WorldWideScience

Sample records for gazprom gaasijuhtme ehitamine

  1. Gazprom skooris topeltpunktid / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    Gazprom ja Austria energiakompanii OMV sõlmisid lepingu, mille järgi läheb Venemaast sõltumatu gaasijuhtme lõpp-punktiks kavandatud Nabucco gaasijuhtme Baumgarteni gaasijaotuskeskus Gazpromi kontrolli alla. Gazprom kindlustas samal ajal sõlmitud lepinguga juhipositsiooni ka Serbia riiklikus naftakompaniis NIS

  2. EU commissioner says Gazprom won't be exception to trade rules

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    EL-i konkurentsivolinik Neelie Kroes hoiatas, et Gazprom võib loovutada oma osakud Baltimaade energiaettevõtetes ja Läänemere gaasijuhtmes, kui EL-i liikmesriigid võtavad vastu uue strateegilise energiaplaani, mis edendab konkurentsi

  3. Eesti vetesse trügiv Gazprom saab suure relvastatud üksuse / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 17. apr. 2007, lk. 5. Vene gaasimonopol Gazprom saab Vene riigilt ilmselt volitused Läänemerre plaanitava gaasijuhtme kaitsmiseks tuhandeist võitlejaist koosneva hästirelvastatud eraarmee loomiseks, riigiduumas algatatud vastavast seaduseelnõust. Parlamendiliikmete Igor Gräzini ja Marko Mihkelsoni arvamused sõjalis-poliitilistest ohtudest. Skeem: Gazprom võib tuua eraarmee Vene-Saksa gaasijuhet kaitsma

  4. Gazprom: Russia's strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizin, A.M.; Zeisler, N.

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

  5. Gazprom taganeks leppest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Vene riiklik energiagigant Gazprom palus valitsusel tühistada kokkuleppe, mille järgi hakataks Hiinasse tarnima suurtes kogustes maagaasi Siberi väljadelt, kus tegutseb USA nafta- ja gaasikompanii ExxonMobil

  6. Gazprom tegi valiku

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Gazprom valis oma Peterburi peakorteri hoone arhitektiks firma RMJM London, eirates elanike ja muinsuskaitsjate väiteid Peterburi silueti rikkumisest. Võidutöö on keerduv klaastorn, mis kõrguks ligi 400 m linna kohal

  7. Gazprom: the new empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemoles, A.; Lazareva, A.

    2008-01-01

    Gazprom is conquering the world. The Russian industrial giant owns the hugest gas reserves and enjoys the privilege of a considerable power. Gazprom edits journals, owns hospitals, airplanes and has even built cities where most of the habitants work for him. With 400000 workers, Gazprom represents 8% of Russia's GDP. This inquiry describes the history and operation of this empire and show how its has become a masterpiece of the government's strategy of russian influence reconquest at the world scale. Is it going to be a winning game? Are the corruption affairs and the expected depletion of resources going to weaken the empire? The authors shade light on the political and diplomatic strategies that are played around the crucial dossier of the energy supply. (J.S.)

  8. Gazprom, Russia's weapon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniouchkine, V.; Zigar, M.

    2008-01-01

    World number one producer of natural gas, Russia owns a third of the proven reserves. Gazprom company, under the control of the government and with a capital close to Microsoft's or Exxon Mobil's one, exploits this fabulous richness. Some highlights of its recent history show the dimension of the stakes: on January 1, 2006, Russia interrupts its gas supplies towards Ukraine. The immediate consequence is a voltage drop in Italy and France: the European Union is dependent at 26% of the Russian gas, Finland at 100%, France at 25%.. In May 2008, Dmitri Medvedev, president of Gazprom's supervisory board becomes the President of the Russian Federations and in August 2008, Russia seizes the opportunity of the Georgian conflict to solve the problem of the gas paths in the Caspian area. Several anecdotes are presented in this book which aim at demonstrating the tight links between the history of Gazprom, who aspires to become one of the very first World companies, and the foreign policy of Russia. (J.S.)

  9. Gazprom koondab Venemaa naftafirmasid / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2005-01-01

    Venemaa riiklik gaasikontsern Gazprom ostab 13,1 miljardi dollari eest 72,7 protsenti naftakontserni Sibneft aktsiatest, mis kuuluvad miljardär Roman Abramovitshile ja tema partneritele. Tehingu mõjust Eestile. Lisa: Gazprom ja Sibneft

  10. Gazprom the new russian empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, D.

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzes the economical and political impacts of the great Gazprom group, leader in the russian energy domain, in Russia. Already number one of the world gas industry, this Group is becoming the right-hand of the Kremlin. Thus the author wonders on this empire transparency and limits. (A.L.B.)

  11. Gazprom gains control over Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2008-01-01

    Although the European Union has been declaring for quite some time its intention to avoid the influence of Russian gas monopoly, Gazprom, no action has been taken. EU members are actually keen on doing business with Gazprom. And the Russian giant is strengthening its position in the EU and elsewhere. With the goal of increasing the share of non-Russian gas in the EU, Brussels has approached Middle Eastern and North African countries. But all the time Gazprom is one step ahead. Any attempts to diversify gas infrastructure are problematic. Announced gas pipelines, Nord Stream and Nabucco, will either be delayed or fail completely. Environmental issues are a problem for Nord Stream in the Baltic Sea and the list of potential suppliers to Nabucco from Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa is getting shorter and shorter, all of which favours Gazprom. The daily paper, Nezavisimaya gazeta, recently published an article stating that Europe would soon be dependent on the Russian giant. (authors)

  12. Gazprom gains control over Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Although the European Union has been declaring for quite some time its intention to avoid the influence of Russian gas monopoly, Gazprom, no action has been taken. European Union (EU) members are actually keen on doing business with Gazprom. And the Russian giant is strengthening its position in the EU and elsewhere. With the goal of increasing the share of non-Russian gas in the EU, Brussels has approached Middle Eastern and North African countries. But all the time Gazprom is one step ahead. Any attempts to diversify gas infrastructure are problematic. Announced gas pipelines, Nord Stream and Nabucco, will either be delayed or fail completely. Environmental issues are a problem for Nord Stream in the Baltic Sea and the list of potential suppliers to Nabucco from Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa is getting shorter and shorter, all of which favours Gazprom. The daily paper, Nezavisimaya gazeta, recently published an article stating that Europe would soon be dependent on the Russian giant. (authors)

  13. Gazprom, or the inevitable headlong rush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2007-01-01

    With 32% of world gas reserves and 644 Gm 3 of gas production in 2006, Russia is the world number one of gas production. 85% of this production is covered by Gazprom company which is the holder of the Russian gas transport and export monopoly. The European Union dependence of Gazprom exports, the links between Gazprom and other gas producers, like Sonatrach, the first steps of Gazprom in European domestic markets and the rough and authoritative relations with its immediate neighbours make the Russian company an inevitable energy actor and the privileged relay of Moscow's policy. But, is Gazprom really this omnipotent giant and how strong is it really inside its own market and own borders? This article tries to answer these questions. It describes the Russian gas market and the specificities of the Russian gas offer, the institutional evolutions of the Russian gas industry, and the gas relations between Russia and the CIS. (J.S.)

  14. Tallinna-Tartu maantee ehitamine jälle kännu taga kinni / Piret Pert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pert, Piret

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu lükkas tagasi SDE fraktsiooni esitatud otsuse eelnõu, milles nähti ette Tallinna-Tartu maantee ehitamine neljarealise eraldatud sõidusuundadega maanteena. Jarno Laur, Ivari Padar maantee väljaehitamise vajalikkusest

  15. Gas industry in Russia. Gazprom supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    These four papers by senior executives of RAO Gazprom, the Russian state owned but self-financing gas company, highlight the company's key achievements and discuss current priorities. The close involvement between Gazprom and various research organizations through which equipment and technology have been developed is discussed. Details are given of the processing facilities for gas and condensates at four major installations together with their production histories and output projections into the next century. The development of the vast gas reserves on the Yamal peninsular is described. It is planned to link the new fields by pipeline to Europe. Ways in which to operate Gazprom's extensive pipeline network most efficiently are being sought and the findings and recommendations of the ''High Reliability Pipeline Transport'' programme are considered. A comprehensive table of Gazprom's output, exports, processing and development activity for 1994, in which planned levels are compared with currently predicted levels, is appended to the papers. (5 tables) (UK)

  16. Gazprom, the Fastest Way to Energy Suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Ch.A.

    2007-01-01

    Russia is an unavoidable actor in world energy geopolitics. It is also the biggest energy partner of a European Union (EU) that is becoming ever more dependent on outside sources for its energy needs. However, the future of Russia's largest company - Gazprom - and the development of its future production capacities are at the center of a complex financial and political game dominated by numerous uncertainties, including Gazprom's actual reserves, its ability to invest in exploration and production, and its very capacity to develop production. Indeed, back in state hands, Russian gas and oil companies - Gazprom included - do not appear to be in a position to meet their future production commitments. Gazprom's ability to honor its contracts with gas companies in the EU is in fact already the subject of numerous interrogations. (author)

  17. Gazprom follows unique course to privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surovtsev, D.

    1996-01-01

    Unlike the oil industry, Russian gas is dominated by an officially sanctioned monopoly--Joint Stock Society (RAO) Gazprom. The company produces, transports, and exports most of the gas in Russia, the world leader in gas reserves. Two major challenges confront Gazprom as it adapts to existence as a private concern. One is financing of a major pipeline to Europe for export of gas produced in fields under development in the Yamal Peninsula. The other is collection of debts owed it by customers, both in and outside of Russia, for past gas deliveries. While it grapples with those challenges and the strains of operating a huge gas production and transportation system, Gazprom also must deal with questions about whether it should continue as a monopoly--questions not likely to be answered until Russia's political situation is more certain than it is now. This paper reviews Gazprom's production, processing, gas transportation, and marketing businesses. It describes its financing strategies for construction of new pipelines

  18. Focus on Russia. Russia versus Gazprom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdiyeva, N.

    2008-01-01

    Rising domestic demand and the depletion of traditional natural gas fields mean that Russia will have to make choices as to where to send its gas. But the priorities of Gazprom and the Russian government often conflict, a trend likely exacerbated by the deteriorating relationship between Russia and the West

  19. Gazprom joins scramble for West-Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Hoedt, R.

    2008-03-15

    Gazprom has announced that it wants to become involved in gas production in West-Africa. A normal business decision for a company that wants to be a global player, say some analysts. Others are worried that the Russian move is intended to sabotage Europe's strategy to diversify its supplies.

  20. Gazprom joins scramble for West-Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Hoedt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Gazprom has announced that it wants to become involved in gas production in West-Africa. A normal business decision for a company that wants to be a global player, say some analysts. Others are worried that the Russian move is intended to sabotage Europe's strategy to diversify its supplies

  1. Gazprom looks for means to finance its gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Gazprom natural gas company wants to solve its short range problems in order to develop its activities in Western Europe rapidly. The transportation capacities remain the main problem of Gazprom which is looking for new financing for the development and maintenance of its pipelines network. Several pipeline projects are under study but the occidental banks remain suspicious and wait for the settlement of internal lawsuits between Gazprom and the Russian state. Short paper. (J.S.)

  2. Gazprom tõrjub võimalikku konkurenti / Vahur Koorits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koorits, Vahur, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti põhjarannikule kavandatud veeldatud maagaasi ehk LNG terminali ees seisab rida takistusi, suurimaks probleemiks on Gazprom. Vt. samas: Veeldatud maagaasi terminal annaks sõltumatuse Gazpromist

  3. Gazprom hoiatas euroliitu gaasi kinnikeeramisega / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Gazprom manitses Euroopa Liitu mitte blokeerima ettevõtte ärihuve, ähvardades vastasel korral suunata oma gaasitarned mujale, teatas Briti majandusleht Financial Times. Euroopa Komisjon vastas Gazpromi ähvardustele, et kompanii peaks oma lepinguid täitma ning mitte ähvardama Euroopa gaasitarnete ümbersuunamisega. Samas möönis eurokomisjon taas, et euroliit sõltub välismaistest energiahiidudest

  4. Politics or profits? Gazprom, the Kremlin, and Russian energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinn, Eric S.

    This paper adds to the ongoing discussion of Gazprom's role in Russia by placing the debate around Gazprom within the broader contexts of both the increasing prevalence of national oil companies in the world and the changing natural gas landscape. It assesses how the interplay between politics and profits has affected the way Gazprom can adapt to a rapidly changing world natural gas environment and how both the Kremlin and Gazprom are adjusting---or failing to adjust---their strategies accordingly. It concludes that Gazprom and the Kremlin are both adjusting to changes in the world natural gas environment, but they are doing so in their own ways, but given the affects the actions of one has on the other, the pace of adaptation is slower than what we might see with an entirely independent firm. The paper begins with a discussion of the tradeoffs inherent in Gazprom's relationship with the Kremlin. It identifies various factors at work politically that prevent Gazprom from profiting in the domestic economy. Primary among these factors are entrenched rent-seeking interests and philosophies about natural resources, as well as geopolitical interests. The paper identifies the 2006 and 2009 gas disputes with Ukraine as evidence of Kremlin interference in Gazprom's commercial activities and concrete examples of the boundaries between these two entities as well as the seeming blurring of these boundaries. The paper then moves into a discussion of increased volatility and risk in Gazprom's primary export market, Europe. The systemic context of a discussion of Gazprom today must include factors such as increased supply options for Europe that make natural gas a more fungible commodity than in the past and new legislation aimed at promoting energy independence via the development of a competitive natural gas market. This new context threatens Gazprom's ability to mitigate price risk in its export market, which in turn makes providing for the domestic market through gas rents

  5. Gazprom Market for energy installations using fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitskiy, Yu.V.

    1996-04-01

    The Gazprom RAO [Russian joint-stock company] is a major industrial and financial complex whose job is to provide gas for the national economy of Russia, as well as to supply it under international and intergovernmental agreements. The existing capacity of its production structures and high level of scientific potential allow Gazprom to forecast the future with confidence.

  6. Business interest of Gazprom in the EU-27 in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijknecht, J.

    2008-04-01

    Gazprom is an important supplier of gas to the EU. Liberalisation of the EU gas market has also influenced the gas relations with Russia and the way the Russian Gas company Gazprom is securing its interest in this internal EU market. From a relationship of bilateral gas contracts with EU member states and their companies before gas market liberalisation, a new approach to secure its market share is beginning to evolve. The positioning of Gazprom in the EU market has raised concerns of EU policy makers. There is some trepidation that the investment strategy of Gazprom in the EU gas market will lead to a position of market dominance in an increasingly import dependent EU market. The discussion on Gazprom's market strategy needs to be fed with factual information on its activities and it is exactly what this new report is providing because information on the activities of Gazprom in the various member states' gas sector was incomplete. In this factual report in Dutch, the author presents a comprehensive oversight and characterisation of Gazprom's downstream assets in the EU-27. Through four layers - long-term contracts, company stakes, asset swaps and political support - a detailed insight is given in Gazprom's downstream activities in the EU-27. [nl

  7. Russia's huge Gazprom struggles to adjust to new realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchemkin, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Russian joint-stock company Gazprom, successor to Gazprom of the former U.S.S.R. and the world's largest gas company, faces a crisis of direction in the middle years of this decade. With recent memories of annual additions to its transmission pipeline capacity of more than 6,200 miles, Gazprom officials must face the economic and operational realities that call for rehabilitation projects rather than new construction. Additionally, the overall demand for natural gas in the former Soviet Union (FSU) is leveling as the economies and energy use of all customer countries are declining and gas has already supplanted oil nearly energy-where possible. With the European gas market showing limited space for additional gas, Gazprom's major task in the short-term must be to maintain current production and supply levels. The paper discusses reserves and production, the transmission system, gas exports, the costs of Russian gas, Gazprom's prospects, and major obstacles

  8. Gazprom, Russia's weapon; Gazprom, l'arme de la Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniouchkine, V.; Zigar, M

    2008-07-01

    World number one producer of natural gas, Russia owns a third of the proven reserves. Gazprom company, under the control of the government and with a capital close to Microsoft's or Exxon Mobil's one, exploits this fabulous richness. Some highlights of its recent history show the dimension of the stakes: on January 1, 2006, Russia interrupts its gas supplies towards Ukraine. The immediate consequence is a voltage drop in Italy and France: the European Union is dependent at 26% of the Russian gas, Finland at 100%, France at 25%.. In May 2008, Dmitri Medvedev, president of Gazprom's supervisory board becomes the President of the Russian Federations and in August 2008, Russia seizes the opportunity of the Georgian conflict to solve the problem of the gas paths in the Caspian area. Several anecdotes are presented in this book which aim at demonstrating the tight links between the history of Gazprom, who aspires to become one of the very first World companies, and the foreign policy of Russia. (J.S.)

  9. Gazprom, the Fastest Way to Energy Suicide; Gazprom: mode d'emploi pour un suicide energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillard, Ch.A.

    2007-07-01

    Russia is an unavoidable actor in world energy geopolitics. It is also the biggest energy partner of a European Union (EU) that is becoming ever more dependent on outside sources for its energy needs. However, the future of Russia's largest company - Gazprom - and the development of its future production capacities are at the center of a complex financial and political game dominated by numerous uncertainties, including Gazprom's actual reserves, its ability to invest in exploration and production, and its very capacity to develop production. Indeed, back in state hands, Russian gas and oil companies - Gazprom included - do not appear to be in a position to meet their future production commitments. Gazprom's ability to honor its contracts with gas companies in the EU is in fact already the subject of numerous interrogations. (author)

  10. Gazprom: internal structure, management principles and financial flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, Valery; Moe, Arild.

    1996-01-01

    Gazprom is responsible for over 95% of total Russian natural gas production and is one of the largest companies in the world. As well as being of major importance in the Russian domestic energy balance, it is also the largest gas trader in the world, supplying about half the gas imported into western and east-central Europe. The scale of these external activities means that the terms on which it supplies gas to its customers will have an impact on business beyond the gas industry. This study investigates the roots of the company and analyses its current organisation, management structure and financial flows. The main topics covered are: the Russian gas industry in the Soviet era; the organisational structure of Gazprom after privatisation; pricing policy; the company's financial position; Gazprom in relation to the domestic economy and the outside world. (9 figures; 7 tables). (author)

  11. When is a break-up of Gazprom good for Russia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsygankova, Marina

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1990s, several proposals for a structural reform that would bring competition and market prices to the Russian gas industry were intensely debated. Splitting up Russian gas monopolist Gazprom into several producing companies was a considered option. In this paper, I examine theoretically and numerically how a split-up of Gazprom would affect Russian national welfare. Results show that under the current gas market structures in Europe and Russia, the split-up of Gazprom's monopoly might not be beneficial for Russia. However, analysis in the paper indicates that the market shares that Gazprom has in both Russian domestic and European gas markets are important in determining whether Gazprom's dominance is supported under the national welfare criteria. When Gazprom has small market share in Europe and large market share in Russia, a break-up of Gazprom might plausibly result in increase of Russian national welfare. (author)

  12. Gazprom lõhub Peterburi silueti pilvedeni / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Gazprom City ärikvartali arhitektuurikonkursil osalejate seas oli kuulsaid arhitekte nagu Jaques Herzog ja Pierre de Meuron, Massimiliano Fuksas, Daniel Libeskind, Jean Nouvel, Rem Koolhaas, Richard Rodgers ja Suurbritannia arhitektuuribüroo RMJM. Peterburi Arhitektide Liidu arvates hävitab kavandatav pilvelõhkuja linna ajaloolise silueti

  13. Gazprom: the European idealism to the test of Russian realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasseleer, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    This geopolitical book analyses a major element of the future Russian-European relations. Gazprom is not only a giant gas company but a real 'centre of power' complementary to the Russian government. Gazprom is responsible for 86% of the Russian national production of gas and owns 70% of the reserves. It is involved in oil, power generation, and nuclear energy too and employs more than 300.000 people. It contributes to 25% of Russia's budget. This study tries to decipher the temporal and geographical approach of Gazprom with respect to its field of action which is the European continent. This analysis puts forward Gazprom's energy policy, with its logical and rational organization in front of an hesitating and idealistic Western Europe. It offers some paths of reflexion about the future intra-continental negotiations aiming at ensuring the security of gas supplies in Europe. The Russian exports, often considered as a threat, would easily become an opportunity for the geo-political consolidation of the Old Continent. (J.S.)

  14. Gazprom : Kremli rusikas ja rahamasin hoiab haardes poolt Euroopat / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Maailma suurimast gaasitootjast Gazprom, mis autori sõnul on kujunemas Vene võimude üheks olulisemaks välispoliitiliseks tööriistaks, kehastades Moskva mõju samal määral kui Vene armee. Lisad: Gazpromi nähtamatu käsi Leedus; Venemaa mõjuvõimsaim; Gazprom paisub veelgi. Diagramm: Veel erakätes. Kaart: Gazpromi haardes. Tabel: Gazprom

  15. EU Gas Liberalization as a Driver of Gazprom's Strategies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Russia and Gazprom's natural gas strategies on the European market are the result of the uncertainties (volumes, prices) created by the liberalization of the EU natural gas market. The company's policy of asset acquisition, begun at the end of the 1990's, the multiplication of export networks, as well as the desire to preserve long-term contracts while benefiting from new contractual opportunities are all clear illustrations of this strategy. Yet the industrial and commercial strategies that Gazprom may develop cannot discount geopolitical issues. Therefore, Vladimir Putin's desire to place hydrocarbons at the service of his economic and foreign policies, notably by making use of large, internationalized companies owned primarily by the state, remains in the background. (author)

  16. Gazprom ähvardab hinnatõusuga / Erki Freiberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Freiberg, Erki

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 15. juuni lk. 4. Gaasitootja Gazprom tahab kehtestada Eestile ning Lätile gaasi müümisel sama hinnataseme, mis kehtib ka teistel Euroopa Liidu liikmesriikidel, see tähendaks kahekordset hinnatõusu. Lisa: Hinnatõus muudaks gaasikütte elektriküttega võrreldavaks. Vt. samas: Eesti Gaasi juht: hüppelist hinnatõusu ei tule

  17. Gazprom in Europe: a Business Doomed to Fail?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Aurelie

    2014-07-01

    The construction of what is nowadays called European energy policy is an ongoing process that officially started with the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951, and has not yet been entirely finalized. It took several decades to move from a Community composed of six countries to a policy - not fully fledged - intended to strengthen as much as possible cohesion between 28 EU member states in the energy sector. The European gas sector has been progressively liberalized since the 1990's. The leitmotivs of European energy policy have been and continue to be the opening-up of national gas markets, the enhancement of both competition and transparency, and the struggle against monopolies. The Third Energy Package creates, among others, the concept of European network codes, applied throughout Europe. The European Union (EU) has also developed a European energy policy based on three pillars: security of supply, environment, and competitiveness. The history of Gazprom, a long-standing economic partner of Europe, is a series of constant adaptations - with varying degrees of success-to both European market conditions and dialogue with all parties involved in the gas business across the continent. The Russian company thrived during the 1990's and 2000's in an environment where the main characteristics inherited from the 1970's and the 1980's were retained (i.e. long-term contracts with prices indexed to substitute energy prices-primarily oil-and destination clauses in a context of low competition) while any new opportunity, generally offered by the liberalization and opening-up of national gas markets, was constantly sized up. The company has encountered some difficulties; adaptation is not always that easy. Consequently, some Gazprom officials regularly ask whether European energy policy is a policy intended to challenge Russia and Gazprom. Adaptation is challenging as it brings into question the former business model. Furthermore

  18. Gazprom teeb reformi: Ukrainal on aeg gaasipliidid nurka visata / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2009-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Ukraina pole 2006. a. kriisist midagi õppinud, maagaasi tarbimine on veelgi suurenenud. Gaasihinna tõusu korral hakatakse Ukrainas ilmselt üha enam loobuma gaasipliitidest ja -boileritest ning niimoodi kaotaks Gazprom ühe oma suurema turu. Gazprom üritab kõrgemat gaasihinda saavutada ka SRÜ maades. Diagrammid

  19. Gazprom vs. other Russian gas producers: The evolution of the Russian gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunden, Lars Petter; Fjaertoft, Daniel; Overland, Indra; Prachakova, Alesia

    2013-01-01

    The non-Gazprom gas producers (NGPs) doubled their share of the Russian domestic gas market between 2000 and 2010 and have continued growing since then. For several years especially Novatek expanded. More recently, Rosneft has emerged as a key player, not least through its purchase of TNK-BP. This article begins with an overview of the companies in the Russian gas sector, their resource bases and capacities, and subsequently examines whether differences in field development costs and export market access may make it rational for Gazprom to continue ceding market share to the NGPs. With rising costs of Gazprom's queue of greenfield developments, any delays in Gazprom's investment program may be compensated through increased NGP production. The article argues that the NGPs are ready to fill the gap, may be allowed to do so and are already increasing their market share in an increasingly competitive market. The stage may now be set for a continued gradual transformation of the Russian gas market, in which the interests of Gazprom and the NGPs may be complementary or may be pitted against each other, but those of the Russian Federation are in any case likely to be better fulfilled than in the past. - Highlights: • Other Russian gas producers, especially Novatek and Rosneft, are taking market shares from Gazprom. • Gazprom has a monopoly on exports and has had a de facto monopoly on the domestic pipeline grid through its control over trunk pipelines. • Gazprom's greenfield projects are more expensive than those of other producers. • Gazprom's loss of market shares to other producers in the domestic market may actually be in Gazprom's interest

  20. Gazprom lõpetab energiat nõudva sõpruse Valgevenega / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Gazprom kavatseb tõsta Valgevenele müüdava gaasi hinda maailmaturu tasemele, sellel võivad Valgevene majandusele ja poliitikale olla ebameeldivad tagajärjed. Lisa: Paariale läheb hinnatõus kalliks

  1. There Will Be Gas: Gazprom's Transport Strategy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Aurelie

    2015-10-01

    The key role played by Ukraine in the transport of Russian gas and the underground gas storage facilities are a legacy of the Soviet era. The collapse of the USSR forced the Russian Federation to formulate its own national energy strategy after the Soviet Republics and satellite states went independent, to readjust it over time and to define new relationships with these countries regarding the gas sector. The collapse also had the effect of complicating gas transport after 1991 - a reality that had never been a thorny issue before since Ukraine had been formerly integrated into the territory of the Soviet Union. From the mid-1990's onwards, Gazprom has repeatedly tried to control gas transit through Ukraine and other infrastructures from the Soviet era. This effort has been double-pronged: the acquisition of shares in the Ukrainian transit sector (100% owned by the Ukrainian state) and the creation of a joint venture in order to exercise indirect control over the network. Neither of these resulted in success. During the 2000's, especially after the 2004 Orange Revolution, most of the arguments between Ukraine and Russia were based on transit contract, supply agreements, gas debts and management of the transit network. Such a situation led Gazprom-with the support of the Russian government-to adopt a more assertive stance toward Ukraine, i.e. cutting off gas flows intended for Ukraine. The two most serious crises of this nature occurred in 2006 and 2009. Gazprom developed major projects in collaboration with European energy companies to diversify gas supply routes at a time when it anticipated a major increase in European gas demand and the import needs of Russian gas. The Nord Stream pipeline is certainly the best illustration of Gazprom's bypassing policy. From a Russian perspective, transporting gas through the Nord Stream pipeline is much more attractive than Ukraine as Gazprom thereby avoids political tensions, keeps control of the situation and

  2. Russian Gas for Europe. Creating Access and Choice. Underpinning Russia's gas export strategy with Gazprom's infrastructure investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeenk, T.

    2010-07-01

    This study deals with Gazprom's investment strategy regarding Russia's gas exports and export market behaviour, with a focus on European infrastructure projects, in a the geopolitical context. Because of its large gas reserves, Russia is well-positioned to take advantage of gas exports even as it faces possible competition from other gas suppliers and uncertain gas demand. Gas export earnings are an important source of income for Russia. As a government-controlled firm, Gazprom depends to a large extent on Europe for its hard-currency income. For Russia and Gazprom, the stream of income from gas exports and its expansion are economically vital. In this regard, gas export infrastructures such as Nord and South Stream could act as important instruments to expand Gazprom's market share in current markets and in growth markets. This study uses a real-option game model to assess the overall value of gas infrastructures in the face of demand uncertainties and potential competition. The result of this approach illustrates the strategic-economic character of Gazprom's infrastructure investments in possibly creating a first-mover's advantage. Yet, the model is of a highly stylised nature. Therefore, other aspects should be taken into account in assessing gas infrastructure investments. Besides the goal of possibly expanding Gazprom's market share, infrastructure investments could serve to mitigate overall transit risks. However, Gazprom's organisational constraints in realising gas infrastructures could put into question the rationale of such investments. In addition, Gazprom's position as well as that of Russian gas may be pressured by European (regulatory) policy in favour of alternative gas and other energy sources. The desired market outcomes for Gazprom have an impact on the prioritisation of Russian investments in the gas value chain.

  3. Gazprom vibutas valimisjärgse Ukraina suunas energiarelva / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Gazprom nõuab Ukrainalt väidetavat 1,3 miljardi dollari suurust võlga. Lääne analüütikute arvates on tegemist Moskva näpuviibutusega: kui võimule tuleb Julia Timoshenko, võib Ukrainal halvasti minna. Lisa: "Oranzhid" napilt võidukad

  4. Euroopa Liidus firmasid kahmav Gazprom teisi Venemaa turule ei lase / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    EL tahab, et Venemaa ratifitseeriks energiaharta, mis võimaldaks Euroopa kompaniidel hakata ise Venemaa gaasi eksportima, Venemaa aga välismaist konkurentsi ei soovi. Samas on Gazprom huvitatud Suurbritannia suurima gaasivarustaja Centrica ostust ning tahab sisenenda ise gaasi tootva Hollandi turule. Lisa: Venemaa teine energiahoob: riiklik Rosneft. Vt. samas: Gaasitoodangu kasvatamine pole veel Gazpromi huvides

  5. The Gazprom-Naftogaz Stockholm Arbitration Awards. Time for Settlements and Responsible Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyl-Mazzega, Marc-Antoine

    2018-01-01

    The signing in January 2009 of the gas supply and transit contracts between Gazprom and Naftogaz marked a turning point in Russian-Ukrainian gas relations: yearly intergovernmental, last minute and non-transparent winter deals were replaced by a predictable, long term commercial relationship. Naftogaz quickly turned into Gazprom's most profitable customer, taking the largest gas volumes at the Russian border and paying a higher price than German customers for example,[1] while Naftogaz obtained a satisfying gas transit tariff. At least, the January 2009 gas crisis had resulted in this key improvement for the security of Ukrainian and European gas supplies. Yet almost ever since then, the contract terms had been disputed as the Ukrainian economy could no more afford the high gas prices, the high mandatory yearly purchase volumes and as transit volumes were below contract provisions especially when the Nord Stream pipeline was commissioned. Several temporary pricing or flexibility arrangements in the form of political or patronage-type concessions had been made under President Yanukovych. But following the 2014 regime change in Ukraine and payment arrears by Naftogaz, Gazprom sought to recover unpaid debts and the new reform and business-minded Naftogaz management filed a case at the Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (hereafter, the Institute) as the parties did not agree on a review of the contract terms. Claims and counter claims quickly reached sky high levels, leading to the most sensitive European gas arbitration involving Gazprom. Mutual claims amounted to about USD 125 billion and had the potential to bankrupt both Gazprom and Naftogaz. At the same time, Gazprom and Naftogaz proved responsible in agreeing to winter package agreements brokered by the European Commission that enabled continued temporary Russian gas exports to Ukraine and safe transit to Europe. Following four years of procedure, the Institute has finally made two

  6. Riigi ehitamine / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2006-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Fukuyama, Francis. State Building: Governance and World Order in the Twenty-first Century. Cornell University Press, 2004. Arvustus ilmunud ka: Sirp : Diplomaatia 18. märts 2005 nr. 18/19, lk. 22-24

  7. Viienda kolonni ehitamine / Sergei Ivanov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ivanov, Sergei, 1958-

    2008-01-01

    Endine Riigikogu väliskomisjoni liige on arvamusel, et Eesti toodab ise nn. viiendat kolonni, surudes mitmete sisepoliitiliste sammudega siinsed vene inimesed opositsiooni Eesti riigiga. Eesti peaks tunnustama eestivenelasi kui ühiskonna normaalset osa, tuleb aktsepteerida kultuurilist mitmekesisust, erinevusi ajaloomälus ja maailmapildis

  8. Gazprom on the European Market: In Search of the Balance between the Principles of Competition and Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the position of Gazprom on the key export market - the market of the European Union. Situation on the EU gas market changed considerably because of an imbalance between supply and demand. Gazprom had to make price concessions for almost all of the main consumers of Russian gas in Europe, and also had to allow European consumers to break one of the key provisions of long-term contracts - "take or pay" clause. Besides disputes at the corporate level significant differences still remain about the well-known Third energy package, which effectively prohibits Gazprom to own and operate gas pipelines on the territory of the EU, as well as binding it to provide a third party access to gas pipelines. The implementation of Third package provisions on function unbundling by some EU Member States in the most rigid version may contradict bilateral international agreements of Russia with the EU Member States, primarily agreements on investment protection. Possible reasons underlying the investigation initiated by the European Commission against Gazprom in connection with a possible violation ofEU competition rules are examined. The paper investigates legal, political and economic aspects of contemporary regime of gas cooperation, particularly restriction of reexport, linkage between gas and oil prices, pricing based on long-term contracts and spot markets. The paper concludes that Russia and the EU need to elaborate a comprehensive document that would ensure the stability of the regulatory environment of energy cooperation and would reflect the balance of interests of producers and consumers. This document should equally ensure highly competitive environment and guarantees of security of supply in the short and long term.

  9. Gazpromi hiidprojekt käivitub / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Venemaa gaasikontsern Gazprom kaasas Shtokmani maardla hõlvamisse Prantsuse kütusefirma ning seega on kindlustatud ka Läänemere gaasijuhtme ehitus. Lisa: Gazpromi Shtokmani gaasimaardla kuulub maailma suuremate sekka; Number. Vt. samas: Paindlik gaasifirma; Tootmine vindub

  10. Rosneft, Gazprom and the Government: the Decision-Making Triangle on Russia's Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baev, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    Russia finds itself exposed to many risks in the fast-moving global revolution in energy affairs, and cannot avail of its opportunities despite its unique combination of natural resources and experience in their exploitation. It has entered the phase of economic stagnation, and the under-performance of the energy sector is one of the key determinants of the durability of this trend. Energy export can no longer be wielded as a heavy-impact instrument of foreign policy, and the squabbles for shrinking oil and gas revenues form a key driver of the evolving crisis of the petro-authoritarian regime built by President Vladimir Putin. Escalating problems in the Russian energy sector are caused by the system of decision-making on oil and gas matters, in which Putin acts as a supreme arbiter in the flexible triangle formed by the government and two super-large state companies-Gazprom and Rosneft. It is the imperative of checking the decline of budget revenues that determines the priority in government policy of greater confiscation of profits and heavier taxation of the energy business. This squeeze on the interests of energy 'oligarchs' provokes them to appeal to Putin for tax breaks, which he is increasingly reluctant to grant, given the need to pursue an active social policy. The constant flow of insoluble issues makes Putin irritable and generally less engaged with the energy business than he used to be. Gazprom's notorious inefficiency in its core business emboldens competitors to capture greater shares of the domestic market and to demand exemptions from its export monopoly. Putin is loath to carry this political liability but remains reluctant to contemplate reforms that would amount to un-bundling of this conglomerate. Rosneft under the control of Igor Sechin has become the champion of the Russian oil industry, executing a series of acquisitions and signing a series of deals with Western 'majors'. Putin's benevolence is the key to the

  11. Saksamaa endine valitsusjuht saab gaasijuhtme eest pahandada / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Saksamaa opositsioonipoliitikud ning välismaa meedia kritiseerivad Saksa endise kantsleri Gerhard Schröderi asumist Vene-Saksa gaasijuhet rajava firma etteotsa. Korruptsiooni jälgiva organisatsiooni Transparency International Saksamaa esindaja hinnang

  12. Berliinis räägiti NordStreami venimisest / Raavo Raadik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raadik, Raavo

    2008-01-01

    Financial Times Deutschland (FTD) ajakirjanikud vahendasid Vene gaasikontserni Gazprom juhatuse liikme Valeri Jassevi kinnitusi, et gaasijuhtme esimene osa peaks valmima 2011. aastal ja 2012. aastal peaks algama esimesed gaasitarned. Seni oli NordStream lähtunud varasematest tähtaegadest

  13. Gazprom prirutshil ministra / Sergei Tushin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tushin, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    Peaminister Fredrik Reinfeldti juhitav uus Rootsi valitsus läheb ajalukku kui kõige ebastabiilsem valitsus Euroopas. Välisminister Carl Bildt on keerulises olukorras, kahtlustatakse, et tuntud poliitik ei suuda Moskvaga suheldes jäika joont pidada, kuna seoses naftaäriga omab majanduslikke huvisid Venemaal

  14. Gazprom pani Lukashenkole silmuse kaela / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Gazpromi ja Valgevene sõlmitud leppe kohaselt tõuseb gaasihind kaks korda ning hinnatõus jätkub, kuni 2011. a hakkab Valgevene tasuma Euroopaga võrdset hinda, Gazpromi käsutusse läheb pool Valgevenet läbivast gaasijuhtmest

  15. Gazprom alustas Euroopa vallutusretke / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putini ajal on Gazpromist kujundatud erakordselt võimas kontsern, mis on alustanud Euroopa avaneval energiaturul tõelist vallutusretke. Vt. samas: Lääne-Euroopas abiks partnerid; EL nõuab gaasimonopolilt kokkuahnitsetud varade jagamist; Ida-Euroopas teise relvaga

  16. Nash tshelovek v "Gazprome" / Virkko Lepassalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepassalu, Virkko, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Vene ajaleht Komsomolskaja Pravda avaldas infot, miks Eestile müüdi aastate jooksul jätkuvalt Euroopa tasemega arvestades odavamat gaasi. Ajaleht Vesti Dnja kontrollis Komsomolskaja Pravda andmete paikapidavust. Gaasihinna, põlevkiviõli hinna tõusust Eestis

  17. Gazprom – Kremls forlængede arm?: Gazprom – A political tool for the Kremlin?

    OpenAIRE

    Etzerodt, Clemens Ørnstrup; Wessberg, Elisabeth Retz; Crillesen, Emilie Lykke; Hansen, Lasse Friis; Grønborg, Rasmus; Krogh, Astrid Emilie Lavlund; Raun, Julie; Nørgaard, Mads Frid

    2011-01-01

    This project explores to what extent and how Russia can exploit their natural gas as a power-resource in regard to foreign policy toward the nations of the European Union. Our further analysis is based on the following theories: Realism, neo-realism, Nye’s definition of power and Keohane & Nye’s theory of complex interdependence. Following our analysis we have been able to conclude, that Russia’s supply of natural gas can be defined as a source of power dominated by the term hard power. A...

  18. Gazprom jätkab gaasitüli Bulgaariaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Bulgaaria majandus-ja energeetikaminister Rumen Ovtsharov teatas 6. jaanuaril, et Bulgaaria keeldub Vene gaasifirma Gazpromi nõudmistest vaadata üle gaasitransiitlepe Bulgaaria riikliku gaasifirmaga Bulgargaz

  19. Gazprom - lõks Venemaale endale / Kaarel Tarand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarand, Kaarel, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Hans Rebase Euroopa Instituudi korraldatud konverentsil tõdeti muu hulgas, et mida ulatuslikumalt Venemaa ainult ühele kaardile - maagaasile - mängib, seda hukatuslikum see talle on. Julgustades ja finantseerides laenudega Gazpromi arendamist, ehitatakse Venemaast multifunktsionaalset riiki, mille kogu elu sõltub ühe tööstuse tegevusest, ütleb autor

  20. Vene elektrivõrk : Gazprom on ebakindel gaasitarnija / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud rahvusvahelisel energiajulgeoleku konverentsil räägiti energia- ja keskkonnateemadel. Vene elektrivõrkude esindaja Marina Liborakina hoiatas Gazpromi vigade eest gaasi tarnimisel. Kommenteerib Briti nõustamisfirma E3G juhataja Nick Mabey

  1. Gazprom pani Euroopas jala tugevalt maha / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Venemaa ja Saksamaa suurkokkuleppe kohaselt kasvab Gazpromi osalus BASF-i energiaüksusega loodud ühisfirmas Wingas ligi pooleni, tugevdades Vene kontserni haaret Euroopa tarneturul. Kantsler Angela Merkeli ja president Vladimir Putini kohtumine Tomskis. Lisa: Venemaal endal ei jagu energiat

  2. Gazprom sai loa ehitada Peterburi pilvelõhkuja / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2009-01-01

    Kuberner Valentina Matvijenko andis UNESCO vastuseisust hoolimata loa ehitada Peterburisse 403 meetri kõrgune pilvelõhkuja. Gazpromi torni ehk Ohta keskuse projekteeris Briti arhitektibüroo RMJM. Viieküljeline hoone peaks muutuvas päikesevalguses värvi vahetama

  3. Gazprom v Alpahh : novõje perspektivõ / Vassili Zubkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zubkov, Vassili

    2007-01-01

    Venemaa-Austria riigijuhtide läbirääkimistel arutati võtmeküsimusena gaasitranspordiga seonduvaid probleeme. President Vladimir Putini Austria visiit tugevdas kahe riigi transiidialast koostööd

  4. Ukrainat süüdistav Gazprom omastab Türkmenistani gaasi / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Venemaa taastas maagaasitarned Euroopasse ning süüdistab Ukrainat gaasi varastamises. Ukraina eitab vargust ning väidab, et Venemaa pole gaasitransiidi eest alates aastavahetusest maksnud. Venemaa püüab seisata Türkmenistani gaasi müüki Ukrainale. Kaart: Venemaa gaasieksport

  5. Gazprom kasvab ja koos temaga tugevneb ka Venemaa mõjuvõim / Urmas Kiil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiil, Urmas

    2006-01-01

    Gazpromi gaasitarnete suurus ulatub 545 miljardi kuupmeetrini aastas, kompaniil on domineeriv roll Lääne-Euroopa varustamisel maagaasiga. Hiljuti omandas gaasifirma 25% Sahhalini saarel asuvatest nafta ja gaasi leiukohtadest, lisaks sellele on kompanii alustanud Barentsi meres asuvate maagaasi leiukohtade ekspluatatsiooni

  6. Dead souls

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Venemaa ei lase end gaasijuhtme Nord Stream kavandamisel häirida Euroopa Parlamendi liikme Andres Tarandi ja ajaloolase Mati Õuna väitel gaasijuhtme piirkonda jäävatest laevavrakkidest ja sõjahaudadest

  7. Keskklassi maailm võtab ilmet - 1920. aastate arhitektuurist / Mart Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Riigikoguhoonest. Sotsiaalehitus. Linnamajade ehitamine. Tööandja elamud. Asunikutalud. Spekulatiivne elamuehitus. Tallinna maja. Avalikud hooned. Puit traditsionalismi ja akademismi vahel. Importarhitektuur

  8. Gazprom as a Predictable Partner. Another Reading of the Russian-Ukrainian and Russian-Belarusian Energy Crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.

    2007-01-01

    The recent crises over oil and gas deliveries from Russia to Ukraine and Belarus have triggered alarm and virulent criticism in the West. This article describes how these conflicts are in fact not very different from those that took place in the early 1990's and reflect behind-the-scene conflicts between powerful factions inside the Kremlin and in Ukraine rather than the exercise of an 'energy weapon'. In the context of a European energy policy driven by Britain's panic at becoming a gas importer and by the ideological zeal to liberalize, the West should worry less about the exercise of a purported aggressive geopolitical strategy and more about Putin's lack thereof, and his inability to control his warring lieutenants. Above all, the West should stop considering that Russia owes Europe any gas beyond its contractual obligations, which it fulfills with alacrity. (author)

  9. Uus Ignalina tuumajaam ripub niidiotsas, mängu võib tulla ka Gazprom / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Uuringute tulemusena selgus, et Lietuvos Energia ei ole suuteline uue tuumajaama projektis osalema ning peab alles looma uue teovõimelise energiaettevõtte. Vt. samas: Reaktorite hulk kasvab plahvatades; Energia: lähinaabrite tuumajaamad

  10. Väärtuslikud setted jääksid kavandatava gaasitoru alla / Tanel Mazur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mazur, Tanel, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Narva Postiljon 1. sept. lk. 2. Akadeemik Anto Raukase sõnul ladestuvad Soome lahte Eesti majandustsooni raua- ja mangaanivarud, mis jääksid Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme alla. Lisa: Maavara. Vt. samas: Gaasijuhtme rajaja külastus lõppes tulemusteta

  11. Adamkus shares frank words with Schroeder / Seputyte Milda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milda, Seputyte

    2005-01-01

    Leedu president Valdas Adamkus kohtus Saksamaa kantsleri Gerhard Schröderiga ning avaldas pahameelt rajatava Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme üle. Balti riigid ja Poola on seisukohal, et ka nemad peaksid olema kaasatud läbirääkimistesse Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme rajamise suhtes

  12. Lea Endrikson - läheksin Venemaale tagasi, kui tööle kutsuks Gazprom või Lukoil / Lea Endrikson ; interv. Aive Antsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Endrikson, Lea, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Ilukaupluste keti TKM Beauty juht ning endine Venemaa Stockmanni kaubamajade turundusjuht Lea Endrikson vastab juhitööd, oma karjääri ning tööpakkumisi puudutavatele küsimustele. Lisa: TKM Beauty; Lea Endrikson

  13. Bridging Lithuania's energy gap / Adam Mullett

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mullett, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Leedu peab leidma võimalusi, kuidas leevendada pärast Ignalina tuumaelektrijaama sulgemist tekkivat energia defitsiiti. Võimalik on alternatiivenergia kasutamine, Rootsi ja Baltimaade vahelise elektrikaabli rajamine ning uue tuumaelektrijaama ehitamine

  14. Bauhaus otsustas siiski Eesti ehitusturule tulla / Sten-Aleks Pihlak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlak, Sten-Aleks

    2008-01-01

    Saksa hiigelkett Bauhaus tahab tulla Eesti ehituskaupade turule. Diagramm: Ehituskaupade müügiketid Euroopas ja Eestis. Vt. samas: Asukoht; Ehitamine on muutunud jälle sesoonseks tegevuseks; Lidl üritas, kuni väsis

  15. Per libros ad scientiam / Jüri Järs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järs, Jüri, 1951-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Raamatukogu sai 2008. aastal 90-aastaseks. Uue hoone ehitamine algas 2008. aasta veebruaris ja valmis 2009. aasta juunis. Uue hoone projekteerimisest valmimiseni, välis- ja sisekujundusest, lugemissaalide võimalustest ning tehnilistest lahendustest

  16. Fukushima tragöödia majanduslik mõju / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Fukushima õnnetuse järgselt võib väheneda tuumaelektriaamade ehitamine, mis mõjutab Jaapanit, kuna riik ekspordib tuumareaktoreid. Samuti on mitmed riigid seadnud piirangud Jaapanist eksporditud toodetele

  17. Talk of Russian-German pipeline still emotional

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Balti Assamblee on seisukohal, et Balti riikidesse on seoses Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme rajamisega hoolimatult suhtutud ning tuleb näha ohtu Läänemere põhjas asuvas Teisest maailmasõjast pärinevas keemiarelvas

  18. Looking for alternative energy supplies / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2010-01-01

    Vilniuses toimunud Balti Arengufoorumil räägiti energeetika teemadel. Euroopa Komisjoni presidendi Jose Manuel Barroso ja Leedu presidendi Dalia Grybauskaite kohtumisel räägiti Leedu-Poola gaasijuhtme rajamisest ja Euroopa integreeritud elektrienergiaturu loomisest

  19. "Kui Eesti ütleb gaasitorule ei, võib ka Rootsi öelda ei" / Carl B. Hamilton ; interv. Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hamilton, Carl B.

    2007-01-01

    Nord Stream on avaldanud soovi gaasijuhtme teenindusplatvormi rajamiseks Gotlandi juurde. Parlamendiliikme hinnangul peaks Rootsi valitsus ütlema ei nii teenindusplatvormile kui ka gaasitorule. Gaasijuhe on tema sõnul Venemaa projekt

  20. Tundmatu Eesti esindaja - kas teadlane või petis? / Koit Brinkmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brinkmann, Koit

    2007-01-01

    Nord Streami gaasijuhtme uuringute jaoks loa andmise otsustamise ajal käis Eestis uuringute tegemist propageerimas Moskva teadlane Arnold Pork. Küsimustele vastab Arnold Pork. Vt. samas: CV: Arnol Pork, August Pork, Valeri Pork

  1. Baltic ministers blast German-Russian pipeline

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti välisministri Artis Pabriksi arvates on Venemaa ja Saksamaa vahelise gaasijuhtme rajamise põhjused nii ärilised kui ka poliitilised. Ministri arvates on projekt kahjulik Läänemere-äärsetele riikidele

  2. Maagaas Läänemere regioonis / Mihkel Veiderma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veiderma, Mihkel, 1929-

    2006-01-01

    Ettekanne Balti Assamblee istungil 26. novembril 2005. aastal, kus autor rõhutab, et Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme ehitamisel tuleb põhjalikult uurida rajatise mõju Läänemere ökosüsteemile. Tabel. Kaardid. Diagramm

  3. Эстонские ученые против строительства Nord Stream

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia kirjast president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele ja peaminister Andrus Ansipile sooviga moodustada professionaalne komisjon, mis töötaks läbi Nord Streami gaasijuhtme keskkonnamõju hindamise materjalid

  4. Gaz nam ne ukaz / Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Josef, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Valitsuse eitavast otsusest Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme uuringute taotlusele, välisminister Urmas Paeti kommentaaridest pressikonverentsil. Välisminister leiab, et antud olukorras oli valitsuse otsus ainuõige

  5. Alexander Stubb: koostööleping Venemaaga peab tulema / Alexander Stubb ; interv. Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stubb, Alexander, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Soome välisminister usub, et parim viis Venemaa kaasamiseks Euroopas on Venemaa tihedam integreerimine Euroopaga, seega on koostööleping kohustuslik. Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme puhul on Soome jaoks küsimus keskkonnas

  6. Merkel: Nord Streami on meile vaja / Kalev Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalev

    2009-01-01

    Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedevi ja Saksamaa kantsleri Angela Merkeli kohtumisel käsitleti energeetikapoliitikat, D. Medvedev kutsus Rootsit üles toetama Nord Streami arendamist ning taunis Nabucco gaasijuhtme rajamist

  7. Läänemeri vs Nord Stream / Ene Kaups

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaups, Ene, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Riigikogu võttis vastu avalduse Läänemerre kavandatava gaasijuhtmega seotud keskkonnariskidest, kus avaldatakse muret, et Nord Stream AG poolt algatatud gaasijuhtme projekti rahvusvahelise keskkonnamõju hinnangutes ei ole piisavalt arvestatud kõigi seonduvate keskkonnariskidega

  8. Kultuuripealinn Riia 2014 / Artis Zvirgzdinš

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zvirgzdinš, Artis

    2014-01-01

    Riia kultuuriaasta projekti kuuluvad Läti Rahvusraamtukogu avamine, Spïķeri kvartali rekonstrueerimine, Vecmīlgrāvis kultuuripalee renoveerimine, infrastruktuuri projekt "Koka Rīga" ("puust Riia") ja Esplanaadi parki pop-up tellingutest paviljoni ehitamine.

  9. Sibeliuse Akadeemia, Helsingi Linnaorkester ja Raadio Sümfooniorkester saavad ühe katuse alla / Reet Marttila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marttila, Reet

    2004-01-01

    16. XI otsustati, et Helsingi Musiikkitalo ehitamine käivitub aastal 2005 ja lõpeb hiljemalt 2010. 2000. a. toimunud arhitektuurikonkursi võitsid Turu arhitektid Marko Kivistö, Ola Laiho ja Mikko Pulkkinen (LPR-arkkitehdit OY). Akustik Yasuhisa Toyota

  10. Erik Dahlbergi Narva bastionide projektist ja selle võimalikest eeskujudest / Ragnar Nurk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurk, Ragnar

    2015-01-01

    Narva kuulus Karl XI ja Dahlbergi poolt välja valitud väikese arvu kõige olulisemat kindluslinnade hulka, mille kaitseehitisi tuli tugevdada esimese järjekorras. Narva kindlustuste omapärast. Seoses Põhjasõja algusega jäi Narva kindluse ehitamine pooleli

  11. Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    23. X-22. XI 1998 Rotermanni soolalaos näitus 'Kopenhaagen ئ järjepidevuse kontseptsioonid' Näitusel on eristatud kolm osa : ehitamine, ümberkujundamine ja renoveerimine. Kujundus A. Kvorning. 22. okt. linnaplaneerimisalane seminar taani ja eesti arhitektide osavõtul. 11. nov. Taani Kuningliku Arhitektuuriinstituudi õppejõudude J. Kvorningi ja K. Martinusseni loengud

  12. UNESCO otsustab vanalinna saatuse kahe aasta pärast / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna külastanud UNESCO maailmapärandi komitee esindaja professor Giorgio Piccinato hoiatab linnavõime, et uute kõrghoonete ehitamine kesklinna ja Skoone bastioni erastamine võib kaasa tuua Tallinna vanalinna maailmapärandi nimistust väljaarvamise. Intervjuu Piccinatoga. Kommentaarid Jaan Tammelt, Indrek Toomelt, Yrjo Vanhanenilt

  13. Siim Kallas: Rail Baltica edeneb, aga veel pole mõtet kiirrongi oodata / Urmas Jaagant

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaagant, Urmas

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni voliniku Siim Kallase sõnul pole mingit põhjust, miks Eestis ei võiks sõita 200 km/h liikuvad kiirrongid, vajaliku raudtee ehitamine võib olla isegi odavam kui uus maantee. Kuid oluline on küsimus, kuidas tekitada erasektoris piisavalt suur kindlustunne, et Rail Baltica projekt ära tasub

  14. Eesti saab oma veekeskused / Priit Vare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vare, Priit, 1975-

    1999-01-01

    Aastaks 2001 kerkivad Tartusse ja Pärnusse Eesti esimesed veekeskused. Tartu vee- ja tervisekeskuse ehitamine on alanud. Projekteerija: AS Tari. Ehitaja: AS Ehitusfirma Rand & Tuulberg. Pärnusse tahab Kristine Center rajada kümblushotelli hoonesse, millest pidi saama uus mudaravila. Kommenteerivad Tartu abilinnapea H. Astok, Kristine Centeri investeeringute juhataja E. Parelo.

  15. Tsherez veka v sovremennost / Lev Livshits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Лившиц, Лев, 1924-2013

    2002-01-01

    Tallinnas Pikk tän. 19 asuvast hoonest: ehitamine, müük vene saatkonna tarbeks (1921), vene saatkonna ruumide kirjeldus. Seal on Kaire Tali valmistatud vene lipu värvides vaip ja Andrei Lobanovi vitraaž

  16. Lepingud kahe väikelaeva ehitamiseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Veeteede Amet sõlmis lepingud Uusikaupunki Työvene OY-ga kahe väikelaeva ehitamiseks, laevade ehitamine on osa ERDFi (European Regional Development Foundation) kaasfinantseeritavast projektist "Emajõe, Narva jõe ja Peipsi-Lämmijärve veeteede kaasajastamine ning eelduste loomine ohutu veeliikluse tagamiseks rekonstrueeritud veeteedel"

  17. Jesli ne atom, tak klimat / Ljubov Meinert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meinert, Ljubov

    2007-01-01

    Et kindlustada end elektrienergiaga, rajatakse Soomes viiendat tuumaelektrijaama, nõutakse valitsuse tasemel otsuse tegemist ka kuuenda tuumajaama ehituse kohta. Rootsis on seadusega uute tuumajaamade ehitamine keelatud. Soome tööandjad nõuavad USA-lt ja Hiinalt kasvuhoonegaaside vähendamist; tähelepanu juhtimiseks kliimamuutustele Arktikas on 2007-2008 kuulutatud polaaraastaks

  18. Meest sõnast, meeri sarvest! / Jürgen Rooste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooste, Jürgen, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinn saab 2011. a. Euroopa kultuuripealinnaks. Muutustest, mida autor usub Tallinnas toimuma hakkavat (Vabaduse väljakult kaob parkla, teatrid saavad juurdeehitused, peatatakse kõrghoonete ehitamine Pirita tee äärde, hoogustub kultuuritehase Polymer töö jm.)

  19. Ekspert: Nord Stream on kaheldav / Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Jaanus, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    Konsultatsioonifirma East European Gas Analysis direktor Mihhail Kortšemkin arvab, et Gazprom hülgab Nord Streami projekti, kui ta ei saa Rootsi ja Soome nõusolekut ehitamiseks 2010. aasta jooksul. Tema hinnangul riskib Gazprom pankrotiga, kui hakkab korraga ehitama gaasitoru läbi Läänemere ja Musta mere

  20. The Russian gas roads to the Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezunenko, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    In order to meet with the increasing demand of natural gas, Gazprom thinks non only to develop the existing roads but also to open new ones in the north and the south of Europe. In this future prospect, Gazprom plans to actively participate to the electric power production from natural gas. (O.M.)

  1. 78 FR 59663 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Paso Marketing Company, L.L.C., Gazprom Marketing & Trading USA, Inc. Description: Joint Petition for... Provisions of El Paso Marketing Company, L.L.C. and Gazprom Marketing & Trading USA, Inc. Filed Date: 9/17/13...: Discovery Gas Transmission LLC. Description: 2013 Tariff Revisions--Kinetica Interconnect to be effective 10...

  2. Gaasisõja teine vaatus Valgevenes / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Valgevene ja Gazprom pole jõudnud kokkuleppele Valgevenele tarnitava maagaasi hinna tõusus. Gazprom ähvardab järsult vähendada Valgevenesse tarnitava maagaasi kogust, Valgevene ähvardab tõsta maagaasi transiiditasu. Lisa: Kaukaasia valmistub samuti külmaks talveks

  3. Great oak trees from small acorns grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, Sally.

    1997-01-01

    The history of Avalon Oil is briefly outlined. The company has become the first foreign company to sign a joint venture oil deal with Russia's Gazprom. Topics covered include new drilling skills, building relations face-to-face with Gazprom assigning responsibility to the venture partners, tax breaks and political risk. (UK)

  4. EU Policy. A Debate on EU Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.; Kjoelbye, L.; Aaslund, A.; Zwitserloot, R.

    2008-01-01

    Views from four experts in the field of energy on the EU's energy policy, as laid down in the Third Package, are presented. Kjoelbye and Cohen argue about the pros and cons of unbundling, Aaslund defends the policy of reciprocity towards Gazprom, and Zwitserloot warns that Europe's anti-Gazprom policy endangers security of supply

  5. A modified Cournot model of the natural gas market in the European Union: Mixed-motives delegation in a politicized environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Thijs; Lier, Arie van; Witteloostuijn, Arjen van; Boon von Ochssée, Tim

    2012-01-01

    With Gazprom gaining prominence as the major supplier of natural gas in the European Union, the European gas market becomes more politicized. We assume that Gazprom's interest as a state monopolist is not only to maximize profit, but also to seek market power, presumably because this contributes to the geopolitical power of Russia at large. We introduce a modeling tool, so-called strategic delegation games, to analyze the implications of Gazprom's operation in the EU. By way of illustration, we model the case where Gazprom competes against two profit-maximizing rivals: Algerian Sonatrach and Norwegian Statoil. We prove that if Gazprom serves any of a comprehensive type of nonprofit objectives, the outcome is beneficial for the EU's consumers, as Gazprom's behavior shifts volumes up and brings prices down. - Highlights: ► We model the natural gas market in the EU. ► The fact that the major gas supplier Russia/Gazprom has nonprofit incentives is beneficial for EU's consumers. ► The nonprofit incentives increase Russia's market share and decrease the profits of its rivals.

  6. Russian natural gas policy and its possible effects on European gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, O.; Locatelli, C.

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing perception among Western European gas experts that Russia has developed a considerable gas surplus - the Russian gas bubble. Thus, the question clearly arises how much gas is available for export and how much gas, over the next 15 to 20 years, can the Russian quasi-monopolist Gazprom market in Western Europe. We consider that Gazprom's export strategy mirrors the approach of Russia's natural gas policy towards the Western European market. In this paper, we will focus on the characteristics of Gazprom's export strategy, its underlying logic, and its impact on Western European gas markets. As a consequence of Gazprom's export strategy, the Russian gas company faces today a price quantity dilemma. Gazprom's problem is to place as much gas as possible in the growing Western European gas market, without destroying downstream gas prices. We argue that Gazprom has adopted a market share expansion and downstream vertical integration strategy, aimed at capturing a part of the downstream gas rent. Although this strategy appears to have initiated a form of gas to gas competition in a number of European consumer markets, this strategy is not based on an aggressive price policy. However, in order to live up to its ambitions, there is a chance that Gazprom will have to somewhat relax traditional contract clauses, such as contract length, indexation terms and take or pay conditions. (author)

  7. Baltikum ja Poola juhiks Vene gaasi mööda maad / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Balti riigid ja Poola taotlevad Euroopa Komisjonilt toetust uuringu läbiviimiseks, mis keskenduks 2004. aastal välja pakutud Lätit, Leedut ja Poolat läbiva gaasijuhtme Amber projekti võrdlusele Nord Streami projektiga. Lisa: Nord Stream

  8. Raivo Vare : "Politizatsija forsirovala jestestvennõje protsessõ v tranzitnom dele" / Raivo Vare ; interv. Aleksei Starkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vare, Raivo, 1958-

    2007-01-01

    Transiidiküsimuste ekspert vastab küsimustele transiitkaubanduse, Venemaa transiidi mõju kohta Eesti majandusele, Ust-Luga ja Sillamäe sadamate arengu, Läänemerre rajatava Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme ja Eesti gaasivarustuse kohta

  9. Merkel manitses Putinit selgitama valulisi samme lähinaabritele / Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Kaarel, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 18. jaan. lk. 9. Saksa kantsler Angela Merkel kõneles kohtumisel Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putiniga majandus- ja energiaküsimuste, sh. Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme ning Iraani tuumaprobleemi teemadel. Vt. samas: Iraani tuumaküsimus jõuab ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogusse. Lisa: Kantsleri reisid

  10. Loodusfond avaldas muret gaasitoru pärast / Imbi Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Imbi, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 20. dets., lk 8. Helsingis peetud Maailma Loodusfondi (WWF) kohtumisel avaldasid keskkonnaorganisatsioonid muret Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme projekti ümbritseva salatsemise pärast: teadmata on selle täpne paiknemine ja keskkonnamõjud Läänemerele

  11. Памятник преградил путь Nord Stream / Туули Кох

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Кох, Туули

    2010-01-01

    Vene- Saksa gaasijuhtme ehituse sõlmpunktiks muutuval Gotlandil jäi Slite sadamasse Nord Streami raha eest ehitatud kaile ette mälestusmärk eestlastele ja lätlastele, kes 1944. aastal punavõimu eest põgenedes Gotlandile jõudsid. Kaart

  12. Nord Stream "ründas" Gotlandil Eestit / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2010-01-01

    Vene- Saksa gaasijuhtme ehituse sõlmpunktiks muutuval Gotlandil jäi Slite sadamasse Nord Streami raha eest ehitatud kaile ette mälestusmärk eestlastele ja lätlastele, kes 1944. aastal punavõimu eest põgenedes Gotlandile jõudsid. Kaart

  13. Carl Bildt : Gruusia edu põhineb Eesti eeskujul / Carl Bildt ; interv. Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bildt, Carl, 1949-

    2006-01-01

    Rootsi välisminister peab Gruusia puhul kõige tähtsamaks reformide jätkumist. Venemaal ja Gruusial tuleks oma erimeelsustest üle saada, EL ootab Venemaalt kinnitust Gruusia territoriaalse puutumatuse kohta. Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme rajamisel teeb Rootsile muret peamiselt selle projekti keskkonnaohtlikkus

  14. Analiz vmesto emotsii / Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Josef, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Peaminister Andrus Ansipi ja välisminister Urmas Paeti sõnul on valitsus küsinud Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme ehitamiseks vajalike teadusuuringute läbiviimiseks nõu enam kui 20 asutuselt, nende alusel tuleb teha kaalutletud otsus

  15. NordStream : "Toru tuleb niikuinii" / Jens Müller ; interv. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müller, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Nord Streami pressiesindaja hinnangul on Eesti majandusvööndis gaasijuhtme keskkonnauuringute mittelubamine keskkonna seisukohalt kahjulik, nüüd ei saa võrrelda, kas keskkonnasõbralikum oleks ehitada gaasitoru läbi Soome või läbi Eesti majandusvööndi

  16. Estonie : l'ombre de Moscou / Toomas Hendrik Ilves ; interv. Antoine Jacob

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves räägib Tõnismäe pronkssõduri ümberpaigutamisega 2007. a. aprillis kaasnenud rahutuste ajaloolistest tagamaadest, Eesti ja Venemaa suhetest, Euroopa Liidu toetusest Eestile, Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme projektist, Eesti ja Venemaa vahelisest piirilepingust, oma noorusaastatest Ameerika Ühendriikides, võõrkeelte oskusest

  17. Eestlased rajavad Veneetsiasse gaasitoru / Anneliis Aunapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aunapuu, Anneliis

    2008-01-01

    Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalil Eestit esindav arhitektuuribüroo Salto töögrupp (Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Neeme Külm) rajab sinna gaasijuhtme NordStream sümboli. 63 meetri pikkune skulpturaalne vorm kulgeb näitusepaviljonide vahel, biennaaliala peamise käigutee kohal. Kommenteerivad Ingrid Ruudi, Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke

  18. "Tänu gaasijuhtmele ujuvad varsti kõik kalad...!" / Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tigasson, Külli-Riin, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Poliitiliste argumentidega Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme rajamise vastu enam ei saa, sõnab artikli autor, ainus argument on keskkonnakaitse. Eesti huvides on nõuda, et gaasitrassi keskkonnaekspertiisi ei koostaks Saksamaa ja Venemaa kahekesi, vaid et see koostataks Läänemere-äärsete riikide koostöös

  19. Gaasitoru tõstatab olulisi küsimusi / Laila Põdra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põdra, Laila, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    XI Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalil esindas Eestit Maarja Kase, Ralf Lõokese ja Neeme Külma (Salto arhitektuuribüroo) gaasitoruinstallatsioon "Gaasitoru / Gas Pipe". Gaasijuhtme Nord Stream toruelementidest erkkollane 63 meetri pikkune skulpturaalne vorm kulges Giardini pargis näitusepaviljonide vahel. Projekti kuraator Ingrid Ruudi. Installatsiooniga kaasnes ajalehevormis kataloog. Eesti ekspositsiooni avamisel viibis biennaali üldkuraator Aaron Betsky

  20. Vene saadik Rootsis - gaasitorust ja Birmast / Evelyn Höglund

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Höglund, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    Venemaa Rootsi suursaadiku Aleksandr Kadakini esinemisest Rootsi televisiooni populaarses telesaates, kus ta avaldas oma seisukohti Birma sündmuste, Vene-Saksa rajatava gaasijuhtme teemadel, samuti Rootsi meedia kohta. Vt. samas: Valitsust ei kritiseeri, küll aga meediat; Demokraatia on Venemaal olemas

  1. Aserbaidžaani juhi enesekindlus köidab Euroopat / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    EL-ile on avaldanud muljet viis, kuidas Aserbaidžaani president Ilham Alijev on suutnud oma riigi energiaressursid mobiliseerida laiemate plaanide ja suhete teenistusse. Aserbaidžaan on ainus riik Taga-Kaukaasias, mis on loobunud EL-i abirahast, majanduskasv võib sel aastal ulatuda 25%-ni. Lisa: Nabucco. Gaasijuhtme kehv seis

  2. Statistika fiksirujet rost / Nikolai Uspenski ; interv. Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uspenski, Nikolai

    2006-01-01

    Venemaa suursaadik Eestis Nikolai Uspenski vastab küsimustele, mis puudutab tema hinnangut energeetikaalasele koostööle Euroopas, Põhja-Euroopa gaasijuhtme projekti, Vene-Eesti kaubandussuhteid, Venemaa prioriteete regionaalses koostöös, Vene erainvesteeringute mõju Eesti majandusele, probleeme Eesti-Vene piiripunktis Narvas ning Eesti-Vene kaubandus- ja majanduskokkuleppe sõlmimise perspektiive

  3. Nord Stream on väljakutse kodanikuühiskonnale / Tarmo Soomere ; üles kirjutanud Juune Holvandus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomere, Tarmo, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    Gaasijuhe Nord Stream läbi Läänemere Venemaalt Saksamaale ei tähenda ainult kasulikku äritehingut. Küsimus on ennekõike ohutust keskkonnast ja sellest, et riigid peavad kaaluma ka seda, mida järeltulevad põlved asjast arvavad. Akadeemik Tarmo Soomere selgitab rahvusvahelistesse vetesse rajatava gaasijuhtme temaatikat.

  4. Fukuyama : kõigepealt hea valitsus, siis demokraatia ja ajaloo lõpp / Francis Fukuyama ; interv. Nathan Gardels

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fukuyama, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Francis Fukuyama sõnul vajab riik oma arenguks esmajoones head valitsemist. Kõige olulisem on, et oleks toimiv riik, mis suudab tagada julgeoleku ja majandusarengu elementaarsed tingimused. Iraagi praeguste probleemide põhjus on selles, et USA ei suutnud ette näha, kuidas riik Saddami kukkudes kokku variseb, kuid tuleb mõista, et aeg-ajalt on USA ja kogu maailma huvides kusagil maailma nurgas riigi ehitamine tõsiselt ette võtta, ütleb autor

  5. Kaitsevägi hangib iseliikuvaid suurtükke / Andres Einmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Einmann, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Kaitseministeerium kulutab tuleval aastal investeeringuteks 43,26 miljonit eurot. Kavas on hankida uut sõjatehnikat: suurtükke ja lahingumasinaid, teine Thales Raytheoni Ground Master 403 tüüpi radar, Sisu XA-188 soomukeid. Suurim projekt on viie kasarmu ehitamine: aasta lõpuks valmivad neli kasarmut Võrus, Jõhvis ja Ämaris ning peale selle renoveeritakse üks hoone Miinisadamas

  6. Hea on elada Venemaal rahas supleva Gazpromi töötajana / Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Jaanus, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Gazpromi kontserni suurimast tütarettevõttest Jamali Neenetsi ringkonnas Gazprom Dobõtša Urengoist, töötajate palgast, nn. põhjatoetusest, puhkusest; ringkonna-poolsest noorte edasiõppimise toetamisest. Urengoi linnast

  7. Brüssel lasi Eesti Gaasi hoone läbi otsida / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu konkurentsiametnikud korraldasid läbiotsimise Vene energiaettevõttes Gazprom ja selle klientide kontorites, kahtlustades turu kuritarvitamist, läbiotsitud firmade seas on ka Eesti Gaas

  8. CONTROLLING AS A MECHANISM TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT ENTERPRISES OF FUEL-ENERGY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ostashkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibility of application of controlling as mechanism of increasing the efficiency of management of enterprises of fuel- energy complex. The research was conducted on the materials of the JSC «Gazprom».

  9. Bolshoi vopross : Dolzhnõ li mõ bojatsja kontrolja Kremlja nad energetitsheskim snabzhenijem Jevropõ?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Venemaa valitsuse poolt kontrollitav Gazprom kuulub maailma suurimate maagaasi tootjate hulka ning rahuldab 20 protsenti maailma nõudlusest, kontserni tähtsusest Lääneriikide ja Venemaa jaoks. Gazpromi huvist Suurbritannia firma Centrica vastu

  10. Gazpromile oli eelmine aasta rekordiliselt hea / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2007-01-01

    Vene riikliku gaasifirma Gazprom eksporditulud kasvasid 2006. aastal 43%, kasvas ka kodumaine gaasimüük. Eesti Gaasi käibe kasvust ja gaasihinna tõusust. Riigikogu väliskomisjoni aseesimehe Marko Mihkelsoni hinnang

  11. Latvijas Gaze buyback likely to flop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Veerandi Läti gaasifirma Latvijas Gaze omanik Itera kavatseb lähiajal lõpule viia üheksa protsendi Läti firma aktsiate müügi ettevõttele Gazprom. Gazprom'i kontrolli all on praegu 25 protsenti, Ruhrgas'il 28,66 ning E.ON Energie AG-l 18,06 protsenti Latvijas Gaze aktsiatest

  12. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    billion4 contract (September 1997) for Total SA of France and its partners, Gazprom of Russia and Petronas of Malaysia to develop phases 2 and 3 of the 25...companies. On July 12, 2008, Total and Petronas , the original South Pars investors, pulled out of a deal to develop a liquified natural gas (LNG...do not exceed the $20 million in one year threshold for ISA sanctionability. Since the Total/ Petronas /Gazprom project in 1998, no projects have

  13. Kremlis pannakse paika maagaasi hinnatõus Eestis / Vallo Toomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toomet, Vallo, 1960-

    2005-01-01

    Vene riigiduuma esitas 8. juulil peaminister Mihhail Fradkovile pöördumise, milles palutakse vaadata üle Eestisse, Lätisse, Leedusse, Ukrainasse ja Moldovasse tarnitava gaasi hind. Lisa: Eesti Gaasil on üle 120 000 kliendi. Vt. samas: Gaasitrass Saksamaale. Kaart: Gazprom osaleb uue gaasitoru rajamisel; Gazprom - Vene riigi rahasalv. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud Eesti Gaasi müügiteenuste ettevõtte direktori Raul Kotoviga

  14. Valgevene sai Gazpromilt nädala hingetõmbeaega võla tasumiseks / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    Valgevene maksis Venemaa gaasiettevõttele Gazprom poole kogunenud võlast, kuid Vene ettevõte nõuab kõigi võlgnevuste tasumist nädala jooksul. President Aljaksandr Lukashenka sõnul püüab Venemaa gaasivõlga kasutades sundida Valgevenet oma väärtuslikemaid varasid müüma sellistele ettevõtetele nagu Gazprom

  15. Gazpromil tuleb rahast puudus kätte / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 16. juuli, lk. 7.Venemaa president Vladimir Putin ja Prantsusmaa president Nicolas Sarkozy leppisid kokku, et Gazpromi partneriks seni suurimate veealuste maagaasivarude kaevandamisel Barentsi meres asuval Shtokmani leiukohal saab Prantsuse firma Total. Lisa: Kas teate? Vt. samas: Jürgen Tamme. Läänemere põhja plaanitava gaasijuhtme tulevik on ebamäärane

  16. Kremli hirmud / ref. Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. apr. lk. 11. Kokkuvõte Venemaa naftakompanii Jukos endise juhi Mihhail Hodorkovski advokaadi Robert Amsterdami esinemisest Tartu Ülikooli Õigusinstituudis, kus ta rääkis Venemaa võimude tegevusest meeleavalduste laialiajamisel ja kritiseeris president Vladimir Putini poliitikat ning Saksamaa endise kantsleri Gerhard Schröderi koostööd Venemaaga Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme projektis

  17. Nord Streami keskkonnamõjude aruanne jätab tähelepanuta Läänemere eripära / Madis Filippov ; kommenteerinud Ivar Puura, Tarmo Soomere, Endel Lippmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Filippov, Madis

    2009-01-01

    Teadlastes tekitavad ärevust Vene-Saksa ühisfirma Nord-Streami poolt Läänemerre kavandatava gaasitoru keskkonnamõjud. Artiklis on juttu ka Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia kirjast president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele ja peaminister Andrus Ansipile sooviga moodustada professionaalne komisjon, mis töötaks läbi Nord Streami gaasijuhtme keskkonnamõju hindamise materjalid. Vt. samas: Dioksiinide kontsentratsioon setetes; Nord Streami gaasijuhe

  18. Sakslased vallutasid Siberi gaasimaardla / Arne Luht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luht, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Venemaa president Vladimit Putin ja Saksama kantsler Gerhard Schröder viibisid Hannoveris maailma suurimal tööstusmessil. Sõlmiti leping, mille kohaselt hakkab Saksa keemiakontserni BASF tütarfirma Wintershall esimese välisfirmana Siberis koos Gazpromiga gaasi puurima, alla kirjutati ka lepingule gaasijuhtme rajamise kohta Viiburist läbi Läänemere Saksamaale. Vene kartelliamet välistas Saksa firma Siemens osaluse ettevõttes Silovõje Mashinõ

  19. Gas-workers not wonts by only carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2003-01-01

    Paper deals with the own production of the co-owner of the Slovensky plynarensky podnik, a. s. (SPP). Gas de France mines gas in North Sea shelf. Algeria and Egypt should become the important source in next years. Ruhrgas also mines in North Sea. It owns 6.5% part in Gazprom. Ruhrgaz is interested in gas production directly in Russian Federation. Preliminary discussions are going hand in hand with Lukoil and Sevmorneftegaz companies. Lukoil supposes that possible attendance of Ruhrgas should help to get necessary capital of 1.5 billions Euro. Ruhrgaz is interested in gigantic Shtokmanovskoe deposit in Barents Sea shelf of Sevmorneftegaz Company. Total capital costs are estimated to 18 billions USD. But one of the problems remaining is closed statute of this part of Russian Arctic. Gazprom is also interested in new sources. Gazprom signed contract with Turkmenistan. Gazprom will purchase two trillions m 3 of gas until 2028 in accordance with it. In present time the export to Europe represents 135 billions m 3 annually, but according to signed long-term contracts this capacity will increase up to 180 billions m 3 after 2008. Because the domestic Russian mining is descending or stagnating, Gazprom is unable to start exploitation of new gigantic deposits in Yamal, company is forced to cover threatening deficit of gas by deliveries from Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. So the possible competition of these countries is simultaneously eliminated in international markets. (Author)

  20. Russian natural gas exports-Will Russian gas price reforms improve the European security of supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagen, Eirik Lund; Tsygankova, Marina

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we use both theoretical and numerical tools to study potential effects on Russian gas exports from different Russian domestic gas prices and production capacities in 2015. We also investigate whether a fully competitive European gas market may provide incentives for Gazprom, the dominant Russian gas company, to change its export behaviour. Our main findings suggest that both increased domestic gas prices and sufficient production capacities are vital to maintain Gazprom's market share in Europe over the next decade. In fact, Russia may struggle to carry out its current long-term export commitments if domestic prices are sufficiently low. At the same time, if Russian prices approach European net-back levels, Gazprom may reduce exports in favour of a relatively more profitable domestic market

  1. Riik - see on kodanik / Külliki Kübarsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübarsepp, Külliki

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Lõunaleht, 22. nov. 2007, lk. 4; Oma Saar, 23. nov. 2007, lk. 5; Pärnu Postimees, 23. nov. 2007, lk. 15; Harjumaa, 23. nov. 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 23. nov. 2007, lk. 8; Põhjarannik, 24. nov. 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 24. nov. 2007, lk. 5; Lääne Elu, 27. nov. 2007, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 27. nov. 2007, lk. 11; Vooremaa, 27. nov. 2007, lk. 2. Põllumajandusministri nõuniku sõnul on kodaniku ülesanne riikluse ehitamine, mis tähendab meie jaoks peamiselt olemasolevate valitsusinstitutsioonide tugevdamist

  2. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  3. EBRD accelerates funding of energy projects in former USSR and East European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    In the period mid November 1996 to mid January 1997, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development announced involvement in seven projects. The largest was a 220 million loan to Gazprom. The financial arrangements for each of the seven projects are detailed. (author)

  4. Alliances - Another Way to Access the Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, Yuri A.

    1999-01-01

    The late 1990s were a difficult period for the world economy: decreased economic growth rate, dropping prices for energy and other raw materials, dropping import prices of natural gas. Companies involved in the energy business are currently at the stage of survival. High-priced projects with increased risks are postponed until better times. Consequently, Gazprom had to cut investments by two thirds. For Gazprom, the problems have been aggravated by the transition from authoritatively planned economy to market economy. Alliances are one of the most effective current methods of operation in the natural gas market. Alliances between Gazprom and leading Western oil and gas companies are beneficial both to the participants and the consumers because such alliances will provide for creation of a service package of the 21th century. The importance for Gazprom of cooperation with its alliance partners is that it makes it possible to implement cost-cutting measures that benefit both producers and consumers. It also makes it possible to ensure reliable distribution of the gas

  5. Iraq: Oil and Gas Sector, Revenue Sharing, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    Statoil (Norway) 1,800,000* Majnoon Shell, Petronas (Malaysia) 1,800,000* Halfaya CNPC, Total (France), Petronas 535,000 Gharraf Japex (Japan... Petronas 230,000 Badra Gazprom (Russia), Petronas , TPAO (Turkey) 170,000 Qayara/Najmah Sonangol (Angola) 230,000* Select KRG Production Sharing

  6. IRAN SANCTIONS: Impact in Furthering U.S. Objectives is Unclear and Should be Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    three foreign companies—Total (France), Gazprom (Russia), and Petronas (Malaysia)–in the development of Iran’s South Pars gas field were sanctionable...report stated that Petronas had only limited connections to the United States and Total had divested many of its U.S. assets prior to entering into

  7. Gaas on paksem kui veri / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2010-01-01

    Muutustest rahvusvahelisel gaasiturul. Poola energeetikaettevõte PGNiG on loomas koos Gazpromiga konsortsiumi maagaasi ühiseks tootmiseks Siberis. Poola hakkab saama maagaasi odavamalt kui ülejäänud Euroopa riigid, Gazprom saab arvatavasti vastutasuks juurdepääsu Poola torutranspordile

  8. The feasibility of the liberalization of the russian gaseous industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2002-11-01

    This paper deals with the main lines of the russian gaseous industry reform, Gazprom. The historical aspect and the objectives are discussed. After this presentation the author analyzes the uncertainties of the reform implementing, the constraints and the liberalization feasibility. (A.L.B.)

  9. Aastavahetuse gaasi-deja vu / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Venemaa gaasiettevõtte Gazprom ja Valgevene gaasiläbirääkimised gaasihinna ja transiidilepingu üle on ummikusse jooksnud, mistõttu võib 2007. aasta algusest Euroopa gaasita jätta. Kaart: Gaasitransiit Euroopasse

  10. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  11. Europe’s Dependence on Russian Natural Gas: Perspectives and Recommendations for a Long-Term Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Ukraine, Poland, and the  Slovak  republic. 64 As part of the gas deal  with Belarus, over the next several years, Gazprom will gain 50% of the equity of...reference=IP/08/1099&format=HTML&aged=0& language =EN&guiLanguage=en  (accessed July 14, 2008).]  110  Stephen Boykewich, “St. Petersburg Mining Institute...trillion m 3 (which Gazprom  labels  its  key strategic asset), the Sakhalin Island projects  in the Sea of Okhotsk, estimated at 2.7 trillion  m 3 ,  and

  12. Liberalization of Russian gas exports: benefits and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakunina Alla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian gas export liberalization has been discussed throughout the post-Soviet period. Recently, the number of Gazprom’s export monopoly advocates has been diminishing as a result of dramatic changes in both European and Russian gas markets, which are: increasing international trade in liquefied natural gas; the EU movement from long-term contracts to the commodity markets and hub pricing; substantially increased share of the non-Gazprom gas suppliers at the Russian domestic market. Although there is a potential risk of price decrease in the EU gas market in the case of the Gazprom export monopoly abolition, the benefits of the Russian gas export liberalization would be greater than losses. The gas resource base and the cost of pipeline gas production would allow Russia to improve its positions in the world market.

  13. Associated petroleum gas in Russia: reasons for non-utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeland, Tonje Hulbak

    2010-10-22

    This report studies the factors hindering increased utilization of associated petroleum gas (APG) in Russia. The issue of flaring versus utilization is studied from a Technology Innovation System (TIS) perspective, seeing the non-utilization issue as a problem of technology diffusion. There are many technological options available for APG utilization, but a main blocking mechanism in the Russian case is the Gazprom monopoly on gas transportation via their pipelines. A commonly discussed solution is policy to ensure third party access, but this study finds that this solution holds little potential, as its ramifications are too extensive and unacceptable to the key actor Gazprom. More promising solutions may be found in small, emerging engineering companies. (Author)

  14. Should DoD be Concerned with Potential Petroleum Supply Shortage and What Could It Do to Stimulate Alternative Fuels Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    barrels of oil equivalent 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Saudi Aramco Gazprom INOC Qatar Petroleum PDVSA ADNOC Sonatrach Libya NOC Rosneft Petronas ...trouble competing in the open market. The inhibitor to investment in ventures with higher costs than competitors ’ is risk that market prices will fall...investigate in detail the probable validity of these figures and projections themselves. An independent broker’s analysis of this debate may help

  15. Italian mission. Found a consortium with Italgas and win a Greek tender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejovic, R.; Kinces, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this interview two projects of the company Slovak Gas Industry (SPP) are discussed. The first project is SPP's joint participation in the international tender on introduction of gas in Greece. The second project regards the construction of a steam-gas power plant nearby the town of Lucenec. This project has already entered a certain stage of solution and a third partner that has been approached - Russian gas company Gazprom - is to become involved in it. (authors)

  16. Disputes between Russia and its neighbours concern also transit through Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the problems with transit of natural gas from Russia to European Union and the possibilities of its solution are presented. Main problems are in Ukraine and Belarus and they are discussed. These disputes concern natural gas transit through Slovakia. Gazprom considers a construction of new pipelines from Russia to Germany under Baltic Sea. The investments for its realisation are estimated to 5 billion USD

  17. The energy sector abroad. Part 12. The Czech Republic. Spider in the European natural gas web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    The natural gas industry in the Czech Republic is one of the oldest in Europe. In the past, natural gas has played a modest role in the Czech energy supply: coal and town gas from coal and lignite were the major energy sources. However, more and more use is made of natural gas, imported from Russia (Gazprom) and Norway. Besides, the Czech natural gas distribution, transportation and storage system occupies a key position in the Central-European natural gas network

  18. Leading Players of the Global Oil and Gas Industry. Overview of Groups - SWOTs - Benchmarking - Company Profiles and Financials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Overview: The Sector, Ranking, Performance Analysis; 2. Company Profiles: Sinopec, PetroChina, Shell, ExxonMobil, BP, Total, Chevron, Gazprom, Lukoil, Eni; 3. Sources; 4. Annexes

  19. Soviet Union: priority development of gas industry forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernomyrdyn, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    The development of gas production and utilization in the Soviet Union is outlined, and the substantial contribution of the gas industry in restraining negative processes in the economy during the transition to a market economy is highlighted. The state owned Gazprom concern which is responsible for gas supply, the large ringed Integrated Gas Supply Systems, exports, underground gas storage, potential reserves, and the growth in gas productions are discussed. (UK)

  20. Eesti gaasiküsimustes : õnnis nagu palderjani nuusutanud kass / Virkko Lepassalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepassalu, Virkko, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Kehtiva Euroopa Liidu nn gaasidirektiivi 55/2003 järgi soovitatakse gaasi tootmine ja levitamine viia eraldi ettevõtete kätte, praegu ettevalmistatav regulatsioon muudaks selle kohustuslikuks. Seega peaks Gazprom oma 37% -lise osaluse Eesti Gaasis maha müüma. Eesti Gaasi kui sisulise monopolisti hoidmine Gazpromi filiaalina Eestis ohustab otseselt meie julgeolekut. Vt. samas: Välisminister Urmas Paeti kiri Nord Streamile; Nord Streami kaanepoisid

  1. Účtování finančních investic dle ruských účetních standardů

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the accounting principles for financial investments under Russian accounting standards. The theoretical part defines financial investments for the accounting purposes, on the process of their recognition, the initial and subsequent measurement, the decommissioning of these assets. The practical part consists of a short financial analysis of the "Gazprom" corporation and the detailed study of its accounting policy. In conclusion, it occurs that the company "Gazp...

  2. Today or not today: Deregulating the Russian gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryev, Yuli

    2007-01-01

    Although Russia is the world's biggest producer of natural gas, its ability to maintain timely and reliable supply to meet the growing global demand has come under question in recent months. The gas war with Ukraine notwithstanding, concern has been raised by a number of observers that underinvestment in the gas sector will lead to a systemic failure of the state monopolist OAO Gazprom to increase or even maintain current levels of production. Yet with a quarter of European gas coming from Russia, and with increasing presence of Gazprom in European downstream operations (such as Germany, Hungary, and other CIS states) as well as seemingly closer ties with Algeria, another major supplier of gas to Europe, there has been a strong reaction from Europe's policy-makers to decrease dependence on Russian gas. Deregulating and liberalising the gas sector would see the lifting of restrictions to foreign or independent investors wishing to gain access to Russian reserves, as well as the unhindered access to the pipeline infrastructure and export markets. It would also signal the unbundling of Gazprom and an end to the artificially low price of gas to the domestic consumer. This paper discusses whether deregulation is the optimal way to raise capital, attract investment and increase supply security for Russia's Western neighbours. In doing so, the paper identifies the objectives of the EU as the importer whilst trying to align them with the objectives of the Russian Federation as the exporter, in the current political context

  3. The natural gas industry in Russia: reforms in debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Due to the emergence of shale gas in the USA, Russia has become the second world producer of natural gas but this industry remains one of the most important sectors of the Russian economy as natural gas exports are an essential component or the Russian economic policy. Addressing this industry, the author first comments the evolutions of gas production since 1960 and its perspectives by 2020 and 2030. He also outlines the importance of the cost issue associated with the choice between mega projects and smaller ones. In a second part, the author comments and discusses the evolutions of gas exports towards Europe and of the export strategy. He evokes the possibility of arbitration between price and quantity in Gazprom's strategy, the possibility of a strategy of downstream integration on European gas markets, the possibility of a diversification of export markets (notably LNG markets as several LNG projects are planned). In the third part, the author describes the Gazprom model, comments the recurring debate on a reform of this holding, and discusses its quantity-based management and the issue of Gazprom's efficiency. He briefly evokes the issue of reform of the Russian gas industry, the progressive emergence of new actors

  4. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  5. Total down to work for Chtokman's gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyre, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the exploitation contract signed with Gazprom, Total group, partner of the project with StatoilHydro, has started the feasibility study for the huge Chtokman gas field in Russia (Barents sea). A definitive investment decision should be given within less a year. The pre-project phase started in summer 2008 but nothing has been decided yet. Russia has two big projects in competition: Chtokman and Kharasavey in Yamal province. Considering the extreme climate conditions and the technical challenges, Russia will need the experience of foreign partners. (J.S.)

  6. The Opacity of Russian-Ukrainian Energy Relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubien, A.

    2007-01-01

    Energy issues lie at the heart of Ukraine's economic, political and strategic challenges. A year after the 'orange revolution', the 'gas war' served to highlight the country's vulnerable position, being 80% dependent on imports of gas and having the world's most energy hungry economy. The 2005 crisis also highlighted the extreme opacity of the country's bilateral relations with Russia, which are governed as much by the interests surrounding Gazprom's relations as by those of the state. Yanukovich's return to power in the summer of 2006 coincided with a relative appeasement of relations with Moscow and a new division of spheres of influence in the Ukrainian energy sector. (author)

  7. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveeva, Anna [Royal Institute of International Affairs, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK).

  8. Designing economic and legal mechanism of land management in oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibulnikova, M R; Pogharnitskaya, O V; Strelnikova, A B

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of economic and legal relationship in the sphere of land management provided by Russian government. The gas pipeline construction serves as an example to analyze the problems connected with leasing of both federal and privately owned lands. Comparative analysis of costs made by Gazprom to lease the lands at the stage of construction has been conducted. It has been concluded that the government should regulate relationships within the land sector to harmonize the interests of the Federation and private landowners

  9. Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals investigates a broad variety of cases presenting clear evidence of fast successful internationalization of emerging economy multinationals originating not only from big economic players such as China, India and Russia but also from other...... successfully internationalizing emerging countries, namely South Africa and Poland. In terms of size, the firms vary from huge multinational firms such as Huawei, Tata and Gazprom, to really small high technology firms. The in-depth analysis conducted in this book leads to the indication of numerous novel...

  10. Integrated diagnostics of northern gas pipelines; Diagnostic integre des gazoducs septentrionaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volsky, E.; Dedikov, E.; Ananenkov, A.; Salchov, Z.; Yakupov, Z. [Joint-Stock Company, Gazprom (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The main part of gas joint - stock company 'Gazprom' extracts from the northern deposits, which are situated in the permafrost zone. Ensuring of gas transporting pipeline's safety operation is a very complex and priority problem. On the basis of usage of this complex of methods the problem to ensure the safety operation is solved systematically: gas-mine - plant IV - derivation pipelines (condensate pipeline Yamburg Novy Urengoy, gas pipeline IV - GCS with negative temperature of transported products) taking into account 'co-ordination' dynamics of changes in pipeline GTS and technological modes of equipment operation. All researches was executed on the high professional level. (authors)

  11. Gas Hubs. South Stream. A grand geopolitical gamble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaletos, I.

    2008-01-01

    June 2007, the Russian energy company Gazprom and the Italian oil company Eni, signed a momentous accord for the building of a 8,200 km long gas pipeline running from the Black Sea port of Beregovaya to various points in western and eastern Europe. The project, South Stream - the sister pipeline to the Nord Stream pipeline that is being built from Russia to Germany - has far-reaching economic and political ramifications, and will influence energy policies on a Pan-European scale

  12. Cooperation between Russia and Vietnam in Oil and Gaz Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К S Karapetyan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems and prospects of Russian-Vietnamese strategic partnership in the oil and gas industry as an example a 30-year practice of «Vietsovpetro». Exploration and production of oil and gas remains to be the most important part of economic and trade relations between two countries. Signed agreement extends the activities of «Vietsovpetro» until 2030, and projects of Russian companies Lukoil, Gazprom and TNK-BP suggests that Russia has managed to interest the Vietnamese side to continue the mutually beneficial cooperation. However, current international realities require the ongoing development of promising new projects, including investment.

  13. Russia set to dominate global gas supplies. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrebowski, C.

    1996-01-01

    This series of linked articles offers an historical prespective on the development of the gas industry in Russia as July 1996 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the completion of the Saratov-Moscow pipeline, marking, as it did, the start of that industry. The highly successful Gazprom, the leading Russian full supplier, looks set to dominate the European and even global market via exports of gas from Russia's huge natural gas reserves. With Western investment becoming available, the industry is likely to see a new era of expansion and development. Natural gas, as a possible alternative fuel for automobiles and aircraft, is considered. (UK)

  14. The viability of deregulation in the Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2003-01-01

    The reform of Gazprom has triggered much discussion in Russia and at an international level, because the aim of the reform exceeds the sectorial economic interests. On one hand, its success depends to some extent on the level of progress made by economic reforms overall. On the other hand, it depends on the structure of the industrial system which has resulted of the mass privatisation programmes and the non monetization of the economy during the 1990. Having set out the main aspects of the planned reforms, this paper looks at their attractiveness and feasibility. (A.L.B.)

  15. Money matters. Financial world looks at oil companies with Argus eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gool, M.

    2008-01-01

    The financial markets foresee high risks in the energy sector for the big, private oil companies such as ExxonMobil, Shell and BP. It appears that these companies are undervalued, In contrast, financial backers are justifiably positive about companies providing services to the oil sector, such as Schlumberger and Halliburton, and 'utilities', such as Eon and EDF, which still have considerable room for growth, The relatively high valuation of state-controlled oil and gas companies such as Gazprom is somewhat more speculative

  16. Hyped up. Energy policy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapper, Manfred; Weichsel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The volume covers the following issues: Russia's promotion to an energy super power - history of a European interlocking; the large uncertainty - The US shale gas boom, EU and Russia; natural gas in central Asia and the Caspian area; natural gas - price and modernization, price policy and energy efficiency in Russia; the partners Winterhall - Gazprom; the regulation of the petroleum boom in the post -Soviet region; nuclear energy in Eastern and Western Europe, reactions following Chernobyl and Fukushima; renewable energies in Russia; Hiroshima from the Soviet view; debate: cooperation is required, German policy concerning Russia.

  17. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, Anna

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK)

  18. Cruising round the Caspian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Paul

    1997-12-31

    The combined offshore potential of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, could result in the Caspian becoming one of the world`s most important oil and gas producing regions. Foreign companies are committed to investing over 30 billion dollars in various oil and gas developments in the region over the coming decades but Russian policy aims could create problems. Difficulties are already being experienced over pipelines for the export of oil and gas from the region. The conflict in Chechnya has thrown doubt on the export of oil from Baku via the Russian pipeline and an alternative route using a refurbished pipeline through Georgia to the Black Sea is becoming an increasingly important option. Turkmenistan, the world`s fourth largest natural gas producer, relies on a pipeline owned by the Russian Gazprom to supply its main customers in Azerbaijan, Georgia and Ukraine but on a number of occasions in recent years Gazprom has refused to carry the gas. The provision of alternative pipelines to Iran and Pakistan has attracted the support of foreign investors. Further problems could arise over arguments as to whether the Caspian is an inland sea or a lake. The resolution of this question will determine exploitation rights of the five littoral states with Russia, backed by Iran, having a major stake in the outcome. (UK)

  19. Cruising round the Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul.

    1996-01-01

    The combined offshore potential of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, could result in the Caspian becoming one of the world's most important oil and gas producing regions. Foreign companies are committed to investing over 30 billion dollars in various oil and gas developments in the region over the coming decades but Russian policy aims could create problems. Difficulties are already being experienced over pipelines for the export of oil and gas from the region. The conflict in Chechnya has thrown doubt on the export of oil from Baku via the Russian pipeline and an alternative route using a refurbished pipeline through Georgia to the Black Sea is becoming an increasingly important option. Turkmenistan, the world's fourth largest natural gas producer, relies on a pipeline owned by the Russian Gazprom to supply its main customers in Azerbaijan, Georgia and Ukraine but on a number of occasions in recent years Gazprom has refused to carry the gas. The provision of alternative pipelines to Iran and Pakistan has attracted the support of foreign investors. Further problems could arise over arguments as to whether the Caspian is an inland sea or a lake. The resolution of this question will determine exploitation rights of the five littoral states with Russia, backed by Iran, having a major stake in the outcome. (UK)

  20. Russians and Ukrainians plan new gas line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TREND

    2003-01-01

    Paper deals with the building of new gas line between Russia and the Ukraine. In September 2003 Gazprom and Naftohaz Ukraine signed protocol about conditions of Russian gas transit through Ukrainian area for 2004. There is guaranteed quantity of transported gas on the level of 127,8 billions cubic meters by Russian side, 110 billions of it should next lead to Europe. Treaty refills long-term contract between Naftohaz and Gazprom about gas transit through Ukraine for period 2003-2013. Both countries and its companies plan to accept particular capital decision about building of new gas line Novopskov-Uzgorod till end of this year, which will be parallel with gas line Soyuz. It will allow to enlarge transportation system capacity by 28 billion cubic meters. Construction of about 1600 km long ducting system will require 1.6 billion USD by annual capacity about 15 billion cubic meters. If capacity would be doubled by construction of another compressor stations, capital expenses rise to 2.2 billions USD. It can be completely built in 7 years. Its linear part with one compressor can be already built in 3 years. Slovensky Plynarensky Podnik (SPP) would certainly have advantages from possible realisation of new gas line and from consequential transit increase. (Author)

  1. The Russian strategy of gas export: Europe against Asia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2005-01-01

    Can we say that today's gas strategy of Russia is the continuation of the one implemented by the former USSR? Three factors have to be taken into consideration: the liberalization of the European gas market is a major stake with lot of constraints but also lot of opportunities. This deregulation may lead to sensible evolutions of the organization of Russia's gas industry since the question of gas supply costs has to face the competition that should develop in the European market. Also, the possible integration of some Central and Eastern Europe countries to the European Union, which are important transit ways for the Russian gas exports towards Western Europe, but which are also markets where Gazprom has been the quasi-exclusive gas supplier so far. Finally, Europe is no longer the only goal of Russian gas exports: Gazprom clearly shows its will of defining a global export strategy. With about 40% of the world gas reserves, Russia definitely has a master card to play on the international energy markets. (J.S.)

  2. Europe's thirst for Russian gas increases fears over security of supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    A new report from Russian Gazprom indicates that Europe is becoming increasingly reliant on gas from Russia. In 2013 the volume of Gazprom Group's gas sales to countries beyond the Commonwealth of Independent States amounted to 174.3 billion cubic metres, which accounts for one-third of the total gas consumption in Europe. Europe might normally welcome the increasing free-flow of gas to the continent, but the fact that this rising dependency on Russia comes at a time of even greater political tensions should be a wake-up call to policymakers. Policymakers should focus more on what is practical than what is politically correct. If one nation wants to tilt at windmills and abandon the security of energy supply offered by modern, safe and technological solutions of the future, such as baseload nuclear, it does not mean everyone has to follow suit. Europe's collective political leadership would do well to remember that you do not cast out or effectively demonise tried and tested solutions to keeping nations safe, warm, productive and economically vibrant at a time when very real threats to energy supply loom on the horizon.

  3. Russian Gas Market: Entering New Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, Tatiana; Molnar, Gergely

    2015-04-01

    After a period of extensive growth in the 2000's, the Russian gas industry is now facing numerous challenges. Mounting competition by independent producers and the development of new production by Gazprom, combined with stagnating domestic demand and weakening export markets, have created a situation of overproduction, made worse by western sanctions and low oil and gas prices. Expansion to the East thanks to the recent China deal is not expected to provide much relief before 2024. The coming decade will be critical for the industry and its outcome will largely depend on the government's pricing and institutional policies but the role of the state should remain essential. This document presents the key findings of the New CEDIGAZ report 'Russian Gas Market: Entering New Era'. The report analyses the ongoing changes in the Russian industry and the challenges to be met

  4. Poland wants to thwart Russian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaux, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    The Polish authorities are doing everything in their power to block Nord Stream 2, the Russian natural gas pipeline project that will double (by 2019) Nord Stream 1 through the Baltic Sea. Gazprom's Nord Stream 2 (in which European companies such as Engie (France), Uniper and Wintershall (Germany), OMV (Austria) and Shell are involved) will poses a risk, according to Poland, to the gas supply of central European countries (and notably Ukraine). Poland also intends to stop all its gas imports from Russia after 2022 (end of the Yamal contract): the country is therefore developing its capacity to increase its own natural gas production and has just inaugurated a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Baltic Sea. A gas pipeline is also in project, that will link Norway to Poland. For power generation, the nuclear energy option is also studied

  5. The energy sector abroad. Part 5. Norwegian energy sector large exporter of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Some facts about the Norwegian natural gas and oil industry are presented. In 1995 the industries took 12.5% of GNP and no less than 47.6% of export revenues. The use of natural gas in Norway is low. In 1996 Norway exported 37.9 billion m 3 of natural gas. It is planned to double that volume within the next 10 years. Therefore, a strategic alliance between two major foreign competitors (Gasunie in the Netherlands and Gazprom in the Russian Federation) was not met with enthusiasm. The three most important companies in the Norwegian oil and gas industry are Statoil, Norsk Hydro, and Saga Petroleum. Overall turnover of the sector in 1994 was 40.6 billion Dutch guilders. Some 17,500 people are directly employed by the sector. 5 ills., 5 tabs

  6. Rhetoric versus reality: Russian threats to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldthau, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    European gas demand will rise from presently 540 billion cubic meters (bcm) to around 800 bcm in 2030. As more than 50 percent of overall European imports originate from Russia, fears have been expressed that the Kremlin could use energy resources as a foreign policy tool. A thorough assessment of domestic consumption, production and investment volumes however reveals that Russian supply will have difficulties in matching growing domestic and European demand. Hence, as the author argues, the threat to European gas supply does not lie in geopolitics, but rather in a lack of investment in the Russian upstream sector. Higher domestic Russian gas prices, enhanced energy efficiency and increases in non-Gazprom production would however make it possible for Russia to meet domestic demand and its export commitments for natural gas

  7. Russian gas exports have potential to grow through 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential for Russian gas export growth through the next decade and concludes that supply for exports will continue to grow, albeit moderately. The greater or lesser intensity of that growth will depend on the evolution of both production and internal consumption. From the production side, the pace of growth depends on the status of gas reserves and, more importantly, on the investment program pursued by the State-owned gas giant Gazprom. From the demand side, evolution depends on the way Russia's wide potential for gas savings is managed. Through this analysis, we find three likely scenarios for Russian gas exports. In the most positive, diversification of exports will be possible. In the most negative, Russia will have scant opportunity to develop an export diversification strategy.

  8. Europe gas security. From dependence to interdependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report proposes a diagnostic and draws perspectives for Europe's gas dependence. In a first part, and considering gas as an energy source facing the challenges of the struggle against climate change, it outlines the rather high level of gas resources, their concentration in few countries, and therefore the need to reinforce partnership with these countries. It also outlines the uncertainty about future gas consumption due to new environment policies. The wide spectrum of scenarios entails needs to be reconsidered. The second part deals with the implications of the relationship between Gazprom and the Russian Federation. The third part discusses the European energy policy which tries to combine competition and energy security. Then, four scenarios are proposed and studied for the future of the interdependence between the European Union and the Russian Federation: energy crisis (producer's power), status quo (under-capacity), solidarity between the UE and Russia, and agreement on the climate (globalization of energy exchanges)

  9. The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrushcheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy trade between the European Union and Russia is securitized due to a combination of factors. First, there are securitizing agents within the European Union. Second, the domestic consolidation of the energy sector under governmental control, the Gazprom monopoly on transportation networks linking Central Asian gas with European markets and the state imposed-limits on foreign direct investment may also raise concerns in the European Union. Finally, Russia is also securitizing the energy sphere by claiming that the EU is trying to impose its values on Russia (for example through the Energy Charter Treaty, which contradicts Russian interests. This article combines securitization theory and the English School of thought and argues that the creation of an Energy Security Society could help de-securitize energy trade between the European Union and Russia.

  10. Price war or instrumentalization of price uncertainty: which strategy for a dominant provider on the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, Sadek; Locatelli, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this article is to try to assess which strategy could be implemented by a European dominant provider (or a group of big providers) during the current phase of transition of the European gas market in order to keep (or increase) his market shares and maximise his revenues. The authors aim at exploring possibilities of strategic actions on the long term other than those of defence of volumes through a price war, or the possibility of a strategy similar to that of Saudi Arabia which instrumentalises uncertainty on future prices. This last type of strategy is defined for the case of natural gas. The authors show that it could be implemented on the EU gas market, provided some specific conditions. They show that Gazprom has not enough power to become a price maker, and explore which kind of strategy of uncertainty could be implemented by this actor

  11. Features of the marketing strategy of oil and gas companies in exploration drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharf, I; Kamynina, L; Malanina, V

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of national and regional programs for the development of new oil and gas provinces of Eastern Siberia poses the challenge of increasing geological exploration. The current drilling service companies' market structure, as well as the strategic task of search and exploration effectiveness requires qualitatively new approaches for choosing a contractor. The proposed strategy to select a contractor based on comprehensive analysis of certain groups of industrial, financial, infrastructural criteria allows not only to optimize the costs of exploration activities, but also to minimize preventively the risks of a poor geological exploration. The authors' SWOT- analysis of the marketing strategy of ''Gazprom neft'' for choosing a contractor outlined the problem of imperfection of the Russian legislation in the sphere of activities of service companies in the oil and gas sector

  12. The struggle for energy. How the growing need for oil and gas will cause a world crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op het Veld, R.

    2008-07-01

    Due to the rapid and continued economic growth of China and India, energy demand is increasing rapidly. At the same time, the Western world is facing decreasing oil and gas reserves. As a result, it becomes increasingly dependent on the Middle East and countries such as Russia and Venezuela. Shell and ExxonMobil, who were once dominant oil giants, are losing territory to state energy companies such as Saudi Aramco and Gazprom. The author analyses all these developments, also based on a series of interviews with various experts from trade and industry and the government in the Netherlands and abroad. The author states that the only solution for the energy issue and the climate issue is the development of alternative energy sources. However, for the present this will not suffice to meet growing demand. The battle for energy ultimately paints a picture that is not rosy, involving a crisis and an increasing international rat race for energy. [mk] [nl

  13. PRE-INVESTMENT ASSESSMENT OF ACADEMIC SCIENCE DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCE: CASE VMNK YAMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechetkina E. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzed the possibilities of effectiveness evaluation of an innovative project at the pre-investment stage, systematized approach to such analysis. In addition, general procedure algorithm for an assessment of scientific project’s potential efficiency is suggested. The specifics of the paper is to try to overcome the factors of uncertainty and information incompleteness, typical for the innovative projects, ranging the key indicators depending on time and a place of their occurrencein different activity fields of the company, analyzing of potential and prospects innovation using, and also other factors influence process of carrying out the pre-investment analysis. Experience of effectiveness evaluation of scientific projects, which is proposed for implementation in OAO «Gazprom», in collaboration with the IPGG SB RAS, is presented.

  14. Shale Gas in Poland: an Analysis of Tax Mechanisms and Dynamic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Walentek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary research into possible taxation mechanisms for firms that will be operating in the shale gas industry in Poland and potential market interactions between the incumbents and the entrants. The study places focus on the level of welfare and it includes a static and a dynamic analysis. The result of the former is that the lump sum tax is the first best of all considered tax mechanisms for the Polish shale gas from the welfare perspective. The second best option for taxation is a combination of the current CIT rate and a windfall profit tax. In respect to the dynamic analysis, the results suggest that Gazprom can remain the market leader in Poland even if the shale gas producers start to operate, due to the sequential character of the competition in the Polish natural gas market. Counterintuitively, it will not come at the expenses of the consumers in Poland and it can bring potential welfare gains

  15. Which energy perspectives for Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaporte, P.

    2011-01-01

    After having noticed that wood will always be welcome but will remain marginal, coal is too dirty, oil too expensive, nuclear raises acceptability problems in some regions, and renewable energies are much too expensive to produce electricity, the author discusses the only remaining source: natural gas. On a medium term, he outlines and comments the dominant position of the Russian provider, Gazprom, but also France's dependence on few providers (Norway, Russia and Algeria). Then, while considering the targeted threshold (30% of the total consumed energy), he identifies actions to be performed regarding gas supplies. As gas, as a fossil and polluting energy, may not and will not hold this leadership position, other perspective will have to be explored

  16. Features of the marketing strategy of oil and gas companies in exploration drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, I.; Malanina, V.; Kamynina, L.

    2014-08-01

    The implementation of national and regional programs for the development of new oil and gas provinces of Eastern Siberia poses the challenge of increasing geological exploration. The current drilling service companies' market structure, as well as the strategic task of search and exploration effectiveness requires qualitatively new approaches for choosing a contractor. The proposed strategy to select a contractor based on comprehensive analysis of certain groups of industrial, financial, infrastructural criteria allows not only to optimize the costs of exploration activities, but also to minimize preventively the risks of a poor geological exploration. The authors' SWOT- analysis of the marketing strategy of "Gazprom neft" for choosing a contractor outlined the problem of imperfection of the Russian legislation in the sphere of activities of service companies in the oil and gas sector.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ASTRAKHAN REGION AND ITS DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almina B. Eldyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of statistical analysis of socio-economic development of Astrakhan region and its districts for the period 2008-2013, on the basis of which it was revealed the strongest economic inequality between the regions and the Krasnoyarsk region, where «Gazprom» that leads to huge imbalances in socio-economic development. Multivariate analysis to identify problem areas and priority directions of socio-economic development of municipal districts of the Astrakhan region was conducted.Application of the results of the analysis can enhance the effectiveness of actions of Executive bodies of various levels in the process of regulation of socio-economic development of society.

  18. Loss of energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Russian PM Vladimir Putin, euphoric about the signing of the 25-year contract for the use of Ukrainian seaports by the Russian Navy, announced several new strategic bilateral projects. The new partnership between the two countries might be a disappointment for those who were hoping for new Slovak energy business development in cooperation with Moscow. Representatives of the Russian company TVEL frequently visited the Slovak Ministry of Economy last year, discussing the idea of a nuclear fuel production plant in Slovakia. The factory was supposed to make fuel for the growing number of Russian reactors throughout Europe and utilize the recently discovered uranium deposits near Kosice. However, since Mr. Putin unveiled the idea of creating a Russian-Ukrainian nuclear holding at the site of the Khmelnitskaya Nuclear Power Plant, Slovakia will probably not become the gate to the EU for Russia's atomic business. Owners of the Slovak uranium deposit site are losing business too. And not only does the Slovak-Russian nuclear cooperation seem to be completely lost, but the gas transfer business is unclear too. Last week, the Russian gas company Gazprom showed that its selling prices are a matter of political bargaining rather than fair market value. Similar to low prices for the extremely friendly Belarus, Ukraine earned a $100 discount and in exchange for the Black Sea deal it will be paying only $236 per thousand cubic meters of the commodity. Russia thus gave up roughly $3 billion this year. Slovakia has nothing to offer in exchange for such a deal. Not only price creation but also the construction of gas pipelines through Europe remains a political issue for Russians. With plans to bypass Ukraine and Slovakia, the only safe future for the local transit system can be the result of an idea to pool Gazprom and Ukrainian Naftohaz transit assets together with a stock swap. (author)

  19. The dynamics of industrial organisation in economies in transition: the example of the Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1999-10-01

    The question of the emergence of a new organisational model based on the firm is at the heart of the reform in the Russian energy sector, as it is at the heart of the structural changes that the planned economic systems are undergoing. The reform has given rise to one main observation: the firm, as currently defined in Western economic writings, does not exist because of the essentially non-monetary nature of the planned economic systems. Eight years after the creation of Gazprom, however, one can be asked questions about the organisational model that has actually emerged. It is evident that the reform in ownership rights that was its initial objective has not created a private enterprise, even though the reform arose in a modification of ownership rights. Gazprom, given the essentially non-monetary economic relations amongst which it finds itself, remains in essence an organisation that is not subject to a ''hard budget constraint''. Instead of the private enterprise, we have an original and stable type of organisational model that has still to be fully defined. This specific ''vertical integration'' model is the model that allows the distinctive characteristics of the Russian economic environment to be managed best, whether they be non monetization of exchange and the salaried contract inherited from the planned economy. Some aspects of which have been retained in the post-communist transformation. In the case in point, this model shows that the firm is an organisation but also much an institution, a place where various interests and conflicts are managed. (A.L.B.)

  20. Problems of placement of industrial wastes in landfills in the industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPANOV Evgeniy Georgievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the anthropogenic transformation of the environment increases when production wastes and consumption are placed in landfills. Hygienic condition of the areas with high population density and developed industry is determined by the increased amount of household and industrial waste, mainly deposited in the numerous landfills. This situation is studied on the example of landfills used for industrial wastes produced by the enterprises JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat», JSC «Salavatsteklo», located in the city of Salavat of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The sources of industrial pollution in Salavat have been analyzed. One should note that the city-forming enterprise is the JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat» which share of the total amount of wastes generated in the city per year is 80%. Another company which contributes significantly to this process is the JSC «Salavatsteklo». To study the possible migration of contaminants to the aquifer an observation well has been made at the landfill site. The research of the water obtained from the observation well at the polygon identified maximum allowable concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD, phenol and oil products. The groundwater occurrence modes have been studied. The migration of the chemicals contained in the body of the landfill, to groundwater, has been revealed. That leads to contamination of surface water. Laboratory studies of water objects in the zone of influence of industrial waste landfill in Romodanovskomu career have been performed. It was determined that excess of maximum permissible concentration of benzene, and the presence of toluene, lead, phenol indicates the pollution of groundwater by substances stored in landfills Romanovskogo career, both by infiltration and subsequent migration to groundwater of adjacent aquifers and through surface runoff and infiltration from snowmelt and rainwater.

  1. THE EFFICIENCY OF GAS-PUMPING UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kupreev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available . The reliability of the gas transmission network of the JSC “Gazprom Transgaz Belarus” depends on the efficiency of gas compressor units. Pipeline transport takes the first place among all the other ways to deliver gas because it ensures a uniform and uninterrupted supply of gas at minimum costs. The main objects of main gas pipelines include process areas, including several compressor stations and sections of the pipeline between them. Currently, a significant part of the main equipment of the gas industry is approaching its deadline of operation, which causes decrease in energy efficiency and reliability of the transmission system. At compressor plants of the JSC “Gazprom Transgaz Belarus” there are more than 4000 gas compressor units in operation including about 80% ones with gas turbine drives. It is clear that the drives of these units take a significant proportion of the pumped gas. For many years the company invests and actively participates in the creation of modern gas-pumping units practicing the wide use of conversion potential of the CIS countries. In recent years, a comprehensive approach to the assessment of the reliability and efficiency of objects of gas pipelines on the basis of mathematical modeling is actively applied. Together with the development of computer supervisory and control this opens up opportunities to improve energy efficiency in pipeline transport of gas on the basis of mathematical models and processes. The real effect obtaining is based on the actual performance of the equipment that needs to be monitored over time and to clarify.

  2. The organizational model of Gazrom; Le modele organisationnel de gazrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    1999-12-01

    The question of the emergence of a new organisational model based on the firm is at the heart of the reform in the Russian energy sector, as it is at the heart of the structural changes that the planned economic systems are undergoing. The reform has given rise to one main observation: the firm, as currently defined in Western economic writings, does not exist because of the essentially non-monetary nature of the planned economic systems. Eight years after the creation of Gazprom, however, one can be asked questions about the organisational model that has actually emerged. It is evident that the reform in ownership rights that was its initial objective has not created a private enterprise, even though the reform arose in a modification of ownership rights. Gazprom, given the essentially non-monetary economic relations amongst which it finds itself, remains in essence an organisation that is not subject to a ''hard budget constraint''. Instead of the private enterprise, we have an original and stable type of organisational model that has still to be fully defined. This specific ''vertical integration'' model is the model that allows the distinctive characteristics of the Russian economic environment to be managed best, whether they be non monetization of exchange and the salaried contract inherited from the planned economy. Some aspects of which have been retained in the post-communist transformation. In the case in point, this model shows that the firm is an organisation but also much an institution, a place where various interests and conflicts are managed. (A.L.B.)

  3. The dynamics of industrial organisation in economies in transition: the example of the Russian gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    1999-10-01

    The question of the emergence of a new organisational model based on the firm is at the heart of the reform in the Russian energy sector, as it is at the heart of the structural changes that the planned economic systems are undergoing. The reform has given rise to one main observation: the firm, as currently defined in Western economic writings, does not exist because of the essentially non-monetary nature of the planned economic systems. Eight years after the creation of Gazprom, however, one can be asked questions about the organisational model that has actually emerged. It is evident that the reform in ownership rights that was its initial objective has not created a private enterprise, even though the reform arose in a modification of ownership rights. Gazprom, given the essentially non-monetary economic relations amongst which it finds itself, remains in essence an organisation that is not subject to a ''hard budget constraint''. Instead of the private enterprise, we have an original and stable type of organisational model that has still to be fully defined. This specific ''vertical integration'' model is the model that allows the distinctive characteristics of the Russian economic environment to be managed best, whether they be non monetization of exchange and the salaried contract inherited from the planned economy. Some aspects of which have been retained in the post-communist transformation. In the case in point, this model shows that the firm is an organisation but also much an institution, a place where various interests and conflicts are managed. (A.L.B.)

  4. The organizational model of Gazrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1999-12-01

    The question of the emergence of a new organisational model based on the firm is at the heart of the reform in the Russian energy sector, as it is at the heart of the structural changes that the planned economic systems are undergoing. The reform has given rise to one main observation: the firm, as currently defined in Western economic writings, does not exist because of the essentially non-monetary nature of the planned economic systems. Eight years after the creation of Gazprom, however, one can be asked questions about the organisational model that has actually emerged. It is evident that the reform in ownership rights that was its initial objective has not created a private enterprise, even though the reform arose in a modification of ownership rights. Gazprom, given the essentially non-monetary economic relations amongst which it finds itself, remains in essence an organisation that is not subject to a ''hard budget constraint''. Instead of the private enterprise, we have an original and stable type of organisational model that has still to be fully defined. This specific ''vertical integration'' model is the model that allows the distinctive characteristics of the Russian economic environment to be managed best, whether they be non monetization of exchange and the salaried contract inherited from the planned economy. Some aspects of which have been retained in the post-communist transformation. In the case in point, this model shows that the firm is an organisation but also much an institution, a place where various interests and conflicts are managed. (A.L.B.)

  5. The organizational model of Gazrom; Le modele organisationnel de gazrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    1999-12-01

    The question of the emergence of a new organisational model based on the firm is at the heart of the reform in the Russian energy sector, as it is at the heart of the structural changes that the planned economic systems are undergoing. The reform has given rise to one main observation: the firm, as currently defined in Western economic writings, does not exist because of the essentially non-monetary nature of the planned economic systems. Eight years after the creation of Gazprom, however, one can be asked questions about the organisational model that has actually emerged. It is evident that the reform in ownership rights that was its initial objective has not created a private enterprise, even though the reform arose in a modification of ownership rights. Gazprom, given the essentially non-monetary economic relations amongst which it finds itself, remains in essence an organisation that is not subject to a ''hard budget constraint''. Instead of the private enterprise, we have an original and stable type of organisational model that has still to be fully defined. This specific ''vertical integration'' model is the model that allows the distinctive characteristics of the Russian economic environment to be managed best, whether they be non monetization of exchange and the salaried contract inherited from the planned economy. Some aspects of which have been retained in the post-communist transformation. In the case in point, this model shows that the firm is an organisation but also much an institution, a place where various interests and conflicts are managed. (A.L.B.)

  6. Energy institutional and organisational changes in EU and Russia: Revisiting gas relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, S.; Locatelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article tries to shed light on why gas relations between the EU and Russia, which were previously stable, have deteriorated since the introduction of institutional changes in the two regions. After identifying the areas of divergence in the context of European gas market liberalization, we then attempt to examine them in the context of the differing approaches to structuring this sector. The model of vertically unbundled network industries promoted by the EU is no longer the one that Russia intends to implement in its gas sector, despite the big changes taking place in its domestic market. All this is happening in a context where the economic stakes are very high. For the EU and its gas companies, access to Russia’s hydrocarbon resources is a key question. For Gazprom, the question is whether or not it can define strategies that are flexible enough to adapt to the changing conditions in the European gas market. - Highlights: ► In this study, we analyse the evolution of EU–Russia gas relation since the 1990s. ► The problems of defining new gas relations between the EU and Russia stem from a clash of values. ► The problem: Russia’s rejection of the EU’s power to enact rules for the gas industries and markets. ► For the EU and its gas companies, access to Russia’s hydrocarbon resources is a key question. ► For Gazprom, the question is whether it can define flexible strategies on the European gas market

  7. Russian LNG: The Long Road to Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    On December 1, 2013 a law on liquefied natural gas (LNG) export liberalization came into legal force in Russia. The law grants two categories of companies other than Russia's state gas giant Gazprom and its subsidiary companies the right to export LNG: (1) users of mineral resources that have a license to construct an LNG plant or to send their gas production for liquefaction, and (2) companies that are more than 50% owned by the Russian government, for gas produced from Russian offshore fields or under production-sharing agreements. This is-without exaggeration-a historic decision for the Russian gas industry, the path to which was certainly not easy. Recent years have seen a radical change in the global economic climate, which has changed the dynamics of the European gas market (gas demand decline and Russian gas import reduction, changing pricing mechanism for a much higher share of spot indexing, European Commission anti-trust investigations against Gazprom, etc) and is increasingly pushing Russia to diversify its gas exports. However, diversifying exports through the development of LNG has proven to be not so simple. Over the past 20 years, with the exception of the Sakhalin-2 project, structured under a project-sharing agreement (PSA) rather than in the framework of national legislation, all other projects failed to come close to completion. The Kharasavey and Baltic LNG projects were abandoned in the early stages of project evaluation, while the Shtokman project progressed to the point of the operating company being created, but in the end was postponed indefinitely. The first stage of LNG development in Russia ended in failure. However, the Russian government considers the development of LNG exports to be a priority, which can be evidenced in all official policy papers. It is believed that LNG will help in achieving a set of objectives, namely: increasing the absolute volume of exports, allowing the country to enter into previously inaccessible markets

  8. The Conundrum of the Southern Gas Corridor: What are the Risks for Europe and Azerbaijan? The viewpoint of an insider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livanios, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    For more than ten years harsh negotiations among different oil majors and pipeline consortia have been taking place about the Southern Gas Corridor, all of them seeking to transit 10 bcm/year of natural gas that will be produced from the Shah Deniz giant gas field of Azerbaijan to the European Union. As of today, no Final Investment Decision (FID) has been reached neither for the preferred pipeline route to Europe, nor for the production of the second phase of Shah Deniz. Yet a decision has to be made. Europe will remain a major gas importer as clearly shown by the International Energy Agency's scenarios for 2035. Even if shale gas may be a game-changer as far as Chinese needs for gas imports are concerned, many uncertainties remain regarding the risk of the EU competing with China in the global market for natural gas imports. Consequently the EU needs to secure its gas supplies. What is at stake is nothing but its competitiveness in the world economy. In the words of EU Commissioner for Energy, Guenther Oettinger, 'globally, demand growth poses a threat to security of supply and, with its impact on prices, our economic competitiveness'. In this context, the EU has to quickly make a decision regarding the Southern Gas Corridor unless the three major risks for the realization of the Southern Gas Corridor become too heavy. First, the delay of the FID of the Shah Deniz Consortium in Azerbaijan causes an acceleration of the economic and geopolitical costs which threaten the energy security of Europe. Associated with that risk is the potential internal disagreement between SOCAR, the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan, and BP, the two most important shareholders of the Shah Deniz consortium. Second, the development of South Stream poses a risk for the delivery of Azerbaijan gas to Europe via the Southern Gas Corridor. Gazprom is indeed already ahead of the geopolitical rivalry, since the construction of South Stream was officially inaugurated, last December 2012, by

  9. The European Gas Market Looking for its Golden Age?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire; Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    The EU gas policy has to deal with a new landscape on the supply and demand sides. This study examines five major recent evolutions of the EU gas market: the relations with Russia, LNG coming back to Europe, the decrease of Groningen production, the contrasted evolutions of shale gas and the perspectives of EU natural gas demand. The European energy market has to face numerous challenges to achieve a successful energy transition, preserve its competitiveness and ensure its security of supply. While the EU Communication on Energy Union published in February 2015 has today given new impetus to Europe's gas policy, this policy has to deal with a new environment both in terms of supply and demand. On the supply side, the new strategy must henceforth deal with complex relations with Russia. Tensions between Russia and Ukraine along with economic sanctions against Russia have led Gazprom - the EU's leading supplier - to review its strategy towards Europe. While the 'Power of Siberia' project is already underway, Russia's own pivot towards Asia as announced by Vladimir Putin is turning out to be more difficult than expected: China and Russia have still not been able to find an agreement on the Western route. For some time, Gazprom seemed to want to cut its involvement in European gas assets significantly, due to problems with market liberalization rules. Today, Moscow is sending mixed messages to Europe, first by announcing the Turkish Stream project to deliver gas to Europe's gates, and then by extending the Nord Stream pipeline. The renewed interest in the EU market by Gazprom is indicative of the importance of this market, which provides the Russian company with the bulk of its gas revenues. Europe also has to deal with faster than expected declines in its own output. The Groningen field in the Netherlands, the EU's main gas producer, has suffered major restrictions since January 2014, due to significant earthquake risks. The Dutch government has to ensure the safety

  10. Royal-Dutch Shell in Russia and Western Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Kurilev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on research based on three crucial aspects of the current global economic situation. First is the role of transnational corporations (TNCs in establishing and constructing international cooperation at the supranational level. Second is the policy of sanctions against Russia in connection with the situation in Ukraine. And third is the cooperation of Royal Dutch Shell with Russia’s Gazprom despite the political, economic and technological sanctions imposed on Russian companies and economic sectors.Analyzing Shell’s policy on the Russian energy market should reveal some kind of the managing principle that not only Shell but most TNCs follow in taking the political atmosphere into consideration, while striving to avoid any related restrictions. The research methodology uses analytical, ultimate analysis and functional methods. The analytical method helped to lay the theoretical foundation of the research. Modern TNCs are deeply engaged in the process of economic globalization. To expand their influence, such companies create economic conditions for organizing international production with local markets and for international markets for capital, labour, and scientific and consulting services. The ultimate analysis method revealed the following pattern: in struggling for the global market, TNCs raise the level of competition, which creates a permanent need for technical innovations and scientific progress. The functional analysis method demonstrated a casual relationship in modern economic development: by assisting capital turnover and labour and transport mobility, TNCs contribute significantly to economic growth and development. The first part of the article focuses on the history and methodology of the genesis and development of TNCs as actors in global economic relations. It also reviews the current role of TNCs in the global economy. The second part of the article examines the cooperation between Shell and Gazprom

  11. Optimising Russian natural gas - reform and climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-18

    The world's largest gas producer and exporter, Russia has an enormous energy saving potential. At least 30 billion cubic meters, a fifth of Russian exports to European OECD countries, could be saved every year by enhanced technology or energy efficiency. As the era of cheap gas in Russia comes to an end, this potential saving is increasingly important for Russians and importing countries. And, as domestic gas prices increase, efficiency investments will become increasingly economic - not to mention the incentive for Gazprom to enhance its efficiency against a backdrop of high European gas prices. The book analyzes and estimates the potential savings and the associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the oil extraction (flaring), gas transmission, and distribution sectors. Achieving these savings will require linking long-standing energy efficiency goals with energy sector reforms, as well as climate policy objectives. The book also describes Russia's emerging climate policy and institutional framework, including work still ahead before the country is eligible for the Kyoto Protocol's flexibility mechanisms and can attract financing for greenhouse gas reductions. Stressed is the need for Russia to tap the full potential of energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions through a more competitive environment in the gas sector to attract timely investments.

  12. Demand powers ahead [Gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, N.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas demand in Europe has been growing steadily for many years and is likely to go on increasing in the domestic sector, the industrial sector and in power generation. In this review a number of features of the market supply situation are reported. Potential new markets for Norwegian gas in eastern and central Europe are being evaluated. Other exporting countries are also keen to obtain a greater share in the expanding European market. Among them are Russia, Algeria and Nigeria, but political uncertainties in each of these countries are a cause for concern. Algeria has new pipelines to supply Italy, Spain and Portugal. The Russian company, Gazprom, has launched the construction of a pipeline to link new gas fields in northern Siberia with western Europe and has set up contracts with German companies which are facilitating the sale of Russian gas in Europe. Supply potential also exists in some of the other countries of the former Soviet Union, such as Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. A group of leading European gas utilities are exploring the feasibility of imports from Iran either via a pipeline link or as liquefied natural gas. The United Kingdom hopes to export North Sea gas into Europe through the proposed Interconnector pipeline from Bacton to Zeebrugge, in th long-term, though, the pipeline may be used for imports into the UK. A controversial proposal to introduce third-party access to European pipelines could alter the whole structure of the market. (UK)

  13. Iran in the European gas market: a Russian point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomberg, I.

    2009-01-01

    Behind Iranian diplomacy lies the continuing hope for an easing of tensions between America and Iran, with its consequences, which have not yet been worked out satisfactorily, both for Russian interests in the sphere of energy and from the point of view of preserving the fully-formed configuration of Eurasia's gas market. After this introduction of the political context, the document discusses the energy constituent of the 'Iranian question', the difficult choice between pipelines and LNG, the expansion of contacts of European companies with Iran, the issue of Nabucco pipeline that could be a bone of contention in the anti-Iranian coalition and the fact that Azerbaijan alone cannot save Nabucco, the complex situation in Central Asia (with the gas troika - Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan), the increased war risks of gas transportation, the necessary participation of Iran in the Nabucco project, the appealing prospects for Gazprom in the area, the possible market sharing with the supply of gas from Iran towards the East (China, Pakistan and India)

  14. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, Mert

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

  15. Nucleaire et Energies Nr 67 - December 2015. COP21: diplomatic success, a first step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, Bernard; Ducroux, Guy; Salanave, Jean-Luc; Seyve, Claude; Simonnet, Jacques; Justin, Francois; Salanave, Jean-Luc; Darricau, Aime; Raisonnier, Daniele; Deleigne, Francoise; Lepine, Gerard; Witkowski, Didier; Knoche, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    After a first article which comments the results of the Paris Climate Conference (COP21), two articles address recent evolutions in the energy sector: an overview of recent evolutions (perspective for oil reserves, relationship between Gazprom and the EU, news about wind and solar energy in Europe, India, and in France with the most powerful European photovoltaic installation near Bordeaux, electricity prices, reduction of taxes on solar and wind energy foreseen for 2017), and a comparison between renewable energies and the EPR in terms of investment profitability. Three articles concern nuclear activities: recent events about reactors (IAEA forecast, situation and debates in France, Belgium, UK, Sweden, Romania, Slovenia, Russia, Ukraine, Iran, Emirates, Egypt, China, South Korea, Japan, and USA, cooperation between Argentina and China), about the back-end of the fuel cycle and decommissioning activities (activities and situation of different French facilities, activities and contracts in Japan, UK, USA, Taiwan, China, Finland, India and Spain), and the content of the IAEA report on the Fukushima accident. Articles comment issues concerning the relationship between nuclear and society: a comment about the use of the term 'green' and on what is green in nuclear, the recent evolutions negotiations on the issue of the Iranian nuclear industry with respect to non-proliferation, and a comment of the perception of climate change by French people as expressed by different surveys. A last article outlines that Areva will remain a world leader on the long term

  16. Russia - An elephant in the china shop? Russian gas relations with Ukraine; Russland - En elefant i glassmagasinet? Russiske gassrelasjoner med Ukraina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Roger

    2009-11-15

    This report looks into the question of whether Russia uses gas as a means of solving political conflicts in its bilateral relations with Ukraine. The report explores both gas relations and central political conflicts between the two countries. All relations are followed from the end of 1991 to the beginning of 2009. Neoclassical realism and complex interdependence are used to separate political and economic motives. The main part of the empirical material supports complex interdependence and the contention that Russia struggles to keep the gas sector and political conflicts separated. Ukraine has throughout the period been heavily indebted partly as a consequence of excess consumption of gas which the country has had problems paying for. Gazprom has clearly had an economic incentive to demand payment for this gas. However, due to Ukraine's position as a transit country for the bulk of Russian gas export, Russia has been very vulnerable. In instances when supplies to Ukraine have been reduced, Ukraine has compensated by diverting some volumes intended for Europe, which again has led to financial loss for Russia, and a dent in the image of Russia as a reliable gas provider for Europe. This vulnerability can explain why Russia has used much time and effort on negotiations and compromises with Ukraine within the gas sector during the period considered in this report.

  17. Energy polarization and popular representation: Evidence from the Russian Duma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriadis, Theocharis N. [Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, 210 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-1950 (United States)], E-mail: thgrigoriadis@berkeley.edu; Torgler, Benno [The School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia); CREMA Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (Switzerland); CESifo Munich (Germany)], E-mail: benno.torgler@qut.edu.au

    2009-03-15

    In this article we introduce the term 'energy polarization' to explain the politics of energy market reform in the Russian Duma. Our model tests the impact of regional energy production, party cohesion and ideology, and electoral mandate on the energy policy decisions of the Duma deputies (oil, gas, and electricity bills and resolution proposals) between 1994 and 2003. We find a strong divide between Single-Member District (SMD) and Proportional Representation (PR) deputies High statistical significance of gas production is demonstrated throughout the three Duma terms and shows Gazprom's key position in the post-Soviet Russian economy. Oil production is variably significant in the two first Dumas, when the main legislative debates on oil privatization occur. There is no constant left-right continuum, which is consistent with the deputies' proclaimed party ideology. The pro- and anti-reform poles observed in our Poole-based single dimensional scale are not necessarily connected with liberal and state-oriented regulatory policies, respectively. Party switching is a solid indicator of Russia's polarized legislative dynamics when it comes to energy sector reform.

  18. Energy polarization and popular representation. Evidence from the Russian Duma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriadis, Theocharis N. [Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, 210 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-1950 (United States); Torgler, Benno [The School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    In this article we introduce the term 'energy polarization' to explain the politics of energy market reform in the Russian Duma. Our model tests the impact of regional energy production, party cohesion and ideology, and electoral mandate on the energy policy decisions of the Duma deputies (oil, gas, and electricity bills and resolution proposals) between 1994 and 2003. We find a strong divide between Single-Member District (SMD) and Proportional Representation (PR) deputies High statistical significance of gas production is demonstrated throughout the three Duma terms and shows Gazprom's key position in the post-Soviet Russian economy. Oil production is variably significant in the two first Dumas, when the main legislative debates on oil privatization occur. There is no constant left-right continuum, which is consistent with the deputies' proclaimed party ideology. The pro- and anti-reform poles observed in our Poole-based single dimensional scale are not necessarily connected with liberal and state-oriented regulatory policies, respectively. Party switching is a solid indicator of Russia's polarized legislative dynamics when it comes to energy sector reform. (author)

  19. The gas crisis and South-East Europe. Review (in english) of the 'Mardi de l'IFRI' with Olivier Silla in Brussels, 10 March 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, L.

    2009-01-01

    In the gas crisis of January 2009, South-East Europe (SEE) was probably the region most impacted. It was therefore interesting to analyze how the region's energy sector and policy makers reacted and which lessons can be drawn from these days. It is pointed that SEE has a relatively low utilization of gas, but most countries in the region are highly dependent on one single supplier, Gazprom. Overall gas consumption in SEE is very limited in absolute terms and gas use is limited to industry and district heating in most cases. With the exception of Greece, and for a small part Croatia, gas is not used for electricity production in SEE, lessening the impact of the supply disruption for the region. Gas reaches the region via three main pipeline branches that all go through Ukraine but are not inter-linked (hence no possibility to bring gas from one branch to another). For the overall coordination and cooperation in the energy sector, the Energy Community plays an important role in SEE. Set up in 2006, it provides a flexible framework and helps reforming the region's energy sector. In the context of the Energy Community, SEE countries are obliged to introduce the EU attainments on energy. Moreover, the Energy Community also foresees ambitious goals for regional solidarity

  20. Gas market is today strategical; Le marche du gaz est aujourd'hui strategique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darricarrere, Y.L. [Total, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2006-07-01

    The energy market, and in particular the gas market, is today seething with excitement. In France, in Europe and in the rest of the world, the energy stakes are in the center of preoccupations. This article is an interview of Y.L. Darricarrere, general director of the gas and electricity division of Total group, who explains his opinions about the opening of European and French energy markets, presents the ambitions of Total group on these markets, and comments some recent events of the European energy scene: concentration between gas and electric utilities, the Suez and Gaz de France (GdF) project of merger, the risks linked with the coming in of national companies from producing countries, like Gazprom and Sonatrach, on the European market, the restriction of access of foreign companies to hydrocarbon reserves in Russia and Latin America (come back of the 'energy nationalism'), Total's policy for anticipating the increase of the world energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. (J.S.)

  1. Nord Stream, the German-Russian oil pipeline under the Baltic Sea from the Swedish point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Nord Stream is a 1.200 km long gas pipeline project between Russia and Germany through the Baltic Sea. It crosses the Swedish, Danish, and Finnish economic zones, and, at mid-way, comprises a control platform about which any traffic will be forbidden within a radius of 500 m. After having recalled some design aspects of this project, the author discusses whether it results in some energetic benefits for Sweden where the project has been a matter of debates on environmental and safety issues. It appears that Sweden is not interested at all in importing fossil energies, and that politicians are opposed to this project, but have no influence on it as the pipeline does not cross Swedish territorial waters. After having evoked the role of Gazprom as energetic weapon of the Russian foreign policy, the author discusses safety issues related to this pipeline and its control platform, and environmental risks as they are perceived by Sweden. Sweden indeed perceives the project infrastructure as being possibly used as a spying tool. As far as environmental issues are concerned, Nord Stream is to submit an environmental impact assessment to Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Germany and Russia. As a Swedish law could constrain and even impede the project, some alternate tracks are already envisaged and studied for the pipeline in order to minimise the environmental impact

  2. The EU internal market - a stake or a tool in European-Russian gas relations. The case of new member states gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskot-Stachota, Agata; Ramsay, William C.

    2011-06-01

    Since 2010 we have observed a new quality in EU energy policy. It is related to the European Commission's more or less direct engagement in the bilateral gas relations of a part of the new member states - Poland, Bulgaria and Lithuania - with Russia. Although the long term outcome of this activity of the EC is as yet unclear it seems to be important for several reasons. Firstly it might increase the possibilities of the enforcement of the EU's directives liberalising the internal gas market and specifically their implementation in individual gas agreements with suppliers from third countries (Gazprom). The consistency and determination of the EC in this field may be decisive for the future direction and depth of the liberalization of the EU gas market. Furthermore, present developments may lead to an increase in EU and specifically EC competence in the field of energy policy, especially its external dimension. So what lessons can we draw from recent Commission activities on the following issues: - Implementing EU gas market 2. and 3. liberalization packages and their main provisions - EU energy policy and its external dimension - recent developments and the EU's role - EU-Russia gas relations - where Russian and EU interests diverge. (authors)

  3. CHANGE OF PARADIGM IN UNDERGROUND HARD COAL MINING THROUGH EXTRACTION AND CAPITALIZATION OF METHANE FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu PLESEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Besides oil and gas, coal is the most important fossil fuel for energy production. Of the energy mixture of our country, the internal production gas share is 80% of the required annual consumption, of about 14 billion cubic meters, the rest of 20% being insured by importing, by the Russian company Gazprom. The share of coal in the National Power System (NPS is of 24% and is one of the most profitable energy production sources, taking into account the continuous increase of gas price and its dependence on external suppliers. Taking into account the infestation of the atmosphere and global warming as effect of important release of greenhouse gas and carbon dioxide as a result of coal burning for energy production in thermal power plants, there is required to identify new solutions for keeping the environment clean. Such a solution is presented in the study and analysis shown in the paper and is the extraction and capitalization of methane from the coal deposits and the underground spaces remaining free after mine closures. Underground methane extraction is considered even more opportune because, during coal exploitation, large quantities of such combustible gas are released and exhausted into the atmosphere by the degasification and ventilation stations from the surface, representing and important pollution factor for the environment, as greenhouse gas with high global warming potential (high GWP of about 21 times higher than carbon dioxide.

  4. Knotted pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Slovak, K.

    2006-01-01

    It is too early to speculate on where the Transpetrol shares will end up. The bankruptcy trustee of Yukos, Eduard Rebgun, has so far received three offers from Gazprom, the Rusneft oil company and the Penta private equity group via its Cyprian company. All three would like to gain control over the Slovak oil transporting company. As yet, no formal request from the Slovak Republic has been delivered to Moscow. By Trend's deadline, President Ivan Gasparovic and the Minister of Economy, Lubomir Jahnatek, were still negotiating in Moscow with the Russian President, Vladimir Putin. One of the topics on the agenda was the future of the company which transports Russian oil to Europe. Both Slovakia and Russia aim to gain control over the stock and the situation is locked in stalemate The stock in question is owned by the Dutch company, Yukos Finance. And although this company is owned by the bankrupt Yukos, the property rights are in the hands of foundation, Stichting Administratiekantoor Yukos International. Yukos Finance is not in bankruptcy and it is therefore difficult to detach the Yukos shares from the company assets. (authors)

  5. EGYPT AND RUSSIA - PROSPECTS FOR COOPERATION UNDER PRESIDENT ABDEL FATTAH EL-SISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Саад Ибрахим Халаф

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the dynamics of the evolution of the Egyptian policies following the "Arab Spring Revolutions" of 2011 especially after the inauguration of Egyptian President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi and the new trends of the Egyptian Policies in both the domestic and the international Affairs. As the main focus of this article will be the special nature of the bilateral co-operation between both countries and the prospects of its development in the key areas. Over the past years, Egypt proved to be one of the biggest trade and economic partner of Russia in the Middle East. About 100 of vital industrial projects were built in Egypt with the assistance of the Soviet Union, as these projects nowadays play an important role in the Egyptian economy. The Russian-Egyptian relations have reached a qualitatively new level, establishing an active political dialogue at all levels including the contacts on the Presidential Level which led to the bilateral governmental agreements concerning a number of major projects including the modernization of the projects that were built by the assistance of USSR expertise, including the Aswan Hydropower stations, the creation of special industrial zones for production of Russian agricultural machinery and equipment’s for the Middle East and North Africa Countries on the Egyptian Land, increasing the grain deliveries to Egypt including wheat, delivery of liquefied natural gas by "Gazprom", construction and operation of the first nuclear power plant by the State Corporation "Rosatom" in northern Egypt.

  6. Gas-export potential will grow until domestic economies hike local demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.; Stram, B.

    1993-01-01

    Prospects appear good for near-term growth of exportable natural-gas supplies for some member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.). These conclusions are a result of Enron Corp.'s recent investigations in the C.I.S. and other former Soviet republics. They are based on data obtained in cooperation with Vinigaz, the research arm of the Russian state gas concern Gazprom, and from various other research and consulting groups. These studies indicate that gas-export potential will grow as local demand for gas shrinks in the C.I.S. (as the energy needs of the individual republics decline during the period of economic transition) and while the C.I.S.-area countries continue to require foreign currency to help fund redevelopment and reduce debt. This concluding of two articles reviews the economic outlook for outside investment in the oil, gas, and gas-liquids infrastructure and the role of natural-gas supply and price in the development of domestic and export markets

  7. Report on progress in creating the internal gas and electricity market. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In late 2008 and 2009, the world was hit by the financial and economic crisis. This had a direct impact on the demand for energy, causing unpredicted falls in the price of oil on the international markets. This, in turn, impacted on gas and electricity prices. A dispute between two companies outside the EU (Gazprom of Russia and Naftogaz of Ukraine) led to an unprecedented crisis in the EU's gas supply. Between 6 and 20 January 2009, gas flows from Russia to the EU via Ukraine were interrupted, affecting several Member States. 2009 was also an important year because the third internal energy market package was adopted on 13 July 2009. The third package strengthens the regulatory framework that is needed in order to make market opening fully effective, in the interest of achieving the lowest possible energy prices, better energy security and sustainability. This report discusses how the developments described above have impacted on the EU electricity and gas markets over the past year and how they are likely to affect market developments in the future.

  8. The European gas market at the 2008 prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    Because of the opening of European energy markets to competition and to the dynamism of gas consumption, the natural gas market has become very attractive. In parallel, the development of infrastructures (in particular for the LNG industry) offer setting up possibilities to newcomers. Moreover, the synergies linked to the gas/electricity convergence diminish the boundary between electricity and gas markets. In this context, the historical operators of European gas markets have to face the offensive of oil and electric power companies. This study tackles the following questions: what are the gas demand evolution prospects? What are the most attractive consumption areas? How gas prices will change in mid-term? What is the competitive intensity of national markets? Which commercial positioning is to be adopted? What future for dual offers? What is the advantage of regulated activities for operators? Who are the best positioned actors? What will be the mid-term role of Gazprom? What are the mid-term prospects of European market reconfiguration? This study analyses the strategy and positioning of the main European gas operators and shows their forces and weaknesses. It includes a financial comparison of the 20 main groups present in the European natural gas market. This analysis allows to propose 4 scenarios of mid-term evolution for this market. (J.S.)

  9. The strategies of development of electricity and natural gas providers in France. High gross prices, tariff maintenance...: how do alternate operators come through?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing key figures of the electricity and natural gas markets, at assessing the actual degree of opening to competition of these French markets, at comparing the position and offers of providers, at identifying the best commercial and marketing practices, and at assessing the impact of the GDF Suez merge and of the arrival of E.ON and Enel in France. A first volume addresses the strategic perspectives for electricity and natural gas providers on the French market: current status and perspectives of the French markets of electricity and natural gas, strategic orientations of operators, scenarios of reconfiguration of French markets of electricity and natural gas by 2012. The second volume proposes a deep analysis of position and perspectives of 22 electricity and natural gas providers: Alterna, Atel Energie, Direct Energie, Distrigaz, EDF, Electrabel, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel, Enercoop, E.ON, Endesa, Gas Natural, Gaz de France, Gazprom, Gaz Electricite de Grenoble, HEWenergies, Poweo, Soregies, Tegaz, Usine d'Electricite de Metz, Vialis

  10. Russia's and the European union's gas interdependence. What balance between the market and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the interdependence relation-ship between Russia and the European Union in the area of gas, by distinguishing the Russian seller's power risk from the issue of short term security, which are often mistaken one for the other The goal is to measure the economic risk associated with the seller's dominant position in the European market to appreciate the relevance of responses that can be made by European countries or the European Union. Firstly, the basically different nature of Russia and of the European Union is described, as well as the role played by its energy resources in the assertion of Russia's political power Secondly there is an analysis of the Russian seller's elements of dependence on the European market, before reviewing, thirdly, the risk of exercising Gazprom's market power in Europe. In closing is a review of the relevance of possible actions by the European Union and member countries to reduce that risk by facilitating the densification of the Pan-european Network, the establishment of entry points and market integration. (author)

  11. Gas Exports in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanczki, Luca Zs.

    2011-01-01

    The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers

  12. The gas crisis and South-East Europe. Review (in english) of the 'Mardi de l'IFRI' with Olivier Silla in Brussels, 10 March 2009; La crise gaziere et l'Europe du Sud-Est - Compte-rendu (en anglais) du mardi de l'Ifri autour de Olivier Silla a Bruxelles le 10 Mars 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardon, L.

    2009-07-01

    In the gas crisis of January 2009, South-East Europe (SEE) was probably the region most impacted. It was therefore interesting to analyze how the region's energy sector and policy makers reacted and which lessons can be drawn from these days. It is pointed that SEE has a relatively low utilization of gas, but most countries in the region are highly dependent on one single supplier, Gazprom. Overall gas consumption in SEE is very limited in absolute terms and gas use is limited to industry and district heating in most cases. With the exception of Greece, and for a small part Croatia, gas is not used for electricity production in SEE, lessening the impact of the supply disruption for the region. Gas reaches the region via three main pipeline branches that all go through Ukraine but are not inter-linked (hence no possibility to bring gas from one branch to another). For the overall coordination and cooperation in the energy sector, the Energy Community plays an important role in SEE. Set up in 2006, it provides a flexible framework and helps reforming the region's energy sector. In the context of the Energy Community, SEE countries are obliged to introduce the EU attainments on energy. Moreover, the Energy Community also foresees ambitious goals for regional solidarity

  13. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert, E-mail: mert.bilgin@bahcesehir.edu.t [Bahcesehir University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Political Science and International Relations Department, Ciragan Caddesi Besiktas, 34353 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

  14. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand. Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert [Bahcesehir University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Political Science and International Relations Department, Ciragan Caddesi Besiktas, 34353 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system. (author)

  15. Should the Nabucco pipeline project be shelved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barysch, K.

    2010-05-01

    It is easy to be pessimistic about the prospects of Nabucco, a pipeline designed to bring Caspian and possibly Middle Eastern gas to the EU. The financing is not yet secure, European gas demand is down, and the question of where Nabucco's gas will come from is open. Russia, meanwhile, is pushing hard for its rival South Stream pipeline. Nabucco would be good for the EU in various ways. It would make Central and East European countries a lot less dependent on Gazprom and increase the energy security of the EU as a whole. It could help reduce intra-EU divisions over Russia. It would underpin stronger ties between the EU and potential supplier countries such as Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. It could help improve EU-Turkey relations. Many of the benefits that Nabucco would bring do not accrue to the companies that are trying to build it or the banks that lend the money for it. Therefore, the EU and its governments should back Nabucco more strongly, both politically and financially.

  16. Gas market is today strategical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darricarrere, Y.L.

    2006-01-01

    The energy market, and in particular the gas market, is today seething with excitement. In France, in Europe and in the rest of the world, the energy stakes are in the center of preoccupations. This article is an interview of Y.L. Darricarrere, general director of the gas and electricity division of Total group, who explains his opinions about the opening of European and French energy markets, presents the ambitions of Total group on these markets, and comments some recent events of the European energy scene: concentration between gas and electric utilities, the Suez and Gaz de France (GdF) project of merger, the risks linked with the coming in of national companies from producing countries, like Gazprom and Sonatrach, on the European market, the restriction of access of foreign companies to hydrocarbon reserves in Russia and Latin America (come back of the 'energy nationalism'), Total's policy for anticipating the increase of the world energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. (J.S.)

  17. Russian-Estonian Economic and Investment Cooperation During the Crisis: Dynamics and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision-making by Estonian government. A number of special aspects, trends and problems in trade and investment ties are detected. The aim of the study is to uncover key motivation behind the actions of both Russia and Estonia, to identify the drivers for economic and political development in the region, and to work out recommendations to adjust them. The questions put forward by the authors of this article could not be more topical at the time, when Russian economic situation is obviously getting worse and capital flight (to the neighboring EU Member States is likely to increase. The method of the study is comparative analysis of the impact on economic ties made by Russian-Estonian crisis of 2007 and the current international tension around Ukraine. The regional fossil fuel market and the possibilities of Gazprom involvement in its development are also analyzed. It is concluded that political motives are still important for Estonian decisionmaking, though they are balanced out by measures of business support (despite some of these measures being taken by the EU bodies. The role of political factor for the Russian side is increasing. It is acknowledged that there is a growing number of missed economic opportunities in the Russian Northwest.

  18. Dinamika i perspektivy torgovo-jekonomicheskogo i investicionnogo sotrudnichestva Rossii i Jestonii v uslovijah krizisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevskaya A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision-making by Estonian government. A number of special aspects, trends and problems in trade and investment ties are detected. The aim of the study is to uncover key motivation behind the actions of both Russia and Estonia, to identify the drivers for economic and political development in the region, and to work out recommendations to adjust them. The questions put forward by the authors of this article could not be more topical at the time, when Russian economic situation is obviously getting worse and capital flight (to the neighboring EU Member States is likely to increase. The method of the study is comparative analysis of the impact on economic ties made by Russian-Estonian crisis of 2007 and the current international tension around Ukraine. The regional fossil fuel market and the possibilities of Gazprom involvement in its development are also analyzed. It is concluded that political motives are still important for Estonian decisionmaking, though they are balanced out by measures of business support (despite some of these measures being taken by the EU bodies. The role of political factor for the Russian side is increasing. It is acknowledged that there is a growing number of missed economic opportunities in the Russian Northwest.

  19. Razvitie gazovoj infrastruktury zarubezhnyh stran Vostochnoj Baltiki kak sposob povyshenija ih jenergeticheskoj bezopasnosti [Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golyashev Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of regional gas infrastructure development this paper considers the issue of energy security of the countries of East Baltic, which depend heavily on a single energy supplier — Russia. In recent years, the countries of the region have announced several LNG terminal construction projects. The European Union will provide political and financial support to only one of these projects. The paper explores the role of gas and energy in the economy of the Eastern Baltic countries. The author concludes that the countries mostly dependent on Russian gas are Lithuania and Latvia. The announced LNG terminal projects are being reviewed in detail. Their necessity is estimated from the perspective of the current and future demand for natural gas, including the terms and conditions of contracts concluded with OAO Gazprom. Different scenarios and prospects for individual LNG terminal projects and associated pipeline infrastructure are evaluated. It is shown that the inability of countries to find a political compromise on this issue and the terms of existing contracts for Russian gas, as well as low domestic demand for gas hamper the implementation of a regional LNG terminal project even in the long term.

  20. Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golyashev Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of regional gas infrastructure development this paper considers the issue of energy security of the countries of East Baltic, which depend heavily on a single energy supplier — Russia. In recent years, the countries of the region have announced several LNG terminal construction projects. The European Union will provide political and financial support to only one of these projects. The paper explores the role of gas and energy in the economy of the Eastern Baltic countries. The author concludes that the countries mostly dependent on Russian gas are Lithuania and Latvia. The announced LNG terminal projects are being reviewed in detail. Their necessity is estimated from the perspective of the current and future demand for natural gas, including the terms and conditions of contracts concluded with OAO Gazprom. Different scenarios and prospects for individual LNG terminal projects and associated pipeline infrastructure are evaluated. It is shown that the inability of countries to find a political compromise on this issue and the terms of existing contracts for Russian gas, as well as low domestic demand for gas hamper the implementation of a regional LNG terminal project even in the long term.

  1. Nord Stream 2: keeping the head cool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    Nord Stream 2 is the name of a project of a pipeline which will transport Russian natural gas into the European Union. The author first presents the context of this project announced during a forum in Saint Petersburg, and signed in september 2015 between Gazprom and several European stakeholders (Eon, BASF, Engie, Shell and OMV). The objective is for Moscow to secure its north-western European market on the long term. Some physical characteristics of the project are evoked, and the European dependence on gas imports is described. The author then discusses how European countries are divided about this project: some support it (like mainly Germany) while some others are fiercely against (Eastern European countries which complain about their loss of transfer revenues, or countries like Bulgaria, Greece and Italy about the loss of an alternative gas corridor). The project also faces legal obstacles related to patrimony separation and access of third parties to the network. Finally, and while mentioning other projects (Nord Stream 1 and South Stream), the author shows that the difficulties and problems faced by this project are a perfect illustration of a fractured European gas sector

  2. Russia - An elephant in the china shop? Russian gas relations with Ukraine; Russland - En elefant i glassmagasinet? Russiske gassrelasjoner med Ukraina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Roger

    2009-11-15

    This report looks into the question of whether Russia uses gas as a means of solving political conflicts in its bilateral relations with Ukraine. The report explores both gas relations and central political conflicts between the two countries. All relations are followed from the end of 1991 to the beginning of 2009. Neoclassical realism and complex interdependence are used to separate political and economic motives. The main part of the empirical material supports complex interdependence and the contention that Russia struggles to keep the gas sector and political conflicts separated. Ukraine has throughout the period been heavily indebted partly as a consequence of excess consumption of gas which the country has had problems paying for. Gazprom has clearly had an economic incentive to demand payment for this gas. However, due to Ukraine's position as a transit country for the bulk of Russian gas export, Russia has been very vulnerable. In instances when supplies to Ukraine have been reduced, Ukraine has compensated by diverting some volumes intended for Europe, which again has led to financial loss for Russia, and a dent in the image of Russia as a reliable gas provider for Europe. This vulnerability can explain why Russia has used much time and effort on negotiations and compromises with Ukraine within the gas sector during the period considered in this report.

  3. Energy polarization and popular representation. Evidence from the Russian Duma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriadis, Theocharis N.; Torgler, Benno

    2009-01-01

    In this article we introduce the term 'energy polarization' to explain the politics of energy market reform in the Russian Duma. Our model tests the impact of regional energy production, party cohesion and ideology, and electoral mandate on the energy policy decisions of the Duma deputies (oil, gas, and electricity bills and resolution proposals) between 1994 and 2003. We find a strong divide between Single-Member District (SMD) and Proportional Representation (PR) deputies High statistical significance of gas production is demonstrated throughout the three Duma terms and shows Gazprom's key position in the post-Soviet Russian economy. Oil production is variably significant in the two first Dumas, when the main legislative debates on oil privatization occur. There is no constant left-right continuum, which is consistent with the deputies' proclaimed party ideology. The pro- and anti-reform poles observed in our Poole-based single dimensional scale are not necessarily connected with liberal and state-oriented regulatory policies, respectively. Party switching is a solid indicator of Russia's polarized legislative dynamics when it comes to energy sector reform. (author)

  4. Review of the Soviet gas industry in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Soviet production of natural gas increased by only 18.6 billion cubic meters (2.3%) in 1990, from 796.1 billion cubic meters (BCM) to 814.7 BCM. This was the smallest annual increment and the lowest rate of growth in more than two decades. During the 1980s, annual growth typically had been in the 6-8% range, with yearly increments of 40-50 BCM. Of the national total in 1990, enterprises of the Gazprom Concern (formerly the Ministry of the Gas Industry) produced 748.0 BCM, while the Ministry of Oil and Gas produced 66.7 BCM; the latter would be mostly associated gas. Given the USSR's ample resource base, it appears that the Soviet economy is experiencing increasing problems absorbing natural gas, particularly as Soviet aggregate economic output falls along with total energy consumption. During the 1980s, when the gas industry was growing so rapidly, the Soviets absorbed the massive increments in gas supply by directing most of it to a few very large consumers - electric power stations, iron and steel plants, and nitrogenous fertilizer centers. Currently, 54.3% of gas is used for electric power generation; 32.6% in industry; and only 13.1% by the housing and municipal sector. Although the share of housing units using either natural gas or LPG (liquefied petroleum gas-butane and propane) is fairly high in the Soviet Union - 84.8% - this is mostly for cooking rather than heating, so gas use per unit is relatively small. Another problem is that the availability of gas among households is very uneven across the republics and between rural and urban areas. A table gives statistics on gas production in various regions from 1970-1990

  5. Trends in coal use - global, EU and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwała, Wojciech; Wyrwa, Artur; Olkuski, Tadeusz

    2017-11-01

    That aim of this paper is to compare trends in global, European use of coal with tendencies in Poland, one of heavy coal dependent countries. Polish power generation is unique among OECD countries, the share of both hard coal and lignite in power generation reaches 81% [1]. Climate policy of European Union is to phase out intensive greenhouse gases sectors, thus to transform Polish power generation into less carbon intensive. Although such policy is generally accepted in Poland, the paste and practically proposed regulation that excludes coal generation from capacity mechanisms, is considered as threat to energy security. Coal is the base for generation for one simple reason, abundant in European scale hard coal reserves and significant capacities in lignite. Natural gas reserves allow to supply about 1/3 of consumption, but prices and supplies dependent hitherto on contracts with GAZPROM did not allow to develop significant generation capacities. Renewable resources are limited, there is not much possibilities for hydro, wind and solar. Poland is also one of the countries of poor air quality, traditional coal based space heating systems plus obsolete car fleet generate vast emissions, especially during the winter. Only recently this became top priority of environmental authorities. This situation is subject to transformation, government, managers are aware that the role of coal needs to be decreased, but there are two main questions, the paste of transformation and the future energy mix. The paper attempts to answer the question whether the expected changes in Polish energy mix are comparable or differ from the global and European tendencies.

  6. Serbian oil sector: A new energy policy regulatory framework and development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karovic Maricic, Vesna; Danilovic, Dusan; Lekovic, Branko

    2012-01-01

    Serbia has established a great part of new legislative and institutional framework as a basis for all energy sub-sectors' development in compliance with EU energy acquis. Main objectives of Serbian energy policy outlined in the new Energy Law are focused to increasing the energy supply security, energy efficiency, competitiveness of the energy market, use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection. Further steps of Serbia toward full EU membership concerning the new energy policy regulatory framework involve implementing and enforcing legislation. Besides considering the issue of Serbian energy policy and degree of its framework's alignment with the EU acquis, this paper provides an overview of new development strategies in the oil sector. The aim of Gazprom neft, a majority owner of the Petroleum industry of Serbia, is to increase crude oil production to 3 million tonnes, refining and sales volume of petroleum products to 5 million tonnes by 2020. Strategic development projects in crude oil and petroleum products transportation are: petroleum product pipeline construction in Serbia and Pan-European oil pipeline. The basic prerequisites for oil supply security, regarding the future high dependency of Serbian economy on imported oil, are establishment of the emergency oil stocks and diversification of supply sources. - Highlight: ► New energy policy regulatory framework significantly complied with EU acquis. ► Full EU membership requires implementing and enforcing new energy legislation. ► NIS-Gazpromneft has defined ambitious oil sector's development programmes to 2020. ► Supply security requires mandatory oil stocks and supply source diversification.

  7. Russia's natural gas policy toward Northeast Asia: Rationales, objectives and institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the institutional dimensions of Russia's gas policy toward Northeast Asia (NEA During the liberal economic reforms of the 1990s, development of natural gas deposits in the Russian Far East was made possible under the scheme of production sharing agreements (PSA). However, new PSAs were banned in Russia even before the advent of state capitalism in the early 2000s. This was, to a large extent, the result of strong anti-PSA lobbying led by the domestic energy business elite. Consequently, Russia's gas policy in the east began evolving from being project-specific toward being region-specific. Contemporary Russian gas policy toward NEA relies upon domestic (national and regional) and external institutions. In 2009, following the completion of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in Sakhalin, Russia entered NEA gas markets. Transformations in the international gas markets facilitated the establishment of a two-pattern gas export policy in Russia in 2013. Under this policy, Russia's EU-oriented pipeline gas export remains monopolised by Gazprom, while Asia-oriented LNG export is partially liberalised. Russia has not been experiencing institutional discrepancy in NEA gas markets. However, as the markets evolve toward greater coordination, a rational option for Russia is to genuinely liberalise its gas policy. - Highlights: • Russia–EU institutional inconsistency has accelerated Russia's gas export diversification. • Institutions for regional development are an important component of Russia's gas policy in Asia. • Transformations in globalising gas markets induced Russia's limited gas export liberalisation. • Genuine gas policy liberalisation can facilitate the attainment of Russia's goals in Asia

  8. Russian Federation [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The Russian Federation, one of the world's big energy superpowers, is rich in natural energy resources. It has the largest known natural gas reserves of any country on earth, representing 32% of the world's proven reserves. Furthermore, it has, with 157 billion t, the world's second largest coal reserves (10% of the explored coal reserves). The Russian Federation is the largest oil producer of the non-OPEC countries, and the second largest in the world after Saudi Arabia. It has the biggest oil shale reserves in Europe, equal to 35.47 billion t of shale oil. Last but not least, it possesses 8% of the proven uranium reserves. In recent years, the Russian Federation has identified the gas sector as being of key strategic importance. The share of natural gas as a primary energy source is remarkably high compared with the rest of world. Gazprom has a monopoly for the natural gas pipelines and has the exclusive rights to export natural gas, and thus controls their access to the European market. The total primary energy consumption in the Russian Federation was 665 Mtoe in 2007, down from 871 Mtoe in 1990, with 55% covered by natural gas, 20% by oil and 15% by coal. It is the world's fourth largest electricity producer after the USA, China and Japan. In 2007, it produced 1013 TW.h of electricity. Roughly 67% of the Russian Federation's electricity is generated by thermal plants, 17% by hydropower and 17% by nuclear reactors. The Russian Federation is the world's leading net energy exporter and a major supplier to the European Union. In the Russian Federation, about 40% of electric power and 85% of heat supply, mainly in cogeneration, is covered by regional power industries with power plant units of {approx}300 MW(th).

  9. The changing structure of the Russian oil and gas sector: the response of Western investors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the Russian oil and gas sector has changed dramatically in the last two years. The first step was the consolidation of the majority of Russia's upstream and downstream companies and associations into vertically integrated companies (VICs). The second step was the acquisition, initially through loans for shares schemes, of controlling interests in some of the larger VICs by major banks. This has resulted in the creation of extremely powerful industrial groupings and radically altered the strategy and management philosophy of the component production and refining associations. The VICs are gradually taking over the trading functions previously carried out by independent registered exporters and relationships are changing with the transportation monopoly, Transneft, which has itself devolved some of its powers to the Federal Energy Service. Gazprom is also changing and has recently been obliged to open its gas pipeline network to third party users. As the production sharing legislation slowly works its way through parliament, the industries' goals have undergone a subtle change; whereas, at inception, the primary objective was to create a legal and fiscal framework to encourage inward investment from western oil companies, latterly the main emphasis has been on encouraging domestic investment by improving the tax regime for selected components within the VICs. The growing strength of the VICs is steadily improving their prospects of raising direct equity and debt finance in the West. This, in turn, reduces the need and hence opportunities for major western operated new projects, except in fields with extreme technological and environmental challenges, where they may still be welcome. (Author)

  10. Global energy security and the implications for the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The following article will analyse the global and geopolitical dimensions of the future international energy security and its implications for Europe and the EU-27. In this context, I will discuss to which extent the EU's newly proclaimed 'Energy Action Plan' of the EU Spring summit of 2007 and its declared common energy (foreign) policy are a sufficient strategy to cope with the new global and geopolitical challenges. The article concludes the following: (1) The interlinkage between globally designed traditional energy security concepts - that rely just on economic factors and 'market-strategies' - and domestic as well as regional political stability demands new thinking with regard to both energy supply security and foreign and security policies. (2) Although after the Russian-Ukrainian gas conflict in January 2006, energy security has forced its way up the European energy and foreign policy agendas, the EU-27 member states have largely failed to forge a coherent European energy security and energy foreign policy strategy after their Spring summit of 2007 because its declared political solidarity has been still lacking. But the 2nd Strategic Energy Review of November 2008 has recommended new initiatives to overcome this lack by promoting concrete infrastructure and other projects for enhancing Europe's supply security and its political solidarity as part of a common energy (foreign) policy. If the EU is able to implement the March 2007 and November 2008 decisions, the EU oil and gas demand will drastically reduce and freeze at current levels. In this case, Putin's energy policies by using Russia's energy resources and pipeline monopolies as a political instrument to enforce its economic and geopolitical interests will be proved as self-defeating in Russia's long-term strategic interests. It will reduce Gazprom's gas exports to a much smaller EU gas market than originally forecasted as the result of a deliberate EU policy of decreasing its overall gas demand and

  11. Energetic dialog EU and Russia slows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    European Union maintains an individual dialog with Russia about cooperation in energy sphere since joint summit in Paris in October 2000. Both sides agreed there to create four export groups: for energy strategy, investments, infrastructure and technologies, efficiency and ecology. European Union expects that Russia will unequivocally take over the obligations by creation of suitable climate for investors. European Union considers as key preconditions the restructuring of the largest national monopoles. These conditions are also the important component of asking strategy of EU by the discussions about integration of Russia to WTO. One of the most important requests of Brussels is the restructuring of Gazprom concern, what means its division to mining and transport part. Russian part refuses all steps in this sphere. Author analyses the strategic interests of Russian government and of president Putin by planning and mining of oil and gas as like as by investments to the pipelines and gas lines. International Energetic Agency (IEA) assumes that the investments to oil and gas mining in Russia will be around 330 million USD till 2030. The similar situation is also in oil sector. More than half of huge oil deposits with the highest output are already mined. The oil mining in Russia reached 421 million tons in 2003. According to pessimistic estimations the gas mining will reach from 550 to 560 billion m 3 in the following decades, according to optimistic scenario it can reach up to 730 billion m 3 per year. In this case the netto export of oil from Russia could rise from present around 175 billion m 3 to 280 billion m 3 in 2030. IEA warns that these plans should be fulfilled only if massive foreign investments enter this sector. IEA also warns before concerns of investors about Russian legislation, property protection, cooperative regulation and transparentness of undertaking. Proposed pipelines among Russia, Near East, Africa and European Union are shown

  12. Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013 (fifth edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-06-01

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. The study builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. This document summarizes the key findings of the Survey which includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries are surveyed with 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned

  13. The order of calculation and payment of tax on profit of commercial banks in the innovation economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kudryavtseva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of innovative economy of the tightening of the requirements of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation and the crisis of the banking system, in the conditions of a severe shortage of funds in the Russian Federation, taxes and fees levied on credit institutions are one of the main revenue sources of the state budget after the extraction, processing, transportation, warehousing and sale of natural resources-oil, gas and related petroleum products. In practice, the taxation of profits of credit institutions is under the close attention of the state. So, PJSC "Sberbank of Russia" in 2016, took fifth place among the largest Russian taxpayers, losing the leadership of the JSC "NK Rosneft", PJSC "Gazprom", PJSC "LUKOIL" and JSC "Surgutneftegas". At the same time in 2015 PJSC "Sberbank of Russia" has taken only the tenth place. A particularly urgent task in modern conditions is the reduction of the strongly expressed fiscal orientation of taxes and fees and the increase of their motivating role, as well as the strengthening of the legal regulation of fees and taxes as a complex part of the legislation in the field of taxation of Russia as a whole. The article describes taxpayers, the object of taxation on income tax of a commercial Bank. The detailed calculation of the tax base of income tax of PJSC "Sberbank of Russia" by year is presented. The table of calculation of the Bank's income is provided, by results of the analysis it is revealed that the greatest share in structure of the income is occupied by interest income all three years about 90%, however dynamics of development of banking sector and global tendencies dictate growth of Commission income in structure of the General income. Distinct dynamics can be traced clearly. The calculation of expenses for three years of PJSC “Sberbank of Russia” is also presented, the analysis is carried out, conclusions are formulated. According to the results of the work the conclusion

  14. Research of hard-to-recovery and unconventional oil-bearing formations according to the principle «in-situ reservoir fabric»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Д. Алексеев

    2017-12-01

    , the company LLS Gazprom Neft adopted a corporate standard regulating a set of studies in the ideology of the «in-situ reservoir fabric» for methodological support of the pilot projects related to development of low-permeability rocks of the Bazhenov formation by creating artificial permeable zones by multi-stage hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells. In 2016 the first wells were built and put into operation, the results of the works confirmed the expediency of transition to a new methodological basis. After two years, we can state with certainty that the new approaches have proved their effectiveness.

  15. Use of nuclear space technology of direct energy conversion for terrestrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitaykin, V.I.; Meleta, Ye.A.; Yarygin, V.I.; Mikheyev, A.S.; Tulin, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    In due time the SSC RF-IPPE exercised the scientific supervision and directly participated in the development, fabrication, space flight test and maintenance of the direct energy conversion nuclear power plants (NPP) for space application under the 'BUK' and 'TOPAZ' programs. We have used the acquired experience and the high technologies developed for the 'BUK' NPP with a thermoelectric conversion of thermal (nuclear) energy into electrical one in the development under the order of RAO 'GAZPROM' of the natural gas fired self contained thermoelectric current sources (AIT-500) and heat and electricity sources (TEP-500). These are intended for electrochemical rust protection of gas pipelines and for the electricity and heat supply to the telemetric and microwave-link systems located along the gas pipelines. Of special interest at the moment are the new developments of self contained current sources with the electrical output of ∼500 Wel for new gas pipelines being constructed under the projects such as the 'Yamal-Europe' project. The electrochemical rust protection of gas pipelines laying on unsettled and non-electrified territory of arctic regions of Russia is performed by means of the so-called Cathodic Protection Stations (CPS). Accounting for a complex of rather rigid requirements imposed by arctic operating conditions, the most attractive sources of electricity supply to the CPS are the thermoelectric heat-into-electricity converters and the generators (TEG). This paper deals with the essential results of the development, investigation and testing of unconventional TEGs using the low-temperature bismuth-tellurium thermoelectric batteries assembled together as tubular thermoelectric batteries with a radial ring geometry built into the gas-heated thermoelectric modules, which are collected to make up either the thermoelectric plants for heat and electricity supply or the self contained power sources. One of the peculiarities of these plants is the combination of

  16. Brussels without Muscles? Exploring the EU's Management of its Gas Relationship with Russia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriman, David

    2010-03-15

    In many respects, the EU is a strong player on the world stage, for example, in trade, climate change issues and crisis management. In its relationship with Russia over gas supply, however, the EU's political capacity remains limited. Part of the problem lies in the lack of EU unity, but this is more a symptom than an actual cause. A key explanation is the interplay between external and internal factors. The external factors - that is the EU's and Russia's conflicting interests and the structure of the political system - reinforce the EU's internal problems. This is an effect of that the gas issue falls under different policy areas (energy, foreign relations and security policy) within which the European Commission and the member states have different responsibilities. Another problem is that energy is the Commission's responsibility, but the real competence lies with the member states. The current multipolar structure of European politics reduces the scope for cooperation that favours the EU as a whole - in this case its energy security. The fact that the Commission and member states, and the member states among themselves, have different views on energy policy vis-a-vis Russia exacerbates these circumstances. Other key factors are the lack of transparency and competition in the gas sector (which suits both the Russian company Gazprom and large EU companies) and the unbalanced dependence of EU countries on Russian gas. Relations between France, Germany and Russia are also important. Germany and France are key players for the EU's energy security, and their support for the gas pipeline Nord Stream, their resistance to unbundling in the gas sector and their relatively warm relations with Russia have not strengthened the EU's position in its gas relationship with Russia. Besides, the Lisbon Treaty increases France's and Germany's powers inside the EU. Combined with the conflicting interests of the EU nd Russia, the

  17. Brussels without Muscles? Exploring the EU's Management of its Gas Relationship with Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriman, David

    2010-03-01

    In many respects, the EU is a strong player on the world stage, for example, in trade, climate change issues and crisis management. In its relationship with Russia over gas supply, however, the EU's political capacity remains limited. Part of the problem lies in the lack of EU unity, but this is more a symptom than an actual cause. A key explanation is the interplay between external and internal factors. The external factors - that is the EU's and Russia's conflicting interests and the structure of the political system - reinforce the EU's internal problems. This is an effect of that the gas issue falls under different policy areas (energy, foreign relations and security policy) within which the European Commission and the member states have different responsibilities. Another problem is that energy is the Commission's responsibility, but the real competence lies with the member states. The current multipolar structure of European politics reduces the scope for cooperation that favours the EU as a whole - in this case its energy security. The fact that the Commission and member states, and the member states among themselves, have different views on energy policy vis-a-vis Russia exacerbates these circumstances. Other key factors are the lack of transparency and competition in the gas sector (which suits both the Russian company Gazprom and large EU companies) and the unbalanced dependence of EU countries on Russian gas. Relations between France, Germany and Russia are also important. Germany and France are key players for the EU's energy security, and their support for the gas pipeline Nord Stream, their resistance to unbundling in the gas sector and their relatively warm relations with Russia have not strengthened the EU's position in its gas relationship with Russia. Besides, the Lisbon Treaty increases France's and Germany's powers inside the EU. Combined with the conflicting interests of the EU nd Russia, the structure of European politics, and different views

  18. Underground gas storage in the World - 2013 (fifth Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-07-01

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. 'Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013' builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. The Survey includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries surveyed, 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned. The document includes 70 tables, 72 charts and figures, 44 country maps. The countries surveyed are: Europe : Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland

  19. China coalbed methane summary : on the edge of commercial development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J. [Far East Energy Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Total coalbed methane (CBM) resources in China are estimated at 30 to 35 trillion cubic metres. China also produces nearly 1 billion tons of coal per year, and is considered to be one of the largest emitters of methane in the world. Methane emissions from coal mining are estimated at 8 to 10 billion cubic metres per year. CBM is only in the early stages of development in China, with 210 drilled CBM wells. The China United Coalbed Methane Co. was formed in 1996 as the state company responsible for CBM development. With exclusive rights for exploration, development and production of CBM, the company has signed 19 CBM contracts with foreign companies for a total foreign investment of $90 million U.S. The multinational companies involved include Amoco, Arco, Phillips-Conoco, and Chevron-Texaco. Far East Energy Co. is one of the many independent companies involved with CBM development in China. Exploration and development has been concentrated in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, and Anhui provinces. The coal deposits vary in age, structural complexity and rank, with the most of the CBM potential located in the Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic age coals. This paper briefly described the unique coal basin geology within the north and south regions of China with reference to the tectonic events and marine transgressions that led to coal deposition. A history of CBM exploration was included along with licensing requirements. This paper also described the involvement of Far East Energy Company in CBM development in the Yunnan Province, Panjiang coal mining areas, and Qinshui Basin. Petro China, Shell, ExxonMobil and Gazprom are working on a joint venture to construct a 3,800 km pipeline to bring the CBM to markets. The West-East Gas Pipeline Project will weave its wave through the Tarim Basin, the Ordos Basin, the North China Basin, and the Bohai Gulf Basin. If approved, this joint venture would be the second largest modern engineering project in

  20. Case study: The Transnationalization of Russian Oil and Gas Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Lavrov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The value of multinational enterprises (MNEs as the main players in the global economy is constantly increasing. More and more companies from developing and transition economies are starting to do business beyond their national borders. Not all of them strictly belong to the category of MNEs, as is the case for Russia’s largest companies. This article analyzes the international activities of Russian MNEs. The authors study the place of MNEs in the modern world and examine the transformation of the concept of an MNE in the international practice. They identify the internationally accepted criteria that classify a company as an MNE. They analyze the international activities of the largest Russian companies in the oil and gas sector (Gazprom, Rosneft, Lukoil, Surgutneftegas, Novatek and their possible classification as MNEs. The article also assesses the influence of the economic and political sanctions on the international activities of Russian MNEs in the oil and gas sector. The methodological basis for the study is the dialectical method of investigating phenomena and processes in the modern world as the most effective way to achieve goals. The authors pay particular attention to the practical application of comparative economic analysis, classification and empirical generalization of original data. The authors came to seven conclusions. First, there is no single approach to defining the essence of MNEs. Second, the indicators that classify a company as an MNE can be divided into qualitative and quantitative criteria. Third, not all the large companies in Russia engaged in expanding into foreign markets can be classified as MNEs by the formal criteria. Fourth, most Russian MNEs have an unstable position in international ratings of MNEs, with the exception of Lukoil. Fifth, the main problems of Russian MNEs include the inefficiency of foreign assets, the lack of experience in managing international holdings and the longstanding crisis of the

  1. Short circuit - How our power supply became more expensive and got worse. A critical balance after eight years ''deregulation'' of the German Energy Economy; Kurzschluss - Wie unsere Stromversorgung teurer und schlechter wurde. Eine kritische Bilanz nach acht Jahren ''Liberalisierung'' der deutschen Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuschner, U.

    2007-07-01

    verursachte. Wie Leuschner feststellt, waere der Schaltungsfehler der EON-Netzleitstelle Lehrte vor ein paar Jahren noch vom System toleriert worden. Er habe nur deshalb so gravierende Folgen haben koennen, weil das UCTE-Netz inzwischen durch den Stromhandel und andere Folgen der Deregulierung bis an die Grenzen seiner Kapazitaet belastet sei. Im dritten Teil (''Netznutzung und Netzentgelte'') beleuchtet er in einem zusaetzlichen Kapitel die Bemuehungen der EU-Kommission, doch noch die Rahmenbedingungen fuer echten Wettbewerb herzustellen. Die neueste Forderung der Kommission nach eigentumsmaessiger Entflechtung der Netze deutet er als ''Flucht nach vorn'' angesichts der Tatsache, dass in saemtlichen EU-Laendern seit der Liberalisierung die Strompreise gestiegen sind und das zum Teil sogar ueber die Haelfte (mit der einzigen Ausnahme Englands, und hier auch nur der Haushaltsstrompreise). Kraeftig erweitert hat der Verfasser auch den vierten Teil zum Thema ''Management und Politik'': Zum einen findet man hier nun beschrieben, wie Ex-Bundeskanzler Gerhard Schroeder einen Spitzenjob beim russischen Energiekonzern Gazprom erhielt, dem er bereits in seiner Amtszeit als Bundeskanzler politisch behilflich war, und wie sein ehemaliger Wirtschaftsminister Wolfgang Clement in den Aufsichtsrat von RWE Power einziehen durfte. Zum anderen wird ein kritischer Blick auf die Werbekampagnen geworfen, mit denen die Energiekonzerne versuchen, ihr Erscheinungsbild in der Oeffentlichkeit aufzuhellen und den Energieverbrauchern ein X fuer ein U vorzumachen. (orig.)

  2. News; Actualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    The price of gas will increase of about 3.8% for individuals. EDF and GDF become joint-stock companies. The firms Packinox and Roforge have received the two innovation prices of GEP 2004. The ADEME, the AFGNV, the GART and Gaz de France join for setting pilot sites of NGV. The Italian petroleum group ENI has obtained a net funded profit of 1.67 milliard of euros at the third trimester 2004 (in rise of 75% compared to the same period of last year). The public firm Oman Oil Company has concluded an agreement to obtain a share of 7.5% in an important re-gasification plant in building in Sagunto (Spain). The national Romanian firm Petrom has been repurchased by the Austrian group OMV. The new representative in charge of Energy, Letton Andris Piebalgs, has underlined the importance to promote the renewable energy sources and to decrease the energy demand. The Britain firm BP has agreed to put to Tbilissi several millions of dollars for the safety of the Bakou-Tbilissi-Ceyhan pipeline. The Bulgarian and Greek presidents are determined to open a pipeline plan for transporting Russian petroleum between the Black sea and the Aegean sea. Gazprom and ExxonMobil plan for the development of the petroleum and gas plan Sakhaline-1. Russia has ratified the Kyoto protocol. The Russian gas group, Novatek, plans to open its capital and to sale 10% of its shares. Total will invest 4.7 milliards of dollars for the development of the Vankor petroleum deposit (125 millions of tons of crude oil reserves and 75 milliards of m{sup 3} of gas). The Libyan Arab Jamahiriya petroleum reserves are of 47 milliards of barrels and could be still more important. Qatar has signed an agreement for the manufacture of four methane tankers in South-Korea. The West Libyan Gas Project for supplying in natural gas the Italy and Europe through an underground pipeline has been inaugurated. Shell has announced a new discovery carried out in the offshore petroleum field of Brunei. The Indian Oil Corporation (IOC

  3. The US Natural Gas Exports: New Rules on the European Gas Landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    projects. Existing projects are secured by long-term contracts for periods of 20 years. However, it will be difficult for new projects to obtain financing in the current conditions. Due to the flexibility of US contracts, LNG cargoes will be exported to the most profitable markets. While the projects initially targeted the Asian market, the disappearance of the premium paid by Asian buyers and the slowdown in their demand make other import markets, including Europe, more attractive for US LNG exporters. At the current level of gas prices on the European market, which is particularly low, LNG is not however guaranteed to arrive in large quantities, as higher margins can be made in other markets (Latin America, the Middle East, and India). The European market is a 'last resort' market for LNG surpluses which are likely to increase from 2018. Traditional exporters to Europe, particularly Russia, are preparing for this new competition in a market where demand has fallen by a fifth since 2010, although it increased in 2015. The fall in Russian gas prices, which are correlated to fluctuations in the crude oil price with a six- to nine-month lag, removes on the short term the threat of this new competition. The increase in Gazprom's exports to Europe (+8 % in 2015 and +18 % in the first quarter of 2016) is limiting additional LNG import requirements in Europe. LNG imports have decreased slightly in the first quarter of 2016 after their increase in 2015. (author)

  4. Safety in the energy economy. In memoriam Peter J. Tettinger; Sicherheit in der Energiewirtschaft. In memoriam Peter J. Tettinger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielow, Johann-Christian (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    The Bochum contributions to energy act and mining legislation 'Safety in the energy economy' is published by the Institute for Mining and Energy Law of the Ruhr-University Bochum (Bochum, Federal Republic of Germany) and contains the following contributions: (a) In memory of professor Dr. iur. Peter J. Tettinger, the many years' director of the Institute for Mining and Energy Law ({dagger} 23rd September,2005) (Klaus Stern); (b) Energy security in an uncertain world (Claude Mandil); (c) Energy charer treaty and its role in international energy (Andrei Konoplanik, Thomas Waelde); (d) Reduction of energy conflicts by protection of foreign investments (Helga Steeg); (e) 'e8' - An initiative of the power industry for sustainability and climate (Wolfgang Strassburg); (f) Gazprom and the European power supply - from the Russian-Ukrainian crisis in January, 2006, to G8 gummit in July, 2006 (Inigo del Guayo); (g) The timetable for a competition-orientated European power internal market (Peter Mombaur); (h) The guarantee for the grid access as a condition for effective competitive electricity market (Franz Juergen Saecker); (i) Security of supply - appearance forms and constellations of assessment (Gunther Kuehne); (j) Federal order of ensuring infrastructure in the area of energy (Joerg Ennuschat); (k) Legal fundaments for the coordination of power plants and grids in the electricity economy according to the Energy Law Reform of 2005 (Ulrich Buedenbender); (l) Reform of the Spanish law of electricity economy in the year 2006 (Antonio Jimenez-Blanco); (m) Liberalizing electricity markets: Does Europe challenge member states? (Estanislao Aarana Garcia, Leonor Moral Soriano, Maria Asuncion Torres L'opez); (n) Security of planning with the construction of power plants? Actual trends in the law of spatial and special planning (Ulrich Battis); (o) Security of planning for energy supply lines (Norbert Kaemper); (p) Security of supply due to legal

  5. Oil and gas: year full of major events and dramatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    European gas industry encountered a historical precedent this February. Russian gas concern Gazprom has for the first time in its over thirty-year history of gas delivery from Siberia to Europe deliberately stopped the export. Even though this did not last for more then one day, customers in Latvia immediately noticed problems and also Polish customers mentioned some losses. Slovakia, still fully dependent on Russian gas supplies and at the same time major transported of Russian gas to European, was not touched by this situation as the deliveries were stopped on gas pipeline Jamal-Europe delivering gas to Germany through Belarus and Poland. But this affair can become a major issue in gas and political relations between Russia, Belarus and Ukraine and can also have a long-term impact on a dialog between Europe and Russia and consequently on building of new gas pipelines. And that could have a major impact on Slovakia's position as a transit country. Important for Slovakia is also the ongoing discussion about Ukrainian pipeline Odessa-Brody. A political decision made by Ukrainian cabinet that this pipeline should only be used to transport oil from Caspian Sea can give Slovakia the opportunity to diversify its oil import and at the same time increase the transit volumes should German refineries show interest in this transit route. On the other hand ratification of an intergovernmental agreement on integration of pipelines Druzba and Adria by Ukrainian Parliaments is also good news for Bratislava. This step politically opened the possibility to deliver Russian oil through Slovakia to Croatian Omisajl and from there with tankers to Europe and Northern America. The capacity of pipeline Druzba in Ukraine and Slovakia is not sufficient to take both the increased volumes of Russian and Caspian oil these two projects are competing for the free capacity. And the process and outcome of this competition may be of direct influence on Slovak interests. At the moment there are

  6. Perspectives for RandD in Bioenergy in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik (Technopolis Group, Stockholm (Sweden) )

    2009-11-15

    This study has identified two almost contradictory trends regarding bioenergy in the Baltic States. On the one hand, RandD performed in bioenergy in the Baltic States is rather limited. This might be somewhat surprising, because on the other hand various forms of bioenergy are either already used on a large scale or are widely assumed to become important in the near future. Bioenergy is explicitly recognized in various policy plans as an important component of the energy system in all the Baltic States. Thus the limited RandD efforts raise a number of questions, which probably lack unequivocal answers, but which would be important to discuss in the Baltic States. In all three Baltic States, bioenergy has a major potential. The present trend with boiler houses using biomass in a district heating systems commenced in the 1990s with significant foreign support. Technology was mainly imported, but in some cases local producers have drawn upon these experiences and become producers in their own right. The result has been that the Baltic States have relatively well developed bioenergy technology in use in district heating. But perhaps more importantly, there is know-how and experience in the Baltic States from the use of bioenergy, which however needs to be constantly upgraded. Regarding interest groups, one question raised by some interviewees was whether the natural gas industry with Russian Gazprom as the key player has a bigger say in the energy policy of the Baltic States than officially admitted. Although this issue remains speculative, the question as such is justified and should not be omitted from the discussion. The interest groups behind bioenergy are relatively weak, at least in comparison with other interest groups in the energy sector. As long as the farmers' organizations are not unambiguously behind bioenergy, the political support for investments in developing new technology is likely to remain lukewarm. Cooperation between the Baltic States in

  7. Gas Routes to Europe: Real Needs and Political Jockeying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmigiani, Laura

    2012-01-01

    view to providing stable and long term legal frameworks for commercial agreements between the national gas 'champions' and monopolistic producer companies in third countries. Nevertheless, in the last decade, this process has progressively changed, giving way to project type management of these investments. Intergovernmental agreements are limited to projects, while investment decisions may be held up since the changing legal environment does not give clear signals. This has of course resulted in more uncertainty, penalizing investments and consumers, and it has prompted the establishment of more coordination in the assessment of infrastructure. The ENTSOG Ten Year Network Development Plan (TYNDP) prescribed in the 2009 legislation (Third Package) is a first step in this direction.2 Although it can be largely improved, its assessment provides some guidance to European regulators and national authorities in assessing infra-structural needs. Many projects are expected to come on stream in the next ten years. ENTSOG TYNDP 2011-2020 showed that most of these projects are needed if disruptions and congestion are to be avoided. If the TYNDP proves right then, for projects like South Stream and Nabucco, the problem is more one of where the gas is going to come from since Gazprom has not increased investments upstream,3 it may be asked how pipelines will be filled. The same applies to Nabucco, unless other fields are discovered and Azeri production is boosted.4 In another words: Will the investments occur and will the fields be ready for production to meet demand? Shaz Deniz 2 will start production in 2018-2019, and the needs for Europe by 2020 will be 11% higher compared to current levels: i.e. almost 570 bcm per year according to ENTSOG estimates.5 For this study, the perimeter of the gas supply infrastructures will be restricted to pipelines. This paper will thus start by recalling the main steps of the decision-making process for supply pipeline projects. It will then

  8. In-Depth Review of the Investment Climate and Market Structure in the Energy Sector. Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    by the volume of foreign investment over the recent years. The number of companies with foreign capital in Armenia has already crossed the 2,000 mark. Based on data from the annual 'Economic Freedom' survey published by the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal, Armenia ranks in the upper-middle tier of countries and in 2003 was in 44th position along with Hungary. The linkages between the positive achievements of the real economy and the dedicated and stable improvement of the business environment and the investment climate in the republic are indisputable. In addition, the continuous assurance of the best possible terms for entrepreneurial activity, including the final removal of administrative barriers, the extension of most-favoured treatment to investors, the deployment and improvement of a comprehensive structure for the support of entrepreneurial activity are all among the top priorities of the Government's work programme. Armenia is almost completely dependent on imported energy. The only domestically produced primary energy is electricity from hydroelectric plants and one nuclear power plant. Armenia's energy strategy therefore consists of both securing fuel and energy resources supply from abroad, and further developing the domestic renewable energy resources. As far as oil products imports are concerned, a severe constraint is that they can enter Armenia only via Georgia and Iran, since the frontiers with Turkey and Azerbaijan are closed. Currently, almost all imported gas and oil products come from Russia. The entire gas transmission and distribution system of Armenia is owned and operated by 'Armrosgazprom', a joint venture between the Russian companies 'Gazprom' and 'Itera', and the Armenian state, the latter holding 45% of its shares. Armenia has privatised its electricity distribution network. It is owned by a UK investor, Midland Resources Holding Ltd. As a result, the quality and security of electricity supply to final consumers has