP and Unemployment Average Rate data provided by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE was collected, as well as Micro and Small Businesses information provided by SEBRAE. From that point, points of analysis relevant to the study were collected and the statistical method of linear correlation was applied, in order to verify the existence or absence of a correlation between the study variables. The results indicate a linear correlation between the objects of study in the study period.

  6. Developing Green GDP Accounting for Thai Agricultural Sector Using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment to Assess Green Growth

    Attavanich, Witsanu; Mungkung, Rattanawan; Mahathanaseth, Itthipong; Sanglestsawai, Santi; Jirajari, Athiwatr

    2016-01-01

    There is no indicator measuring Thailand’s green growth by valuing the resource degradation and environmental damage costs. This article aims to estimate Thailand’s green gross domestic (GDP) that takes into account environmental damage costs with the detailed analysis on the agricultural sector using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) approach. The representative product in each sector was selected based on the available life cycle inventory data, economic values and...

  7. Analysis of renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions: A structural VAR approach in Romania

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Zeshan, Muhammad; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Impulse responses of our structural VAR portray a positive correlation between the real GDP of Romania and energy consumption. The present study employs the annual data covering the period 1980-2008, and brings to light the factors playing important role in satisfying the energy requirements, its economic and social implications. Any short-run rise in energy requirements is contented with the help of nonrenewable energy consumption, for renewable energy is not so common in Romania. In additio...

  8. CO2 Emissions, Real GDP, Renewable Energy and Tourism: Evidence from Panel of the Most-Visited Countries

    Eyüp Doğan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on the energy-environment-growth literature overlook the investigation of the most-visited countries. Since these countries do not only belong to the largest economies and the top carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters in the world but are also listed in renewable energy country attractiveness index, this study analyzes the impacts of real GDP, renewable energy and tourism on the level of CO2 emissions for the top 10 mostvisited countries. Applying several panel econometri...

  9. Determining the causal relationships among entrepreneurship, educational attainment and per capita GDP in high-income OECD countries

    Feyza BALAN; Seda OZEKICIOGLU; Cuneyt KILIC

    2016-01-01

    The entrepreneurship has been evaluated as playing a central role in explaining economic growth by many economists and policy makers. This role has recently been the subject of a growing literature. However, entrepreneurship literature generally has been focused on evaluating the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth. This study will evaluate the causal relationships among women’s and men’s entrepreneurship, women’s and men’s educational attainment and per capita GDP in...

  10. Interest rate risk and other determinants of post WWII U.S. government debt/GDP dynamics

    George J. Hall; Thomas J. Sargent

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the sequence of government budget constraints to motivate estimates of interest payments on the U.S. Federal government debt. We explain why our estimates differ conceptually and quantitatively from those reported by the U.S. government. We use our estimates to account for contributions to the evolution of the debt to GDP ratio made by inflation, growth, and nominal returns paid on debts of different maturities.

  11. Countercyclical capital buffers and real-time credit-to-GDP gap estimates: A South African perspective

    Farrell, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Countercyclical capital buffers are intended to protect the banking sector and the broader economy from episodes of excessive credit growth, which have been associated with financial sector procyclicality and the build-up of systemic risk. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has suggested in its guidance to national authorities that the credit-to-GDP gap be used as a guide to taking decisions regarding the countercyclical capital buffer. This paper provides a South African pers...

  12. Classification of Global Land Development Phases by Forest and GDP Changes for Appropriate Land Management in the Mid-Latitude

    Cholho Song

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To implement appropriate land management strategies, it is essential to identify past and current land cover and land use conditions. In addition, an assessment of land development phases (LDPs in a human-dominated landscape coupled with an analysis of the water-food-ecosystem (WFE nexus can deepen our understanding of sustainable land management. In this study, we proposed the concept of land development phases (LDPs by forest and GDP changes using previously-applied theoretical and empirical approaches. The positive relationship between GDP growth and forest stock changes was used to analyze the timing of forest stock changes as five-year averages, which were aggregated over 20 years to classify LDPs. In addition, forest area changes compared with GDP and GDP per capita changes were analyzed to identify LDPs. Based on two conceptual approaches, we suggested global land into three LDPs: degradation, restoration and sustainability. Using this approach, most of Europe, North America and northeast Asia were classified as sustainability phases, while Africa and Central Asia in the Mid-Latitude region appeared to have degradation or restoration phases. The LDPs described could be improved with further incorporation of solid data analysis and clear standards, but even at this stage, these LDP classifications suggest points for implementing appropriate land management. In addition, indices from comparative analysis of the LDPs with the WFE nexus can be connected with socio-economic global indices, such as the Global Hunger Index, the Food Production Index and the Climate Change Performance Index. The LDPs have the potential to facilitate appropriate land management strategies through integrating WFE nexus and ecosystem services; we propose future research that uses this integration for the Mid-Latitude region and worldwide.

  13. Long-term labour productivity and GDP projections for the EU25 Member States : a production function framework

    Carone, Giuseppe; Denis, Cécile; Mc Morrow, Kieran; Mourre, Gilles; Röger, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of long run labour productivity and GDP growth rate projections (until 2050) for each of the 25 EU Member States and provides a detailed overview of the forecast methodology used. These projections were undertaken in order to provide an internationally comparable macroeconomic framework against which to assess the potential economic and fiscal effects of ageing populations. The projections presented in this paper, using a common production function methodology ...

  14. Long-term labour productivity and GDP projections for the EU25 Member States : a production function framework

    Carone, Giuseppe; Denis, Cécile; Mc Morrow, Kieran; Mourre, Gilles; Röger, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of long run labour productivity and GDP growth rate projections (until 2050) for each of the 25 EU Member States and provides a detailed overview of the forecast methodology used. These projections were undertaken in order to provide an internationally comparable macroeconomic framework against which to assess the potential economic and fiscal effects of ageing populations. The projections presented in this paper, using a common production function methodol...

  15. Comparing the symptoms and mechanisms of "dissociation" in dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F; Korzekwa, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    A total of 75 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised as having dissociative identity disorder (DID), and 100 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality as having borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both groups were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). DID patients had significantly higher MID scores than BPD patients, different distributions of MID scores, and different MID subscale profiles in 3 ranges of MID scores (0-15, 15-30, 30-45). The core MID symptoms-exhibited at all ranges of MID scores-for DID patients (the presence of alters, identity confusion, and memory problems) and BPD patients (flashbacks, identity confusion, and memory problems) were ostensibly similar but were considered to be mostly produced by different underlying processes. Multiple regression analyses showed that the core MID symptoms of DID patients had different predictors than did the core MID symptoms of BPD patients. Alter identities seemed to generate most-but not all-dissociative phenomena in DID patients, whereas only the 24% highest scoring BPD patients (MID ≥45) seemed to manifest alter-driven dissociative experiences. Most BPD dissociative experiences appeared to be due to 5 other mechanisms: (a) BPD-specific, stress-driven, rapid shifts of self-state; (b and c) nondefensive disruptions of the framework of perceptual organization with or without an accompanying BPD-specific, dissociation-like disintegration of affective/neurocognitive functioning; (d) a defensive distancing or detachment from distress (i.e., simple depersonalization); and (e) Allen, Console, and Lewis's (1999) severe absorptive detachment.

  16. The impact of HIV prevalence, conflict, corruption, and GDP/capita on treatment cascades: data from 137 countries.

    Levi, Jacob; Pozniak, Anton; Heath, Katherine; Hill, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    In 2014, UNAIDS and partners set the 90-90-90 targets for the HIV treatment cascade. Multiple social, political and structural factors might influence progress towards these targets. We assessed how close countries and regions are to reaching these targets, and compared cascade outcomes with HIV prevalence, gross domestic product (GDP)/capita, conflict and corruption. Country-level HIV cascade data on diagnosis, ART coverage and viral suppression, from 2010 to 2016 were extracted from national reports, published papers and the www.AIDSinfoOnline database, and analysed. Weighted least-squares regression was used to assess predictors of cascade achievement: region, HIV prevalence, GDP/capita, the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), which is an international ranking system, and the 2016 Global Peace Index (GPI), which ranks all countries based on three main categories: societal safety, militarisation and conflict. Data were available for diagnosis for 84 countries, ART coverage for 137 countries, and viral suppression for 94 countries. Regions with the lowest ART coverage were South-east Asia and Pacific (36%), Eastern Europe and Central Asia (17%), and Middle East and North Africa (13%). Lower HIV prevalence was associated with poorer cascade results. Countries with higher GDP/capita achieved higher ART coverage ( P corruption had lower ART coverage ( P 2.5 all had ART coverage of corruption and conflict levels.

  17. The effect of private investment, exports, imports, inflation and GDP on per capita premium: Evidence from members of OPEC countries

    Reza Abedini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the relationship between GDP, export, import, private sector investment and inflation on insurance per capita of OPEC countries. Insurance is a non-banking institution that by making sure and secure, can make and develop manufacturing and service rendering easier. Insurance companies can make financial steady and reduce stress. So, it plays essential role in economy. For this aim, data over the period 2003-2011 is collected. We use regression and SPSS software for analysis. Results for 80 year – country show that there was a positive and significant correlation between GDP, export, import, inflation and insurance per capita, which shows whenever productivity increases, insurance increases too. Results also show that there was a positive relationship between import and insurance per capita. In addition, results show that there was a positive and significant relationship between inflation and dependent variable. However, there was no significant relationship between exports and insurance per capita. The results show that there was no significant relationship between GDP and insurance per capita and finally, there was a non-significant and negative relationship between private sector investment and insurance per capita.

  18. Shock compression of glow discharge polymer (GDP): density functional theory (DFT) simulations and experiments on Sandia's Z-machine

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Cochrane, K. R.; Ao, T.; Lemke, R. W.; Flicker, D. G.; Schoff, M. E.; Blue, B. E.; Hamel, S.; Herrmann, M. C.

    2015-11-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) is used extensively as capsule/ablation material in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules. Accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) under shock and release is particularly important for high-fidelity design, analysis, and optimization of ICF experiments since the capsule material is subject to several converging shocks as well as release towards the cryogenic fuel. We performed Density Functional Theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, to gain knowledge of the behavior of GDP - including the effect of changes in chemical composition. The shock pressures calculated from DFT are compared experimental data taken on magnetically launched flyer plate impact experiments on at Sandia's Z-machine. Large GDP samples were grown in a planar geometry to improve the sample quality and maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere following manufacturing, thus allowing for a direct comparison to the DFT/QMD simulations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    Simonetti, Angelita; Marzi, Stefano; Fabbretti, Attilio; Hazemann, Isabelle; Jenner, Lasse; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2–GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue

  20. The Role of SMEs in Assessing the Contribution of Entrepreneurship to GDP in the Romanian Business Environment

    Dan Armeanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the negative effects of the economic crisis on the Romanian economy, entrepreneurship represents one of the main pillars of economic recovery and the authorities need to act in support of private entrepreneurship initiative. Even though entrepreneurship does not equate to the small and medium-sized enterprises, there is strong support in literature regarding the importance of SMEs in national economies due to the authorities` potential of intervention and their contribution to gross value added. The fluctuating evolution of the Romanian business environment has led to a high volatility of its contribution to GDP, which is especially true in the case of SMEs due to their lack of technology and capital and difficult access to financing, as well as limited know-how compared to the large companies that control the Romanian market. Successful entrepreneurial initiative leads to sustainable businesses and ensures a smooth transition from business ideas to the creation of value added, thus supporting economic growth and the narrowing of macroeconomic gaps which have been generated during the economic recession. As a distinctive and dynamic component of Romanian entrepreneurship, the SME segment has a significant contribution to GDP. This study aims at assessing the contribution of entrepreneurship, through its SME segment, to Romania`s GDP in the main economic sectors and, at the same time, the estimation of output gap at sectoral level, thus filling a gap in entrepreneurship-related domestic literature.

  1. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    Simonetti, Angelita [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Marzi, Stefano [Architecture et Réactivité de l’ARN, UPR 9002 CNRS, IBMC (Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology), 15 Rue R. Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, France, Université de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Fabbretti, Attilio [University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Hazemann, Isabelle; Jenner, Lasse [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale -INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Gualerzi, Claudio O. [University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Klaholz, Bruno P., E-mail: klaholz@igbmc.fr [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France)

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2–GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue.

  2. Testing for causality between the foreign direct investment, current account deficit, GDP and total credit: Evidence from G7

    Akbas Yusuf Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, countries were analyzed between 1990 and 2011 in order to determine whether a causal relationship exists among current account deficit, GDP, foreign direct investment, and total credits of G7. Analysis took into account the cross-sectional dependence and was applied to test the causality among the variables form the panel. Firstly, panel unit root tests were used for determining stationary of variables. As a result of the panel unit root tests, it was found that GDP and foreign direct investment have a stationary structure and that total credits and current account deficit contain unit root. In order to see whether there is a long-term relationship among the variables or not, the panel co-integration test was used. As a result of the test, it was concluded that there is a co-integration relationship among the series. The possibility of a causal relationship was analyzed among the variables using the causality test developed by Elena Ivona Dumitrescu and Christophe Hurlin (2012. Results of the analysis showed a unidirectional causal relationship from current account deficit and foreign direct investment to GDP. Bidirectional causality was found between current account deficit and total credits. Finally, a unidirectional relationship was found from foreign direct investment to current account deficit and total credits.

  3. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  4. P300 is attenuated during dissociative episodes.

    Kirino, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the pathophysiology of dissociative phenomena using the P300 component of event-related potentials, quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG), and morphology measures of computed tomography scan. Event-related potentials during an auditory oddball paradigm and QEEG in resting state were recorded. Patients exhibited attenuation of P300 amplitudes compared with controls during dissociative episodes, but exhibited recovery to control levels in remission. Patients had a larger Sylvian fissure-brain ratio than did controls. QEEG findings revealed no significant differences between the patients and controls or between episodes and remission in the patient group. Attenuation of the P300 can be interpreted as the result of a negative feedback loop from the medial temporal lobe to the cortex, which decreases the amount of information flow, allocation of attentional resources, and updating of working memory to avoid both excessive long-term memory system activity in medial temporal lobe and resurgence of affect-laden memories.

  5. Dissociative Disorders: Between Neurosis and Psychosis

    Devillé, C.; Moeglin, C.; Sentissi, O.

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms “neurosis” and “psychosis.” Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis. PMID:25405051

  6. Dissociative Disorders: Between Neurosis and Psychosis

    C. Devillé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms “neurosis” and “psychosis.” Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis.

  7. Critical superheats upon boiling of dissociating liquids

    Kolykhan, L.I.; Solov'ev, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on critical superheats of dissociating liquids, i.e. nitrogen tetroxide and nitrine are presented (nitrine is the solution of nitrogen oxide in nitrogen tetroxide). The experiments with boiling N 2 O 4 have been carried out in the pressure range 0.1-3.0 MPa and with boiling nitrine within the pressure range 0.2-9.0 MPa. The experiments have revealed an anomalous dependence of critical superheats on pressure P, thus at P>=2.5 MPa the critical superheat values exceed the limiting ones, and at P=4.5 MPa this excess amounts to more than 16 K, essentially exceeding the errors of the experiments. The results for N 2 O 4 critical superheats agree with experimental data of other authors. Complex phenomena observed upon boiling of dissociating liquids require further theoretical and experimental studies

  8. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep inelastic scattering

    Ryskin, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The new ep-collider HERA gives us the possibility to study the diffractive dissociation of virtual photon in deep inelastic ep-collision. The process of photon dissociation in deep inelastic scattering is the most direct way to measure the value of triple-pomeron vertex G 3P . It was shown that the value of the correct bare vertex G 3P may more than 4 times exceeds its effective value measuring in the triple-reggeon region and reaches the value of about 40-50% of the elastic pp-pomeron vertex. On the contrary in deep inelastic processes the perpendicular momenta q t of the secondary particles are large enough. Thus in deep inelastic reactions one can measure the absolute value of G 3P vertex in the most direct way and compare its value and q t dependence with the leading log QCD predictions

  9. Dissociative Excitation of Thymine by Electron Impact

    McConkey, William; Tiessen, Collin; Hein, Jeffrey; Trocchi, Joshuah; Kedzierski, Wladek

    2014-05-01

    A crossed electron-gas beam system coupled to a VUV spectrometer has been used to investigate the dissociation of thymine (C5H6N2O2) into excited atomic fragments in the electron-impact energy range from threshold to 375 eV. A special stainless steel oven is used to vaporize the thymine and form it into a beam where it is intersected by a magnetically collimated electron beam, typical current 50 μA. The main features in the spectrum are the H Lyman series lines. The probability of extracting excited C or N atoms from the ring is shown to be very small. In addition to spectral data, excitation probability curves as a function of electron energy will be presented for the main emission features. Possible dissociation channels and excitation mechanisms in the parent molecule will be discussed. The authors thank NSERC (Canada) for financial support.

  10. Dissociative Disorders Among Chinese Inpatients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia

    Yu, Junhan; Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Li, Ying; Dai, Yunfei; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Lanlan; Fan, Qing; Xiao, Zeping

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of dissociative disorders in a sample of Chinese psychiatric inpatients. Participants in the study consisted of 569 consecutively admitted inpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, China, of whom 84.9% had a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia based on the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Disorders, Version 3 (CCMD-3). All participants completed a self-report measure of dissociation, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and none had a prior diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Ninety-six randomly selected participants were interviewed with a structured interview, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) and a clinical interview. These 96 patients did not differ significantly from the 473 patients who were not interviewed on any demographic measures or on the self-report measure dissociation. A total of 28 (15.3%, after weighting of the data) patients received a clinical diagnosis of a dissociative disorder based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Dissociative identity disorder was diagnosed in 2 (0.53%, after weighting) patients. Compared to the patients without a dissociative disorder, patients with dissociative disorders were significantly more likely to report childhood abuse (57.1% versus 22.1%), but the two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic measures. Dissociative disorders were readily identified in an inpatient psychiatric population in China. PMID:20603768

  11. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are Golgi-localised GDP-sugar transporters in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Utz, Daniella; Handford, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Plant nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) are responsible for the import of nucleotide-sugar substrates into the Golgi lumen, for subsequent use in glycosylation reactions. NSTs are specific for either GDP- or UDP-sugars, and almost all transporters studied to date have been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana L. In order to determine the conservation of the import mechanism in other higher plant species, here we report the identification and characterisation of VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless), which are the orthologues of the GDP-sugar transporters GONST3 and GONST4 in Arabidopsis. Both grapevine NSTs possess the molecular features characteristic of GDP-sugar transporters, including a GDP-binding domain (GXL/VNK) towards the C-terminal. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B expression is highest at berry setting and decreases throughout berry development and ripening. Moreover, we show using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged versions and brefeldin A treatments, that both are localised in the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, in vitro transport assays after expression of both NSTs in tobacco leaves indicate that VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are capable of transporting GDP-mannose and GDP-glucose, respectively, but not a range of other UDP- and GDP-sugars. The possible functions of these NSTs in glucomannan synthesis and/or glycosylation of sphingolipids are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Malingering dissociative identity disorder: objective and projective assessment.

    Labott, Susan M; Wallach, Heather R

    2002-04-01

    Verification of dissociative identity disorder presents challenges given the complex nature of the illness. This study addressed the concern that this disorder can be successfully malingered on objective and projective psychological tests. 50 undergraduate women were assigned to a Malingering or a Control condition, then completed the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Dissociative Experiences Scale II. The Malingering group were asked to simulate dissociative identity disorder; controls received instructions to answer all materials honestly. Analysis indicated that malingerers were significantly more likely to endorse dissociative experiences on the Dissociative Experiences Scale II in the range common to patients with diagnosed dissociative identity disorder. However, on the Rorschach there were no significant differences between the two groups. Results suggest that the assessment of dissociative identity disorder requires a multifaceted approach with both objective and projective assessment tools. Research is needed to assess these issues in clinical populations.

  13. Teaching Chinese psychiatrists to make reliable dissociative disorder diagnoses.

    Fan, Qing; Yu, Junhan; Ross, Colin A; Keyes, Benjamin B; Dai, Yunfei; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Lanlan; Xiao, Zeping

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the outcome of an educational effort by two North American experts in dissociative disorders to teach Chinese psychiatrists to make reliable dissociative disorder diagnoses. In the final phase of the educational effort, 569 patients at Shanghai Mental Health Center completed the Chinese version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Patients were then randomly selected in different proportions according to their DES scores: 96 selected patients were then assessed with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) and clinical diagnostic interviews based on DSM-IV criteria. According to the clinical diagnostic interviews, 28 (4.9%) patients were diagnosed as having dissociative disorders. Agreement between the American experts and Chinese psychiatrists for presence or absence of a dissociative disorder was 0.75 using Cohen's kappa. Dissociative disorders can be diagnosed in China with good inter-rater reliability. The authors describe the steps taken to achieve this outcome.

  14. Total dissociation cross section of halo nuclei

    Formanek, J. [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Fakulta Matematicko-Fyzikalni; Lombard, R.J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1996-10-01

    Calculations of the total dissociation cross section is performed in the impact parameter representation. The case of {sup 11}Be and {sup 11}Li loosing one and two neutron(s), respectively, by collision on a {sup 12}C target, which remains in its ground state are discussed. The results are found to depend essentially on the rms radius of the halo wave function. (author). 12 refs.

  15. Coulomb dissociation studies for astrophysical thermonuclear reactions

    Motobayashi, T [Dept. of Physics, Rikkyo Univ., Toshima, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    The Coulomb dissociation method was applied to several radiative capture processes of astrophysical interest. The method has an advantage of high experimental efficiency, which allow measurements with radioactive nuclear beams. The reactions {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O and {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B are mainly discussed. They are the key reaction in the hot CNO cycle in massive stars and the one closely related to the solar neutrino problem, respectively. (orig.)

  16. Dressing effect in multiphoton unimolecular dissociation

    Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.

    1986-03-01

    On the basis of a quantum-statistical model recently discussed, we deal in this paper with the perturbations induced by the intense field of a CO/sub 2/ laser on the levels of the vibrational pattern of a molecule undergoing multiphoton unimolecular dissociation. This perturbational correction is investigated by using a displacement operator technique and the results are interpreted according to the statistical model.

  17. Attempting to model dissociations of memory.

    Reber, Paul J.

    2002-05-01

    Kinder and Shanks report simulations aimed at describing a single-system model of the dissociation between declarative and non-declarative memory. This model attempts to capture both Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) and recognition memory with a single underlying representation. However, the model fails to reflect an essential feature of recognition memory - that it occurs after a single exposure - and the simulations may instead describe a potentially interesting property of over-training non-declarative memory.

  18. Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis AtNUDX9 as a GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphohydrolase: its involvement in root growth inhibition in response to ammonium.

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Maruta, Takanori; Ogawa, Takahisa; Tanabe, Noriaki; Tamoi, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-09-01

    GDP-d-mannose (GDP-d-Man) is an important intermediate in ascorbic acid (AsA) synthesis, cell wall synthesis, protein N-glycosylation, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchoring in plants. Thus, the modulation of intracellular levels of GDP-d-Man could be important for maintaining various cellular processes. Here an Arabidopsis GDP-d-Man pyrophosphohydrolase, AtNUDX9 (AtNUDT9; At3g46200), which hydrolysed GDP-d-Man to GMP and mannose 1-phosphate, was identified. The K m and V max values for GDP-d-Man of AtNUDX9 were 376±24 μM and 1.61±0.15 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively. Among various tissues, the expression levels of AtNUDX9 and the total activity of GDP-d-Man pyrophosphohydrolase were the highest in the roots. The GDP-d-Man pyrophosphohydrolase activity was increased in the root of plants grown in the presence of ammonium. No difference was observed in the levels of AsA in the leaf and root tissues of the wild-type and knockout-nudx9 (KO-nudx9) plants, whereas a marked increase in N-glycoprotein levels and enhanced growth were detected in the roots of KO-nudx9 plants in the presence of ammonium. These results suggest that AtNUDX9 is involved in the regulation of GDP-d-Man levels affecting ammonium sensitivity via modulation of protein N-glycosylation in the roots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Macro determinants of cause-specific injury mortality in the OECD countries: an exploration of the importance of GDP and unemployment.

    Muazzam, Sana; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2011-08-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and unemployment has a strong documented impact on injury mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship of GDP per capita and unemployment with gender- and cause-specific injury mortalities in the member nations of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Country-based data on injury mortality per 100,000 population, including males and females aged 1-74, for the 4 year period 1996-1999, were gathered from the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. We selected fourteen cause-specific injury mortalities. Data on GDP, unemployment rate and population growth were taken from World Development Indicators. GDP and unemployment rate per 100 separately were regressed on total and cause-specific injury mortality rate per 100,000 for males and females. Overall in the OECD countries, GDP per capita increased 12.5% during 1996-1999 (P = 0.03) where as unemployment rate decreased by 12.3% (P = 0.05). Among males, most cause-specific injury mortality rates decreased with increasing GDP except motor vehicle traffic crashes (MTC) that increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.75; P GDP (coefficient = 0.31; P = 0.04). When we modeled cause-specific injury mortality rates with unemployment, injuries due to firearm missiles (coefficient = 0.53; P GDP is more related to cause-specific injury mortality than unemployment. Injury mortality does not relate similarly to each diagnosis-specific cause among males and females. Further research on causation with more predictors is needed.

  20. Laser ionization and dissociation of hydrogen

    Buck, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments undertaken to further characterize the spectroscopic and photophysical properties of some important excited singlet states of molecular hydrogen and its deuterium isotopes are described. Attention was centered on high vibrational levels of the B, C, and B' states within about 1000 cm -1 of the second dissociation limit. A double-resonance excitation scheme was needed to access levels with a large average bond distance from the ground state. Two-photon absorption of tunable uv-laser radiation-pumped ground-state hydrogen molecules into selected rovibronic levels of the metastable EF double-minimum electronic state. A second tunable near-IR probe laser was scanned to generate ions by resonant multiphoton ionization, where the resonant levels were provided by B, C, B', and other levels near the dissociation limit. New information was obtained regarding line shapes and intensities. Time-of-flight ion mass selection permitted observation of additional excitation channels with dissociation superimposed on the ionization process to produce protons

  1. How thioredoxin dissociates its mixed disulfide.

    Goedele Roos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The dissociation mechanism of the thioredoxin (Trx mixed disulfide complexes is unknown and has been debated for more than twenty years. Specifically, opposing arguments for the activation of the nucleophilic cysteine as a thiolate during the dissociation of the complex have been put forward. As a key model, the complex between Trx and its endogenous substrate, arsenate reductase (ArsC, was used. In this structure, a Cys29(Trx-Cys89(ArsC intermediate disulfide is formed by the nucleophilic attack of Cys29(Trx on the exposed Cys82(ArsC-Cys89(ArsC in oxidized ArsC. With theoretical reactivity analysis, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical complex formation experiments with Cys-mutants, Trx mixed disulfide dissociation was studied. We observed that the conformational changes around the intermediate disulfide bring Cys32(Trx in contact with Cys29(Trx. Cys32(Trx is activated for its nucleophilic attack by hydrogen bonds, and Cys32(Trx is found to be more reactive than Cys82(ArsC. Additionally, Cys32(Trx directs its nucleophilic attack on the more susceptible Cys29(Trx and not on Cys89(ArsC. This multidisciplinary approach provides fresh insights into a universal thiol/disulfide exchange reaction mechanism that results in reduced substrate and oxidized Trx.

  2. Dissociative recombination of small molecular ions

    Mul, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis an analysis is given of merged electron-ion beam experiment and work on dissociative recombination of molecular ions and electrons is described. Chapter II covers a brief introduction of the theory of dissociative recombination. In chapter III, a description is given of the merged electron-ion beam experiment and a method is described which allows the determination of the mean angle between the electron and ion trajectories in a merged electron-ion beam experiment. In chapter IV a paper on the three dominant atmospheric diatomic ions NO + , O 2 + and N 2 + is presented and in chapter V the dissociative recombination for N 2 H + and N 2 D + is discussed. In chapter VI two papers on the polyatomic ions of the carbon-containing molecular ions are presented, and in chapter VII a letter with some results of the work presented in more detail in the chapters IV, V and VI is presented. The magnitude and the energy dependence of the cross-section measured by the merged beam technique and by other techniques is compared and discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Dissociated cultures of newborn mouse brain

    Wiesmann, U.N.; Hofmann, K.; Burkhart, T.; Herschkowitz, N.

    1975-01-01

    The metabolism of 35 SO 4 -sulfated lipids and mucopolysaccharides was studied in dissociated brain cell cultures from newborn albino mouse brains. The cultures were maintained under an atmosphere of 40% O 2 and 5% CO 2 in apparent good health up to 30 days. Early morphological examination of the dissociated cells demonstrated an initial partial reaggregation of the cells, which later settled and became confluent bilayered cultures. Cell proliferation measured by DNA and protein determination, morphological differentiation and biochemical differentiation took place in the dissociated brain cell cultures analogous in some respects to the in vivo situation. A timed increase in the synthesis of a myelin precursor, cerebroside 35 SO 4 , was observed after 6 to 8 days in culture (DIC). A peak of cerebroside sulfate was evident at 17 DIC. No stable sulfatide was observed at any time. Protein-bound macromolecular 35 SO 4 -MPS was synthetized and secreted from the cells into the culture medium. Maximal synthesis and secretion occurred at 8 DIC. This culture system proves to be a useful model for studying some aspects of differentiation of brain cells under external conditions. (author)

  4. [Questionnaire on dissociative symptoms. German adaptation, reliability and validity of the American Dissociative Experience Scale (DES)].

    Freyberger, H J; Spitzer, C; Stieglitz, R D; Kuhn, G; Magdeburg, N; Bernstein-Carlson, E

    1998-06-01

    The "Fragebogen zu dissoziativen Symptomen (FDS)" represents the authorised German translation and adaptation of the "Dissociative Experience Scale" (DES; Bernstein and Putnam 1986). The original scale comprises 28 items covering dissociative experiences with regard to memory, identity, awareness and cognition according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV. For the German version, 16 items were added to cover dissociative phenomena according to ICD-10, mainly pseudoneurological conversion symptoms. Reliability and validity of the German version were studied in a total sample of 813 persons and were compared to the results of the original version. Test-retest reliability of the FDS was rtt = 0.88 and Cronbach's consistency coefficient was alpha = 0.93, which is comparable to the results of the DES. The instrument differentiates between different samples (healthy control subjects, students, unselected neurological and psychiatric inpatients, neurological and psychiatric patients with a dissociative disorder and schizophrenics). The FDS is an easily applicable, reliable and valid measure to quantify dissociative experiences.

  5. Zero-Point Energy Constraint for Unimolecular Dissociation Reactions. Giving Trajectories Multiple Chances To Dissociate Correctly.

    Paul, Amit K; Hase, William L

    2016-01-28

    A zero-point energy (ZPE) constraint model is proposed for classical trajectory simulations of unimolecular decomposition and applied to CH4* → H + CH3 decomposition. With this model trajectories are not allowed to dissociate unless they have ZPE in the CH3 product. If not, they are returned to the CH4* region of phase space and, if necessary, given additional opportunities to dissociate with ZPE. The lifetime for dissociation of an individual trajectory is the time it takes to dissociate with ZPE in CH3, including multiple possible returns to CH4*. With this ZPE constraint the dissociation of CH4* is exponential in time as expected for intrinsic RRKM dynamics and the resulting rate constant is in good agreement with the harmonic quantum value of RRKM theory. In contrast, a model that discards trajectories without ZPE in the reaction products gives a CH4* → H + CH3 rate constant that agrees with the classical and not quantum RRKM value. The rate constant for the purely classical simulation indicates that anharmonicity may be important and the rate constant from the ZPE constrained classical trajectory simulation may not represent the complete anharmonicity of the RRKM quantum dynamics. The ZPE constraint model proposed here is compared with previous models for restricting ZPE flow in intramolecular dynamics, and connecting product and reactant/product quantum energy levels in chemical dynamics simulations.

  6. Study on effectiveness of gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) for relapsed or refractory AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Zhong, Dong Ta; Shi, Chun Mei; Chen, Qiang; Huang, Jing Ze; Liang, Jian Gang

    2012-11-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) remains the second most common malignant complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Even though NHL is commonly chemosensitive to primary treatment, failure or relapse still occurs in a large number of patients. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) for relapsed or refractory AIDS-related NHL (AIDS-NHL). Forty-eight patients with relapsed or refractory AIDS-NHL were treated with intravenous combination chemotherapy with GDP. The overall objective response rate was 54.1% (95% confidence interval, CI, 40.1-68.3%), with 10 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The 2-year overall survival rate (OS) was 70.8% (95% CI 58.0-83.7%), and the 5-year OS was 41.7% (95% CI 27.7-55.6%). The 2-year progression-free survival rate (PFS) was 37.5% (95% CI 23.8-51.2%), and the 5-year PFS was 25.0% (95% CI 12.8-37.3%). The median progression-free survival was 8.8 months (95% CI 0-20.3 months), and the median overall survival was 40.6 months (95% CI 22.6-58.6 months). Patients with B cell tumors who relapsed but had no B symptoms were clinical stage I/II, had infiltration fewer than two extranodal sites, had CD4⁺ counts >200 cells/μL, and had lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) less than the upper limit of normal benefited from GDP. The level of LDH had a significant impact on the response rate to chemotherapy with GDP (P = 0.015). Myelosuppression was the main side effect; the incidence of grade 3-4 anemia was 8.3%; leukopenia, 37.5%; and thrombocytopenia, 48.3%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables for OS and PFS. This study confirms that GDP is an effective and safe salvage regimen in relapsed or refractory AIDS-NHL, was associated with modest declines in CD4⁺ lymphocyte counts, and did not promote HIV-1 viral replication.

  7. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.

  8. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    Meng-Nan Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366 This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-Wei Su, Meng-Nan Zhu, published in our journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, 2011, vol. 29 (1, pp. 51-63 and almost concurrently published in the journal Eastern European Economics, 2011, vol. 49 (3, pp. 54-65. Being in contact with Josef C Brada, Professor Emeritus, Editor of the journal Eastern European Economics (EEE, we realized that the paper had been sent to both journals, although first published in the EEE and then in our Journal. According to professor Brada’s and our analysis, the paper published in these two journals is exactly the same, except for minor differences in wording, most likely due to editing the text before publication. The outstanding differences are in the title and the fact that the paper published in our Journal has three authors and in EEE journal has two. Whatsoever, owing to the fact that the article had been sent to both journals almost at the same time, it had been impossible to find out the case during the review procedure. Due to this unpleasant situation, our Editorial Board would like to inform our valuable readers that all the necessary measures to retract the paper from our publication have been undertaken and according to publishing ethical principles, cooperation with the authors of the retracted paper have been stopped. Although, in this case neither EEE nor our Journal had any

  9. Dissociation and memory fragmentation in post-traumatic stress disorder: an evaluation of the dissociative encoding hypothesis.

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review we summarise the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus initial evidence points more towards a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation.

  10. Data on ionization, excitation, dissociation and dissociative ionization of targets by helium ion bombardments, (1)

    Oda, Nobuo; Urakawa, Junji

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a compilation of the experimental data on cross sections for the ionization, excitation, dissociation and dissociative ionization processes of targets in helium ion impacts on atoms and molecules under a single collision condition. These measurements were carried out in the energy range from several keV to 3.5 MeV. A systematic survey has been made on the literatures from 1975 to the end of 1982. A list of references is also given, including relevant papers published before 1975. (author)

  11. What makes Ras an efficient molecular switch: a computational, biophysical, and structural study of Ras-GDP interactions with mutants of Raf.

    Filchtinski, Daniel; Sharabi, Oz; Rüppel, Alma; Vetter, Ingrid R; Herrmann, Christian; Shifman, Julia M

    2010-06-11

    Ras is a small GTP-binding protein that is an essential molecular switch for a wide variety of signaling pathways including the control of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. In the GTP-bound state, Ras can interact with its effectors, triggering various signaling cascades in the cell. In the GDP-bound state, Ras looses its ability to bind to known effectors. The interaction of the GTP-bound Ras (Ras(GTP)) with its effectors has been studied intensively. However, very little is known about the much weaker interaction between the GDP-bound Ras (Ras(GDP)) and Ras effectors. We investigated the factors underlying the nucleotide-dependent differences in Ras interactions with one of its effectors, Raf kinase. Using computational protein design, we generated mutants of the Ras-binding domain of Raf kinase (Raf) that stabilize the complex with Ras(GDP). Most of our designed mutations narrow the gap between the affinity of Raf for Ras(GTP) and Ras(GDP), producing the desired shift in binding specificity towards Ras(GDP). A combination of our best designed mutation, N71R, with another mutation, A85K, yielded a Raf mutant with a 100-fold improvement in affinity towards Ras(GDP). The Raf A85K and Raf N71R/A85K mutants were used to obtain the first high-resolution structures of Ras(GDP) bound to its effector. Surprisingly, these structures reveal that the loop on Ras previously termed the switch I region in the Ras(GDP).Raf mutant complex is found in a conformation similar to that of Ras(GTP) and not Ras(GDP). Moreover, the structures indicate an increased mobility of the switch I region. This greater flexibility compared to the same loop in Ras(GTP) is likely to explain the natural low affinity of Raf and other Ras effectors to Ras(GDP). Our findings demonstrate that an accurate balance between a rigid, high-affinity conformation and conformational flexibility is required to create an efficient and stringent molecular switch. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd

  12. How Hot are Your Ions Really? A Threshold Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of Substituted Benzylpyridinium "Thermometer" Ions

    Carpenter, John E.; McNary, Christopher P.; Furin, April; Sweeney, Andrew F.; Armentrout, P. B.

    2017-09-01

    The first absolute experimental bond dissociation energies (BDEs) for the main heterolytic bond cleavages of four benzylpyridinium "thermometer" ions are measured using threshold collision-induced dissociation in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. In this experiment, substituted benzylpyridinium ions are introduced into the apparatus using an electrospray ionization source, thermalized, and collided with Xe at varied kinetic energies to determine absolute cross-sections for these reactions. Various effects are accounted for, including kinetic shifts, multiple collisions, and internal and kinetic energy distributions. These experimentally measured 0 K BDEs are compared with computationally predicted values at the B3LYP-GD3BJ, M06-GD3, and MP2(full) levels of theory with a 6-311+G(2d,2p) basis set using vibrational frequencies and geometries determined at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level. Additional dissociation pathways are observed for nitrobenzylpyridinium experimentally and investigated using these same levels of theory. Experimental BDEs are also compared against values in the literature at the AM1, HF, B3LYP, B3P86, and CCSD(T) levels of theory. Of the calculated values obtained in this work, the MP2(full) level of theory with counterpoise corrections best reproduces the experimental results, as do the similar literature CCSD(T) values. Lastly, the survival yield method is used to determine the characteristic temperature (Tchar) of the electrospray source prior to the thermalization region and to confirm efficient thermalization. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. The responses of dissociative patients on the thematic apperception test.

    Pica, M; Beere, D; Lovinger, S; Dush, D

    2001-07-01

    This study compared the responses of dissociative inpatients and general inpatient psychiatric controls on the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943). We found the stories of dissociative participants to be characterized by a greater interpersonal distance and more trauma and dissociation responses than those of the controls. No significant differences were found regarding total number of emotional references, although references to positive emotions were almost nonexistent for the dissociative group. A post hoc analysis of the data found the testing behaviors of dissociative participants to be characterized by switching, trance states, intrainterview amnesias, and affectively loaded card rejections. Questions were raised regarding the relevancy of the findings to clinical practice and how they might explain some of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (DID). Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH

    Huang, Hsien-Yu; Lu, Tsai-Lien; Whang, Thou-Jen; Chang, Yung-Yung; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH was determined by analyzing the observed near dissociation rovibrational levels. These levels were reached by stimulated emission pumping and fluorescence depletion spectroscopy. A total of 114 rovibrational levels in the ranges 9≤v '' ≤21 and 1≤J '' ≤14 were assigned to the X 1 Σ + state of NaH. The highest vibrational level observed was only about 40 cm -1 from the dissociation limit in the ground state. One quasibound state, above the dissociation limit and confined by the centrifugal barrier, was observed. Determining the vibrational quantum number at dissociation v D from the highest four vibrational levels yielded the dissociation energy D e =15 815±5 cm -1 . Based on new observations and available data, a set of Dunham coefficients and the rotationless Rydberg-Klein-Rees curve were constructed. The effective potential curve and the quasibound states were discussed.

  15. Dissociative Photoionization of the Elusive Vinoxy Radical.

    Adams, Jonathan D; Scrape, Preston G; Lee, Shih-Huang; Butler, Laurie J

    2017-08-24

    These experiments report the dissociative photoionization of vinoxy radicals to m/z = 15 and 29. In a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus, we induce C-Cl bond fission in 2-chloroacetaldehyde by photoexcitation at 157 nm. Our velocity measurements, combined with conservation of angular momentum, show that 21% of the C-Cl photofission events form vinoxy radicals that are stable to subsequent dissociation to CH 3 + CO or H + ketene. Photoionization of these stable vinoxy radicals, identified by their velocities, which are momentum-matched with the higher-kinetic-energy Cl atom photofragments, shows that the vinoxy radicals dissociatively photoionize to give signal at m/z = 15 and 29. We calibrated the partial photoionization cross section of vinoxy to CH 3 + relative to the bandwidth-averaged photoionization cross section of the Cl atom at 13.68 eV to put the partial photoionization cross sections on an absolute scale. The resulting bandwidth-averaged partial cross sections are 0.63 and 1.3 Mb at 10.5 and 11.44 eV, respectively. These values are consistent with the upper limit to the cross section estimated from a study by Savee et al. on the O( 3 P) + propene bimolecular reaction. We note that the uncertainty in these values is primarily dependent on the signal attributed to C-Cl primary photofission in the m/z = 35 (Cl + ) time-of-flight data. While the value is a rough estimate, the bandwidth-averaged partial photoionization cross section of vinoxy to HCO + calculated from the signal at m/z = 29 at 11.53 eV is approximately half that of vinoxy to CH 3 + . We also present critical points on the potential energy surface of the vinoxy cation calculated at the G4//B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory to support the observation of dissociative ionization of vinoxy to both CH 3 + and HCO + .

  16. Lebanon and Syria: between dissociation and spillover

    Javier Lion Bustillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of Syrian civil war violence spreading towards Lebanon is high. This can be explained by various factors deriving as much from the neighbouring conflict as from other existing factors in Lebanese politics, which have led to the significant collaboration of Lebanon’s Future Movement and Hezbollah with their respective allies in Syria, and to undermining Najib Mikati’s dissociation policies. However, the leaders of those parties tend to balance their will to preserve their confessional leadership with an image of being the defender of national interests. This limits the possibility of an openly sectarian conflict, but it does not totally eliminate it.

  17. Dissociative Excitation of Adenine by Electron Impact

    McConkey, J. William; Trocchi, Joshuah; Dech, Jeffery; Kedzierski, Wladek

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative excitation of adenine (C6H5NH2) into excited atomic fragments has been studied in the electron impact energy range from threshold to 300 eV. A crossed beam system coupled to a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) monochromator is used to study emissions in the wavelength range from 110 to 200 nm. The beam of adenine vapor from a stainless steel oven is crossed at right angles by the electron beam and the resultant UV radiation is detected in a mutually orthogonal direction. The strongest feature in the spectrum is H Lyman- α. Financial support from NSERC and CFI, Canada, is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Dissociation of Vertical Semiconductor Diatomic Artificial Molecules

    Pi, M.; Emperador, A.; Barranco, M.; Garcias, F.; Muraki, K.; Tarucha, S.; Austing, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dissociation of few-electron circular vertical semiconductor double quantum dot artificial molecules at 0T as a function of interdot distance. A slight mismatch introduced in the fabrication of the artificial molecules from nominally identical constituent quantum wells induces localization by offsetting the energy levels in the quantum dots by up to 2meV, and this plays a crucial role in the appearance of the addition energy spectra as a function of coupling strength particularly in the weak coupling limit

  19. Coupling an Intercalibration of Radiance-Calibrated Nighttime Light Images and Land Use/Cover Data for Modeling and Analyzing the Distribution of GDP in Guangdong, China

    Ziyang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatialized GDP data is important for studying the relationships between human activities and environmental changes. Rapid and accurate acquisition of these datasets are therefore a significant area of study. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS radiance-calibrated nighttime light (RC NTL images exhibit the potential for providing superior estimates for GDP spatialization, as they are not restricted by the saturated pixels which exist in nighttime stable light (NSL images. However, the drawback of light overflow is the limited accuracy of GDP estimation, and GDP data estimations based on RC NTL images cannot be directly used for temporal analysis due to a lack of on-board calibration. This study develops an intercalibration method to address the comparability problem. Additionally, NDVI images are used to reduce the light overflow effect. In this way, the secondary and tertiary industry outputs are estimated by using intercalibrated RC NTL images. Primary industry production is estimated by using land use/cover data. Ultimately, four 1 km gridded GDP maps of Guangdong for 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2010 are generated. The verification results of the proposed intercalibration method demonstrate that this method is reasonable and can be effectively implemented. These maps can be used to analyze the distribution and spatiotemporal changes of GDP density in Guangdong.

  20. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In “Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions,” published in Psychological Bulletin, Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so the authors outline a series of links between various constructs, such as fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, absorption, suggestibility, altered information-processin...

  1. Alkali promotion of N-2 dissociation over Ru(0001)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    Using self-consistent density functional calculations, we show that adsorbed Na and Cs lower the barrier for dissociation of N2 on Ru(0001). Since N2 dissociation is a crucial step in the ammonia synthesis reaction, we explain in this way the experimental observation that alkali metals promote th...... the ammonia synthesis reaction over Ru catalysts. We also show that the origin of this effect is predominantly a direct electrostatic attraction between the adsorbed alkali atoms and the dissociating molecule....

  2. Disruption of the GDP-mannose synthesis pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor results in antibiotic hyper-susceptible phenotypes.

    Howlett, Robert; Anttonen, Katri; Read, Nicholas; Smith, Margaret C M

    2018-04-01

    Actinomycete bacteria use polyprenol phosphate mannose as a lipid linked sugar donor for extra-cytoplasmic glycosyl transferases that transfer mannose to cell envelope polymers, including glycoproteins and glycolipids. We showed recently that strains of Streptomyces coelicolor with mutations in the gene ppm1 encoding polyprenol phosphate mannose synthase were both resistant to phage φC31 and have greatly increased susceptibility to antibiotics that mostly act on cell wall biogenesis. Here we show that mutations in the genes encoding enzymes that act upstream of Ppm1 in the polyprenol phosphate mannose synthesis pathway can also confer phage resistance and antibiotic hyper-susceptibility. GDP-mannose is a substrate for Ppm1 and is synthesised by GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP; ManC) which uses GTP and mannose-1-phosphate as substrates. Phosphomannomutase (PMM; ManB) converts mannose-6-phosphate to mannose-1-phosphate. S. coelicolor strains with knocked down GMP activity or with a mutation in sco3028 encoding PMM acquire phenotypes that resemble those of the ppm1 - mutants i.e. φC31 resistant and susceptible to antibiotics. Differences in the phenotypes of the strains were observed, however. While the ppm1 - strains have a small colony phenotype, the sco3028 :: Tn5062 mutants had an extremely small colony phenotype indicative of an even greater growth defect. Moreover we were unable to generate a strain in which GMP activity encoded by sco3039 and sco4238 is completely knocked out, indicating that GMP is also an important enzyme for growth. Possibly GDP-mannose is at a metabolic branch point that supplies alternative nucleotide sugar donors.

  3. The Chloroplast Division Protein ARC6 Acts to Inhibit Disassembly of GDP-bound FtsZ2.

    Sung, Min Woo; Shaik, Rahamthulla; TerBush, Allan D; Osteryoung, Katherine W; Vitha, Stanislav; Holzenburg, Andreas

    2018-05-16

    Chloroplasts host photosynthesis and fulfill other metabolic functions that are essential to plant life. They have to divide by binary fission to maintain their numbers throughout cycles of cell division. Chloroplast division is achieved by a complex ring-shaped division machinery located on both the inner (stromal) and the outer (cytosolic) side of the chloroplast envelope. The inner division ring (termed the Z ring) is formed by the assembly of tubulin-like FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 proteins. ARC6 is a key chloroplast division protein that interacts with the Z ring. ARC6 spans the inner envelope membrane, is known to stabilize or maintain the Z ring, and anchors the Z ring to the inner membrane through interaction with FtsZ2. The underlying mechanism of Z-ring stabilization is not well understood. Here, biochemical and structural characterization of ARC6 was conducted using light scattering, sedimentation, and light and transmission electron microscopy. The recombinant protein was purified as a dimer. The results indicated that a truncated form of ARC6 (tARC6), representing the stromal portion of ARC6, affects FtsZ2 assembly without forming higher-order structures, and exerts its effect via FtsZ2 dynamics. tARC6 prevented GDP-induced FtsZ2 disassembly and caused a significant net increase in FtsZ2 assembly when GDP was present. Single particle analysis and 3D reconstruction were performed to elucidate the structural basis of ARC6 activity. Together, the data reveal that a dimeric form of tARC6 binds to FtsZ2 filaments and does not increase FtsZ polymerization rates but rather inhibits GDP-associated FtsZ2 disassembly. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Exploring Patterns of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition with Students and the Public Through the Global Decomposition Project (GDP)

    Wood, J. H.; Natali, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Decomposition Project (GDP) is a program designed to introduce and educate students and the general public about soil organic matter and decomposition through a standardized protocol for collecting, reporting, and sharing data. This easy-to-use hands-on activity focuses on questions such as "How do environmental conditions control decomposition of organic matter in soil?" and "Why do some areas accumulate organic matter and others do not?" Soil organic matter is important to local ecosystems because it affects soil structure, regulates soil moisture and temperature, and provides energy and nutrients to soil organisms. It is also important globally because it stores a large amount of carbon, and when microbes "eat", or decompose organic matter they release greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, which affects the earth's climate. The protocol describes a commonly used method to measure decomposition using a paper made of cellulose, a component of plant cell walls. Participants can receive pre-made cellulose decomposition bags, or make decomposition bags using instructions in the protocol and easily obtained materials (e.g., window screen and lignin-free paper). Individual results will be shared with all participants and the broader public through an online database. We will present decomposition bag results from a research site in Alaskan tundra, as well as from a middle-school-student led experiment in California. The GDP demonstrates how scientific methods can be extended to educate broader audiences, while at the same time, data collected by students and the public can provide new insight into global patterns of soil decomposition. The GDP provides a pathway for scientists and educators to interact and reach meaningful education and research goals.

  5. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, number of universities and scientific journals on research publications among Asian countries.

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D, number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers, citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the bibliometric indicators, including total number of research documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social sciences subjects during the period 1996-2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus and Web of Science; Thomson Reuters. RESULTS: The mean per capita GDP for all the Asian countries is 14448.31±2854.40 US$, yearly per capita spending on R&D 0.64±0.16 US$, number of universities 72.37±18.32 and mean number of ISI indexed journal per country is 17.97±7.35. The mean of research documents published in various science and social science subjects among all the Asian countries during the period 1996-2011 is 158086.92±69204.09; citations per document 8.67±0.48; and H-index 122.8±19.21. Spending on R&D, number of universities and indexed journals have a positive correlation with number of published documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social science subjects. However, there was no association between the per capita GDP and research outcomes. CONCLUSION: The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects.

  6. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, number of universities and scientific journals on research publications among Asian countries.

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al Masri, Abeer A; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood; Memon, Almas Naeem; Zaidi, Syed Ziauddin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D), number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers), citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index) in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries. In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the bibliometric indicators, including total number of research documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social sciences subjects during the period 1996-2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus and Web of Science; Thomson Reuters. The mean per capita GDP for all the Asian countries is 14448.31±2854.40 US$, yearly per capita spending on R&D 0.64±0.16 US$, number of universities 72.37±18.32 and mean number of ISI indexed journal per country is 17.97±7.35. The mean of research documents published in various science and social science subjects among all the Asian countries during the period 1996-2011 is 158086.92±69204.09; citations per document 8.67±0.48; and H-index 122.8±19.21. Spending on R&D, number of universities and indexed journals have a positive correlation with number of published documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social science subjects. However, there was no association between the per capita GDP and research outcomes. The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects.

  7. Dissociation: Defining the Concept in Criminal Forensic Psychiatry.

    Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre; Wood, Stephen Floyd

    2017-06-01

    Claims of amnesia and dissociative experiences in association with a violent crime are not uncommon. Research has shown that dissociation is a risk factor for violence and is seen most often in crimes of extreme violence. The subject matter is most relevant to forensic psychiatry. Peritraumatic dissociation for instance, with or without a history of dissociative disorder, is quite frequently reported by offenders presenting for a forensic psychiatric examination. Dissociation or dissociative amnesia for serious offenses can have legal repercussions stemming from their relevance to the legal constructs of fitness to stand trial, criminal responsibility, and diminished capacity. The complexity in forensic psychiatric assessments often lies in the difficulty of connecting clinical symptomatology reported by violent offenders to a specific condition included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). This article provides a review of diagnostic considerations with regard to dissociation across the DSM nomenclature, with a focus on the main clinical constructs related to dissociation. Forensic implications are discussed, along with some guides for the forensic evaluator of offenders presenting with dissociation. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  8. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients.

    Webermann, Aliya R; Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD) have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80-95% and severe dissociative symptoms. DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV) and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  9. Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative identity disorder.

    Sar, Vedat; Unal, Seher N; Ozturk, Erdinc

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate if there were any characteristics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dissociative identity disorder. Twenty-one drug-free patients with dissociative identity disorder and nine healthy volunteers participated in the study. In addition to a clinical evaluation, dissociative psychopathology was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale. A semi-structured interview for borderline personality disorder, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were also administered to all patients. Normal controls had to be without a history of childhood trauma and without any depressive or dissociative disorder. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc99m-hexamethylpropylenamine (HMPAO) as a tracer. Compared with findings in the control group, the rCBF ratio was decreased among patients with dissociative identity disorder in the orbitofrontal region bilaterally. It was increased in median and superior frontal regions and occipital regions bilaterally. There was no significant correlation between rCBF ratios of the regions of interest and any of the psychopathology scale scores. An explanation for the neurophysiology of dissociative psychopathology has to invoke a comprehensive model of interaction between anterior and posterior brain regions.

  10. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    Aliya R. Webermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective: The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods: DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results: Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions: The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  11. Photo-dissociation of hydrogen passivated dopants in gallium arsenide

    Tong, L.; Larsson, J.A.; Nolan, M.; Murtagh, M.; Greer, J.C.; Barbe, M.; Bailly, F.; Chevallier, J.; Silvestre, F.S.; Loridant-Bernard, D.; Constant, E.; Constant, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the photo-dissociation mechanisms of hydrogen passivated n- and p-type dopants in gallium arsenide is presented. The photo-induced dissociation of the Si Ga -H complex has been observed for relatively low photon energies (3.48 eV), whereas the photo-dissociation of C As -H is not observed for photon energies up to 5.58 eV. This fundamental difference in the photo-dissociation behavior between the two dopants is explained in terms of the localized excitation energies about the Si-H and C-H bonds

  12. Dissociative features in posttraumatic stress disorder: A latent profile analysis.

    Műllerová, Jana; Hansen, Maj; Contractor, Ateka A; Elhai, Jon D; Armour, Cherie

    2016-09-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) characterizes the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in terms of the individual meeting the criteria for PTSD and additionally reporting symptoms of depersonalization and/or derealization. The current study aimed to examine whether a dissociative PTSD profile may include alternative features of dissociation and whether it could be differentiated from a nondissociative PTSD profile on certain psychopathologies and demographics. Data from 309 trauma-exposed participants, collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk, were subjected to latent profile analysis. Regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of latent classes. Three discrete profiles named Baseline, PTSD, and Dissociative profile were uncovered. All examined features of dissociation were significantly elevated in the Dissociative profile. Anxiety, male sex, being employed, and having a minority racial background significantly predicted the Dissociative profile relative to the PTSD profile. The study points to the importance of alternative symptoms of dissociation in the dissociative PTSD subtype beyond the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Contextual Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Gold, Steven N; Elhai, Jon D; Rea, Bayard D; Weiss, Donna; Masino, Theodore; Morris, Staci Leon; McIninch, Jessica

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of contextual therapy, a new approach for treating adult survivors of prolonged child abuse (PCA), is provided via case studies of three women with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). Contextual therapy is based on the premise that it is not only traumatic experiences that account for PCA survivors' psychological difficulties. Even more fundamentally, many survivors grow up in an interpersonal context in which adequate resources for secure attachment and acquisition of adaptive living skills are not available. As a result, they are left with lasting deficits that undermine not only their current functioning, but also their ability to cope with reliving their traumatic memories in therapy. The primary focus of this treatment approach, therefore, is on developing capacities for feeling and functioning better in the present, rather than on extensive exploration and processing of the client's trauma history or, in the case of DID, of identity fragments. Treatment of the three cases presented ranged from eight months to two and one-half years' duration, and culminated in very positive outcomes. The women's reports of achievements, such as obtaining and maintaining gainful employment, greater self-sufficiency, and the establishment of more intimate and gratifying relationships, indicated marked improvements in daily functioning. Objective test data obtained at admission and discharge, and in one case, at follow-up, documented substantial reductions in dissociative, posttraumatic stress, depressive, and other symptoms.

  14. CO dissociation on magnetic Fen clusters

    Jedidi, Abdesslem

    2014-01-01

    This work theoretically investigates the CO dissociation on Fen nanoparticles, for n in the range of 1-65, focusing on size dependence in the context of the initial step of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. CO adsorbs molecularly through its C-end on a triangular facet of the nanoparticle. Dissociation becomes easier when the cluster size increases. Then, the C atom is bonded to a square facet that is generated as a result of the adsorption if it does not yet exist in the bare cluster, while the O atom is adsorbed on a triangular facet. In the most stable situation, the two adsorbed atoms remain close together, both having in common one shared first-neighbor iron atom. There is a partial spin quenching of the neighboring Fe atoms, which become more positively charged than the other Fe atoms. The shared surface iron atom resembles a metal-cation from a complex. Despite the small size of the iron cluster considered, fluctuations due to specific configurations do not influence properties for n > 25 and global trends seem significant.

  15. Autobiographical memory specificity in dissociative identity disorder.

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Wessel, Ineke; Hermans, Dirk; van Minnen, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a specific event from memory located in time and place. Previous studies of overgeneral memory have not included patients with dissociative disorders. These patients are interesting to consider, as they are hypothesized to have the ability to selectively compartmentalize information linked to negative emotions. This study examined avoidance and overgeneral memory in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID; n = 12). The patients completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Their performance was compared with control groups of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients (n = 26), healthy controls (n = 29), and DID simulators (n = 26). Specifically, we compared the performance of separate identity states in DID hypothesized to diverge in the use of avoidance as a coping strategy to deal with negative affect. No significant differences in memory specificity were found between the separate identities in DID. Irrespective of identity state, DID patients were characterized by a lack of memory specificity, which was similar to the lack of memory specificity found in PTSD patients. The converging results for DID and PTSD patients add empirical evidence for the role of overgeneral memory involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  16. Fracture-dissociation of ceramic liner.

    Hwang, Sung Kwan; Oh, Jin-Rok; Her, Man Seung; Shim, Young Jun; Cho, Tae Yeun; Kwon, Sung Min

    2008-08-01

    The use of BIOLOX delta ceramic (CeramTec AG, Plochingen, Germany) has been increasing. This ceramic prevents cracking by restraining the phase transformation due to the insertion of nano-sized, yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia into the alumina matrix. This restrains the progress of cracking through the formation of platelet-like crystal or whiskers due to the addition of an oxide additive. We observed a case of BIOLOX delta ceramic liner (CeramTec AG) rim fracture 4 months postoperatively. Radiographs showed that the ceramic liner was subluxated from the acetabular cup. Scratches on the acetabular cup and femoral neck were seen, and the fracture was visible on the rim of the liner. Under electron microscope, metal particle coatings from the ceramic liner were identified. The ceramic liner, fracture fragments, and adjacent tissues were removed and replaced with a ceramic liner and femoral head of the same size and design. We believe the mechanism of the fracture-dissociation of the ceramic liner in this case is similar to a case of separation of the ceramic liner from the polyethylene shell in a sandwich-type ceramic-ceramic joint. To prevent ceramic liner fracture-dissociation, the diameter of the femoral neck needs to be decreased in a new design, while the diameter of the femoral head needs to be increased to ensure an increase in range of motion.

  17. Mechanical Dissociation of Retinal Neurons with Vibration

    Motomura, Tamami; Hayashida, Yuki; Murayama, Nobuki

    The neuromorphic device, which implements the functions of biological neural circuits by means of VLSI technology, has been collecting much attention in the engineering fields in the last decade. Concurrently, progress in neuroscience research has revealed the nonlinear computation in single neuron levels, suggesting that individual neurons are not merely the circuit elements but computational units. Thus, elucidating the properties of neuronal signal processing is thought to be an essential step for developing the next generation of neuromorphic devices. In the present study, we developed a method for dissociating single neurons from specific sublayers of mammalian retinas with using no proteolytic enzymes but rather combining tissue incubation in a low-Ca2+ medium and the vibro-dissociation technique developed for the slices of brains and spinal cords previously. Our method took shorter time of the procedure, and required less elaborated skill, than the conventional enzymatic method did; nevertheless it yielded enough number of the cells available for acute electrophysiological experiments. The isolated retinal neurons were useful for measuring the nonlinear membrane conductances as well as the spike firing properties under the perforated-patch whole-cell configuration. These neurons also enabled us to examine the effects of proteolytic enzymes on the membrane excitability in those cells.

  18. Dissociative identity disorder and pseudo-hysteria.

    Foote, B

    1999-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of dissociative identity disorder (DID) continues to inspire controversy, with some commentators claiming that DID is a modern variant of "hysteria"; that is, attention-seeking behavior. The author asserts that DID is indeed a valid psychiatric disorder, and believes that this skeptical reaction can largely be attributed to a specific set of transference/countertransference interactions that these patients tend to inspire. The paper delineates several clinical features of DID that can easily be mistaken for hysterical phenomena, and attempts to find the roots of this confusion in the DID patients' experience of interpersonal powerlessness, which leads them to present their symptoms in an unconvincing, "hysterical" manner. Confusion between the vertical split seen in the dissociative disorders and the horizontal split characteristic of the classic hysterical personality is discussed, as is the powerful effect of observer bias in creating hysterical-appearing phenomena. The term "pseudo-hysteria" is used to denote a situation in which a genuine psychiatric disorder, DID, is perceived as an hysterical production.

  19. Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Controlled fMRI Perfusion Study

    Schlumpf, Yolanda R.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Luechinger, Roger; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP), studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the "Emotional Part'' (EP) and the "Apparently Normal Part'' (ANP), have different biopsychosocial reactions to supraliminal and subliminal trauma-related cues and that these reactions cannot be mimicked by fantasy prone healthy controls nor by actors. Methods: Arterial ...

  20. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

    2006-03-03

    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both

  1. Hierarchical structure of the European countries based on debts as a percentage of GDP during the 2000-2011 period

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    We investigate hierarchical structures of the European countries by using debt as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the countries as they change over a certain period of time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on debt as a percentage of GDP of European countries over the period 2000-2011 by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). This period is also divided into two sub-periods related to 2004 enlargement of the European Union, namely 2000-2004 and 2005-2011, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. The bootstrap techniques is applied to see a value of statistical reliability of the links of the MSTs and HTs. The clustering linkage procedure is also used to observe the cluster structure more clearly. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their level of debts. Our results show that by the debt crisis, the less and most affected Eurozone’s economies are formed as a cluster with each other in the MSTs and hierarchical trees.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to produce 2'-fucosyllactose via salvage pathway of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-l-fucose.

    Chin, Young-Wook; Seo, Nari; Kim, Jae-Han; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-11-01

    2'-Fucosyllactose (2-FL) is one of the key oligosaccharides in human milk. In the present study, the salvage guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-l-fucose biosynthetic pathway from fucose was employed in engineered Escherichia coli BL21star(DE3) for efficient production of 2-FL. Introduction of the fkp gene coding for fucokinase/GDP-l-fucose pyrophosphorylase (Fkp) from Bacteroides fragilis and the fucT2 gene encoding α-1,2-fucosyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori allows the engineered E. coli to produce 2-FL from fucose, lactose and glycerol. To enhance the lactose flux to 2-FL production, the attenuated, and deleted mutants of β-galactosidase were employed. Moreover, the 2-FL yield and productivity were further improved by deletion of the fucI-fucK gene cluster coding for fucose isomerase (FucI) and fuculose kinase (FucK). Finally, fed-batch fermentation of engineered E. coli BL21star(DE3) deleting lacZ and fucI-fucK, and expressing fkp and fucT2 resulted in 23.1 g/L of extracellular concentration of 2-FL and 0.39 g/L/h productivity. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2443-2452. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. THE OPTIMAL RATE OF R&D EXPENDITURES ÎN GDP – BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Steliana SANDU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The relation between economic growth, competitiveness, productivity, on one hand, and investment in research and development (R&D, on the other, has been the research subject of numerous scientific studies. The significant contribution of the investment in R&D to productivity growth, competitiveness and economic growth is generally acknowledged. Some authors have attempted to empirically and theoretically estimate the optimal level of R&D investment at the micro and mezo level, following different paths, according to their option for the aggregation level of analysis or to the different indicators selected as most relevant. Yet, the identification of the R&D investment level that maximizes the productivity growth rate at macroeconomic level seems to have been rather marginal to the general research interest. Available scientific papers estimate it by relating the share of R&D spending in GDP to productivity, expressed through the Total Factor Productivity or labour productivity per hour worked. This paper looks into the correlation between the spending for research and development in some EU countries, as a share of GDP, underlining the relative positions to the optimal interval for R&D investment, according to Mario Coccia estimations, and the corresponding rates of labour productivity growth, during the 2000-2009 period. Special attention will be given to Romania’s positioning in European context, in order to identify potential solutions to future improvement.

  4. Estimating Potential GDP for the Romanian Economy and Assessing the Sustainability of Economic Growth: A Multivariate Filter Approach

    Dan Armeanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of economic recovery and rebalancing, the necessity of modelling and estimating the potential output and output gap emerges in order to assess the quality and sustainability of economic growth, the monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the impact of business cycles. Despite the importance of potential GDP and the output gap, there are difficulties in reliably estimating them, as many of the models proposed in the economic literature are calibrated for developed economies and are based on complex macroeconomic relationships and a long history of robust data, while emerging economies exhibit high volatility. The object of this study is to develop a model in order to estimate the potential GDP and output gap and to assess the sustainability of projected growth using a multivariate filter approach. This trend estimation technique is the newest approach proposed by the economic literature and has gained wide acceptance with researchers and practitioners alike, while also being used by the IMF for Romania. The paper will be structured as follows. We first discuss the theoretical background of the model. The second section focuses on an analysis of the Romanian economy for the 1995–2013 time frame, while also providing a forecast for 2014–2017 and an assessment of the sustainability of Romania’s economic growth. The third section sums up the results and concludes.

  5. Gadolinium heteropoly complex K 17[Gd(P 2W 17O 61) 2] as a potential MRI contrast agent

    Sun, Guoying; Feng, Jianghua; Wu, Huifeng; Pei, Fengkui; Fang, Ke; Lei, Hao

    2004-10-01

    Gadolinium heteropoly complex K17[Gd(P2W17O61)2] has been evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments as a potential contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thermal analysis and conductivity study indicate that this complex has good thermal stability and wide pH stability range. The T1 relaxivity is 7.59 mM-1 s-1 in aqueous solution and 7.97 mM-1 s-1 in 0.725 mmol l-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution at 25 °C and 9.39 T, respectively. MR imaging of three male Sprague-Dawley rats showed remarkable enhancement in rat liver after intravenous injection, which persisted longer than with Gd-DTPA. The signal intensity increased by 57.1±16.9% during the whole imaging period at 0.082 mmol kg-1dose. Our preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that K17[Gd(P2W17O61)2] is a potential liver-specific MRI contrast agent.

  6. Comparison of gemcitabin, cisplatin, and dexamethasone (GDP), CHOP, and CHOPE in the first-line treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphomas.

    Jia, Bo; Hu, Shaoxuan; Yang, Jianliang; Zhou, Shengyu; Liu, Peng; Qin, Yan; Gui, Lin; Yang, Sheng; Lin, Hua; Zhang, Changgong; Xing, Puyuan; Wang, Lin; Dong, Mei; Zhou, Liqiang; Sun, Yan; He, Xiaohui; Shi, Yuankai

    2016-10-01

    Optimal chemotherapy regimen for peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) has not been fully defined. This study aimed to evaluate the optimal chemotherapy regimen in the first-line treatment for PTCL patients. Between 2003 and 2014, 93 consecutive patients with PTCL were enrolled in this study. Of 93 patients, 42 patients received CHOPE, 40 patients with CHOP, and 11 patients with GDP regimen. Response could be evaluated in 88 of 93 patients at the end of primary treatment. The CR rate for patients received CHOP (n = 38), CHOPE (n = 39), and GDP (n = 11) were 28.9, 51.3, and 45.5%, respectively, (P = 0.132) with an ORR of 65.8, 76.9, and 90.9%, respectively, (P = 0.210). The median follow-up time was 17.1 (1.4-108.3) months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) in CHOP (n = 40), CHOPE (n = 42), and GDP (n = 11) groups were 6.0, 15.3, and 9.7 months (P = 0.094) with 1-year PFS of 35.0, 54.8, and 45.5%, respectively, (P = 0.078). One-year OS for patients received CHOP (n = 40), CHOPE (n = 42), and GDP (n = 11) were 65.0, 83.3, and 100%, respectively, (P = 0.013) (CHOP vs CHOPE, P = 0.030; CHOP vs GDP, P = 0.024; CHOPE vs GDP, P = 0.174). CHOPE has a trend to improve CR rate, 1-year PFS and OS compared with CHOP alone. GDP shows promising efficacy which worth further exploration in large cohort studies. Clinical experience presented in this study may serve as reference for future large cohort studies.

  7. Dissociative style and individual differences in verbal working memory span.

    de Ruiter, M.B.; Phaf, R.H.; Elzinga, B.M.; van Dyck, R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissociative style is mostly studied as a risk factor for dissociative pathology, but it may also reflect a fundamental characteristic of healthy information processing. Due to the close link between attention and working memory and the previous finding of enhanced attentional abilities with a high

  8. Self-Destructive Behavior in People with Dissociative Disorders.

    Saxe, Glenn N.; Chawla, Neharika; Van der Kolk, Bessel

    2002-01-01

    Study assesses self-destructive behavior in a group of inpatients who have dissociative disorders compared to those who report few dissociative symptoms. Results reveal that these patients more frequently engage in self-destructive behaviors, use more methods of self-injury, and begin to injure themselves at an earlier age then patients who do not…

  9. Dissociative Disorders in Children: Behavioral Profiles and Problems.

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical research has established a connection between childhood trauma and the development of dissociative disorders in adults. Pathological dissociation produces a range of symptoms and behaviors such as amnesias, rapid shifts in mood and behavior, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Many of these symptoms are misdiagnosed as attention,…

  10. Errors of Logic and Scholarship Concerning Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Ross, Colin A.

    2009-01-01

    The author reviewed a two-part critique of dissociative identity disorder published in the "Canadian Journal of Psychiatry". The two papers contain errors of logic and scholarship. Contrary to the conclusions in the critique, dissociative identity disorder has established diagnostic reliability and concurrent validity, the trauma histories of…

  11. PTSD in relation to dissociation in traumatized police officers

    Carlier, I. V.; Lamberts, R. D.; Fouwels, A. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The assumed relationship between dissociation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined. From a group of police officers who had experienced a traumatic event, the authors assessed the chronic dissociative symptoms of 42 police officers with PTSD, 50 police officers with

  12. Early Indicators of Pathological Dissociation in Sexually Abused Children.

    McElroy, Linda Provus

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)

  13. Multiple Personality and the Pathological Dissociation of Self.

    Price, Reese E.

    This paper considers the condition of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), which is defined as a separation of alternating personalities by rigid boundaries and amnestic barriers. It is proposed that MPD represents the end of a continuum of a defensive dissociation of the self that can result when a child employs a dissociative splitting of self…

  14. The rise and fall of dissociative identity disorder.

    Paris, Joel

    2012-12-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID), once considered rare, was frequently diagnosed during the 1980s and 1990s, after which interest declined. This is the trajectory of a medical fad. DID was based on poorly conceived theories and used potentially damaging treatment methods. The problem continues, given that the DSM-5 includes DID and accords dissociative disorders a separate chapter in its manual.

  15. Grammatical dissociation during acquired childhood aphasia.

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Ramos, Sara; Moreno, Teresa

    2009-12-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old female who suffered a left hemisphere stroke attributed to a genetically determined prothrombotic state. She presented a fluent speech pattern with selective difficulty in retrieving names but not verbs. An evaluation was designed to clarify whether her symptoms represented a specific impairment of name retrieval. The child undertook an experimental battery of visual naming tasks requiring the production of 52 nouns (belonging to nine different semantic categories) and 44 verbs. Her performance was compared with that of 12 healthy children, matched for age and IQ, attending a local kindergarten. The child retrieved significantly more verbs than nouns (chi(2)=16.27, pgrammatical dissociation in a child. It suggests that nouns and verbs are subject to different processing early in development, at least before the formal acquisition of grammar. It contradicts theories that postulate a common processing of different grammatical categories early in life.

  16. Dissociative electron attachment studies on acetone

    Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Tadsare, Vishvesh; Ghosh, Sanat; Gope, Krishnendu; Davis, Daly; Krishnakumar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to acetone is studied in terms of the absolute cross section for various fragment channels in the electron energy range of 0–20 eV. H − is found to be the most dominant fragment followed by O − and OH − with only one resonance peak between 8 and 9 eV. The DEA dynamics is studied by measuring the angular distribution and kinetic energy distribution of fragment anions using Velocity Slice Imaging technique. The kinetic energy and angular distribution of H − and O − fragments suggest a many body break-up for the lone resonance observed. The ab initio calculations show that electron is captured in the multi-centered anti-bonding molecular orbital which would lead to a many body break-up of the resonance

  17. Dissociated dislocations in Ni: a computational study

    Szelestey, P.; Patriarca, M.; Kaski, K.

    2005-01-01

    A systematic computational study of the behavior of a (1/2) dissociated screw dislocation in fcc nickel is presented, in which atomic interactions are described through an embedded-atom potential. A suitable external stress is applied on the system, both for modifying the equilibrium separation distance d and moving the dislocation complex. The structure of the dislocation and its corresponding changes during the motion are studied in the framework of the two-dimensional Peierls model, for different values of the ratio d/a', where a' is the period of the Peierls potential. The distance between the edge and screw components of the partials, as well as their widths, undergo a modulation with period a', as the dislocation moves, and the amplitudes of such oscillations are shown to depend on d/a'. The stress profile acting on the dislocation complex is analyzed and the effective Peierls stress is estimated for different values of d/a'

  18. Multiphoton ionization/dissociation of osmium tetroxide

    Ding, D.; Puretzky, A.A.; Compton, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to laser multiphoton ionization and dissociation (MPI/MPD) of osmium tetroxide (OsO 4 ) have been investigated from measurements of the kinetic energies of product ions (Os + , Os 2+ , OsO + , O 2 + , O + ) and photoelectrons as a function of the laser wavelength. Neutral channels, intermediate to the dominant Os + ionization channel, such as OsO 4 →OsO 4-n +nO are examined using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of the fast O atoms. Equipartition of the available photon energy among the fragments is observed. The wavelength dependence of the Os + ion signal suggests that one or more of the steps leading to Os + ions involve molecular ions and/or excited neutral atoms. The observed preponderance of very slow ( 2+ is shown to result primarily from REMPI of Os +

  19. Dissociative electron attachment studies on acetone

    Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S., E-mail: vaibhav@tifr.res.in; Tadsare, Vishvesh; Ghosh, Sanat; Gope, Krishnendu; Davis, Daly; Krishnakumar, E. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-10-28

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to acetone is studied in terms of the absolute cross section for various fragment channels in the electron energy range of 0–20 eV. H{sup −} is found to be the most dominant fragment followed by O{sup −} and OH{sup −} with only one resonance peak between 8 and 9 eV. The DEA dynamics is studied by measuring the angular distribution and kinetic energy distribution of fragment anions using Velocity Slice Imaging technique. The kinetic energy and angular distribution of H{sup −} and O{sup −} fragments suggest a many body break-up for the lone resonance observed. The ab initio calculations show that electron is captured in the multi-centered anti-bonding molecular orbital which would lead to a many body break-up of the resonance.

  20. Velocity slice imaging for dissociative electron attachment

    Nandi, Dhananjay; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Krishnakumar, E.; Chatterjee, A.

    2005-05-01

    A velocity slice imaging method is developed for measuring the angular distribution of fragment negative ions arising from dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to molecules. A low energy pulsed electron gun, a pulsed field ion extraction, and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector consisting of microchannel plates and a wedge-and-strip anode are used for this purpose. Detection and storage of each ion separately for its position and flight time allows analysis of the data offline for any given time slice, without resorting to pulsing the detector bias. The performance of the system is evaluated by measuring the angular distribution of O- from O2 and comparing it with existing data obtained using conventional technique. The capability of this technique in obtaining forward and backward angular distribution data is shown to have helped in resolving one of the existing problems in the electron scattering on O2.

  1. Diffraction dissociation: thirty five years after

    Zotov, N.P.; Tsarev, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Review of the basic results and stages of studying one of the most interesting phenomena in high energy physics-diffraction dissociation (DD) of hadrons is presented. The review contains complete information concerning the basic experimental results and the most ''set'' DD theoretical models. Though the discussion focuses primarily on considering a single nucleon DD, this still allows one to fully describe the basic features of the phenomenon under investigation. The last part of the review is devoted to the most notable results obtained during DD experimental investigation in the last five years, which have not been reflected in the earlier published reviews. Signs of excited system parton structure and pomeron are clearly found in the new experimental data. It is underlined that DD mechanism understanding is closely connected with the solution of the confinement problem in the strong interaction theory and requires further experimental and theoretical investigations

  2. Thermal dissociation and unfolding of insulin

    Huus, Kasper; Havelund, Svend; Olsen, Helle B

    2005-01-01

    The thermal stability of human insulin was studied by differential scanning microcalorimetry and near-UV circular dichroism as a function of zinc/protein ratio, to elucidate the dissociation and unfolding processes of insulin in different association states. Zinc-free insulin, which is primarily...... dimeric at room temperature, unfolded at approximately 70 degrees C. The two monomeric insulin mutants Asp(B28) and Asp(B9),Glu(B27) unfolded at higher temperatures, but with enthalpies of unfolding that were approximately 30% smaller. Small amounts of zinc caused a biphasic thermal denaturation pattern...... of insulin. The biphasic denaturation is caused by a redistribution of zinc ions during the heating process and results in two distinct transitions with T(m)'s of approximately 70 and approximately 87 degrees C corresponding to monomer/dimer and hexamer, respectively. At high zinc concentrations (>or=5 Zn(2...

  3. Site selective dissociation of ozone upon core excitation

    Mocellin, A.; Mundim, M.S.P.; Coutinho, L.H.; Homem, M.G.P.; Naves de Brito, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present new measurements applied to core excitation of ozone molecule using to analyze the dissociation channels the photo-electron-photo-ion coincidence (PEPICO) and the photo-electron-photo-ion-photo-ion coincidence (PEPIPICO) technique. The new experimental set-up allows measuring O + /O + ion pair coincidences without discrimination. The dissociation channels of several core-excited states have been investigated. The relative yields of dissociation channels were determined from coincidence data. The core excitation from O terminal (O T ) or O central (O C ) induce different fragmentation; preferentially one bond is broken at the O terminal excitation and two bonds when O central is excited, showing site selectivity fragmentation of ozone upon core excitation. The ultra-fast dissociation of the O T 1s -1 7a 1 1 core-excited state is confirmed by the relative yield of dissociation

  4. Site selective dissociation of ozone upon core excitation

    Mocellin, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia-UnB, Box 04455, CEP 70919-970, Brasilia-DF (Brazil)], E-mail: mocellin@fis.unb.br; Mundim, M.S.P. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia-UnB, Box 04455, CEP 70919-970, Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Coutinho, L.H. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Box 68563, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Homem, M.G.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron-LNLS, Box 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Naves de Brito, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron-LNLS, Box 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia-UnB, Box 04455, CEP 70919-970, Brasilia-DF (Brazil)

    2007-05-15

    We present new measurements applied to core excitation of ozone molecule using to analyze the dissociation channels the photo-electron-photo-ion coincidence (PEPICO) and the photo-electron-photo-ion-photo-ion coincidence (PEPIPICO) technique. The new experimental set-up allows measuring O{sup +}/O{sup +} ion pair coincidences without discrimination. The dissociation channels of several core-excited states have been investigated. The relative yields of dissociation channels were determined from coincidence data. The core excitation from O terminal (O{sub T}) or O central (O{sub C}) induce different fragmentation; preferentially one bond is broken at the O terminal excitation and two bonds when O central is excited, showing site selectivity fragmentation of ozone upon core excitation. The ultra-fast dissociation of the O{sub T} 1s{sup -1}7a{sub 1}{sup 1} core-excited state is confirmed by the relative yield of dissociation.

  5. Unresolved mourning, supernatural beliefs and dissociation: a mediation analysis.

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Unresolved mourning is marked by disorganized behavior and states of mind. In this study, we speculated that pathological dissociation would mediate the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs. This hypothesis was determined based on findings that indicate an association between higher levels of dissociation, stronger beliefs in the supernatural and unresolved mourning. We examined two groups of participants, one classified as non-unresolved (non-U) (n = 56) and the other as unresolved (n = 26) (U) with respect to past loss/trauma as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Two self-report instruments were administered to measure supernatural beliefs and dissociation. As hypothesized, the multivariate analysis of variance indicated mean differences between the two groups. The unresolved group had greater belief in the supernatural and more pathological dissociative processes. The mediation analysis demonstrated that pathological dissociation fully mediated the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs.

  6. Dissociation behavior of methane gas hydrate in porous media

    Qiang, C.; Yu-gang, Y.; Chang-ling, L. [Ministry of Land and Resources, Quindao (China). Qingdao Inst. of Marine Geology; Qing-guo, M. [Qingdao Univ. College of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Shandong, Qingdao (China)

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates are ice-like compounds that form by natural gas and water and are considered to be a new energy resource. In order to make good use of this resource, it is important to know the hydrate dissociation process. This paper discussed an investigation of methane hydrate dissociation through a simulation experiment. The paper discussed the gas hydrates dissociation experiment including the apparatus and experiment equipment, including methane gas supply; reaction cell; temperature controller; pressure maintainer; and gas flow meter. The paper also presented the method and material including iso-volumetric dissociation and normal pressure dissociation. Last, results and discussion of the results were presented. A comparison of five different particle sizes did not reveal any obvious effects that were related to the porous media, mostly likely because the particle size was too large. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Symmetry Breakdown in Ground State Dissociation of HD+

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Wells, E.; Carnes, K. D.; Krishnamurthi, Vidhya; Weaver, O. L.; Esry, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies of the dissociation of the electronic ground state of HD + following ionization of HD by fast proton impact indicate that the H + +D 1s dissociation channel is more likely than the H1s+D + dissociation channel by about 7% . This isotopic symmetry breakdown is due to the finite nuclear mass correction to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation which makes the 1sσ state 3.7 meV lower than the 2pσ state at the dissociation limit. The measured fractions of the two dissociation channels are in agreement with coupled-channels calculations of 1sσ to 2pσ transitions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. Dissociative identity disorder: An empirical overview.

    Dorahy, Martin J; Brand, Bethany L; Sar, Vedat; Krüger, Christa; Stavropoulos, Pam; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Middleton, Warwick

    2014-05-01

    Despite its long and auspicious place in the history of psychiatry, dissociative identity disorder (DID) has been associated with controversy. This paper aims to examine the empirical data related to DID and outline the contextual challenges to its scientific investigation. The overview is limited to DID-specific research in which one or more of the following conditions are met: (i) a sample of participants with DID was systematically investigated, (ii) psychometrically-sound measures were utilised, (iii) comparisons were made with other samples, (iv) DID was differentiated from other disorders, including other dissociative disorders, (v) extraneous variables were controlled or (vi) DID diagnosis was confirmed. Following an examination of challenges to research, data are organised around the validity and phenomenology of DID, its aetiology and epidemiology, the neurobiological and cognitive correlates of the disorder, and finally its treatment. DID was found to be a complex yet valid disorder across a range of markers. It can be accurately discriminated from other disorders, especially when structured diagnostic interviews assess identity alterations and amnesia. DID is aetiologically associated with a complex combination of developmental and cultural factors, including severe childhood relational trauma. The prevalence of DID appears highest in emergency psychiatric settings and affects approximately 1% of the general population. Psychobiological studies are beginning to identify clear correlates of DID associated with diverse brain areas and cognitive functions. They are also providing an understanding of the potential metacognitive origins of amnesia. Phase-oriented empirically-guided treatments are emerging for DID. The empirical literature on DID is accumulating, although some areas remain under-investigated. Existing data show DID as a complex, valid and not uncommon disorder, associated with developmental and cultural variables, that is amenable to

  9. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep inelastic scattering

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1995-09-01

    The cross section of the Photon Diffractive Dissociation in Deep Inelastic Scattering is calculated in the frame work of perturbative QCD. In the triple Regge region the BFKL-approximation is used to evaluate the leading contributions of the corresponding Feynman diagrams with a subsequent resummation in terms of integral equations. These equations are partly solved leading to an effective two to four gluons transition vertex. This exhibits remarkable properties like the total symmetry under the interchange of gluons, the conformal invariance and a simple colour structure. The presence of four interacting gluons in the t-channel does not support the simple triple Pomeron picture with solely a local vertex. A dimensional conservation law is found for zero momentum transfer with the consequence that a direct coupling of the three BFKL-singularities is absent. Another consequence is the dominance of small transverse momenta at the triple Pomeron vertex. Beyond the triple Regge limit a slightly different approach is used in which the diagrams are calculated with leading log(Q 2 ) accuracy. Higher twist contributions are neglected except for the longitudinal part of the cross section which dominates at small invariant masses M in accordance with QCD-predictions and measurements for the exclusive production of vector mesons. For the comparison with the recently measured Photon Diffractive Dissociation-data from H1 and ZEUS a model for the Pomeron is introduced based on the F 2 -data. In the spirit of the k t -factorization theorem this model is inserted in place of the BFKL-Pomeron. Considering the fact that this approach does not contain free parameters the agreement between the theoretical prediction and the data is found to be good. (orig.)

  10. Attention as a characteristic of nonclinical dissociation: an event-related potential study

    de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Phaf, R. Hans; Veltman, Dick J.; Kok, Albert; van Dyck, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Individual differences in dissociative style (which is generally considered a risk factor for dissociative pathology) were studied in a nonclinical sample. It was hypothesized that high-dissociative participants would show enhanced attentional abilities toward both relevant and irrelevant stimulus

  11. Electron Transfer Dissociation and Collision-Induced Dissociation of Underivatized Metallated Oligosaccharides

    Schaller-Duke, Ranelle M.; Bogala, Mallikharjuna R.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2018-05-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to investigate underivatized, metal-cationized oligosaccharides formed via electrospray ionization (ESI). Reducing and non-reducing sugars were studied including the tetrasaccharides maltotetraose, 3α,4β,3α-galactotetraose, stachyose, nystose, and a heptasaccharide, maltoheptaose. Univalent alkali, divalent alkaline earth, divalent and trivalent transition metal ions, and a boron group trivalent metal ion were adducted to the non-permethylated oligosaccharides. ESI generated [M + Met]+, [M + 2Met]2+, [M + Met]2+, [M + Met - H]+, and [M + Met - 2H]+ most intensely along with low intensity nitrate adducts, depending on the metal and sugar ionized. The ability of these metal ions to produce oligosaccharide adduct ions by ESI had the general trend: Ca(II) > Mg(II) > Ni(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Na(I) > K(I) > Al(III) ≈ Fe(III) ≈ Cr(III). Although trivalent metals were utilized, no triply charged ions were formed. Metal cations allowed for high ESI signal intensity without permethylation. ETD and CID on [M + Met]2+ produced various glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, with ETD producing more cross-ring and internal ions, which are useful for structural analysis. Product ion intensities varied based on glycosidic-bond linkage and identity of monosaccharide sub-unit, and metal adducts. ETD and CID showed high fragmentation efficiency, often with complete precursor dissociation, depending on the identity of the adducted metal ion. Loss of water was occasionally observed, but elimination of small neutral molecules was not prevalent. For both ETD and CID, [M + Co]2+ produced the most uniform structurally informative dissociation with all oligosaccharides studied. The ETD and CID spectra were complementary. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Electron Transfer Dissociation and Collision-Induced Dissociation of Underivatized Metallated Oligosaccharides

    Schaller-Duke, Ranelle M.; Bogala, Mallikharjuna R.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2018-02-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to investigate underivatized, metal-cationized oligosaccharides formed via electrospray ionization (ESI). Reducing and non-reducing sugars were studied including the tetrasaccharides maltotetraose, 3α,4β,3α-galactotetraose, stachyose, nystose, and a heptasaccharide, maltoheptaose. Univalent alkali, divalent alkaline earth, divalent and trivalent transition metal ions, and a boron group trivalent metal ion were adducted to the non-permethylated oligosaccharides. ESI generated [M + Met]+, [M + 2Met]2+, [M + Met]2+, [M + Met - H]+, and [M + Met - 2H]+ most intensely along with low intensity nitrate adducts, depending on the metal and sugar ionized. The ability of these metal ions to produce oligosaccharide adduct ions by ESI had the general trend: Ca(II) > Mg(II) > Ni(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Na(I) > K(I) > Al(III) ≈ Fe(III) ≈ Cr(III). Although trivalent metals were utilized, no triply charged ions were formed. Metal cations allowed for high ESI signal intensity without permethylation. ETD and CID on [M + Met]2+ produced various glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, with ETD producing more cross-ring and internal ions, which are useful for structural analysis. Product ion intensities varied based on glycosidic-bond linkage and identity of monosaccharide sub-unit, and metal adducts. ETD and CID showed high fragmentation efficiency, often with complete precursor dissociation, depending on the identity of the adducted metal ion. Loss of water was occasionally observed, but elimination of small neutral molecules was not prevalent. For both ETD and CID, [M + Co]2+ produced the most uniform structurally informative dissociation with all oligosaccharides studied. The ETD and CID spectra were complementary. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Parents' descriptions of young children's dissociative reactions after trauma.

    Cintron, Gabriela; Salloum, Alison; Blair-Andrews, Zoe; Storch, Eric A

    2017-10-09

    There is limited research on the phenomenology of how young children who have been exposed to trauma express the intrusive symptom of dissociative reactions. The current qualitative study utilized interviews from a semi-structured diagnostic clinical interview with 74 caregivers of young children (ages 3 to 7) who were exposed to trauma to identify parents' descriptions of their children's dissociative reactions during a clinical interview. Based on results from the interview, 45.9% of the children had dissociative reactions (8.5% had flashbacks and 41.9% had dissociative episodes). Interviews were transcribed to identify themes of dissociative reactions in young children. Common themes to flashbacks and dissociative episodes included being triggered, being psychologically in their own world (e.g., spaced out and shut down), and displaying visible signs (e.g., crying and screaming). For flashbacks, caregivers reported that it seemed as if the child was re-experiencing the trauma (e.g., yelling specific words and having body responses). For dissociative episodes, caregivers noted that the child not only seemed psychologically somewhere else (e.g., distant and not there) but also would be physically positioned somewhere else (e.g., sitting and not responding). Caregivers also expressed their own reactions to the child's dissociative episode due to not understanding what was occurring, and trying to interrupt the occurrences (e.g., calling out to the child). Themes, descriptions, and phrases to describe dissociative reactions in young children after trauma can be used to help parents and professionals more accurately identify occurrences of dissociative reactions.

  14. Gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) as salvage chemotherapy for patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified.

    Qi, Fei; Dong, Mei; He, Xiaohui; Li, Yexiong; Wang, Weihu; Liu, Peng; Yang, Jianliang; Gui, Lin; Zhang, Changgong; Yang, Sheng; Zhou, Shengyu; Shi, Yuankai

    2017-02-01

    Standard therapeutic options for patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) remain unclear. There are few large cohort studies specifically focused on gemcitabine-based chemotherapy for PTCL-NOS. We retrospectively reviewed patients with relapsed or refractory PTCL-NOS who received salvage GDP (gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin) chemotherapy at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, China, from May 2008 to August 2014. Twenty-five patients were enrolled and analyzed. The median number of cycles of GDP chemotherapy per patient was four (range, 2-8 cycles). Overall response rate was 64.0% (16/25) with five achieved complete remission or complete remission unconfirmed. After a median follow-up of 9 months, median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival after relapse or progression (second-PFS) were 9.3 and 5.4 months. One-year PFS rate and 1-year OS rate were 27.4% and 43.9%, respectively. Median second-PFS was significantly longer in patients sensitive to GDP than the ones resistant to the treatment (10.3 vs. 2.8 months, p GDP including neutropenia (8/25), thrombocytopenia (5/25), and anemia (4/25). Taken together, our study suggests that GDP is an effective and optional salvage regimen for relapsed or refractory PTCL-NOS.

  15. Overexpression of an alfalfa GDP-mannose 3, 5-epimerase gene enhances acid, drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

    Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Zhipeng

    2014-11-01

    GDP-mannose 3', 5'-epimerase (GME) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment (MsGME) encoding a GME protein was isolated and characterised from alfalfa (Medicago sativa). An expression analysis confirmed that MsGME expression was induced by salinity, PEG and acidity stresses. MsGME overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to salt, drought and acid. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), L-galactose-phosphate 1-P phosphatase (GP) and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis (T3 generation). Moreover, the ascorbate content was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that MsGME can effectively enhance tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to acid, drought and salt by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

  16. Does a Change in Price of Fuel Affect GDP Growth? An Examination of the U.S. Data from 1950–2013

    Michael Aucott

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined data on fuel consumption and costs for the years 1950 through 2013, along with economic and population data, to determine the percent of U.S. gross domestic product (GDP spent each year on fuels, including fossil fuels and nuclear ore, and the growth of the economy. We found that these variables are inversely correlated. This suggests that the availability and cost of energy is a significant determinant of economic performance. We believe this relation is consistent with analyses based on the energy return on investment (EROI concept in that increasingly scarce, and hence expensive, fuels are a drag on economic growth. The best-fitting linear equation relating the percent of GDP (energy cost share and year-over-year (YoY GDP change variables suggests that a threshold exists in the vicinity of 4%; if the percent of GDP spent on fuels is greater than this, poorer economic performance has been likely. Currently, about 5% of GDP is spent on fuels; most of this is for liquids. Continued weak economic performance appears likely unless improvements in energy efficiency, on the order of a factor of 3 for liquid fuels, and/or a more rapid adoption of renewable or nuclear energy sources can be achieved, provided that the EROI of these new sources proves to be sufficiently high.

  17. Testing the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder through measures of dissociation, absorption, hypnotizability and PTSD: a Norwegian pilot study.

    Dale, Karl Yngvar; Berg, Renate; Elden, Ake; Ødegård, Atle; Holte, Arne

    2009-01-01

    A total of 14 women meeting criteria for dissociative identity disorder (DID) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]) were compared to a group of women (n = 10) with other dissociative diagnoses and a group of normal controls (n = 14) with regard to dissociativity, absorption, trauma related symptoms and hypnotizability. Both of the clinical groups reported histories of childhood trauma and attained high PTSD scores. The DID group differed significantly from the group with other dissociative diagnoses and the non-diagnosed comparison group with regard to hypnotizability, the variety of dissociative symptomatology, and the magnitude of dissociative symptomatology. However, no significant differences between the two clinical groups were detected with regard to absorption, general dissociative level, or symptoms related to traumatic stress. Results support the notion that DID can be regarded as a clinical entity which is separable from other dissociative disorders. Results also indicated that hypnotizability is the most important clinical feature of DID.

  18. Dissociative, depressive, and PTSD symptom severity as correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidality in dissociative disorder patients.

    Webermann, Aliya R; Myrick, Amie C; Taylor, Christina L; Chasson, Gregory S; Brand, Bethany L

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether symptom severity can distinguish patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified with a recent history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts from those patients without recent self-harm. A total of 241 clinicians reported on recent history of patient NSSI and suicide attempts. Of these clinicians' patients, 221 completed dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology measures. Baseline cross-sectional data from a naturalistic and prospective study of dissociative disorder patients receiving community treatment were utilized. Analyses evaluated dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity as methods of classifying patients into NSSI and suicide attempt groupings. Results indicated that dissociation severity accurately classified patients into NSSI and suicidality groups, whereas depression severity accurately classified patients into NSSI groups. These findings point to dissociation and depression severity as important correlates of NSSI and suicidality in patients with dissociative disorders and have implications for self-harm prevention and treatment.

  19. Photoleucine Survives Backbone Cleavage by Electron Transfer Dissociation. A Near-UV Photodissociation and Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation Action Spectroscopy Study

    Shaffer, C. J.; Martens, J.; Marek, Aleš; Oomens, J.; Tureček, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 7 (2016), s. 1176-1185 ISSN 1044-0305 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : peptide ions * electron transfer dissociation * photoleucine label * near-UV photodissociation * infrared multiphoton dissociation action spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.786, year: 2016

  20. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  1. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    Chalavi, S.; Vissia, E.M.; Giesen, M.E.; Nijenhuis, E.R.S.; Draijer, N.; Cole, J.H.; Dazzan, P.; Pariante, C.M.; Madsen, S.K.; Rajagopalan, P.; Thompson, P.M.; Toga, A.W.; Veltman, D.J.; Reinders, A.A.T.S

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  2. The impact of monetary policy and exchange rate regime on real GDP and prices in the Republic of Macedonia

    Zeqiri Izet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relative costs and benefits associated with introducing a more active monetary and a different exchange rate regime in the Republic of Macedonia. In this finding, the econometrics result show that introducing a more active monetary policy and a different strategy of the exchange rate targeting in order to promote rapid economic growth could easy disturb macroeconomic stability (after having achieved it at a substantial cost without any significant economic benefits. Therefore, introducing a more active monetary policy and a different strategy of the exchange rate regime is likely to incur more costs than benefits, since changes of the monetary policy and exchange rate regime type do not show a persistent effect on real GDP, while changes of money stock and exchange rate regime do show a strong and persistent effect on prices level.

  3. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    Coccia, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  4. Inhibitors of Ras-SOS Interactions.

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-04-19

    Activating Ras mutations are found in about 30 % of human cancers. Ras activation is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, such as the son of sevenless (SOS), which form protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with Ras and catalyze the exchange of GDP by GTP. This is the rate-limiting step in Ras activation. However, Ras surfaces lack any evident suitable pockets where a molecule might bind tightly, rendering Ras proteins still 'undruggable' for over 30 years. Among the alternative approaches is the design of inhibitors that target the Ras-SOS PPI interface, a strategy that is gaining increasing recognition for treating Ras mutant cancers. Herein we focus on data that has accumulated over the past few years pertaining to the design of small-molecule modulators or peptide mimetics aimed at the interface of the Ras-SOS PPI. We emphasize, however, that even if such Ras-SOS therapeutics are potent, drug resistance may emerge. To counteract this development, we propose "pathway drug cocktails", that is, drug combinations aimed at parallel (or compensatory) pathways. A repertoire of classified cancer, cell/tissue, and pathway/protein combinations would be beneficial toward this goal. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dissociative disorders in acute psychiatric inpatients in Taiwan.

    Chiu, Chui-De; Meg Tseng, Mei-Chih; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Chih-Min; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Ross, Colin A

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative disorders have been documented to be common psychiatric disorders which can be detected reliably with standardized diagnostic instruments in North American and European psychiatric inpatients and outpatients (20.6% and 18.4%, respectively). However, there are concerns about their cross-cultural manifestations as an apparently low prevalence rate has been reported in East Asian inpatients and outpatients (1.7% and 4.9%, respectively). It is unknown whether the clinical profile of dissociative disorders in terms of their core symptomatic clusters, associated comorbid disorders, and environmental risk factors that has emerged in western clinical populations can also be found in non-western clinical populations. A standardized structured interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and a history of interpersonal victimization was administered in a sample of Taiwanese acute psychiatric inpatients. Our results showed that 19.5% of our participants met criteria for a DSM-IV dissociative disorder, mostly dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. More importantly, the western clinical profile of dissociative disorders also characterized our patients, including a poly-symptomatic presentation and a history of interpersonal trauma in both childhood and adulthood. Our results lend support to the conclusion that cross-cultural manifestations of dissociative pathology in East Asia are similar to those in North America and Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trauma-Related Dissociation Is Linked With Maladaptive Personality Functioning

    Antonella Granieri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive research has demonstrated the positive associations among the exposure to traumatic experiences, the levels of dissociation, and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in adults. However, it has been hypothesized in clinical literature that an excessive activation of the dissociative processes following multiple traumatic experiences may jeopardize the psychological and behavioral functioning of the individuals, fostering higher levels of maladaptive personality functioning.Methods: The study involved 322 adult volunteers from Italy. Participants completed measures on traumatic experiences, dissociation, and maladaptive personality traits.Results: The number of traumatic experiences reported by participants were positively associated with dissociation scores and maladaptive personality scores. Mediation analyses showed that dissociation acted as a partial mediator in the relationship between traumatic experiences and overall maladaptive personality functioning. Regression curve analyses showed that the positive association between maladaptive personality functioning and dissociation was stronger among participants with higher exposure to traumatic experiences.Conclusion: Exposure to multiple traumatic experiences may increase the risk for an excessive activation of the dissociative processes, which in turn may generate severe impairments in multiple domains of personality functioning.

  7. Structural and functional analysis of a FeoB A143S G5 loop mutant explains the accelerated GDP release rate.

    Guilfoyle, Amy P; Deshpande, Chandrika N; Vincent, Kimberley; Pedroso, Marcelo M; Schenk, Gerhard; Maher, Megan J; Jormakka, Mika

    2014-05-01

    GTPases (G proteins) hydrolyze the conversion of GTP to GDP and free phosphate, comprising an integral part of prokaryotic and eukaryotic signaling, protein biosynthesis and cell division, as well as membrane transport processes. The G protein cycle is brought to a halt after GTP hydrolysis, and requires the release of GDP before a new cycle can be initiated. For eukaryotic heterotrimeric Gαβγ proteins, the interaction with a membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptor catalyzes the release of GDP from the Gα subunit. Structural and functional studies have implicated one of the nucleotide binding sequence motifs, the G5 motif, as playing an integral part in this release mechanism. Indeed, a Gαs G5 mutant (A366S) was shown to have an accelerated GDP release rate, mimicking a G protein-coupled receptor catalyzed release state. In the present study, we investigate the role of the equivalent residue in the G5 motif (residue A143) in the prokaryotic membrane protein FeoB from Streptococcus thermophilus, which includes an N-terminal soluble G protein domain. The structure of this domain has previously been determined in the apo and GDP-bound states and in the presence of a transition state analogue, revealing conformational changes in the G5 motif. The A143 residue was mutated to a serine and analyzed with respect to changes in GTPase activity, nucleotide release rate, GDP affinity and structural alterations. We conclude that the identity of the residue at this position in the G5 loop plays a key role in the nucleotide release rate by allowing the correct positioning and hydrogen bonding of the nucleotide base. © 2014 FEBS.

  8. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. Dynamics of dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on Ni(100)

    Hamza, A.V.; Madix, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Nearly monoenergetic beams of hydrogen and deuterium were used to determine dissociative sticking probabilities for H 2 and D 2 on Ni(100) at various energies. Variation of the surface temperature between 90 and 300 K had no effect on the dissociative sticking probability of H 2 at 3.6 and 5.8 kJ/mol incident beam energy, indicating a direct mechanism of dissociation. A four fold increase in the initial dissociative sticking probability for H 2 from 0.2 to 0.8 was observed by increasing the translational kinetic energy from 0.7 to 7.0 kJ/mol. The initial dissociative sticking probability for D 2 was slightly lower, increasing from 0.15 to 0.75 with increasing translational kinetic energy from 1.3 to 10.5 kJ/mol. The form of the increase with kinetic energy was explained by tunnelling through a low activation barrier, accounting as well for the high dissociation probability at low kinetic energies. The dissociative sticking probability decreased with hydrogen or deuterium adatom coverage at all energies. The decline in sticking probability with hydrogen coverage was fit to a s(theta) = s 0 (1 - a theta)/sup n/ functional form. From this relationship it was deduced that hydrogen adatoms block only single sites and that four vacant sites are needed for dissociation. The dissociative sticking probability for H 2 declined precipitously from 0.77 to 0.16 with oxygen adatom coverage from 0 to 5% of a monolayer at a translational energy of 9.6 kJ.mol. 36 references, 8 figures

  10. Chidamide Combined With R-GDP in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL)

    2017-12-12

    Chidamide; Lymphoma, B-Cell; Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse; Neoplasm by Histology; Neoplasms; Lymphoproliferative Disorders; Lymphatic Diseases; Immunoproliferative Disorders; Immune System Diseases; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Cyclophosphamide; Rituximab; Gemcitabine; Cisplatin; Dexamethasone; HDAC Inhibitor

  11. One pot synthesis of GDP-mannose by a multi-enzyme cascade for enzymatic assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides.

    Rexer, Thomas F T; Schildbach, Anna; Klapproth, Jan; Schierhorn, Angelika; Mahour, Reza; Pietzsch, Markus; Rapp, Erdmann; Reichl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    Glycosylation of proteins is a key function of the biosynthetic-secretory pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. Glycosylated proteins play a crucial role in cell trafficking and signaling, cell-cell adhesion, blood-group antigenicity, and immune response. In addition, the glycosylation of proteins is an important parameter in the optimization of many glycoprotein-based drugs such as monoclonal antibodies. In vitro glycoengineering of proteins requires glycosyltransferases as well as expensive nucleotide sugars. Here, we present a designed pathway consisting of five enzymes, glucokinase (Glk), phosphomannomutase (ManB), mannose-1-phosphate-guanyltransferase (ManC), inorganic pyrophosphatase (PmPpA), and 1-domain polyphosphate kinase 2 (1D-Ppk2) expressed in E. coli for the cell-free production and regeneration of GDP-mannose from mannose and polyphosphate with catalytic amounts of GDP and ADP. It was shown that GDP-mannose is produced at various conditions, that is pH 7-8, temperature 25-35°C and co-factor concentrations of 5-20 mM MgCl 2 . The maximum reaction rate of GDP-mannose achieved was 2.7 μM/min at 30°C and 10 mM MgCl 2 producing 566 nmol GDP-mannose after a reaction time of 240 min. With respect to the initial GDP concentration (0.8 mM) this is equivalent to a yield of 71%. Additionally, the cascade was coupled to purified, transmembrane-deleted Alg1 (ALG1ΔTM), the first mannosyltransferase in the ER-associated lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) assembly. Thereby, in a one-pot reaction, phytanyl-PP-(GlcNAc) 2 -Man 1 was produced with efficient nucleotide sugar regeneration for the first time. Phytanyl-PP-(GlcNAc) 2 -Man 1 can serve as a substrate for the synthesis of LLO for the cell-free in vitro glycosylation of proteins. A high-performance anion exchange chromatography method with UV and conductivity detection (HPAEC-UV/CD) assay was optimized and validated to determine the enzyme kinetics. The established

  12. Structure sensitivity of CO dissociation on Rh surfaces

    Mavrikakis, Manos; Baumer, M.; Freund, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    than the flat surface, but the effect is considerably weaker than the effect of surface structure on the dissociation barrier. Our findings are compared with available experimental data, and the consequences for CO activation in methanation and Fischer-Tropsch reactions are discussed.......Using periodic self-consistent density functional calculations it is shown that the barrier for CO dissociation is similar to120 kJ/mol lower on the stepped Rh(211) surface than on the close-packed Rh(111) surface. The stepped surface binds molecular CO and the dissociation products more strongly...

  13. Scapulothoracic Dissociation: A Rare Variant: A Case Report

    Rajat Jangir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Scapulothoracic dissociation is a rare injury involving separation of scapula from the thorax along with the upper extremity. Majority of the patients have concomitant neurovascular injury and the prognosis is uniformly poor in such cases. We present a case of scapulothoracic dissociation with comminuted fracture of scapula and acromioclavicular joint disruption without neurovascular deficit. There were associated avulsion fractures of the spinous processes of vertebrae (T3-T5. Such presentation is rare in an already rare scapulothoracic dissociation injury. A discussion regarding the probable mechanism of injury, management and prognosis is presented.

  14. Errors of logic and scholarship concerning dissociative identity disorder.

    Ross, Colin A

    2009-01-01

    The author reviewed a two-part critique of dissociative identity disorder published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. The two papers contain errors of logic and scholarship. Contrary to the conclusions in the critique, dissociative identity disorder has established diagnostic reliability and concurrent validity, the trauma histories of affected individuals can be corroborated, and the existing prospective treatment outcome literature demonstrates improvement in individuals receiving psychotherapy for the disorder. The available evidence supports the inclusion of dissociative identity disorder in future editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

  15. Electron Capture Dissociation of Weakly Bound Polypeptide Polycationic Complexes

    Haselmann, Kim F; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Budnik, Bogdan A

    2002-01-01

    as well as specific complexes of modified glycopeptide antibiotics with their target peptide. The weak nature of bonding is substantiated by blackbody infrared dissociation, low-energy collisional excitation and force-field simulations. The results are consistent with a non-ergodic ECD cleavage mechanism.......We have previously reported that, in electron capture dissociation (ECD), rupture of strong intramolecular bonds in weakly bound supramolecular aggregates can proceed without dissociation of weak intermolecular bonds. This is now illustrated on a series of non-specific peptide-peptide dimers...

  16. Actin-myosin contractility is responsible for the reduced viability of dissociated human embryonic stem cells.

    Chen, Guokai; Hou, Zhonggang; Gulbranson, Daniel R; Thomson, James A

    2010-08-06

    Human ESCs are the pluripotent precursor of the three embryonic germ layers. Human ESCs exhibit basal-apical polarity, junctional complexes, integrin-dependent matrix adhesion, and E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion, all characteristics shared by the epiblast epithelium of the intact mammalian embryo. After disruption of epithelial structures, programmed cell death is commonly observed. If individualized human ESCs are prevented from reattaching and forming colonies, their viability is significantly reduced. Here, we show that actin-myosin contraction is a critical effector of the cell death response to human ESC dissociation. Inhibition of myosin heavy chain ATPase, downregulation of myosin heavy chain, and downregulation of myosin light chain all increase survival and cloning efficiency of individualized human ESCs. ROCK inhibition decreases phosphorylation of myosin light chain, suggesting that inhibition of actin-myosin contraction is also the mechanism through which ROCK inhibitors increase cloning efficiency of human ESCs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dissociating emotion-induced blindness and hypervision.

    Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René

    2009-12-01

    Previous findings suggest that emotional stimuli sometimes improve (emotion-induced hypervision) and sometimes impair (emotion-induced blindness) the visual perception of subsequent neutral stimuli. We hypothesized that these differential carryover effects might be due to 2 distinct emotional influences in visual processing. On the one hand, emotional stimuli trigger a general enhancement in the efficiency of visual processing that can carry over onto other stimuli. On the other hand, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific enhancement in later attentional processing at the expense of competing visual stimuli. We investigated whether detrimental (blindness) and beneficial (hypervision) carryover effects of emotion in perception can be dissociated within a single experimental paradigm. In 2 experiments, we manipulated the temporal competition for attention between an emotional cue word and a subsequent neutral target word by varying cue-target interstimulus interval (ISI) and cue visibility. Interestingly, emotional cues impaired target identification at short ISIs but improved target identification when competition was diminished by either increasing ISI or reducing cue visibility, suggesting that emotional significance of stimuli can improve and impair visual performance through distinct perceptual mechanisms.

  18. Dissociation of recombinant prion autocatalysis from infectivity.

    Noble, Geoffrey P; Supattapone, Surachai

    2015-01-01

    Within the mammalian prion field, the existence of recombinant prion protein (PrP) conformers with self-replicating (ie. autocatalytic) activity in vitro but little to no infectious activity in vivo challenges a key prediction of the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication--that autocatalytic PrP conformers should be infectious. To understand this dissociation of autocatalysis from infectivity, we recently performed a structural and functional comparison between a highly infectious and non-infectious pair of autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers derived from the same initial prion strain. (1) We identified restricted, C-terminal structural differences between these 2 conformers and provided evidence that these relatively subtle differences prevent the non-infectious conformer from templating the conversion of native PrP(C) substrates containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. (1) In this article we discuss a model, consistent with these findings, in which recombinant PrP, lacking post-translational modifications and associated folding constraints, is capable of adopting a wide variety of autocatalytic conformations. Only a subset of these recombinant conformers can be adopted by post-translationally modified native PrP(C), and this subset represents the recombinant conformers with high specific infectivity. We examine this model's implications for the generation of highly infectious recombinant prions and the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication.

  19. [Introducing treatment for dissociative identity disorder].

    Kitamura, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a case presentation and study of the introduction of treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). Since one manifestation of the pathology of DID is that sufferers avoid relying on others, at the start of treatment we try to stabilise the relationship between clinicians and patients; that is to say, we aim to build a treatment relationship which will be able to gradually overcome the patients' dread of relying on clinicians. In parallel with this we undertake a thorough psychiatric assessment of their condition. This is a standard treatment plan, which follows the general principles of clinical psychiatry. On the other hand, the specialist aspect of DID treatment calls for handling the unique behaviours of a group of mutually opposed alternating personalities appropriately, while always paying consistent attention to the traumatic memories which are connected to the formation and maintenance of the condition. This paper presents the first DID case which the author has taken charge of. There were some difficulties in the early stages of treatment, but after modifying some parts to acknowledge the alternating personalities as independent personalities in face-to-face interviews and psychological education for families, the stabilisation of the treatment structure progressed gradually and the stability of the relationship between clinicians and patients itself has become the focus.

  20. Interidentity amnesia in dissociative identity disorder.

    Morton, John

    2017-07-01

    Patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID) usually present with alternative personality states (alters) who take separate control of consciousness. Commonly, one alter will claim they have no awareness of events which took place when another alter was in control. However, some kinds of material are transferred across the alter boundary. Huntjens et al. devised an objective method of demonstrating such transfer. In the main study, following Huntjens et al., for three patients, two alters were taught different sets of nouns. The following week, one of the alters was given a recognition memory test including both sets plus distractor words. The patients in the Huntjens experiment responded in the same way to words in both sets. In the present experiemnt, two of the patients tested had pairs of alters where there was no interference from the material which was presented to the other alter. In one of these cases, there was breakthrough with one pairing of alters, a pattern matched in a subsidiary experiment. The population of individuals with DID are not homogeneous with respect to the depth of the blocking of episodic material from one alter to another.