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Sample records for gc globulin vitamin

  1. Protein chemical characterization of Gc globulin (vitamin D-binding protein) isoforms; Gc-1f, Gc-1s and Gc-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Maja; Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Laursen, Inga;

    2007-01-01

    exchange chromatography. The separated isoforms and several commercial preparations of individual isoforms were characterized by mass spectrometry. This revealed that the major isoforms were non-glycosylated. Compared to the Gc-1f isoform the other dominating isoforms represented an Asp/Glu substitution......Gc globulin, also called vitamin D-binding protein, is a plasma protein involved in the extracellular actin-scavenger system, vitamin D transport and possibly also other biological activities. Low levels of Gc globulin have been found to correlate with multiple organ failure and non......-survival of patients with fulminant hepatic failure and trauma. Here, we characterize the dominant isoforms of plasma-derived Gc globulin from Cohn fraction IV paste with respect to amino acid sequence and posttranslational modifications. Gc globulin was purified in large scale and the isoforms separated by ion...

  2. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro;

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM...... for measuring Gc-globulin in horses. Studies in rodents and humans have shown that Gc-globulin is a multifunctional acute phase plasma protein, which removes actin from the blood by binding it and facilitating its clearance from the circulation by the liver. As such, Gc-globulin prevents hyper coagulation......-globulin infusions. Reference List    1.   Vasconcellos CA and Lind SE. Coordinated inhibition of actin-induced platelet aggregation by plasma gelsolin and vitamin D-binding protein. Blood 1993;82:3648-3657....

  3. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    Group specific (Gc) globulin also known as vitamin D-binding protein is part of the extracellular actin-scavenging system that removes actin from the circulation. Actin is an intracellular structural protein, which is released to blood in patients with tissue injury and cell death. Circulating...... can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc...

  4. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay identifies vitamin D binding protein (Gc-globulin) in human, rat, and mouse sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W X; Bazaraa, H M; Magiera, H; Cooke, N E; Haddad, J G

    1996-06-01

    Serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP, also known as Gc-globulin) is a multifunctional protein capable of binding both vitamin D metabolites and actin. DBP can be visualized when analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by staining. Confirmation of its identity had previously required immunoprecipitation with specific anti-DBP antisera or occupancy of the protein with radioactive vitamin D sterols. We present studies showing that preincubation of G-actin with mammalian sera produced a discernible DBP protein band shift on native gel electrophoresis. Addition of DNaseI, a 33-kDa intracellular protein with an avid actin-binding site, to the incubations resulted in a supershift of DBP-actin complexes to an even more cathodal region of the gels. Following incubations with human, rat, and murine sera the same actin shift occurred as did the actin plus DNaseI supershift. The migrations of each complex were correlated with purified DBP migrations under identical conditions. It was confirmed that the supershifted bands contained DBP by Western blotting and detection of DBP by binding of 25-OH[3H]D3. After intravenous G-actin injections into living mice, a serum DBP-actin complex could be detected on native gels as the uncomplexed DBP band decreased in intensity. This simple, direct-staining technique appears to be suitable for identifying DBP/Gc phenotypes in human populations as well as for semiquantitatively monitoring the plasma actin-scavenger system in vivo in animal models or in human diseases.

  5. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM......-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay...... to be a sensitive marker of acute tissue injury and fatal outcome in humans. Patients with a low plasma concentration of Gc-globulin due to severe tissue injury might potentially benefit from infusions with purified Gc-globulin [1]. With an equine Gc-globulin assay, future studies will investigate the concentration...

  6. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro;

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose) and prepa......Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM......-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay...... for measuring Gc-globulin in horses. Studies in rodents and humans have shown that Gc-globulin is a multifunctional acute phase plasma protein, which removes actin from the blood by binding it and facilitating its clearance from the circulation by the liver. As such, Gc-globulin prevents hyper coagulation...

  7. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc...

  8. Gc protein (vitamin D-binding protein): Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Okamura, Natsuko; Murakami, Aya; Kubo, Shinichi; Kirk, Kenneth L; Hori, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The Gc protein (human group-specific component (Gc), a vitamin D-binding protein or Gc globulin), has important physiological functions that include involvement in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5a for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation (mediated by a GalNAc-modified Gc protein (GcMAF)). In this review, the structure and function of the Gc protein is focused on especially with regard to Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity. A discussion of the research strategy "GcMAF as a target for drug discovery" is included, based on our own research.

  9. Fast chromatofocusing of human serum proteins with special reference to alpha 1-antitrypsin and Gc-globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fägerstam, L G; Lizana, J; Axiö-Fredriksson, U B; Wahlström, L

    1983-08-26

    A new chromatofocusing medium, MonoP, was used for fast (60 min or less) separations of human serum proteins. Separations in the broad pH interval 6.0-3.8 were analysed by fused rocket immunoelectrophoresis to identify a number of proteins, and by gradient gel electrophoresis to determine the molecular weight distribution of the eluted material. To illustrate further the high resolving power of chromatofocusing, narrow pH intervals of about 0.5 pH units were used to study the microheterogeneity of alpha 1-antitrypsin and Gc-globulin. Due to its high resolving power and preparative capacity, chromatofocusing is attractive as the first dimension in two-dimensional techniques for the resolution of complex protein mixtures.

  10. The glycosylation and characterization of the candidate Gc macrophage activating factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnsborg, Tina; Olsen, Dorthe T; Thysen, Anna Hammerich;

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D binding protein, Gc globulin, has in recent years received some attention for its role as precursor for the extremely potent macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). An O-linked trisaccharide has been allocated to the threonine residue at position 420 in two of the three most common...... isoforms of Gc globulin (Gc1s and Gc1f). A substitution for a lysine residue at position 420 in Gc2 prevents this isoform from being glycosylated at that position. It has been suggested that Gc globulin subjected sequentially to sialidase and galactosidase treatment generates GcMAF in the form of Gc...... globulin with only a single GalNAc attached to T420. In this study we confirm the location of a linear trisaccharide on T420. Furthermore, we provide the first structural evidence of the generation of the proposed GcMAF by use of glycosidase treatment and mass spectrometry. Additionally the generated GcMAF...

  11. Safety Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Human Gc Globulin (Vitamin D Binding Protein)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Jørgensen, Charlotte Svaerke; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric

    2010-01-01

    of the kallikrein system or the complement system and cellular studies showed no toxic effects on a variety of human cell lines. In vivo studies showed no acute toxic effects in mice, rats or guinea pigs upon intravenous infusion. A 14-day local tolerance study in rabbits showed no adverse effects, and 14-day...... toxicity studies in rats and horses did not show any unwanted reactions. In a 14-day toxicology study in beagle dogs, formation of antibodies was seen and in the end of the study period, three out of four dogs showed clinical immunological reactions, which could be ascribed to the formation of antibodies...

  12. Safety pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetic assesment of human Gc globulin (vitamin d binding protein)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Jørgensen, Charlotte Sværke; Santoni Rugiu, Eric

    2010-01-01

    of the kallikrein system or the complement system and cellular studies showed no toxic effects on a variety of human cell lines. In vivo studies showed no acute toxic effects in mice, rats or guinea pigs upon intravenous infusion. A 14-day local tolerance study in rabbits showed no adverse effects, and 14-day...... toxicity studies in rats and horses did not show any unwanted reactions. In a 14-day toxicology study in beagle dogs, formation of antibodies was seen and in the end of the study period, three out of four dogs showed clinical immunological reactions, which could be ascribed to the formation of antibodies...

  13. Safety pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetic assesment of human Gc globulin (vitamin d binding protein)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Jørgensen, Charlotte Sværke; Santoni Rugiu, Eric

    2010-01-01

    of the kallikrein system or the complement system and cellular studies showed no toxic effects on a variety of human cell lines. In vivo studies showed no acute toxic effects in mice, rats or guinea pigs upon intravenous infusion. A 14-day local tolerance study in rabbits showed no adverse effects, and 14-day...

  14. Association between Gc genotype and susceptibility to TB is dependent on vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, A R; Leandro, A C C S; Anderson, S T; Newton, S M; Wilkinson, K A; Nicol, M P; Pienaar, S M; Skolimowska, K H; Rocha, M A; Rolla, V C; Levin, M; Davidson, R N; Bremner, S A; Griffiths, C J; Eley, B S; Bonecini-Almeida, M G; Wilkinson, R J

    2010-05-01

    Group-specific component (Gc) variants of vitamin D binding protein differ in their affinity for vitamin D metabolites that modulate antimycobacterial immunity. We conducted studies to determine whether Gc genotype associates with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). The following subjects were recruited into case-control studies: in the UK, 123 adult TB patients and 140 controls, all of Gujarati Asian ethnic origin; in Brazil, 130 adult TB patients and 78 controls; and in South Africa, 281 children with TB and 182 controls. Gc genotypes were determined and their frequency was compared between cases versus controls. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were obtained retrospectively for 139 Gujarati Asians, and case-control analysis was stratified by vitamin D status. Interferon (IFN)-gamma release assays were also performed on 36 Gujarati Asian TB contacts. The Gc2/2 genotype was strongly associated with susceptibility to active TB in Gujarati Asians, compared with Gc1/1 genotype (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.19-6.66; p = 0.009). This association was preserved if serum 25(OH)D was or =20 nmol.L(-1) (p = 0.36). Carriage of the Gc2 allele was associated with increased PPD of tuberculin-stimulated IFN-gamma release in Gujarati Asian TB contacts (p = 0.02). No association between Gc genotype and susceptibility to TB was observed in other ethnic groups studied.

  15. Common genetic variations in the CYP2R1 and GC genes are determinants of vitamin D status in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna

    ), after 6 months intake of vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk (paper II) and in 92 participants in the VitDgen study after artificial UVB irradiation during winter (paper III). Common genetic variations in the CYP2R1 and GC genes were found to be important determinants of vitamin D status in three out...... by genetic variation in vitamin D modulating genes. Twin and family-based studies indicate that genetic variation may have an appreciable influence on vitamin D status. Moreover, several candidate gene studies including two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found single nucleotide polymorphisms...... (SNPs) in CYP2R1, CYP24A1, CYP27B1, C10orf88, DHCR7/NADSYN1, GC and VDR genes to be associated with vitamin D status. The main hypothesis of this work was that genetically determined variation in vitamin D metabolism would influence the effect of vitamin D sources (vitamin D...

  16. Common Variants in CYP2R1 and GC Genes Predict Vitamin D Concentrations in Healthy Danish Children and Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors such as diet, intake of vitamin D supplements and exposure to sunlight are known to influence serum vitamin D concentrations. Genetic epidemiology of vitamin D is in its infancy and a better understanding on how genetic variation influences vitamin D concentration is needed....... We aimed to analyse previously reported vitamin D-related polymorphisms in relation to serum 25(OH)D concentrations in 201 healthy Danish families with dependent children in late summer in Denmark. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and a total of 25 SNPs in GC, VDR, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, CYP27B1, C10or88...

  17. The glycosylation and characterization of the candidate Gc macrophage activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnsborg, Tina; Olsen, Dorthe T; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Christiansen, Maja; Houen, Gunnar; Højrup, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The vitamin D binding protein, Gc globulin, has in recent years received some attention for its role as precursor for the extremely potent macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). An O-linked trisaccharide has been allocated to the threonine residue at position 420 in two of the three most common isoforms of Gc globulin (Gc1s and Gc1f). A substitution for a lysine residue at position 420 in Gc2 prevents this isoform from being glycosylated at that position. It has been suggested that Gc globulin subjected sequentially to sialidase and galactosidase treatment generates GcMAF in the form of Gc globulin with only a single GalNAc attached to T420. In this study we confirm the location of a linear trisaccharide on T420. Furthermore, we provide the first structural evidence of the generation of the proposed GcMAF by use of glycosidase treatment and mass spectrometry. Additionally the generated GcMAF candidate was tested for its effect on cytokine release from macrophages in human whole blood.

  18. Hypovitaminosis D in a Young Lebanese Population: Effect of GC Gene Polymorphisms on Vitamin D and Vitamin D Binding Protein Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlej-Hashim, Myrna; Jounblat, Rania; Hamade, Aline; Ibrahim, Jose Noel; Rizk, Francine; Azzi, Georges; Abdallah, Marwa; Nakib, Layane; Lahoud, May; Nabout, Rita

    2015-11-01

    Bioactive vitamin D is a steroid hormone transported in blood via the vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Our study aimed to investigate the vitamin D status in a young Lebanese population and study the association of hypovitaminosis with levels of DBP. Polymorphisms in the GC gene that encodes DBP were also screened. Blood samples were collected from 179 university students. Vitamin D status and DBP levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). DNA was extracted from 128 participants, and genotyping of the two GC gene SNPs, rs7041, and rs4588, was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Forty-seven percent of participants had hypovitaminosis D (hypovitaminosis D observed in sunny countries.

  19. rs12512631 on the Group Specific Complement (Vitamin D-Binding Protein GC) Implicated in Melanoma Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Chilet, Maria; Ibarrola-Villava, Maider; Martin-González, Manuel; Feito, Marta; Gomez-Fernandez, Cristina; Planelles, Dolores; Carretero, Gregorio; Lluch, Ana; Nagore, Eduardo; Ribas, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Background Solar radiation should be avoided in melanoma patients. Nevertheless, this is the main means by which the body produces vitamin D. Evidence suggests a protective role against cancer for vitamin D. Since vitamin D performs its function by binding the receptor encoded by the vitamin D-receptor gene (VDR), most studies have focused on polymorphisms (SNPs) within this gene. However, the gene encoding the vitamin D-binding protein (GC) appears in recent studies as a major player in the role of a serum vitamin D level regulator and in Cutaneous Melanoma (CM) predisposition. Methods We performed a case-control study of 12 polymorphisms on GC and 9 on VDR among 530 cases and 314 controls from Spanish population. Results We found association between SNP rs12512631, located 3′downstream of GC, and risk of CM that seems to fit a dominant model (OR 1.63 95%CI 1.23–2.17 p-value 7×10−4). This association remained Bonferroni’s correction and after adjustment for potential confounders (p-value 3×10−3) and even after increasing the sample size to 1729 individuals (p-value 0.0129). Moreover, we confirmed evidence of an association between CM susceptibility and the linkage disequilibrium block marked by tag-SNP rs222016 (p-value 0.032). This block covers the GC intron 1 region, with probable regulatory functions. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first vitamin D pathway-related polymorphism study in melanoma risk conducted in the Spanish population. Furthermore, we show an association between polymorphisms in GC and melanoma risk, confirming recent studies in different populations. PMID:23544077

  20. rs12512631 on the group specific complement (vitamin D-binding protein GC implicated in melanoma susceptibility.

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    Maria Peña-Chilet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Solar radiation should be avoided in melanoma patients. Nevertheless, this is the main means by which the body produces vitamin D. Evidence suggests a protective role against cancer for vitamin D. Since vitamin D performs its function by binding the receptor encoded by the vitamin D-receptor gene (VDR, most studies have focused on polymorphisms (SNPs within this gene. However, the gene encoding the vitamin D-binding protein (GC appears in recent studies as a major player in the role of a serum vitamin D level regulator and in Cutaneous Melanoma (CM predisposition. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of 12 polymorphisms on GC and 9 on VDR among 530 cases and 314 controls from Spanish population. RESULTS: We found association between SNP rs12512631, located 3'downstream of GC, and risk of CM that seems to fit a dominant model (OR 1.63 95%CI 1.23-2.17 p-value 7×10(-4. This association remained Bonferroni's correction and after adjustment for potential confounders (p-value 3×10(-3 and even after increasing the sample size to 1729 individuals (p-value 0.0129. Moreover, we confirmed evidence of an association between CM susceptibility and the linkage disequilibrium block marked by tag-SNP rs222016 (p-value 0.032. This block covers the GC intron 1 region, with probable regulatory functions. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first vitamin D pathway-related polymorphism study in melanoma risk conducted in the Spanish population. Furthermore, we show an association between polymorphisms in GC and melanoma risk, confirming recent studies in different populations.

  1. Immunotherapy of metastatic breast cancer patients with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Ushijima, Naofumi

    2008-01-15

    Serum vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of breast cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Patient serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden. The deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to MAF, resulting in no macrophage activation and immunosuppression. Stepwise incubation of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated probably the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages treated in vitro with GcMAF (100 pg/ml) are highly tumoricidal to mammary adenocarcinomas. Efficacy of GcMAF for treatment of metastatic breast cancer was investigated with 16 nonanemic patients who received weekly administration of GcMAF (100 ng). As GcMAF therapy progresses, the MAF precursor activity of patient Gc protein increased with a concomitant decrease in serum Nagalase. Because of proportionality of serum Nagalase activity to tumor burden, the time course progress of GcMAF therapy was assessed by serum Nagalase activity as a prognostic index. These patients had the initial Nagalase activities ranging from 2.32 to 6.28 nmole/min/mg protein. After about 16-22 administrations (approximately 3.5-5 months) of GcMAF, these patients had insignificantly low serum enzyme levels equivalent to healthy control enzyme levels, ranging from 0.38 to 0.63 nmole/min/mg protein, indicating eradication of the tumors. This therapeutic procedure resulted in no recurrence for more than 4 years.

  2. Immunotherapy of metastatic colorectal cancer with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor, GcMAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Nakazato, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2008-07-01

    Serum vitamin D binding protein (Gc protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of colorectal cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to MAF, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) ever discovered, but it produces no side effect in humans. Macrophages treated with GcMAF (100 microg/ml) develop an enormous variation of receptors and are highly tumoricidal to a variety of cancers indiscriminately. Administration of 100 nanogram (ng)/ human maximally activates systemic macrophages that can kill cancerous cells. Since the half-life of the activated macrophages is approximately 6 days, 100 ng GcMAF was administered weekly to eight nonanemic colorectal cancer patients who had previously received tumor-resection but still carried significant amounts of metastatic tumor cells. As GcMAF therapy progressed, the MAF precursor activities of all patients increased and conversely their serum Nagalase activities decreased. Since serum Nagalase is proportional to tumor burden, serum Nagalase activity was used as a prognostic index for time course analysis of GcMAF therapy. After 32-50 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF, all colorectal cancer patients exhibited healthy control levels of the serum Nagalase activity, indicating eradication of metastatic tumor cells. During 7 years after the completion of GcMAF therapy, their serum Nagalase activity did not increase, indicating no recurrence of cancer, which was also supported by the annual CT scans of these patients.

  3. Vitamin D insufficiency in Arabs and South Asians positively associates with polymorphisms in GC and CYP2R1 genes.

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    Naser Elkum

    Full Text Available A number of genetic studies have reported an association between vitamin D related genes such as group-specific component gene (GC, Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily R, polypeptide 1 (CYP2R1 and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide synthetase 1 (DHCR7/NADSYN1 and serum levels of the active form of Vitamin D, 25 (OH D among African Americans, Caucasians, and Chinese. Little is known about how genetic variations associate with, or contribute to, 25(OHD levels in Arabs populations.Allele frequencies of 18 SNPs derived from CYP2R1, GC, and DHCR7/NADSYN1 genes in 1549 individuals (Arabs, South Asians, and Southeast Asians living in Kuwait were determined using real time genotyping assays. Serum levels of 25(OHD were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay.GC gene polymorphisms (rs17467825, rs3755967, rs2282679, rs7041 and rs2298850 were found to be associated with 25(OHD serum levels in Arabs and South Asians. Two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714 and one of GC SNPs (rs1155563 were found to be significantly associated with 25(OHD serum levels only in people of Arab origin. Across all three ethnicities none of the SNPs of DHCR7/NADSYN1 were associated with serum 25(OHD levels and none of the 18 SNPs were significantly associated with serum 25(OHD levels in people from South East Asia.Our data show for the first time significant association between the GC (rs2282679 and rs7041, CYP2R1 (rs10741657 SNPs and 25(OHD levels. This supports their roles in vitamin D Insufficiency in Arab and South Asian populations respectively. Interestingly, two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714 and one GC SNP (rs1155563 were found to correlate with vitamin D in Arab population exclusively signifying their importance in this population.

  4. Vitamin D Insufficiency in Arabs and South Asians Positively Associates with Polymorphisms in GC and CYP2R1 Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkum, Naser; Alkayal, Fadi; Noronha, Fiona; Ali, Maisa M.; Melhem, Motasem; Al-Arouj, Monira; Bennakhi, Abdullah; Behbehani, Kazem; Alsmadi, Osama; Abubaker, Jehad

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of genetic studies have reported an association between vitamin D related genes such as group-specific component gene (GC), Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily R, polypeptide 1 (CYP2R1) and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide synthetase 1 (DHCR7/NADSYN1) and serum levels of the active form of Vitamin D, 25 (OH) D among African Americans, Caucasians, and Chinese. Little is known about how genetic variations associate with, or contribute to, 25(OH)D levels in Arabs populations. Methods Allele frequencies of 18 SNPs derived from CYP2R1, GC, and DHCR7/NADSYN1 genes in 1549 individuals (Arabs, South Asians, and Southeast Asians living in Kuwait) were determined using real time genotyping assays. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results GC gene polymorphisms (rs17467825, rs3755967, rs2282679, rs7041 and rs2298850) were found to be associated with 25(OH)D serum levels in Arabs and South Asians. Two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714) and one of GC SNPs (rs1155563) were found to be significantly associated with 25(OH)D serum levels only in people of Arab origin. Across all three ethnicities none of the SNPs of DHCR7/NADSYN1 were associated with serum 25(OH)D levels and none of the 18 SNPs were significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D levels in people from South East Asia. Conclusion Our data show for the first time significant association between the GC (rs2282679 and rs7041), CYP2R1 (rs10741657) SNPs and 25(OH)D levels. This supports their roles in vitamin D Insufficiency in Arab and South Asian populations respectively. Interestingly, two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714) and one GC SNP (rs1155563) were found to correlate with vitamin D in Arab population exclusively signifying their importance in this population. PMID:25405862

  5. Independent associations of polymorphisms in vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes with obesity and plasma 25OHD3 levels demonstrate sex dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almesri, Norah; Das, Nagalla S; Ali, Muhallab E; Gumaa, Khalid; Giha, Hayder Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    We investigated a possible association between polymorphisms in vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and obesity in Bahraini adults. For this purpose, 406 subjects with varying body mass indexes (BMIs) were selected. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms, 2 in the VDR gene (rs731236 TC and rs12721377 AG) and 4 in the GC gene (rs2282679 AC, rs4588 CA, rs7041 GT, and rs2298849 TC), were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that the rs7041 minor allele (G) and rare genotype (GG) were associated with higher BMI (p = 0.007 and p = 0.012, respectively), but they did not influence 25OHD3 levels. However, the minor alleles of rs2282679 (A) and rs4588 (C) were associated with low 25OHD3 plasma levels (p = 0.039 and p = 0.021, respectively), but not with BMI. Having categorized the subjects based on their sex, we found that (i) rs7041 GG associated with high BMI in females (p = 0.003), (ii) rs4588 CC associated with high BMI in females (p = 0.034) and low 25OHD3 levels in males (p = 0.009), and (iii) rs12721377 AA associated with low 25OHD3 levels in females (p = 0.039). Notably, none of the common haplotypes (6 in the GC gene and 3 in the VDR gene) were associated with BMI. Therefore, polymorphisms in the GC (rs2282679, rs4588, rs7041) and VDR (rs12721377) genes were independently associated with obesity and 25OHD3 levels with a clear sex dimorphism.

  6. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  7. Vitamins

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    ... A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading ... What's in this article? Vitamins Hang Out in Water and Fat Vitamins Feed Your Needs Vitamin A ...

  8. Vitamins

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    ... health problems, including heart disease, cancer, and poor bone health ( osteoporosis ). Vitamin A helps form and maintain healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucus membranes, and skin. Vitamin B6 ...

  9. Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermal treatment is an intrinsic part of most food processing procedures and may be employed to inactive enzimes and toxic '• factors, to change texture and flavour or to preserve. The vitamin degree of transformation or destruction in cooking methods depends on the temperature and on the time of exposure to this temperature. Oxigen, light and transition metals frequently play an active role in accelerating or promoting vitamin losses. Both chemical change and difussion proceed more rapidly as the temperature is raised. An advantage of deep frying consists of the fact that the temperature within the food does not exceed the temperature of the steam under the crust, and that frying times are in general very short compared to other cooking procedures. Another advantages may be the low content of dissolved oxygen in frying fats, and also in its high tocopherol content. There is no leaching of water-soluble vitamins in deep-frying. Speaking of vitamin stability we have to keep in mind that the concept of vitamins is a more physiological concept than a chemical one. The stability itself is not a property of the various vitamins but rather of the various chemical compounds sometimes called vitamers, of which a certain vitamin group consists. For practical purposes, vitamin losses should be considered only in foods wich substantially contribute to the vitamin supply of single people or population groups. There is little data in the literature about vitamin changes in deep-frying of food. However published experimental data on vitamin loses show that deep-frying is one of the most protective cooking procedures. For example, in ours results the vitamin C losses of stewed vegetable foods were twice higher than that of fried ones, (raw potatoes containing 19 mg/100g fresh weight, 13 mg/100 fried in olive oil, and 5 mg/100g stewed in the same oil.

  10. Determination of vitamins D2 and D3 in selected food matrices by online high-performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Marco; Thellmann, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    An online normal-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of vitamins D2 and D3 in selected food matrices. Transfer of the sample from HPLC to GC was realized by large volume on-column injection; detection was performed with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Typical GC problems in the determination of vitamin D such as sample degradation or sensitivity issues, previously reported in the literature, were not observed. Determination of total vitamin D content was done by quantitation of its pyro isomer based on an isotopically labelled internal standard (ISTD). Extracted ion traces of analyte and ISTD showed cross-contribution, but non-linearity of the calibration curve was not determined inside the chosen calibration range by selection of appropriate quantifier ions. Absolute limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for vitamins D2 and D3 were calculated as approximately 50 and 150 pg, respectively. Repeatability with internal standard correction was below 2 %. Good agreement between quantitative results of an established high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) method and HPLC-GC-MS was found. Sterol-enriched margarine was subjected to HPLC-GC-MS and HPLC-MS/MS for comparison, because HPLC-UV showed strong matrix interferences. HPLC-GC-MS produced comparable results with less manual sample cleanup. In summary, online hyphenation of HPLC and GC allowed a minimization in manual sample preparation with an increase of sample throughput.

  11. GC-MS Analysis of β-Carotene Ethenolysis Products and their Synthesis as Potentially Active Vitamin A Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermacz, I.; Maj, J.; Morzycki, J. W.; Wojtkielewicz, A.

    2008-01-01

    β-Carotene ethenolysis under promotion of well-defined ruthenium catalysts were examined as a novel method of synthesis of vitamin A derivatives. Efficient reaction was promoted by the second-generation Hoveyda catalyst. The products of ethenolysis in positions C15-C15′, C11-C12, and C9-C10 were detected, but cleavage of the C11-C12 double bond predominated. Even better regioselectivity at this position was observed for cross—metathesis between β-carotene and functionalized alkenes. PMID:19696942

  12. Associations between vitamin D-binding protein isotypes, circulating 25(OH)D levels, and vitamin D metabolite uptake in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Elizabeth A; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Stone, Angelika Dampf; Sardo, Christine L; Galligan, Michael A; Jurutka, Peter W

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin D metabolites have been extensively studied as cancer chemopreventive agents. Gc-globulin (GC) isotypes, based on rs7041 and rs4588 diplotypes, have varying affinities for 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), which may affect circulating metabolite concentration as well as delivery at the cellular level. We evaluated associations between GC isotype and circulating vitamin D metabolite concentrations in 403 ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) clinical trial participants. Metabolite uptake was evaluated in human colon cancer (HCT-116) cells treated with ethanol vehicle, 1,25(OH)2D, or 25(OH)D, and with plasma from individuals with known GC isotype. Mammalian-2-hybrid and vitamin D-responsive element-based luciferase assays were used to measure the vitamin D receptor pathway activation as a marker for metabolite uptake. Regression analysis demonstrated significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentration for clinical trial participants with 1F_2, 1S_2, or 2_2 isotypes (P OH)D uptake varied less by GC isotype only at the higher concentration tested (P = 0.05), while 1,25(OH)2D uptake differed markedly by GC isotype across concentration and assay (P OH)2D treatment and, while activation varied less with 25(OH)D, the 2_2 isotype demonstrated increased induction at the lower concentration. These results suggest that vitamin D metabolite concentration and delivery to colon cells may vary not only by GC isotype, but also that certain isotypes may more effectively deliver 1,25(OH)2D versus 25(OH)D. Overall, these results may help identify populations at risk for cancer and potential recipients of targeted chemoprevention.

  13. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Share this ... Globulin Ratio; A/G Ratio Formal name: Total Protein; Albumin to Globulin Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Liver ...

  14. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  15. Effect of colostrum type on serum gamma globulin concentration, growth and health of goat kids until three months

    OpenAIRE

    Iepema, G.L.; Eekeren, N. van

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effect of three colostrum types; goat, cow and artificial colostrum, on serum gamma globulin concentration (GGC), growth and health of goat kids during the first three months of the rearing phase was measured. Thirty newborn goat kids were randomly assigned to three experimental groups; goat colostrum (GC), cow colostrum (CC) and artificial colostrum (AC). At 2, 28, 56 and 86 days serum GGC and live weight were measured. The three colostrum types were analysed on immunoglobu...

  16. Trial of Immune Globulin in Infant Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV in 122 infants in California with confirmed infant botulism (75 caused by type A Clostridium botulinum toxin, and 47 by type B toxin was conducted at the California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA; National Botulism Surveillance and Reference Laboratory, CDC and P, Atlanta; and Division of Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley.

  17. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-07-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D(3)-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of prostate cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Therefore, macrophages of prostate cancer patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent MAF (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages activated by GcMAF develop a considerable variation of receptors that recognize the abnormality in malignant cell surface and are highly tumoricidal. Sixteen nonanemic prostate cancer patients received weekly administration of 100 ng of GcMAF. As the MAF precursor activity increased, their serum Nagalase activity decreased. Because serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden, the entire time course analysis for GcMAF therapy was monitored by measuring the serum Nagalase activity. After 14 to 25 weekly administrations of GcMAF (100 ng/week), all 16 patients had very low serum Nagalase levels equivalent to those of healthy control values, indicating that these patients are tumor-free. No recurrence occurred for 7 years.

  18. Common variants in CYP2R1 and GC genes are both determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations after UVB irradiation and after consumption of vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk during winter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna; Vogel, Ulla; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how the genetic variation in vitamin D modulating genes influences ultraviolet (UV)B–induced 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. In the Food with vitamin D (VitmaD) study, we showed that common genetic variants rs10741657 and rs10766197 in 25-hydroxylase...

  19. 21 CFR 640.100 - Immune Globulin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immune Globulin (Human). 640.100 Section 640.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune Globulin (Human) § 640.100...

  20. Immune Gamma Globulin Therapeutic Indications in Immune Deficiency and Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luanna; Wu, Eveline Y; Tarrant, Teresa K

    2016-07-01

    Immune gamma globulin (IgG) has a long history in the treatment of both primary immune deficiency and autoimmune disorders. Disease indications continue to expand and new-generation products increase the versatility of delivery. This review encompasses a historical perspective as well as current and future implications of human immune globulin for the treatment of immune-mediated illness.

  1. Inhibition of corticosteroid-binding globulin gene expression by glucocorticoids involves C/EBPβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Verhoog

    Full Text Available Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG, a negative acute phase protein produced primarily in the liver, is responsible for the transport of glucocorticoids (GCs. It also modulates the bioavailability of GCs, as only free or unbound steroids are biologically active. Fluctuations in CBG levels therefore can directly affect GC bioavailability. This study investigates the molecular mechanism whereby GCs inhibit the expression of CBG. GCs regulate gene expression via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, which either directly binds to DNA or acts indirectly via tethering to other DNA-bound transcription factors. Although no GC-response elements (GRE are present in the Cbg promoter, putative binding sites for C/EBPβ, able to tether to the GR, as well as HNF3α involved in GR signaling, are present. C/EBPβ, but not HNF3α, was identified as an important mediator of DEX-mediated inhibition of Cbg promoter activity by using specific deletion and mutant promoter reporter constructs of Cbg. Furthermore, knockdown of C/EBPβ protein expression reduced DEX-induced repression of CBG mRNA, confirming C/EBPβ's involvement in GC-mediated CBG repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP after DEX treatment indicated increased co-recruitment of C/EBPβ and GR to the Cbg promoter, while C/EBPβ knockdown prevented GR recruitment. Together, the results suggest that DEX repression of CBG involves tethering of the GR to C/EBPβ.

  2. Emerging Role of Corticosteroid Binding Globulin in Glucocorticoid-driven Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Moisan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs are critical for survival since they ensure energy supply necessary to the body in an ever challenging environment. GCs are known to act on appetite, glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and storage. However, in order to be beneficial to the body, GC levels should be maintained in an optimal window of concentrations. Not surprisingly, conditions of GC excess or deficiency, e.g. Cushing’s syndrome or Addison’s disease are associated with severe alterations of energy metabolism. Corticosteroid Binding Globulin (CBG, through its high specific affinity for GCs, plays a critical role in regulating plasma GC levels. Genetic studies in various species including humans have revealed that CBG is the major factor influencing inter-individual genetic variability of plasma GC levels, both in basal and stress conditions. Some, but not all of these genetic studies have also provided data linking CBG levels to body composition. The examination of CBG-deficient mice submitted to hyperlipidic diets unveiled specific roles for CBG in lipid storage and metabolism. The importance of CBG is even more striking when animals are submitted to high-fat diet combined to chronic stress, mimicking our occidental lifestyle. An influence of CBG on appetite has not been reported but remains to be more finely analyzed. Overall, a role of CBG in GC-driven metabolic disorders is emerging in recent studies. Although subtle, the influence of CBG in these diseases could open the way to new therapeutic interventions since CBG is easily accessible in the blood.

  3. Plasma vitamin D-binding protein (GC) factors, immunoglobulin G heavy chain (GM) allotypes and immunoglobulin kappa light chain (KM1) allotype in patients with sarcoidosis and in healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Thymann, Mariann; Graudal, Niels

    2002-01-01

    and immunoglobulin kappa light chain (KM) allotype differed significantly from the distribution in healthy subjects. METHODS: GC 1S, 1F, 2 allotypes, GM 1, 2, 5 allotypes, and KM1 allotype were assessed in 44 patients with sarcoidosis and in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: There were no significant differences...

  4. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  5. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role ... immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds ...

  6. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  7. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of prostate cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Therefore, macrophages of prostate cancer patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized β-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent MAF (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages activated by GcMAF develop a considerable variation of receptors that recognize the abnormality in malignant cell surface and are highly tumoricidal. Sixteen nonanemic prostate cancer patients received weekly administration of 100 ng of GcMAF. As the MAF precursor activity increased, their serum Nagalase activity decreased. Because serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden, the entire time course analysis for GcMAF therapy was monitored by measuring the serum Nagalase activity. After 14 to 25 weekly administrations of GcMAF (100 ng/week), all 16 patients had very low serum Nagalase levels equivalent to those of healthy control values, indicating that these patients are tumor-free. No recurrence occurred for 7 years. PMID:18633461

  8. Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora

    2014-01-15

    This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, γ-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for γ-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that γ-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements.

  9. Vitamin Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Vitamin Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamin Chart Print A A A en español Tabla de las vitaminas Type Benefits Sources Quantity Vitamin A Vitamin A prevents eye problems, promotes a ...

  10. Vitamin Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Vitamin Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamin Chart A A A en español Tabla de las vitaminas Type Benefits Sources Quantity Vitamin A Vitamin A prevents eye problems, promotes a ...

  11. Treatment of neonatal sepsis with intravenous immune globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brocklehurst, Peter; Farrell, Barbara; King, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of death and complications despite antibiotic treatment. Effective adjunctive treatments are needed. Newborn infants are relatively deficient in endogenous immunoglobulin. Meta-analyses of trials of intravenous immune globulin for suspected or proven neonatal sepsis...

  12. 21 CFR 640.102 - Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human). 640.102 Section 640.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microorganisms. Preservatives to inhibit growth of microorganisms shall not be used during processing. (c)...

  13. Treatment of neonatal sepsis with intravenous immune globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brocklehurst, Peter; Farrell, Barbara; King, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of death and complications despite antibiotic treatment. Effective adjunctive treatments are needed. Newborn infants are relatively deficient in endogenous immunoglobulin. Meta-analyses of trials of intravenous immune globulin for suspected or proven neonatal sepsis...... suggest a reduced rate of death from any cause, but the trials have been small and have varied in quality....

  14. 21 CFR 862.1330 - Globulin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Globulin test system. 862.1330 Section 862.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  15. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  16. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one ... building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis ...

  17. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron Manganese, Molybdenium, Nickel, Silicon, ... provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  18. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your ... healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include ...

  19. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thin, and brittle bones, a condition known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D ... the body. In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, where the bones become soft and bend. It's ...

  20. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamin E combined with other antioxidants, zinc, and copper showed promise for slowing down the rate of ... several years had an increased risk of prostate cancer. Are there any interactions with vitamin E that ...

  1. Cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente (GC × GC Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Pozzobon Pedroso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fundamental principles, instrumentation and selected applications of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC. In this technique, introduced in 1991, two capillary columns are coupled and proper modulating interfaces continuously collect the eluate from the first column, transferring it to the second column. The result is a geometric increment in the chromatographic resolution, ensuring separation of extremely complex mixtures in time periods shorter or comparable to those of analysis using conventional gas chromatography and with better detectabilities and sensitivities.

  2. Adsorption of antibody and globulin onto glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, T

    1980-10-01

    The amount of globulin adsorbed onto surfaces (97 m2) of porous glass (1 g) in phospate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) was estimated to be 83 mg by frontal analysis. In the adsorption chromatography of rabbit antiserum (the immunoglobulin G class) to horse serum albumin on a porous glass column, immunoglobulin G was not eluted with saline but was eluted with 0.2 M glycine (pH 9) with a recovery of 12%. The yield of immunoglobulin M antibody to sheep red blood cells recovered by elution with saline was 12.3%, and the total yield of immunoglobulin M was 15.8%. Thus, antibody and globulin were well adsorbed onto glass surfaces in physiological saline; immunoglobulin G had a stronger affinity to glass surfaces than did immunglobulin M. These facts should be considered when glass containers are used for purified antiserum.

  3. Worsening Bradycardia Following Antithymocyte Globulin Treatment of Severe Aplastic Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Immunosuppressive regimens, which include antithymocyte globulin (ATG), are widely used for the treatment of severe aplastic anemia (SAA). However, bradycardia has been reported only as a rare side effect of ATG therapy in the manufacturer's product information and, in rare cases, in the adult literature. We present an adolescent with SAA and preexisting bradycardia who underwent immunosuppression therapy with ATG, methylprednisolone, and tacrolimus and developed profound sinus bradycardia wi...

  4. Loss of Rubella Antibody from Immune Globulin Treated with Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabasso, V. J.; Louie, R. E.; Hok, K. A.; Robinson, C. T.; Davis, P. C.; Miner, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    Sera and immune globulin (IG) preparations are customarily treated with kaolin before titration of their rubella hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody in order to rid them of nonspecific inhibitors of hemagglutination. The treatment was shown in this investigation to have no adverse effect on the antibody level of the sera but was found to remove considerable amounts of gamma-globulin from IG preparations. Evidence of this removal was obtained by serological tests, by spectrophotometric determination of protein concentration and by disc electrophoresis. In contrast to kaolin, heparin-manganese chloride (MnCl2) treatment of IG preparations had essentially no effect on the level of antibody globulin by all the criteria used. Heparin-MnCl2-treated IG lots were in these respects similar, if not identical, to their untreated counterparts. Since nonspecific inhibitors associated with the β-lipoprotein fraction of serum are removed by the method employed to fractionate the IG samples, it seems unnecessary to treat the latter in any way for the HI test. No difficulty was encountered in this investigation with several untreated IG lots. Images PMID:4190525

  5. Vitamin D intake, serum Vitamin D levels, and risk of gastric cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh, Saeid; Feizi, Awat; Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: We are aware of no systematic review or meta-analysis of published findings about the association between Vitamin D status and risk of gastric cancer (GC). We systematically reviewed the current evidence on the association between Vitamin D intake as well as serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and risk of GC. Materials and Methods: Published evidence in this area was searched to August 2014 through the use of ISI Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Ovid Database, EMBASE, and Google Scholar for relevant articles by cross-referencing. Seven articles had reported odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RR) as their effect size; four papers had reported the ORs between Vitamin D intake and GC; and three papers had reported the association between serum 25(OH)D and risk of GC. Results: Pooled effect size for comparison of highest versus lowest intakes of Vitamin D was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 1.25; P = 0.26) indicating no significant association between Vitamin D intake and risk of GC. We failed to find a significant association between serum Vitamin D levels and risk of GC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.74-1.14; P = 0.429). Among men, the pooled effect size or highest versus lowest category of serum Vitamin D levels was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.18, P = 0.49). The corresponding figures in women were 1.04 and 95% CI: 0.74-1.47 (P = 0.80). Conclusion: We found no evidence for the significant association between Vitamin D status and risk of GC. However, due to limited data in this field, further studies are required to reach a definite conclusion. PMID:26664428

  6. Vitamin D intake, serum Vitamin D levels, and risk of gastric cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Khayatzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We are aware of no systematic review or meta-analysis of published findings about the association between Vitamin D status and risk of gastric cancer (GC. We systematically reviewed the current evidence on the association between Vitamin D intake as well as serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OHD levels and risk of GC. Materials and Methods: Published evidence in this area was searched to August 2014 through the use of ISI Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Ovid Database, EMBASE, and Google Scholar for relevant articles by cross-referencing. Seven articles had reported odds ratios (ORs or relative risks (RR as their effect size; four papers had reported the ORs between Vitamin D intake and GC; and three papers had reported the association between serum 25(OHD and risk of GC. Results: Pooled effect size for comparison of highest versus lowest intakes of Vitamin D was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 1.25; P = 0.26 indicating no significant association between Vitamin D intake and risk of GC. We failed to find a significant association between serum Vitamin D levels and risk of GC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.74-1.14; P = 0.429. Among men, the pooled effect size or highest versus lowest category of serum Vitamin D levels was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.18, P = 0.49. The corresponding figures in women were 1.04 and 95% CI: 0.74-1.47 (P = 0.80. Conclusion: We found no evidence for the significant association between Vitamin D status and risk of GC. However, due to limited data in this field, further studies are required to reach a definite conclusion.

  7. Vitamin C transporter gene (SLC23A1 and SLC23A2) polymorphisms, plasma vitamin C levels, and gastric cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duell, Eric J; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Llivina, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C is known to protect mucosal tissues from oxidative stress and inhibit nitrosamine formation in the stomach. High consumption of fruits, particularly citrus, and higher circulating vitamin C concentrations may be inversely associated with gastric cancer (GC) risk. We investigated 20...... polymorphisms in vitamin C transporter genes SCL23A1 and SCL23A2 and GC risk in 365 cases and 1,284 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. We also evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and baseline plasma vitamin C levels in a subset...... of participants. Four SNPs were predictors of plasma vitamin C levels (SLC23A1 rs11950646 and rs33972313; SLC23A2 rs6053005 and rs6133175) in multivariable linear regression models. One SNP (SLC23A2 rs6116569) was associated with GC risk, in particular non-cardia GC (OR = 1.63, 95 % CI = 1.11-2.39, based on 178...

  8. Vitamin E and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Vitamin E and Health Table of Contents Introduction: Vitamin ... Vitamin E and Other Chronic Diseases References Introduction: Vitamin E and Disease Prevention Vitamin E’s main function ...

  9. Effect of antithymocyte globulin source on outcomes of bone marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekre, Natasha; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Carreras, Jeanette; Ahmed, Parvez; Anderlini, Paolo; Atta, Elias Hallack; Ayas, Mouhab; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Bonfim, Carmem; Deeg, H Joachim; Kapoor, Neena; Lee, Jong-Wook; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Pulsipher, Michael A; Eapen, Mary; Antin, Joseph H

    2017-03-24

    For treatment of severe aplastic anemia, immunosuppressive therapy with horse antithymocyte globulin results in superior response and survival compared with rabbit antithymocyte globulin. This relative benefit may be different in the setting of transplantation as rabbit antithymocyte globulin results in more profound immunosuppression. We analyzed 833 severe aplastic anemia transplants between 2008 and 2013 using HLA-matched siblings (n=546) or unrelated donors (n=287) who received antithymocyte globulin as part of their conditioning regimen and bone marrow graft. There were no differences in hematopoietic recovery by type of antithymocyte globulin. Among recipients of HLA-matched sibling transplants, day 100 incidence of acute (17% versus 6%, p<0.001) and chronic (20% versus 9%, p<0.001) graft-versus-host disease were higher with horse compared to rabbit antithymocyte globulin. There were no differences in 3 year overall survival, 87% and 92%, p=0.76. Among recipients of unrelated donor transplants acute graft-versus-host disease was also higher with horse compared to rabbit antithymocyte globulin (42% versus 23%, p<0.001) but not chronic graft-versus-host disease (38% versus 32%, p=0.35). Survival was lower with horse antithymocyte globulin after unrelated donor transplantation, 75% versus 83%, p=0.02. These data support the use of rabbit antithymocyte globulin for bone marrow transplant conditioning for severe aplastic anemia.

  10. B Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, ...

  11. Vitamine D2 ou vitamine D3?

    OpenAIRE

    MISTRETTA, Virginie; Delanaye, Pierre; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cavalier, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Nearly one billion people around the world are deficient in vitamin D and need to be supplemented. Vitamin D is available in medicines and fortified foods. It is available in two forms: vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). KEY POINTS: The pharmacopeiae consider these steroid hormones as equivalent and interchangeable. However, several studies have showed that serum level of 25(OH)D is increased more effectively with vitamin D3 than vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 has ...

  12. Strain-specific renal toxicity of heterologous antilymphocyte [gamma]-globulin in mice7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, B.J.; Vries, M.J. de; Noord, M.J. van; Lubbe, F.H.

    1970-01-01

    Severe glomerulonephritis followed one to five weekly i.p. injections in TLFM mice of rabbit antimouse lymphocyte [gamma]-globulin (ALG). Glomerulonephritis did not occur in C57BL mice subjected to the same regimen. Administration of normal rabbit [gamma]-globulin (NRG) to RFM mice also caused renal

  13. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5400 Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. ...

  14. Strain-specific renal toxicity of heterologous antilymphocyte [gamma]-globulin in mice7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, B.J.; Vries, M.J. de; Noord, M.J. van; Lubbe, F.H.

    1970-01-01

    Severe glomerulonephritis followed one to five weekly i.p. injections in TLFM mice of rabbit antimouse lymphocyte [gamma]-globulin (ALG). Glomerulonephritis did not occur in C57BL mice subjected to the same regimen. Administration of normal rabbit [gamma]-globulin (NRG) to RFM mice also caused renal

  15. A study of a polymorphic globulin in the serum of Silurus glanis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, A; Bobák, P; Kouril, J; Hamácková, J

    1984-01-01

    A polymorphism of S-globulin was detected in serum of Silurus glanis L. by starch gel electrophoresis. Three phenotypes were observed which are apparently controlled by two codominant alleles, SgA and SgB, of an autosomal locus, Sg. Although on electrophoresis S-globulin and transferrin have similar mobilities, the properties of the two proteins differ.

  16. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  17. Vitamin D deficiency and low ionized calcium are linked with semen quality and sex steroid levels in infertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are low vitamin D levels linked with semen quality and sex steroids in infertile men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Infertile men with vitamin D deficiency had lower sperm motility, total numbers of motile sperm, Inhibin B, sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG) and testosterone/estradiol ratio......, but higher levels of free sex steroids, than infertile men with normal vitamin D levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Low vitamin D levels have been associated with decreased sperm motility in healthy men, but a relationship between vitamin D and calcium with semen quality and especially sex steroids has not been...... is compromised by the descriptive study design. It remains to be shown whether the links between vitamin D, calcium, semen quality and sex steroids in infertile men are causal. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The associations between vitamin D deficiency and low calcium with semen quality and sex steroids...

  18. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cataracts AMD and cataracts are two of the leading causes of vision loss in older people. Researchers do not believe that vitamin C and other antioxidants affect the risk of getting AMD. However, research ...

  19. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by substances called ... A can lead to hyperkeratosis or dry, scaly skin. If you get too much vitamin A, you ...

  20. Immunotherapy of HIV-infected patients with Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Ushijima, Naofumi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of HIV-infected patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from HIV-infected cells. Therefore, macrophages of HIV-infected patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Since Nagalase is the intrinsic component of the envelope protein gp120, serum Nagalase activity is the sum of enzyme activities carried by both HIV virions and envelope proteins. These Nagalase carriers were already complexed with anti-HIV immunoglobulin G (IgG) but retained Nagalase activity that is required for infectivity. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF), which produces no side effects in humans. Macrophages activated by administration of 100 ng GcMAF develop a large amount of Fc-receptors as well as an enormous variation of receptors that recognize IgG-bound and unbound HIV virions. Since latently HIV-infected cells are unstable and constantly release HIV virions, the activated macrophages rapidly intercept the released HIV virions to prevent reinfection resulting in exhaustion of infected cells. After less than 18 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF for nonanemic patients, they exhibited low serum Nagalase activities equivalent to healthy controls, indicating eradication of HIV-infection, which was also confirmed by no infectious center formation by provirus inducing agent-treated patient PBMCs. No recurrence occurred and their healthy CD + cell counts were maintained for 7 years.

  1. Acute Lung Injury during Antithymocyte Globulin Therapy for Aplastic Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan Christopher Goligher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 33-year-old man with aplastic anemia who experienced recurrent episodes of hypoxemia and pulmonary infiltrates during infusions of antithymocyte globulin (ATG is described. With the use of high-dose corticosteroids, the patient’s original episodes resolved, and were subsequently prevented before additional administrations of ATG. Rare reports of an association between ATG and acute lung injury are found in the literature, but this is the first report of successful steroid-supported re-exposure. Although the mechanism of ATG-related acute lung injury remains uncertain, it may be parallel to the mechanism of transfusion-related acute lung injury because the pathogenesis of the latter relies, in part, on antileukocyte antibodies. ATG-related toxicity should be included in the differential diagnosis of new, infusion-associated pulmonary infiltrates, and corticosteroids may be a useful therapeutic consideration in the management.

  2. STUDIES ON THE BLOOD PROTEINS : I. THE SERUM GLOBULINS IN BACTERIAL INFECTION AND IMMUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S H; Meyer, K F

    1916-11-01

    The progress of an infection is usually associated with marked changes in the serum proteins. There may be an increase in the percentage of the total protein during some stage of the infection, and there is usually a change in the albumin-globulin ratio with an increase in the total globulins. This rise may antedate the development of any resistance by a considerable period of time. The non-protein constituents of the blood show fluctuations with a tendency to rise as the infection progresses. The process of immunization is in almost all instances associated with a definite increase in the globulins of the blood, and in some cases with a complete inversion of the normal albumin-globulin ratio. This may be produced both by living and dead organisms and by bacterial endotoxins. Massive doses usually result in an upset which shows no tendency to right itself during the period of observation. A rise in the globulins has been shown to occur long before the animal develops immune bodies in any appreciable concentration; and where the globulin curve and antibody curve appear to parallel one another, it can be shown by a careful analysis of both curves that there is a definite lack of correspondence at various periods of the experiment. Animals possessing a basic immunity show a more rapid rise in the globulin curve following inoculation. There is no parallelism between the leukocytic reaction and the globulin reaction. During periods of leukopenia the globulins may be as high as during the period of a leukocytosis. Bacterial endotoxins produce as striking an increase in the serum globulins as do living and killed bacteria. This would seem to indicate that a bacterial invasion of the organism is not absolutely essential for the globulin changes, and that the toxogenic factor in infection and immunity must play a part in the production of the changes noted. Inflammatory irritants injected intraperitoneally also result in a globulin increase. In this case the changes

  3. Relationship between vitamin D-binding protein polymorphisms and blood vitamin D level in Korean patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park YM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Youngmok Park,1 Young Sam Kim,1 Young Ae Kang,1 Ju Hye Shin,1 Yeon Mok Oh,2 Joon Beom Seo,3 Ji Ye Jung,1 Sang Do Lee2 On behalf of the KOLD study 1Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Institute of Chest Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 2Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, 3Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the blood vitamin D3 level is generally low, and genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D-binding protein encoded by the GC gene are associated with COPD development. In this study, we examined the relationship between GC polymorphisms and plasma vitamin D3 level in Korean patients with COPD. Methods: The study included 175 COPD patients from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease Cohort. Multivariate analysis was conducted with adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI, lung function, smoking status, smoking amount, and seasonal variation in blood vitamin D level. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level lower than 20 ng/mL. Results: The mean plasma vitamin D3 level was 17.5 ng/mL. The GC1F variant (44.3% and genotype 1F-2 (27.4% were the most common. The plasma vitamin D3 level was lower in patients with the GC2 variant (estimated =-3.73 ng/mL and higher in those with genotype 1F-1S (estimated =4.08 ng/mL. The GC2 variant was a significant risk factor for vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio =2.41. Among COPD clinical parameters, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a lower ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC regardless of GC polymorphisms. FEV1/FVC was higher in patients with genotype 1F-1F (estimated =3.61% and lower in those with genotype 1F-2 (estimated =-3.31%. The

  4. Unsuccessful vitamin D treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmedes, Anne; Hey, Henrik; Larsson, Iben

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D3 (25-OHD3) analyses have increased exponentially and vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D2). Lack of effect of treatment can be due to: 1......) too low dose, 2) incorrect analytical methods when injection treatment (vitamin D2) is used, 3) obesity, 4) seasonal variations, and 5) poor compliance. Treatment is mandatory in order to prevent osteopenia and osteoporosis. Vitamin D3 is more potent than vitamin D2. Injections with vitamin D2 should...... be replaced by vitamin D3....

  5. Serum globulin predicts all-cause mortality for life insurance applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Michael; Stout, Robert L; Dolan, Vera F

    2014-01-01

    Determine the relative mortality in apparently healthy adults with various levels of serum globulin. By use of the Social Security Death Master File, mortality in 2010 was determined for 7.7 million life insurance applicants age 20 to 89 providing blood samples with valid globulin results between 1992 and 2006. Relative mortality by Cox regression for bands of globulin values was determined by age-sex group, with age split into 20 to 59 and 60 to 89, with each grouping also including age as a covariate. Further analysis was conducted by excluding applicants with elevations of other test values associated with increased globulin levels and mortality risk. After accounting for the mortality impact of frequently associated laboratory test abnormalities including BMI, alkaline phosphatase and albumin, relative mortality was found to increase gradually for globulin values > 3.2 g/dL. Values > 4.0 were associated with a mortality risk that was approximately doubled. There is also a small increased risk for globulin values < 1.9 g/dL. The highest 20% of globulin levels were associated with steadily increasing mortality in life insurance applicants. In many cases, other laboratory findings were not informative of the risk.

  6. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy.

  7. Urban and rural comparison of vitamin D status in Pakistani pregnant women and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, S; Iqbal, M P; Azam, I; Habib, A; Bhutta, S; Soofi, S B; Bhutta, Z A

    2016-01-01

    We undertook a cross-sectional study in rural Jehlum and urban Karachi to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Pakistani pregnant women and neonates and to assess any association of serum 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration with vitamin D binding protein (Gc) genotypes. Altogether, 390 women and 266 neonates were recruited from urban and rural sites, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by an immunoassay, while Gc genotypes were identified using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism or PCR-RFLP. One-way analysis of variance or ANOVA and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. In urban Karachi, 99.5% of women and 97.3% of neonates were vitamin D deficient (D concentrations in both women and their neonates. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Pakistani women and their neonates, and Gc genotypes are not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

  8. Effects of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) on androgen bioactivity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, Michael R.; Helsen, Christine; Antonio, Leen; Schollaert, Dieter; Joniau, Steven; Vos, Michel J.; Decallonne, Brigitte; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical assessments of androgen status (hyper- or hypoandrogenism) are usually based on serum testosterone concentrations. According to the free hormone hypothesis, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) determines free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations. Previous studies have suggested t

  9. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Because exposure to sunlight is a risk for skin cancer, you should use sunscreen after a few minutes in the sun. People who do not live in sunny places may not make enough vitamin D. Skin that is exposed to sunshine indoors through a ...

  10. SIFAT FUNGSIONAL PRODUK INTERAKSI FRAKSI GLOBULIN 7S KOMAK (Dolichos lablab DAN GUM XANTAN [Functional Properties of the Interaction Product Between Globulin of 7S Fraction of Lablab Bean (Dolichos lablab with Xantan Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamto1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lablab bean (Dolichos lablab seeds is a potential source of protein globulin.The bean’s protein content is 20.86 %, and the amount of globulin was more than 60% from the total protein, having major fractions of 7S and 11S. The objectives of this research were to explore the 7S globulin fractions, to study interaction between 7S globulin fractions with xanthan gum, and to observe the functional properties of the product of the interaction. The research was conducted in 2 steps. The first step was to fractionate the 7S fractions from globulin. The second steps was to interact 7S globulin fraction with xanthan gum. The yield of these interaction were examined for its physicochemical and functional properties. The results showed that the 7S globulin fractions could be interacted by xanthan gum at pH 7. The interacted product of globulin 7S fraction 10 % with xanthan gum 0,75 % had good functional properties than globulin 7S fraction, such as oil holding capacity, foaming capacity, and emulsion activity. Water holding capacity could not be detected because the yield became soluble. However,the foaming and emulsifying stability were still lower than those of soybean protein isolates. The research concluded that xanthan gum could be used to improve the physicochemical and functional properties of globulin 7S fraction.

  11. Treatment of Severe Aplastic Anemia by Immunosuppressor Anti-lymphocyte Globulin/Anti-thymus Globulin as the Chief Medicine in Combination with Chinese Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兵荣; 沈建平; 庄海峰; 林圣云; 沈一平; 周郁鸿

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the therapeutic effect of combined therapy with Chinese drugs and immunosuppressors, mainly anti-lymphocyte globulin/anti-thymus globulin(ALG/ATG),for the treatment of severe aplastic anemia(SAA),the efficacy associated factors and adverse effects as well.Methods:A retrospective analysis was conducted on 65 patients with SAA treated by combined therapy which was supplemented with cyclosporin A,androgen,hematopoietic growth factor,etc.Results:Of the 57 patients followed-up,26 (45.6%) we...

  12. Antithymocyte Globulin Induces a Tolerogenic Phenotype in Human Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roider, Tobias; Katzfuß, Michael; Matos, Carina; Singer, Katrin; Renner, Kathrin; Oefner, Peter J; Dettmer-Wilde, Katja; Herr, Wolfgang; Holler, Ernst; Kreutz, Marina; Peter, Katrin

    2016-12-11

    Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is used in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is generally accepted that ATG mediates its immunosuppressive effect primarily via depletion of T cells. Here, we analyzed the impact of ATG-Fresenius (now Grafalon(®)) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). ATG induced a semi-mature phenotype in DC with significantly reduced expression of CD14, increased expression of HLA-DR, and intermediate expression of CD54, CD80, CD83, and CD86. ATG-DC showed an increase in IL-10 secretion but no IL-12 production. In line with this tolerogenic phenotype, ATG caused a significant induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression and a concomitant increase in levels of tryptophan metabolites in the supernatants of DC. Further, ATG-DC did not induce the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction but actively suppressed the T cell proliferation induced by mature DC. These data suggest that besides its well-known effect on T cells, ATG modulates the phenotype of DC in a tolerogenic way, which might constitute an essential part of its immunosuppressive action in vivo.

  13. Antithymocyte Globulin Induces a Tolerogenic Phenotype in Human Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Roider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antithymocyte globulin (ATG is used in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is generally accepted that ATG mediates its immunosuppressive effect primarily via depletion of T cells. Here, we analyzed the impact of ATG-Fresenius (now Grafalon® on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC. ATG induced a semi-mature phenotype in DC with significantly reduced expression of CD14, increased expression of HLA-DR, and intermediate expression of CD54, CD80, CD83, and CD86. ATG-DC showed an increase in IL-10 secretion but no IL-12 production. In line with this tolerogenic phenotype, ATG caused a significant induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression and a concomitant increase in levels of tryptophan metabolites in the supernatants of DC. Further, ATG-DC did not induce the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction but actively suppressed the T cell proliferation induced by mature DC. These data suggest that besides its well-known effect on T cells, ATG modulates the phenotype of DC in a tolerogenic way, which might constitute an essential part of its immunosuppressive action in vivo.

  14. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears.

  15. Study of the influence of homologous serum globulin preparations on the intestinal automicroflora in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinegin, B.V.; Klemparskaya, N.N.; Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, G.A.; Shal' nova, G.A.; Kuz' mina, T.D.

    1984-09-01

    In spite of considerable experience of practical use of serum globulin preparations, their effect on automicroflora wasn't studied. The favorable effect of therapeutic injection of homologous serum globulin preparations on automicroflora of small and large intestine of mices was established for the model of acute radiation sickness caused by /sup 60/Co irradiation with 700 R dose. The effect of injecting two types of globulin preparations was studied: ones prepared of blood of intact and hemostimulated mices (to increase the content of normal antitissue antibodies in the serum). Besides the general globulin fraction isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation a study was made on the effect of purified IgG and IgM preparations. Threefold subcutaneous or intraperitoneal globulin in ection of 1 ..mu..g dose in a mice prevented after 2, 24, 48 h after irradiation the development of bacteriosis, typical for radiation injury - decreased accumulation of putrefactive bacteria and reduced the suppression of lactobacilli content. Globulin preparations and fractions of hemostimulated mice serum, enriched by normal antitissue antibodies are the most effective ones.

  16. Vitamin D Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Vitamin D Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D 2 ); Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D 3 ); Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin ...

  17. Vitamin A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Vitamin A Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , Vitamin B12 and Folate , Vitamin D Tests , Iron Tests , ...

  18. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  19. Vitamin D and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Vitamin D and Health Table of Contents Vitamin D Deficiency: ... and Colds Risk of Premature Death References Vitamin D Deficiency: A Global Concern If you live north ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, ... excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, ... excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ...

  2. Therapeutic effects of highly purified de-glycosylated GcMAF in the immunotherapy of patients with chronic diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The de-Glycosylated vitamin D binding protein is a powerful Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF) that shows multiple biological effects that could be exploited in the immunotherapy of tumours, viral infections and autism. Here we report the observation of a series of clinical cases describing the results obtained administering highly purified GcMAF to patients with diverse types of chronic diseases. These are heterogeneous and refer to patients with different types of diseases at different s...

  3. Late Pregnancy Thyroid-Binding Globulin Predicts Perinatal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Cort; Leserman, Jane; Garcia, Nacire; Stansbury, Melissa; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Johnson, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Previously we found that late pregnancy total and free thyroxine (TT4, FT4) concentrations were negatively related to greater pre and/or postpartum depressive symptoms. In a much larger cohort, the current study examined whether these thyroid indices measured earlier in the third trimester (31-33 weeks) predict subsequent perinatal depression and anxiety ratings as well as syndromal depression. Thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations increase markedly during pregnancy and may be an index of sensitivity to elevated estrogen levels. TBG was examined in this study because prior findings suggest that postpartum depression is related to sensitivity to mood destabilization by elevated sex hormone concentrations during pregnancy. Our cohort was 199 euthyroid women recruited from a public health obstetrics clinic (63.8% Hispanic, 21.6% Black). After screening and blood draws for hormone measures at pregnancy weeks 31-33, subjects were evaluated during home visits at pregnancy weeks 35-36 as well as postpartum weeks 6 and 12. Evaluations included psychiatric interviews for current and life-time DSM-IV psychiatric history (M.I.N.I.-Plus), subject self-ratings and interviewer ratings for depression and anxiety (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale; Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Inventory), as well as a standardized interview to obtain life-time trauma history. Numerous covariates were included in all regression analyses. Trauma and major depression history were robustly significant predictors of depression and anxiety ratings over the study period when these variables were analyzed individually or in a combined model including FT4 or TBG (pdepression and anxiety ratings (pdepression history, were significant individual predictors of syndromal depression during the study period (pdepression history, FT4 and TBG generally were not significantly predictive of depression or anxiety ratings, and FT4

  4. No association between type 1 diabetes and genetic variation in vitamin D metabolism genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Steffen U; Mortensen, Henrik B; Carstensen, Bendix

    2014-01-01

    , and action of vitamin D were associated with T1D or to circulating levels of vitamin D 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in a juvenile Danish population. METHODS: We genotyped eight SNPs in five vitamin D metabolism genes in 1467 trios. 25(OH)D status were analyzed in 1803 children (907 patients and 896 siblings......). RESULTS: We did not demonstrate association with T1D for SNPs in the following genes: CYP27B1, VDR, GC, CYP2R1, DHCR7, and CYP24A1. Though, variants in the GC gene were significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels in the joint model. CONCLUSION: Some of the most examined SNPs in vitamin D metabolism genes...... were not confirmed to be associated with T1D, though 25(OH) levels were associated with variants in the GC gene....

  5. ALTERATIONS IN TOTAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATION, SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN RATIO IN HEALTHY RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Sultana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of oral administration of Aloe vera and was to evaluate total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations as well as albumin / globulin (A / G ratio. Twenty rabbits weighing 1000 – 1800 g were divided into 2 groups. Each group consisted of ten animals. One served as control and other group served as experimental group. Results show that animals after 07, 15 and 30 days dosing of Aloe vera showed highly significant decrease in total protein and globulin and highly significant decrease in Albumin after 15 and 30 days of dosing of Aloe vera in comparison to control animals group. It is concluded that the long-term use of Aloe vera may cause hypoglobinemia and hypoalbuminemia at 30 days of dosing and it could be due to the liver diseases, evidence of hepatotoxicity induced Aloe vera also reported in previous studies.

  6. Derivatization of carbohydrates for GC and GC-MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Matute, A I; Hernández-Hernández, O; Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Sanz, M L; Martínez-Castro, I

    2011-05-15

    GC and GC-MS are excellent techniques for the analysis of carbohydrates; nevertheless the preparation of adequate derivatives is necessary. The different functional groups that can be found and the diversity of samples require specific methods. This review aims to collect the most important methodologies currently used, either published as new procedures or as new applications, for the analysis of carbohydrates. A high diversity of compounds with diverse functionalities has been selected: neutral carbohydrates (saccharides and polyalcohols), sugar acids, amino and iminosugars, polysaccharides, glycosides, glycoconjugates, anhydrosugars, difructose anhydrides and products resulting of Maillard reaction (osuloses, Amadori compounds). Chiral analysis has also been considered, describing the use of diastereomers and derivatives to be eluted on chiral stationary phases.

  7. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Figure 1. Vitamin K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green ... ColognePhotos/iStock/Thinkstock, © ColognePhotos Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat- ...

  8. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in vitamin B12 if I’m vegetarian or vegan?ResourcesNational Institutes of Health: MedlinePlus, Vitamin B12 Last Updated: March 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: B12, B12 deficiency, diet, nutrition, vitamin B12, vitamins Food and Nutrition, Nutrients ...

  9. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  10. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? Vitamin B12 ...

  11. Facts about Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts About Vitamin C 1 Linda B. Bobroff and Isabel Valentín-Oquendo 2 FCS8702 Why do we need vitamin C? Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, has a ... maintain healthy body tissues and the immune system. Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron from ...

  12. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K. Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solubile vitamins intake in athletes, as well as evidence that athletic performance may be improved due to fat-solubile vitamins supplementation. In a small number of studies, it was shown that an antioxidant effect of beta carotene and vitamin E can prevent muscle damage and facilitate recovery after exercise. Also, athletes who perform the exercises in the halls should be informed about the necessity of sun exposure, as vitamin D is synthesised in the skin. Most athletes are not familiar with their needs for vitamins and trace elements, and take these compounds as supplements without consulting a nutritionist. It is important to emphasize that liposulubile vitamins are deposited in the body and can cause hypervitaminosis and toxic effects if taken in excess. It is indisputable that the lack of any fat-soluble vitamin cause problems in normal physiological processes, but supplementation is generally not required in athlets who have a well-balanced diet.

  13. The correlation of vitamin D level and vitamin D-binding protein gene polymorphism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓晨

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the correlation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25-OHD)levels with vitamin D-binding protein(the group-specific component,GC)gene polymorphism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD).Methods In a cross-sectional case-control study,250 participants,including 116 COPD patients with smoking history and 134 healthy smokers,were in-

  14. Anti-hyperglycaemic globulins from selected Cucurbitaceae seeds used as antidiabetic medicinal plants in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Africa, coupled with rampant poverty, is an indication of the urgent need to develop new efficacious, cheaper and more available drugs to face this growing public health challenge. A number of plants products among which the protein-rich Cucurbitaceae seeds are commonly used in traditional medicine with increasing acclaimed efficacy against DM. The aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate the hypoglycaemic activity of storage proteins of five species of Cucurbitaceae, which include Telfairia occidentalis, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Cucumeropsis mannii and Cucurbita moschata. Methods The different families of storage proteins were extracted following differential solubility, and their contents were estimated using the Bradford method. The analysis of these proteins was done by electrophoresis in non-denaturing and denaturing conditions. The evaluation of hypoglycaemic properties of various globulins extracted was performed on male Wistar rats by the oral glucose tolerance test. Results The results showed that among the proteins extracted, globulins constitute the most abundant class of storage proteins in all five species selected. Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita moschata presented the highest levels of globulin (275.34 and 295.11 mg/g dry matter, respectively). The results of electrophoresis showed that all species possess acidic and neutrals albumins and globulins, with molecular weight of protein subunits ranging from 6.36-44.11 kDa for albumins, 6.5-173.86 kDa for globulins and 6.5-49.66 kDa for glutelins. The 6.36 kDa of albumin subunit protein and the 6.5 kDa of globulin subunit protein were present in all the species. The oral glucose tolerance test showed that the globulins of the seeds of all species except Cucumeropsis mannii caused significant drop in blood sugar (88 – 137.80%, compared to the controls, p<0.05). Conclusions These findings showed that the selected Cucurbitaceae

  15. Proteomic analysis of albumin and globulin fractions of pea (Pisum sativum L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dziuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proteomic analysis is emerging as a highly useful tool in food research, including studies of food allergies. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis involving isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the most effective method of separating hundreds or even thousands of proteins. In this study, albumin and globulin tractions of pea seeds cv. Ramrod were subjected to proteomic analysis. Selected potentially alergenic proteins were identified based on their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Material and methods. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum L. cv. Ramrod harvested over a period of two years (Plant Breeding Station in Piaski-Szelejewo were used in the experiment. The isolated albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteomic images were analysed in the ImageMaster 2D Platinum program with the use of algorithms from the Melanie application. The relative content, isoelectric points and molecular weights were computed for all identified proteins. Electrophoregrams were analysed by matching spot positions from three independent replications. Results. The proteomes of albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins produced up to several hundred spots (proteins. Spots most characteristic of a given fraction were identified by computer analysis and spot matching. The albumin proteome accumulated spots of relatively high intensity over a broad range of pi values of -4.2-8.1 in 3 molecular weight (MW ranges: I - high molecular-weight albumins with MW of -50-110 kDa, II - average molecular-weight albumins with MW of -20-35 kDa, and III - low molecular-weight albumins with MW of -13-17 kDa. 2D gel electrophoregrams revealed the presence of 81 characteristic spots, including 24 characteristic of legumin and 14 - of vicilin. Conclusions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proved to be a useful tool for

  16. A Novel Role for a Major Component of the Vitamin D Axis: Vitamin D Binding Protein-Derived Macrophage Activating Factor Induces Human Breast Cancer Cell Apoptosis through Stimulation of Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruggiero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin D in maintaining health appears greater than originally thought, and the concept of the vitamin D axis underlines the complexity of the biological events controlled by biologically active vitamin D (1,25(OH(2D3, its two binding proteins that are the vitamin D receptor (VDR and the vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF. In this study we demonstrate that GcMAF stimulates macrophages, which in turn attack human breast cancer cells, induce their apoptosis and eventually phagocytize them. These results are consistent with the observation that macrophages infiltrated implanted tumors in mice after GcMAF injections. In addition, we hypothesize that the last 23 hydrophobic amino acids of VDR, located at the inner part of the plasma membrane, interact with the first 23 hydrophobic amino acids of the GcMAF located at the external part of the plasma membrane. This al1ows 1,25(OH(2D3 and oleic acid to become sandwiched between the two vitamin D-binding proteins, thus postulating a novel molecular mode of interaction between GcMAF and VDR. Taken together, these results support and reinforce the hypothesis that GcMAF has multiple biological activities that could be responsible for its anti-cancer effects, possibly through molecular interaction with the VDR that in turn is responsible for a multitude of non-genomic as well as genomic effects.

  17. A novel role for a major component of the vitamin D axis: vitamin D binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor induces human breast cancer cell apoptosis through stimulation of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Fiore, Maria Giulia; Magherini, Stefano; Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-07-08

    The role of vitamin D in maintaining health appears greater than originally thought, and the concept of the vitamin D axis underlines the complexity of the biological events controlled by biologically active vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D3), its two binding proteins that are the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). In this study we demonstrate that GcMAF stimulates macrophages, which in turn attack human breast cancer cells, induce their apoptosis and eventually phagocytize them. These results are consistent with the observation that macrophages infiltrated implanted tumors in mice after GcMAF injections. In addition, we hypothesize that the last 23 hydrophobic amino acids of VDR, located at the inner part of the plasma membrane, interact with the first 23 hydrophobic amino acids of the GcMAF located at the external part of the plasma membrane. This allows 1,25(OH)(2)D3 and oleic acid to become sandwiched between the two vitamin D-binding proteins, thus postulating a novel molecular mode of interaction between GcMAF and VDR. Taken together, these results support and reinforce the hypothesis that GcMAF has multiple biological activities that could be responsible for its anti-cancer effects, possibly through molecular interaction with the VDR that in turn is responsible for a multitude of non-genomic as well as genomic effects.

  18. Quantitative analysis of Boehm's GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xue-tao; ZHANG Yuan-rui; GOU Xiao-gang; CHENG Xu

    2003-01-01

    The term garbage collection describes the automated process of finding previously allocated memorythatis no longer in use in order to make the memory available to satisfy subsequent allocation requests. Wehave reviewed existing papers and implementations of GC, and especially analyzed Boehm' s C codes, which isa real-time mark-sweep GC running under Linux and ANSI C standard. In this paper, we will quantitatively an-alyze the performance of different configurations of Boehm' s collector subjected to different workloads. Reportedmeasurements demonstrate that a refined garbage collector is a viable alternative to traditional explicit memorymanagement techniques, even for low-level languages. It is more a trade-off for certain system than an all-or-nothing proposition.

  19. Seaweed vitamins as nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrovánková, Soňa

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are a good source of some water- (B(1), B(2), B(12), C) and fat-soluble (β-carotene with vitamin A activity, vitamin E) vitamins. To ensure that the adequate intake of all vitamins is received in the diet, people (especially people on special diet, strict vegetarians, and vegans) can consume foods enriched with vitamins, for example, in the form of functional foods with vitamins as nutraceuticals, extracted from natural sources such as seaweeds. Seaweed vitamins are important not only due to their biochemical functions and antioxidant activity but also due to other health benefits such as decreasing of blood pressure (vitamin C), prevention of cardiovascular diseases (β-carotene), or reducing the risk of cancer (vitamins E and C, carotenoids). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin D and allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafvelin Guro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing amount of evidence has established that the biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, possesses immunoregulatory properties. Vitamin D exerts its effects through binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR, which is expressed by cells of the immune system. Most of the immunological effects mediated by vitamin D-VDR are regulatory, inhibiting adaptive immune responses. It has become apparent that the incidence of vitamin D insufficiency is surprisingly high in the general population. A link between low vitamin D serum levels and the increased prevalence of allergic diseases has been proposed. This possible connection has been investigated in numerous studies on associations between vitamin D serum concentrations and different allergic conditions, as well as studies on the effect of vitamin D supplementation. Although there is some evidence for a protective role of vitamin D in asthma, no consensus on the role of vitamin D in allergic disease has yet been reached. Still, treatment strategies involving vitamin D supplementation to risk groups, combinatorial corticosteroid and vitamin D treatment in asthma and vitamin D as an immunomodulator in allergen specific immunotherapy show promise for the future.

  1. Competitive adsorption of albumin and monoclonal immuno upsilon globulin molecules on polystyrene surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, F.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is proteins at interfaces. The main purpose of the work was to acquire more insight into the mechanism of adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and monoclonal Immuno gamma Globulins (IgG's). both individually and in competition. Another aim was to achieve optim

  2. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor...... of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty....

  3. Low level of serum sex hormone binding globulin is associated with the occurrence of metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Chinese young population.Methods A total of 797 patients were enrolled and subdivided into MS group (n=377) and non-MS group (n=420) .Body height and weight were measured for body

  4. 78 FR 79469 - Strategies To Address Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Strategies To Address Hemolytic Complications of Immune... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Strategies to... identify and discuss potential risk mitigation strategies for Immune Globulin (Ig)-associated hemolysis...

  5. Increased sex hormone-binding globulin levels in children and adolescents with thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a rare condition in pediatric patients, and optimal treatment can be difficult to achieve in some children. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in hyperthyroid children and adolescents in relation to age- and gender...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1685 - Thyroxine-binding globulin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protein which binds thyroxine, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroxine-binding globulin test system. 862.1685 Section 862.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  7. Modification of solubility and heat-induced gelation of amaranth 11S globulin by protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazco-Peña, Laura; Osuna-Castro, Juan A; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F; Morales-Rueda, Juan A; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2013-04-10

    The primary structure of amaranth 11S globulin (Ah11S) was engineered with the aim to improve its functional properties. Four continuous methionines were inserted in variable region V, obtaining the Ah11Sr+4M construction. Changes on protein structure and surface characteristics were analyzed in silico. Solubility and heat-induced gelation of recombinant amaranth 11S proglobulin (Ah11Sr and Ah11Sr+4M) were compared with the native protein (Ah11Sn) purified from amaranth seed flour. The Ah11Sr+4 M showed the highest surface hydrophobicity, but as consequence the solubility was reduced. At low ionic strength (μ = 0.2) and acidic pH (proteins Ah11Sr and Ah11Sr+4 M had the highest and lowest solubility values, respectively. All globulins samples formed gels at 90 °C and low ionic strength, but Ah11Sn produced the weakest and Ah11Sr the strongest gels. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis under gel forming conditions revealed only exothermic transitions for all amaranth 11S globulins analyzed. In conclusion, the 3D structure analysis has revealed interesting molecular features that could explain the thermal resistance and gel forming ability of amaranth 11S globulins. The incorporation of four continuous methionines in amaranth increased the hydrophobicity, and self-supporting gels formed had intermediate hardness between Ah11Sn and Ah11Sr. These functional properties could be used in the food industry for the development of new products based on amaranth proteins.

  8. Vitamin D and sterol composition of ten types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D, ergosterol, ergosterol metabolites, and phytosterols were analyzed in ten mushroom types sampled nationwide in the U.S. to update the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Sterols were analyzed by GC-FID with mass spectrometric confirmation of components. Vitamin D was assayed ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B- ... back to top Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B- ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (422 K) On this page: Why Buy Vitamins? Vitamin Facts ... body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two categories of vitamins. ... magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D ( ...

  12. Vitamin intake reduce the risk of gastric cancer: meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized and observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Kong

    Full Text Available AIM: The association between vitamin intake and gastric cancer (GC has been widely debated due to the relatively weak evidence. In this study, a meta-analysis of prospective and well designed observational studies were performed to explore this association. METHODS: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Sciencedirect were searched for studies of vitamin consumption and gastric cancer. This produced 47 relevant studies covering 1,221,392 human subjects. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR. Dose-response, subgroup, sensitivity, meta-regression, and publication bias analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The RR of gastric cancer in the group with the highest vitamin intake was compared to that of the lowest intake group. Total vitamin intake was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.71-0.83. In 9 studies that individuals were given doses at least 4 times above the tolerable upper intake (UL vitamins, the RR was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99-1.44. However, in 17 studies that individuals received doses below the UL, the RR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68-0.86. Dose-response analysis was conducted on different increments in different types of vitamins (vitamin A: 1.5 mg/day, vitamin C: 100 mg/day, vitamin E: 10 mg/day intake with a significant reduction in the risk of gastric cancer, respectively, 29% in vitamin A, 26% in vitamin C, and 24% in vitamin E. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis clearly demonstrated that low doses of vitamins can significantly reduce the risk of GC, especially vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E.

  13. Vitamin Intake Reduce the Risk of Gastric Cancer: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Randomized and Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qirong; Wang, Jing; Lan, Yadong; Zhan, Youqing; Xu, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    Aim The association between vitamin intake and gastric cancer (GC) has been widely debated due to the relatively weak evidence. In this study, a meta-analysis of prospective and well designed observational studies were performed to explore this association. Methods MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Sciencedirect were searched for studies of vitamin consumption and gastric cancer. This produced 47 relevant studies covering 1,221,392 human subjects. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR). Dose-response, subgroup, sensitivity, meta-regression, and publication bias analyses were conducted. Results The RR of gastric cancer in the group with the highest vitamin intake was compared to that of the lowest intake group. Total vitamin intake was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.71−0.83). In 9 studies that individuals were given doses at least 4 times above the tolerable upper intake (UL) vitamins, the RR was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99−1.44). However, in 17 studies that individuals received doses below the UL, the RR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68−0.86). Dose-response analysis was conducted on different increments in different types of vitamins (vitamin A: 1.5 mg/day, vitamin C: 100 mg/day, vitamin E: 10 mg/day) intake with a significant reduction in the risk of gastric cancer, respectively, 29% in vitamin A, 26% in vitamin C, and 24% in vitamin E. Conclusion This meta-analysis clearly demonstrated that low doses of vitamins can significantly reduce the risk of GC, especially vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E. PMID:25549091

  14. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  15. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  16. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  17. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  18. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  19. MOMA GC-MS coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Pinnick, V. T.; Grand, N.; Szopa, C.; Danell, R.; Lustrement, B.; Freissinet, C.; van Amerom, F. H.; Raulin, F.; Glavin, D. P.; Stalport, F.; Coll, P. J.; Arevalo, R. D.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Goesmann, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The joint ESA-Roscosmos Exo-Mars-2018 rover mission seeks the signs of past or present life on Mars. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars rover will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples, with particular focus on the characterization of organic content. Central to MOMA instrumentation is a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) which provides the unique ability to characterize a broad range of compounds allowing chemical analyses of volatile and non-volatile species. The Gas chromatograph and the oven have been built at LATMOS/LISA (France) and at MPS (Germany) respectively whereas the mass spectrometer has been built at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (USA). Both instruments have been tested separately first and have been coupled in order to test the efficiency of the future MOMA GC-MS instrument. The main objective of the second step has been to test the quantitative response of both instruments while they are coupled and to characterize the combined instrument detection limit for several compounds. A final experiment has been done in order to test the feasibility of the separation and detection of a mixture contained in a soil sample introduced in the MOMA oven.

  20. EFFECTS OF GC-MACROPHAGE ACTIVATING FACTOR IN HUMAN NEURONS; IMPLICATIONS FOR TREATMENT OF CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS is a debilitating disease of multifactorial aetiology characterized by immune system dysfunction, widespread inflammation, multisystemic neuropathology and persistent pain. Given the central role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of the syndrome, we studied the effects of a potent modulator of the immune system in in vitro and in vivo models that could help clarifying its role and indications in ME/CFS treatment. To this end, we studied the effects of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (also designated as Gc-Macrophage Activating Factor or (GcMAF on human neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y and on the persistent pain induced by osteoarticular damage in rats. GcMAF at pM concentration increased neuronal cell viability and metabolism through increased mitochondrial enzyme activity. These effects were accompanied by cAMP formation and by morphological changes that were representative of neuronal differentiation. We hypothesize that these effects are to be ascribed to the interconnection between the GcMAF and Vitamin D Receptor (VDR signalling pathways. The results presented here confirm at the experimental level the therapeutic effects of GcMAF in ME/CFS and elucidate the mechanisms of action through which GcMAF might be responsible for such therapeutic effects.

  1. Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane Amanda J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D. Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health.

  2. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Hamishehkar; Farhad Ranjdoost; Parina Asgharian; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Sarvin Sanaie

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MED...

  3. Vitamin D metabolic pathway genes and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Arem

    Full Text Available Evidence on the association between vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be partially attributable to variation in vitamin D regulating genes. We selected 11 vitamin D-related genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, RXRA, CRP2, CASR and CUBN totaling 213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and examined associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study included 3,583 pancreatic cancer cases and 7,053 controls from the genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer PanScans-I-III. We used the Adaptive Joint Test and the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product statistic for pathway and gene analyses, and unconditional logistic regression for SNP analyses, adjusting for age, sex, study and population stratification. We examined effect modification by circulating vitamin D concentration (≤50, >50 nmol/L for the most significant SNPs using a subset of cohort cases (n = 713 and controls (n = 878. The vitamin D metabolic pathway was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 0.830. Of the individual genes, none were associated with pancreatic cancer risk at a significance level of p<0.05. SNPs near the VDR (rs2239186, LRP2 (rs4668123, CYP24A1 (rs2762932, GC (rs2282679, and CUBN (rs1810205 genes were the top SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer (p-values 0.008-0.037, but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Associations between these SNPs and pancreatic cancer were not modified by circulating concentrations of vitamin D. These findings do not support an association between vitamin D-related genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Future research should explore other pathways through which vitamin D status might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

  4. Facts about Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gorse/iStock/Thinkstock.com Food Eggs, sardines, and salmon contain vitamin D. Most fluid milk and some brands of ... 2. Typical Vitamin D Content in Food Food Vitamin D in IU (mcg) Salmon, cooked, 3 oz. 320 (8) Sardines, canned in ...

  5. Vitamin D and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolden-Kirk, Heidi; Overbergh, Lut; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that vitamin D may play a role in the defense against type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of both T1D and T2D, whereas early and long-term vitamin...

  6. Differences in alpha 2u-globulins increased in male rat kidneys following treatment with several alpha 2u-globulin accumulating agents: cystein protease(s) play(s) an important role in production of kidney-type-alpha 2u-globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, K; Kaneko, H; Isobe, N; Nakatsuka, I; Yoshitake, A; Yamada, H

    1992-11-30

    Effects of alpha 2u-globulin accumulating agents on alpha 2u-globulins in rat kidneys were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting analysis. Treatment of male animals with decalin (150 mg/kg), 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (50 mg/kg), isophorone (150 mg/kg), d-limonene (150 mg/kg) or 1,4-dichlorobenzene (150 mg/kg) by gavage for 14 consecutive days in each case resulted in a marked intensification of a protein band corresponding to kidney-type-alpha 2u-globulin, with a molecular mass calculated to be approximately 16 kDa. However, intraperitoneal treatment with leupeptin and E-64 (two times 0.07 mmol/kg, for each), well known cystein protease inhibitors, while only slightly increasing this kidney-type-alpha 2u-globulin band, caused the intensification of a approximately 19-kDa molecular mass protein band which was revealed to be a native-type-alpha 2u-globulin by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. These results indicated that at least two types of alpha 2u-globulin can be increased in male rat kidney by chemical treatment. Moreover, cystein protease(s) appear(s) to play an important role in the degradation of alpha 2u-globulin and particularly in the conversion of native-type-alpha 2u-globulin to kidney-type-alpha 2u-globulin in rat kidneys.

  7. Rediscovering vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Anaizi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 2 years there has been a radical change in standard clinical practice with respect to vitamin D. As a result of a growing body of knowledgeable physicians are assessing the vitamin D nutritional status of their patients and prescribing aggressive repletion regimens of a vitamin D supplement. The present paper summarizes some basic information about this essential nutrient and reviews some of the more recent data implicating vitamin D deficiency in disease etiology with an emphasis on cardiovascular disease and cancer. Finally a rational approach to the dosing of vitamin D in different patient populations is provided.

  8. Split Left GC-Lpp Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Zhen LI; Xiao Jiang GUO; Zhi Qing FU

    2012-01-01

    A left GC-lpp semigroup S is called split if the natural homomorphism γb of S onto S/γ induced by γ is split.It is proved that a left GC-lpp semigroup is split if and only if it has a left adequate transversal.In particular,a construction theorem for split left GC-lpp semigroups is established.

  9. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  10. Vitamin K and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Geno J; Fink, James

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin K was discovered in the 1930s during cholesterol metabolism experiments in chickens. It is a fat-soluble vitamin which occurs naturally in plants as phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and is produced by gram-negative bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract as menaquinone (vitamin K2). This vitamin was found to be essential for normal functioning of hemostasis. In addition, a number of clinical conditions in which vitamin K deficiency was found to be the underlying pathophysiologic problem were discovered. These conditions include hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, obstructive jaundice, and malabsorption syndromes. The importance of this vitamin has become more apparent with the discovery of the anticoagulant warfarin which is a vitamin K antagonist. There are millions of patients on this therapy for a variety of thrombogenic conditions such as atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and prosthetic cardiac valves. The wide use of this narrow therapeutic index drug has resulted in significant risk for major bleeding. Vitamin K serves as one of the major reversing agent for patients over-anticoagulated with warfarin. In the past few years, research has focused on new areas of vitamin K metabolism, which include bone and endovascular metabolism; cell growth, regulation, migration, and proliferation; cell survival, apoptosis, phagocytosis, and adhesion. These new areas of research highlight the significance of vitamin K but raise new clinical questions for patients who must be maintained on long-term warfarin therapy.

  11. Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L.

  12. Characterization of a cashew allergen, 11S globulin (Ana o 2), conformational epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Jason M; Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2010-05-01

    Both linear and conformational epitopes likely contribute to the allergenicity of tree nut allergens, yet, due largely to technical issues, few conformational epitopes have been characterized. Using the well studied recombinant cashew allergen, Ana o 2, an 11S globulin or legumin, we identified a murine monoclonal antibody which recognizes a conformational epitope and competes with patient IgE Ana o 2-reactive antibodies. This epitope is expressed on the large subunit of Ana o 2, but only when associated with an 11S globulin small subunit. Both Ana o 2 and the homologous soybean Gly m 6 small subunits can foster epitope expression, even when the natural N-terminal to C-terminal subunit order is reversed in chimeric molecules. The epitope, which is also expressed on native Ana o 2, is readily susceptible to destruction by physical and chemical denaturants.

  13. Soy 11S Globulin Acid Subunits as the Novel Food Polymer Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins were conjugated with soy 11S globulins acid subunits and the hapten-specific monoclonal antibodies (McAbs cross-reactive with four major aflatoxins were achieved using indirect competitive ELISA screening procedure. The two antibodies (clones 1B2 and 2D3 had similar reaction efficiency with aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 but showed a weak cross-reaction to G2. The clone 4C5 exhibited the highest sensitivity for all four aflatoxins. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 at 50% inhibition for 4C5 were 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, and 17.6 pg mL−1. The results indicated that soy 11S globulin acid subunits were suitable novel carriers for aflatoxin antigen in immunization experiments and clone 4C5 could be used for simultaneous analysis of total aflatoxins.

  14. [VITAMIN D AND PREGNANCY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitrova-Nikolova, St; Nikolov, A

    2015-01-01

    This arcicle reviews the role of vitimin D during pregnancy. Adequate intake of vitamin D during pregnancy is very important for the health of mother and infant. A number of epidemiological data worldwide show widespread suboptimal levels of vitamin D in pregnant women. Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of infection, bacterial vaginosis, pre-eclampsia, low serum vitamin D levels in the newborn and others. There are not universal recommendations for dosage and intake of vitamin D for pregnant women in the world. It is recommended that serum level of vitamin D in all pregnant women and its adequate supplementation. Normal maternal vitamin D levels would provide sufficient its accumulation in the fetus.

  15. The vitamin K controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysman, M W; Sauer, P J

    1994-04-01

    Discussion about the efficacy and safety of vitamin K prophylaxis has recently restarted. In this review, new developments in diagnosis of vitamin K deficiency (including vitamin K plasma levels and protein induced by vitamin K absence [PIVKA]-II detection) and therapy of early, classic, and late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn are highlighted. Special attention is brought to the efficacy of preventing early and late hemorrhagic disease. The recently described association between intramuscular vitamin K administration and cancer is debated. The very high plasma levels, the intramuscular injection itself, or the adjuvants in the solution might all be responsible. These factors are all absent in oral administration. Therefore, we recommend repeated oral administration for preventing classic and late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Additionally, we recommend maternal supplementation of vitamin K for preventing early hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, especially when the mother is using medications that interfere with vitamin K metabolism.

  16. Vitamin D binding protein variants associate with asthma susceptibility in the Chinese han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Youming

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a genetically heterogeneous disease. Polymorphisms of genes encoding components of the vitamin D pathway have been reported to associate with the risk of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that vitamin D status was associated with lung function in Chinese asthma patients. In this study, we tested whether polymorphisms of genes encoding for vitamin D receptor (VDR, vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1 and vitamin D binding protein (GC were associated with asthma in the Chinese Han population. Methods We sequenced all 8 exons of VDR and all 5 exons of CYP2R1 in a Chinese case-control cohort of asthma consisting of 467 cases and 288 unrelated healthy controls. Two mutations were identified in these regions. These variants were specified as rs2228570 in exon 2 of VDR and rs12794714 in exon 1 of CYP2R1. We also genotyped two common polymorphisms in GC gene (rs4588 and rs7041 by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method. We analyzed the association between these 4 polymorphisms and asthma susceptibility and asthma-related traits. Results Polymorphic markers in VDR and CYP2R1 were not associated with asthma in the Chinese Han cohort. Importantly, variants in GC gene, which give rise to the two most common electrophoretic isoforms of the vitamin D binding protein, were associated with asthma susceptibility. Compared with isoform Gc1, Gc2 was significantly associated with the risk of asthma (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.01-1.78 p = 0.006. Conclusions The results provide supporting evidence for association between GC variants and asthma susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.

  17. Sex hormone binding globulin concentration as a prepubertal marker for hyperinsulinaemia in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, P; Donaldson, M.; WALLACE, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Overweight children become obese adults who are prone to develop the "metabolic syndrome" and premature coronary arterial disease (CAD).
AIMS—To assess whether sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a potential marker for hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance in prepubertal obese children.
METHODS—Twenty five obese children (body mass index (BMI) >2SD) who warranted investigation on clinical grounds were enrolled. Their insulin response to an oral glucose tolera...

  18. THE EFFECTS OF COPPER AND ZINC IONS DURING THEIR BINDING WITH HUMAN SERUM γ-GLOBULIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Cheknev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Conformational changes of human serum γ-globulin were studied during and after its binding with copper and zinc ions, using molecular ultrafiltration and differential spectrophotometry. The contents of nonbound metals in the filtrate were evaluated, resp., with sodium diethyl thyocarbamate and o-phenanthroline. It has been shown that copper and zinc exhibited common biological properties during their interactions with protein, but the binding differed sufficiently under similar experimental conditions. E.g., it was confirmed that copper was more active at the external sites of γ-globulin molecule, whereas zinc demonstrated tropicity for the areas of protein intraglobular compartments. The metal-binding sites have been described that differ in their parameters of interactions with cations and their spatial location within globular domains. Approaches are suggested for dynamic analysis of saturation for these differently located sites by the metal ions. We discuss the issues of altered conformational state of the γ-globulin molecule during the binding of cations, as well as potential usage of these data in clinical immunology.

  19. Characterization and cloning of an 11S globulin with hemagglutination activity from Murraya paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Saraswat, Akhilesh; Tomar, Prabhat P S; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Pradhyumna K; Sharma, Ashwani K

    2015-01-01

    A ~56 kDa protein having hemagglutination activity was purified and characterized from the Murraya paniculata seeds. The gel electrophoresis studies demonstrated that protein is primarily of two different subunits, molecular weight ~ 35 and 21 kDa held together by disulfide-linkages and predominantly by secondary forces. The cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the protein exhibited a substantial sequence identity to seed storage 11S globulin family proteins. The sequence analysis of Murraya paniculata globulin (MPG) demonstrated higher and lower molecular weight polypeptides to be acidic (α) and basic (β) respectively. The sequence analysis further showed that it possesses a characteristic bi-cupin motif and a putative metal binding pocket. CD analysis revealed that the MPG was a β/α protein with a slightly higher content of the former. Conformational changes in protein have been studied by fluorescence spectrometry by using various chemical treatments. The results demonstrated that MPG belongs to 11S globulin family and exhibit's hemagglutination activity, which implicates it to be possessing lectin-like property.

  20. 维生素D结合蛋白与肿瘤的关系研究进展%The research advance of the relationship between vitamin D binding protein and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟秋连; 黄华艺

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D binding protein ( VDBP) is a multi-functional plasma globulin which binds to the vitamin D ( VD) in the circulation system and transporting the latter to various effective organs to exert its biological functions .Studies have found that VD and its carrier VDBP are associated with the risk of various cancers such as breast cancer , prostate cancer , and colorectal cancer however , lacking sufficient epidemiological evidences so far .Furthermore , it is still controversial regarding how VD controls and affects cancer progression.In addition, studies have also demonstrated that VDBP derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) is a potent lymphokine in cancer treatment .Nonetheless, the relationship between VDBP and cancer including the VDBP polymorphism, VDBP plasma concentration are still unclear; more studies are needed to further uncover its role in cancer development and progression , thus providing new evidences for cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.%维生素D结合蛋白(VDBP)是一种多功能血浆球蛋白,是循环中维生素D(VD)的结合蛋白和转运载体,它将VD运输到各效应器官而发挥生物学功能。研究结果表明,VD和作为其转运蛋白的VDBP与多种恶性肿瘤如乳腺癌、前列腺癌、结直肠癌等的风险有关,但仍缺乏有力的流行病学证据,且VD如何调控及影响癌症的机制仍存在争议。此外,研究还发现,VDBP衍生的巨噬细胞活化因子( GcMAF)是一种有效的治疗恶性肿瘤的淋巴因子。然而,VDBP与恶性肿瘤的关系,包括其基因的多态性、血浆中的浓度与癌症的关系尚未完全明了,因此需要更多的研究来揭示此信号通路在肿瘤发生、发展中的作用,为肿瘤的诊断、治疗和预后判断提供新依据。

  1. Vitamin A status regulates glucocorticoid availability in Wistar rats: consequences on cognitive functions and hippocampal neurogenesis ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien eBonhomme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A disruption of the vitamin A signaling pathway has been involved in age-related memory decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. Using vitamin A deficiency (VAD, a nutritional model leading to a hyposignaling of the retinoid pathway, we have recently demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is efficient to reverse VAD-induced spatial memory deficits and adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. Besides, excess of glucocorticoids (GCs occurring with aging is known to strongly inhibit hippocampal plasticity and functions and few studies report on the counteracting effects of RA signaling pathway on GCs action. Here, we have addressed whether the modulation of brain GCs availability could be one of the biological mechanisms involved in the effects of vitamin A status on hippocampal plasticity and functions. Thus, we have studied the effects of a vitamin A-free diet for 14 weeks and a 4-week vitamin A supplementation on plasma and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT levels in Wistar rats. We have also investigated corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG binding capacity and 11beta-Hydrosteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 activity, both important modulators of CORT availability at the peripheral and hippocampal levels respectively. Interestingly, we show that the vitamin A status regulates levels of free plasma CORT and hippocampal CORT levels, by acting through a regulation of CBG binding capacity and 11β-HSD1 activity. Moreover, our results suggest that increased CORT levels in VAD rats could have some deleterious consequences on spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis whereas these effects could be corrected by a vitamin A supplementation. Thus, the modulation of GCs availability by vitamin A status is an important biological mechanism that should be taken into account in order to prevent age-related cognitive decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations.

  2. Plasma and dietary vitamin C levels and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenab, M.; Riboli, E.; Ferrari, P.; Sabate, J.; Slimani, N.; Norat, T.; Friesen, M.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Touvier, M.; Boeing, H.; Schulz, M.; Linseisen, J.; Nagel, G.; Trichopoulou, A.; Naska, A.; Oikonomou, E.; Krogh, V.; Panico, S.; Masala, G.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Peeters, P.H.; Numans, M.E.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Buchner, F.L.; Lund, E.; Pera, G.; Sanchez, C.N.; Sanchez, M.J.; Arriola, L.; Barricarte, A.; Quiros, J.R.; Hallmans, G.; Stenling, R.; Berglund, G.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.; Carneiro, F.; Mahlke, U.; Giudice, G. Del; Palli, D.; Kaaks, R.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin C is an antioxidant and inhibitor of carcinogenic N-nitroso compound production in the stomach. Higher dietary vitamin C consumption is associated with decreased risk of gastric cancer (GC) in numerous case-control studies, but data from prospective studies are limited, particularly so for b

  3. Vitamin K: an old vitamin in a new perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gröber, U; Reichrath, J.; Holick, MF; Kisters, K

    2015-01-01

    The topic of “Vitamin K” is currently booming on the health products market. Vitamin K is known to be important for blood coagulation. Current research increasingly indicates that the antihaemorrhagic vitamin has a considerable benefit in the prevention and treatment of bone and vascular disease. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is more abundant in foods but less bioactive than the vitamin K2 menaquinones (especially MK-7, menaquinone-7). Vitamin K compounds undergo oxidation-reduction cycling with...

  4. Vitamine K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal dit Sollier Claire

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subclasses of vitamin K, their origins, their differential characteristics of absorption and metabolism, their relative effects on gammacarboxylation of various proteins implicated in hemostasis andcoagulation, in bone calcification are not well known even by experts in these fields. These misunderstandings explain errors in recommendations for public and for patients. This review will not expose again the fundamentals on vitamins K as presented in the paper by Marc Guillaumont published in 2000 in this same journal. This 2011 review will try to update our actual knowledge and most of all will insist on their practical implications especially on the management of oral anticoagulant treatments since until recently vitamin K antagonist was the only available type of such a treatment. Several examples illustrate the need for a better understanding of this subject. The fear that diet vitamin K could deregulate the equilibrium of oral vitamin K antagonist treatment leads to recommend a quite total suppression of vitamin K containing components in the diet of anticoagulated patients. This leads to an opposite effect: a high sensitivity to vitamin K and to disequilibrium of the anticoagulant treatment while a comprehensivemoderate and regular diet intake of vitamin K first facilitates the food choice of the patients but also helps to stabilise the treatment of chronically anticoagulated patients. Vitamin K plays a role in bone calcification and in osteoporosis prevention. Until recently the food supplementation with vitamin K in view of preventing osteoporosis in general population was strongly limited due to fear to affect the treatment equilibrium in anticoagulated patients. While an understanding that the effects of moderate supplementation in vitamin K has no or limited effect on anticoagulation and on the long run could at the opposite help to stabilize the daily level of anticoagulation in patients chronically treated with vitamin K.

  5. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a hormone. The skin makes vitamin D after exposure to sunlight. We also absorb vitamin D from certain foods, ... people do not make enough vitamin D by exposure to sunlight* or get enough through their diets. They may ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... manufacturers evaluate their products through testing identity, purity, strength, and composition. back to ... Federal, State & Local Officials ...

  7. Vitamin A and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... Find More Information? For Your Information What Is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a family of compounds ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and ... into the body with the use of bile acids, which are fluids used to absorb fat. The ...

  9. Vitamin E in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Mohammad Abid; Hassan, Iffat

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin E is an important fat-soluble antioxidant and has been in use for more than 50 years in dermatology. It is an important ingredient in many cosmetic products. It protects the skin from various deleterious effects due to solar radiation by acting as a free-radical scavenger. Experimental studies suggest that vitamin E has antitumorigenic and photoprotective properties. There is a paucity of controlled clinical studies providing a rationale for well-defined dosages and clinical indications of vitamin E usage in dermatological practice. The aim of this article is to review the cosmetic as well as clinical implications of vitamin E in dermatology. PMID:27559512

  10. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Henrik; Schmedes, Anne; Horn, Peer

    2009-01-01

    The importance of vitamin D for osteoporosis and fractures has been known for more than 40 years. Vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed by measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), which should be > 50 nmol/l year round. Recent research suggests that a number of severe diseases could be prevented...... by increasing 25-OHD to 80 nmol/l. Despite a strong focus on such increase, recommendations for intake of Vitamin D have not been changed and the present recommendations are too low even to ensure > 50 nmol/l. To achieve optimal concentrations > 80 nmol/l, we estimate that 50-70 microgram of vitamin D per day...

  11. HYDROSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are organic substances needed for normal cell functioning in the human body, and therefore human health. People who train sports require an optimal psychophysical performance in order to achieve the best sports results. Athletes’ needs for vitamins may be higher than in general population, also they are taking vitamin supplements more often than other people. Thus, it is very important for them to be familiar with the vitamins’ roles and recommended intake levels.Hydrosoluble vitamins are easily absorbed into the blood and excreted in urine, and so very little stored in the body. They are less likely to cause toxic effects compared to the liposoluble vitamins, but their deficiency may occur much faster. The B group of vitamins takes part in many biochemical processes, and is especially important for athletes, as these vitamins help conversion of energy from food into the muscle energy. Vitamin C is known as an antioxidant that protects against oxygen free radicals. It has a number of other roles in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and minerals.Athletes are likely to intake sufficient quantities of vitamins through the nutrition. Vitamins’ supplements are usually unnecessary and without additional benefits on sports performance. However, if vitamins’ supplements are taken, attention must be paid for their tolerable upper intake levels.

  12. Alfacalcidol versus plain vitamin D in the treatment of glucocorticoid/inflammation-induced osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, Johann D; Faber, Herbert; Fahramand, Parvis; Schacht, Erich

    2005-09-01

    Treatment with plain vitamin D is a nutritional substitute, while the application of alfacalcidol is an active hormonal therapy. Due to strong feedback regulation, plain vitamin D is not activated in the kidney in vitamin-replete patients, while alfacalcidol, having been hydroxylated at position 1, bypasses regulation and increases available amounts of active D-hormone in different target tissues. Nevertheless, a majority of physicians still prescribe plain vitamin D plus calcium as a first-step prevention or even as therapy for glucocorticoid (GC) induced osteoporosis. This article summarizes results of our previous study comparing the therapeutic efficacy of the D-hormone analog alfacalcidol to plain vitamin D in patients with established GC induced osteoporosis with or without vertebral fracture. Patients taking longterm GC therapy were included as well-matched pairs to receive randomly either 1 microg alfacalcidol plus 500 mg calcium per day (group A, n = 103) or 1000 IU vitamin D3 plus 500 mg calcium (group B, n = 101). The mean bone mineral density (BMD) values at baseline for the 2 groups for alfacalcidol and vitamin D3, respectively, were: lumbar spine T score -3.26 and -3.25; femoral neck -2.81 and -2.84. Rates of prevalent vertebral and nonvertebral fractures were not different between groups. In the 3 year study we observed in the alfacalcidol group as compared with the plain vitamin D group, respectively: a 3 year median percentage increase of BMD at the lumbar spine of 2.4% versus -0.8% (p vitamin D group, respectively: a 3 year rate of patients with > or = 1 new vertebral fracture of 9.7% versus 24.8% (risk reduction: 0.61; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.81; p = 0.005); a 3 year rate of patients with > or = 1 new nonvertebral fracture of 15% versus 25% (risk reduction: 0.41; 95% CI -0.06 to 0.68; p = 0.081); a 3 year rate of patients with > or = 1 new fracture of any kind of 19.4% versus 40.6% (risk reduction: 0.52; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.71; p = 0.001). In accordance

  13. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  14. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kimbell R.; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate. PMID:28335380

  15. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbell R. Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate.

  16. Vitamin E Nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kimbell R; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    2017-03-13

    Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate.

  17. Glycosylation status of vitamin D binding protein in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Douglas S; Nelson, Randall W; Borges, Chad R

    2009-10-01

    On the basis of the results of activity studies, previous reports have suggested that vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is significantly or even completely deglycosylated in cancer patients, eliminating the molecular precursor of the immunologically important Gc macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), a glycosidase-derived product of DBP. The purpose of this investigation was to directly determine the relative degree of O-linked trisaccharide glycosylation of serum-derived DBP in human breast, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer patients. Results obtained by electrospray ionization-based mass spectrometric immunoassay showed that there was no significant depletion of DBP trisaccharide glycosylation in the 56 cancer patients examined relative to healthy controls. These results suggest that alternative hypotheses regarding the molecular and/or structural origins of GcMAF must be considered to explain the relative inability of cancer patient serum to activate macrophages.

  18. [Heteroimmune hemolytic anemia associated with antilymphocyte globulin treatment in a patient with aplastic anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldztein, S; Carreras Vescio, L A; Salamone, H J; Calahonra, R; Kohan, A I; Sánchez Avalos, J C

    1990-01-01

    A 24-year-old male patient with a severe aplastic anemia (SAA) was treated with equine-antilymphocyte globulin (ALG). As complication of this treatment he developed a severe heteroimmune hemolytic anemia mediated by anti-species pan-agglutinin antibodies present in ALG. In spite of the fact that ALG is absorbed with red-cell stroma and platelets to remove anti-erythrocyte and anti-platelet contaminating antibodies, often only partial absorption is achieved, and the remaining antibodies are passively acquired by the recipient. Neutropenia and especially thrombocytopenia are usual complications of this treatment, but it is also possible to detect anti-erythrocyte antibodies in the serum and on the red cells of those patients. However, the unusual severity of the hemolysis suffered by our patient, with a striking decrease of the hemoglobin levels (Fig. 1) can be ascribed to the administration of ALG at a time at which the hematocrit was close to normal as a result of the previous administration of anabolics. It is likely that in severely anemic patients, with a high transfusional demand, such a hemolytic episode may remain undetected. The patient acquired reactivity to the direct antiglobulin test, as well as the positive results of investigation of unexpected antibodies and compatibility testing can be accounted for by the fact that commercial antihuman globulin serum (AGS) contains antibodies reacting with a globulin component shared by human and horse sera. Neutralization of AGS with ALG administered to the patient removed those cross-reacting antibodies, making it possible to perform reliable transfusion compatibility testing and to rule out the eventual presence of hidden alloantibodies or warm autoantibodies. Neutralized Coombs serum maintained its human antiglobulin properties unaltered (Table 1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body forms vitamin D naturally after exposure to sunlight. But too much sun exposure can lead to skin aging and skin cancer, ... a malabsorption problem) You don't get enough exposure to sunlight. Your liver or kidneys cannot convert vitamin D ...

  20. Riboflavin : A multifunctional vitamin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza, ACS; Ferreira, CV; Juca, MB; Aoyama, H; Cavagis, ADM; Peppelenbosch, MP

    2005-01-01

    Riboflavin, a component of the B-2 vitaminic complex, plays important roles in biochemistry, especially in redox reactions, due to the ability to participate in both one- and two-electron transfers as well as acting as a photosensitizer. Accordingly, low intakes of this vitamin have been associated

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the foods you eat. Foods with natural vitamin D include: • Certain fish: salmon, sardines, mackerel, tuna • Cod liver oil • Shiitake mushrooms • Egg yolks Foods that often have added vitamin D include: • Dairy products • Orange juice • Infant formula • ...

  2. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you don't eat meat, you can find vitamin B12 in eggs, milk and other dairy foods, and fortified breakfast cereals. Vegans (vegetarians who eat no animal products at all, including dairy products) may need to take vitamin supplements. If you're thinking about becoming a ...

  3. Vitamin D and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Laura; Di Somma, Carolina; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D system is a complex pathway that includes precursors, active metabolites, enzymes, and receptors. This complex system actives several molecular pathways and mediates a multitude of functions. In addition to the classical role in calcium and bone homeostasis, vitamin D plays “non-calcemic” effects in host defense, inflammation, immunity, and cancer processes as recognized in vitro and in vivo studies. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship between vitamin D and cancer, summarizing several mechanisms proposed to explain the potential protective effect of vitamin D against the development and progression of cancer. Vitamin D acts like a transcription factor that influences central mechanisms of tumorigenesis: growth, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to cellular and molecular studies, epidemiological surveys have shown that sunlight exposure and consequent increased circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with reduced reduced occurrence and a reduced mortality in different histological types of cancer. Another recent field of interest concerns polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR); in this context, preliminary data suggest that VDR polymorphisms more frequently associated with tumorigenesis are Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1, EcoRV, Cdx2; although further studies are needed to clarify their role in the cancer. In this review, the relationship between vitamin D and cancer is discussed. PMID:22649423

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  5. Riboflavin : A multifunctional vitamin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza, ACS; Ferreira, CV; Juca, MB; Aoyama, H; Cavagis, ADM; Peppelenbosch, MP

    2005-01-01

    Riboflavin, a component of the B-2 vitaminic complex, plays important roles in biochemistry, especially in redox reactions, due to the ability to participate in both one- and two-electron transfers as well as acting as a photosensitizer. Accordingly, low intakes of this vitamin have been associated

  6. Case of cytomegalovirus-associated direct anti-globulin test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Saeko; Sato, Masanori; Sasaki, Goro; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Tsutomu; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old boy developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia after a negative direct anti-globulin test. The concentration of erythrocyte membrane-associated immunoglobulin G, determined using an immunoradiometric assay, correlated with disease activity. He was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) both serologically and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, indicating that his autoimmune hemolytic anemia was directly caused by CMV infection. Since anti-CMV immunoglobulin G was not absorbed by the patient's erythrocytes, cross-reaction between erythrocyte antigens and CMV was not likely a causative factor for hemolysis.

  7. The GC-heterogeneity of teleost fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Christian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most striking features of mammalian and birds chromosomes is the variation in the guanine-cytosine (GC content that occurs over scales of hundreds of kilobases to megabases; this is known as the "isochore" structure. Among other vertebrates the presence of isochores depends upon the taxon; isochore are clearly present in Crocodiles and turtles but fish genome seems very homogeneous on GC content. This has suggested a unique isochore origin after the divergence between Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, but before that between Sauropsida and mammals. However during more than 30 years of analysis, isochore characteristics have been studied and many important biological properties have been associated with the isochore structure of human genomes. For instance, the genes are more compact and their density is highest in GC rich isochores. Results This paper shows in teleost fish genomes the existence of "GC segmentation" sharing some of the characteristics of isochores although teleost fish genomes presenting a particular homogeneity in CG content. The entire genomes of T nigroviridis and D rerio are now available, and this has made it possible to check whether a mosaic structure associated with isochore properties can be found in these fishes. In this study, hidden Markov models were trained on fish genes (T nigroviridis and D rerio which were classified by using the isochore class of their human orthologous. A clear segmentation of these genomes was detected. Conclusion The GC content is an excellent indicator of isochores in heterogeneous genomes as mammals. The segmentation we obtained were well correlated with GC content and other properties associated to GC content such as gene density, the number of exons per gene and the length of introns. Therefore, the GC content is the main property that allows the detection of isochore but more biological properties have to be taken into account. This method allows detecting

  8. Modulation techniques and applications in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursch, Matthias [Dow Deutschland GmbH and Co. OHG, Analytical Sciences, 77836 Rheinmuenster (Germany); Sun, Kefu; Winniford, Bill; Weber, Andy [Dow Chemical Company, Analytical Sciences, Freeport, TX 77541 (United States); Cortes, Hernan; McCabe, Terry [Dow Chemical Company, Analytical Sciences, Midland MI 48667 (United States); Luong, Jim [Dow Canada, Analytical Sciences, Fort Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    More than a decade after Phillips' first published work this article reviews recent developments in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC). Special attention is devoted to the further development and diversity of modulation devices. These include heated sweepers, cryofocused modulators, and a variety of diaphragm valve-switching strategies. It is demonstrated that all modulation approaches can be very well suited to GC x GC, depending on the particular application. Diaphragm-valve modulation is very powerful for volatile organic compounds. Slotted heater and cryofocused modulation are preferred for samples that contain non-volatile components. Applications ranging from petroleum to environmental and biological samples are illustrated. Extension of the technique to GC x GC-mass spectrometry (MS) is also discussed and trends for future research activity are pointed out. (orig.)

  9. Structural modification of serum vitamin D3-binding protein and immunosuppression in AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Srinivasula, S M

    1995-11-01

    A serum glycoprotein, vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein), can be converted by beta-galactosidase of stimulated B lymphocytes and sialidase of T lymphocytes to a potent macrophage-activating factor (MAF), a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is a precursor for MAF. Treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates an extremely high-titered MAF (GcMAF). When peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages of 46 HIV-infected patients were treated with GcMAF (100 pg/ml), the monocytes/macrophages of all patients were efficiently activated. However, the MAF precursor activity of plasma Gc protein was low in 16 (35%) of of these patients. Loss of the MAF precursor activity appeared to be due to deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase found in the patient blood stream. Levels of plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in individual patients had an inverse correlation with the MAF precursor activity of their plasma Gc protein. Thus, precursor activity of Gc protein and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in patient blood can serve as diagnostic and prognostic indices.

  10. Glycan structure of Gc Protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor as revealed by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Chad R; Rehder, Douglas S

    2016-09-15

    Disagreement exists regarding the O-glycan structure attached to human vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Previously reported evidence indicated that the O-glycan of the Gc1S allele product is the linear core 1 NeuNAc-Gal-GalNAc-Thr trisaccharide. Here, glycan structural evidence is provided from glycan linkage analysis and over 30 serial glycosidase-digestion experiments which were followed by analysis of the intact protein by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Results demonstrate that the O-glycan from the Gc1F protein is the same linear trisaccharide found on the Gc1S protein and that the hexose residue is galactose. In addition, the putative anti-cancer derivative of DBP known as Gc Protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF, which is formed by the combined action of β-galactosidase and neuraminidase upon DBP) was analyzed intact by ESI-MS, revealing that the activating E. coli β-galactosidase cleaves nothing from the protein-leaving the glycan structure of active GcMAF as a Gal-GalNAc-Thr disaccharide, regardless of the order in which β-galactosidase and neuraminidase are applied. Moreover, glycosidase digestion results show that α-N-Acetylgalactosamindase (nagalase) lacks endoglycosidic function and only cleaves the DBP O-glycan once it has been trimmed down to a GalNAc-Thr monosaccharide-precluding the possibility of this enzyme removing the O-glycan trisaccharide from cancer-patient DBP in vivo.

  11. Effects of vitamin D binding protein phenotypes and vitamin D supplementation on serum total 25(OH)D and directly measured free 25(OH)D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollid, Stina T; Hutchinson, Moira Y S; Berg, Vivian; Fuskevåg, Ole M; Figenschau, Yngve; Thorsby, Per M; Jorde, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    To determine the relationship between serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), directly measured free 25(OH)D and calculated free 25(OH)D with regard to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) phenotypes, sex, BMI, age and season, and their interrelationship to vitamin D supplementation. A randomized controlled trial with 20 000 IU of vitamin D3 per week or placebo for 12 months was designed. A total of 472 subjects, 236 in each of the intervention groups, were included in the analyses. Baseline serum concentrations and increases in serum total 25(OH)D, directly measured free 25(OH)D, calculated free 25(OH)D and DBP. Serum total 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with the phenotype Gc2/Gc2 compared to phenotypes with the Gc1S allele, and lower in males compared to females. When using directly measured free 25(OH)D, the differences related to DBP phenotypes and sexes were clearly diminished. All calculated free 25(OH)D concentrations were overestimated compared to the directly measured free 25(OH)D. Serum parathyroid hormone showed an inverse correlation with all vitamin D parameters analyzed. The increases after 12 months of vitamin D supplementation were not significantly different for any of the vitamin D parameters regardless of DBP phenotype, sex or age. Supplementation with vitamin D did not affect serum DBP. Direct measurements of free 25(OH)D reduce the differences seen in total 25(OH)D between DBP phenotype groups and sexes, probably caused by differences in DBP concentrations. With conditions affecting serum DBP concentrations, direct measurements of free 25(OH)D should be considered. © 2016 The authors.

  12. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid. However, some products do ... Pantothenas, Calcium D-Pantothenate, Calcium Pantothenate, Complexe de Vitamines B, D-Calcium Pantothenate, D-Panthenol, D-Panthénol, ...

  13. Determination of sex hormone-binding globulin in human semen by selective ammonium sulphate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvay, J; Traub, A

    1984-01-01

    A simple method was developed to measure the SHBG capacities of human serum, semen and sperm cells. After suitable dilution, disintegration and addition of labelled dihydrotestosterone-1,2-3 H or testosterone-1,2-3 H, the SHBG was precipitated by the addition of saturated ammonium sulphate in a final concentration of 42.3%. The precipitate was centrifuged and the activity of the non-bound, labelled steroid was counted in an aliquot of the supernatant. Subtraction of this result from the total activity yielded the SHBG-bound steroid in microgram/100 ml or nmol/l. Examination of 52 males gave normal values of means = 13.91 nmol/l (S.E.M. = 0,746) dihydrotestosterone binding globulin (DHTBG) and means = 11.67 nmol/l (S.E.M. = 0.555) testosterone binding globulin (TBG) in serum, while the concentrations in the seminal plasma were means = 10.89 nmol/l (S.E.M. = 0,723) DHTBG and means = 8.93 nmol/l (S.E.M. = 0.625) TBG. means = 5.57 ng/mg protein (S.E.M. = 0.516) DHTBG and means = 4.91 ng/mg protein (S.E.M. = 0.440) TBG were found in the disintegrated sperm cells.

  14. Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction in renal transplantation: review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andress L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leah Andress,1 Anjali Gupta,2 Nida Siddiqi,3 Kwaku Marfo2,3 1University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Buffalo, 2Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Department of Abdominal Organ Transplant Program, Bronx, 3Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pharmacy, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG has proven benefit as induction therapy in renal transplant recipients, achieving reduced acute rejection rates and better short-term allograft function, with slightly higher rates of complications such as infections and malignancy. Compared with other agents, the most benefit from rATG induction has been observed in renal transplant recipients at high immunologic risk for rejection. However, in special populations, such as pediatrics, the elderly, and hepatitis C-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-positive renal transplant recipients, additional information is needed to delineate the absolute benefit of rATG induction compared with other induction agents. Selection of rATG as the choice of induction therapy in renal transplant recipients should be guided by a cost-effective approach in balancing efficacy, safety, and cost. This review summarizes the published literature on efficacy, safety, and cost of rATG induction in renal transplantation. Keywords: anti-thymocyte globulin, renal transplantation, induction therapy

  15. Gamma globulins-induced interaction between two red blood cells: forces measurement with optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kisung; Muravyov, Alexei; Semenov, Alexei; Wagner, Christian; Priezzhev, Alexander; Lyubin, Eugeny; Fedyanin, Andrey

    2017-03-01

    The protein contribution to the red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is studied using the in-house made two-channeled optical tweezers. The cells interaction was characterized using two forces: the force required for separating two cells (FD - disaggregating force) and the force required for holding them from their spontaneous aggregation (FA - aggregating force). The gamma globulin solutions with/without albumin were used to induce the RBC aggregation. The strong interaction (3-10 pN) between the cells was measured within the contact formed using optical tweezers. We found that FD becomes stronger as the gamma globulin concentration increases, while the addition of albumin to the solution led to the significant (few fold) enhancement of the cells interaction forces. However, despite of the strong interaction between the cells their spontaneous overlapping was not observed, unlike the case in plasma, where the cells did increase their overlapping surface, when attached with small interacting surface and released from optical traps. This work in addition to our previous work with model solutions of fibrinogen allows us to conclude that the synergy of blood components is one of the most important features that contribute to the reversible RBC aggregation.

  16. Vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Robert; Brown, David L

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common cause of macrocytic anemia and has been implicated in a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. The role of B12 deficiency in hyperhomocysteinemia and the promotion of atherosclerosis is only now being explored. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is typically based on measurement of serum vitamin B12 levels; however, about 50 percent of patients with subclinical disease have normal B12 levels. A more sensitive method of screening for vitamin B12 deficiency is measurement of serum methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels, which are increased early in vitamin B12 deficiency. Use of the Schilling test for detection of pernicious anemia has been supplanted for the most part by serologic testing for parietal cell and intrinsic factor antibodies. Contrary to prevailing medical practice, studies show that supplementation with oral vitamin B12 is a safe and effective treatment for the B12 deficiency state. Even when intrinsic factor is not present to aid in the absorption of vitamin B12 (pernicious anemia) or in other diseases that affect the usual absorption sites in the terminal ileum, oral therapy remains effective.

  17. Vitamin D – The Vitamin Hormone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vitamin D are rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. These are far from the ... been gained over the past 15 years, and with the growing issue ... epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low ... Open Access article distributed under the terms of the ... 65 year olds and over. ... mentioned in Table 1.7.

  18. Vitamin D and psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, K E; Norman, A W

    1992-05-01

    Skin can serve as the source of vitamin D when exposed to sunlight so that cutaneous 7-dehydrocholesterol can be converted to the vitamin. Skin is also a target organ for the hormone form of vitamin D: 1,25-(OH)2D3. Both skin keratinocytes grown in tissue culture and samples of human skin have the nuclear receptor for 1,25(OH)2D3. New results suggest that this hormone or its analogs may be effective in treating some forms of psoriasis.

  19. FUNCTIONALIZATION OF TEXTILE FABRICS WITH MICROENCAPSULATED VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Alina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the experimental deposition of vitamin E microcapsules by padding technique on the textile support made of 50% cotton and 50% polyamide high tenacity Nm 50/1 were performed. The preliminary preparation of textile materials has been made in four consecutive sequences: hot alkaline treatment in absence of NaOH, bleaching, drying and curing. In the pretreatment of textile materials the crosslinking agent Itobinder AG is used, which is an anionic emulsion based on the acrylic copolimer, being followed by the application of a dispersion with content of vitamin E microcapsules. In the present raport the evaluation of obtained performances was made through SEM, GC and FTIR-ATR analysis. By SEM has been determined the wash durability of deposition of vitamin E microcapsules before and after one washing cycle. Following qualitative analysis by Gas-Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflection absorption the related compoundes presents on the surface of the textile materials were identified. After retention time the vitamin E acetate is found with preponderance in all chromatograms at 15, 70 min with aproximation. Also by FTIR-ATR the presence of vitamin E acetate is confirmed by the apparition of a new peak at 1731 cm-1 and changes of intensity of various peaks, especially in the fingerprint region of the spectra of the functionalized fabrics.

  20. Relationship between in vitro Fe and Zn dialysability and peptide composition of albumin and globulins extracted from cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi-Boccia, G; Carbonaro, M; Cappelloni, M; Carnovale, E

    1996-11-01

    In vitro dialysability of iron, zinc and protein was determined from whole bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), albumin and globulin (G1, G2) after cooking. Albumin showed the highest iron, zinc, protein and phytic acid content. Cooking increased iron and protein dialysability only in whole bean and albumin. Compared to globulins, albumin also presented a higher in vitro protein digestibility and cystine chemical reactivity. HPLC analysis of peptides in dialysates of bean and protein fractions suggested that some aggregation occurred during dialysis. The percentage of amino acids in dialysed peptides was found to be different between albumin and globulins. The difference in iron and zinc dialysability between albumin and globulins seems to depend on the phytic acid content of the albumin fraction and the protein properties of globulins.

  1. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pizza, cheese, frozen 1 serving 115 mg Pudding, chocolate, prepared with 2% milk 4 oz 160 mg ... Treatment Medication and Treatment Adherence Calcium/Vitamin D Nutrition Overall Health Fractures/Fall Prevention Exercise/Safe Movement ...

  2. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product (NicAzel, Elorac Inc., Vernon Hills, IL), containing nicotinamide, azelaic acid, zinc, vitamin B6, copper, and folic ... children with asthma is unclear. Itchy and inflamed skin (atopic dermatitis (eczema)). Early research suggests that taking ...

  3. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fortified. You can get the recommended amounts of vitamin B12 by eating a variety of the foods including: Organ meats (beef liver) Shellfish (clams) Meat, poultry, eggs, milk and other dairy foods Some breakfast cereals and ...

  4. Vitamin food fortification today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Samaniego-Vaesken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, food fortification has served as a tool to address population-wide nutrient deficiencies such as rickets by vitamin D fortified milk. This article discusses the different policy strategies to be used today. Mandatory or voluntary fortification and fortified foods, which the consumer needs, also have to comply with nutritional, regulatory, food safety and technical issues. The ‘worldwide map of vitamin fortification’ is analysed, including differences between develop and developing countries. The vitamins, folate and vitamin D, are taken as practical examples in the review of the beneficial effect of different strategies on public health. The importance of the risk–benefit aspect, as well as how to identify the risk groups, and the food vehicles for fortification is discussed.

  5. B Vitamins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or thiamin Also known as: Vitamin F, Aneurin, Thiamine diphosphate (TDP) – physiologically active form Role: B1 is a ... Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome – mental changes Test name: Thiamine (Thiamine diphosphate) in blood Other ways to measure: Transketolase (functional ...

  6. [Vitamin deficiencies and hypervitaminosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, M

    1999-10-01

    There have recently been very few deficiencies with respect to fat soluble and water soluble vitamins in Japan All-trans-retinoic acid as induction or maintenance treatment improves disease free and overall survival against acute promyelocytic leukemia. In the isolated vitamin E deficiencies gene mutation has been cleared for alpha-tocopherol transferprotein. Recently, a relation of nutritional vitamin K intake and senile osteoporosis in women was epidemiologically demonstrated on a prospective study. Thiamin was yet noticed as development of deficiency in alcoholism, while the importance of supplemental folic acid during pregnancy has become especially clear in light of studies showing that folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in the fetus. With respect to hypervitaminosis, the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), USA, has established safe intakes by identifying the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) and LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level). Summaries of NOAEL and LOAEL for individual vitamins were shown.

  7. Vitamin A benefit (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the retina, which allows vision in dim light. Beta carotene, the precursor to vitamin A found in vegetables, has antioxidant properties, which means it protects cells from the daily toxic damage of oxidation.

  8. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minerals your body needs. But if you're skipping meals, dieting, or if you're concerned that ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Healthy Breakfast Planner Nutrition & Fitness Center Vitamin D Figuring Out ...

  9. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2017-02-12

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Guidelines on the use of intravenous immune globulin for hematologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David; Ali, Kaiser; Blanchette, Victor; Brouwers, Melissa; Couban, Stephen; Radmoor, Paula; Huebsch, Lothar; Hume, Heather; McLeod, Anne; Meyer, Ralph; Moltzan, Catherine; Nahirniak, Susan; Nantel, Stephen; Pineo, Graham; Rock, Gail

    2007-04-01

    Canada's per capita use of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) grew by approximately 115% between 1998 and 2006, making Canada one of the world's highest per capita users of IVIG. It is believed that most of this growth is attributable to off-label usage. To help ensure IVIG use is in keeping with an evidence-based approach to the practice of medicine, the National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products of Canada (NAC) and Canadian Blood Services convened a panel of national experts to develop an evidence-based practice guideline on the use of IVIG for hematologic conditions. The mandate of the expert panel was to review evidence regarding use of IVIG for 18 hematologic conditions and formulate recommendations on IVIG use for each. A panel of 13 clinical experts and 1 expert in practice guideline development met to review the evidence and reach consensus on the recommendations for the use of IVIG. The primary sources used by the panel were 3 recent evidence-based reviews. Recommendations were based on interpretation of the available evidence and where evidence was lacking, consensus of expert clinical opinion. A draft of the practice guideline was circulated to hematologists in Canada for feedback. The results of this process were reviewed by the expert panel, and modifications to the draft guideline were made where appropriate. This practice guideline will provide the NAC with a basis for making recommendations to provincial and territorial health ministries regarding IVIG use management. Specific recommendations for routine use of IVIG were made for 7 conditions including acquired red cell aplasia; acquired hypogammaglobulinemia (secondary to malignancy); fetal-neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia; hemolytic disease of the newborn; HIV-associated thrombocytopenia; idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; and posttransfusion purpura. Intravenous immune globulin was not recommended for use, except under certain life-threatening circumstances, for 8 conditions

  11. VITAMIN D IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Radović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the classical role in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D shows a regulatory effect on a number of different cells, especially its antiproliferative and pro-differential biological function. Through its own receptor in the immune cells, vitamin D increases the phagocytic activity of macrophages and NK cells. Also, by binding to the regulatory sequences of antimicrobial peptides genes, vitamin D increases the microbicidal activity of phagocytes. Inhibition of differentiation and maturation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells, as well as direct influence on their contact with T lymphocytes, it significantlly influences the type of immune response. Dendritic cells under the influence of vitamin D induce a suppressor T cells, which can inhibit Th1 cell response and are critical in the regulation of immune tolerance. Vitamin D inhibits proliferation of Th1 and Th17 cells, as well their cytokine production, and suppresses the differentiation and maturation of B lymphocytes. Due to all these functions, vitamin D has shown beneficial effects in the prevention and modification of a number of autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, immunity disorders with predominant Th2 response (asthma, allergies did not show such good results after the use of hypocalcemic VDR agonists.

  12. Volume overload cleanup: An approach for on-line SPE-GC, GPC-GC, and GPC-SPE-GC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkdijk, H.; Mol, H.G.J.; Nagel, B. van der

    2007-01-01

    A new concept for cleanup, based on volume overloading of the cleanup column, has been developed for on-line coupling of gel permeation chromatography (GPC), solid-phase extraction (SPE), or both, to gas chromatography (GC). The principle is outlined and the applicability demonstrated by the determi

  13. Konsentrasi Protein Total, Albumin, dan Globulin Anak Kambing Peranakan Etawah Setelah Pemberian Berbagai Sediaan Kolostrum* (TOTAL PROTEIN, ALBUMIN, AND GLOBULIN CONCENTRATIONS ON ETTAWAH CROSSBREED NEONATES FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF VARIOUS FORM O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Esfandiari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the profile of total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrationson Ettawah crossbreed neonates after consuming various colostrums. Twenty four healthy neonatal kidswere used in this study. The neonates were divided into four groups. Each group received fresh maternal(goat colostrum, frozen-thawed bovine colostrum, bovine spray dried colostrum, and bovine powdercommercial colostrum, respectively. Colostrums were given at 10% of body weight directly after birth andfollowed by the same amount every 12 hours, for three days. The blood was taken from jugular vein at 0, 12,24, 48, 72, and 168 hours after birth to determine total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations.Results of this study indicated that the serum total protein and globulin concentration increased andreached the peak at 24 hours after birth. Compared to the concentration at birth, the increase of totalprotein concentration were 62.77%, 59.26%, 48.05%, and 66.67% in fresh maternal (goat, frozen-thawedbovine, bovine spray dried, and commercial bovine colostrum, respectively. Serum globulin concentrationincreased 4.9, 4.4, 4.8, and 14.6 times in fresh matermnal goat, frozen-thawed bovine, spray dried, andcommercial bovine colostrums respectively, compared to the concentration at birth. In conclusion, theconsumption of various colostrums i.e. fresh maternal goat colostrums, bovine colostrums (frozen-thawed,spray dried and commercial colostrums would increase the concentration of blood total protein and globulin,which both reached the highest concentration at 24 h after birth.

  14. Semi-automated non-target processing in GC × GC-MS metabolomics analysis: Applicability for biomedical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, M.M.; Kloet, F.M. van der; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Verheij, E.R.; Hankemeier, T.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the complexity of typical metabolomics samples and the many steps required to obtain quantitative data in GC × GC-MS consisting of deconvolution, peak picking, peak merging, and integration, the unbiased non-target quantification of GC × GC-MS data still poses a major challenge in metabolomic

  15. Self-Assembly of Nano Hydroxyapatite or Aragonite Induced by Molecular Recognition to Soy Globulin 7S or 11S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dagang; Tian, Huafeng; Kumar, Rakesh; Zhang, Lina

    2009-09-01

    Molecular self-assembly is emerging as a viable 'bottom-up' approach to build stable organic/inorganic nanometer-scale blocks. Herein, under the conditions of appropriate pH and ionic strength, soy globulin 7S or 11S were coprecipitated with hydroxyapatite (HAp) or aragonite (Arag), respectively, to fabricate two organic/inorganic hybrids: 7S/HAp and 11S/Arag. Results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the hybrids exhibit a nanosized core-shell structure with globulin monomer 7S or 11S as core and HAp or Arag as shells. 7S/HAp and 11S/Arag present a disk and hexagon shape, respectively. After calcinations, monodispersed HAp without support from globulins existed as nanospheres. It was revealed that the globulin as host induces the self-assembly and growth layer by layer of HAp or Arag nanocrystals. The factors of molecular recognition and surface potential definitely affected the size and shape of the hierarchical blocks. This work provided a novel pathway to controllably synthesize a wide variety of precise plant protein/biomineral hybrid biomaterials.

  16. Brief Report: Dysregulated Immune System in Children with Autism: Beneficial Effects of Intravenous Immune Globulin on Autistic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sudhir; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children (ages 3-12) with autism (n=25) were given intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) treatments at 4-week intervals for at least 6 months. Marked abnormality of immune parameters was observed in subjects, compared to age-matched controls. IVIG treatment resulted in improved eye contact, speech, behavior, echolalia, and other autistic features.…

  17. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Langenberg, Claudia;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiologi...

  18. Deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein leads to immunosuppression in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Asbell, S O

    1996-06-15

    Serum vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein) can be converted by beta-galactosidase of B cells and sialidase of T cells to a potent macrophage activating factor, a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is the precursor of the macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates an extremely high titered MAF, Gc-MAF. When peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages of 52 patients bearing various types of cancer were incubated with 100 pg/ml of GcMAF, the monocytes/macrophages of all patients were efficiently activated. However, the MAF precursor activity of patient plasma Gc protein was found to be severely reduced in about 25% of this patient population. About 45% of the patients had moderately reduced MAF precursor activities. Loss of the precursor activity was found to be due to deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase detected in the patient's bloodstream. The source of the enzyme appeared to be cancerous cells. Radiation therapy decreased plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity with concomitant increase of precursor activity. This implies that radiation therapy decreases the number of cancerous cells capable of secreting alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. Both alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and MAF precursor activity of Gc protein in patient bloodstream can serve as diagnostic and prognostic indices.

  19. Detection of opsonic antibodies against Enterococcus faecalis cell wall carbohydrates in immune globulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, M; Sixel, K; Hammer, F; Kropec, A; Sava, I G; Theilacker, C; Berner, R; Huebner, J

    2014-08-01

    Three different commercially available polyvalent immune globulins (IG) were investigated for the existence of antibodies against cell wall carbohydrates of four different E. faecalis serotypes (using a cell wall carbohydrate-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and whether these antibodies mediated opsonic killing (using an opsonic-killing assay). All three IG preparations contained antibodies against all four serotypes (CPS-A to CPS-D). However, only one of the three IG preparations showed opsonic killing against all four serotypes. Average killing was higher against serotypes A and B (72 and 79 %, respectively) than against serotypes C and D (30 and 37 %, respectively). Such IG preparations could play a role as an adjuvant therapeutic option in life-threatening infections with E. faecalis, particularly when resistant strains are involved.

  20. [Significance of sex hormone binding globulin and free androgen index in the estimation of androgenic cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, F Y; Lauritzen, C

    1990-01-01

    Hormone analyses for hirsute women suggested that free testosterone was most revealing in biological effects and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was quantitatively persuative. Presented in this paper are the measurements of testosterone, androstendion, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHAS), SHBG, androstandiol and free androgen index (FAI) in 51 women with hirsutism. 92% of the hirsute women with elevated androgen level showed decrease in SHBG values and increase in FAI. 17 females with hirsutism revealed abnormally high androstandiol values which were highly related to the values of total and free testosterone (r = 0.78, r = 0.80, respectively). It is suggested that in clinical practice SHBG and FAI should also be measured besides testosterone and DHAS.

  1. Antithymocyte globulin-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome after renal transplantation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Guo-wei; JU Min-jie; XU Ming; RONG Rui-ming; ZHU Tong-yu; LUO Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has long been used for immune-induction and anti-rejection treatments for solid organ transplantations.To date,few cases of ATG-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been published.Here,we present a case of ARDS caused by a single low-dose of ATG in a renal transplant recipient and the subsequent treatments administered.Although the patient suffered from ARDS and delayed graft function,he was successfully treated.We emphasize that the presence of such complications should be considered when unexplained respiratory distress occurs.Early use of corticosteroids,adjustment of immunosuppressive regimens,and conservative fluid management,as well as empiric antimicrobial therapies,may be effective strategies for the treatment of ARDS caused by ATG.

  2. Characterization of the 11S globulin gene family in the castor plant Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chileh, Tarik; Esteban-García, Belén; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2010-01-13

    The 11S globulin (legumin) gene family has been characterized in the castor plant Ricinus communis L. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of two diverged subfamilies (RcLEG1 and RcLEG2) comprising a total of nine genes and two putative pseudogenes. The expression of castor legumin genes has been studied, indicating that it is seed specific and developmentally regulated, with a maximum at the stage when cellular endosperm reaches its full expansion (around 40-45 DAP). However, conspicuous differences are appreciated in the expression timing of individual genes. A characterization of the 5'-proximal regulatory regions for two genes, RcLEG1-1 and RcLEG2-1, representative of the two legumin subfamilies, has also been performed by fusion to the GUS reporter gene. The results obtained from heterologous expression in tobacco and transient expression in castor, indicating seed-specific regulation, support the possible utility of these promoters for biotechnological purposes.

  3. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  4. Comparison of Two Soy Globulins on the Dynamic-Mechanical Properties of the Dough and the Quality of Steamed Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Li Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of the soy protein concentrate (CSP and 7S and 11S soy globulin on wheat dough and steamed bread (SB, mixing properties of the dough were assessed by farinograph and dynamic-mechanical analyzer (DMA. The quality attributes of SB were assessed by texture profile analyzer (TPA, sensory analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results showed that CSP, 7S, or 11S (each from 2.0 to 4.0% significantly decreased gluten content (from 29.4 to 26.0, 36.7 to 31.8, and 31.6 to 30.7%, when those were added to wheat flour. The CSP/wheat dough stability was increased (from 6.5 to 8.4, 6.5 to 8.5, and 6.5 to 8.3 min and the degree of softening was decreased (from 71.0 to 68.0, 71.0 to 64.0, and 71.0 to 62.0 min, but 7S or 11S had the opposite result. Moreover, the ratio of 7S and 11S has a significant effect on the quality of the dough. The storage modulus and loss modulus of soy/wheat dough decreased in the order of CSP, control, 11S soy globulin, and 7S soy globulin. The hardness, chewiness, and cohesiveness of SB decreased in the order of control, CSP, 11S soy globulin, and 7S soy globulin. Microstructure demonstrated that gluten network was interfered by SPC, 7S, and 11S soy protein, which was in agreement with the texture analysis index. The quality of SB with 3% 11S was the best in texture, microstructure, and sensory. These findings indicate that 11S has the potential to be used as a special soy protein for SB making.

  5. Stability of vitamins during extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Mian N; Asif, Muhammad; Ali, Rashida

    2009-04-01

    Vitamins (fat and water soluble) are vital food ingredients for healthy living, required by our bodies for normal metabolism. These are present in most natural food in small quantities, but when we process food through thermal processing methods (especially extrusion) a reasonable amount of the present vitamins are lost. During extrusion, factors like barrel temperature, screw rpm, moisture of ingredients, die diameter, and throughput affect the retention of vitamins in food and feed. The vitamins most sensitive to the extrusion process are vitamin A and vitamin E from fat-soluble vitamins, and vitamin C, B(1), and folic acid from water-soluble vitamins. The other vitamins of the B group, such as B(2), B(6), B(12), niacin, Ca-pantothenate, and biotin, are stable. Vitamin E itself or in its complex form is quite unstable during processing and even in storage of extruded food. Ascorbic acid directly added or coated with fat and then added to feed during extrusion is also very unstable. Vitamins A, C, D, and E are also sensitive to oxidation, so these vitamins have minimum retention during storage of extruded food.

  6. Vitamin D and female fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Rabe, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Apart from the well known effects of vitamin D on maintaining calcium homeostasis and promoting bone mineralization, there is some evidence suggesting that vitamin D also modulates human reproductive processes. We will review the most interesting and relevant studies on vitamin D and female fertility published over the past year. In the past year, several observational studies reported a better in-vitro fertilization outcome in women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml), which was mainly attributed to vitamin D effects on the endometrium. One randomized controlled trial found an increased endometrial thickness in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) receiving vitamin D during intrauterine insemination cycles. Further, vitamin D supplementation had a beneficial effect on serum lipids in PCOS women. Vitamin D treatment improved endometriosis in a rat model and increased vitamin D intake was related to a decreased risk of incident endometriosis. Vitamin D was also favorably associated with primary dysmenorrhea, uterine leiomyoma, and ovarian reserve in late reproductive aged women. In women undergoing in-vitro fertilization, a sufficient vitamin D level (≥30 ng/ml) should be obtained. Vitamin D supplementation might improve metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. A high vitamin D intake might be protective against endometriosis.

  7. Vitamin D: the role of the sunshine vitamin

    OpenAIRE

    Mutsatsa, S.; Mushore, M.; Ncube, K.; Currid, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of vitamin D in physical disorders has been well documented. Deficiency in this vitamin is associated with a wide range of physical and mental disorders that include, heart problems, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, various cancers, and asthma. In mental health vitamin D deficiency is associated with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, Alzheimer’s disease among others. Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency include darker skin, lack of adequate sun exposure, autoimmune diseases, ...

  8. Vitamin D endocrinology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, H.F.

    1976-09-01

    Current status of our understanding of the metabolism of vitamin D and its implications in metabolic bone disease is reviewed. The details of metabolism of vitamin D/sub 3/ to 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ in the liver and its further conversion in the kidney to either 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ or 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ are presented. The latter conversions are regulated by the vitamin D status, serum calcium through the parathyroid gland system, and serum inorganic phosphorus concentration. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ can now be regarded as a calcium- and a phosphate-mobilizing hormone and must be considered as one of the most important serum calcium-regulating hormones. Disruption of the vitamin D metabolic sequence or the signal system for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ results in several bone and calcium metabolism disorders such as renal osteodystrophy, hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism, and vitamin D-dependency rickets. The use of the synthetic analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ as well as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ itself in the management of these disease states is discussed.

  9. Vitamin D and Cancer*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doré Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies, mostly ecological but also case-control and prospective studies show a negative association between residential sun exposure and incidence (or fatality of major cancers: colon, breast, and prostate cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. And it has been suggested that this reduction in risk could be influenced by vitamin D synthesized in the skin as a result of sun exposure. Low serum vitamin D levels are linked to an increase in risk of colon cancer, and to a lesser extent to risk of breast cancer, but not to risk of prostate cancer or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Intervention trials consisting in daily supplementation in vitamin D for several years have all failed to demonstrate an effect on cancer incidence. Hence, it is not clear whether the reduction in cancer risk associated with sun exposure is mediated by vitamin D or by another factor influenced by sun exposure such as inflammation or immunosuppression, or whether a low vitamin D status is simply a consequence of ill health.

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consuming foods, with supplementation suggested for certain sensitive populations. These guidelines, published by the Department of Health ... acid, and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the Dietary ... and beverages within and among the basic food groups. At the same time, choose foods that limit ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, ... Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for ... a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ...

  14. Vitamin Fortification of Fluid Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Eileen B; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin concentrates with vitamins A and D are used for fortification of fluid milk. Although many of the degradation components of vitamins A and D have an important role in flavor/fragrance applications, they may also be source(s) of off-flavor(s) in vitamin fortified milk due to their heat, oxygen, and the light sensitivity. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how vitamin concentrates can impact flavor and flavor stability of fluid milk. Currently, little research on vitamin degradation products can be found with respect to flavor contributions. In this review, the history, regulations, processing, and storage stability of vitamins in fluid milk are addressed along with some hypotheses for the role of vitamin A and D fortification on flavor and stability of fluid milk.

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... their health regimen. back to top Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins (video) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Update Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions ...

  17. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins (video) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... doing so safely. For More Information Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins (video) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... doing so safely. For More Information Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal ...

  20. Calcium, vitamin D and bone

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium, protein and vitamin D are the main nutrients relevant to bone health. This short article discusses the importance of vitamin D and its relation to calcium homeostasis. The various causes, clinical manifestations and treatment are outlined.

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over-the-counter multivitamins. According to the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), a doctor may recommend ... vitamins.” For some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake ( ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... multivitamins. According to the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), a doctor may recommend that you take them: for certain ... If you take blood thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ... comes to purchasing dietary supplements, Vasilios Frankos, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Division of Dietary Supplement Programs, ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... their health regimen. back to top Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins (video) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Update Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Today's dietary supplements are not only vitamins and minerals. "They also include other less familiar substances such ... dietary ingredient" category are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins ... product worth the money?'" Frankos advises. "Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for ... a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the FDA's YouTube Channel. Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (422 ... the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ...

  10. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  11. Vitamin D Supplementation in Submariners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-02

    also known as cholecalciferol . This is a result of the reaction between 7-dehydrocholesterol in the epidermis and ultraviolet radiation in the...skin) (From Diet) Vitamin D3 ( Cholecalciferol ) UV light Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) Liver 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (Calcidiol) Kidney 1,25-Dihydroxy...monthly oral vitamin D3 ( cholecalciferol ) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomized double

  12. [Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Otto

    2012-05-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is without any doubt multifactorial, and it is generally accepted, that conventional risk factors determined only about 80% of cardiovascular risk. There is accumulating evidence that vitamin D exerts important pathophysiological effects on cardiovascular system. Low vitamin D was associated with increased cardiovascular risk in several reports. This review summarizes recent epidemiological evidence and possible pathophysiological mechanism for a role of low vitamin D in cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, available data concerning vitamin D supplementation are depicted.

  13. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Grübler, Martin R.; Martin Gaksch; Thomas Pieber; Katharina Kienreich; Nicolas Verheyen; Andreas Tomaschitz; Stefan Pilz

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk...

  14. Outdoor and indoor benzene evaluation by GC-FID and GC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    José A. Sousa; Domingues, Valentina F.; Rosas, Mónica S.; Ribeiro, Susana; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of benzene in different environments such as indoor (with and without tobacco smoke), a city area, countryside, gas stations and near exhaust pipes from cars running on different types of fuels was performed. The samples were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID) and tandem mass spectrometric detection (MS/MS) (to confirm the identification of benzene in the air samples). Operating conditions for the GC-MS analysis were optimized ...

  15. Identification and determination of (+)-sesamin in Semen Cuscutae by capillary GC and GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    (+)-Sesamin was found in Semen Cuscutae for the first time. A rapid and simple approach for the analysis of (+)-sesamin in different sources of Semen Cuscutae is proposed, which used GC-FID for the determination of (+)-sesamin and GC-MS for its identification. The result suggested that this approach could be used to identify Semen Cuscutae from various sources based on the different content of (+)-sesamin in them.

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for which low dietary intake may be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, ...

  17. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    Science.gov (United States)

    25-OH vitamin D test; Calcidiol; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol test ... if you have too much or too little vitamin D in your blood. ... The normal range of vitamin D is measured as nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). Many experts recommend a level between 20 and 40 ng/mL. ...

  18. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Vink-Van Wijngaarden (Trudy)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractVitamin D regulates calcium and phosphorus blood levels and bone metabolism via effects on intestine, kidney, and bone. Vitamin D is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by ultraviolet irradiation or is taken up from dietary sources. Vitamin D must be metabolically altered

  19. Water Soluable Vitamins and Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since their discovery in the early part of the 20th century, the importance of the water soluble B complex vitamins and vitamin C to the maintenance of healthy tissue and prevention of disease has been recognized. Deficiency of these vitamins led to severe consequences. Fortunately, the discovery of...

  20. Vitamin D and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not get enough sun to meet their vitamin D needs. People with dark skin. Because the pigment, or melanin, in darker skin ... IU of vitamin D each day. Most commonly, vitamin D deficiency affects kids with darker skin and those who live in northern regions with ...

  1. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Vink-Van Wijngaarden (Trudy)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractVitamin D regulates calcium and phosphorus blood levels and bone metabolism via effects on intestine, kidney, and bone. Vitamin D is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by ultraviolet irradiation or is taken up from dietary sources. Vitamin D must be metabolically altered succes

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D (for ... C (ascorbic acid): Upset stomach, kidney stones, increased iron ... signs of B-12 deficiency, a condition that can cause nerve damage Taking ...

  3. Post-transplant cyclophosphamide versus anti-thymocyte globulin as graft- versus-host disease prophylaxis in haploidentical transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Annalisa; Sun, Yuqian; Labopin, Myriam; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Lorentino, Francesca; Arcese, William; Santarone, Stella; Gülbas, Zafer; Blaise, Didier; Messina, Giuseppe; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshi; Malard, Florent; Bruno, Benedetto; Diez-Martin, Jose Luis; Koc, Yener; Ciceri, Fabio; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon

    2017-01-01

    Severe graft-versus-host disease is a major barrier for non-T-cell-depleted haploidentical stem cell transplantation. There is no consensus on the optimal graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. This study compared the two most commonly used graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis regimens (post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based vs. the anti-thymocyte globulin-based) in adults with acute myeloid leukemia reported to the European Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation. A total of 308 patients were analyzed; 193 received post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen and 115 anti-thymocyte globulin-based regimen as anti-graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. The post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen was more likely to be associated to bone marrow as graft source (60% vs. 40%; P=0.01). Patients in the post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen group had significantly less grade 3–4 acute graft-versus-host disease than those in the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group (5% vs. 12%, respectively; P=0.01), comparable to chronic graft-versus-host disease. Multivariate analysis showed that non-relapse mortality was lower in the post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen group [22% vs. 30%, Hazard ratio (HR) 1.77(95%CI: 1.09–2.86); P=0.02] with no difference in relapse incidence. Patients receiving post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen had better graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival [HR 1.45 (95%CI: 1.04–2.02); P=0.03] and leukemia-free survival [HR 1.48 (95%CI: 1.03–2.12); P=0.03] than those in the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group. In the multivariate analysis, there was also a trend for a higher overall survival [HR 1.43 (95%CI: 0.98–2.09); P=0.06] for post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen versus the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group. Notably, center experience was also associated with non-relapse mortality and graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival. Haplo-SCT using a post

  4. Complexity of vitamin E metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Schm?lz; Marc Birringer; Stefan Lorkowski; Maria Wallert

    2016-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin E is influenced by several factors, most are highlighted in this review. While gender, age and genetic constitution influence vitamin E bioavailability but cannot be modified, life-style and intake of vitamin E can be. Numerous factors must be taken into account however, i.e., when vitamin E is orally administrated, the food matrix may contain competing nutrients. The complex metabolic processes comprise intestinal absorption, vascular transport, hepatic sorting by intracellular binding proteins, such as the significant α-tocopherol-transfer protein, and hepatic metabolism. The coordinated changes involved in the hepatic metabolism of vitamin E provide an effective physiological pathway to protect tissues against the excessive accumulation of, in particular, non-α-tocopherol forms. Metabolism of vitamin E begins with one cycle of CYP4F2/CYP3A4-dependent ω-hydroxylation followed by five cycles of subsequent β-oxidation, and forms the water-soluble end-product carboxyethylhydroxychroman. All known hepatic metabolites can be conjugated and are excreted, depending on the length of their sidechain, either via urine or feces. The physiological handling of vitamin E underlies kinetics which vary between the different vitamin E forms. Here, saturation of the side-chain and also substitution of the chromanol ring system are important. Most of the metabolic reactions and processes that are involved with vitamin E are also shared by other fat soluble vitamins. Influencing interactions with other nutrients such as vitamin K or pharmaceuticals are also covered by this review. All these processes modulate the formation of vitamin E metabolites and their concentrations in tissues and body fluids. Differences in metabolism might be responsible for the discrepancies that have been observed in studies performed in vivo and in vitro using vitamin E as a supplement or nutrient. To evaluate individual vitamin E status, the analytical procedures used for

  5. Extraskeletal effects of vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Rossini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we observed an increasing number of publications about the vitamin D, due to its recognised therapeutic actions and to the widespread hypovitaminosis D. In addition to the well known skeletal benefits, vitamin D can have multiple effects on other tissues.Muscular apparatus: hypovitaminosis D is associated with myopathy, sarcopenia, muscular strength reduction and increased risk of falls. The vitamin D supplementation increases the muscle functionality indexes. Cardiovascular system: low levels of vitamin D are related to increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a decreased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a good vitamin D status is related to a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome; a vitamin D supplementation in the early childhood reduces (nearly 30% the risk of having type 1 diabetes. Cancer: vitamin D deficit is associated with breast, colorectal cancer and melanoma relapses. Low and high levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD are related to a higher neoplastic mortality. Infectious diseases: hypovitaminosis D is associated with higher incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and worse interferon response in chronic hepatitis C. Vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of having type A influence. Rheumatic diseases: in rheumatoid arthritis low serum levels of vitamin D metabolites are related to a higher disease activity, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a higher probability of remission or response to therapy and a lower degree of disability. Neurologic diseases: associations between vitamin D deficit and risk of multiple sclerosis, depression, cognitive deficits, and Parkinson’s disease have been reported.There is evidence of the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, but most derive from observational studies: clinical trials

  6. Vitamin K and Hemostasis - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Demirtaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of the proteins that help control bleeding (clotting factors and thus for the normal clotting of blood. Newborns are prone to vitamin K deficiency because only small amounts of vitamin K cross the placenta and because, during the first few days after birth, their intestine does not contain bacteria to produce vitamin K. The deficiency can cause hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, characterized by a tendency to bleed. A vitamin K injection in the muscle is recommended for all newborns to reduce the risk of bleeding within the brain after delivery. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 113-8

  7. Vitamin D and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Turhan İyidir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Experimental evidence also supported the idea that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of DM. Additionally, it has been reported that vitamin D supplementation may decrease the risk of developing DM in long term period. The protective effects of vitamin D are mediated through the immune system and calcium metabolism. Vitamin D may also have a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 89-94

  8. [Vitamin D and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Jade; Viard, Jean-Paul

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in the synthesis of antibacterial peptids and in autophagy. Several studies have shown that low levels of vitamin D are associated with the susceptibility and the severity of acute infections on one hand, and with an unfavorable outcome of some chronic infections (such as HIV infection). Vitamin D supplementation improves response to treatment of some viral (such as chronic hepatitis C infection) or bacterial infections (such as pulmonar tuberculosis). Vitamin D supplementation demonstrated no benefit in reducing the incidence of pulmonary infections. The target level of vitamin D to be reached after supplementation is not known yet.

  9. Analysis of intra-genomic GC content homogeneity within prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, J; Snipen, L; Hardy, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    both aerobic and facultative microbes. Although an association has previously been found between mean genomic GC content and oxygen requirement, our analysis suggests that no such association exits when phylogenetic bias is accounted for. A significant association between GCVAR and mean GC content......Bacterial genomes possess varying GC content (total guanines (Gs) and cytosines (Cs) per total of the four bases within the genome) but within a given genome, GC content can vary locally along the chromosome, with some regions significantly more or less GC rich than on average. We have examined how...... the GC content varies within microbial genomes to assess whether this property can be associated with certain biological functions related to the organism's environment and phylogeny. We utilize a new quantity GCVAR, the intra-genomic GC content variability with respect to the average GC content...

  10. Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUPO Palmira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (EU-UHFMRP-USP, a reference hospital for the application of heterologous sera. In view of our positive experience of several years with the abolition of SST and of the use of premedication before the application of antivenom sera, we used a similar schedule for ERIG application. Of the 1489 victims of animal bites, 1054 (71% received ERIG; no patient was submitted to SST and all received intravenously anti-histamines (anti-H1 + anti-H2 and corticosteroids before the procedure. The patients were kept under observation for 60 to 180 minutes and no adverse reaction was observed. On the basis of these results, since December 1995 ERIG application has been decentralized in Ribeirão Preto and has become the responsibility of the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital and the Central Basic Health Unit, where the same routine is used. Since then, 4216 patients have received ERIG (1818 at the Basic Health Unit and 2398 at the EU-UHFMRP, with no problems. The ideal would be the routine use of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG in public health programs, but this is problematic, because of their high cost. However, while this does not occur, the use of SST is no longer justified at the time of application of ERIG, in view of the clinical evidence of low predictive value and low sensitivity of SST involving the application of heterologous sera. It is very important to point out

  11. Vitamin B12 level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B12 in diet (rare, except with a strict vegetarian diet) Diseases that cause malabsorption (for example, celiac disease and Crohn disease ) Lack of intrinsic factor , a protein that helps the intestine absorb vitamin B12 Above normal heat production (for example, with hyperthyroidism ) ...

  12. Modern methods of sample preparation for GC analysis

    OpenAIRE

    de Koning; Janssen, H.-G.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2009-01-01

    Today, a wide variety of techniques is available for the preparation of (semi-) solid, liquid and gaseous samples, prior to their instrumental analysis by means of capillary gas chromatography (GC) or, increasingly, comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC). In the past two decades, a large number of ‘modern’ sample-preparation techniques has been introduced, which have partly superseded their ‘classical’ counterparts. These novel techniques include off-line and on-line (sometimes semi- or f...

  13. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes...... in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology is of clinical importance....

  14. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  15. [Vitamin D and the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libon, F; Cavalier, E; Nikkels, A F

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin D is well known for its beneficial effects on phosphocalcic homeostasis. The discovery of the role of vitamin D in cancers, infections, cardiovascular or autoimmune pathologies have promoted interest for this molecule. Skin and vitamin D are closely related. The skin is not only the site of vitamin D synthesis, but also a target organ as calcitriol plays an important hormonal and regulatory role, acting on cell proliferation, differentiation and immunomodulation. Furthermore, vitamin D influences the incidence and therapeutic response of certain dermatoses. In addition, many medical situations, mainly dermatological, require strict photoprotection and may therefore indirectly be responsible for a vitamin D deficiency in patients. The current role of vitamin D in skin cancers, inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases is summarized.

  16. Vitamin D and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin M; Elmets, Craig A; Yusuf, Nabiha

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D signaling plays a key role in many important processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, immune regulation, hormone secretion and skeletal health. Furthermore, vitamin D production and supplementation have been shown to exert protective effects via an unknown signaling mechanism involving the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in several diseases and cancer types, including skin cancer. With over 3.5 million new diagnoses in 2 million patients annually, skin cancer is the most common cancer type in the United States. While ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is the main etiologic factor for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), UVB also induces cutaneous vitamin D production. This paradox has been the subject of contradictory findings in the literature in regards to amount of sun exposure necessary for appropriate vitamin D production, as well as any beneficial or detrimental effects of vitamin D supplementation for disease prevention. Further clinical and epidemiological studies are necessary to elucidate the role of vitamin D in skin carcinogenesis.

  17. Vitamin therapy after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh

    2015-10-01

    The need for routine nutritional supplementation with vitamins in most healthy individuals remains a matter of debate and current guidelines recommend that the need for these essential nutrients be met primarily through consuming an adequate diet. However, after heart transplantation, multiple factors, including the effects of prolonged debilitation prior to surgery and immunosuppression, may lead to physiological stress, which may justify consideration for vitamin supplementation. In general, clinical trials have not focused on vitamin supplementation after heart transplantation. There appears to be some limited clinical data to support the use of certain vitamins after heart transplantation. In particular, the putative antioxidant properties of vitamins C and E after heart transplantation may be beneficial as prophylaxis against cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and vitamin D, in conjunction with calcium, may help prevent post-transplant bone loss. Current guidelines only address the use of vitamin D after heart transplantation.

  18. Vitamin D in preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Gaksch, Martin; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2015-02-01

    The global burden of vitamin D deficiency is of great concern for public health. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and mortality. These findings are, however, not universally accepted and there exists certain controversy regarding the potential benefits of vitamin D. Whereas vitamin D might also be relevant for extra-skeletal diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, or infections, the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are solely based on skeletal effects. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) range from 600 to 800 international units (IU) of vitamin D per day, corresponding to a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Consequently, there exists a substantial gap between the RDA and the actual high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in general populations, particularly among the elderly. Therefore, achieving the RDA will require additional efforts including food fortification, vitamin D supplementation and health campaigns.

  19. Interactions of protein content and globulin subunit composition of soybean proteins in relation to tofu gel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew T; Yang, Aijun

    2016-03-01

    The content and globulin subunit composition of soybean proteins are known to affect tofu quality and food-grade soybeans usually have higher levels of proteins. We studied the tofu quality of soybeans with high (44.8%) or low (39.1%) protein content and with or without the 11S globulin polypeptide, 11SA4. Both protein content and 11SA4 significantly affected tofu gel properties. Soybeans containing more protein had smaller seeds which produced significantly firmer (0.663 vs.0.557 N, pprotein subunits, which may have contributed to the improvement in tofu gel properties. These results suggest that, in combination with higher protein content, certain protein subunits or their polypeptides can also be targeted in selecting soybeans to further improve soy food quality.

  20. The reactive centre loop of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a protease target for cortisol release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John G; Elder, Peter A

    2014-03-25

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binds more than 90% of circulating cortisol and is a non-inhibitory member of the family of serine protease inhibitors (SERPINS) with an exposed elastase sensitive reactive centre loop (RCL). At sites of inflammation neutrophil activation can release elastase which may cleave the RCL and result in cortisol release from CBG. The RCL sequence also has two theoretical chymotrypsin cleavage sites and we used a monoclonal antibody with specificity for the RCL to investigate chymotrypsin cleavage of CBG. Here we show, for the first time, rapid chymotrypsin cleavage of the RCL of CBG, resulting in undetectable levels of intact CBG, whereas total CBG levels were unchanged. Coincident with both chymotrypsin and elastase cleavage there was an increase in the free cortisol fraction of serum to levels similar to when CBG had been inactivated by heat indicating total cortisol release from CBG. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism for cortisol release from its binding globulin.

  1. Update on the use of intravenous immune globulin in the treatment of patients with inflammatory muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, M C

    1995-11-01

    The inflammatory myopathies consist of three distinct groups: dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and inclusion body myositis. Dermatomyositis is distinguished by its characteristic rash, while polymyositis is a diagnosis of exclusion. Inclusion body myositis is characterized by early involvement of distal muscle groups and the quadriceps. Definitive diagnosis is made by muscle biopsy, which demonstrates histological features characteristic for each disorder. Immune mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory myopathies. A complement-mediated microangiopathy is seen in dermatomyositis, while there is evidence for a T cell-mediated process in polymyositis and inclusion body myositis. Treatment with prednisone is helpful to a majority of patients for a period of time. Immunosuppressive drugs have met with limited success. We describe a group of patients with dermatomyositis, resistant to available therapies, whose muscle strength, skin changes, and muscle biopsies improved significantly during treatment with intravenous immune globulin. The treatment of polymyositis and inclusion body myositis with intravenous immune globulin is currently under study.

  2. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.......Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression...

  3. Positive predictive value of albumin: globulin ratio for feline infectious peritonitis in a mid-western referral hospital population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Unity; Deitz, Krysta; Hostetter, Shannon

    2012-12-01

    Low albumin to globulin ratio has been found previously to have a high positive predictive value for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats with clinical signs highly suggestive of the disease. However, FIP can have a more vague clinical presentation. This retrospective study found that the positive predictive value of an albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio of <0.8 and <0.6 was only 12.5% and 25%, respectively, in a group of 100 cats with one or more clinical signs consistent with FIP. The negative predictive value was 100% and 99% for an A:G ratio of <0.8 and A:G<0.6%, respectively. Therefore, when the prevalence of FIP is low, the A:G ratio is useful to rule out FIP but is not helpful in making a positive diagnosis of FIP.

  4. Vitamin D binding protein genotype is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations, as well as bone health in children and adolescents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkinen, Minna; Saarnio, Elisa; Viljakainen, Heli T; Kokkonen, Elina; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin; Mäkitie, Outi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D binding protein (DBP)/group-specific component (Gc), correlates positively with serum vitamin D metabolites, and phenotype influences serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) concentration. The protein isoform has been associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. We examined the role of GC genotypes in S-25(OH)D status and BMD in 231 Finnish children and adolescents aged 7-19 yr. BMD was measured with DXA from lumbar spine (LS), total hip, and whole body, and for 175 subjects, radial volumetric BMD was measured with pQCT. Background characteristic and total dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium were collected. The concentrations of 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and other markers of calcium homeostasis were determined from blood and urine. Genotyping was based on single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs4588) in the GC gene. The genotype distribution was: GC 1/1 68%, GC 1/2 26% and GC 2/2 6%. A significant difference emerged in 25(OH)D and PTH concentrations between the genotypes, (p = 0.001 and 0.028 respectively, ANCOVA). There was also a linear trend in: Gc 2/2 had the lowest 25(OH)D and PTH concentrations (p = 0.025 and 0.012, respectively). Total hip bone mineral content was associated with GC genotype (BMC) (p = 0.05, ANCOVA) in boys. In regression analysis, after adjusting for relevant covariates, GC genotype was associated with LS BMC and strength and strain index (SSI) Z-score in both genders, and LS BMD in boys. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the association between GC genotypes and S-25(OH)D and PTH concentrations. The results show the influence of DBP genetic variation on bone mass accrual in adolescence.

  5. Vitamin D binding protein genotype is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations, as well as bone health in children and adolescents in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Pekkinen

    Full Text Available Vitamin D binding protein (DBP/group-specific component (Gc, correlates positively with serum vitamin D metabolites, and phenotype influences serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OHD concentration. The protein isoform has been associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD and increased fracture risk. We examined the role of GC genotypes in S-25(OHD status and BMD in 231 Finnish children and adolescents aged 7-19 yr. BMD was measured with DXA from lumbar spine (LS, total hip, and whole body, and for 175 subjects, radial volumetric BMD was measured with pQCT. Background characteristic and total dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium were collected. The concentrations of 25(OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH, calcium and other markers of calcium homeostasis were determined from blood and urine. Genotyping was based on single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs4588 in the GC gene. The genotype distribution was: GC 1/1 68%, GC 1/2 26% and GC 2/2 6%. A significant difference emerged in 25(OHD and PTH concentrations between the genotypes, (p = 0.001 and 0.028 respectively, ANCOVA. There was also a linear trend in: Gc 2/2 had the lowest 25(OHD and PTH concentrations (p = 0.025 and 0.012, respectively. Total hip bone mineral content was associated with GC genotype (BMC (p = 0.05, ANCOVA in boys. In regression analysis, after adjusting for relevant covariates, GC genotype was associated with LS BMC and strength and strain index (SSI Z-score in both genders, and LS BMD in boys. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the association between GC genotypes and S-25(OHD and PTH concentrations. The results show the influence of DBP genetic variation on bone mass accrual in adolescence.

  6. Preparation and use of erythrocyte-globulin conjugates to Lassa virus in reversed passive hemagglutination and inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Conditions were defined for functional covalent coupling of anti-Lassa virus globulins to glutaraldehyde-fixed chicken erythrocytes. Tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate in a reaction mixture containing not more than 0.01 M NaCl produced uniformly good conjugates which were used in reversed passive hemagglutination (RPH) and reversed passive hemagglutination inhibition (RPHI) tests to detect Lassa virus antigens in infected cell cultures and specific antigens in Vero cell cultures. Identical results wer...

  7. Retrospective diagnosis of Q fever in a country abattoir by the use of specific IgM globulin estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, A.M.; Hunt, J.G.

    1981-10-03

    Twenty-two cases of pyrexial illness which occurred amongst workers in a country abattoir were investigated retrospectively for Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. In 18, the illness was shown to be Q fever. No diagnoses were established for the other four. The demonstration of circulating Q-fever-specific IgM globulin was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis in many of the cases.

  8. Effect of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin, sex hormones and gonadotrophins in obese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Lange, Aksel; Holland-Fischer, P

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated....... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis....

  9. A Comparative Study Regarding the Association of Alpha-2U Globulin with the Nephrotoxic Mechanism of Certain Petroleum-Based Air Force Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    our method for the isolation of alpha-2U globulin isotypes using a combination of preparative isoelectric focusing and chromatofocusing techniques...the urinary pH as methods to investigate the hydrocarbon-induced nephrotoxic response. Two significant advances have been made in the first year of...globulin molecule and metabolic alteration of the urinary pH as methods to investigate the hydrocarbon-induced nephrotoxic response. Two significant

  10. Determination of phthalates in polymer materials - comparison of GC/MS and GC/ECD methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jaworek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two methods for determination of phthalates in polymer materials. The methods compared were gas chromatography combined with the mass spectrometry (GC/MS and gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC/ECD. The GC/ECD technique was chosen for this comparison, because the ECD detector was one of few capable of detecting phthalates. In both cases the same procedure of sample preparation with ultrasonic extraction was applied. Overall recoveries were 76-100 % with relative of standard deviation (R.S.D. values in the range 0.6-19 %. The values of limit of detection (LOD for GC/MS method ranged from 3.46 µg mL- 1 to 10.10 µg mL- 1, depending on the determined phthalate, while in case of the GC/ECD method they were in the range from 2.97 µg mL- 1 to 4.29 µg mL- 1. The methods were applied for determination of: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisoocyl phthalate in polymer material. The seventeen kinds of samples were analyzed. Most of the materials selected for the analyses were made from polyethylene (PE, polyvinyl chloride (PVC and polystyrene (PS.

  11. Self-Assembly of Rice Bran Globulin Fibrils in Electrostatic Screening: Nanostructure and Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various ionic strengths and protein concentrations on the fibrils structure and gel properties of rice bran globulin (RBG at pH 2.0 were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM, rheometer, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. AFM images showed the morphology of assembling RBG fibrils from strand beads to becoming branch clustered, when electrostatic repulsive forces attenuated gradually with increasing ionic strength. NaCl seems to accelerate the kinetics of fibrils formation, resulting in a significant increase in Th T fluorescence intensity. The increased ionic strengths promote particle size increasing and zeta potential decreasing synchronously. The percolation model G'~C-Cpn be used to calculate theoretical RBG gels concentration at various ionic strengths (0–500 mM, which decreased from 15.17 ± 0.63 to 2.26 ± 0.27 wt%. SEM images exhibited a granular mesh-like gel structure. A more homogenous structure occurred in low ionic strength. This study elucidates properties of RBG fibrils and gels as a bioactive material.

  12. Female hyperandrogenemia and normal serum levels of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Danilowicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the reference values usually employed for endocrine biochemical measurements are those suggested by the suppliers of commercial kits despite their advice that each laboratory should set its own reference values. Our objectives were to (i determine reference ranges for serum testosterone (T and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG appropriate to our laboratory and population, and (ii to analyze their influence on evaluating hyperandrogenemia. SHBG and T were measured, and free and bioavailable testosterone calculated, in (a 30 selected non-hyperandrogenic women, (b 87 non-selected healthy female blood donors, (c 53 women with hyperandrogenism, and (d 38 women with hyperandrogenic disorders but without biochemical hyperandrogenemia according to normal ranges suggested by the kit manufacturer. Mean serum SHBG concentrations were significantly different among all four groups. SHBG levels were significantly higher in selected normal women (group a. Using our results for this selected control group as new reference values, 12 out of 38 (31.6% women with hyperandrogenic disorders without apparent hyperandrogenemia (group d were recategorized as hyperandrogenemic. Similarly, 4 out of 63 (6.4% non-selected, normal weight, women (group b, were recategorized as hyperandrogenic. Therefore, the diagnosis of hyperandrogenemia would improve accuracy by using customized reference SHBG values instead of those suggested by the suppliers.

  13. Corticosteroid-binding globulin affects the relationship between circulating adiponectin and cortisol in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Real, José-Manuel; Pugeat, Michel; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bornet, Hubert; Ricart, Wifredo

    2005-05-01

    Inflammatory pathways are increasingly recognized to be tightly associated with insulin resistance in humans. The promoter region of the adiponectin gene--Apm1--encompasses consensus sequences for glucocorticosteroid receptor responsive element. Dexamethasone induced downregulation of adiponectin secretion in vitro, whereas prednisolone administration increased circulating adiponectin concentrations. As previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), body mass index, and insulin resistance, we studied whether CBG could explain cortisol-to-adiponectin relationship. One hundred twenty-two healthy subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Plasma CBG and serum cortisol concentration were measured by radioimmunoassay. The cortisol-to-CBG ratio was used to calculate free cortisol. An RIA kit (Linco Research, St Louis, MO) was used to measure adiponectin levels. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostatis model of assessment (HOMA) value. Circulating adiponectin was associated with serum CBG ( r = 0.38, P fasting cortisol ( P = .019) contributed to 14% and 4%, respectively, of CBG variance. In summary, circulating adiponectin, CBG concentration, and fasting cortisol were significantly interrelated in healthy subjects. A significant sexual dimorphism exists in this association.

  14. A corm-specific gene encodes tarin, a major globulin of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, I C; Castro, L A; Neshich, G; de Almeida, E R; de Sá, M F; Mello, L V; Monte-Neshich, D C

    1995-04-01

    A gene encoding a globulin from a major taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm protein family, tarin (G1, ca. 28 kDa) was isolated from a lambda Charon 35 library, using a cDNA derived from a highly abundant corm-specific mRNA, as probe. The gene, named tar1, and the corresponding cDNA were characterized and compared. No introns were found. The major transcription start site was determined by primer extension analysis. The gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 765 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated a precursor polypeptide of 255 residues that is post-translationally processed into two subunits of about 12.5 kDa each. The deduced protein is 45% homologous to curculin, a sweet-tasting protein found in the fruit pulp of Curculigo latifolia and 40% homologous to a mannose-binding lectin from Galanthus nivalis. Significant similarity was also found at the nucleic acid sequence level with genes encoding lectins from plant species of the Amaryllidaceae and Lilliaceae families.

  15. Clinical benefits and immunopathological correlates of intravenous immune globulin in the treatment of inflammatory myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, M C

    1996-05-01

    High-dose intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) is emerging as a promising therapy for patients with inflammatory myopathies who have become unresponsive to, or cannot tolerate, conventional therapies. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, using objective criteria for improvement, IVIG demonstrated moderate to dramatic improvement in 75% of the patients with dermatomyositis. Preliminary results from a controlled study in inclusion-body myositis show that IVIG may also exert a mild benefit, but only in a small number of patients and in certain muscle groups. In some patients with polymyositis, IVIG is reported to be of benefit but controlled studies have not yet been completed. Immunocytochemical, immunological and in vitro studies on the patients' repeated muscle biopsies and follow-up sera showed that IVIG exerts its action in inflammatory myopathies by: (i) inhibiting myotoxic cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and IL-1; (ii) blockade of Fc receptors on endomysial macrophages interfering with Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis; and (iii) inhibiting the uptake of C3 and intercepting the formation and deposition of membranolytic attack complex on the endomysial capillaries.

  16. Preoperative albumin-to-globulin ratio and prognostic nutrition index predict prognosis for glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Zhe; Li, Feng; Xu, Zhen-Kuan; Chen, Xuan; Sun, Bin; Cao, Jing-Wei; Liu, Yu-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Objective Impaired immunonutritional status has disadvantageous effects on outcomes for cancer patients. Preoperative albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) and the prognostic nutrition index (PNI) have been used as prognostic factors in various cancers. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of the AGR and PNI in glioblastoma. Materials and methods This retrospective analysis involved 166 patients. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. AGR and the PNI were calculated as AGR = albumin/(total serum protein − albumin) and PNI = albumin (g/L) + 5 × total lymphocyte count (109/L). Overall survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan–Meier analysis. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the predictive ability of AGR and the PNI. Cox proportional-hazard models estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for univariable and multivariable survival analyses. Results The cutoff values of AGR and PNI were 1.75 and 48. OS was enhanced, with high AGR (>1.75) and the PNI (>48) (Pglioblastoma. AGR and the PNI could also help in developing good adjuvant-therapy schedules. PMID:28223828

  17. Role of corticosteroid binding globulin in the fast actions of glucocorticoids on the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, M P; Minni, A M; Dominguez, G; Helbling, J C; Foury, A; Henkous, N; Dorey, R; Béracochéa, D

    2014-03-01

    Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) is a glycoprotein synthesized in liver and secreted in the blood where it binds with a high affinity but low capacity glucocorticoid hormones, cortisol in humans and corticosterone in laboratory rodents. In mammals, 95% of circulating glucocorticoids are bound to either CBG (80%) or albumin (15%) and only the 5% free fraction is able to enter the brain. During stress, the concentration of glucocorticoids rises significantly and the free fraction increases even more because CBG becomes saturated. However, glucocorticoids unbound to CBG are cleared from the blood more quickly. Our studies on mice totally devoid of CBG (Cbg k.o.) showed that during stress these mutant mice display a lower rise of glucocorticoids than the wild-type controls associated with altered emotional reactivity. These data suggested that CBG played a role in the fast actions of glucocorticoids on behavior. Further analyses demonstrated that stress-induced memory retrieval impairment, an example of the fast action of glucocorticoids on the brain is abolished in the Cbg k.o. mice. This effect of stress on memory retrieval could be restored in the Cbg k.o. mice by infusing corticosterone directly in the hippocampus. The mechanisms explaining these effects involved an increased clearance but no difference in corticosterone production. Thus, CBG seems to have an important role in maintaining in blood a glucocorticoid pool that will be able to access the brain for the fast effects of glucocorticoids.

  18. A gene encoding a vicilin-like protein is specifically expressed in fern spores. Evolutionary pathway of seed storage globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutov, A D; Braun, H; Chesnokov, Y V; Bäumlein, H

    1998-02-15

    The isolation and characterisation of a cDNA coding for a vicilin-like protein of the fern Matteuccia struthiopteris is described. The corresponding gene is specifically expressed during late stages of spore development. Extensive sequence comparisons suggest that the fern protein can be considered as a molecular missing link between single-domain germin/spherulin-like proteins and two-domain seed storage globulins of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Further, evidence is provided for the existence of a superfamily of structurally related, functionally different proteins which includes storage globulins of the vicilin and legumin families, a membrane-associated sucrose-binding protein of soybean, a Forssman antigen-binding lectin of velvet bean, the precursor of the vacuolar membrane bound proteins MP27/MP32 of pumpkin, the embryogenesis-specific protein Gea8 of carrot, the fern-spore-specific protein described here as well as the functionally diverse family of germins/germin-like proteins and the spherulins of myxomycetes. We propose that seed storage globulins of spermatophytes evolved from desiccation-related single-domain proteins of prokaryotes via a duplicated two-domain ancestor that is best represented by the extant fern spore-specific vicilin-like protein.

  19. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Tong, M.J.; Toy, P.T.; Vyas, G.N.; Nair, P.V.; Weissman, J.Y.; Krugman, S.

    1987-05-15

    A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5-/sup +/g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state.

  20. [Serum gamma globulin concentration in goat kids after colostrum administration: effect of time of administration, volume and type of colostrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsel, K; van Amerongen, J J; Zadoks, R N; van Doorn, D C; Wensing, T

    2000-12-01

    In this study, which was performed on a Dutch dairy goat farm, several aspects of the administration of colostrum to new-born goat kids were examined. Time of colostrum administration and amount and type of colostrum administered were compared. Effectiveness was measured as total serum protein content and gamma globulin fraction. No significant differences in serum gamma globulin titre were observed between kids that received colostrum at 30 or 60-90 minutes post partum, respectively. Titres were significantly lower in kids that received 100 ml of colostrum instead of 150-200 ml. The effect of sheep colostrum replacer or cow colostrum was also examined. Gamma globulin titres were significantly high with goat colostrum than with cow colostrum or sheep colostrum replacer, and titres were higher with cow colostrum than with sheep colostrum replacer. Based on the results of this experiment, the following protocol is suggested for colostrum administration to goat kids: single administration of 150-200 ml of goat colostrum within 90 minutes of birth. Use of cow colostrum is not advised because it may lead to transmission of paratuberculosis. Use of sheep colostrum replacer as a source of passive immunity is not recommended.

  1. Effects of storage time on total protein and globulin concentrations in bovine fresh frozen plasma obtained for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, D; Spada, E; Baggiani, L; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G; Roggero, N; Belloli, A; Pravettoni, D; Perego, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of storage conditions on total protein (TP) and globulin fractions in fresh frozen bovine plasma units prepared and stored for transfusion, TP and globulin fractions were evaluated in fresh plasma and at 1 month and 6 and 12 months after blood collection in plasma stored at -20°C. Significant differences in concentrations were found in the median concentration of total protein (P=0.0336), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0108), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0023), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0027), in mean concentration (g/dL) of albumin (P=0.0394), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0131), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0035), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0038), and beta-2 fraction (P=0.0401), between 0 and 6 months (P=0.0401) and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0230). This study suggests that total gamma globulin concentration in bovine frozen plasma is stable for 12 months at -20°C. Total protein, ALB, and beta-2 fraction have significantly different concentrations (g/dL) when compared to prestorage. This study has shown IgG protein fraction stability in bovine fresh frozen plasma collected for transfusion; therefore, bovine fresh frozen plasma seems to be suitable for the treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves when stored for 12 months at -20°C.

  2. PROFIL PROTEIN TOTAL, ALBUMIN DAN GLOBULIN PADA AYAM BROILER YANG DIBERI KUNGIY, BAWANG PUTIH DAN ZINC (ZN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sus Derthi Widhyari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effectiveness of turmeric, garlic and zinc supplementation on protein, albumin and globulin concentration of broiler. One hundred DOC were divided into five treatments, four replications, consist of five chicks in each replicate. The treatments were R0 (basal diet as a control, R1 (R0 + 1,5% turmeric powder +2,5 % garlic powder, R2 (R0 + 2,5% garlic powder + 120 ppm zinc, R3 (R0 +1,5% turmeric powder + 120ppm zinc and R4 (R0 +1,5 turmeric powder + 2,5% garlic powder + 120 ppm zinc. The diet contain 23,5% crude protein and 3215 kcal metabolizable energy. Blood samples were taken from axillary veins at the three and six weeks of age. The results showed that total protein and globulin concentration at 6 weeks slightly higher than 3 weeks old chicks but not significantly different (P>0.05. Albumin concentration were highest on R3 treatment. Total protein and globulin concentration was highest on the R2 treatment. In conclusion, the supplementation of garlic (2.5% and ZnO (120 ppm showed the best combination to improve immune response in broiler

  3. Surface characterization of 7S and 11S globulin powders from soy protein examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Qingjun; Du, Fangling; Ao, Qiang; Liu, Jie

    2011-09-01

    In this study the surface composition of 7S and 11S globulin powders from soybean proteins by aqueous buffer and reverse micelle extractions had been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis by XPS revealed that the O and N atomic percentage of 7S and 11S globulin surfaces from bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelle was higher than from aqueous buffer, but the C atomic percentage was lower. The O/C ratio of the 7S globulin powder from aqueous buffer and reverse micelle was similar while significant differences were obtained in the O/C ratio of the 11S globulin powder, N/C atom ratios of the 7S and 11S globulin powders and high-resolution XPS C 1s, N 1s, O 1s spectra. Powder microstructure after reverse micelle treatment showed the presence of small pores, indicating the effect of reverse micelle on the 7S and 11S globulin structure. The obtained results indicated that the reverse micelle could affect the C, O and N components on the surface of soybean proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Choosing between GC FTIR and GC MS spectra for an efficient intelligent identification of illicit amphetamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosav, S.; Dinica, R.; Praisler, M.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we are presenting a comparative analysis between several expert systems built for the identification of illicit amphetamines based on their GC-FTIR and GC-MS spectra. The systems were built using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and are dedicated to the recognition of amphetamines. Structure-activity relationships are incorporated into the knowledge base, allowing the systems to identify the amphetamines according to their toxicological activity (stimulant or hallucinogenic). The results show that GC-FTIR data are much more relevant for the efficiency of the expert systems, probably due to the fact that these spectra constitute a "fingerprint" of the molecular structures. We are also presenting a spectroscopic analysis in order to evaluate the relevance of each type of input variable (absorption and abundance) on which the recognition of an unknown sample is based.

  5. The phenomenon of vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata M. Gruber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The receptor of vitamin D (VDR is present in most non-skeletal human cells, suggesting its role beyond the bone and calcium metabolism. The relationship between vitamin D and the respiratory tract is a consequence of its activity in the immune system. Some gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, liver, pancreas or cardiac diseases, lead to vitamin D deficiency. Many studies indicate a correlation between vitamin D and diabetes. VDR and 1α-hydroxylase have been detected in the cutaneous capillary vessels, endothelium, vascular smooth muscles, myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. The influence of vitamin D on the expression of genes related to the vascular walls implies its role in the pathomechanisms of vascular diseases and the cardiovascular system. Due to the VDR detected in most immunocompetent cells, calcitriol can modulate the congenital and acquired immune system. The correlation between vitamin D and cancer development is also not surprising because of many functions which vitamin D has in the organism. The vitamin D-regulated genes encode the proteins which participate in differentiation, proliferation or apoptosis. This paper aims to focus on the less well known roles of vitamin D in the organism, especially considering that most “sun consumers” know only its antirachitic and bone reinforcing action. So, this article may be surprising, and first of all it should convince everyone to vitamin D supplemention.

  6. Vitamin D Levels After Kidney Transplantation and the Risk of Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Some studies reported an association between low levels of vitamin D and the risk of infections, especially viral infections. Kidney transplant patients are at risk of opportunistic infections; however, no study has been conducted on the association between vitamin D levels and the risk of CMV infection. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the level of vitamin D in two groups of patients with and without CMV infection within four months after the transplantation. Moreover, we aimed to find a relation between vitamin D level, before and after transplantation in each group. Patients and Methods; This prospective cohort study was conducted in Baqiyatallah hospital in Tehran in 2013. A total of 82 kidney transplant patients were enrolled and vitamin D levels were measured in them before transplantation. The kidney transplant patients had been followed up for four months and monitored for the presence of cytomegalovirus antigen (CMV Ag in their blood. In patients with positive CMV Ag, vitamin D level was measured again when they became positive but in other patients it was measured at the end of follow-up; at the end, characteristics of patients and vitamin D levels were compared between the two groups. Results Of all, 40 patients were CMV Ag positive and 42 patients were negative. In most patients transplanted organs were taken from cadaver (66% and the most common type of dialysis was hemodialysis (92%. Most participants did not undergo antithymocyte globulin therapy (69% and pulse corticosteroid therapy (83%. Vitamin D level before transplantation was 17.2 ± 11.6 ng/mL. In patients with positive results or at the end of follow-up in patients without CMV Ag, vitamin D level was 16.3 ± 11.4 ng/mL. Only 11% of kidney transplant patients, within four months after transplantation, had a normal level of vitamin D (> 30 ng/mL. There was no significant difference between the two groups for patients’ characteristics (P > 0

  7. Alleviating the environmental heat burden on laying hens by feeding on diets enriched with certain antioxidants (vitamin E and selenium) individually or combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Mahrose, Khalid; Arif, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Saadeldin, Islam M; Saeed, Muhammad; Soomro, Rab Nawaz; Abbasi, Imtiaz Hussain Raja; Rehman, Zaib Ur

    2017-04-01

    The present study was designed to alleviate the negative biohazards of high ambient temperature on the productive performance and physiological status of laying hens. A total of 135 Bovans laying hens were distributed into nine groups in a 3 × 3 factorial design experiment. Basal diet was supplemented with vitamin E at levels of 0, 250, and 500 mg /kg diet. Within each dietary vitamin E level, each diet was supplemented with sodium selenite as a source of selenium (Se) to supply 0, 0.25, and 0.50 mg Se/kg diet. Results showed that supplementing layer's diet with 500 mg vitamin E/kg was accompanied with the lowest feed consumption (FC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The interaction among vitamin E and Se levels exerted significant effects only on FC and FCR. Insignificant differences were observed in egg quality criteria due to the treatments studied. Increasing vitamin E level was associated with a gradual decrease in basophil count and an increase in monocytes. A gradual decrease in the count of each of heterophils, monocytes, and eosinophils was observed with the elevation in the dietary Se level. The combination among vitamin E and Se levels produced a significant effect on all hematological parameters studied. As vitamin E increased, a marked decrease in serum AST and a gradual increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, and calcium were observed. As the level of dietary Se increased, serum total protein, albumin, T4, total cholesterol, and total lipids increased. No significant impacts were detected for the interaction among vitamin E and Se levels on any of blood constituents determined except serum globulin, ALT, and calcium. In conclusion, the combination between vitamin E and Se showed a good ability to alleviate the harmful impacts of heat stress and produced the highest productive performance when compared with the other groups, which exhibit the synergistic effect between the two antioxidants.

  8. Expression of achaete-scute homologue 2 and its correlation with serum globulin in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Jieru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between peripheral CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+T cells and serum globulin in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients and health volunteers, and to clarify the role of the expression of achaete-scute homologue 2 (Ascl2, the transcription factor in peripheral follicular helper T (Tfh cells, in the process of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. MethodsA total of 46 previously untreated CHC patients who were admitted to Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, from October 2015 to May 2016 were enrolled, and 32 healthy laboratory technicians and persons who underwent physical examination in our hospital were enrolled as healthy control group. Flow cytometry was used to measure the percentage of Tfh cells in CD4+ T cells and the change in its subset (CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+ T cells in peripheral blood, an automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the serum globulin level, and real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of Ascl2 in Tfh cells. The association between the changes in these parameters and HCV infection was analyzed. The independent samples t-test was used for the comparison of continuous data between groups, and the Pearson correlation analysis was also performed. ResultsIn CHC patients, peripheral Tfh cells were positively correlated with B lymphocytes (r=0.582 3, P=0.011 2, peripheral B lymphocytes were positively correlated with globulin (r=0.450 9, P=0.031 6, and Tfh cells were positively correlated with globulin (r=0.583 5, P=0.038 3. CHC patients had significantly higher mRNA expression of Ascl2 in peripheral Tfh cells than the healthy control group (1.019±0.666 vs 6.437±5.776, t=4.552, P=0.001 9. ConclusionTfh cells may be involved in the production of serum globulin in CHC patients, and the transcription factor Ascl2 may participate in the differentiation and development of Tfh cells in the process of HCV infection.

  9. Analysis of intra-genomic GC content homogeneity within prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohlin Jon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial genomes possess varying GC content (total guanines (Gs and cytosines (Cs per total of the four bases within the genome but within a given genome, GC content can vary locally along the chromosome, with some regions significantly more or less GC rich than on average. We have examined how the GC content varies within microbial genomes to assess whether this property can be associated with certain biological functions related to the organism's environment and phylogeny. We utilize a new quantity GCVAR, the intra-genomic GC content variability with respect to the average GC content of the total genome. A low GCVAR indicates intra-genomic GC homogeneity and high GCVAR heterogeneity. Results The regression analyses indicated that GCVAR was significantly associated with domain (i.e. archaea or bacteria, phylum, and oxygen requirement. GCVAR was significantly higher among anaerobes than both aerobic and facultative microbes. Although an association has previously been found between mean genomic GC content and oxygen requirement, our analysis suggests that no such association exits when phylogenetic bias is accounted for. A significant association between GCVAR and mean GC content was also found but appears to be non-linear and varies greatly among phyla. Conclusions Our findings show that GCVAR is linked with oxygen requirement, while mean genomic GC content is not. We therefore suggest that GCVAR should be used as a complement to mean GC content.

  10. Association of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels with semen and hormonal parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad O Hammoud; A Wayne Meikle; C Matthew Peterson; Joseph Stanford; Mark Gibson; Douglas T Carrell

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D levels have been linked to various health outcomes including reproductive disorders.The purpose of this study was to explore the association between serum vitamin D level (25-hydroxy-vitamin D,or 250HD) and semen and hormonal parameters.This is a cross-sectional study that included 170 healthy men recruited for the study of spermatogenesis from the general population.Men completed general and reproductive health questionnaires,and donated blood and semen samples.The main measures were hormonal (total and free testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin,estradiol,follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and semen parameters,adjusted (n=147) for age,body mass index (BMI),season,alcohol intake and smoking,in relation to categories of vitamin D levels,determined a priori.The mean age of the study population was 29.0±8.5 years and mean BMI was 24.3±3.2 kg m-2.The mean 25OHD was 34.1± 15.06 ng m1-1.BMI showed a negative association with 25OHD.Sperm concentration,sperm progressive motility,sperm morphology,and total progressively motile sperm count were lower in men with ‘25OHD ≥ 50 ng ml-1,when compared to men with ‘20 ng ml-1 ≤ 25OHD<50 ng ml-1,.Total sperm count and total progressive motile sperm count were lower in men with ‘25OHD<20 ng ml-1’ when compared to men with ‘20 ng ml-1 ≤25OHD<50 ng ml-1’.The adjusted means of various hormonal parameters did not show statistical difference in the different categories of 250HD.In conclusion,serum vitamin D levels at high and low levels can be negatively associated with semen parameters.

  11. Analysis of Turkish lignite tar by coupled LC/GC, GC/MS, and capillary SFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, I.L.; Raynor, M.W.; Urwin, D.J.; Bartle, K.D.; Tolay, M.; Ekinci, E.; Schwartz, H.E.

    1988-11-01

    This work describes the analysis of a pyrolysis product of a lignite sample obtained from the Turkish Goynuk reserve. The aliphatic, aromatic and polar compounds present in the tar are separated and identified by various chromatographic techniques: capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), on-line high performance microbore liquid chromatography/capillary gas chromatography (LC/GC) and capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The suitability of each technique for this particular application is discussed, and semi-quantitative results are presented for the major components detected. 35 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  13. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  14. Vitamin D metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluca, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    During the past decade, an explosion of information has become available on the metabolism and function of vitamin D which is of great importance to clinicians in the treatment of metabolic bone disease. We have learned that vitamin D is the precursor of at least one hormone and that this hormone carries out functions in calcium and phosphorus metabolism bringing about mineralization of bone on one hand, and the prevention of hypocalcaemic tetany on the other. It may also function in the prevention of such degenerative bone diseases as osteoporosis. An important analogue of this hormone, 1..cap alpha..-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ has been prepared and is used successfully in the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions. This presentation will summarize these findings and their possible implications in these metabolic bone diseases.

  15. Cardiovascular Diseases and Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin D and Vitamin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the associations between insufficiency of fat soluble vitamins and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been reported. Vitamin D affects the cardiovascular system via several pathways, such as suppression of parathyroid hormone, the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular endothelial growth and the immune system. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown the association between the concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), which is a vitamin D metabolite indicating nutritional vitamin D status, and hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure and CVD mortality. On the other hand, the association between vitamin K status and CVDs, especially vascular calcification, has been also reported. Cross-sectional and cohort studies show that high vitamin K status is associated with reduced coronary artery calcification, CVDs and mortality risk. Epidemiological and basic studies indicate that vitamin K possesses a benefit in the prevention of the progression of coronary artery calcification via activation of matrix-gla protein (MGP). While these data in epidemiological and basic studies suggest the protective role of vitamin D and K in CVDs, the benefits of supplementation of both vitamins have not been validated in randomized controlled trials. Further basic and interventional studies are needed to confirm the benefit of both vitamins in protection against CVDs.

  16. What Vitamins Do You Need?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    维生素对我们的生长、发育和身体健康有着极其重要的作用。人体怎样获取必需的维生素,你知道吗? Do your parents give you vitamin supplements(补充物)? If not - or if you just don't like taking pills - you can make sure you're getting enough vitamins by eating the right foods. Vitamins are important substances found in many different types of foods. There are many different vitamins, and they each play special roles in keeping your body healthy. There are two main types of vitamins. Fat - soluble (脂溶性的 )vitamins get stored in vour body fat and liver.

  17. [Osteoporosis and intake of vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Takako; Hirota, Kenji

    2005-05-01

    Subclinical vitamins deficiency is common in the elderly, especially in osteoporotic patients. However, most physicians in this area are just focused on drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis. It is already established that several vitamins influence bone turnover, bone mineral density, or even the risk of hip fractures. Improving these vitamins status may help to treat and prevent osteoporosis in elderly people. Recently higher vitamin D intake is recognized to be needed to keep not only bone health but also muscle strength. More sun exposure might be needed for improved bone health in the elderly. Deficiency of Vitamin K, C, or B(12) may be also important modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis and bone fracture. Excessive retinal supplementation may become associated with higher bone loss. Thus such diet rich in fruit and vegetables together with fish and meat could fulfill a balance among these vitamins and should be recommended for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.

  18. Vitamin D and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Amrein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes a more tolerogenic immunological status. In vivo data from animals and from human vitamin D supplementation studies have shown beneficial effects of vitamin D on immune function, in particular in the context of autoimmunity. In this review, currently available data are summarized to give an overview of the effects of vitamin D on the immune system in general and on the regulation of inflammatory responses, as well as regulatory mechanisms connected to autoimmune diseases particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSAY FOR VITAMIN B

    OpenAIRE

    Bishnoi Kapil*, , ,; Kataria Mahesh; Singhal Vipin; Gupta Deepika

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrients added to foods are analyzed using various procedures depending on their nature and properties. The microbiological assays are better than chemical method because any suitable change in vitamin molecule which may not be detected by chemical method will be revealed by change in microbial activity. The microbiological assay of vitamins is based upon the comparison of the stimulation of growth of bacteria by measured concentration of vitamin with that produced by known concentratio...

  1. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Cristina Garcia; Lígia Araújo Martini

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been observed worldwide at all stages of life. It has been characterized as a public health problem, since low concentrations of this vitamin have been linked to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Several studies have suggested that vitamin D is involved in cardiovascular diseases and have provided evidence that it has a role in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. It may be involved in regulation of gene expression through the presence of vi...

  2. Vitamin E and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Adonis; Arora, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the role of vitamin E in cardiovascular disease. We begin by describing the general characteristics and metabolism of vitamin E and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis as it relates to oxidation. We also discuss key in vitro studies, animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials regarding the potentially cardioprotective effect of vitamin E. Lastly, we outline the current recommendations regarding vitamin E in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease as stated by the American Heart Association. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin and alpha-tocopherol is its most naturally abundant and active form. Oxidation is a key step in atherogenesis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein stimulates endothelial cells to produce inflammatory markers, is involved in foam cell formation, has cytotoxic effects on endothelial cells, inhibits the motility of tissue macrophages, and inhibits nitric oxide-induced vasodilatation. Vitamin E has been shown to increase oxidative resistance in vitro and prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation in mouse models. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin E has been associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease in middle-aged to older men and women. Clinical studies at large have not demonstrated a benefit of vitamin E in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin E supplementation might be associated with an increase in total mortality, heart failure, and hemorrhagic stroke. The American Heart Association does not support the use of vitamin E supplements to prevent cardiovascular disease, but does recommend the consumption of foods abundant in antioxidant vitamins and other nutrients.

  3. Globulin-platelet model predicts minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Dong Liu; Jian-Lin Wu; Jian Liang; Tao Zhang,; Qing-Shou Sheng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To establish a simple model consisting of the routine laboratory variables to predict both minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients.METHODS:We retrospectively investigated 114 chronic HBV-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy in two different hospitals.Thirteen parameters were analyzed by step-wise regression analysis and correlation analysis.A new fibrosis index [globulin/platelet (GP) model] was developed,including globulin (GLOB) and platelet count (PLT).GP model =GLOB (g/mL) x 100/PLT (x 109/L).We evaluated the receiver operating characteristics analysis used to predict minimal fibrosis and compared six other available models.RESULTS:Thirteen clinical biochemical and hematological variables [sex,age,PLT,alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase (AST),albumin,GLOB,total bilirubin (T.bil),direct bilirubin (D.bil),glutamyl transferase,alkaline phosphatase,HBV DNA and prothrombin time (PT)] were analyzed according to three stages of liver fibrosis (F0-F1,F2-F3 and F4).Bivariate Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed that six variables,including age,PLT,T.bil,D.bil,GLOB and PT,were correlated with the three fibrosis stages (FS).Correlation coefficients were 0.23,-0.412,0.208,0.220,0.314 and 0.212; and P value was 0.014,< 0.001,0.026,0.018,0.001 and 0.024,respectively.Univariate analysis revealed that only PLT and GLOB were significantly different in the three FS (PLT:F =11.772,P <0.001; GLOB:F =6.612,P =0.002).Step-wise multiple regression analysis showed that PLT and GLOB were also independently correlated with FS (R2 =0.237).By Spearman's rank correlation analysis,GP model was significantly correlated with the three FS (r =0.466,P < 0.001).The median values in F0-F1,F2-F3 and F4 were 1.461,1.720 and 2.634.Compared with the six available models (fibrosis index,AST-platelet ratio,FIB-4,fibrosis-cirrhosis index and age-AST model and age-PLT ratio),GP model showed a highest correlation

  4. What the world's religions teach, applied to vaccines and immune globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenstein, John D

    2013-04-12

    For millennia, humans have sought and found purpose, solace, values, understanding, and fellowship in religious practices. Buddhist nuns performed variolation against smallpox over 1000 years ago. Since Jenner developed vaccination against smallpox in 1796, some people have objected to and declined vaccination, citing various religious reasons. This paper reviews the scriptural, canonical basis for such interpretations, as well as passages that support immunization. Populous faith traditions are considered, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Subjects of concern such as blood components, pharmaceutical excipients of porcine or bovine origin, rubella strain RA 27/3, and cell-culture media with remote fetal origins are evaluated against the religious concerns identified. The review identified more than 60 reports or evaluations of vaccine-preventable infectious-disease outbreaks that occurred within religious communities or that spread from them to broader communities. In multiple cases, ostensibly religious reasons to decline immunization actually reflected concerns about vaccine safety or personal beliefs among a social network of people organized around a faith community, rather than theologically based objections per se. Themes favoring vaccine acceptance included transformation of vaccine excipients from their starting material, extensive dilution of components of concern, the medicinal purpose of immunization (in contrast to diet), and lack of alternatives. Other important features included imperatives to preserve health and duty to community (e.g., parent to child, among neighbors). Concern that 'the body is a temple not to be defiled' is contrasted with other teaching and quality-control requirements in manufacturing vaccines and immune globulins. Health professionals who counsel hesitant patients or parents can ask about the basis for concern and how the individual applies religious understanding to decision-making about

  5. Cortisol levels, binding, and properties of corticosteroid-binding globulin in the serum of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, L L; Murai, J T; Siiteri, P K

    1986-01-01

    New World primates have exceptionally high plasma levels of cortisol and other steroid hormones when compared with humans and other primates. It has been suggested that this difference can be explained by either low affinity or concentration of cellular steroid receptors. We have assessed cortisol availability in serum from several species of New and Old World primates under physiological conditions (whole serum at 37 degrees C). Measurements were made of total and free cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binding capacity and affinity for cortisol, distribution of cortisol in serum, and its binding to albumin. In agreement with earlier reports, plasma free cortisol levels in Old World primates, prosimians, and humans range from 10-300 nM. However, very high total plasma cortisol together with low CBG binding capacity and affinity result in free cortisol concentrations of 1-4 microM in some New World primates (squirrel monkey and marmosets) but not in others such as the titi and capuchin. In squirrel monkeys, free cortisol levels are far greater than might be predicted from the affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor estimated in cultured skin fibroblasts. In addition to low affinity, CBG from squirrel monkeys and other New World primates exhibits differences in electrophoretic mobility and sedimentation behavior in sucrose density ultracentrifugation, suggestive of a molecular weight that is approximately twice that of CBG from other species. Together with other data these results indicate that the apparent glucocorticoid resistance found in New World primates is a complex phenomenon that is not easily explained by present concepts of glucocorticoid action.

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEX HORMONES, SEX HORMONE BINDING GLOBULIN AND PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE IN OLDER PERSONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, M; Cattabiani, C; Lauretani, F; Artoni, A; Bandinelli, S; Schiavi, G; Vignali, A; Volpi, R; Ceresini, G; Lippi, G; Aloe, R; De Vita, F; Giallauria, F; McDermott, MM; Ferrucci, L; Ceda, GP

    2014-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) increases with aging and is higher in persons with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. PAD is associated with adverse outcomes, including frailty and disability. The protective effect of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) for diabetes in men suggests that the biological activity of sex hormones may affect PAD, especially in older populations. Methods Nine hundred and twenty-one elderly subjects with data on SHBG, testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) were selected from InCHIANTI study. PAD was defined as an Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) <0.90. Logistic regression models adjusted for age (Model 1), age, BMI, insulin, interleukin-6, physical activity, smoking, chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome (Model 2), and a final model including also sex hormones (Model 3) were performed to test the relationship between SHBG, sex hormones and PAD. Results The mean age (± SD) of the 419 men and 502 women was 75.0 ± 6.8 years (Sixty two participants (41 men, 21 women) had ABI<0.90. Men with PAD had SHBG levels lower than men without PAD (p=0.03). SHBG was negatively and independently associated with PAD in men (p=0.028). but not in women. The relationship was however attenuated after adjusting for sex hormones (p=0.07). The E2 was not significantly associated with PAD in both men and women. In women, but not in men, T was positively associated with PAD, even after adjusting for multiple confounders, including E2 (p=0.01). Conclusions Low SHBG and high T levels are significantly and independently associated with the presence of PAD in older men and women, respectively. PMID:23102785

  7. A systematic review of intravenous gamma globulin for therapy of acute myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crumley Ellen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous gamma globulin (IVGG is commonly used in the management of acute myocarditis. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature evaluating this practice. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search (electronic databases, trials registries, conference proceedings, reference lists, contact with authors to identify studies evaluating the use of IVGG in adults and children with a clinical or histologically proven diagnosis of myocarditis of possible viral etiology and symptoms of less than six months duration. Two reviewers independently screened the searches, applied inclusion criteria, and graded the evidence. Results Results were described qualitatively; data were not pooled because only one randomized controlled trial (RCT with 62 patients was identified. The RCT showed no benefit with respect to cardiac function, functional outcome, or event-free survival. A small, uncontrolled trial (n = 10 showed significant improvement in LVEF from a mean of 24% to 41% 12 months after IVGG in nine survivors. A retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients showed improvement in cardiac function and a trend towards improved survival in patients receiving IVGG (n = 21 versus historic controls (n = 25. Ten case reports and two case series (total n = 21 described improvement in cardiac function after administration of IVGG; two case reports showed no benefit of IVGG. One case of hemolytic anemia was attributed to IVGG. Conclusion There is insufficient data from methodologically strong studies to recommend routine use of IVGG for acute myocarditis. Future randomized studies that take into account the etiology of acute myocarditis will be required to determine the efficacy of IVGG.

  8. Intravenous immune globulin in hereditary inclusion body myopathy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorward Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM is an autosomal recessive, adult onset, non-inflammatory neuromuscular disorder with no effective treatment. The causative gene, GNE, codes for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase, which catalyzes the first two reactions in the synthesis of sialic acid. Reduced sialylation of muscle glycoproteins, such as α-dystroglycan and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, has been reported in HIBM. Methods We treated 4 HIBM patients with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG, in order to provide sialic acid, because IgG contains 8 μmol of sialic acid/g. IVIG was infused as a loading dose of 1 g/kg on two consecutive days followed by 3 doses of 400 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Results For all four patients, mean quadriceps strength improved from 19.0 kg at baseline to 23.2 kg (+22% directly after IVIG loading to 25.6 kg (+35% at the end of the study. Mean shoulder strength improved from 4.1 kg at baseline to 5.9 kg (+44% directly after IVIG loading to 6.0 kg (+46% at the end of the study. The composite improvement for 8 other muscle groups was 5% after the initial loading and 19% by the end of the study. Esophageal motility and lingual strength improved in the patients with abnormal barium swallows. Objective measures of functional improvement gave variable results, but the patients experienced improvements in daily activities that they considered clinically significant. Immunohistochemical staining and immunoblotting of muscle biopsies for α-dystroglycan and NCAM did not provide consistent evidence for increased sialylation after IVIG treatment. Side effects were limited to transient headaches and vomiting. Conclusion The mild benefits in muscle strength experienced by HIBM patients after IVIG treatment may be related to the provision of sialic acid supplied by IVIG. Other sources of sialic acid are being explored as treatment options for HIBM.

  9. A successful desensitization protocol for horse-derived antithymocyte globulin in severe aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Esen; Cigerci Günaydın, Nurşen; Karadaş, Nihal; Gülen, Figen; Tanac, Remziye; Yılmaz, Deniz

    2015-03-01

    Horse antithymocyte globulin (h-ATG) (ATGAM(®) ) is the first choice of treatment in very severe patients with aplastic anemia who do not have any HLA matched sibling donor. h-ATG is a heterologous serum that may cause anaphylaxis. Alternative treatment strategies must be planned in case of hypersensitivity. Desensitization must be considered in patients without an alternative treatment of choice. We aimed to present the h-ATG desensitization protocol and consider its effectiveness in patients with aplastic anemia who are hypersensitized with h-ATG and do not have an alternative treatment of choice. Skin prick tests were performed with non-diluted solution in eight very severe patients with aplastic anemia who are followed up in Ege University Children's Hospital. Although skin prick test was found negative in these eight patients, different dilution h-ATG intradermal tests were performed and found positive in all patients. h-ATG desensitization program was started to these hypersensitized patients. Desensitization program was started to six male and two female very severe patients with aplastic anemia whose ages were between seven and 19 yr (median: 12.9 yr). All of the patients completed the desensitization program. While local reaction was seen in two patients, systemic reaction was seen in one patient and late reaction was seen in one patient during and after desensitization program. A successful desensitization program with h-ATG in children with aplastic anemia is presented. Even though there is not an exposure before to such high allergy potential heterologous serum, skin tests should be performed and desensitization must be started to patients who are hypersensitized to h-ATG. As the expected effectiveness of the treatment is so much, the desensitization protocol can be carried out safely and effectively with trained stuff although allergic reactions can be seen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Serum corticosteroid-binding globulin concentration and insulin resistance syndrome: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Real, José-Manuel; Pugeat, Michel; Grasa, Mar; Broch, Montserrat; Vendrell, Joan; Brun, Jocelyne; Ricart, Wifredo

    2002-10-01

    It has been suggested that a low grade inflammatory state could predispose for developing insulin resistance and contribute to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), the main plasma protein transport for cortisol, has been shown to be negatively regulated by insulin and IL-6, at least in vitro, suggesting that insulin resistance and inflammation may both contribute to decreasing CBG levels. In the present study we measured CBG concentrations in a human healthy population and investigated the relationships of CBG with anthropometric and biochemical markers for inflammation and/or insulin resistance. The data showed that the mean serum CBG level was significantly lower in males (n = 151) than in females (n = 113; 32.5 +/- 9.1 vs. 39.2 +/- 13.9 mg/liter; P fasting cortisol/CBG) was significantly associated with WHR (r = 0.24; P = 0.001), systolic (r = 0.18; P = 0.01) and diastolic (r = 0.19; P = 0.007) blood pressures, and HOMA value (r = 0.20; P = 0.005), but not with BMI or age. BMI (P < 0.0001), free cortisol (P = 0.003), and CBG (P = 0.009), but not WHR and age, contributed to 20%, 6%, and 8%, respectively, of HOMA variance in women in a multiple regression analysis. In this model only BMI (P < 0.0001) independently contributed to HOMA variance in men. These findings support the hypothesis that the CBG level is an interesting indicator for both insulin resistance and low grade inflammation. Whether the decrease in CBG levels is genetic by nature or directly associated to increased insulin and/or IL-6 merits further investigation. Nevertheless, because CBG has been shown to be expressed by the adipose tissue, decreased CBG could create locally increased cortisol disposal, with no change in circulating cortisol, and facilitate fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.

  11. Lack of association between Rh status, Rh immune globulin in pregnancy and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Judith H; Takahashi, T Nicole

    2007-07-01

    Though causes of autism are considered largely genetic, considerable concern remains that exposure to Rh immune globulin (RhIg), which until 2001 in the United States contained the preservative thimerosal, can cause autism. To determine whether mothers of children with autism are more likely to be Rh negative (Rh(-)) or to have received RhIg preserved with thimerosal, which is 49.6% ethyl mercury, we surveyed families of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained through a University-based autism clinic considered free of ascertainment biases related to type of autism or severity. Between 2004 and 2006, 305 mothers of 321 children with an ASD agreed to participate in a telephone interview. Analysis of complete records including the blood group status and RhIg exposure of 214 families showed that Rh(-) status is no higher in mothers of children with autism than in the general population, exposure to antepartum RhIg, preserved with thimerosal is no higher for children with autism and pregnancies are no more likely to be Rh incompatible. This was also true for autism subgroups defined by behavioral phenotype, gender, IQ, regressive onset, head circumference, dysmorphology, birth status, essential, or complex phenotype. These findings support the consensus that exposure to ethylmercury in thimerosal is not the cause of the increased prevalence of autism. These data are important not only for parents in this country but also for the international health community where thimerosal continues to be used to preserve multi-dose vials which in turn makes vaccines affordable.

  12. Isoflavone supplementation reduced serum sex hormone-binding globulin concentration in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML. Edy Parwanto

    2015-12-01

    The bone loss that occurs with ageng in postmenopausal women is related to a decrease in serum levels of bioavailable estrogen and testosterone, which are mainly bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and albumin. Phytoestrogens are thought to exert hormonal effects in the body due to their structural resemblance to 17â-estradiol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of isoflavone supplementation on levels of SHBG in postmenopausal women aged 47- 60 years. Methods A study of pre and post test design with controls was conducted in 70 women aged 47- 60 years. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups, the isoflavone group received 100 mg isoflavones/day + calcium 500 mg/day and the control group calcium 500 mg/day for 6 months. Measurement of bone mineral density was performed prior to supplementation, and serum SHBG levels before and after supplementation. Results Supplementation of isoflavones for 6 months reduced the SHBG levels by 31.1% in the isoflavone group (p=0.000, whereas supplementation of calcium for 6 months did not affect the levels of SHBG in the control group (p=0.359. Supplementation of isoflavones for 6 months reduced SHBG levels of postmenopausal women in the isoflavone group with either osteopenia (p=0.028 or osteoporosis (p=0.008. Conclusion Supplementation of isoflavones for 6 months decreased the SHBG levels of postmenopausal women in the isoflavone group with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Our findings suggest that phytoestrogens may significantly decreased SHBG levels in postmenopausal women.

  13. Hormonal and nonhormonal factors affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, J H

    1988-01-01

    Researchers in Utrecht, the Netherlands have studied the effects of different factors, such as oral contraceptives (OCs), on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in blood. The SHBG levels in women who continuously used OCs consisting only of .05 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) rose as high as 260% + or - 25% of those in women not using OCs. Further, mean SHBG levels of women using combination OCs of EE2 and levonorgestrel were 10-60% higher than women not using OCs. SHBG levels were significantly higher than the use of a sequential OC containing decreasing amounts of EE2 and increasing amounts of levonorgestrel than those cause by use of a continuous combined OC with .03 mg and .15 mg respectively. As the dosage of EE2 increased in combination OCs with 2.5 mg lynestrenol, the SHBG increased from 20% (.05 mg EE2) to 150% (.75 mg EE2). SHBG levels after taking EE2 and cyproterone acetate increased significantly more (240%) than levels after EE2 and desogestrel (170%), or after EE2 and gestoden (140%) [p.001]. SHBG levels of women who took OCs containing only .03 mg of levonorgestrel daily decreased 35% (p.01). These levels fell by 30% in women who received 150 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscularly every 3 months (p.001). SHBG concentrations increased when estrogens were taken orally for noncontraceptive purposes, but they did not change when they were administered percutaneously. As body weight increased the SHBG levels decreased despite hormonal status or sex. Further, the lower the fat content of one's diet the higher the SHBG levels and vice versa. SHBG levels are higher in males with flaccid lungs than they are in males with healthy lungs.

  14. Rh(O)D immune globulin products for prevention of alloimmunization during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Samuel L; Tichy, Eric M

    2015-02-15

    The pharmacologic properties of Rhesus (Rh) immune globulin (RhIG) and clinical data on its effectiveness in preventing Rh-antigen alloimmunization in pregnant women are reviewed. RhIG is a human plasma derivative that targets red blood cells (RBCs) positive for Rh(O) antigen (also called D antigen). In the United States and other countries, the widespread use of RhIG has markedly reduced the occurrence of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), a devastating condition caused by D-antigen sensitization of a pregnant woman via exposure to fetal RBCs (usually during detachment of the placenta in labor) that results in a maternal immune response leading to severe hemolysis in the fetus. Routine administration of RhIG at 26-30 weeks' gestation and again within 72 hours of delivery has been shown to be highly effective in preventing maternal Rh alloimmunization, with very low rates of D-antigen sensitization (in the range of 0-2.2%) reported in multiple studies of at-risk women. The four RhIG products currently available in the United States have common clinical indications but differ in certain attributes. Pharmacists can play an important role in guiding other clinicians on the rationale for the use of RhIG, important differences between products, and appropriate timing of RhIG therapy. Routine administration of RhIG to women at risk for Rh alloimmunization is clinically effective and has made HDFN a rare clinical event. The available RhIG products are not the same and should be carefully reviewed to ensure that they are administered safely. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Low-dose rabbit anti-thymoglobin globulin versus basiliximab for induction therapy in kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu V Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a single-center prospective double-arm open-labeled study on kidney transplant patients from 2010 to 2011 to evaluate the efficacy of induction therapy using low, single-dose rabbit-antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG, 1.5 mg/kg on Day 0 (n = 80, 60 males, mean age 35.9 years, versus basiliximab (Interleukin-2 blocker 20 mg on Days 0 and 4 (n = 20, 12 males, mean age 45.1 years on renal allograft function in terms of serum creatinine (SCr, rejec-tion and infection episodes and patient/graft survival and cost. Demographic and post-transplant follow-up including immunosuppression was similar in both groups. In the r-ATG group, donors were unrelated (spouse, n = 25, deceased (n = 31 and parents/siblings (others, with a mean HLA match of 1.58. Donors in the basiliximab group were living unrelated (spouse, n = 15 and deceased (n = 5, with a mean HLA match of 1.56. No patient/graft was lost in the r-ATG group over a mean of one year follow-up, and the mean SCr was 1.28 mg/dL with 7.5% acute rejection (AR episodes; infections were also not observed. In the basiliximab group, over the same period of follow-up, there was 95% death-censored graft survival, and the mean SCr was 1.23 mg/dL with 10% AR episodes. One patient died due to bacterial pneumonia and one succumbed to coronary artery disease; one graft was lost due to uncontrolled acute humoral and cellular rejection. The cost of r-ATG and basiliximab were $600 and $2500, respectively. We conclude that induction immunosuppressive therapy with a low-dose r-ATG may be a better option as compared with basiliximab in terms of graft function, survival and cost benefit in kidney transplant patients.

  16. Association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and metabolic syndrome among men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuela Quental Callou de Sá

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome consists of a set of factors that imply increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The objective here was to evaluate the association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, sex hormones and metabolic syndrome among men. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis on data from the study "Endogenous oestradiol but not testosterone is related to coronary artery disease in men", conducted in a hospital in São Paulo. METHODS: Men (aged 40-70 who underwent coronary angiography were selected. The age, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index and prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes of each patient were registered. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP-ATPIII. Serum samples were collected to assess the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, albumin, SHBG, estradiol and total testosterone (TT. The levels of LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein were calculated using Friedewald's formula and free testosterone (FT and bioavailable testosterone (BT using Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: 141 patients were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first SHBG tercile than in the second and third terciles. A statistically significant positive association between the SHBG and TT values was observed, but no such association was seen between SHBG, BT and FT. CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of SHBG are associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male patients, but further studies are required to confirm this association.

  17. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  18. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  19. VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Keywords: Vitamin A deficiency, Nigeria, Children. INTRODUCTION. Vitamin A ... related illness when the diet is supplemented with. Vitamin A. This .... rates of 49.6% and 48.6% respectively. The prevalence .... Bangladesh. J. Trop. Paediatr.

  20. Electrochemical impedance studies of methanol oxidation on GC/Ni and GC/NiCu electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danaee, I.; Jafarian, M.; Forouzandeh, F.; Mahjani, M.G. [Department of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran); Gobal, F. [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    The electro-oxidation of methanol on nickel and nickel-copper alloy modified glassy carbon electrodes (GC/Ni and GC/NiCu) in a 1 M NaOH solution at different concentrations of methanol was studied by the method of ac-impedance spectroscopy. Two semicircles in the first quadrant of a Nyquist diagram were observed for electro-oxidation of methanol on GC/Ni corresponding to charge transfer resistance and adsorption of intermediates. Electro-oxidation of methanol on GC/NiCu shows negative resistance in impedance plots as signified by semi-circles terminating in the second quadrant. The impedance behavior shows different patterns at different applied anodic potential. The influence of the electrode potential on impedance pattern is studied and a mathematical model was put forward to quantitatively account for the impedance behavior of methanol oxidation. At potentials higher than 0.49 V vs. Ag/AgCl, a pseudoinductive behavior is observed but at higher than 0.58 V, impedance patterns terminate in the second quadrant. The conditions required for this behavior are delineated with the use of the impedance model. (author)

  1. Vitamin D and colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidija; Klampfer

    2014-01-01

    Calcitriol, 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25(OH)2D3), the most active form of vitamin D, is a pleotropic hormone with a wide range of biological activities. Due to its ability to regulate calcium and phosphate metabolism, 1,25D3 plays a major role in bone health. In addition, 1,25D3 binds to the vitamin D receptor and thereby regulates the expression of a number of genes which control growth, differentiation and survival of cancer cells. In agreement, the levels of vitamin D3 appear to be an essential determinant for the development and progression of colon cancer and supplementation with vitamin D3 is effective in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis in animal models. Vitamin D3 has been estimated to lower the incidence of colorectal cancer by 50%, which is consistent with the inverse correlation between dietary vitamin D3 intake or sunlight exposure and human colorectal cancer. Several studies confirmed that increasing vitamin D3 lowers colon cancer incidence, reduces polyp recurrence, and that sufficient levels of vitamin D3 are associated with better overall survival of colon cancer patients. Vitamin D regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium by modulating the oncogenic Wnt signaling pathway and by inhibiting tumor-promoting inflammation. Both activities contribute to the ability of 1,25D3 to prevent the development and progression of colon cancer.

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Schneeman, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Office of Nutritional Products, and highlights reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements along with ... Professionals Science & Research Industry ...

  3. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  4. Vitamin D and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Mona; Kerr, Philip E; Slade, Karren; Grant-Kels, Jane E

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble nutrient that humans obtain through the diet and by synthesis in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet B. Vitamin D is then converted by the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D, its major circulating form. This form is the best indicator of vitamin D nutritional status and is easily measured. Under the influence of parathyroid hormone, the kidney then converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the biologically active, hormonal form of the nutrient that is important in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus and is critical in building and maintaining healthy bones. Many cell types outside of the skeletal system, including various cells in the skin, also express the vitamin D receptor. In addition, many cell types convert circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for local use. This metabolite has been shown to exert potent effects on cellular differentiation, cellular proliferation, and immune regulation. It is theorized that by these mechanisms vitamin D and its analogues are effective treatment options for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Insufficient vitamin D nutritional status has been associated with a host of other diseases, most notably cancer. There is evidence that supplementation with vitamin D reduces the overall incidence of cancer, although current evidence is insufficient to prove a causative effect. Sunscreen use blocks the ability of the skin to photosynthesize vitamin D, although the effect this has on the vitamin D status of the general population is unclear.

  5. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, P E; Powell, J T

    2014-01-17

    Vitamin D plays a classical hormonal role in skeletal health by regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites also have physiological functions in nonskeletal tissues, where local synthesis influences regulatory pathways via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, binds to the vitamin D receptor that regulates numerous genes involved in fundamental processes of potential relevance to cardiovascular disease, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, membrane transport, matrix homeostasis, and cell adhesion. Vitamin D receptors have been found in all the major cardiovascular cell types including cardiomyocytes, arterial wall cells, and immune cells. Experimental studies have established a role for vitamin D metabolites in pathways that are integral to cardiovascular function and disease, including inflammation, thrombosis, and the renin-angiotensin system. Clinical studies have generally demonstrated an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and various manifestations of degenerative cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of cardiovascular disease remains to be established. This review summarizes the clinical studies showing associations between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease and the experimental studies that explore the mechanistic basis for these associations.

  6. Allelic determinants of vitamin d insufficiency, bone mineral density, and bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummer, Olivia; Schwetz, Verena; Walter-Finell, Daniela; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Renner, Wilfried; Gugatschka, Markus; Dobnig, Harald; Pieber, Thomas R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2012-07-01

    Low 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH) vitamin D] status is known to play an important role in many diseases with focus on bone health. Based on recently reported genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency, we aimed to analyze genetic variants of group-specific component (GC), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), and cytochrome P450IIR-1 (CYP2R1) for association with vitamin D levels, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone fractures. We conducted a cross-sectional BMD and fracture study and a prospective cohort study. The cross-sectional study comprised participants of a BMD screening study, and the prospective cohort study comprised nursing home subjects. The cross-sectional study included 342 subjects (mean age, 55.3 ± 12.0 yr), and the prospective study included 1093 subjects (mean age, 84.0 ± 6.0 yr). Patients were stratified by GC, DHCR7, and CYP2R1 genotypes. For each gene, the allele associated with lower 25(OH) vitamin D levels was designated as "risk allele." The potential role of these risk alleles in fracture risk was analyzed by logistic regression analysis including age and sex as confounders. We measured BMD and fractures. GC genotypes were significantly associated with lower mean 25(OH) vitamin D levels in both cohorts (P = 0.001 and P = 0.048, respectively). There was no significant association of BMD with any of the genotypes. None of the alleles was associated with past fractures, whereas the DHCR7 G-allele was significantly associated with prospective fractures (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.92; P = 0.011). The DHCR7 gene polymorphism may be a predictor for fracture risk.

  7. DWPF GC FILTER ASSEMBLY SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.; Imrich, K.

    2009-11-11

    On March 18, 2009 a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) GC Line Filter Assembly was received at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This filter assembly was removed from operation following the completion of Sludge Batch 4 processing in the DWPF. Work on this sample was requested in a Technical Assistance Request. This document reports the pictures, observations, samples collected, and analytical results for the assembly. The assembly arrived at SRNL separated into its three component filters: high efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-1, HEPA-2, and a high efficiency mist evaporator (HEME). Each stage of the assembly's media was sampled and examined visually and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solids built up in the filter housing following the first stage HEME, were dissolved in dilute nitric acid and analyzed by ICP-AES and the undissolved white solids were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The vast majority of the material in each of the three stages of the DWPF GC Line Filter Assembly appears to be contaminated with a Hg compound that is {approx}59 wt% Hg on a total solids basis. The Hg species was identified by XRD analysis to contain a mixture of Hg{sub 4}(OH)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Hg{sub 10}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}. Only in the core sample of the second stage HEPA, did this material appear to be completely covering portions of the filter media, possibly explaining the pressure drops observed by DWPF. The fact that the material migrates through the HEME filter and both HEPA filters, and that it was seen collecting on the outlet side of the HEME filter, would seem to indicate that these filters are not efficient at removing this material. Further SRAT off-gas system modeling should help determine the extent of Hg breakthrough past the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT). The SRAT off-gas system has not been modeled since startup of the facility. Improvements to the efficiency of Hg stripping prior to the ammonia scrubber would seem

  8. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Arabi, Asma

    2011-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. Other vitamins appear to play a role in bone health as well. In this review, the findings of studies that related the intake and/or the status of vitamins other than vitamin D to bone health in animals and humans are summarized. Studies of vitamin A showed inconsistent results. Excessive, as well as insufficient, levels of retinol intake may be associated with compromised bone health. Deficiencies in vitamin B, along with the consequent elevated homocysteine level, are associated with bone loss, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fracture. Deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D. These findings highlight the importance of adequate nutrition in preserving bone mass and reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.

  9. Predicting Partitioning and Diffusion Properties of Nonpolar Chemicals in Biotic Media and Passive Sampler Phases by GC × GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Deedar; Arey, J Samuel

    2017-02-14

    The chemical parameters needed to explain and predict bioavailability, biodynamics, and baseline toxicity are not readily available for most nonpolar chemicals detected in the environment. Here, we demonstrate that comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) retention times can be used to predict 26 relevant properties for nonpolar chemicals, specifically: partition coefficients for diverse biotic media and passive sampler phases; aquatic baseline toxicity; and relevant diffusion coefficients. The considered biotic and passive sampler phases include membrane and storage lipids, serum and muscle proteins, carbohydrates, algae, mussels, polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene, polyoxymethylene, polyacrylate, polyurethane, and semipermeable membrane devices. GC × GC-based chemical property predictions are validated with a compilation of 1038 experimental property data collected from the literature. As an example application, we overlay a map of baseline toxicity to fathead minnows onto the separated analyte signal of a polychlorinated alkanes (chlorinated paraffins) technical mixture that contains 7820 congeners. In a second application, GC × GC-estimated properties are used to parametrize multiphase partitioning models for mammalian tissues and organs. In a third example, we estimate chemical depuration kinetics for mussels. Finally, we illustrate an approach to screen the GC × GC chromatogram for nonpolar chemicals of potentially high concern, defined based on their GC × GC-estimated biopartitioning properties, diffusion properties, and baseline toxicity.

  10. Quantitation using GC-TOF-MS: example of bromazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, B; Sturny-Jungo, R; Bernhard, W; Blanke, R; Hirsch, R

    2002-08-14

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) offers new perspectives for forensic toxicology. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of a mixture of three selected benzodiazepines (diazepam, nordazepam and bromazepam) were used to compare gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS, quadrupole GC-MS, GC-ECD) and liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) data. Method validation parameters like LOD, LOQ, S/N-ratios reflect the capabilities of GC-TOF-MS. Five-point calibrations for bromazepam in human peripheral blood (50, 100, 160, 200, 300 ng/ml) using medazepam as internal standard (1000 ng/ml) were performed. The calibrations using GC-TOF-MS (using the fragments of m/z 236 and 288), GC-ECD (dual system) and HPLC-DAD (at 235 nm) all showed correlation coefficients close or superior to 0.99. Quadrupole GC-MS data was not used in the comparison of extracted samples due to the low sensitivity in the full scan mode. Two analyses of real cases concerning bromazepam are presented. In the first case, the presence or absence of bromazepam could not be established with both HPLC-DAD and GC-ECD due to background signals. The extracted ion chromatograms and spectrum traces after the analysis with the GC-TOF-MS could clearly excluded the presence of bromazepam. The second case illustrates the quantitation of bromazepam, where both HPLC-DAD and GC-ECD were unable to give satisfactory results, again due to interfering background signals. The analyses performed on the GC-TOF-MS-system demonstrated high sensitivity and also high selectivity due to the high quality of mass spectra obtained. The advantages of GC-TOF-MS make it a promising analytical technique for forensic toxicology.

  11. Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulaningsih, W; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K; Kanarek, N; Nelson, W G; Ix, J H; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S

    2014-11-01

    Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988-1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis.

  12. Use of the Vettest 8008 and refractometry for determination of total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations in feline effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasouliotis, Kostas; Murphy, Kate; Dodkin, Steve; Torrance, Andy G

    2002-01-01

    Pleural and peritoneal effusion is a common clinical finding in feline practice. Determination of fluid albumin (ALB) and globulin (GLOB) concentrations in addition to total protein (TP) concentration can be helpful in diagnosing or ruling out certain diseases in cats, especially feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The objective of this study was to compare effusion TP, ALB, and GLOB results obtained by a refractometer and a bench-top dry chemistry analyzer with those results obtained by a reference method. Twenty-six pleural and 14 peritoneal effusion samples were analyzed from 40 cats with various diseases. TP and ALB concentrations were determined by a reference automated wet chemistry analyzer (Kone Specific, Kone Instruments, Espoo, Finland), a bench-top dry chemistry analyzer (Vettest 8008, IDEXX Laboratories Ltd, Chalfont St Peter, UK), and a refractometer (Atago SPR-T2, Atago Co, Tokyo, Japan). GLOB, albumin to globulin (A/G) ratio, and globulins as a percentage of total proteins (GLOB%) were calculated. Results were analyzed by paired t tests, difference plots, and Deming s regression analysis. Correlation coefficients (r) for TP with Vettest versus Kone and refractometer versus Kone methods were.97 and.94, respectively. GLOB and GLOB% values were significantly higher and A/G ratios were significantly lower with Vettest versus Kone methods. Correlation coefficients for ALB, GLOB, GLOB% and A/G ratio with Vettest versus Kone methods were.86,.93,.82, and.73, respectively. Although correlation with other methods was good, the refractometer underestimated TP concentrations in 3 samples. The refractometer is an acceptable method for determination of TP concentration in feline effusions. The Vettest 8008 also is an acceptable method for the determination of TP and ALB concentrations, however, calculated A/G ratios obtained with the Vettest are unacceptable.

  13. Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. Irish Hepatology Research Group.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny-Walsh, E

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: In February 1994, batches of anti-D immune globulin used in Ireland during 1977 and 1978 to prevent Rh isoimmunization were found to be contaminated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) from a single infected donor. In March 1994, a national screening program was initiated for all women who had received anti-D immune globulin between 1970 and 1994. Of the 62,667 women who had been screened when this study began, 704 (1.1 percent) had evidence of past or current HCV infection, and 390 of those 704 (55 percent) had positive tests for serum HCV RNA on reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction analysis. All 390 were offered a referral for clinical assessment and therapy. We evaluated 376 of these 390 women (96 percent); the other 14 were not seen at one of the designated treatment centers. RESULTS: The mean (+\\/-SD) age of the 376 women was 45+\\/-6 years at the time of screening. They had been infected with hepatitis C for about 17 years. A total of 304 women (81 percent) reported symptoms, most commonly fatigue (248 [66 percent]). Serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations were slightly elevated (40 to 99 U per liter) in 176 of 371 women (47 percent), and the concentrations were 100 U per liter or higher in 31 (8 percent). Liver biopsies showed inflammation in 356 of 363 women (98 percent); in most cases the inflammation was slight (41 percent) or moderate (52 percent). Although the biopsy samples from 186 of the 363 women (51 percent) showed evidence of fibrosis, only 7 women (2 percent) had probable or definite cirrhosis. Two of the seven reported excessive alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the women with HCV infection 17 years after receiving HCV-contaminated anti-D immune globulin had evidence of slight or moderate hepatic inflammation on liver biopsy, about half had fibrosis, and 2 percent had probable or definite cirrhosis.

  14. Vitamin D and spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, Thomas; Singhatanadgige, Weerasak; Yingsakmongkol, Wicharn; Limthongkul, Worawat; Honsawek, Sittisak

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is crucial for musculoskeletal health, maintenance, and function. Vitamin D insufficiency is common among patients undergoing spine surgery and the ideal vitamin D level for spine surgery has yet to be investigated. There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients with musculoskeletal pain regardless of surgical intervention. With the frequency and costs of spine surgery increasing, it is imperative that efforts are continued to reduce the impact on patients and healthcare services. Studies into vitamin D and its associations with orthopaedic surgery have yielded alarming findings with regards to the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Importantly, altered vitamin D status also contributes to a wide range of disease conditions. Therefore, future investigations are still essential for better understanding the relationship between vitamin D and spine surgery outcomes. Whilst further research is required to fully elucidate the extent of the effects of hypovitaminosis D has on surgical outcomes, it is strongly advisable to reduce the impacts by appropriate vitamin D supplementation of deficient and at-risk patients. PMID:27900269

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Schneeman, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Office of Nutritional Products, and highlights reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements along with tips for doing so safely. For More Information Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal ...

  16. Vitamin K and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Maryam S; Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Cheung, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K has been purported to play an important role in bone health. It is required for the gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin (the most abundant noncollagenous protein in bone), making osteocalcin functional. There are 2 main forms (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2), and they come from different sources and have different biological activities. Epidemiologic studies suggest a diet high in vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in aging men and women. However, randomized controlled trials of vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation in white populations did not increase bone mineral density at major skeletal sites. Supplementation with vitamin K1 and K2 may reduce the risk of fractures, but the trials that examined fractures as an outcome have methodological limitations. Large well-designed trials are needed to compare the efficacies of vitamin K1 and K2 on fractures. We conclude that currently there is not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of vitamin K supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women.

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the spot. Some supplement products may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are ...

  18. Vitamin D deficiency and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, and it must undergo two hydroxylation reactions to be activated in the body. Several studies have shown the role of vitamin D in mineral metabolism regulation, especially calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Some factors such as inadequate vitamin intake and liver or kidney disorders can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to susceptibility to chronic diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, cognitive impairment including foggy brain and memory loss, and autoimmune diseases including diabetes type I. Recent research has revealed that low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity (Sato et al., 2004 and mortality (Pilz et al., 2008. Also, hypertension contributes to a reduction in bone mineral density and increase in the incidence of stroke and death. This article reviews the function and physiology of vitamin D and examines the effects of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to stroke, as a cardiovascular event, and its morbidity and subsequent mortality.

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. back to top Why Buy Vitamins? There ...

  20. Vitamin D Status in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the vitamin D in our body is produced by cutaneous synthesis in response to sunlight. As more and more people live in cities and spend the bulk of their time indoors, it can be difficult to get sufficient sun exposure for adequate cutaneous production of vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency has become a very common health problem worldwide. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2008 showed that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level below 50 nmol/L, was 47.3% in males and 64.5% in females. Only 13.2% of males and 6.7% of females had a serum 25(OHD level of greater than 75 nmol/L. In Korea, vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in young adults than in elderly people, likely due to the indoor lifestyle of younger people. Compared with the United States and Canada, Korea has a lower mean 25(OHD level and a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. To improve the vitamin D status of the Korean population, more aggressive policies on food fortification and vitamin D supplementation are needed.

  1. Vitamin D metabolism and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, H.F.

    1978-05-15

    A general review of the biological functions of vitamin D and the metabolism of vitamin D are given in order to elucidate the biochemical possibilities of calcipdiol. The biochemical mechanisms of calcipdiol use in the treatment of skeletal system diseases are discussed. (DS)

  2. Vitamin D for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, Anouk M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D has been identified as an important factor in healthy aging and is receiving growing attention in clinical research. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble molecule, which is synthesized by hepatic and renal or extra-renal hydroxylation into the active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). The

  3. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  4. Vitamin C and chiropractic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, D R

    1985-06-01

    A review of the literature relating to possible clinical implications of ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation was conducted. Factors requiring a higher AA intake include smoking, alcohol ingestion, stress, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, and certain drugs, including oral contraceptives, some antibiotics, acetylsalicylate and anti-inflammatory medications. AA has been found to significantly increase wound healing, reduce the inflammatory response, lessen respiratory distress, enhance immune function and serve to benefit many common conditions including osteoarthritis. It is concluded that vitamin C supplementation could be utilized for many conditions seen by chiropractors.

  5. SSR Cluster and Fertility Loci Analysis of GC13

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NONG Bao-xuan; XIA Xiu-zhong; LIANG Yao-mao; LU Gang; ZHANG Zong-qiong; LI Dan-ting

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to clarify the genetic mechanism of special wide compatibility of GC13.[Method] The clustering analyses of GC13,five indica,five japonica and five wide compatibility varieties were carried out by using 70 SSR primers.[Result] GC13 was clustered into japonica group and had far genetic relationship with indica and wide compatibility variety.Two fertility loci were detected in GC13,in which one closely linked to RM225 on chromosome 6.According to the position on the chromosome,it speculated that this locus was allelic to S5.GC13 carried the allelic gene S5-n at this locus.The other locus closely linked to RM408 on chromosome 8 and was provisionally designated as Sg(t).At this locus,GC13 carried Sg(t)-i allelic gene,which was consistent with IR36.The effect of S5 locus was stronger than that of Sg(t).[Conclusion] The research laid the good foundation for using the wide compatibility line GC13 to breed the hybrid between subspecies.%[Objective] The research aimed to clarify the genetic mechanism of special wide compatibility of GC13.[Method] The clustering analyses of GC13,five indica,five japonica and five wide compatibility varieties were carried out by using 70 SSR primers.[Result

  6. IgE-binding epitopic peptide mapping on a three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordet, Camille; Culerrier, Raphaël; Granier, Claude; Didier, Alain; Rougé, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    The three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) consists of three protomers exhibiting the cupin motif, arranged in a homotrimer around a three-fold symmetry axis. Using the SPOT technique, 11 continuous IgE-binding epitopic peptides were characterized on the molecular surface of the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat. Except for one of them, they all correspond to well exposed regions containing electropositiveley and/or electronegatively charged residues, which cover up to 40% of the molecular surface of the allergen. Some of these epitopes come in close contact to probably create more extended discontinuous epitopes, especially those located on the edge of the 13S globulin homotrimer. Half of the identified epitope peptides remain unaltered in a core structure protected against hydrolysis by digestive proteases and are thus assumed to promote the allergenicity of the 13S globulin. In addition, a few of these epitopes coincide with sequential IgE-binding epitopes previously characterized in soybean 11S globulins, that could account for the IgE-binding cross-reactions observed between soybean and buckwheat in Western blot experiments.

  7. CLINICAL EXPERIENCE OF CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY INTEGRATED WITH OLEIC ACID COMPLEXED WITH DE-GLYCOSYLATED VITAMIN D BINDING PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ward

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins highly represented in milk such as α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin bind Oleic Acid (OA to form complexes with selective anti-tumor activity. A protein present in milk, colostrum and blood, vitamin D binding protein is the precursor of a potent Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF and in analogy with other OA-protein complexes, we proposed that OA-GcMAF could demonstrate a greater immunotherapeutic activity than that of GcMAF alone. We describe a preliminary experience treating patients with advanced cancers, often labelled as “incurable” with an integrative immunotherapy centred on OA-GcMAF. Patients with advanced cancer were treated at the Immuno Biotech Treatment Centre with OA-GcMAF-based integrative immunotherapy in combination with a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet, fermented milk products containing naturally produced GcMAF, vitamin D3 and low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. When the primary tumor or a metastasis could be measured by ultrasonographic techniques, we observed, on average, a decrease of tumor volume of approximately 25% in a week. We also observed a consistent increase in splenic blood flow that was interpreted in the context of generalised immune system activation and allowed to assess the degree of responsiveness of the individual patient. The results reported here are consistent with the results previously described in the experimental animal harbouring a human hepatocellular carcinoma as well as with the results reported for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. OA-protein complexes are bound to play a leading role in cancer therapy thanks to selectivity of antitumoral effects, absence of any side effects, safety and oral availability. We hypothesise that OA-GcMAF, combines the known anticancer effects OA-protein complexes with the well established immune stimulating effects of GcMAF.

  8. Vitamin D: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, M; Alonso, G; García-Martín, A

    2014-10-01

    In recent years has been a growing interest by vitamin D, not only for its important role in the bone mineral metabolism, but also by the extra-osseous effects. Most of the scientific societies consider that deposits are sufficient if the serum concentration of 25-OH vitamin D is above 30ng/ml and are considered deficient if levels are below 20ng/ml. The majority of studies found that supplements of calcium plus vitamin D have a positive effect in reducing the risk of fracture and the risk of falls in the elderly, although several specifies that doses should be 700-1.000 IU daily. The treatment of the deficit can be performed with vitamin D2, D3 as well as calcidiol or the active metabolite calcitriol. In certain pathologies also selective vitamin D receptor activators can be used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin D and gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Torloni, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D status (which is involved in glucose homeostasis) is related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM is characterized by increased resistance to and impaired secretion of insulin and results in higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including operative delivery......, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and neonatal hypoglycemia. Women with GDM and their babies are at increased risk for developing type II diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: International definitions of vitamin D deficiency and normality are inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women particularly...... those with poor diets and who have dark skins living in temperate climes with lack of exposure to sunlight. SUMMARY: Few interventional studies indicate that supplementation optimizes maternal vitamin D status or improves maternal glucose metabolism. Observational studies about maternal vitamin D status...

  10. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  11. [Vitamin D and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagykálnai, Tamás; Landherr, László; Nagy, András Csaba

    2014-07-13

    The active form of vitamin D, in conjunction with his own receptor, affect a multitude of biological processes in the cell (inter alia it influences the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes). There is an increasing volume of scientific publications examining the relationships between serum vitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation and malignant diseases. Some articles suggest inverse relationship between the low serum levels of vitamin D and the breast cancer risk and mortality, whilst other publications do not support this view. Thus the present opinion is conflicted. Vitamin D can exert a beneficial influence on the symptoms and outcomes of a large number of ailments, but its role in affecting cancer is still not completely clear.

  12. The cortisol response to ACTH in pigs, heritability and influence of corticosteroid-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzul, C; Terenina, E; Foury, A; Billon, Y; Louveau, I; Merlot, E; Mormede, P

    2015-12-01

    In the search for biological basis of robustness, this study aimed (i) at the determination of the heritability of the cortisol response to ACTH in juvenile pigs, using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to a multiple trait animal model, and (ii) at the study of the relationships between basal and stimulated cortisol levels with corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), IGF-I and haptoglobin, all important players in glucose metabolism and production traits. At 6 weeks of age, 298 intact male and female piglets from 30 litters (30 dams and 30 boars) were injected with 250 µg ACTH(1-24) (Synacthen). Blood was taken before ACTH injection to measure basal levels of cortisol, glucose, CBG, IGF-I and haptoglobin, and 60 min later to measure stimulated cortisol levels and glucose. Cortisol increased 2.8-fold after ACTH injection, with a high correlation between basal and stimulated levels (phenotypic correlation, r p=0.539; genetic correlation, r g=0.938). Post-ACTH cortisol levels were highly heritable (h 2=0.684) and could therefore be used for genetic selection of animals with a more reactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. CBG binding capacity correlated with cortisol levels measured in basal conditions in males only. No correlation was found between CBG binding capacity and post-ACTH cortisol levels. Basal IGF-I concentration was positively correlated with BW at birth and weaning, and showed a high correlation with CBG binding capacity with a strong sexual dimorphism, the correlation being much higher in males than in females. Basal haptoglobin concentrations were negatively correlated with CBG binding capacity and IGF-I concentrations. Complex relationships were also found between circulating glucose levels and these different variables that have been shown to be related to glucose resistance in humans. These data are therefore valuable for the genetic selection of animals to explore the consequences on production and robustness traits, but

  13. An assessment of the influence of B group vitamins on the C-reactive protein concentration and chosen indicators of protein metabolism in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction. The objective of this project was to examine on an animal model the influence of the diet composition and its supplementation with B group vitamins on the concentration of chosen protein indicators, including C-reactive protein (CRP as an inflammation marker. Material and methods. The research was done on 36 male, around 5-months-old Wistar rats. The animals were divided into 3 dietary groups: group I has received the basic food mix, which included, among others, whole grain wheat and maize; group II and III received a modified food mix, in which a part of whole corn wheat from the basic feed was replaced with wheat flour, and 50% of whole corn maize was replaced with saccharose. The animals from groups I and II were given clean, settled water from the water supply system, and group III was given water solution of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and PP. Results. It has been established that both the change of diet, as well as it supplementation with B group vitamins are conductive to a reduced consumption of feed, and as a result, a reduced consumption of proteins by the animals from these groups. In the muscles and livers of the animals fed modified unsupplemented feed a smaller amount of protein was found in comparison to the animals fed the basic feed. In the blood serum of the animals from this group a significant concentration of albumins and a significant rise in the concentration of creatinine was found in relation to the concentration observed in the animals fed the basic feed and the ones fed the modified supplemented feed. The concentration of CRP in the group of animals fed the modified unsupplemented feed was significantly higher than in the other two groups of animals. In the blood serum of the animals who received the supplement the concentrations of glucose, staple protein and its fractions: albumins, α2-globulins, β-globulins and γ-globulins, were significantly higher than in the group fed the basic feed. The

  14. Chemical Analysis of Essential oil of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss" by GC and GC/ MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nassir- Ahraadi . A. Rustaiyan

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil from the leaves and flowers of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss growing wild in the north-west of Iran, was investigated by GC and GC/MS."nThe main components of the volatile oil were 1,8 - cineol (16.5%, camphor (14.1%. artemisia ketone (10.5%, fragranol (9.0%, Yomogi alcohol (7.5% and B- pinene (5.4%. The total contribution of these compounds to the oil amounted to 63.0%."nMonoterpens and sesquiterpenes represent 90.08% and 1.52% of the oil respectively. Of the twenty oxygen-containing monoterpenes which made up a fairly large fraction of the terpenoid composition, the predominant components were 1,8 - cineole and camphor.

  15. Softwares for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: A Cromatografia Gasosa Bidimensional Abrangente (GCxGC) é uma técnica analítica capaz de separar e detectar centenas de picos, sendo aplicada a diferentes amostras petroquímicas, ambientais e biológicas. Esta técnica se diferencia da Cromatografia Gasosa (GC) pela utilização de duas colunas cromatográficas de composições e dimensões diferentes conectadas em série e de uma interface para a coleta das frações da primeira coluna e para a reinjeção na segunda em períodos regulares, denomi...

  16. [Vitamin A deficiency and xerophtalmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, A da S; Santos, L M

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review cases of vitamin A deficiency and the effects of vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Articles published in scientific journals, technical and scientific books, and also publications by international organizations were used as source of information. RESULTS: Clinical manifestations of xerophthalmia affect the retina (night blindness), the conjunctiva (conjunctival xerosis, with or without Bitot spots), and the cornea (corneal xerosis). Corneal xerosis may lead to corneal ulceration and liquefactive necrosis (keratomalacia). A priori, these signs and symptoms are the best indicators of vitamin A deficiency; they are, however, extremely rare. Laboratory indicators include Conjunctival Impression Cytology and serum retinol concentrations. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of two biological markers in order to characterize vitamin A deficiency in a given population. If only one biological marker is used, this marker has to be backed up by a set of at least four additional risk factors. Corneal xerophthalmia should be treated as a medical emergency; In the event of suspected vitamin A deficiency, a 200,000 IU vitamin A dose should be administered orally, repeating the dose after 24 hours (half the dose for infants younger than one year). Vitamin A supplementation in endemic areas may cause a 23 to 30% reduction in the mortality rate of children aged between 6 months and five years, and attenuate the severity of diarrhea. The methods for the control of vitamin A deficiency are available in the short (supplementation with megadoses), medium (food fortification), and long run (diet diversification). CONCLUSION: There is evidence of vitamin A deficiency among Brazilian children. Pediatricians must be aware of the signs and symptoms of this disease, however sporadic they might be. It is of paramount importance that vitamin A be included in public policy plans so that we can ensure the survival of

  17. Aspects of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2009-09-01

    Musgrave Park Hospital in 1942 was the site of an Anglo-American Vitamin A caper. A threatened court-martial was pre-empted. Subsequently the Queen's lecturer in Anatomy, JW Millen, who was the other lecturer to the first editor of this journal, RH Hunter, did much distinguished work. The neurological effects of Vitamin A were elucidated. Further work on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), placenta, thalidomide and poliomyelitis led to the pre-eminence in applied anatomy and teratology of now Reader James Wilson Millen and Professors JD Boyd and WJ Hamilton, all Queen's Medical School graduates. Training of RH Hunter, JH Biggart and JD Boyd at Johns Hopkins University profoundly influenced these seminal discoveries. The Garretts, a family of Lisburn, County Down origin, saved Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School from financial disaster. The Garretts founded a commercial and mercantile empire that took control of the Baltimore and Ohio (B and O) Railroad and enabled the Garretts to dictate that women should be admitted to the Hopkins Medical School and Hospital on exactly the same terms as men. All women and men should already be university honours graduates. Winston S Churchill on his progress up and down the B and O main line in March 1946, recounted to President Harry S Truman and Harry Hopkins his mother's tales of the Garrett boys' adventures.

  18. Deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase detected in the plasma of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Moore, M; Brent, L H

    1997-03-01

    A serum glycoprotein, Gc protein (vitamin D3-binding protein), can be converted by beta-galactosidase of B cells and sialidase of T cells to a potent macrophage-activating factor (MAF), a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is the precursor for MAF. Treatment of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates a remarkably high titered macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). When peripheral blood monocytes/ macrophages (designated macrophages) of 33 systemic lupus erythematosus patients were incubated with GcMAF (100 pg/ml), the macrophages of all patients were activated as determined by superoxide generation. However, the precursor activity of patient plasma Gc protein was lost or reduced in these patients. Loss of the precursor activity was the result of deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity found in the patient plasma. Levels of plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in individual patients had an inverse correlation with the MAF precursor activity of their plasma Gc protein. Deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to macro-phage-activating factor. The resulting defect in macro-phage activation may lead to an inability to clear pathogenic immune complexes. Thus, elevated plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity resulting in the loss of MAF precursor activity and reduced macro-phage activity may play a role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  19. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  20. C-Vitamin mod åreforkalkning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme.......Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme....

  1. Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Y; Naraparaju, V R; Yamamoto, N

    1999-01-01

    Cancerous cells secrete alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) into the blood stream, resulting in deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (known as Gc protein), which is a precursor for macrophage activating factor (MAF). Incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF). Administration of GcMAF to cancer-bearing hosts can bypass the inactivated MAF precursor and act directly on macrophages for efficient activation. Therapeutic effects of GcMAF on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice were assessed by survival time and serum NaGalase activity, because serum NaGalase activity was proportional to tumor burden. A single administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) to eight mice on the same day after transplantation of the tumor (5 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 21 +/- 3 days for seven mice, with one mouse surviving more than 60 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 13 +/- 2 days. Six of the eight mice that received two GcMAF administrations, at Day 0 and Day 4 after transplantation, survived up to 31 +/- 4 days whereas, the remaining two mice survived for more than 60 days. Further, six of the eight mice that received three GcMAF administrations with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 60 days, and serum NaGalase levels were as low as those of control mice throughout the survival period. The cure with subthreshold GcMAF-treatments (administered once or twice) of tumor-bearing mice appeared to be a consequence of sustained macrophage activation by inflammation resulting from the macrophage-mediated tumoricidal process. Therefore, a protracted macrophage activation induced by a few administrations of minute amounts of GcMAF eradicated the murine ascites tumor.

  2. Development of predictive models for predicting binding affinity of endocrine disrupting chemicals to fish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Yang, Xianhai; Yin, Cen; Wei, Mengbi; He, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). In the modeling, the relative binding affinity (RBA) of a chemical with 17β-estradiol binding to fSHBG was selected as the endpoint. Classification models were developed for two fish species, while QSAR models were established for the other six fish species. Statistical results indicated that the models had satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability, and that application domain covered a large number of endogenous and exogenous steroidal and non-steroidal chemicals. Additionally, by comparing the log RBA values, it was found that the same chemical may have different affinities for fSHBG from different fish species, thus species diversity should be taken into account. However, the affinity of fSHBG showed a high correlation for fishes within the same Order (i.e., Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes), thus the fSHBG binding data for one fish species could be used to extrapolate other fish species in the same Order.

  3. Resolution of Mild Ganciclovir-Resistant Cytomegalovirus Disease with Reduced-Dose Cidofovir and CMV-Hyperimmune Globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir J. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV is associated with significant morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients. Management of ganciclovir-resistant CMV may be complicated by nephrotoxicity which is commonly observed with recommended therapies and/or rejection induced by “indirect” viral effects or reduction of immunosuppression. Herein, we report a series of four high serologic risk (donor CMV positive/recipient CMV negative kidney transplant patients diagnosed with ganciclovir-resistant CMV disease. All patients initially developed “breakthrough” viremia while still receiving valganciclovir prophylaxis after transplant and were later confirmed to exhibit UL97 mutations after failing to eradicate virus on adequate dosages of valganciclovir. The patients were subsequently and successfully treated with reduced-dose (1-2 mg/kg cidofovir and CMV-hyperimmune globulin, given in 2-week intervals. In addition, all patients exhibited stable renal function after completion of therapy, and none experienced acute rejection. The combination of reduced-dose cidofovir and CMV-hyperimmune globulin appeared to be a safe and effective regimen in patients with mild disease due to ganciclovir-resistant CMV.

  4. Research progress on globulins of edible legumes%食用豆类球蛋白研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 康玉凡

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzed and compared the storage protein content and composition of soybean (Glycine max L.),mung bean(Vigna radiate L. Wilczek),pea(Pisum staivum)and faba bean (Vicia faba)respectively. A summary was made on the structures and properties of the main globulin components:11S,7S and 8S. Extraction methods,functional properties and research trends of globulin were also discussed in this article to provide a theoretical and practical reference on the further study of legume proteins.%  该文比较分析大豆、绿豆、豌豆、蚕豆等蛋白含量及组成,就豆类蛋白主要成分―11S球蛋白、7S球蛋白和8S球蛋白亚基结构及性质,球蛋白提取方法及功能特性进行概述,并展望其研究发展趋势,以期为豆类球蛋白进一步研究及应用提供参考。

  5. Molecular characterization of a genetic variant of the steroid hormone-binding globulin gene in heterozygous subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D.O.; Catterall, J.F. [Population Council, New York, NY (United States); Carino, C. [Instituto National de la Nutricion, Mexico City, MX (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Steroid hormone-binding globulin in human serum displays different isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns among individuals, suggesting genetic variation in the gene for this extracellular steroid carrier protein. Analysis of allele frequencies and family studies suggested the existence of two codominant alleles of the gene. Subsequent determination of the molecular basis of a variant of the gene was carried out using DNA from homozygous individuals from a single Belgian family. It was of interest to characterize other variant individuals to determine whether all variants identified by IEF phenotyping were caused by the same mutation or whether other mutations occurred in the gene in different populations. Previous studies identified Mexican subjects who were heterozygous for the variant IEF phenotype. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to localize the mutation in these subjects and to purify the variant allele for DNA sequence analysis. The results show that the mutation in this population is identical to that identified in the Belgian family, and no other mutations were detected in the gene. These data represent the first analysis of steroid hormone-binding globulin gene variation in heterozygous subjects and further support the conclusion of biallelism of the gene worldwide. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M.; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  7. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M.; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  8. Live Longer with Vitamin D?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is of great concern for public health. According to recent studies, vitamin D deficiency is an important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Whether or not there is a connection between 25-hydoxyvitamin D (25(OHD status and overall mortality is a matter of considerable debate. A new meta-analysis confirmed that low 25(OHD levels were associated with a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality. Individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency have almost twice the mortality rate as those with 25(OHD level ≥ 30 ng/mL, (≥75 nmol/L. Unlike previous meta-analyses which suggested that serum 25(OHD > 50 ng/mL was associated with increased mortality, this new analysis found that there was no increased risk even when 25(OHD levels were ≥70 ng/mL. In general, closer attention should be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. The results of these studies are consistent with the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations.

  9. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Christopher W; Woods, Amanda G; Cederholm, Carmen K

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB), formerly known as hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN), is a bleeding disorder in neonates that is caused by inadequate serum levels of vitamin K. Vitamin K is a nutrient essential for adequate function of the coagulation cascade. Certain internal and external factors place newborn infants at higher risk for VKDB. Therefore, vitamin K prophylaxis has become the standard of care for newborns. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the administration of vitamin K to newborns, some parents are choosing to withhold vitamin K administration at birth. This case study describes an infant who developed VKDB in the absence of vitamin K prophylaxis. Although parents ultimately have the right to choose whether or not to administer vitamin K, as healthcare professionals, it is important to provide education regarding the potential complications of withholding vitamin K and the signs of VKDB if vitamin K prophylaxis at birth is withheld.

  10. Relative importance of summer sun exposure, vitamin D intake, and genes to vitamin D status in Dutch older adults: The B-PROOF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Vaes, Anouk M M; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Swart, Karin M A; Ham, Annelies C; van Dijk, Suzanne C; Enneman, Anke W; Sohl, Evelien; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Lips, Paul; Feskens, Edith J M; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among seniors is high. Whereas sun exposure, vitamin D intake, genes, demographics, and lifestyle have been identified as being important determinants of vitamin D status, the impact of these factors is expected to differ across populations. To improve current prevention and treatment strategies, this study aimed to explore the main determinants of vitamin D status and its relative importance in a population of community-dwelling Dutch older adults. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in 2857 adults aged ≥65 years. Sun exposure was assessed with a structured questionnaire (n=1012), vitamin D intake using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (n=596), and data on genetic variation that may affect 25(OH)D status was obtained for 4 genes, DHCR7 (rs12785878), CYP2R1 (rs10741657), GC (rs2282679), and CYP24A1 (rs6013897) (n=2530). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations vitamin D supplements. Sun exposure (being outside daily during summer: 66±25nmol/L vs not being outside daily during summer: 58±27nmol/L, P=0.02) and vitamin D intake (per unit μg/day during winter/spring: 3.1±0.75nmol/L, Pvitamin D intake (R(2)=0.24), and genes (R(2)=0.28) explained 35% (R(2)=0.35) of the variation in 25(OH)D concentrations during summer/autumn period, when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and self-rated health status (n=185). The investigated determinants explained 35% of 25(OH)D status. Of the three main determinants under study, sun exposure still appeared to be an important determinant of serum 25(OH)D in older individuals, closely followed by genes, and vitamin D intake. Given the low frequency of vitamin D supplement use in this population, promoting supplement use may be an inexpensive, easy, and effective strategy to fight vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. : Vitamin E transport in enterocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Reboul, Emmanuelle; Klein, Alexis; Bietrix, Florence; Gleize, Béatrice; Malezet-Desmoulins, Christiane; Schneider, Martina; Margotat, Alain; Lagrost, Laurent; Collet, Xavier; Borel, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Although cellular uptake of vitamin E was initially described as a passive process, recent studies in the liver and brain have shown that SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B type I) is involved in this phenomenon. As SR-BI is expressed at high levels in the intestine, the present study addressed the involvement of SR-BI in vitamin E trafficking across enterocytes. Apical uptake and efflux of the main dietary forms of vitamin E were examined using Caco-2 TC-7 cell monolayers as a model of human ...

  12. Vitamin D deficiency: a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bandeira,Francisco; Griz,Luiz; Dreyer,Patricia; Eufrazino,Catia; Bandeira,Cristina; Freese,Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of good health. Its sources can be skin production and diet intake. Most humans depend on sunlight exposure (UVB 290­315 nm) to satisfy their requirements for vitamin D. Solar ultraviolet B photons are absorbed by the skin, leading to transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol into vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Season, latitude, time of day, skin pigmentation, aging, sunscreen use, all influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Vitamin D defic...

  13. Vitamin D and the Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Aranow, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    It is now clear that vitamin D has important roles in addition to its classic effects on calcium and bone homeostasis. As the vitamin D receptor is expressed on immune cells (B cells, T cells and antigen presenting cells) and these immunologic cells are all are capable of synthesizing the active vitamin D metabolite, vitamin D has the capability of acting in an autocrine manner in a local immunologic milieu. Vitamin D can modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses. Deficiency in vitami...

  14. Vitamin D Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The solar dosimeter, a spinoff from NASA solar cell technology, measures the amount of solar radiation to which its wearer is exposed. It was used in a University of Cincinnati Medical Center investigation into the effect of sunlight exposure on maintaining vitamin D status in infants. The infants were exposed to sunlight and records were kept by mothers. Each baby wore a solar dosimeter. The two circular "eyes" in the instrument are silicon photovoltaic detectors which collect solar energy, convert it to electric signals and transmit the charge to E-cells that record the charge by plating silver ions onto an electrode. The time required to plate the silver measures the radiation received. The University found the solar dosimeter to be very effective.

  15. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris Canutus (Aves: Scolopacidae) by GC/MS and GC/MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dekker, M.H.A.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing additi

  16. Outdoor and indoor benzene evaluation by GC-FID and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, José A; Domingues, Valentina F; Rosas, Mónica S; Ribeiro, Susana O; Alvim-Ferraz, Conceiçao M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina F

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of benzene in different environments such as indoor (with and without tobacco smoke), a city area, countryside, gas stations and near exhaust pipes from cars running on different types of fuels was performed. The samples were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID) and tandem mass spectrometric detection (MS/MS) (to confirm the identification of benzene in the air samples). Operating conditions for the GC-MS analysis were optimized as well as the sampling and sample preparation. The results obtained in this work indicate that i) the type of fuel directly influences the benzene concentration in the air. Gasoline with additives provided the highest amount of benzene followed by unleaded gasoline and diesel; ii) the benzene concentration in the gas station was always higher than the advisable limit established by law (5 μg m⁻³) and during the unloading of gasoline the achieved concentration was 8371 μg m⁻³; iii) the data from the countryside (Taliscas) and the urban city (Matosinhos) were below 5 μg m⁻³ except 5 days after a fire on a petroleum refinery plant located near the city; iv) it was proven that in coffee shops where smoking is allowed the benzene concentration is higher (6 μg m⁻³) than in coffee shops where this is forbidden (4 μg m⁻³). This method may also be helpful for environmental analytical chemists who use GC-MS/MS for the confirmation or/and quantification of benzene.

  17. Characterization and classification of complex PAH samples using GC-qMS and GC-TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergknut, Magnus; Frech, Kristina; Andersson, Patrik L; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents in a number of complex samples, including soil samples from industrial sites, anti-skid sand, urban dust and ash samples from municipal solid waste incinerators. The samples were characterized by routine analysis of PAHs (gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry) and gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). Classification of the samples by principal component analysis (PCA) according to their composition of PAHs revealed that samples associated with traffic and the municipal incinerator formed homogeneous clusters, while the PAH-contaminated soils clustered in separate groups. Using spectral data to resolve co-eluting chromatographic peaks, 962 peaks could be identified in the GC-TOFMS analysis of a pooled sample and 123-527 peaks in the individual samples. Many of the studied extracts included a unique set of chemicals, indicating that they had a much more diverse contamination profile than their PAH contents suggested. Compared to routine analysis, GC-TOFMS provided more detailed information about each sample and in this study a large number of alkylated PAHs were found to be associated with the corresponding unsubstituted PAHs. The possibility to filter peaks according to different criteria (e.g. to include only peaks that were detected in the analysis of another sample) was explored and used to identify unique as well as common compounds within samples. This procedure could prove to be valuable for obtaining relevant chemical data for use in conjunction with results from various biological test systems.

  18. MDMA毒品简介及GC/MS分析%Determination of MDMA by GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春水; 郑珲; 徐鹏

    2004-01-01

    对一例MDMA毒品案件进行技术检测,采用气质联用技术(GC/MS)准确分析了MDMA片剂中物质成分,检出了MDMA、胡椒素甲醛及咖啡因等成分,并建立了该类毒品检验的快速分析方法,为打击毒品犯罪提供了技术保障.

  19. Toxicity of cadmium and protective effect of bee honey, vitamins C and B complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, I; Elhabiby, M I; Ashour, A A

    2013-04-01

    The present work aimed to study the toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) on rabbits' blood indices, as well as the therapeutic effect of the antioxidant agents, vitamins C and B complex and bee honey on Cd intoxicated rabbits. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight. The results showed a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine, compared to the control group. In addition, CdCl2 intoxication increased the levels of uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Concerning haematological parameters, the more obvious changes were an increase in mean corpuscular volume and a decrease in white blood cells count, platelets, lymphocytes, heamatocrit, haemoglobin and red blood cells count. Treatment of CdCl2-intoxicated animals with vitamins C and B complex and bee honey showed a decrease in the harmful effects of Cd by restoring haematological and biochemical changes. Bee honey treatment was the most effective in providing recoveries in the altered blood parameters.

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from ...

  1. Vitamin D and muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2017-10-01

    Muscle weakness is a hallmark of severe vitamin D deficiency, but the effect of milder vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency on muscle mass and performance and risk of falling is uncertain. In this presentation, I review the evidence that vitamin D influences muscle mass and performance, balance, and risk of falling in older adults. Special consideration is given to the impact of both the starting 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and the dose administered on the clinical response to supplemental vitamin D in older men and women. Based on available evidence, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels D dose range of 800-1000 IU per day has been effective in many studies; lower doses have generally been ineffective and several doses above this range have increased the risk of falls. In conclusion, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Too Much Vitamin C: Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nausea Vomiting Heartburn Abdominal bloating and cramps Headache Insomnia Kidney stones Remember, for most people, a healthy ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/vitamin-c/faq- ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they ... on product labels include: Quick and effective "cure-all" Can treat or cure disease "Totally safe," "all ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding back to top Vitamin Facts Your body uses ... dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups. At the same time, choose foods ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Schneeman, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements, says, "The Guidelines ...

  7. Vitamin D and colon cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Fábio; Larriba, María Jesús; Muñoz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    .... In addition, recent epidemiological and experimental studies support the association of vitamin D deficiency with a large variety of human diseases, and particularly with the high risk of colorectal cancer...

  8. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT ... caused by improper immune responses (autoimmune diseases), including multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent Patient Page in Neurology provided ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), provide science-based advice to promote health and to reduce ... some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake (ULs) that ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home ... Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are easily absorbed by the body, which doesn't store large amounts. The kidneys remove those vitamins ... have liver problems, high cholesterol levels or don't get enough protein. D (calciferol): Nausea, vomiting, poor ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vomiting, poor appetite, constipation, weakness, weight loss, confusion, heart rhythm problems, deposits of calcium and phosphate in ... Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer ...

  13. Vitamin E and neonatal hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S J; Landaw, S A; Oski, F A

    1977-06-01

    A study was designed to determine if the presence of vitamin E deficiency during the first week of life played a contributory role in the shortened red cell life span observed in the premature infant. Carboxyhemoglobin values were used as an index of hemolysis. Ten infants received vitamin E administered intramuscularly in a total dose of 125 mg/kg during days 3 to 7 of life; ten infants served as controls. The mean percent carboxyhemoglobin level fell significantly from day 3 to day 8 in the treated group (1.08% to 0.78%) whereas the mean value remained unchanged at 0.96% in the control group. The administration of vitamin E appears to reduce but not eliminate the accelerated red cell destruction that characterizes the preterm infant. Pediatrics, 59:995-997, 1677, VITAMIN E, HEMOLYSIS, PREMATURE INFANT, CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN.

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Search Archive Submit archive search For ... Knowledge About Vitamins (video) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation ( ... Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding back to top Vitamin Facts Your body uses ... fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge ... for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are numerous nutrients—including vitamins—for which low dietary intake may be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat ... high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant or ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation ( ... Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are easily absorbed by the body, which doesn't store large amounts. The kidneys remove those vitamins ... have liver problems, high cholesterol levels or don't get enough protein. D (calciferol): Nausea, vomiting, poor ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline ... supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat foods high in ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Search Archive Submit archive search For ... Knowledge About Vitamins (video) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print ...

  4. Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plays a role in your vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell functions, and immune system. Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from plant or animal sources. Plant sources include colorful fruits and vegetables. ...

  5. Vitamin D and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino R Pérez-López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Faustino R Pérez-López, Gonzalo Pérez-Roncero, María T López-BaenaGrupo de Investigación sobre Salud de la Mujer en Aragón (GRISAMAR, Universidad de Zaragoza, Hospital Clínico Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: Vitamin D is a hormone sequentially produced at different body sites, and which plays a significant role in human health, particularly bone health. However, other roles are emerging. When the serum concentration of vitamin D is very low, the risk of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis is increased. In children and adolescents there is a high prevalence of low vitamin D status, especially in females and during the winter–the prevalence being lower than during the summer. Although there is no unanimous agreement over the minimum values necessary for good health, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels below 20 ng/mL may be regarded as a vitamin D-deficient condition, and levels between 20–30 ng/mL may be the range of vitamin D insufficiency. Mild low levels have been associated with bone mass accrual alterations in children and adolescents, diminished muscle strength, negative cardiovascular outcomes, insulin resistance and obesity, and neurological disorders. Effective preventive strategies are needed to guarantee adequate vitamin D levels throughout childhood and adolescence, taking into account the geographical setting, season of the year, the level of environmental pollution, skin characteristics, eating habits and body weight, with a view to securing optimum health during these phases, and the prevention of complications in adulthood. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with the vitamin D needed for ensuring good health. Prolonged sun exposure is not advised, however, due to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, a balanced diet is indicated, since vitamin D-rich foods are better assimilated than supplements. When such conditions cannot be met, then the

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... plan. If you're over age 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline form, which is found in fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat foods high in heme-iron and/or ... such as foods high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing ...

  7. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf T Soliman; Vincenzo De Sanctis; Rania Elalaily; Said Bedair; Islam Kassem

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical ...

  8. Absorption intestinale des vitamines liposolubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reboul Emmanuelle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption remain partly unknown, despite the fact that a better understanding of this process would certainly allow to improve their bioavailability. If their digestion-absorption process follows the fate of lipids globally, the recent discovery of membranes proteins involved in their absorption questioned the established dogmas. These new data should be taken into account to avoid dietary or drug interactions that may limit some fatsoluble vitamin bioavailability.

  9. Evidence of selection upon genomic GC-content in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Hildebrand

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The genomic GC-content of bacteria varies dramatically, from less than 20% to more than 70%. This variation is generally ascribed to differences in the pattern of mutation between bacteria. Here we test this hypothesis by examining patterns of synonymous polymorphism using datasets from 149 bacterial species. We find a large excess of synonymous GC→AT mutations over AT→GC mutations segregating in all but the most AT-rich bacteria, across a broad range of phylogenetically diverse species. We show that the excess of GC→AT mutations is inconsistent with mutation bias, since it would imply that most GC-rich bacteria are declining in GC-content; such a pattern would be unsustainable. We also show that the patterns are probably not due to translational selection or biased gene conversion, because optimal codons tend to be AT-rich, and the excess of GC→AT SNPs is observed in datasets with no evidence of recombination. We therefore conclude that there is selection to increase synonymous GC-content in many species. Since synonymous GC-content is highly correlated to genomic GC-content, we further conclude that there is selection on genomic base composition in many bacteria.

  10. Vitamin D in inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea K Wöbke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in vitamin D serum levels have been associated with inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis or asthma. Genome- and transcriptome-wide studies indicate that vitamin D signalling modulates many inflammatory responses on several levels. This includes i the regulation of the expression of genes which generate pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenases or 5-lipoxygenase, ii the interference with transcription factors, such as NF-kB, which regulate the expression of inflammatory genes and iii the activation of signalling cascades, such as MAP kinases which mediate inflammatory responses. Vitamin D targets various tissues and cell types, a number of which belong to the immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells as well as B- and T cells, leading to individual responses of each cell type. One hallmark of these specific vitamin D effects is the cell-type specific regulation of genes involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and the interplay between vitamin D signalling and other signalling cascades involved in inflammation.An important task in the near future will be the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses by vitamin D on the molecular level by the use of techniques such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, ChIP-seq and FAIRE-seq.

  11. Virus de la inmunodeficiencia felina (VIF: evaluación de las globulinas en pacientes infectados espontáneamente Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV: study of globulins in patients with natural infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gómez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fueron estudiadas las posibles correlaciones de parámetros tales como la Alfa glicoproteína ácida (AGP, proteína de fase aguda, fracciones electroforéticas de las proteínas séricas y títulos de Toxoplasma gondii en gatos infectados por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Felina (VIF. Los títulos de Toxoplasma gondii obtenidos por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFI no correlacionaron con los valores de Proteínas Totales ni con los de las globulinas. Sí se halló múltiple correlación entre todas las proteínas estudiadas (r: 0,98, pStatistical correlation between parameters such as globulins, Alpha- Glycoprotein AGP, serum proteins fractions by electrophoresis and Toxoplasma gondii titles in cats infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV were studied. Indirect Immunofluorecence titles to Toxoplasma gondii did not showed correlation with Total proteins and globulins. It was observed correlation between all types of proteins studied (r: 0,98, p<0,04. Total proteins versus globulins showed positive correlation (r:0,93, p <0,0001. Total protein versus alpha-globulin evidenced negative correlation (r:-0,75, p<0,01. AGP and alpha-globulins did not showed correlation and it was detected negative correlation with gamma-globulins (r:-0, 94, p<0,0001 and with globulins (r:-0,67, p<0,03. The patients evaluated showed a high level of Total proteins because of the increase of globulins. Gamma-Globulins were detected increased but there was not correlation with Toxoplasma gondii titles. It was not observed correlation between AGP and Alfa-globulins.

  12. Vitamin D and Its Metabolic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur ORAL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is one of the most important vitamins for humankind and %95 of its requirements are acquired by synthesising solar rays on skin. While lack of vitamin D can lead to many diseases, especially cancer, the ones who get vitamin D in an appropriate level, can reduce this risk if they exercise. If, also, vitamin D level is high, obesity risk will be minimized because of eating less thanks to leptin hormone. Vitamin D receptors exist in approximately 40 tissues. The most imporant effect of vitamin D, which dissolves in fat, is on bone mineralization phosphorus metobolism and calcium. People whose vitamin D level is low, should take nourishment by sources rich in vitamin D instead of helper pills.

  13. Partition of volatile compounds in pea globulin-maltodextrin aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Dat; Lafarge, Céline; Murat, Chloé; Mession, Jean-Luc; Cayot, Nathalie; Saurel, Rémi

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on the assumption that the off-flavour of pea proteins might be decreased using the retention of volatile compounds by a mixture with another biopolymer. The partition of volatile compounds in an aqueous system containing pea protein and maltodextrins was followed under thermodynamic incompatibility conditions. Firstly, the phase diagram of the system was established. Then, the partition of aroma compounds between the phase rich in protein and the phase rich in maltodextrin was measured by SPME-GC-MS. There was a transfer of volatile compounds during phase separation. Variations of pH were also used to vary the retention of volatile compounds by proteins. The concentration of volatile compounds in protein solution at pH 2.4 was higher than at pH 7.2. It was possible to increase the transfer of volatile compounds from the phase rich in protein to the phase rich in maltodextrin using the effect of pH on protein denaturation.

  14. Vitamin D in pregnancy: A metabolic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila Kaushal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a preventable health problem. Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is frequent in many populations over the world. Research indicates that adequate vitamin D intake in pregnancy is optimal for maternal, fetal and child health. Adverse health outcomes during pregnancy are preeclampsia; gestational diabetes mellitus and caesarean section. Consequences in newborns are low birth weight, neonatal rickets, a risk of neonatal hypocalcaemia, asthma and/or type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is the origin for a host of future perils for the child, especially effect on neurodevelopment and immune system. Some of this damage done by maternal Vitamin D deficiency gets evident after many years. Therefore, prevention of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is essential. The currently recommended supplementation amount of vitamin D is not sufficient to maintain a value of 25 hydroxy vitamin D above 30 ng/ml, during pregnancy. Studies are underway to establish the recommended daily doses of vitamin D in pregnant women. Clearly, further investigation is required into the effects of vitamin D, of vitamin D supplementation, and of vitamin D analogs for improvement in human health generally and mothers and children specifically. This review discusses vitamin D metabolism, dietary requirements and recommendations and implications of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and lactation.

  15. Vitamin K the basics--what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Frank R

    2010-07-01

    Relatively little is known about the vitamin K status and requirements in term and preterm infants, though hemorrhagic disease of the newborn infant continues to be a worldwide problem. This brief review of vitamin K metabolism, vitamin K dependent proteins, and the vitamin K cycle covers some new thoughts about the importance of vitamin K to human health including the preterm infant. A review of perinatal vitamin K metabolism concludes that little vitamin K actually crosses the placenta from mother to infant. The neonatal sources of vitamin K are generally limited to the vitamin K prophylaxis given at the time of birth, dietary sources, and questionable amounts from vitamin K present in the intestinal tract synthesized from bacteria. Preterm infants receive large quantities of vitamin K from prophylaxis, TPN solutions, infant formula and breast milk fortifiers. Thus, vitamin serum concentration in preterm infants is up to one hundred times higher than those found in adults and 10-20 times those found in term formula-fed infants. Though no toxicity has been reported, the elevation of epoxide reductase (VKOR) from the vitamin K cycle found in the serum of preterm infants is worthy of additional study. PIVKA-II (abnormal prothrombin) is not a reliable indicator of vitamin K deficiency in preterm or term infants.

  16. Hyphenated GC-FTIR and GC-MS techniques applied in the analysis of bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosav, Steluta; Paduraru, Nicoleta; Praisler, Mirela

    2014-08-01

    The drugs of abuse, which affect human nature and cause numerous crimes, have become a serious problem throughout the world. There are hundreds of amphetamine analogues on the black market. They consist of various alterations of the basic amphetamine molecular structure, which are yet not yet included in the lists of forbidden compounds although they retain or slightly modify the hallucinogenic effects of their parent compound. It is their important variety that makes their identification quite a challenge. A number of analytical procedures for the identification of amphetamines and their analogues have recently been reported. We are presenting the profile of the main hallucinogenic amphetamines obtained with the hyphenated techniques that are recommended for the identification of illicit amphetamines, i. e. gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC-FTIR). The infrared spectra of the analyzed hallucinogenic amphetamines present some absorption bands (1490 cm-1, 1440 cm-1, 1245 cm-1, 1050 cm-1 and 940 cm-1) that are very stable as position and shape, while their intensity depends of the side-chain substitution. The specific ionic fragment of the studied hallucinogenic compounds is the 3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl cation (m/e = 135) which has a small relative abundance (lesser than 20%). The complementarity of the above mentioned techniques for the identification of hallucinogenic compounds is discussed.

  17. Evaluation of GC-APCI/MS and GC-FID as a complementary platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotta, Tiziana; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegria; Deelder, André M; Mayboroda, Oleg A

    2010-12-01

    With a development of the metabolomics field, complementary cross-platform approaches started to attract attention, as none of the contemporary analytical methods had the capacity to cover the entire space of the human metabolome. In the current manuscript, we have evaluated an online coupling of gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID) as ways of cross-detector analysis. The possible value of this combination was recognized from the very first days of GC-MS history but was never explored in detail. We have compared the basic analytical parameters of both detectors, such as limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification, with intra- and interday reproducibility. We show that for the majority of the tested compounds, MS detector demonstrates lower LOD. At the same time, FID appeared to be more robust, showing lower relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and interday reproducibility. We conclude that the gain of this dual detector acquisition appears to be most evident for complex biological samples, where wide dynamic range and predictable response of FID are useful for an initial quantitative overview of sample composition and estimation of molar proportions of different metabolites. MS provides reliable, structural information and superior, at least in the case of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, sensitivity. Taken together, both detectors represent a flexible tool for explorative studies and if supported by a powerful data-processing algorithm, would appear to be useful in any metabolic profiling study.

  18. Superiority of alfacalcidol over plain vitamin D in the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, J D; Dorst, A; Faber, H; Schacht, E; Rahlfs, V W

    2004-03-01

    Supplementation therapy with plain vitamin D plus calcium is in general regarded as effective prevention or first-step treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). The aim of our study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of the D-hormone analog alfacalcidol with plain vitamin D in patients with established GIOP with or without vertebral fractures. Patients on long-term glucocorticoid (GC) therapy were included as matched pairs to receive randomly either 1 microg alfacalcidol plus 500 mg calcium per day (group A, n=103) or 1000 IU vitamin D3 plus 500 mg calcium (group B, n=101). The two groups were well matched in terms of mean age, sex ratio, mean height and weight, daily dosage, and duration of GC therapy, and the percentages of the three underlying diseases included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica. The baseline mean bone mineral density (BMD) values at the lumbar spine for the two groups were -3.26 (alfacalcidol) and -3.25 (vitamin D(3)) and, at the femoral neck, -2.81 and -2.84, respectively (T scores). Rates of prevalent vertebral and nonvertebral fractures did not differ between groups. During the 3-year study, we observed a median percentage increase of BMD at the lumbar spine of 2.4% in group A and a loss of 0.8% in group B ( Pvitamin D group (risk reduction 0.61, 95% CI 0.24-0.81, P=0.005). The 3-year rates of patients with at least one new nonvertebral fracture were 15% in the alfacalcidol group and 25% in the vitamin D group (risk reduction 0.41, 95% CI 0.06-0.68, P=0.081). The 3-year rates of patients with at least one new fracture of any kind were 19.4% among those treated with alfacalcidol and 40.65% with vitamin D (risk reduction 0.52, 95% CI 0.25-0.71, P=0.001). In accordance with the observed fracture rates, the alfacalcidol group showed a substantially larger decrease in back pain than the plain vitamin D group ( Pvitamin D group had moderate hypercalcemia. We conclude that

  19. Testosterone, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and the Metabolic Syndrome in Men : An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Judith S.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Yeap, Bu B.; Schneider, Harald J.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Haring, Robin; Corona, Giovanni; Onat, Altan; Maggio, Marcello; Bouchard, Claude; Tong, Peter C. Y.; Chen, Richard Y. T.; Akishita, Masahiro; Gietema, Jourik A.; Gannage-Yared, Marie-Helene; Unden, Anna-Lena; Hautanen, Aarno; Goncharov, Nicolai P.; Kumanov, Philip; Chubb, S. A. Paul; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Klotsche, Jens; Wallaschofski, Henri; Voelzke, Henry; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in men, but the reported strength of association varies considerably. Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether associations differ across specific

  20. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Coviello (Andrea); R. Haring (Robin); M. Wellons (Melissa); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); S. Keildson (Sarah); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); C. He (Chunyan); M. Fornage (Myriam); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); M. Mangino (Massimo); N.C. Onland-Moret (Charlotte); B. Chen (Benjamin); J. Eriksson (Joel); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y. Liu (Yongmei); A. Koster (Annemarie); K. Lohman (Kurt); L.-P. Lyytikäinen; A.K. Petersen; C.A.J. Prescott; L. Stolk (Lisette); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); A.R. Wood (Andrew); W.V. Zhuang; A. Ruokonen (Aimo); A.L. Hartikainen; A. Pouta (Anneli); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); R. Biffar (Reiner); G. Brabant (Georg); D.G. Cox (David); S. Cummings; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M.J. Gunter (Marc J.); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); H. Martikainen (Hannu); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Illig (Thomas); J.O. Jansson; A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D. Karasik (David); M. Karlsson (Magnus); J. Kettunen (Johannes); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); P. Kraft (Peter); O.̈. Ljunggren; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); M. Maggio (Marcello); M.R.P. Markus (Marcello R. P.); D. Mellström (Dan); I. Miljkovic (Iva); D. Mirel (Daniel); S. Nelson (Sarah); L. Morin Papunen (Laure); P.H.M. Peeters; I. Prokopenko (Inga); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); M. Reincke (Martin); A.P. Reiner (Alex); K. Rexrode (Kathryn); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); D.S. Siscovick (David); N. Soranzo (Nicole); D. Stöckl (Doris); S. Tworoger (Shelley); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C.H. van Gils (Carla); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); G. Zhai (Guangju); S. Bhasin (Shalender); M. Bidlingmaier; S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I. de Vivo (Immaculata); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D. Hunter (David); M. Kähönen (Mika); P. Ouyang (Pamela); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J. Viikari (Jorma); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); S. Franks (Steve); M.R. Jarvelin; F.A. de Jong (Floris); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Teumer (Alexander); C. Ohlsson (Claes); J. Murabito (Joanne); J.R.B. Perry (John)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers s

  1. Association between anti-thymocyte globulin exposure and CD4+ immune reconstitution in paediatric haemopoietic cell transplantation : a multicentre, retrospective pharmacodynamic cohort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, Rick; van Kesteren, Charlotte; Jol-van der Zijde, Cornelia M; Lankester, Arjan C; Bierings, Marc B; Egberts, Toine C G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/162850050; van Tol, Maarten J D; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Bredius, Robbert G M; Boelens, Jaap J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) was introduced into the conditioning regimen in haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to prevent graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) and graft failure. However, ATG can also cause delayed immune reconstitution of donor T cells. We studied the relation between

  2. [GC x GC measurements of atmospheric aromatic compounds near a busy high-speed road in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ting; Xu, Xiao-bin; Wang, Ying

    2009-10-15

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) is a powerful instrumental tool often used to analyze complex mixtures. An optimized GC x GC method had been applied to the quantitative analysis of aromatic compounds in air samples collected near a busy high-speed road in Beijing during the 2007 National Holidays. In the resulting GC x GC chromatograms, aromatic species were resolved from other compound classes and were grouped in a manner that facilitated identification and integration, showing more information of aromatic compounds compared to traditional one-dimensional GC. Totally more than 30 aromatic species were identified and quantified. The average concentrations of monocyclic aromatic compounds ranged from 0.75 x 10(-9) to 24.64 x 10(-9) C, with toluene having the highest concentration, followed by m, p-xylene and ethylbenzene. The average concentrations of the measured polycyclic aromatic compounds ranged from 0.03 x 10(-9) to 2.28 x 10(-9) C, with naphthalene having the highest concentration, followed by 2-methyl-naphthalene and 4-methyl-1, 1'-biphenyl. The four-ring and higher polycyclic aromatic compounds were not detectable in the gaseous samples. The levels of aromatic compounds were significantly influenced by meteorological parameters. Benzene and toluene were poorly correlated with higher aromatic compounds though the latter compounds were highly correlated among each other, suggesting that both were significantly influenced by sources other than vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation.

  3. [The macrophage disappearance reaction in guinea pigs sensitized with bovine gamma globulin or human scrum albumin (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, R; Bernstein, B; Ambrosius, H

    1977-01-01

    The macrophage disappearance reaction (MDR) is a suitable test for detection of cell mediated immunity against bovine gamma globulin (BGG) and human serum albumin (HSA) in guinea pigs. The MDR is a technical simple, good manipulable, and quantifiable test. The optimal test conditions for the antigens BGC and HSA are the following: Peritoneal exudat cells (PEC) were stimulated with paraffin oil. On the 5th day after receiving oil the animals were injected with 80 microgram BGG or 30 microgram HSA i.p. 5 hours later the PEC were harvested and counted. With the MDR it is possible to detect differences with respect to degree of cell-mediated immunity. Supernatants of sensitized lymphocytes produces the MDR too.

  4. Analysis of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous with Antimicrobial Treatment in Injection Drug Users, Scotland, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xizhong; Nolen, Leisha D.; Sun, Junfeng; Booth, Malcolm; Donaldson, Lindsay; Quinn, Conrad P.; Boyer, Anne E.; Hendricks, Katherine; Shadomy, Sean; Bothma, Pieter; Judd, Owen; McConnell, Paul; Bower, William A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIG-IV) use from a 2009–2010 outbreak of Bacillus anthracis soft tissue infection in injection drug users in Scotland, UK, and we compared findings from 15 AIG-IV recipients with findings from 28 nonrecipients. Death rates did not differ significantly between recipients and nonrecipients (33% vs. 21%). However, whereas only 8 (27%) of 30 patients at low risk for death (admission sequential organ failure assessment score of 0–5) received AIG-IV, 7 (54%) of the 13 patients at high risk for death (sequential organ failure assessment score of 6–11) received treatment. AIG-IV recipients had surgery more often and, among survivors, had longer hospital stays than did nonrecipients. AIG-IV recipients were sicker than nonrecipients. This difference and the small number of higher risk patients confound assessment of AIG-IV effectiveness in this outbreak. PMID:27983504

  5. Clinical Evaluation of Equine Antithymocyte Globulin in Recipients of Renal Allografts: Analysis of Survival, Renal Function, Rejection, Histocompatibility, and Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethelm, Arnold G.; Aldrete, Joaquin S.; Shaw, June F.; Cobbs, C. Glenn; Hartley, Marshall W.; Sterling, William A.; Morgan, Jean McN

    1974-01-01

    Equine antithymocyte globulin combined with azathioprine and prednisone as immunosuppressive therapy in 50 transplant recipients prolonged allograft survival and seemed to modify the severity of rejection episodes. Although nine patients died from a variety of causes, only three kidneys were lost to rejection, one of which was hyperacute. There were no serious untoward hematologic or systemic effects caused by the ATG, and all patients completed the course of therapy. Infection, a serious and frequent complication of transplant patients, was encountered no more often than in other transplant series not using ALG. The data pertaining to the clinical value of ATG, although suggestive in terms of its immunosuppressive effects, is still not conclusive; and a definitive answer to this question awaits further evaluation in a series of cadaveric recipients in a randomized-double-blind study. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4599406

  6. Addition of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Bovine Globulins to Bread and Determination of Hypotensive Effects in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarga, Tomas; Gallagher, Eimear; Aluko, Rotimi E; Auty, Mark A E; Hayes, Maria

    2016-03-02

    The aim of this study was to develop bread containing a papain hydrolysate of bovine α- and β-globulins (GPH) with in vitro and in vivo antihypertensive activities. The physical characteristics of the formulated bread were assessed over a six day period and results suggested that the overall quality and acceptance of bread was not affected by the inclusion of GPH at a concentration of 4% (w/w). Bright field light microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy images were used to visualize the main ingredients of the bread. In addition, the antihypertensive activity of the bread was assessed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) over a 24 h period where a maximum significant decrease in systolic blood pressure of 36.2 ± 1.9 mmHg was observed 8 h after oral administration. Results demonstrate that the antihypertensive activity of GPH was resistant to the baking process and shows potential for use as a functional antihypertensive ingredient.

  7. Interactions and compatibility of 11 S globulin from Vicia faba seeds and sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose in an aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Yu A; Dmitrochenko, A P; Leontiev, A L

    2006-02-28

    This work studies specific interactions and compatibility between a legumin and a linear carboxylated polysaccharide using gel permeation chromatography, sedimentation analysis, SDS gel electrophoresis, viscometry and phase analysis measurements. It uses the system water/11 S globulin/CMC as a model. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) molecules are able to cause a partial dissociation of the protein, subsequent formation of soluble interbiopolymeric complexes and partial aggregation of the free non combined protein at room temperature and pH 6.0-6.5. The maximal binding of biopolymers is observed at their equimolar ratio. The decrease in temperature of the mixture from 293 to 277 K leads to formation of the complex coacervate. The increase in pH from 6.0 to 7.6 results in suppression of complex formation and manifestation of the phenomenon of thermodynamic incompatibility if the total concentration of biopolymers in the system exceeds the critical concentration of segregative phase separation.

  8. Vitamin C deficiency in an anticoagulated patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, George M; Goebel, Lynne J

    2013-06-01

    A 64-year-old woman presented with a hemorrhagic perifollicular rash on her legs while taking warfarin. After biopsy, vitamin C deficiency was suggested as the diagnosis, which ascorbic acid assays later confirmed. Clinical resolution of the rash followed supplementation with vitamin C. Patients on a vitamin K limited diet may also be limiting their intake of vitamin C. Physicians should be aware of this possible correlation, and consider checking vitamin C levels in patients with a perifollicular hemorrhagic rash or other signs of vitamin C deficiency while on warfarin.

  9. Association between age at onset of multiple sclerosis and vitamin D level-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Julie Hejgaard; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare vitamin D level-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC and CYP2R1, multiple sclerosis (MS) risk SNPs in CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and HLA-DRB1*1501, and adolescent exposure to environmental risk factors for hypovitaminosis D, with MS age at onset. METHODS: This cros....... No association was found between age at onset and any of the other SNPs or vitamin D-associated environmental factors. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate an independent effect by HLA-DRB1*1501, adolescent summer sun habits, and body mass index at the age of 20 on age at onset of MS.......OBJECTIVE: To compare vitamin D level-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC and CYP2R1, multiple sclerosis (MS) risk SNPs in CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and HLA-DRB1*1501, and adolescent exposure to environmental risk factors for hypovitaminosis D, with MS age at onset. METHODS: This cross......, and the study was approved by the local ethics committee. RESULTS: Younger age at onset was significantly associated with low exposure to summer sun in adolescence, higher body mass index at 20 years of age, and the HLA-DRB1*1501 risk allele in both univariate analyses and in a multivariable regression analysis...

  10. Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI, the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

  11. Preparation and development of equine hyperimmune globulin F(ab')2 against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-hai LU; Bing L WONG; Nan-shan ZHONG; Zhong-min GUO; Wen-yu HAN; Guo-ling WANG; Ding-mei ZHANG; Yi-fei WANG; Sheng-yun SUN; Qin-he YANG; Huan-ying ZHENG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The resurgence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is still a threat because the causative agent remaining in animal reservoirs is not fully understood,and sporadic cases continue to be reported. Developing high titers of anti-SARS hyperimmune globulin to provide an alternative pathway for emergent future prevention and treatment of SARS. Methods: SARS coronavirus (CoV)F69 (AY313906)and Z2-Y3 (AY394989) were isolated and identified from 2 different Cantonese onset SARS patients. Immunogen was prepared from SARS-CoV F69 strain. Six health horses were immunized 4 times and serum was collected periodically to measure the profile of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a microneutralization test. Sera were collected in large amounts at the peak, where IgG was precipitated using ammonium sulphate and subsequently digested with pepsin. The product was then purified using anion-exchange chromatography to obtain F(ab')2 fragments. Results: The specific IgG and neutralizing antibody titers peaked at approximately week 7 after the first immunization, with a maximum value of 1:14210. The sera collected at the peak were then purified. Fragment of approximately 15 g F(ab')2 was obtained from 1 litre antiserum and the purity was above 90% with the titer of 1:5120, which could neutralize the other strain (SARS-CoV Z2-Y3) as well. Conclusion: This research provides a viable strategy for the prevention and treatment of SARS coronavirus infection with equine hyperimmune globulin, with the purpose of combating any resurgence of SARS.

  12. Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on the successful separation of 20 compounds using a 1 m coated microcolumn in Phase I, we propose to design a new micro-gas chromatograph (microGC) system to...

  13. Fast GC for Space Applications Based on PIES Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a novel analytical instrument which combines the advantages of fast GC and a detector capable of identifying species is proposed. Experiments in the...

  14. Fast GC for Space Applications Based on PIES Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project is aimed at the development of an analytical instrument which combines the advantages of fast gas chromatography (GC) and a detector that...

  15. Vitamin A deficiency in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

    1943-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the symptoms of avitaminosis A in growing and adolescent bobwhites. Chicks from parents that have received a diet rich in vitamin A may have enough stored to carry them a week or ten days on a growing diet deficient in vitamin A before symptoms of deficiency occur. The first sign is ruffled feathering, with the wing primaries standing out from the body and drooping. Ophthalmia in one or both eyes occurs and may close the eyes completely, but this condition is not severe in all cases and may not even be noticeable. Birds show poor growth, loss of appetite, and weakness before death. Under the conditions of the experiments discussed herein, death may occur in the fourth or fifth week, and mortality is high......Postmortem examination may reveal visceral gout with thick deposits of urates on the kidneys, in the ureters, on the heart, in the proventriculus, and occasionally covering all the viscera. There may also be hemorrhage of the heart and other organs....Adolescent quail reared on a diet rich in vitamin A may be able to live through the winter on a maintenance diet low in this vitamin without showing symptoms of avitaminosis, but some individuals whose storage of vitamin A in the liver is not as great as that of others may succumb to visceral gout.....A growing mash for quail which contains sufficient vitamin A when fresh may, after a period of storage, lose enough of the vitamin to cause the characteristic symptoms of avitaminosis A to appear.

  16. Novel intracellular proteins associated with cellular vitamin D action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Giana; Wood, Richard J; Mayer, Jean

    2002-07-01

    Work with vitamin D-resistant New World primates has revealed novel cellular proteins involved in vitamin D action. An "intracellular vitamin D-binding protein" functions to bind vitamin D metabolites in the cell and enhances vitamin D action. By contrast, a "vitamin D response element-binding protein" inhibits vitamin D receptor binding to the DNA and is responsible for vitamin D resistance in New World primates.

  17. Vitamin D signalling in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cherlyn; Gao, Dan; Wilding, John; Trayhurn, Paul; Bing, Chen

    2012-12-14

    Vitamin D deficiency and the rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity are both considered important public health issues. The classical role of vitamin D is in Ca homoeostasis and bone metabolism. Growing evidence suggests that the vitamin D system has a range of physiological functions, with vitamin D deficiency contributing to the pathogenesis of several major diseases, including obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown that obese individuals tend to have a low vitamin D status, which may link to the dysregulation of white adipose tissue. Recent studies suggest that adipose tissue may be a direct target of vitamin D. The expression of both the vitamin D receptor and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) genes has been shown in murine and human adipocytes. There is evidence that vitamin D affects body fat mass by inhibiting adipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Some recent studies demonstrate that vitamin D metabolites also influence adipokine production and the inflammatory response in adipose tissue. Therefore, vitamin D deficiency may compromise the normal metabolic functioning of adipose tissue. Given the importance of the tissue in energy balance, lipid metabolism and inflammation in obesity, understanding the mechanisms of vitamin D action in adipocytes may have a significant impact on the maintenance of metabolic health. In the present review, we focus on the signalling role of vitamin D in adipocytes, particularly the potential mechanisms through which vitamin D may influence adipose tissue development and function.

  18. Application of GC-FID and GC-MS for assessing PAHs in suspended dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglarz, A; Skrok, R

    2000-07-01

    The social concern about polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is due to the awareness that several of them are carcinogens and are present in polluted air. Several epidemiological investigations have tried to assess the influence of air pollution on the incidence in the population (1). Some authors have suggest that 1-10% of the incidence of lung cancer is caused by air pollution (2, 3). Several sources, e.g. traffic, oil heating, wood stoves, industry may contribute PAHs to the air pollution. Therefore continuous air pollution control applying selective and precise analytical procedures is needed. The submitted work presents results of examination of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, dibenzo(a, h)anthracene, benzo(ghi)perylene] settled on particles of 10 microns fractions of ashes, emitted from industrial and communication sources. Samples of suspended dust were collected at twelve measuring points, from May to June 1998, in 24-hour cycles, in accordance with US EPA methodology. PAHs were extracted from suspended dust in a Soxhlet apparatus and then exposed to extraction in a liquid-solid system (solid extraction-SPE) to eliminate redundant pollution, which may interfere with compounds by determined analysis. Samples were then analyzed using by capillary gas chromatographs "Varian" model 3400 with FID and MS detectors. Results of analysis make it possible to determine the influence of industry and traffic on atmospheric pollution, to compare results of two analytical methods (GC-FID and GC-MS).

  19. The analysis of linear and monomethylalkanes in exhaled breath samples by GC×GC-FID and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengerics Szabó, Alexandra; Podolec, Peter; Ferenczy, Viktória; Kubinec, Róbert; Blaško, Jaroslav; Soják, Ladislav; Górová, Renáta; Addová, Gabriela; Ostrovský, Ivan; Višňovský, Jozef; Bierhanzl, Václav; Čabala, Radomír; Amann, Anton

    2015-01-26

    A new arrangement of the INCAT (inside needle capillary adsorption trap) device with Carbopack X and Carboxen 1000 as sorbent materials was applied for sampling, preconcentration and injection of C6C19n-alkanes and their monomethyl analogs in exhaled breath samples. For the analysis both GC-MS/MS and GC×GC-FID techniques were used. Identification of the analytes was based on standards, measured retention indices and selective SRM transitions of the individual isomers. The GC-MS/MS detection limits were in the range from 2.1 pg for n-tetradecane to 86 pg for 5-methyloctadecane. The GC×GC-FID detection limits ranged from 19 pg for n-dodecane to 110 pg for 3-methyloctane.

  20. Detection of virgin coconut oil adulteration with animal fats using quantitative cholesterol by GC × GC-TOF/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baocheng; Li, Peiwu; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiuping; Matthäus, Bertrand; Chen, Ran; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi

    2015-07-01

    A new method based on the cholesterol level was developed to detect the presence of animal fats in virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the sterols in VCO and animal fats was separated using conventional one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Compared with 1D GC, the GC×GC system could obtain a complete baseline separation of the sterol trimethylsilyl ethers derived from cholesterol and cholestanol, so that the cholesterol content in pure VCO and false VCO adulterated with animal fats could be accurately determined. Cholesterol, a main sterol found in animal fats, represented less than 5mg/kg of VCO. The study demonstrated that the determination of the cholesterol level in VCO could be used for reliable detection of the presence of lard, chicken fat, mutton tallow, beef tallow, or their mixture in VCO at a level as little as 0.25%.

  1. Vitamin D deficiency in pediatric critical illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran B. Hebbar, MD, FCCM

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the pediatric critical care population. Significant seasonal differences were noted even in the critically ill. The role of vitamin D in certain diseases like asthma in critically ill children merit further study.

  2. Vitamin D Status in Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Agnete

    . In addition to skeletal health, vitamin D has also been associated with several extra-skeletal conditions including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Evaluation of Vitamin D status is complex because it is modified by several factors and because the level of optimal vitamin D concentration...... is uncertain. The primary source of vitamin D in humans is believed to be the synthesis that occurs in the skin upon sun exposure while intake from diet, supplements, and potential fortified foods are secondary sources. Yet, synthesis of vitamin D from sun exposure is negligible during winter at northern...... latitudes such as Denmark and low winter concentrations have been observed in Danish children. Also, very few foods are naturally rich in vitamin D and little is known on the effect of dietary vitamin D on children’s vitamin D status. The overall aim of this PhD project was to investigate aspects of Danish...

  3. Low Vitamin D: What Increases the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Low Vitamin D: What Increases The Risk? Our bodies ... use sunscreen daily are more likely to be low in vitamin D. ( 1 ) But don’t ditch ...

  4. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  5. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  6. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Vitamin B12 and Folate Share this page: Was this ... as: Cobalamin; Folic Acid; RBC Folate Formal name: Vitamin B12; Folate Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Methylmalonic ...

  7. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  8. Vitamin K deficiency and hemorrhage in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, F R

    1995-09-01

    Hemorrhage in the infant from vitamin K deficiency is still a concern in pediatrics. Vitamin K given intramuscularly will largely prevent hemorrhagic disease in the newborn, even in infants who are exclusively breast-fed and are thus at the greatest risk for bleeding. The vitamin K content of human milk is very low compared with standard infant formulas. Results with oral vitamin K prophylaxis, currently used in some countries following the association found in a single report between childhood cancer and intramuscular vitamin K, are far more controversial. Any role of vitamin K in the prevention of IVH in premature infants has not been sufficiently demonstrated. Ongoing developments in this field will lead to improved methods of detecting early vitamin K deficiency and perhaps suitable alternatives to intramuscular vitamin K prophylaxis in the newborn.

  9. Determination of elaidic and vaccenic acids in foods using GC×GC-FID and GC×GC-TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jaeho; Seo, Dongwon; Shin, Dongbin

    2011-07-15

    Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are present in meat and dairy products as m ruminant animals and in vegetable fats due to partial hydrogenation. This study aimed to discriminate between natural (N-TFA) and hydrogenated trans fatty (H-TFA) acids by GC×GC-flame ionization detection (GC×GC-FID) and comprehensive GC×GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). The separation of two kinds of trans fats, vaccenic acid (18:1 trans-11) and elaidic acid (18:1 trans-9), was performed using GC×GC-FID and GC×GC-TOFMS. A 100 m×0.25 mm I.D.×0.2 μm (film thickness) SP-2560 (bis-cyanopropyl polysiloxane) fused capillary column (first separation dimension, 1D) was coupled to a 1.5 m×0.18 mm I.D.×0.18 μm (film thickness) RTX-5 (5% diphenyl/95% dimethyl polysiloxane) fused capillary column (second separation dimension, 2D). The RSD of the intra-day repeatability by both GC×GC-FID and GC×GC-TOFMS for elaidic and vaccenic acids was ≤9.56% and ≤9.97%, and the RSD of the inter-day repeatability was ≤8.49 and ≤9.06%, respectively. It was found that the V/E value (vaccenic acid to elaidic acid ratio) could be used to distinguish H-TFA from N-TFA and to evaluate the quality of the fatty foods.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1930 - Vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin A. 184.1930 Section 184.1930 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1930 Vitamin A. (a)(1) Vitamin A (retinol; CAS Reg. No. 68-26-8) is the... odorless or have a mild fishy odor. Vitamin A is extracted from fish liver oils or produced by...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is...

  12. Vitamin D, Breast Cancer, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    completed. These are the vitamin D study drug capsules administered to study subjects in the randomized controlled clinical trial (Task 5). Vitamin D is...considered a dietary supplement and manufacturing is not very tightly regulated. Thus, it is difficult to obtain vitamin D capsules with consistent and...conform with FDA requirements. Vital Nutrients modified their usual manufacturing practices to generate vitamin D capsules with accurate and

  13. Aroma active components in aqueous kiwi fruit essence and kiwi fruit puree by GC-MS and multidimensional GC/GC-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, María J; Margaría, Carlos A; Shaw, Philip E; Goodner, Kevin L

    2002-09-11

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and multidimensional gas chromatography olfactometry (GC/GC-O) were utilized to study the aroma profile and the aroma active components of commercial kiwi essence and the initial fresh fruit puree. Totals of 29 and 33 components were identified and quantified in the essence and the puree, respectively. Ten components were quantified for the first time as constituents of the kiwi fruit including 3-penten-2-ol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-2-butenal, 2-hexanol, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-2-butanone, 3-methyl 3-buten-2-one, and octane. Analysis of these samples by multidimensional gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) allowed for the identification of >80% of the aroma active components present at level traces in this fruit. A total of 35 components appear to contribute to the aroma of kiwi fresh puree and its aqueous essence. Components described for the first time as constituents of the aroma profile in this fruit were 2-ethylfuran, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, (E,E)-2,6-nonadienal, diethyl succinate, and hexyl hexanoate.

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing...... 25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D...... deficiency in Europe. DESIGN: The VDSP protocols were applied in 14 population studies [reanalysis of subsets of serum 25(OH)D in 11 studies and complete analysis of all samples from 3 studies that had not previously measured it] by using certified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on biobanked...

  15. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heidarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI. ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The effect of vitamin A supplementation in childhood pneumonia depends on the prevalence and the level of vitamin A deficiency in the population. Some studies confirmed that retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery from acute pneumonia compared to acute phase. But there were no significant association between serum retinol level and the clinical manifestation.

  16. Pengaruh asupan Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B12, dan vitamin C terhadap kadar hemoglobin pada remaja vegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti Siallagan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vegan has become a diet that started to be many people's choice. Low intake of iron and vitamin B12 is factors that can cause anemia in vegan. On the other side vegans often consume vegetables and fruits that contained high of vitamin A and vitamin C which helps the absorption of iron, that can help prevent anemia. Objective: The purpose of the research know the effect of the intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin C on hemoglobin (Hblevels in young Buddhist vegan Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Method: This research uses cross-sectional design. The population in this study are all adolescent vegan in the Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Samples in this study were 31 peoples. Independent variable is an intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and vitamin C was obtained by SQ-FFQ, while the dependent variable was Hb with hemoglobin testing system quick-check set. Analysis of the data in this study using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. Results: There is a relationship intake of iron (p=0,000, vitamin B12 (p=0,037, and vitamin C (p=0,000 to Hb level of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira, there is no relationship intake of vitamin A with a Hb level of adolescent vegan (p=0,220. The result of multivariate analysis using multiple regression analysis of the variables that most influence haemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan are the intake of iron and vitamin C. Each increase of 1 mg Fe intake will increase the Hb concentration as much as 0.013 g/dl and increase of 1 mg of vitamin C intake will increase Hb levels as much as 0.002 g/dl. Conclusion: Iron and vitamin C intake is the most influence factors to hemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira.

  17. 21 CFR 582.5930 - Vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A. 582.5930 Section 582.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5930 Vitamin A. (a) Product. Vitamin A. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  19. Vitamine B12 en cognitieve functies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamine B12-deficiëntie is een relatief veel voorkomend probleem bij ouderen. Wageningen Universiteit onderzoekt wat de optimale hoeveelheid vitamine B12 in capsules zou moeten zijn om een vitamine B12-deficiëntie te behandelen en of deze hoeveelheid B12 gunstige effecten heeft op het cognitief fun

  20. Vitamin B12 requirements in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, Esmee; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of dose-response evidence relevant for estimating vitamin B12 requirements of healthy adults and elderly people, considering different indicators of health: vitamin B12 body stores, cognitive function, bone health, and biomarkers of vitamin B12 status.

    Vitami

  1. Vitamin A deficiency Ann Burgess MPH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    Mother and child undernutrition – Vitamin A deficiency. Ann Burgess ... (due to impaired transport of iron), poor growth and, in severe cases, xerophthalmia ... Vitamin A occurs mainly as 'retinol' in animal foods and as 'Я-carotene' in plant foods c. ... Vitamin A supplements are usually given orally as high dose capsules.

  2. Vitamin B12 requirements in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, Esmee; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of dose-response evidence relevant for estimating vitamin B12 requirements of healthy adults and elderly people, considering different indicators of health: vitamin B12 body stores, cognitive function, bone health, and biomarkers of vitamin B12

  3. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...

  4. Role of vitamin A in liver fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knook, D.L.; Bosma, A.; Seifert, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between vitamin A and liver fibrosis was studied with a CCl4-induced fibrosis model in rats. Depending on the time of administration, vitamin A can potentiate or reduce fibrosis: when present during CCl4-treatment parenchymal cell damage and fibrosis were enhanced, whereas vitamin A

  5. Vitamin D deficiency and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is present in the vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and correcting a poor vitamin D status is recommended as a treatment of CKD-mineral and bone disorders. In this review, we summarize the molecular and clinical data on the role of vitamin D status for

  6. Vitamine A voorziening van de Nederlandse bevolking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers PMCM; Feskens EJM; CVG

    2004-01-01

    In this report vitamin A intake is assessed. From these analyses, 17 to 30 per cent of the adults in our study were found to have an inadequate vitamin A intake to maintain sufficient vitamin A stores. A substantial proportion of these individuals had a level of intake greatly less than required. Ou

  7. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  8. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut) but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2. PMID:23231956

  9. Vitamin B12. III. The assay of vitamin B12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.; Wijmenga, H.G.; Wolff, R.; Karlin, R.; Winkler, K.C.; Haan, P.G. de

    1952-01-01

    1. 1. After the addition of KCN, purified liver-extracts can be chromatographed on Al2O3, the vitamin B12 being collected as one single band which can be measured spectrophotometrically. 2. 2. The values, thus obtained, agree satisfactorily with those of the L. Leichmannii and a little less with th

  10. Vitamin B12. III. The assay of vitamin B12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.; Wijmenga, H.G.; Wolff, R.; Karlin, R.; Winkler, K.C.; Haan, P.G. de

    1952-01-01

    1. 1. After the addition of KCN, purified liver-extracts can be chromatographed on Al2O3, the vitamin B12 being collected as one single band which can be measured spectrophotometrically. 2. 2. The values, thus obtained, agree satisfactorily with those of the L. Leichmannii and a little less with

  11. Vitamin D in a northern Canadian first nation population: dietary intake, serum concentrations and functional gene polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Larcombe

    Full Text Available The wide spectrum of vitamin D activity has focused attention on its potential role in the elevated burden of disease in a northern Canadian First Nations (Dené cohort. Vitamin D insufficiency, and gene polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP have been implicated in susceptibility to infectious and chronic diseases. The objectives of this study were to determine the contribution of vitamin D from food, and measure the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 (25-OHD(3 and VDBP in Dené participants. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with the dysregulation of the innate immune response were typed and counted. Potential correlations between the SNPs and serum concentrations of 25-OHD(3 and VDBP were evaluated. Venous blood was collected in summer and winter over a one-year period and analyzed for 25-OHD(3 and VDBP concentrations (N = 46. A questionnaire was administered to determine the amount of dietary vitamin D consumed. Sixty-one percent and 30% of the participants had 25-OHD(3 serum concentrations <75 nmol/L in the winter and summer respectively. Mean vitamin D binding protein concentrations were within the normal range in the winter but below normal in the summer. VDBP and VDR gene polymorphisms affect the bioavailability and regulation of 25-OHD(3. The Dené had a high frequency of the VDBP D432E-G allele (71% and the Gc1 genotype (90%, associated with high concentrations of VDBP and a high binding affinity to 25-OHD(3. The Dené had a high frequency of VDR Fok1-f allele (82%, which has been associated with a down-regulated Th1 immune response. VDBP and VDR polymorphisms, and low winter 25-OHD(3 serum concentrations may be risk factors for infectious diseases and chronic conditions related to the dysregulation of the vitamin D pathway.

  12. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF BLACK SEA CYSTOSEIRA BARBATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Panayotova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Cystoseira barbata is the most widely distributed seaweed in the Black Sea. There is limited information about fat soluble vitamins content and fatty acids composition of this specie from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The aim of this study was to determine fat soluble vitamins, pigments, total lipid and fatty acid composition of Cystoseira barbata. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin E and D, pigments (β-carotene and astaxanthin and total cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously using HPLC/UV/FL system equipped with RP analytical column. Sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Brown seaweed Cystoseira barbata contained high amounts of α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Lipids were extracted by following the method of Bligh and Dyer. The residual lipid fraction was methylated using base-catalyzed transmethylation with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Cystoseira barbata was rich in linoleic (C18:2n6 and eicosopentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 although total lipid content was generally low. High levels of α-tocopherol correlate with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. As an antioxidant α-tocopherol preserves tissue PUFA from oxidation.

  13. Bone health, vitamin D and lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangüesa Gómez, Clara; Flores Robles, Bryan Josué; Andréu, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is high. This is likely due to photoprotection measures in addition to intrinsic factors of the disease. Low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of low bone mineral density and fracture. Vitamin D deficiency could also have undesirable effects on patients' immune response, enhancing mechanisms of loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Vitamin D levels should be periodically monitored and patients should be treated with the objective of reaching vitamin D levels higher than 30-40 ng/ml.

  14. Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sahay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal.

  15. Structurally well-defined macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1998-06-01

    Freund's adjuvant produced severe inflammation that augments development of antibodies. Thus, mixed administration of antigens with adjuvant was not required as long as inflammation was induced in the hosts. Since macrophage activation for phagocytosis and antigen processing is the first step of antibody development, inflammation-primed macrophage activation plays a major role in immune development. Therefore, macrophage activating factor should act as an adjuvant for immunization. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation process is the major macrophage activating cascade that requires participation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) and glycosidases of B and T lymphocytes. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase efficiently generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF) we have ever encountered. Administration of GcMAF (20 or 100 pg/mouse) resulted in stimulation of the progenitor cells for extensive mitogenesis and activation of macrophages. Administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) along with immunization of mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days. Thus, GcMAF has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization. Although malignant tumours are poorly immunogenic, 4 days after GcMAF-primed immunization of mice with heat-killed Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, the ascites tumour was no longer transplantable in these mice.

  16. Structural definition of a potent macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein with adjuvant activity for antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N

    1996-10-01

    Incubation of human vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein), with a mixture of immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase, efficiently generated a potent macrophage activating factor, a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase, and isolation of the intermediates with immobilized lectins, revealed that either sequence of hydrolysis of Gc glycoprotein by these glycosidases yields the macrophage-activating factor, implying that Gc protein carries a trisaccharide composed of N-acetylgalactosamine and dibranched galactose and sialic acid termini. A 3 hr incubation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with picomolar amounts of the enzymatically generated macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) resulted in a greatly enhanced phagocytic activity. Administration of a minute amount (10-50 pg/mouse) of GcMAF resulted in a seven- to nine-fold enhanced phagocytic activity of macrophages. Injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) along with GcMAF into mice produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days.

  17. Degenerate polynomial patches of degree 11 for almostGC2 interpolation over triangles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, Bas J.; Damme, van Ruud

    1993-01-01

    We consider the problem of interpolating scattered data in ℝ3 by analmost geometrically smoothGC2 surface, where almostGC2 meansGC2 except in a finite number of points (the vertices), where the surface isGC1. A local method is proposed, based on employing so-called degenerate triangular Bernstein-Bé

  18. VITAMIN-C AND GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEYKAMP, CW; PENDERS, TJ; BAADENHUIJSEN, H; MUSKIET, FAJ; MARTINA, W; VANDERSLIK, W

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of 10 age- and sex-matched nondiabetic volunteers took 0,750, or 1500 mg of vitamin C each day for 12 weeks. Glycohemoglobin (GHb) was measured by HPLC, electrophoresis, affinity chromatography, and immunoassay at baseline (-4 weeks and -1 day), during supplementation (6 weeks and 12 we

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health regimen. This Consumer Update video includes an interview with Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Office of Nutritional Products, and highlights reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements along with tips for doing so safely. For More Information Fortify ...

  20. VITAMIN-C AND GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEYKAMP, CW; PENDERS, TJ; BAADENHUIJSEN, H; MUSKIET, FAJ; MARTINA, W; VANDERSLIK, W

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of 10 age- and sex-matched nondiabetic volunteers took 0,750, or 1500 mg of vitamin C each day for 12 weeks. Glycohemoglobin (GHb) was measured by HPLC, electrophoresis, affinity chromatography, and immunoassay at baseline (-4 weeks and -1 day), during supplementation (6 weeks and 12 we