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Sample records for gaze attraction influences

  1. Same-sex gaze attraction influences mate-choice copying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Platt, Michael L

    2010-02-09

    Mate-choice copying occurs when animals rely on the mating choices of others to inform their own mating decisions. The proximate mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying remain unknown. To address this question, we tracked the gaze of men and women as they viewed a series of photographs in which a potential mate was pictured beside an opposite-sex partner; the participants then indicated their willingness to engage in a long-term relationship with each potential mate. We found that both men and women expressed more interest in engaging in a relationship with a potential mate if that mate was paired with an attractive partner. Men and women's attention to partners varied with partner attractiveness and this gaze attraction influenced their subsequent mate choices. These results highlight the prevalence of non-independent mate choice in humans and implicate social attention and reward circuitry in these decisions.

  2. How Beauty Determines Gaze! Facial Attractiveness and Gaze Duration in Images of Real World Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Leder

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We showed that the looking time spent on faces is a valid covariate of beauty by testing the relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior. We presented natural scenes which always pictured two people, encompassing a wide range of facial attractiveness. Employing measurements of eye movements in a free viewing paradigm, we found a linear relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior: The more attractive the face, the longer and the more often it was looked at. In line with evolutionary approaches, the positive relation was particularly pronounced when participants viewed other sex faces.

  3. How Beauty Determines Gaze! Facial Attractiveness and Gaze Duration in Images of Real World Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Goller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We showed that the looking time spent on faces is a valid covariate of beauty by testing the relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior. We presented natural scenes which always pictured two people, encompassing a wide range of facial attractiveness. Employing measurements of eye movements in a free viewing paradigm, we found a linear relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior: The more attractive the face, the longer and the more often it was looked at. In line with evolutionary approaches, the positive relation was particularly pronounced when participants viewed other sex faces. PMID:27698984

  4. Evaluation of an interviewer as a function of interviewer gaze, reinforcement of subject gaze, and interviewer attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinke, C L; Staneski, R A; Berger, D E

    1975-01-01

    Male subjects were interviewed by female interviewers who gazed constantly, intermittently, or not at all. Experimental subjects were reinforced with green light feedback whenever they gazed at the interviewers and were punished with red light feedback when they averted gaze for more than 6 seconds. Control subjects received noncontingent green and red light feedback. Although gaze of experimental subjects toward the interviewers was increased significantly, their attitudes toward the interviewers remained the same. This was probably because the subjects did not discriminate that their gazing behavior had changed. Subjects gave the most unfavorable reactions to the nongazing interviewers, rating them as least attractive, giving them the shortest answers, and sitting farthest from them during the debriefing session. Subjects did not discriminate between high and low attractive interviewers, except that the latter were rated disproportionately low on attentiveness if they did not gaze. Interviewers with high rates of talking were preferred over interviewers with low rates of talking. It was concluded that interpersonal attraction is related to gaze and physical attractiveness through a number of mediating variables which will have to be isolated more specifically in future research.

  5. Gazing Behavior During Mixed-Sex Interactions: Sex and Attractiveness Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, I. van; Holland, R.W.; Finkenauer, C.; Hollenstein, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated to what extent the length of people's gazes during conversations with opposite-sex persons is affected by the physical attractiveness of the partner. Single participants (N = 115) conversed for 5 min with confederates who were rated either as low or high on physical attractiveness.

  6. Gazes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    This article is based on fieldwork with young Muslims in Copenhagen and focuses on how they navigate the visibility and embodiment of Muslim otherness in their everyday life. The concept of panoptical gazes are developed in regard to the young Muslims’ narratives of being looked upon, and the dif......This article is based on fieldwork with young Muslims in Copenhagen and focuses on how they navigate the visibility and embodiment of Muslim otherness in their everyday life. The concept of panoptical gazes are developed in regard to the young Muslims’ narratives of being looked upon......, and the different strategies of positioning they utilize are studied and identified. The first strategy is to confront stereotyping prejudices and gazes, thereby attempting to position oneself in a counteracting way. The second is to transform and try to normalise external characteristics, such as clothing...... and other symbols that indicate Muslimness. A third strategy is to play along and allow the prejudice in question to remain unchallenged. A fourth is to join and participate in religious communities and develop an alternate sense of belonging to a wider community of Muslims. The concept of panoptical gazes...

  7. Gazes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    , and the different strategies of positioning they utilize are studied and identified. The first strategy is to confront stereotyping prejudices and gazes, thereby attempting to position oneself in a counteracting way. The second is to transform and try to normalise external characteristics, such as clothing...... and other symbols that indicate Muslimness. A third strategy is to play along and allow the prejudice in question to remain unchallenged. A fourth is to join and participate in religious communities and develop an alternate sense of belonging to a wider community of Muslims. The concept of panoptical gazes...... are related to narratives on belonging, and the embodied experience of home which points towards new avenues of understanding the process of othering and the possibilities of negotiating the position as Other....

  8. Vanishing point attracts gaze in free-viewing and visual search tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Ali; Feng, Mengyang; Lu, Huchuan

    2016-11-01

    Several structural scene cues such as gist, layout, horizontal line, openness, and depth have been shown to guide scene perception (e.g., Oliva & Torralba, 2001); Ross & Oliva, 2009). Here, to investigate whether vanishing point (VP) plays a significant role in gaze guidance, we ran two experiments. In the first one, we recorded fixations of 10 observers (six male, four female; mean age 22; SD = 0.84) freely viewing 532 images, out of which 319 had a VP (shuffled presentation; each image for 4 s). We found that the average number of fixations at a local region (80 × 80 pixels) centered at the VP is significantly higher than the average fixations at random locations (t test; n = 319; p search for a target character (T or L) placed randomly on a 3 × 3 imaginary grid overlaid on top of an image. Subjects reported their answers by pressing one of the two keys. Stimuli consisted of 270 color images (180 with a single VP, 90 without). The target happened with equal probability inside each cell (15 times L, 15 times T). We found that subjects were significantly faster (and more accurate) when the target appeared inside the cell containing the VP compared to cells without the VP (median across 14 subjects 1.34 s vs. 1.96 s; Wilcoxon rank-sum test; p = 0.0014). These findings support the hypothesis that vanishing point, similar to face, text (Cerf, Frady, & Koch, 2009), and gaze direction Borji, Parks, & Itti, 2014) guides attention in free-viewing and visual search tasks.

  9. The influence of emotional facial expressions on gaze-following in grouped and solitary pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew C; Chong, Andrew; Kacelnik, Alex; Krebs, John R; Couzin, Iain D

    2014-07-23

    The mechanisms contributing to collective attention in humans remain unclear. Research indicates that pedestrians utilise the gaze direction of others nearby to acquire environmentally relevant information, but it is not known which, if any, additional social cues influence this transmission. Extending upon previous field studies, we investigated whether gaze cues paired with emotional facial expressions (neutral, happy, suspicious and fearsome) of an oncoming walking confederate modulate gaze-following by pedestrians moving in a natural corridor. We found that pedestrians walking alone were not sensitive to this manipulation, while individuals traveling together in groups did reliably alter their response in relation to emotional cues. In particular, members of a collective were more likely to follow gaze cues indicative of a potential threat (i.e., suspicious or fearful facial expression). This modulation of visual attention dependent on whether pedestrians are in social aggregates may be important to drive adaptive exploitation of social information, and particularly emotional stimuli within natural contexts.

  10. Influence of Gaze Direction on Face Recognition: A Sensitive Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémy Daury

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the conditions in which eye-contact may improve recognition memory for faces. Different stimuli and procedures were tested in four experiments. The effect of gaze direction on memory was found when a simple “yes-no” recognition task was used but not when the recognition task was more complex (e.g., including “Remember-Know” judgements, cf. Experiment 2, or confidence ratings, cf. Experiment 4. Moreover, even when a “yes-no” recognition paradigm was used, the effect occurred with one series of stimuli (cf. Experiment 1 but not with another one (cf. Experiment 3. The difficulty to produce the positive effect of gaze direction on memory is discussed.

  11. The influence of social and symbolic cues on observers' gaze behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Frouke; Walker, Robin

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that social and symbolic cues presented in isolation and at fixation have strong effects on observers, but it is unclear how cues compare when they are presented away from fixation and embedded in natural scenes. We here compare the effects of two types of social cue (gaze and pointing gestures) and one type of symbolic cue (arrow signs) on eye movements of observers under two viewing conditions (free viewing vs. a memory task). The results suggest that social cues are looked at more quickly, for longer and more frequently than the symbolic arrow cues. An analysis of saccades initiated from the cue suggests that the pointing cue leads to stronger cueing than the gaze and the arrow cue. While the task had only a weak influence on gaze orienting to the cues, stronger cue following was found for free viewing compared to the memory task.

  12. The influence of facial attractiveness on imitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M.L. van; Veling, H.P.; Baaren, R.B. van; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    People judge, evaluate, and treat attractive people better than moderately attractive or unattractive people [Langlois, J. H., Kalakanis, L., Rubenstein, A. J., Larson, A., Hallam, M., & Smoot, M. (2000). Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 126,

  13. Smile attractiveness. Self-perception and influence on personality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geld, P. van der; Oosterveld, P.; Heck, G.L. van; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate self-perception of smile attractiveness and to determine the role of smile line and other aspects correlated with smile attractiveness and their influence on personality traits. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Participants judged their smile attractiveness with a patient-specific qu

  14. Influence of Eye Gaze on Spoken Word Processing: An ERP Study with Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Eugenio; Handl, Andrea; Palumbo, Letizia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    Eye gaze is an important communicative signal, both as mutual eye contact and as referential gaze to objects. To examine whether attention to speech versus nonspeech stimuli in 4- to 5-month-olds (n = 15) varies as a function of eye gaze, event-related brain potentials were used. Faces with mutual or averted gaze were presented in combination with…

  15. The attracting power of the gaze of politicians is modulated by the personality and ideological attitude of their voters: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Valentina; Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Macaluso, Emiliano; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-10-01

    Observing someone rapidly moving their eyes induces reflexive shifts of overt and covert attention in the onlooker. Previous studies have shown that this process can be modulated by the onlooker's personality, as well as by the social features of the person depicted in the cued face. Here, we investigated whether an individual's preference for social dominance orientation, in-group perceived similarity (PS), and political affiliation of the cued-face modulated neural activity within specific nodes of the social attention network. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants were requested to perform a gaze-following task to investigate whether the directional gaze of various Italian political personages might influence the oculomotor behaviour of in-group or out-group voters. After scanning, we acquired measures of PS in personality traits with each political personage and preference for social dominance orientation. Behavioural data showed that higher gaze interference for in-group than out-group political personages was predicted by a higher preference for social hierarchy. Higher blood oxygenation level-dependent activity in incongruent vs. congruent conditions was found in areas associated with orienting to socially salient events and monitoring response conflict, namely the left frontal eye field, right supramarginal gyrus, mid-cingulate cortex and left anterior insula. Interestingly, higher ratings of PS with the in-group and less preference for social hierarchy predicted increased activity in the left frontal eye field during distracting gaze movements of in-group as compared with out-group political personages. Our results suggest that neural activity in the social orienting circuit is modulated by higher-order social dimensions, such as in-group PS and individual differences in ideological attitudes.

  16. The Perceived Relationship between Physical Attractiveness and Social Influence Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Laura C.; Ashmore, Richard D.

    The power of beauty has been contemplated by writers, poets, and philosophers for centuries. The link between the target physical attractiveness and perceived social influence effectiveness has not been directly and systematically investigated. The goal of this study was to assess whether physically attractive (versus unattractive) individuals are…

  17. Peer Influence and Attraction to Interracial Romantic Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Lehmiller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research examined the effect of social influence on White, heterosexual individuals’ attraction to targets of varying races (White vs. Black in two  college student samples from the United States (one that leaned politically liberal and one that leaned politically conservative. Using a within-subjects experimental design, participants were given artificial peer evaluation data (positive, negative, or none before providing ratings of attractiveness and dating interest for a series of targets. In both samples, positive information was associated with greater levels of attraction and dating interest than negative information, regardless of target race. Within the conservative sample, participants reported greater attraction toward and more dating interest in White targets relative to Black targets, while in the liberal sample, participants’ ratings of targets did not significantly differ from one another. These findings suggest that social influence can affect perceptions of attractiveness even in very different political climates.

  18. "Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon…

  19. Influence of gaze and directness of approach on the escape responses of the Indian rock lizard, Psammophilus dorsalis (Gray, 1831)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachakonda Sreekar; Suhel Quader

    2013-12-01

    Animals often evaluate the degree of risk posed by a predator and respond accordingly. Since many predators orient their eyes towards prey while attacking, predator gaze and directness of approach could serve as conspicuous indicators of risk to prey. The ability to perceive these cues and discriminate between high and low predation risk should benefit prey species through both higher survival and decreased energy expenditure. We experimentally examined whether Indian rock lizards (Psammophilus dorsalis) can perceive these two indicators of predation risk by measuring the variation in their fleeing behaviour in response to type of gaze and approach by a human predator. Overall, we found that the gaze and approach of the predator influenced flight initiation distance, which also varied with attributes of the prey (i.e. size/sex and tail-raise behaviour). Flight initiation distance (FID) was 43% longer during direct approaches with direct gaze compared with tangential approaches with averted gaze. In further, exploratory, analyses, we found that FID was 23% shorter for adult male lizards than for female or young male (FYM) lizards. In addition, FYM lizards that showed a tail-raise display during approach had a 71% longer FID than those that did not. Our results suggest that multiple factors influence the decision to flee in animals. Further studies are needed to test the generality of these factors and to investigate the proximate mechanisms underlying flight decisions.

  20. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjacholapunt, Pitch; Ball, Linden J

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants' eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-center horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people's memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localized more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  1. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: Human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitch eSajjacholapunt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants’ eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-centre horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people’s memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localised more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  2. Peer Influence and Attraction to Interracial Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmiller, Justin J.; Graziano, William G.; VanderDrift, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined the effect of social influence on White, heterosexual individuals’ attraction to targets of varying races (White vs. Black) in two  college student samples from the United States (one that leaned politically liberal and one that leaned politically conservative). Using a within-subjects experimental design, participants were given artificial peer evaluation data (positive, negative, or none) before providing ratings of attractiveness and dating interest for a seri...

  3. Proximity and Gaze Influences Facial Temperature: A Thermal Infrared Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos eIoannou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct gaze and interpersonal proximity are known to lead to changes in psycho-physiology, behaviour and brain function. We know little, however, about subtler facial reactions such as rise and fall in temperature, which may be sensitive to contextual effects and functional in social interactions. Using thermal infrared imaging cameras 18 female adult participants were filmed at two interpersonal distances (intimate and social and two gaze conditions (averted and direct. The order of variation in distance was counterbalanced: half the participants experienced a female experimenter’s gaze at the social distance first before the intimate distance (a socially ‘normal’ order and half experienced the intimate distance first and then the social distance (an odd social order. At both distances averted gaze always preceded direct gaze. We found strong correlations in thermal changes between six areas of the face (forehead, chin, cheeks, nose, maxilliary and periorbital regions for all experimental conditions and developed a composite measure of thermal shifts for all analyses. Interpersonal proximity led to a thermal rise, but only in the ‘normal’ social order. Direct gaze, compared to averted gaze, led to a thermal increase at both distances with a stronger effect at intimate distance, in both orders of distance variation. Participants reported direct gaze as more intrusive than averted gaze, especially at the intimate distance. These results demonstrate the powerful effects of another person’s gaze on psycho-physiological responses, even at a distance and independent of context.

  4. The Influence of Decommunization on the Tourism Attractiveness of Regions

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    Нaponenko Anna I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the influence of decommunization on the tourism attractiveness of regions. The authors have proposed to add to the list of the main factors of developing the tourism attractiveness (presence of tourism resources, ecologically balanced environment, modern infrastructure, and a positive image implementing the activities within terms of the policy of decommunization. The influence of this factor has been considered on the example of domestic regions. The basic problems of development of tourism industry of Ukraine at the present stage have been outlined. It has been found that the decommunization process greatly increases the tourism attractiveness of regions through the creation of parks and museums of the Soviet past, acquiring the new image by cities and towns after changing their names. At the present time stage, influence of the factor of decommunization on the tourism attractiveness of Ukraine is gradually increasing, but a necessary condition for development of tourism and travel should be the State support and efficient management of this sector.

  5. Audience gaze while appreciating a multipart musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Satoshi; Obata, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Visual information has been observed to be crucial for audience members during musical performances. The present study used an eye tracker to investigate audience members' gazes while appreciating an audiovisual musical ensemble performance, based on evidence of the dominance of musical part in auditory attention when listening to multipart music that contains different melody lines and the joint-attention theory of gaze. We presented singing performances, by a female duo. The main findings were as follows: (1) the melody part (soprano) attracted more visual attention than the accompaniment part (alto) throughout the piece, (2) joint attention emerged when the singers shifted their gazes toward their co-performer, suggesting that inter-performer gazing interactions that play a spotlight role mediated performer-audience visual interaction, and (3) musical part (melody or accompaniment) strongly influenced the total duration of gazes among audiences, while the spotlight effect of gaze was limited to just after the singers' gaze shifts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Preliminary Evidence that the Limbal Ring Influences Facial Attractiveness

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    Darren Peshek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The limbal ring of the eye appears as a dark annulus where the iris meets the sclera. Both width and opacity of the limbal ring are influenced by iris pigmentation and optical properties of the region. With age the limbal ring becomes less prominent, making it a probabilistic indicator of youth and health. This raises the question: Are judgments of facial attractiveness sensitive to this signal in a potentially adaptive way? Here we show that the answer is yes. For male and female observers, both male and female faces with a dark and distinct limbal ring are rated as more attractive than otherwise identical faces with no limbal ring. This result is observed not just for upright faces but also for inverted faces, suggesting that the limbal ring is processed primarily as a local feature rather than as a configural feature in the analysis of facial beauty. We also discuss directions for future research that can clarify the role of the limbal ring in the visual perception of facial attractiveness.

  7. Interpersonal multisensory stimulation reduces the overwhelming distracting power of self-gaze: psychophysical evidence for 'engazement'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, Giuseppina; Holmes, Brittany Serra; Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Crostella, Filippo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria; Bufalari, Ilaria

    2014-10-20

    One's own face and gaze are never seen directly but only in a mirror. Yet, these stimuli capture attention more powerfully than others' face and gaze, suggesting the self is special for brain and behavior. Synchronous touches felt on one's own and seen on the face of others induce the sensation of including others in one's own face (enfacement). We demonstrate that enfacement may also reduce the overwhelming distracting power of self-gaze. This effect, hereafter called 'engazement', depends on the perceived physical attractiveness and inner beauty of the pair partner. Thus, we highlight for the first time the close link between enfacement and engazement by showing that changes of the self-face representation induced by facial visuo-tactile stimulation extend to gaze following, a separate process likely underpinned by different neural substrates. Moreover, although gaze following is a largely automatic, engazement is penetrable to the influence of social variables, such as positive interpersonal perception.

  8. Influence of ethnic group-membership and gaze direction on the perception of emotions. A cross-cultural study between Germany and China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Krämer

    Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person's ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-encoder. Although these factors are known to affect emotion perception, their impact has only been studied in isolation before. The aim of the present study was to investigate their combined influence. Thus, in order to study the influence of engagement on emotion perception between persons from different ethnicities, we compared participants from China and Germany. Asian-looking and European-looking virtual agents expressed anger and happiness while gazing at the participant or at another person. Participants had to assess the perceived valence of the emotional expressions. Results indicate that indeed two factors that are known to have a considerable influence on emotion perception interacted in their combined influence: We found that the perceived intensity of an emotion expressed by ethnic in-group members was in most cases independent of gaze direction, whereas gaze direction had an influence on the emotion perception of ethnic out-group members. Additionally, participants from the ethnic out-group tended to perceive emotions as more pronounced than participants from the ethnic in-group when they were directly gazed at. These findings suggest that gaze direction has a differential influence on ethnic in-group and ethnic out-group dynamics during emotion perception.

  9. Understanding talent attraction: The influence of financial rewards elements on perceived job attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Schlechter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In order to attract knowledge workers and maintain a competitive advantage,it is necessary for organisations to understand how knowledge workers are attracted todifferent types and levels of financial rewards.Research purpose: This research investigated a set of financial reward elements (remuneration, employee benefits and variable pay to determine whether knowledgeworkers perceived them as attractive inducements when considering a job or position.Motivation for the study: In South Africa there is a shortage of talent, largely due to highrates of emigration of scarce skills (human capital. Financial rewards or inducementsare necessary to attract talent and it is essential to assess which of these rewards are mostsuccessful in this regard.Method: A 23 full-factorial experimental design (field experiment was used. The threefinancial reward elements (remuneration, employee benefits and variable pay weremanipulated in a fictitious job advertisement (each at two levels. Eight (2 × 2 × 2 = 8 differentversions of a job advertisement were used as a stimulus to determine the effect of financialreward elements on perceived job attractiveness. A questionnaire was used to measure howparticipants perceived the attractiveness of the job. A convenience sampling approach wasused. Different organisations throughout South Africa, as well as corporate members of the South African Reward Association, were asked to participate in the study. Respondents (n = 169 were randomly assigned to the various experimental conditions (i.e. one of the eightadvertisements. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. A full-factorial analysis ofvariance was used to investigate if significant main effects could be found.Main findings: Participants considered high levels of remuneration, the inclusion ofbenefits and variable pay to be significant job attraction factors within a reward package. Remuneration was found to have the largest main effect on job

  10. Judgments at Gaze Value: Gaze Cuing in Banner Advertisements, Its Effect on Attention Allocation and Product Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palcu, Johanna; Sudkamp, Jennifer; Florack, Arnd

    2017-01-01

    Banner advertising is a popular means of promoting products and brands online. Although banner advertisements are often designed to be particularly attention grabbing, they frequently go unnoticed. Applying an eye-tracking procedure, the present research aimed to (a) determine whether presenting human faces (static or animated) in banner advertisements is an adequate tool for capturing consumers' attention and thus overcoming the frequently observed phenomenon of banner blindness, (b) to examine whether the gaze of a featured face possesses the ability to direct consumers' attention toward specific elements (i.e., the product) in an advertisement, and (c) to establish whether the gaze direction of an advertised face influences consumers subsequent evaluation of the advertised product. We recorded participants' eye gaze while they viewed a fictional online shopping page displaying banner advertisements that featured either no human face or a human face that was either static or animated and involved different gaze directions (toward or away from the advertised product). Moreover, we asked participants to subsequently evaluate a set of products, one of which was the product previously featured in the banner advertisement. Results showed that, when advertisements included a human face, participants' attention was more attracted by and they looked longer at animated compared with static banner advertisements. Moreover, when a face gazed toward the product region, participants' likelihood of looking at the advertised product increased regardless of whether the face was animated or not. Most important, gaze direction influenced subsequent product evaluations; that is, consumers indicated a higher intention to buy a product when it was previously presented in a banner advertisement that featured a face that gazed toward the product. The results suggest that while animation in banner advertising constitutes a salient feature that captures consumers' visual attention, gaze

  11. Judgments at Gaze Value: Gaze Cuing in Banner Advertisements, Its Effect on Attention Allocation and Product Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Palcu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Banner advertising is a popular means of promoting products and brands online. Although banner advertisements are often designed to be particularly attention grabbing, they frequently go unnoticed. Applying an eye-tracking procedure, the present research aimed to (a determine whether presenting human faces (static or animated in banner advertisements is an adequate tool for capturing consumers’ attention and thus overcoming the frequently observed phenomenon of banner blindness, (b to examine whether the gaze of a featured face possesses the ability to direct consumers’ attention toward specific elements (i.e., the product in an advertisement, and (c to establish whether the gaze direction of an advertised face influences consumers subsequent evaluation of the advertised product. We recorded participants’ eye gaze while they viewed a fictional online shopping page displaying banner advertisements that featured either no human face or a human face that was either static or animated and involved different gaze directions (toward or away from the advertised product. Moreover, we asked participants to subsequently evaluate a set of products, one of which was the product previously featured in the banner advertisement. Results showed that, when advertisements included a human face, participants’ attention was more attracted by and they looked longer at animated compared with static banner advertisements. Moreover, when a face gazed toward the product region, participants’ likelihood of looking at the advertised product increased regardless of whether the face was animated or not. Most important, gaze direction influenced subsequent product evaluations; that is, consumers indicated a higher intention to buy a product when it was previously presented in a banner advertisement that featured a face that gazed toward the product. The results suggest that while animation in banner advertising constitutes a salient feature that captures consumers

  12. Judgments at Gaze Value: Gaze Cuing in Banner Advertisements, Its Effect on Attention Allocation and Product Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palcu, Johanna; Sudkamp, Jennifer; Florack, Arnd

    2017-01-01

    Banner advertising is a popular means of promoting products and brands online. Although banner advertisements are often designed to be particularly attention grabbing, they frequently go unnoticed. Applying an eye-tracking procedure, the present research aimed to (a) determine whether presenting human faces (static or animated) in banner advertisements is an adequate tool for capturing consumers’ attention and thus overcoming the frequently observed phenomenon of banner blindness, (b) to examine whether the gaze of a featured face possesses the ability to direct consumers’ attention toward specific elements (i.e., the product) in an advertisement, and (c) to establish whether the gaze direction of an advertised face influences consumers subsequent evaluation of the advertised product. We recorded participants’ eye gaze while they viewed a fictional online shopping page displaying banner advertisements that featured either no human face or a human face that was either static or animated and involved different gaze directions (toward or away from the advertised product). Moreover, we asked participants to subsequently evaluate a set of products, one of which was the product previously featured in the banner advertisement. Results showed that, when advertisements included a human face, participants’ attention was more attracted by and they looked longer at animated compared with static banner advertisements. Moreover, when a face gazed toward the product region, participants’ likelihood of looking at the advertised product increased regardless of whether the face was animated or not. Most important, gaze direction influenced subsequent product evaluations; that is, consumers indicated a higher intention to buy a product when it was previously presented in a banner advertisement that featured a face that gazed toward the product. The results suggest that while animation in banner advertising constitutes a salient feature that captures consumers’ visual

  13. Objects capture perceived gaze direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Fischer, Martin H; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The interpretation of another person's eye gaze is a key element of social cognition. Previous research has established that this ability develops early in life and is influenced by the person's head orientation, as well as local features of the person's eyes. Here we show that the presence of objects in the attended space also has an impact on gaze interpretation. Eleven normal adults identified the fixation points of photographed faces with a mouse cursor. Their responses were systematically biased toward the locations of nearby objects. This capture of perceived gaze direction probably reflects the attribution of intentionality and has methodological implications for research on gaze perception.

  14. Gaze cuing of attention in snake phobic women: the influence of facial expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina ePletti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies investigated whether animal phobics exhibit attentional biases in contexts where no phobic stimuli are present. Among these, recent studies provided evidence for a bias toward facial expressions of fear and disgust in animal phobics. Such findings may be due to the fact that these expressions could signal the presence of a phobic object in the surroundings. To test this hypothesis and further investigate attentional biases for emotional faces in animal phobics, we conducted an experiment using a gaze-cuing paradigm in which participants’ attention was driven by the task-irrelevant gaze of a centrally presented face. We employed dynamic negative facial expressions of disgust, fear and anger and found an enhanced gaze-cuing effect in snake phobics as compared to controls, irrespective of facial expression. These results provide evidence of a general hypervigilance in animal phobics in the absence of phobic stimuli, and indicate that research on specific phobias should not be limited to symptom provocation paradigms.

  15. The Influence of Communicative Competence on Perceived Task, Social and Physical Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Robert L.; Kelly, Lynne

    1988-01-01

    Examines whether communicative competence influences perceived task, social, and physical attractiveness. Results indicated that communicative competence accounted for 17 percent, 14 percent and 8 percent of the variance in perceived task, social, and physical attractiveness, respectively. (MM)

  16. The Influence of Communicative Competence on Perceived Task, Social and Physical Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Robert L.; Kelly, Lynne

    1988-01-01

    Examines whether communicative competence influences perceived task, social, and physical attractiveness. Results indicated that communicative competence accounted for 17 percent, 14 percent and 8 percent of the variance in perceived task, social, and physical attractiveness, respectively. (MM)

  17. The Influence of Functional Communication Patterns on Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Steve; And Others

    This study examined the effects of functional communication patterns on interpersonal attraction, using a ten-category system of interaction analysis. Eight undergraduates were randomly selected and assigned to four unacquainted male-female pairs. After completing a physical attraction measure of their partners in the pairs, members of two pairs…

  18. Influence of Children's Physical Attractiveness on Teacher Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenealy, Pamela; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Ratings of the physical attractiveness of 11-to-12-year-old children were obtained, and the association between physical attractiveness and teachers' judgements of these children were examined. Teachers revealed a systematic tendency to rate girls higher than boys, and significant sex differences were observed in teachers' ratings of…

  19. The influence of planetary attractions on the solar tachocline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callebaut, D.K.; de Jager, C.; Duhau, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a physical analysis of the occasionally forwarded hypothesis that solar variability, as shown in the various photospheric and outer solar layer activities, might be due to the Newtonian attraction by the planets. We calculate the planetary forces exerted on the tachocline and thereby not

  20. Age differences in conscious versus subconscious social perception: the influence of face age and valence on gaze following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phoebe E; Slessor, Gillian; Rendell, Peter G; Bennetts, Rachel J; Campbell, Anna; Ruffman, Ted

    2014-09-01

    Gaze following is the primary means of establishing joint attention with others and is subject to age-related decline. In addition, young but not older adults experience an own-age bias in gaze following. The current research assessed the effects of subconscious processing on these age-related differences. Participants responded to targets that were either congruent or incongruent with the direction of gaze displayed in supraliminal and subliminal images of young and older faces. These faces displayed either neutral (Study 1) or happy and fearful (Study 2) expressions. In Studies 1 and 2, both age groups demonstrated gaze-directed attention by responding faster to targets that were congruent as opposed to incongruent with gaze-cues. In Study 1, subliminal stimuli did not attenuate the age-related decline in gaze-cuing, but did result in an own-age bias among older participants. In Study 2, gaze-cuing was reduced for older relative to young adults in response to supraliminal stimuli, and this could not be attributed to reduced visual acuity or age group differences in the perceived emotional intensity of the gaze-cue faces. Moreover, there were no age differences in gaze-cuing when responding to subliminal faces that were emotionally arousing. In addition, older adults demonstrated an own-age bias for both conscious and subconscious gaze-cuing when faces expressed happiness but not fear. We discuss growing evidence for age-related preservation of subconscious relative to conscious social perception, as well as an interaction between face age and valence in social perception.

  1. Follow my eyes: the gaze of politicians reflexively captures the gaze of ingroup voters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tullio Liuzza

    Full Text Available Studies in human and non-human primates indicate that basic socio-cognitive operations are inherently linked to the power of gaze in capturing reflexively the attention of an observer. Although monkey studies indicate that the automatic tendency to follow the gaze of a conspecific is modulated by the leader-follower social status, evidence for such effects in humans is meager. Here, we used a gaze following paradigm where the directional gaze of right- or left-wing Italian political characters could influence the oculomotor behavior of ingroup or outgroup voters. We show that the gaze of Berlusconi, the right-wing leader currently dominating the Italian political landscape, potentiates and inhibits gaze following behavior in ingroup and outgroup voters, respectively. Importantly, the higher the perceived similarity in personality traits between voters and Berlusconi, the stronger the gaze interference effect. Thus, higher-order social variables such as political leadership and affiliation prepotently affect reflexive shifts of attention.

  2. Attractiveness is influenced by the relationship between postures of the viewer and the viewed person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertamini, Marco; Byrne, Christopher; Bennett, Kate M

    2013-01-01

    Many factors influence physical attractiveness, including degree of symmetry and relative length of legs. We asked a sample of 112 young adults to rate the attractiveness of computer-generated female bodies that varied in terms of symmetry and leg-to-body ratio. These effects were confirmed. However, we also varied whether the person in the image was shown sitting or standing. Half of the participants were tested standing and the other half sitting. The difference in the posture of the participants increased the perceived attractiveness of the images sharing the same posture, despite the fact that participants were unaware that their posture was relevant for the experiment. We conclude that our findings extend the role of embodied simulation in social cognition to perception of attractiveness from static images.

  3. Attractiveness is Influenced by the Relationship between Postures of the Viewer and the Viewed Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bertamini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence physical attractiveness, including degree of symmetry and relative length of legs. We asked a sample of 112 young adults to rate the attractiveness of computer-generated female bodies that varied in terms of symmetry and leg-to-body ratio. These effects were confirmed. However, we also varied whether the person in the image was shown sitting or standing. Half of the participants were tested standing and the other half sitting. The difference in the posture of the participants increased the perceived attractiveness of the images sharing the same posture, despite the fact that participants were unaware that their posture was relevant for the experiment. We conclude that our findings extend the role of embodied simulation in social cognition to perception of attractiveness from static images.

  4. Ubiquitous gaze: using gaze at the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk; Aghajan, Hamid; López-Cózar Delgado, Ramón; Augusto, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In the quest for more natural forms of interaction between humans and machines, information on where someone is looking and how (for how long, with long or shorter gaze periods) plays a prominent part. The importance of gaze in social interaction, its manifold functions and expressive force, and the

  5. Beauty and the teeth: perception of tooth color and its influence on the overall judgment of facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfel, Lea; Lange, Matthias; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of changes in tooth color on judgments of facial attractiveness. Standardized photographs were presented, and teeth were digitally manipulated (main categories: original, whitened, colored; filler category: impaired). Participants were instructed to evaluate the faces for attractiveness. Additionally, they were asked to name facial features they found either positive or negative with regard to attractiveness. Whitened teeth were mentioned more often in a positive way but did not improve participants' assessment of attractiveness. A colored tooth did not attract attention, and the attractiveness judgment did not worsen. Tooth color is thus not necessarily perceived and does not have a major impact on facial attractiveness.

  6. Communicative Influences on Perceived Similarity and Attraction: An Expansion of the Interpersonal Goals Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnafrank, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Reveals that previously accepted positive association between attitude similarity and attraction is absent in beginning acquaintance. Suggests that information available during initial conversations may strongly influence perceptions of attitude similarity. Also examines the possibility that a potential initial acquaintance association between…

  7. Communicative Influences on Perceived Similarity and Attraction: An Expansion of the Interpersonal Goals Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnafrank, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Reveals that previously accepted positive association between attitude similarity and attraction is absent in beginning acquaintance. Suggests that information available during initial conversations may strongly influence perceptions of attitude similarity. Also examines the possibility that a potential initial acquaintance association between…

  8. Comparison of Analogue Strategies for Investigating the Influence of Counselors' Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotlow, Susan F.; Allen, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Assessed the validity of examining the influence of counselors' physical attractiveness via observation of videotapes. Reactions to audio-only and video-only videotape segments were compared with in vivo contact. In vivo contact yielded more positive impressions than videotape observations. Technical skill was more predictive of counselor…

  9. Eyelid-openness and mouth curvature influence perceived intelligence beyond attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamas, Sean N; Mavor, Kenneth I; Axelsson, John; Sundelin, Tina; Perrett, David I

    2016-05-01

    Impression formation is profoundly influenced by facial attractiveness, but the existence of facial cues which affect judgments beyond such an "attractiveness halo" may be underestimated. Because depression and tiredness adversely affect cognitive capacity, we reasoned that facial cues to mood (mouth curvature) and alertness (eyelid-openness) affect impressions of intellectual capacity. Over 4 studies we investigated the influence of these malleable facial cues on first impressions of intelligence. In Studies 1 and 2 we scrutinize the perceived intelligence and attractiveness ratings of images of 100 adults (aged 18-33) and 90 school-age children (aged 5-17), respectively. Intelligence impression was partially mediated by attractiveness, but independent effects of eyelid-openness and subtle smiling were found that enhanced intelligence ratings independent of attractiveness. In Study 3 we digitally manipulated stimuli to have altered eyelid-openness or mouth curvature and found that each independent manipulation had an influence on perceptions of intelligence. In a final set of stimuli (Study 4) we explored changes in these cues before and after sleep restriction, to examine whether natural variations in these cues according to sleep condition can influence perceptions. In Studies 3 and 4 variations with increased eyelid-openness and mouth curvature were found to relate positively to intelligence ratings. These findings suggest potential overgeneralizations based on subtle facial cues that indicate mood and tiredness, both of which alter cognitive ability. These findings also have important implications for students who are directly influenced by expectations of ability and teachers who may form expectations based on initial perceptions of intelligence.

  10. Androstadienone's influence on the perception of facial and vocal attractiveness is not sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Delplanque, Sylvain; Atanassova, Reni; Sander, David

    2016-04-01

    The androgen steroid androstadienone, an odorous compound emitted from the human axillary region, has recurrently been considered as a candidate compound involved in human chemical communication and mate choice. Although perception of androstadienone has been shown to influence several affective (mood), attentional, physiological and neural parameters, studies investigating its impact on human attractiveness remain unpersuasive because of incomplete designs (e.g., only female participants) and contradictory results. The aim of this study was to investigate how androstadienone may influence others' attractiveness. Specifically, we used a complete design (male and female raters, male and female faces and voices) to determine whether androstadienone influences the perception of social stimuli in a sex-specific manner, which would favor pheromonal-like properties of the compound, or in a more general manner, which would suggest that the compound has broader influences on human psychological responses. After comparing the ratings of men and women who were exposed to androstadienone masked in clove oil with those of men and women who were exposed to clove oil alone, we found that androstadienone enhanced the perceived attractiveness of emotionally relevant stimuli (opposite-sex stimuli in men and in fertile women). Response times for categorizing the stimuli as attractive or not were also affected by androstadienone, with longer response times in men and in fertile women and shorter response times in non-fertile women, irrespective of the stimulus sex. The results favor the hypothesis of general effects over sex-specific effects of androstadienone, thus questioning the relevance of focusing on that particular compound in the study of human attractiveness through body odor and encouraging the search for other semiochemicals that might be significant for human mate choice.

  11. The influence of dentofacial appearance on the social attractiveness of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W C; Rees, G; Dawe, M; Charles, C R

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether the social attractiveness of a young adult would be influenced by his or her dentofacial appearance. Black and white photographs of an attractive male, an unattractive male, an attractive female, and an unattractive female were obtained and modified so that, for each face, five different photographic versions were available. In each version, the face was standardized except that a different dentofacial arrangement was demonstrated. These were normal incisors, prominent incisors, absence of upper left lateral incisor, severely crowded incisors, and unilateral cleft lip. Eight hundred young adults were shown one of the twenty photographs and asked to estimate the represented individual's social characteristics along a number of bipolar scales. Each photograph was viewed by a different group of forty young adults, equally divided as to sex. Their impressions of the depicted individuals' social attractiveness were recorded on visual analogue scales. The experimental procedure was such that the effect and interaction of different levels of facial attractiveness, different dentofacial arrangements, sex of the photographed individual, and sex of the judge could be analyzed. Faces displaying a normal incisor relationship gained the most favorable ratings for eight of the ten characteristics examined, and in four of these differences across the range of dental conditions were statistically significant. These were perceived friendliness, social class, popularity, and intelligence. The prominent incisor condition was rated highest for compliance and honesty, while the condition representing a unilateral cleft consistently attracted low ratings. Background facial attractiveness of either the male or female stimuli was often more assertive than the individual dental condition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Influence of in vitro pigmenting of esthetic orthodontic ligatures on smile attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz,Camila; Castellucci, Marcelo; Sobral,Márcio

    2012-01-01

    p. 123-130 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of dental students and orthodontists on the degree of influence that pigmented esthetic elastic ligatures have on smile attractiveness, by judging clinical photographs. METHODS: Sixteen clinical facial photographs of the smile and 16 close up images of the smile of a single patient wearing monocrystalline porcelain orthodontic brackets, Teflon coated NiTi wire brackets and esthetic elastic ligatures of five different commercial brands wer...

  13. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...... pointing was faster than mouse pointing, while maintaining a similar error rate. EMG and mouse-button selection had a comparable performance. From analyses of completion time, throughput and error rates, we concluded that the combination of gaze and facial EMG holds potential for outperforming the mouse....

  14. Gaze Tracking Through Smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Henrik; Hansen, John Paulin; Møllenbach, Emilie

    Mobile gaze trackers embedded in smartphones or tablets provide a powerful personal link to game devices, head-mounted micro-displays, pc´s, and TV’s. This link may offer a main road to the mass market for gaze interaction, we suggest.......Mobile gaze trackers embedded in smartphones or tablets provide a powerful personal link to game devices, head-mounted micro-displays, pc´s, and TV’s. This link may offer a main road to the mass market for gaze interaction, we suggest....

  15. Judging the difference between attractiveness and health: does exposure to model images influence the judgments made by men and women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D Stephen

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown facial adiposity (apparent weight in the face to be a significant predictor of both attractiveness and health, thus making it an important determinant of mate selection. Studies looking at the relationship between attractiveness and health have shown that individuals differentiate between the two by preferring a lower weight for attractiveness than for health in female faces. However, these studies have either been correlational studies, or have investigated weight perceived from only the face. These differences have been discussed with regard to sociocultural factors such as pressure from parents, peers and also media, which has been seen to have the highest influence. While exposure to media images has been shown to influence women's own-body image, no study has yet directly tested the influence of these factors on people's preferred weight in other women's bodies. Here we examine how a short exposure to images of models influences men's and women's judgments of the most healthy looking and attractive BMI in Malaysian Chinese women's bodies by comparing differences in preferences (for attractiveness and health between groups exposed to images of models of varying attractiveness and body weight. Results indicated that participants preferred a lower weight for attractiveness than for health. Further, women's but not men's preferred BMI for attractiveness, but not health, was influenced by the type of media images to which they were exposed, suggesting that short term exposure to model images affect women's perceptions of attractiveness but not health.

  16. Judging the difference between attractiveness and health: does exposure to model images influence the judgments made by men and women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; Perera, A Treshi-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown facial adiposity (apparent weight in the face) to be a significant predictor of both attractiveness and health, thus making it an important determinant of mate selection. Studies looking at the relationship between attractiveness and health have shown that individuals differentiate between the two by preferring a lower weight for attractiveness than for health in female faces. However, these studies have either been correlational studies, or have investigated weight perceived from only the face. These differences have been discussed with regard to sociocultural factors such as pressure from parents, peers and also media, which has been seen to have the highest influence. While exposure to media images has been shown to influence women's own-body image, no study has yet directly tested the influence of these factors on people's preferred weight in other women's bodies. Here we examine how a short exposure to images of models influences men's and women's judgments of the most healthy looking and attractive BMI in Malaysian Chinese women's bodies by comparing differences in preferences (for attractiveness and health) between groups exposed to images of models of varying attractiveness and body weight. Results indicated that participants preferred a lower weight for attractiveness than for health. Further, women's but not men's preferred BMI for attractiveness, but not health, was influenced by the type of media images to which they were exposed, suggesting that short term exposure to model images affect women's perceptions of attractiveness but not health.

  17. Active and reactive behaviour in human mobility: the influence of attraction points on pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Oltra, Aitana; Bartumeus, Frederic; Diaz-Guilera, Albert; Perelló, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Human mobility is becoming an accessible field of study thanks to the progress and availability of tracking technologies as a common feature of smart phones. We describe an example of a scalable experiment exploiting these circumstances at a public, outdoor fair in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were tracked while wandering through an open space with activity stands attracting their attention. We develop a general modeling framework based on Langevin Dynamics, which allows us to test the influence of two distinct types of ingredients on mobility: reactive or context-dependent factors, modelled by means of a force field generated by attraction points in a given spatial configuration, and active or inherent factors, modelled from intrinsic movement patterns of the subjects. The additive and constructive framework model accounts for the observed features. Starting with the simplest model (purely random walkers) as a reference, we progressively introduce different ingredients such as persistence, memory, and per...

  18. Gaze interaction from bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost gaze tracking solution for bedbound people composed of free-ware tracking software and commodity hardware. Gaze interaction is done on a large wall-projected image, visible to all people present in the room. The hardware equipment leaves physical space free to assist...

  19. Gazes and Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    Abstract: Recent literature has critiqued this notion of the 'tourist gaze' for reducing tourism to visual experiences 'sightseeing' and neglecting other senses and bodily experiences of doing tourism. A so-called 'performance turn' within tourist studies highlights how tourists experience places...... revised and expanded Tourist Gaze 3.0 that I am writing with John Urry at the moment....

  20. Influence of Smile Arc and Buccal Corridors on Facial Attractiveness: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Shashank; Vaz, Anna C; Singh, Baldeep; Taneja, Lavina; Vinod, KS; Verma, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two aspects of the smile: the Smile Arc (SA) and Buccal Corridors (BC) have been the interest of the orthodontist in recent years. Aim The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the smile arc and buccal corridors on facial attractiveness as evaluated by orthodontists, general dentists and laymen. Materials and Methods Two subjects (one male & one female) were selected from the regional population fulfilling the criteria of an ideal smile arc and ideal buccal corridors. Frontal smile view photographs of these subjects were taken and modified by using adobe photoshop 7.0 to create combination of three smile arc variance and three buccal corridors variations respectively which were shown to 25 orthodontists, 25 general dentists & 25 laymen, to rate the facial attractiveness of each image on a rating scale. Results All the three groups (laypersons, dentists and orthodontists) showed significant difference in ratings, indicating that they had different perceptions on the facial attractiveness. Conclusion Orthodontists were more precise in discerning the smile arc and buccal corridors compared to dentists and laypersons. PMID:27790573

  1. Self-disclosure on SNS: Do disclosure intimacy and narrativity influence interpersonal closeness and social attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2017-05-01

    On social media, users can easily share their feelings, thoughts, and experiences with the public, including people who they have no previous interaction with. Such information, though often embedded in a stream of others' news, may influence recipients' perception toward the discloser. We used a special design that enables a quasi-experience of SNS browsing, and examined if browsing other's posts in a news stream can create a feeling of familiarity and (even) closeness toward the discloser. In addition, disclosure messages can vary in the degree of intimacy (from superficial to intimate) and narrativity (from a random blather to a story-like narrative). The roles of disclosure intimacy and narrativity on perceived closeness and social attraction were examined by a 2 × 2 experimental design. By conducting one lab study and another online replication, we consistently found that disclosure frequency, when perceived as appropriate, predicted familiarity and closeness. The effects of disclosure intimacy and narrativity were not stable. Further exploratory analyses showed that the roles of disclosure intimacy on closeness and social attraction were constrained by the perceived appropriateness, and the effects of narrativity on closeness and social attraction were mediated by perceived entertainment value.

  2. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs we...... evaluated on two eye tracking devices (Tobii/QuickGlance (QG)). The main findings show that there is a significant difference in selection times between long and short SGGs, between vertical and horizontal selections, as well as between the different tracking systems....

  3. Gazing and Performing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas; Urry, John

    2011-01-01

    The Tourist Gaze [Urry J, 1990 (Sage, London)] is one of the most discussed and cited tourism books (with about 4000 citations on Google scholar). Whilst wide ranging in scope, the book is known for the Foucault-inspired concept of the tourist gaze that brings out the fundamentally visual and image...... that the doings of tourism are physical or corporeal and not merely visual, and it is necessary to regard ‘performing’ rather than ‘gazing’ as the dominant tourist research paradigm. Yet we argue here that there are, in fact, many similarities between the paradigms of gaze and of performance. They should ‘dance...

  4. Habitat loss and gain: Influence on habitat attractiveness for estuarine fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Franco, Anita; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2017-10-01

    Habitat structure and complexity influence the structuring and functioning of fish communities. Habitat changes are one of the main pressures affecting estuarine systems worldwide, yet the degree and rate of change and its impact on fish communities is still poorly understood. In order to quantify historical modifications in habitat structure, an ecohydrological classification system using physiotopes, i.e. units with homogenous abiotic characteristics, was developed for the lower Lima estuary (NW Portugal). Field data, aerial imagery, historical maps and interpolation methods were used to map input variables, including bathymetry, substratum (hard/soft), sediment composition, hydrodynamics (current velocity) and vegetation coverage. Physiotopes were then mapped for the years of 1933 and 2013 and the areas lost and gained over the 80 years were quantified. The implications of changes for the benthic and demersal fish communities using the lower estuary were estimated using the attractiveness to those communities of each physiotope, while considering the main estuarine habitat functions for fish, namely spawning, nursery, feeding and refuge areas and migratory routes. The lower estuary was highly affected due to urbanisation and development and, following a port/harbour expansion, its boundary moved seaward causing an increase in total area. Modifications led to the loss of most of its sandy and saltmarsh intertidal physiotopes, which were replaced by deeper subtidal physiotopes. The most attractive physiotopes for fish (defined as the way in which they supported the fish ecological features) decreased in area while less attractive ones increased, producing an overall lower attractiveness of the studied area in 2013 compared to 1933. The implications of habitat alterations for the fish using the estuary include potential changes in the nursery carrying capacity and the functioning of the fish community. The study also highlighted the poor knowledge of the impacts of

  5. Active and reactive behaviour in human mobility: the influence of attraction points on pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Roig, M.; Sagarra, O.; Oltra, A.; Palmer, J. R. B.; Bartumeus, F.; Díaz-Guilera, A.; Perelló, J.

    2016-07-01

    Human mobility is becoming an accessible field of study, thanks to the progress and availability of tracking technologies as a common feature of smart phones. We describe an example of a scalable experiment exploiting these circumstances at a public, outdoor fair in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were tracked while wandering through an open space with activity stands attracting their attention. We develop a general modelling framework based on Langevin dynamics, which allows us to test the influence of two distinct types of ingredients on mobility: reactive or context-dependent factors, modelled by means of a force field generated by attraction points in a given spatial configuration and active or inherent factors, modelled from intrinsic movement patterns of the subjects. The additive and constructive framework model accounts for some observed features. Starting with the simplest model (purely random walkers) as a reference, we progressively introduce different ingredients such as persistence, memory and perceptual landscape, aiming to untangle active and reactive contributions and quantify their respective relevance. The proposed approach may help in anticipating the spatial distribution of citizens in alternative scenarios and in improving the design of public events based on a facts-based approach.

  6. The influence of incisal malocclusion on the social attractiveness of young adults in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerosuo, H; Hausen, H; Laine, T; Shaw, W C

    1995-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of dentofacial appearance on the perceived social attractiveness of young adults in Finland. The dental arrangements studied were incisal crowding, median diastema, protruding incisors, and ideal incisal occlusion. Facial photographs of six young adults were obtained and modified, so that for each face, four different dental arrangements could be portrayed. The photographs were shown to 1007 Finnish students to estimate social and personal characteristics of the person in the photograph. Dental arrangement had a significant influence on the perceived beauty and success of the persons. Test faces with incisal crowding and median diastema were ranked as significantly less intelligent, beautiful and sexually attractive, and judged to belong to lower social class than the same faces with ideal occlusion. Protruded incisors did not affect the ratings compared to ideal occlusion. On the average, female test faces were judged more favourably than the male ones. The results indicate that among Finnish students conspicuous incisal crowding or spacing represent a social disadvantage compared to normal or protruded incisors.

  7. Gaze as a biometric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing different still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual dot-pattern tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer s capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  8. Beauty is in the belief of the beholder: cognitive influences on the neural response to facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruchselvam, Ravi; Harper, Jessica; Homer, Abigail L

    2016-12-01

    Judgments of facial attractiveness are central to decision-making in various domains, but little is known about the extent to which they are malleable. In this study, we used EEG/ERP methods to examine two novel influences on neural and subjective responses to facial attractiveness: an observer's expectation and repetition. In each trial of our task, participants viewed either an ordinary or attractive face. To alter expectations, the faces were preceded by a peer-rating that ostensibly reflected the overall attractiveness value assigned to that face by other individuals. To examine the impact of repetition, trials were presented twice throughout the experimental session. Results showed that participants' expectations about a person's attractiveness level powerfully altered both the neural response (i.e. the late positive potential; LPP) and self-reported attractiveness ratings. Intriguingly, repetition enhanced both the LPP and self-reported attractiveness as well. Exploratory analyses further suggested that both observer expectation and repetition modulated early neural responses (i.e. the early posterior negativity; EPN) elicited by facial attractiveness. Collectively, these results highlight novel influences on a core social judgment that underlies individuals' affective lives. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES ON THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF A UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to analyse the influence of the extracurricular offer on the attractiveness of the study location, analysing four universities from Germany. This study aims to determine the involvement of students in extracurricular activities, their awareness, and to formulate recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms. The research focuses on the sports activities offer. The study has been accomplished using the bibliographic study, the methodology of qualitative and quantitative research, using various secondary and primary sources. Using the survey method, data from 699 students from Germany, registered in the university year 2013/2014 were gathered. The collected data were analysed through univariate and bivariate analysis. As a result of the study, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the extracurricular offer of the analysed universities and recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms are formulated.

  10. Combined Effects of Gaze and Orientation of Faces on Person Judgments in Social Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisler, Raphaela E.; Leder, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    In social situations, faces of others can vary simultaneously in gaze and orientation. How these variations affect different kinds of social judgments, such as attractiveness or trustworthiness, is only partly understood. Therefore, we studied how different gaze directions, head angles, but also levels of facial attractiveness affect perceived attractiveness and trustworthiness. We always presented pairs of faces – either two average attractive faces or a highly attractive together with a less attractive face. We also varied gaze and head angles showing faces in three different orientations, front, three-quarter and profile view. In Experiment 1 (N = 62), participants rated averted gaze in three-quarter views as more attractive than in front and profile views, and evaluated faces with direct gaze in front views as most trustworthy. Moreover, faces that were being looked at by another face were seen as more attractive. Independent of the head orientation or gaze direction, highly attractive faces were rated as more attractive and more trustworthy. In Experiment 2 (N = 54), we found that the three-quarter advantage vanished when the second face was blurred during judgments, which demonstrates the importance of the presence of another person-as in a triadic social situation-as well as the importance of their visible gaze. The findings emphasize that social evaluations such as trustworthiness are unaffected by the esthetic advantage of three-quarter views of two average attractive faces, and that the effect of a faces’ attractiveness is more powerful than the more subtle effects of gaze and orientations. PMID:28275364

  11. More than just skin deep? Personality information influences men's ratings of the attractiveness of women's body sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Akbar, Kanwal; Gordon, Natalie; Harris, Tasha; Finch, Jo; Tovée, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influence of personality information on perceptions of the physical attractiveness of a range of female body sizes. A sample of 2,157 male university students were randomly assigned to one of 10 groups in which they received personality information about women they were rating, or a control group in which they received no personality information. Controlling for participants' age and body mass index, results showed no significant between-group differences in the body size that participants found most attractive. However, participants provided with positive personality information perceived a wider range of body sizes as physically attractive compared with the control group, whereas participants provided with negative personality information perceived a narrower range of body sizes as attractive. Correlations showed that participants' own Extraversion was associated with their body size ratings. These results suggest that non-physical cues have an influence on the perception of physical beauty.

  12. Emotional expression modulates perceived gaze direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Tiddeman, Bernard P; Perrett, David I

    2008-08-01

    Gaze perception is an important social skill, as it portrays information about what another person is attending to. Gaze direction has been shown to affect interpretation of emotional expression. Here the authors investigate whether the emotional facial expression has a reciprocal influence on interpretation of gaze direction. In a forced-choice yes-no task, participants were asked to judge whether three faces expressing different emotions (anger, fear, happiness, and neutral) in different viewing angles were looking at them or not. Happy faces were more likely to be judged as looking at the observer than were angry, fearful, or neutral faces. Angry faces were more often judged as looking at the observer than were fearful and neutral expressions. These findings are discussed on the background of approach and avoidance orientation of emotions and of the self-referential positivity bias.

  13. Influence of in vitro pigmenting of esthetic orthodontic ligatures on smile attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ferraz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of dental students and orthodontists on the degree of influence that pigmented esthetic elastic ligatures have on smile attractiveness, by judging clinical photographs. METHODS: Sixteen clinical facial photographs of the smile and 16 close up images of the smile of a single patient wearing monocrystalline porcelain orthodontic brackets, Teflon coated NiTi wire brackets and esthetic elastic ligatures of five different commercial brands were distributed into eight groups, G1 to G8 (Morelli®, Ortho Tecnology™, TP Orthodontics™, Unitek/3M™clear, Unitek/3M™ obscure, American Orthodontics™ clear, American Orthodontics™ pearl and American Orthodontics™ metallic pearl. Twenty ligatures were used in each group, totaling 160 ligatures. Half of them were used in their natural state, and the other half after in vitro pigmentation. All the photographs were judged by 40 evaluators, 20 orthodontists and 20 dental students. RESULTS: For orthodontists, American™ pearl (G7 ligatures were those that least influenced the degree of attractiveness of the smile in the two types of photographs used. For the dental students, in the facial photographs of the smile, ligatures with the best performance were Morelli® (G1, American™ clear (G6 and American™ pearl (G7 and in the close up photographs of the smile, American™ pearl, metallic pearl and clear (G7, G8 and G6. CONCLUSIONS: For both orthodontists and dental students, pigmentation of the elastic ligatures had a negative influence on the degree of attractiveness of smiles in the two types of clinical photographs evaluated.OBJETIVO: avaliar, através de fotografias clínicas, entre estudantes de Odontologia e ortodontistas, o grau de influência que ligaduras elásticas estéticas pigmentadas exercem sobre a atratividade do sorriso. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 16 fotografias clínicas faciais do sorriso e 16 de sorriso aproximado de um único paciente portando

  14. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements: fix...

  15. The Epistemology of the Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Mette

    2007-01-01

    In psycho-semiotic film theory the gaze is often considered to be a straitjacket for the female spectator. If we approach the gaze from an empiric so-called ‘naturalised’ lens, it is possible to regard the gaze as a functional devise through which the spectator can obtain knowledge essential for ...

  16. A GazeWatch Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulin Hansen, John; Biermann, Florian; Møllenbach, Emile

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate potentials of adding a gaze tracking unit to a smartwatch, allowing hands-free interaction with the watch itself and control of the environment. Users give commands via gaze gestures, i.e. looking away and back to the GazeWatch. Rapid presentation of single words on the watch displ...

  17. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  18. I'm hot, so i'd say you're not: the influence of objective physical attractiveness on mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew

    2008-10-01

    Four studies investigated the importance of objective and subjective attributes to mate selection. This research tested whether perceivers' objective physical attractiveness influenced how they evaluated the physical attractiveness of others and, if considered, may provide a parsimonious account for matching in mate selection. Study 1 (N = 102) demonstrated that ratings of targets' attractiveness decreased as perceivers' objective physical attractiveness increased. Studies 2 (N = 89) and 3 (N = 68) revealed that as perceivers' objective physical attractiveness increased, reductions in expected satisfaction and rejection were mediated by perceivers' reduced assessments of targets' attractiveness. Study 4 (N = 114) produced patterns of matching by finding that attractive perceivers expected to date more attractive targets while unattractive perceivers expected to date less attractive targets. This research emphasizes the importance of objective physical attractiveness to target evaluations and describes how matching results from the combined influence of objective and subjective attributes.

  19. Gaze following in baboons (Papio anubis): juveniles adjust their gaze and body position to human's head redirections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parron, Carole; Meguerditchian, Adrien

    2016-12-01

    Gaze following, the ability to follow the gaze of other individuals, has been widely studied in non-human primate species, mostly in adult individuals. Yet, the literature on gaze following revealed a quite variability across the different findings, some of it might reflect true inter-species differences, while others might be related to methodological differences, or to an underestimation of the factors involved in the expression of gaze following. In the current study, we tested 54 captive olive baboons (Papio anubis), housed in social groups, to assess how juvenile and adult baboons would spontaneously react to a sudden change in the direction of a human experimenter's head. First, our results showed that juveniles, more than adult baboons, co-oriented their gaze with the experimenter's gaze. We also observed a strong habituation effect in adult baboons but not in juveniles, as the adults' response vanished at the second exposure to a change of direction of the experimenter's head. Second, our results showed that juveniles subsequently adopted an original strategy when the experimenter's head indicated some new directions: they reliably adjusted their spatial body position to keep a gaze contact with the experimenter's line of sight. We discussed how the age class and the individual expertise of the baboons could lead to some modulations in terms of attentiveness, motivation, or cognitive abilities, and thus likely influence gaze following.

  20. The Influence of Television Images on Black Females' Self- Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Karen R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role television images play in African American women's perceptions of their own physical attractiveness. The significance of physical attractiveness is discussed in relation to age, gender, and race. Several research questions are posed and suggestions are made that may assist parents, educators, and clinicians in prevention of…

  1. The Influence of Television Images on Black Females' Self- Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Karen R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role television images play in African American women's perceptions of their own physical attractiveness. The significance of physical attractiveness is discussed in relation to age, gender, and race. Several research questions are posed and suggestions are made that may assist parents, educators, and clinicians in prevention of…

  2. Influence of Steering Behavior on Driver's Gazing Behavior in City Road%城市道路中驾驶员转向行为对注视行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟妮; 韩丹

    2013-01-01

    驾驶员的注视行为对其驾驶安全具有重要影响.为了分析城市道路交通环境中转向行为对驾驶员注视行为的影响,将驾驶员的注视时间、角度、搜索广度进行分析.通过试验,利用EyeLinkⅡ 型眼动仪对40名驾驶员的眼动参数及注视行为进行了测试和记录,并根据测试结果分析了转向不同的方向时驾驶员的注视行为特征.采用SPSS19.0数据分析软件对数据进行统计处理,得出结论:不同的转向显著影响着驾驶员的水平、垂直搜索广度.%Driver's gazing behavior has an important effect on driving safety. In order to analyze the influence of steering behavior on driver's gazing behavior in city road, driver's fixation time, angle and search range were analyzed. Through the test of using EyeLink II eye tracker, 40 driver's eye movement parameters and gazing behaviors were tested and recorded. According to the testing results of different steering processes, the characteristics of driver's gazing behavior were analyzed. Finally, by using the SPSS19. 0 data analysis software for data statistic processing, it is concluded that different steering behaviors affect driver's levels and vertical search ranges.

  3. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  4. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  5. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Trevor J.; Sirota, Mikhail G.; Guttentag, Andrew I.; Ogorodnikov, Dmitri A.; Shah, Neet A.; Beloozerova, Irina N.

    2014-01-01

    Vision is important for locomotion in complex environments. How it is used to guide stepping is not well understood. We used an eye search coil technique combined with an active marker-based head recording system to characterize the gaze patterns of cats walking over terrains of different complexity: (1) on a flat surface in the dark when no visual information was available, (2) on the flat surface in light when visual information was available but not required, (3) along the highly structured but regular and familiar surface of a horizontal ladder, a task for which visual guidance of stepping was required, and (4) along a pathway cluttered with many small stones, an irregularly structured surface that was new each day. Three cats walked in a 2.5 m corridor, and 958 passages were analyzed. Gaze activity during the time when the gaze was directed at the walking surface was subdivided into four behaviors based on speed of gaze movement along the surface: gaze shift (fast movement), gaze fixation (no movement), constant gaze (movement at the body’s speed), and slow gaze (the remainder). We found that gaze shifts and fixations dominated the cats’ gaze behavior during all locomotor tasks, jointly occupying 62–84% of the time when the gaze was directed at the surface. As visual complexity of the surface and demand on visual guidance of stepping increased, cats spent more time looking at the surface, looked closer to them, and switched between gaze behaviors more often. During both visually guided locomotor tasks, gaze behaviors predominantly followed a repeated cycle of forward gaze shift followed by fixation. We call this behavior “gaze stepping”. Each gaze shift took gaze to a site approximately 75–80 cm in front of the cat, which the cat reached in 0.7–1.2 s and 1.1–1.6 strides. Constant gaze occupied only 5–21% of the time cats spent looking at the walking surface. PMID:24973656

  6. Born to be beautiful: Season of birth influences adult females’ physical attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAŁ KANONOWICZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Birth month in humans is associated with certain biological variables such as reproductive success, health and mortality rate. At the same time, physical attractiveness is regarded as one of the reliable markers of human health and genetic quality, which suggests that female attractiveness may vary according to their season of birth. To test this hypothesis, ratings of females’ photographs from a popular Polish social networking website were analyzed. The sample included 5294 females aged 21-23 years. Results demonstrated that females born in spring (May were rated as being significantly more attractive than those born in autumn (September and November.

  7. How Overall Logistics Strategy Mediates The Influence Of Market Attractiveness And Dynamic Capability On Strategic Competitive Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriyanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to examine the influence of market attractiveness and dynamic capability on strategic competitive response through overall logistics strategies of logistics service providers LSPs. Involving 266 LSPs SEM-LISREL is applied to test the hypotheses. The findings reveal that the market attractiveness and the dynamic capability positively affect the overall logistics strategy. Additionally the market attractiveness and the dynamic capability positively affect the strategic competitive response. Indirectly the market attractiveness and the dynamic capability positively affect the performance through strategic competitive response of LSPs. Obviously overall logistics strategy strengthen the influence of both market attractiveness and dynamic capability on strategic competitive response. There are five alternatives to optimize the overall logistics strategy of LSPs market intensification integration focus collaboration and strengthening value proposition. The involvement of overall logistics strategy as mediating variable is new paradigm in the strategic management discourses especially in logistics industry. Further research needs to be performed by involving the size of business as control variable and LSPs perception on Governments policies.

  8. The Influence of the Avatar on Online Perceptions of Anthropomorphism, Androgyny, Credibility, Homophily, and Attraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nowak, Kristine L; Rauh, Christian

    2005-01-01

    .... In this study, participants (N = 255) evaluated a series of avatars in a static context in terms of their androgyny, anthropomorphism, credibility, homophily, attraction, and the likelihood they would choose them during an interaction...

  9. The influence of the hijab (Islamic head-cover) on perceptions of women's attractiveness and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Yusr; Swami, Viren

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of wearing the hijab, or Islamic headwear, on men's perceptions of women's attractiveness and intelligence. A total of 57 non-Muslim men and 41 Muslim men rated a series of images of women, half of whom were unveiled and half of whom wore the hijab. For attractiveness and intelligence ratings, a mixed analysis of variance showed a significant effect of hijab status, with women wearing the hijab being rated more negatively than unveiled women. For attractiveness ratings, there was no significant effect of participant religion, although non-Muslim men rated unveiled women significantly higher than veiled women. For intelligence ratings, non-Muslim men provided significantly higher ratings than Muslim men for both conditions. In addition, Muslim men's ratings of the attractiveness and intelligence of women wearing the hijab was positively correlated with self-reported religiosity. These results are discussed in relation to religious stereotyping within increasingly multi-cultural societies.

  10. Brain potentials indicate the effect of other observers' emotions on perceptions of facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yujing; Pan, Xuwei; Mo, Yan; Ma, Qingguo

    2016-03-23

    Perceptions of facial attractiveness are sensitive to emotional expression of the perceived face. However, little is known about whether the emotional expression on the face of another observer of the perceived face may have an effect on perceptions of facial attractiveness. The present study used event-related potential technique to examine social influence of the emotional expression on the face of another observer of the perceived face on perceptions of facial attractiveness. The experiment consisted of two phases. In the first phase, a neutral target face was paired with two images of individuals gazing at the target face with smiling, fearful or neutral expressions. In the second phase, participants were asked to judge the attractiveness of the target face. We found that a target face was more attractive when other observers positively gazing at the target face in contrast to the condition when other observers were negative. Additionally, the results of brain potentials showed that the visual positive component P3 with peak latency from 270 to 330 ms was larger after participants observed the target face paired with smiling individuals than the target face paired with neutral individuals. These findings suggested that facial attractiveness of an individual may be influenced by the emotional expression on the face of another observer of the perceived face.

  11. Penis size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautz, Brian S; Wong, Bob B M; Peters, Richard A; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-04-23

    Compelling evidence from many animal taxa indicates that male genitalia are often under postcopulatory sexual selection for characteristics that increase a male's relative fertilization success. There could, however, also be direct precopulatory female mate choice based on male genital traits. Before clothing, the nonretractable human penis would have been conspicuous to potential mates. This observation has generated suggestions that human penis size partly evolved because of female choice. Here we show, based upon female assessment of digitally projected life-size, computer-generated images, that penis size interacts with body shape and height to determine male sexual attractiveness. Positive linear selection was detected for penis size, but the marginal increase in attractiveness eventually declined with greater penis size (i.e., quadratic selection). Penis size had a stronger effect on attractiveness in taller men than in shorter men. There was a similar increase in the positive effect of penis size on attractiveness with a more masculine body shape (i.e., greater shoulder-to-hip ratio). Surprisingly, larger penis size and greater height had almost equivalent positive effects on male attractiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that female mate choice could have driven the evolution of larger penises in humans. More broadly, our results show that precopulatory sexual selection can play a role in the evolution of genital traits.

  12. Assessing the what is beautiful is good stereotype and the influence of moderately attractive and less attractive advertising models on self-perception, ad attitudes, and purchase intentions of 8–13-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeir, Iris; Van de Sompel, Dieneke

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates (1) whether the physical attractiveness stereotype applies to children, (2) whether children’s self-perception is influenced by the attractiveness of an advertising model, (3) whether children’s attitudes towards an ad and buying intentions for a non-beauty-related product are influenced by the attractiveness of an advertising model, and (4) whether age affects (1), (2), and (3). Results of two experimental studies with respectively 8–9-year-old (N = 75) and 12–13 year...

  13. Effects of Gaze Direction Perception on Gaze Following Behavior%注视方向的知觉对注视追随行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智君; 赵亚军; 占琪涛

    2011-01-01

    were combined to investigate the effects of gaze perceptual adaptation on gaze cueing effect. We hope to figure out the relationship between gaze perception and gaze following.Three experiments were performed in this study with the gaze adaptation technique and the gaze cueing paradigm. The gaze direction aftereffect was re-examined using perceptual adaptation technique in experiment 1. The gaze cueing effects in different gaze angles (5 degree and 10 degree) were examined in experiment 2. Crucially, the influence of gaze perceptual adaptation on the shift of attention induced by averted gaze was investigated in experiment 3. Forty two subjects participated in the three experiments (12 subjects in experiment1, 12 subjects in experiment 2, and 18 subjects in experiment 3).In experiment 1, we repeated a strong gaze direction aftereffect, finding that perception of gaze in the adapted direction was significantly impaired, which was consistent with previous studies. It provided a clear evidence for distinct neuronal channels tuned to leftward- and rightward-oriented gaze in humans. In experiment2, the GCE induced by 10° gaze was significantly stronger than 5° condition, which suggested that gaze following was influenced by stimulus salience through a bottom-up mechanism. Crucially, the shift of attention induced by averted gaze was found significantly decreased after gaze direction adaptation in experiment 3, which indicated that the extraction of gaze direction modulated by perceptual adaptation could affect the gaze following behavior.In conclusion, the present study provided critical behavioral evidence that there existed a direct link between gaze perception and gaze following under conscious condition. The spatial encoding and attention shift happen only if gaze direction has been extracted correctly. Based on its neural underpinnings of adaptation, "the psychologist's microelectrode", we inferred that a cortical visual pathway flowing from superior temporal sulcus

  14. The Influence of Host Plant Volatiles on the Attraction of Longhorn Beetles to Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, R Maxwell; Swift, Ian P; Zou, Yunfan; McElfresh, J Steven; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2016-03-01

    Host plant volatiles have been shown to strongly synergize the attraction of some longhorn beetle species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to their pheromones. This synergism is well documented among species that infest conifers, but less so for angiosperm-infesting species. To explore the extent of this phenomenon in the Cerambycidae, we first tested the responses of a cerambycid community to a generic pheromone blend in the presence or absence of chipped material from host plants as a source of host volatiles. In the second phase, blends of oak and conifer volatiles were reconstructed, and tested at low, medium, and high release rates with the pheromone blend. For conifer-infesting species in the subfamilies Spondylidinae and Lamiinae, conifer volatiles released at the high rate synergized attraction of some species to the pheromone blend. When comparing high-release rate conifer blend with high-release rate α-pinene as a single component, species responses varied, with Asemum nitidum LeConte being most attracted to pheromones plus α-pinene, whereas Neospondylis upiformis (Mannerheim) were most attracted to pheromones plus conifer blend and ethanol. For oak-infesting species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, with the exception of Phymatodes grandis Casey, which were most attracted to pheromones plus ethanol, neither synthetic oak blend nor ethanol increased attraction to pheromones. The results indicate that the responses to combinations of pheromones with host plant volatiles varied from synergistic to antagonistic, depending on beetle species. Release rates of host plant volatiles also were important, with some high release rates being antagonistic for oak-infesting species, but acting synergistically for conifer-infesting species.

  15. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  16. Culture, gaze and the neural processing of fear expressions

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The direction of others’ eye gaze has important influences on how we perceive their emotional expressions. Here, we examined differences in neural activation to direct- versus averted-gaze fear faces as a function of culture of the participant (Japanese versus US Caucasian), culture of the stimulus face (Japanese versus US Caucasian), and the relation between the two. We employed a previously validated paradigm to examine differences in neural activation in response to rapidly presented direc...

  17. Internal-External Control and Others' Susceptibility to Influence as Determinants of Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William L.; Taylor, Alan L.

    The relationship between internal-external control of reinforcement and attraction to others who vary in susceptibility to persuasion was investigated. Internals are defined as persons who believe that reinforcement is contingent on their behavior, while externals are those who believe that reinforcement is independent of their actions and is…

  18. Influence of Mass Media on Judgments of Physical Attractiveness: The People's Case Against Farrah Fawcett.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenrick, Douglas T.; Gutierres, Sara

    The way the attractiveness of an average female is rated can be significantly changed by exposing the rater to media females, even for very short periods. In one study, subjects were exposed either to a series of advertisements containing female faces or to a control series of average females. Subsequent ratings of a target female's attractiveness…

  19. Analysis of the factors influencing the process of attracting adults to regular physical activity at the local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlepakov L.N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study - the optimization of system performance sport for all and the establishment of effective organizational relationships between the various entities at the municipal level. Conducted a survey of the ordinary citizens of working age (610 persons, 100 specialists, 2 expert groups (15 and 18 respectively. The factors influencing the process of attracting people to the motor activity: individual, social, economic, infrastructure. Classified factors comprehensively assessed the extent and consequences of the influence of each process on the system at the level of local communities. A set of actions to minimize the impact of constraints and maximizing the manifestations of factors conducive to attracting people to regular physical training and sports. The basic directions of activity: access of the general public to low cost sports facilities, tools, equipment, creation of environmentally safe and comfortable environment for practicing physical activity, overcoming the deficit of public awareness of the organization of motor activity.

  20. Joint perception: Gaze and social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Richardson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We found that the way people looked at images was influenced by their belief that others were looking too. If participants believed that an unseen other person was also looking at what they could see, it shifted the balance of their gaze between negative and positive images. The direction of this shift depended upon whether participants thought that later they would be compared against the other person or would be collaborating with them. Changes in the social context influenced both gaze and memory processes, and were not due just to participants’ belief that they are looking at the same images, but also to the belief that they are doing the same task. We believe that this new phenomenon of joint perception reveals the pervasive and subtle effect of social context upon cognitive and perceptual processes.

  1. Donor life stage influences juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata attraction to conspecific chemical cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas; Hansen, Michael J.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential role of conspecific chemical cues in inland juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata migrations by assessing glass eel and 1 year old elver affinities to elver washings, and elver affinity to adult yellow eel washings. In two-choice maze assays, glass eels were attracted to elver washings, but elvers were neither attracted to nor repulsed by multiple concentrations of elver washings or to yellow eel washings. These results suggest that A. rostrata responses to chemical cues may be life-stage dependent and that glass eels moving inland may use the odour of the previous year class as information to guide migration. The role of chemical cues and olfaction in eel migrations warrants further investigation as a potential restoration tool.

  2. Women's Hormonal Status and Mate Value Influence Relationship Satisfaction and Perceived Male Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Hromatko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous findings suggest that female preferences for certain features of male faces vary during the menstrual cycle. Similarly, changes during the cycle have also been found in women's commitment to a current relationship. Furthermore, from the perspective of securing benefits from extra-pair affairs, the differences between women with high vs. low mate value could be expected. In this study we have tried to connect these sets of findings: first, we explored differences between partnered and single women in their ratings of male facial attractiveness in different phases of the menstrual cycle; and second, their satisfaction with the current relationship in relation to the cycle phase and selfperceived mate value. Two groups of women (single vs. partnered rated the attractiveness of two sets of male faces (normal vs. symmetrical. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that women in a relationship gave higher ratings of attractiveness for both normal and symmetrical faces in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase of a cycle, while single women showed the opposite pattern. Analyses of satisfaction with their current relationship in relation to cycle phase and self-perceived mate value showed that women with higher mate value are generally more satisfied with their current partners, and show smaller differences in satisfaction in various phases of the cycle. The results are interpreted in terms of content-specificity of hormone mediated adaptive design.

  3. Alkanes in flower surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis influence attraction to Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2013-08-01

    Extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed 15 alkanes representing 97.14% of the total alkanes in the surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng flowers. Nonacosane was the prevailing alkane followed by hexatriacontane, nonadecane, heptacosane, and hentriacontane, accounting for 39.08%, 24.24%, 13.52%, 6.32%, and 5.12%, respectively. The alkanes from flower surface waxes followed by a synthetic mixture of alkanes mimicking alkanes of flower surface waxes elicited attraction of the female insect, Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) between 2 and 10-μg/mL concentrations in a Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassay under laboratory conditions. Synthetic nonadecane from 178.28-891.37 ng, heptacosane from 118.14-590.72 ng, and nonacosane at 784.73 ng showed attraction of the insect. A synthetic mixture of 534.82 ng nonadecane, 354.43 ng heptacosane, and 2,354.18 ng nonacosane elicited highest attraction of A. foveicollis.

  4. Influence of locus of control on interpersonal attraction and affective reactions in situations involving reward and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D S; Jackson, T H

    1975-01-01

    Ninety-six subjects with either high or low I-E Scale scores participated in individual discussions with an experimental who either (a) rewarded and then punished, (b) punished and then rewarded, or (c) gave no evaluative feedback after the subject's responses. Because previous research has suggested that internally controlled subjects attend primarily to rewards while externally controlled subjects attend primarily to punishments, it was hypothesized (a) that the internally controlled subjects, as compared to externally controlled subjects, would be more attracted to the experimenter in the conditions involving rewards and punishments regardless of the sequencing and (b) that the reverse would be true in the nonevaluative control condition. The prediction was consistently supported and subjects' feelings of anger and anxiety during the discussions generally complemented the attention and attraction hypotheses. The results indicate that individual differences influence attraction in situations involving rewards and punishments and they offer a prescription for developing interpersonal attraction and minimizing anger: Offer rewards to internally controlled persons and remain neutral with externally controlled persons.

  5. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  6. Culture, gaze and the neural processing of fear expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Reginald B; Franklin, Robert G; Rule, Nicholas O; Freeman, Jonathan B; Kveraga, Kestutis; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-06-01

    The direction of others' eye gaze has important influences on how we perceive their emotional expressions. Here, we examined differences in neural activation to direct- versus averted-gaze fear faces as a function of culture of the participant (Japanese versus US Caucasian), culture of the stimulus face (Japanese versus US Caucasian), and the relation between the two. We employed a previously validated paradigm to examine differences in neural activation in response to rapidly presented direct- versus averted-fear expressions, finding clear evidence for a culturally determined role of gaze in the processing of fear. Greater neural responsivity was apparent to averted- versus direct-gaze fear in several regions related to face and emotion processing, including bilateral amygdalae, when posed on same-culture faces, whereas greater response to direct- versus averted-gaze fear was apparent in these same regions when posed on other-culture faces. We also found preliminary evidence for intercultural variation including differential responses across participants to Japanese versus US Caucasian stimuli, and to a lesser degree differences in how Japanese and US Caucasian participants responded to these stimuli. These findings reveal a meaningful role of culture in the processing of eye gaze and emotion, and highlight their interactive influences in neural processing.

  7. Demo of Gaze Controlled Flying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Hansen, John Paulin; Scott MacKenzie, I.

    2012-01-01

    Development of a control paradigm for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is a new challenge to HCI. The demo explores how to use gaze as input for locomotion in 3D. A low-cost drone will be controlled by tracking user’s point of regard (gaze) on a live video stream from the UAV....

  8. An analysis of the influence of discount sales promotion in consumer buying intent and the moderating effects of attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Oliveira Santini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of discount sales promotion in the purchase intention and the moderating effects of attractiveness in the relationship between intention to purchase a discounted product and the impulsiveness, hedonic perception and financial risk. Thus, an experiment involving 613 students was conducted. The hypotheses predicted that a product with discount promotion would relate positively with impulsivity, as well as with a hedonic perception about the good offered, and negatively with the perception of financial risk associated with the product offered with discount. A positive moderation was expected of the perceived attractiveness of the announced discount promotion on the intentions of behaviors. The results confirmed the hypothesis, indicating positive effects of impulsivity and hedonic perception by purchasing the discounted products, in addition to the negative link between the intention of purchasing discounted products and the perception of a financial risk. The moderating effects were not confirmed. Final considerations conclude the work.

  9. Volatiles of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi Leaves Influencing Attraction of Two Generalist Insect Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Nupur; Karmakar, Amarnath; Barik, Anandamay

    2016-10-01

    Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are important pests of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as creeping cucumber. The profiles of volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 48 hr continuous feeding of adult females of either E. vigintioctopunctata or A. foveicollis, by adults of both species, and after mechanical damaging were identified and quantified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Thirty two compounds were detected in volatiles of all treatments. In all plants, methyl jasmonate was the major compound. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays under laboratory conditions, both insect species showed a significant preference for complete volatile blends from insect damaged plants, compared to those of undamaged plants. Neither E. vigintioctopunctata nor A. foveicollis showed any preference for volatiles released by heterospecifically damaged plants vs. conspecifically damaged plants or plants attacked by both species. Epilachna vigintioctopunctata and A. foveicollis showed attraction to three different synthetic compounds, linalool oxide, nonanal, and E-2-nonenal in proportions present in volatiles of insect damaged plants. Both species were attracted by a synthetic blend of 1.64 μg linalool oxide + 3.86 μg nonanal + 2.23 μg E-2-nonenal, dissolved in 20 μl methylene chloride. This combination might be used as trapping tools in pest management strategies.

  10. Estimation of Influence of the Level of Financial Literacy on the Investment Attractiveness of the Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yuryevna Sushko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a regression model that reflects rational financial behavior of households and allowing to reveal regions with low/high level of financial literacy, which is one of the indicators of financial sector development. Model construction is based on a regression of financial literacy surveys data and a statistical panel data concerning socio-economic situation of 38 Volgograd region’s municipalities during three-year period. The author shows that the level of financial literacy (which used as an indicator of the situation in the financial sector of a particular municipality is not unpredictable. This level depends on objective factors: the level of demographic and social burden on the state and municipalities, the income growth of municipal budgets, the number of financial institutions, material wealth of the population, its business activity, readiness to self-help housing and interest in increasing their knowledge. Therefore, the level of financial literacy can be predicted and even adjusted by the authorities and business representatives using credit, finance, social policy, etc. Financial literacy level is useful for investment attractiveness assessment. In the given paper a ranking of territories’ attractiveness is constructed on the basis of regression model. It is created to help in developing of effective management decisions by business (opening of new branches, launching new financial products and services, etc. and by regional/municipal authorities (whose aim is to improve the quality of life and the level of financial welfare.

  11. Sperm-attractant peptide influences the spermatozoa swimming behavior in internal fertilization in Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisa, Emilia; Salzano, Anna Maria; Moccia, Francesco; Scaloni, Andrea; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2013-06-15

    Marine invertebrates exhibit both chemokinesis and chemotaxis phenomena, induced in most cases by the release of water-borne peptides or pheromones. In mollusks, several peptides released during egg-laying improve both male attraction and mating. Unlike other cephalopods, Octopus vulgaris adopts an indirect internal fertilization strategy. We here report on the identification and characterization of a chemoattractant peptide isolated from mature eggs of octopus females. Using two-chamber and time-lapse microscopy assays, we demonstrate that this bioactive peptide is able to increase sperm motility and induce chemotaxis by changing the octopus spermatozoa swimming behavior in a dose-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that chemotaxis in the octopus requires the presence of extracellular calcium and membrane protein phophorylation at tyrosine. This study is the first report on a sperm-activating factor in a non-free-spawning marine animal.

  12. Influence of Fermenting Bait and Vertical Position of Traps on Attraction of Cerambycid Beetles to Pheromone Lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joseph C H; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-10-01

    Because larvae of cerambycid beetles feed within woody plants, they are difficult to detect, and are readily transported in lumber and other wooden products. As a result, increasing numbers of exotic cerambycid species are being introduced into new regions of the world through international commerce, and many of these species pose a threat to woody plants in natural and managed forests. There is a great need for effective methods for detecting exotic and potentially invasive cerambycid species, and for monitoring native species for conservation purposes. Here, we describe a field experiment in east-central Illinois which tested whether attraction of beetles to a blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones would be enhanced by volatiles from fermenting bait composed of crushed fruit, sugars, yeast, and wood chips. A second experiment tested the same treatments, but also assessed how trap catch was influenced by the vertical position of traps within forests (understory versus within the canopy). During the two experiments, 885 cerambycid beetles of 37 species were caught, with Xylotrechus colonus (F.) (subfamily Cerambycinae) being the most numerous (∼52% of total). Adults of several cerambycid species were significantly attracted by the pheromone blend, but the fermenting bait significantly enhanced attraction only for X. colonus and Graphisurus fasciatus (Degeer) (subfamily Lamiinae). Traps in the forest understory caught the greatest number of X. colonus and G. fasciatus, whereas more adults of the cerambycine Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (F.) were caught in the forest canopy rather than the understory.

  13. Age-related changes in the integration of gaze direction and facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slessor, Gillian; Phillips, Louise H; Bull, Rebecca

    2010-08-01

    Gaze direction influences younger adults' perception of emotional expressions, with direct gaze enhancing the perception of anger and joy, while averted gaze enhances the perception of fear. Age-related declines in emotion recognition and eye-gaze processing have been reported, indicating that there may be age-related changes in the ability to integrate these facial cues. As there is evidence of a positivity bias with age, age-related difficulties integrating these cues may be greatest for negative emotions. The present research investigated age differences in the extent to which gaze direction influenced explicit perception (e.g., anger, fear and joy; Study 1) and social judgments (e.g., of approachability; Study 2) of emotion faces. Gaze direction did not influence the perception of fear in either age group. In both studies, age differences were found in the extent to which gaze direction influenced judgments of angry and joyful faces, with older adults showing less integration of gaze and emotion cues than younger adults. Age differences were greatest when interpreting angry expressions. Implications of these findings for older adults' social functioning are discussed.

  14. "Avoiding or approaching eyes"? Introversion/extraversion affects the gaze-cueing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponari, Marta; Trojano, Luigi; Grossi, Dario; Conson, Massimiliano

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether the extra-/introversion personality dimension can influence processing of others' eye gaze direction and emotional facial expression during a target detection task. On the basis of previous evidence showing that self-reported trait anxiety can affect gaze-cueing with emotional faces, we also verified whether trait anxiety can modulate the influence of intro-/extraversion on behavioral performance. Fearful, happy, angry or neutral faces, with either direct or averted gaze, were presented before the target appeared in spatial locations congruent or incongruent with stimuli's eye gaze direction. Results showed a significant influence of intra-/extraversion dimension on gaze-cueing effect for angry, happy, and neutral faces with averted gaze. Introverts did not show the gaze congruency effect when viewing angry expressions, but did so with happy and neutral faces; extraverts showed the opposite pattern. Importantly, the influence of intro-/extraversion on gaze-cueing was not mediated by trait anxiety. These findings demonstrated that personality differences can shape processing of interactions between relevant social signals.

  15. A Regression-based User Calibration Framework for Real-time Gaze Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Arar, Nuri Murat; Gao, Hua; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Eye movements play a very significant role in human computer interaction (HCI) as they are natural and fast, and contain important cues for human cognitive state and visual attention. Over the last two decades, many techniques have been proposed to accurately estimate the gaze. Among these, video-based remote eye trackers have attracted much interest since they enable non-intrusive gaze estimation. To achieve high estimation accuracies for remote systems, user calibration is inevitable in ord...

  16. Self-disclosure on SNS: Do disclosure intimacy and narrativity influence interpersonal closeness and social attraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    On social media, users can easily share their feelings, thoughts, and experiences with the public, including people who they have no previous interaction with. Such information, though often embedded in a stream of others’ news, may influence recipients’ perception toward the discloser. We used a special design that enables a quasi-experience of SNS browsing, and examined if browsing other’s posts in a news stream can create a feeling of familiarity and (even) closeness toward the discloser. ...

  17. Measuring the attractiveness of academic journals: A direct influence aggregation model

    OpenAIRE

    Cornillier, Fabien; Charles, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Various journal-ranking algorithms have been proposed, most of them based on citation counts. This article introduces a new approach based on the reciprocal direct influence of all pairs of a list of journals. The proposed method is assessed against an opinion-based ranking published in 2005 for 25 operations research and management science (OR/MS) journals, and five existing approaches based on citation counts. The results show a strong correlation with the opinion-based ranking. This record...

  18. Gaze categorization under uncertainty: psychophysics and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Isabelle; Calder, Andrew J; Dadds, Mark R; Clifford, Colin W G

    2013-04-22

    The accurate perception of another person's gaze direction underlies most social interactions and provides important information about his or her future intentions. As a first step to measuring gaze perception, most experiments determine the range of gaze directions that observers judge as being direct: the cone of direct gaze. This measurement has revealed the flexibility of observers' perception of gaze and provides a useful benchmark against which to test clinical populations with abnormal gaze behavior. Here, we manipulated effective signal strength by adding noise to the eyes of synthetic face stimuli or removing face information. We sought to move beyond a descriptive account of gaze categorization by fitting a model to the data that relies on changing the uncertainty associated with an estimate of gaze direction as a function of the signal strength. This model accounts for all the data and provides useful insight into the visual processes underlying normal gaze perception.

  19. Wolves (Canis lupus) and Dogs (Canis familiaris) Differ in Following Human Gaze Into Distant Space But Respond Similar to Their Packmates’ Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhahn, Geraldine; Virányi, Zsófia; Barrera, Gabriela; Sommese, Andrea; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual’s head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills might have been altered through domestication that may have influenced their performance in Study 1. Because following human gaze in dogs might be influenced by special evolutionary as well as developmental adaptations to interactions with humans, we suggest that comparing dogs to other animal species might be more informative when done in intraspecific social contexts. PMID:27244538

  20. Mirror Neurons of Ventral Premotor Cortex Are Modulated by Social Cues Provided by Others' Gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudé, Gino; Festante, Fabrizia; Cilia, Adriana; Loiacono, Veronica; Bimbi, Marco; Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2016-03-16

    Mirror neurons (MNs) in the inferior parietal lobule and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) can code the intentions of other individuals using contextual cues. Gaze direction is an important social cue that can be used for understanding the meaning of actions made by other individuals. Here we addressed the issue of whether PMv MNs are influenced by the gaze direction of another individual. We recorded single-unit activity in macaque PMv while the monkey was observing an experimenter performing a grasping action and orienting his gaze either toward (congruent gaze condition) or away (incongruent gaze condition) from a target object. The results showed that one-half of the recorded MNs were modulated by the gaze direction of the human agent. These gaze-modulated neurons were evenly distributed between those preferring a gaze direction congruent with the direction where the grasping action was performed and the others that preferred an incongruent gaze. Whereas the presence of congruent responses is in line with the usual coupling of hand and gaze in both executed and observed actions, the incongruent responses can be explained by the long exposure of the monkeys to this condition. Our results reveal that the representation of observed actions in PMv is influenced by contextual information not only extracted from physical cues, but also from cues endowed with biological or social value. In this study, we present the first evidence showing that social cues modulate MNs in the monkey ventral premotor cortex. These data suggest that there is an integrated representation of other's hand actions and gaze direction at the single neuron level in the ventral premotor cortex, and support the hypothesis of a functional role of MNs in decoding actions and understanding motor intentions. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363145-12$15.00/0.

  1. Does Hard Work Pay Off? The Influence of Perceived Effort on Romantic Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Dwiggins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how a person’s willingness to exert effort affects how others perceive their romantic desirability. The study also examines whether the participants’ implicit theory of personality (incremental or entity influences ratings of the target’s romantic desirability based on the target’s level of effort. Seventy-eight (17 males, 61 females single college students participated in the study. Participants read one of four descriptions of a target. The descriptions manipulated both the target’s ability (hard work or natural ability and success (successful or unsuccessful. Participants also completed a measure to assess their implicit theory of personality. Participants then rated the target’s desirability. There was a significant difference in desirability ratings of the target for the main effect of ability. There were no other significant differences found between the variables. The findings suggest that when a person expends effort, they are more romantically desirable regardless of how successful they are. Findings also suggest that a person’s implicit theory of personality does not interact with the target’s effort to affect romantic desirability.

  2. Cap mesenchyme cell swarming during kidney development is influenced by attraction, repulsion, and adhesion to the ureteric tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Alexander N; Lefevre, James G; Wilson, Sean; Hamilton, Nicholas A; Little, Melissa H

    2016-10-15

    Morphogenesis of the mammalian kidney requires reciprocal interactions between two cellular domains at the periphery of the developing organ: the tips of the epithelial ureteric tree and adjacent regions of cap mesenchyme. While the presence of the cap mesenchyme is essential for ureteric branching, how it is specifically maintained at the tips is unclear. Using ex vivo timelapse imaging we show that cells of the cap mesenchyme are highly motile. Individual cap mesenchyme cells move within and between cap domains. They also attach and detach from the ureteric tip across time. Timelapse tracks collected for >800 cells showed evidence that this movement was largely stochastic, with cell autonomous migration influenced by opposing attractive, repulsive and cell adhesion cues. The resulting swarming behaviour maintains a distinct cap mesenchyme domain while facilitating dynamic remodelling in response to underlying changes in the tip. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gaze disorders: A clinical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulikottil Wilson Vinny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A single clear binocular vision is made possible by the nature through the oculomotor system along with inputs from the cortical areas as well their descending pathways to the brainstem. Six systems of supranuclear control mechanisms play a crucial role in this regard. These are the saccadic system, the smooth pursuit system, the vestibular system, the optokinetic system, the fixation system, and the vergence system. In gaze disorders, lesions at different levels of the brain spare some of the eye movement systems while affecting others. The resulting pattern of eye movements helps clinicians to localize lesions accurately in the central nervous system. Common lesions causing gaze palsies include cerebral infarcts, demyelinating lesions, multiple sclerosis, tumors, Wernicke's encephalopathy, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative disorders such as progressive supranuclear palsy. Evaluation of the different gaze disorders is a bane of most budding neurologists and neurosurgeons. However, a simple and systematic clinical approach to this problem can make their early diagnosis rather easy.

  5. Specificity of Age-Related Differences in Eye-Gaze Following: Evidence From Social and Nonsocial Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slessor, Gillian; Venturini, Cristina; Bonny, Emily J; Insch, Pauline M; Rokaszewicz, Anna; Finnerty, Ailbhe N

    2016-01-01

    Eye-gaze following is a fundamental social skill, facilitating communication. The present series of studies explored adult age-related differences in this key social-cognitive ability. In Study 1 younger and older adult participants completed a cueing task in which eye-gaze cues were predictive or non-predictive of target location. Another eye-gaze cueing task, assessing the influence of congruent and incongruent eye-gaze cues relative to trials which provided no cue to target location, was administered in Study 2. Finally, in Study 3 the eye-gaze cue was replaced by an arrow. In Study 1 older adults showed less evidence of gaze following than younger participants when required to strategically follow predictive eye-gaze cues and when making automatic shifts of attention to non-predictive eye-gaze cues. Findings from Study 2 suggested that, unlike younger adults, older participants showed no facilitation effect and thus did not follow congruent eye-gaze cues. They also had significantly weaker attentional costs than their younger counterparts. These age-related differences were not found in the non-social arrow cueing task. Taken together these findings suggest older adults do not use eye-gaze cues to engage in joint attention, and have specific social difficulties decoding critical information from the eye region. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Gaze Direction Detection in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Delorme, Richard; Zalla, Tiziana; Lefebvre, Aline; Amsellem, Frédérique; Moukawane, Sanaa; Letellier, Laurence; Leboyer, Marion; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Ramus, Franck

    2017-01-01

    Detecting where our partners direct their gaze is an important aspect of social interaction. An atypical gaze processing has been reported in autism. However, it remains controversial whether children and adults with autism spectrum disorder interpret indirect gaze direction with typical accuracy. This study investigated whether the detection of…

  7. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  8. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  9. Trends and Techniques in Visual Gaze Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stellmach, Sophie; Dachselt, Raimund; Lindley, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    Visualizing gaze data is an effective way for the quick interpretation of eye tracking results. This paper presents a study investigation benefits and limitations of visual gaze analysis among eye tracking professionals and researchers. The results were used to create a tool for visual gaze analysis within a Master's project.

  10. The influence of attraction to partner on heterosexual women's sexual and relationship satisfaction in long-term relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Kristen P; Herbenick, Debby

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has consistently found that attraction is important in the formation of relationships though research on attraction in long-term relationships is less well understood. This article examined the predictive value of self-reported attraction to partner and change in attraction to partner on sexual and relationship satisfaction in 176 women in committed heterosexual relationships using online survey methodology. Participants' age ranged from 21 to 56 (M = 34.5) years and their relationship length ranged from 5 to 35 (M = 11.75) years. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that change in attraction to partner was the most salient predictor of sexual satisfaction, with current attraction to partner also related to women's sexual satisfaction, accounting for 20 % of the variance. Current attraction to partner was the only significant predictor of women's relationship satisfaction, accounting for 22 % of the variance. Additionally, attraction variables accounted for variance above and beyond the impact of relationship and sexual satisfaction. These findings suggest that self-reported attraction to partner is an important contributor to women's satisfaction outcomes in long-term relationships. Further studies in the area of attraction to partner that include couple dynamics and longitudinal data are encouraged and implications for therapists, clinicians, and educators are discussed.

  11. Fatal attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2012-01-01

    of the use of the Danish ihjel-construction which accounts for patterns of attraction of construction-verb attraction, patterns of productivity, and various types of subconstructions, including item- and item-class-based ones and metaphorical extensions. The description of the ihjel-construction should also...

  12. Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments - parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgestig, Maria; Rytterström, Patrik; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2017-07-01

    To describe and explore parents' experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based assistive technology (AT)) for use in daily life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents' experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. The findings demonstrate that for parents, children's gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children's gaze-based AT provides hope for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. Gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children's future.

  13. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    , the user simply captures an image using the HMD’s camera, looks at an object of interest in the image, and speaks out the information to be associated with the object. The gaze location is recorded and visualized with a marker. The voice is transcribed using speech recognition. Gaze annotations can......To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion...

  14. Perceptual-cognitive changes during motor learning: The influence of mental and physical practice on mental representation, gaze behavior, and performance of a complex action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eFrank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior, little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one’s mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45 were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, physical practice plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of three days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning.

  15. Perceptions of plagiarisers: The influence of target physical attractiveness, transgression severity, and sex on attributions of guilt and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Arthey, Elizabeth; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-09-01

    The attractiveness-leniency effect (ALE) suggests that physically attractive targets are less likely to be perceived as guilty compared to less attractive targets. Here, we tested the ALE in relation to attributions of students who have committed plagiarism. British adults (N=165) were shown one of eight vignette-photograph pairings varying in target sex (female/male), physical attractiveness (high/low), and transgression severity (serious/minor), and provided attributions of guilt and severity of punishment. Analyses of variance revealed significant interactions between attractiveness and transgression severity for both dependent measures. Attractive targets were perceived as guiltier and deserving of more severe punishments in the serious transgression condition, but there was no significant difference between attractive and less attractive targets in the minor transgression condition. These results are discussed in terms of a reverse attribution bias, in which attractive individuals are judged more negatively when they fail to live up to higher standards of conduct. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 汽车驾驶人驾驶经验对注视行为特性的影响%Influence of driving experience on gazing behavior characteristic for car driver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭应时; 马勇; 付锐; 盂妮; 袁伟

    2012-01-01

    通过实车试验,分别在城市道路和公路上,利用EyeLinkⅡ眼动仪测试了20名驾驶人的眼动参数与注视行为特性。将被试驾驶人分为熟练驾驶人组和非熟练驾驶人组,通过将实际驾驶过程中的交通场景录像逐帧分解,并与驾驶人的眼动数据相结合来确定驾驶人的真实注视目标,对比了熟练与非熟练驾驶人的注视区域和注视目标特征,研究了2组驾驶人驾驶经验对驾驶人注视行为特性的影响,并分析了导致2组驾驶人注视行为差异的原因。研究结果表明:驾驶经验对驾驶人注视行为特性有显著影响;在城市道路上,熟练驾驶人对近处目标的注视频次比非熟练驾驶人高约18%,而对车内后视镜的注视频次约为非熟练驾驶人的4.7倍;在公路上,非熟练驾驶人对远距离区域的注视频次仅为熟练驾驶人的4l%,而对车内区域的注视频次则为熟练驾驶人的2.1倍;驾驶人对右区域的注视频次平均约为左区域的2.5倍,且熟练驾驶人对右区域关注更多,约为左区域的4倍,而非熟练驾驶人对右区域的注视频次约为左区域的1.5倍;非熟练驾驶人处理信息的策略和效率均比熟练驾驶人差。%Abstract: In real vehicle driving test, the eye movement parameters and gazing behavior characteristics of 20 drivers were tested by using EyeLink ]1 eye movement tracking device on urban road and highway respectively. The participant drivers were divided into experienced driver group and novice driver group. By decompositing the traffic scene videos in the actual driving process frame by frame, and the real fixation targets of the drivers were determined by combining the eye movement data of drivers. The characteristics of fixation area and fixation target for experienced drivers and novice drivers were compared, the influences of driving experiences on the gazing behavior characteristics for two

  17. The Influence of Body Mass Index on the Physical Attractiveness Preferences of Feminist and Nonfeminist Heterosexual Women and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tovee, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined associations between lesbian and feminist identity and predictors of female physical attractiveness. Seventy-two nonfeminist heterosexuals, 38 feminist heterosexuals, 75 nonfeminist lesbians, and 33 feminist lesbians were asked to rate according to physical attractiveness a set of images of real women with known body…

  18. Trait Anxiety Impacts the Perceived Gaze Direction of Fearful But Not Angry Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression and gaze direction play an important role in social communication. Previous research has demonstrated the perception of anger is enhanced by direct gaze, whereas, it is unclear whether perception of fear is enhanced by averted gaze. In addition, previous research has shown the anxiety affects the processing of facial expression and gaze direction, but hasn’t measured or controlled for depression. As a result, firm conclusions cannot be made regarding the impact of individual differences in anxiety and depression on perceptions of face expressions and gaze direction. The current study attempted to reexamine the effect of the anxiety level on the processing of facial expressions and gaze direction by matching participants on depression scores. A reliable psychophysical index of the range of eye gaze angles judged as being directed at oneself [the cone of direct gaze (CoDG] was used as the dependent variable in this study. Participants were stratified into high/low trait anxiety groups and asked to judge the gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces across a range of gaze directions. The result showed: (1 the perception of gaze direction was influenced by facial expression and this was modulated by trait anxiety. For the high trait anxiety group, the CoDG for angry expressions was wider than for fearful and neutral expressions, and no significant difference emerged between fearful and neutral expressions; For the low trait anxiety group, the CoDG for both angry and fearful expressions was wider than for neutral, and no significant difference emerged between angry and fearful expressions. (2 Trait anxiety modulated the perception of gaze direction only in the fearful condition, such that the fearful CoDG for the high trait anxiety group was narrower than the low trait anxiety group. This demonstrated that anxiety distinctly affected gaze perception in expressions that convey threat (angry, fearful, such that a high trait anxiety

  19. Stereochemistry of Fuscumol and Fuscumol Acetate Influences Attraction of Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) of the Subfamily Lamiinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, G P; Meier, L R; Zou, Y; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M; Ginzel, M D

    2016-10-01

    The chemical structures of aggregation-sex pheromones of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are often conserved among closely related taxa. In the subfamily Lamiinae, adult males and females of several species are attracted by racemic blends of (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol (termed fuscumol) and the structurally related (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate (fuscumol acetate). Both compounds have a chiral center, so each can exist in two enantiomeric forms. Males of many species of longhorned beetles only produce one stereoisomer of each pheromone component, and attraction may be reduced by the presence of stereoisomers that are not produced by a particular species. In a previous publication, analysis of headspace volatiles of adult beetles of the lamiine species Astyleiopus variegatus (Haldeman) revealed that males sex-specifically produced (S)-fuscumol and (S)-fuscumol acetate. Here, we describe field trials which tested attraction of this species to single enantiomers of fuscumol and fuscumol acetate, or to blends of enantiomers. We confirmed attraction of A. variegatus to its species-specific blend, but during the course of the trials, found that several other species also were attracted. These included Aegomorphus modestus (Gyllenhall), attracted to (S)-fuscumol acetate; Astylidius parvus (LeConte), attracted to (R)-fuscumol; Astylopsis macula (Say), attracted to (S)-fuscumol; and Graphisurus fasciatus (DeGeer), attracted to a blend of (R)-fuscumol and (R)-fuscumol acetate. These results suggest that chirality may be important in the pheromone chemistry of lamiines, and that specific stereoisomers or mixtures of stereoisomers are likely produced by each species.

  20. The Expressive Gaze Model: Using Gaze to Express Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Thomas and O. Johnston, Disney Animation : The Illusion of Life, Abbeville Press, 1981. 2. B. Lance and S.C. Marsella, “Emotionally Expressive Head and...Thomas and Ollie Johnston Early animators realized that the eyes are an important aspect of the human face regarding the communication and expression...of emotion. They also found that properly animating believ- able, emotionally expressive gaze is extremely dif- ficult. If it’s done improperly

  1. Altruists Attract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Farrelly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Explaining human cooperation continues to present a challenge because it goes beyond what is predicted by established theories of kinship and reciprocal altruism. Little attention has been paid to the sexual selection hypothesis that proposes that cooperation can act as a display that attracts mates. The costs of cooperating are then offset not by kinship or reciprocation but by increased mating success. Here we present results from a series of experiments which show that, as predicted by the sexual selection hypothesis, people preferentially direct cooperative behavior towards more attractive members of the opposite sex. Furthermore, cooperative behavior increases the perceived attractiveness of the cooperator. Economically costly behaviors can therefore bring benefits through mate choice and sexual selection should be regarded as an evolutionary mechanism capable of promoting cooperation.

  2. Off-the-Shelf Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier

    People with severe motor-skill disabilities are often unable to use standard input devices such as a mouse or a keyboard to control a computer and they are, therefore, in strong need for alternative input devices. Gaze tracking offers them the possibility to use the movements of their eyes...... of the challenges introduced by the use of low-cost and off-the-shelf components for gaze interaction. The main contributions are: - Development and performance evaluation of the ITU Gaze Tracker, an off-the-shelf gaze tracker that uses an inexpensive webcam or video camera to track the user’s eye. The software...... is readily available as open source, offering the possibility to try out gaze interaction for a low price and to analyze, improve and extend the software by modifying the source code. - A novel gaze estimation method based on homographic mappings between planes. No knowledge about the hardware configuration...

  3. Gameplay experience in a gaze interaction game

    CERN Document Server

    Nacke, Lennart E; Sasse, Dennis; Lindley, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    Assessing gameplay experience for gaze interaction games is a challenging task. For this study, a gaze interaction Half-Life 2 game modification was created that allowed eye tracking control. The mod was deployed during an experiment at Dreamhack 2007, where participants had to play with gaze navigation and afterwards rate their gameplay experience. The results show low tension and negative affects scores on the gameplay experience questionnaire as well as high positive challenge, immersion and flow ratings. The correlation between spatial presence and immersion for gaze interaction was high and yields further investigation. It is concluded that gameplay experience can be correctly assessed with the methodology presented in this paper.

  4. Fatal attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, it presents an argument for usage-based inheritance models over complete inheritance models in construction grammar. It is argued that, with the principle of inductive language learning as their foundation, usage-based inheritance models allow...... for redundancies and incongruities in construction networks which enables linguists to take into account details of language use, which would otherwise not be facilitated in complete inheritance models. Secondly, making use of the method of collostructional analysis, the article offers a corpus-based description...... of the use of the Danish ihjel-construction which accounts for patterns of attraction of construction-verb attraction, patterns of productivity, and various types of subconstructions, including item- and item-class-based ones and metaphorical extensions. The description of the ihjel-construction should also...

  5. Look at my poster! Active gaze, preference and memory during a poster session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2011-01-01

    In science, as in advertising, people often present information on a poster, yet little is known about attention during a poster session. A mobile eye-tracker was used to record participants' gaze during a mock poster session featuring a range of academic psychology posters. Participants spent the most time looking at introductions and conclusions. Larger posters were looked at for longer, as were posters rated more interesting (but not necessarily more aesthetically pleasing). Interestingly, gaze did not correlate with memory for poster details or liking, suggesting that attracting someone towards your poster may not be enough.

  6. Women's Drinking Decisions in Heterosocial Situations: Development and Validation of Scenarios to Assess Influence of Attraction and Risk-Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Nora E; Ogle, Richard L; Maisto, Stephen A; Jackson, Lee A; Loomis, Randi B; Heaton, Jennifer A

    2016-07-12

    These three related studies created a set of ecologically valid scenarios for assessing relative associations of both attraction and sexual coercion risk-recognition in college women's heterosocial situational drinking decisions. The first study constructed nine scenarios using input from heterosexual drinking women in the age cohort (18-30) most likely to experience alcohol-related sexual coercion. In the second study, 50 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) assessed the salience of three important dimensions (attraction, risk, and realism) in these scenarios. The third study was a factor analysis (and a follow-up confirmatory factor analysis) of the elements of coercion-risk as perceived by the target group with two female samples recruited 1 year apart (Sample 1: N = 157, ages 18-29); Sample 2: N = 157, ages 18-30). Results confirmed that the scenarios could be a useful vehicle for assessing how women balance out risk and attraction to make in-the moment heterosocial drinking decisions. The factor analysis showed participants perceived two types of situations, based on whether the male character was "Familiar" or "Just Met" and perceived themselves as happier and more excited with Familiar males. However, in contrast to HIV risk studies, Familiar males were perceived as higher risk for unwanted sex. Future research will use the six scenarios that emerged from the factor analysis to study how attraction and risk perception differentially affect young adult women's social drinking decisions.

  7. Eye gaze as relational evaluation: averted eye gaze leads to feelings of ostracism and relational devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James H; Sacco, Donald F; Hugenberg, Kurt; Williams, Kipling D

    2010-07-01

    Eye gaze is often a signal of interest and, when noticed by others, leads to mutual and directional gaze. However, averting one's eye gaze toward an individual has the potential to convey a strong interpersonal evaluation. The averting of eye gaze is the most frequently used nonverbal cue to indicate the silent treatment, a form of ostracism. The authors argue that eye gaze can signal the relational value felt toward another person. In three studies, participants visualized interacting with an individual displaying averted or direct eye gaze. Compared to receiving direct eye contact, participants receiving averted eye gaze felt ostracized, signaled by thwarted basic need satisfaction, reduced explicit and implicit self-esteem, lowered relational value, and increased temptations to act aggressively toward the interaction partner.

  8. A non-verbal Turing test: differentiating mind from machine in gaze-based social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ulrich J; Timmermans, Bert; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2011-01-01

    In social interaction, gaze behavior provides important signals that have a significant impact on our perception of others. Previous investigations, however, have relied on paradigms in which participants are passive observers of other persons' gazes and do not adjust their gaze behavior as is the case in real-life social encounters. We used an interactive eye-tracking paradigm that allows participants to interact with an anthropomorphic virtual character whose gaze behavior is responsive to where the participant looks on the stimulus screen in real time. The character's gaze reactions were systematically varied along a continuum from a maximal probability of gaze aversion to a maximal probability of gaze-following during brief interactions, thereby varying contingency and congruency of the reactions. We investigated how these variations influenced whether participants believed that the character was controlled by another person (i.e., a confederate) or a computer program. In a series of experiments, the human confederate was either introduced as naïve to the task, cooperative, or competitive. Results demonstrate that the ascription of humanness increases with higher congruency of gaze reactions when participants are interacting with a naïve partner. In contrast, humanness ascription is driven by the degree of contingency irrespective of congruency when the confederate was introduced as cooperative. Conversely, during interaction with a competitive confederate, judgments were neither based on congruency nor on contingency. These results offer important insights into what renders the experience of an interaction truly social: Humans appear to have a default expectation of reciprocation that can be influenced drastically by the presumed disposition of the interactor to either cooperate or compete.

  9. A non-verbal Turing test: differentiating mind from machine in gaze-based social interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich J Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available In social interaction, gaze behavior provides important signals that have a significant impact on our perception of others. Previous investigations, however, have relied on paradigms in which participants are passive observers of other persons' gazes and do not adjust their gaze behavior as is the case in real-life social encounters. We used an interactive eye-tracking paradigm that allows participants to interact with an anthropomorphic virtual character whose gaze behavior is responsive to where the participant looks on the stimulus screen in real time. The character's gaze reactions were systematically varied along a continuum from a maximal probability of gaze aversion to a maximal probability of gaze-following during brief interactions, thereby varying contingency and congruency of the reactions. We investigated how these variations influenced whether participants believed that the character was controlled by another person (i.e., a confederate or a computer program. In a series of experiments, the human confederate was either introduced as naïve to the task, cooperative, or competitive. Results demonstrate that the ascription of humanness increases with higher congruency of gaze reactions when participants are interacting with a naïve partner. In contrast, humanness ascription is driven by the degree of contingency irrespective of congruency when the confederate was introduced as cooperative. Conversely, during interaction with a competitive confederate, judgments were neither based on congruency nor on contingency. These results offer important insights into what renders the experience of an interaction truly social: Humans appear to have a default expectation of reciprocation that can be influenced drastically by the presumed disposition of the interactor to either cooperate or compete.

  10. A Non-Verbal Turing Test: Differentiating Mind from Machine in Gaze-Based Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ulrich J.; Timmermans, Bert; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2011-01-01

    In social interaction, gaze behavior provides important signals that have a significant impact on our perception of others. Previous investigations, however, have relied on paradigms in which participants are passive observers of other persons’ gazes and do not adjust their gaze behavior as is the case in real-life social encounters. We used an interactive eye-tracking paradigm that allows participants to interact with an anthropomorphic virtual character whose gaze behavior is responsive to where the participant looks on the stimulus screen in real time. The character’s gaze reactions were systematically varied along a continuum from a maximal probability of gaze aversion to a maximal probability of gaze-following during brief interactions, thereby varying contingency and congruency of the reactions. We investigated how these variations influenced whether participants believed that the character was controlled by another person (i.e., a confederate) or a computer program. In a series of experiments, the human confederate was either introduced as naïve to the task, cooperative, or competitive. Results demonstrate that the ascription of humanness increases with higher congruency of gaze reactions when participants are interacting with a naïve partner. In contrast, humanness ascription is driven by the degree of contingency irrespective of congruency when the confederate was introduced as cooperative. Conversely, during interaction with a competitive confederate, judgments were neither based on congruency nor on contingency. These results offer important insights into what renders the experience of an interaction truly social: Humans appear to have a default expectation of reciprocation that can be influenced drastically by the presumed disposition of the interactor to either cooperate or compete. PMID:22096599

  11. Adaptive gaze control for object detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Croon, G.C.H.E.; Postma, E.O.; Van den Herik, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel gaze-control model for detecting objects in images. The model, named act-detect, uses the information from local image samples in order to shift its gaze towards object locations. The model constitutes two main contributions. The first contribution is that the model’s setup makes

  12. Wrist-worn pervasive gaze interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Lund, Haakon; Biermann, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses gaze interaction for smart home control, conducted from a wrist-worn unit. First we asked ten people to enact the gaze movements they would propose for e.g. opening a door or adjusting the room temperature. On basis of their suggestions we built and tested different versions ...

  13. Culture and Listeners' Gaze Responses to Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is frequently observed that listeners demonstrate gaze aversion to stuttering. This response may have profound social/communicative implications for both fluent and stuttering individuals. However, there is a lack of empirical examination of listeners' eye gaze responses to stuttering, and it is unclear whether cultural background…

  14. Culture and Listeners' Gaze Responses to Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is frequently observed that listeners demonstrate gaze aversion to stuttering. This response may have profound social/communicative implications for both fluent and stuttering individuals. However, there is a lack of empirical examination of listeners' eye gaze responses to stuttering, and it is unclear whether cultural background…

  15. Assessing Self-Awareness through Gaze Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori Grgič, Regina; Crespi, Sofia Allegra; de'Sperati, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We define gaze agency as the awareness of the causal effect of one's own eye movements in gaze-contingent environments, which might soon become a widespread reality with the diffusion of gaze-operated devices. Here we propose a method for measuring gaze agency based on self-monitoring propensity and sensitivity. In one task, naïf observers watched bouncing balls on a computer monitor with the goal of discovering the cause of concurrently presented beeps, which were generated in real-time by their saccades or by other events (Discovery Task). We manipulated observers' self-awareness by pre-exposing them to a condition in which beeps depended on gaze direction or by focusing their attention to their own eyes. These manipulations increased propensity to agency discovery. In a second task, which served to monitor agency sensitivity at the sensori-motor level, observers were explicitly asked to detect gaze agency (Detection Task). Both tasks turned out to be well suited to measure both increases and decreases of gaze agency. We did not find evident oculomotor correlates of agency discovery or detection. A strength of our approach is that it probes self-monitoring propensity-difficult to evaluate with traditional tasks based on bodily agency. In addition to putting a lens on this novel cognitive function, measuring gaze agency could reveal subtle self-awareness deficits in pathological conditions and during development.

  16. Gaze-Based Controlling a Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    Research and applications of gaze interaction has mainly been conducted on a 2 dimensional surface (usually screens) for controlling a computer or controlling the movements of a robot. Emerging wearable and mobile technologies, such as google glasses may shift how gaze is used as an interactive...

  17. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  18. I want to help you, but I am not sure why: gaze-cuing induces altruistic giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert D; Bayliss, Andrew P; Szepietowska, Anna; Dale, Laura; Reeder, Lydia; Pizzamiglio, Gloria; Czarna, Karolina; Wakeley, Judi; Cowen, Phillip J; Tipper, Steven P

    2014-04-01

    Detecting subtle indicators of trustworthiness is highly adaptive for moving effectively amongst social partners. One powerful signal is gaze direction, which individuals can use to inform (or deceive) by looking toward (or away from) important objects or events in the environment. Here, across 5 experiments, we investigate whether implicit learning about gaze cues can influence subsequent economic transactions; we also examine some of the underlying mechanisms. In the 1st experiment, we demonstrate that people invest more money with individuals whose gaze information has previously been helpful, possibly reflecting enhanced trust appraisals. However, in 2 further experiments, we show that other mechanisms driving this behavior include obligations to fairness or (painful) altruism, since people also make more generous offers and allocations of money to individuals with reliable gaze cues in adapted 1-shot ultimatum games and 1-shot dictator games. In 2 final experiments, we show that the introduction of perceptual noise while following gaze can disrupt these effects, but only when the social partners are unfamiliar. Nonconscious detection of reliable gaze cues can prompt altruism toward others, probably reflecting the interplay of systems that encode identity and control gaze-evoked attention, integrating the reinforcement value of gaze cues.

  19. Influence of reward preferences in attracting, retaining, and motivating knowledge workers in South African information technology companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bussin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The world of work is evolving and the nature of relationships between knowledge workers and their employers has changed distinctly, leading to a change in the type of rewards they prefer. The nature of these preferences in the South African, industry-specific context is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to deepen understanding of the reward preferences of Information technology (IT knowledge workers in South Africa, specifically as these relate to the attraction, retention and motivation of knowledge workers.Design: The research design included a quantitative, empirical and descriptive study of reward preferences, measured with a self-administered survey and analysed using non-parametric tests for variance between dependent and independent groups and non-parametric analysis of variance.Findings: This study found that there are specific reward preferences in knowledge workers in the IT sector in South Africa and that these preferences apply differently when related to the attraction, retention and motivation of employees. It identified the most important reward components in the competition for knowledge workers and also demonstrated that demographic characteristics play a statistically significant role in determining reward preferences.Practical implications: The study’s findings show that a holistic approach to total rewards is required, failing which, companies will find themselves facing increased turnover and jobhopping. Importantly, the study also highlights that different rewards need to form part of knowledge workers’ relationship with their employer in three different scenarios: attraction, retention and motivation.

  20. Interactions among the effects of head orientation, emotional expression, and physical attractiveness on face preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Julie C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that preferences for direct versus averted gaze are modulated by emotional expressions and physical attractiveness. For example, preferences for direct gaze are stronger when judging happy or physically attractive faces than when judging disgusted or physically unattractive faces. Here we show that preferences for front versus three-quarter views of faces, in which gaze direction was always congruent with head orientation, are also modulated by emotional expressions and physical attractiveness; participants demonstrated preferences for front views of faces over three-quarter views of faces when judging the attractiveness of happy, physically attractive individuals, but not when judging the attractiveness of relatively unattractive individuals or those with disgusted expressions. Moreover, further analyses indicated that these interactions did not simply reflect differential perceptions of the intensity of the emotional expressions shown in each condition. Collectively, these findings present novel evidence that the effect of the direction of the attention of others on attractiveness judgments is modulated by cues to the physical attractiveness and emotional state of the depicted individual, potentially reflecting psychological adaptations for efficient allocation of social effort. These data also present the first behavioural evidence that the effect of the direction of the attention of others on attractiveness judgments reflects viewer-referenced, rather than face-referenced, coding and/or processing of gaze direction.

  1. Male attractiveness is influenced by UV wavelengths in a newt species but not in its close relative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Secondi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional communication in the UV range has been reported in Invertebrates and all major groups of Vertebrates but Amphibians. Although perception in this wavelength range has been shown in a few species, UV signalling has not been demonstrated in this group. One reason may be that in lentic freshwater habitats, litter decomposition generates dissolved organic carbon that absorbs UV radiation and thus hinders its use for visual signalling. We tested the effect of male UV characteristics on female sexual preference in two newt species that experience contrasting levels of UV water transmission when breeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed water spectral characteristics of a sample of breeding ponds in both species. We quantified male ventral coloration and measured male attractiveness under two lighting conditions (UV present, UV absent using a no-choice female preference design. UV transmission was higher in Lissotriton vulgaris breeding sites. Male UV patterns also differed between experimental males of the two species. We observed a first common peak around 333 nm, higher in L. vulgaris, and a second peak around 397 nm, more frequent and higher in L. helveticus. Male attractiveness was significantly reduced in L. vulgaris when UV was not available but not in L. helveticus. Male attractiveness depended on the hue of the first UV peak in L. vulgaris. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first report of functional UV-based communication in Amphibians. Interestingly, male spectral characteristics and female preferences were consistent with the differences in habitat observed between the two species as L. helveticus often breeds in ponds containing more UV blocking compounds. We discuss the three hypotheses proposed so far for UV signalling in animals (enhanced signal detectability, private communication channel, indicator of individual quality.

  2. Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enter, Dorien; Terburg, David; Harrewijn, Anita; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially dominant gaze behavior. Therefore we tested as a proof of principle whether single dose testosterone administration can reduce gaze avoidance in SAD. In a double-blind, within-subject design, 18 medication-free female participants with SAD and 19 female healthy control participants received a single dose of 0.5mg testosterone and a matched placebo, at two separate days. On each day, their spontaneous gaze behavior was recorded using eye-tracking, while they looked at angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. Testosterone enhanced the percentage of first fixations to the eye-region in participants with SAD compared to healthy controls. In addition, SAD patients' initial gaze avoidance in the placebo condition was associated with more severe social anxiety symptoms and this relation was no longer present after testosterone administration. These findings indicate that single dose testosterone administration can alleviate gaze avoidance in SAD. They support theories on the dominance enhancing effects of testosterone and extend those by showing that effects are particularly strong in individuals featured by socially submissive behavior. The finding that this core characteristic of SAD can be directly influenced by single dose testosterone administration calls for future inquiry into the clinical utility of testosterone in the treatment of SAD.

  3. Gliding and Saccadic Gaze Gesture Recognition in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozado, David; San Agustin, Javier; Rodriguez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    paradigm in the context of human-machine interaction as low-cost gaze trackers become more ubiquitous. The viability of gaze gestures as an innovative way to control a computer rests on how easily they can be assimilated by potential users and also on the ability of machine learning algorithms...... to discriminate intentional gaze gestures from typical gaze activity performed during standard interaction with electronic devices. In this work, through a set of experiments and user studies, we evaluate the performance of two different gaze gestures modalities, gliding gaze gestures and saccadic gaze gestures...

  4. Gazes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    2015-01-01

    of passing. The analysis of the young Muslim men and women’s narratives points towards the particular embodied, intersectional and local possibilities for becoming and being visible as a legitimate Muslim subject in a society fraught with stereotypical and often negative images and discourses on Islam...

  5. Wrist-worn pervasive gaze interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Lund, Haakon; Biermann, Florian;

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses gaze interaction for smart home control, conducted from a wrist-worn unit. First we asked ten people to enact the gaze movements they would propose for e.g. opening a door or adjusting the room temperature. On basis of their suggestions we built and tested different versions...... selection. Their subjective evaluations were positive with regard to the speed of the interaction. We conclude that gaze gesture input seems feasible for fast and brief remote control of smart home technology provided that robustness of tracking is improved....

  6. Attracting International Hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe

    2015-01-01

    With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations....

  7. The Use of Gaze to Control Drones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Alapetite, Alexandre; MacKenzie, I. Scott

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of gaze-based control modes for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or “drones”). Ten participants performed a simple flying task. We gathered empirical measures, including task completion time, and examined the user experience for difficulty, reliabil...... was considered significantly more reliable than the others. We discuss design and performance issues for the gaze-plus-manual split of controls when drones are operated using gaze in conjunction with tablets, near-eye displays (glasses), or monitors.......This paper presents an experimental investigation of gaze-based control modes for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or “drones”). Ten participants performed a simple flying task. We gathered empirical measures, including task completion time, and examined the user experience for difficulty...

  8. Species dependent influence of (-)-alpha-pinene on attraction of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to ethanol-baited traps in nursery agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Cañas, Luís; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-04-01

    Field-based trapping experiments were conducted in Ohio in 2003, 2004, and 2008 to determine the influence of (-)-alpha-pinene on the attraction of exotic and native ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to ethanol-baited traps. In 2003 and 2004, we determined the effect of adding an (-)-alpha-pinene ultrahigh release lure (UHR; 2 g/d at 20 degrees C) to traps baited with an ethanol UHR lure (0.39 g/d). FewerAnisandrus (Xyleborus) sayi (Hopkins) and Xyleborinus saxeseni (Ratzeburg) were collected in 2003 and 2004 from traps baited with ethanol UHR plus (-)-alpha-pinene UHR compared with ethanol UHR. (-)-alpha-Pinene also reduced the attraction of Xyloterinus politus (Say) to ethanol-baited traps in 2004. Total captures of Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) in 2003 were higher in traps baited with ethanol UHR plus (-)-alpha-pinene UHR than in traps with ethanol UHR alone but not in 2004. In 2008, captures were compared among traps baited with eight combinations of ethanol and (-)-a-pinene at both UHR and low release (LR) rates. Release rates for ethanol LR and (-)-alpha-pinene LR were 0.027 and 0.0015 g/d, respectively. (-)-alpha-Pinene UHR and (-)-alpha-pinene LR reduced the attractiveness of ethanol UHR to A. sayi and X. saxeseni. Ethanol UHR was also more attractive than ethanol LR to A. sayi and X. germanus. These findings demonstrate traps baited with ethanol alone are more effective than ethanol plus (-)-alpha-pinene for monitoring ambrosia beetle flight activity in ornamental nurseries. Ethanol release rate is also an important consideration for monitoring purposes.

  9. Influence of perceived sport competence and body attractiveness on physical activity and other healthy lifestyle habits in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Hellín, Pedro; González-Cutre, David; Martínez-Galindo, Celestina

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test an explanatory model of the relationships between physical self-concept and some healthy habits. A sample of 472 adolescents aged 16 to 20 answered different questionnaires assessing physical self-concept, physical activity, intention to be physically active and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The results of the structural equation model showed that perceived sport competence positively correlated with current physical activity. Body attractiveness positively correlated with physical activity in boys and negatively in girls. Current physical activity positively correlated with the intention to be physically active in the future and negatively with the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Nevertheless, this last relationship was only significant in boys. The results are discussed in connection with the promotion of healthy lifestyle guidelines among adolescents. This model shows the importance of physical self-concept for engaging in physical activity in adolescence. It also suggests that physical activity is associated with the intention to continue being physically active and with healthy lifestyle habits.

  10. A Gaze Interactive Textual Smartwatch Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Biermann, Florian; Askø Madsen, Janus

    2015-01-01

    , but not where on the screen they are looking. To counter the motor noise we present a word-by-word textual UI that shows temporary command options to be executed by gaze-strokes. Twenty-seven participants conducted a simulated smartwatch task and were able to reliably perform commands that would adjust...... the speed of word presentation or make regressions. We discuss future design and usage options for a textual smartwatch gaze interface....

  11. Latvijas Gaze buyback likely to flop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Veerandi Läti gaasifirma Latvijas Gaze omanik Itera kavatseb lähiajal lõpule viia üheksa protsendi Läti firma aktsiate müügi ettevõttele Gazprom. Gazprom'i kontrolli all on praegu 25 protsenti, Ruhrgas'il 28,66 ning E.ON Energie AG-l 18,06 protsenti Latvijas Gaze aktsiatest

  12. Latvijas Gaze buyback likely to flop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Veerandi Läti gaasifirma Latvijas Gaze omanik Itera kavatseb lähiajal lõpule viia üheksa protsendi Läti firma aktsiate müügi ettevõttele Gazprom. Gazprom'i kontrolli all on praegu 25 protsenti, Ruhrgas'il 28,66 ning E.ON Energie AG-l 18,06 protsenti Latvijas Gaze aktsiatest

  13. One is not enough: Group size modulates social gaze-induced object desirability effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Francesca; Bayliss, Andrew P; Elena, Marco R; Becchio, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Affective evaluations of objects are influenced by the preferences expressed by other people via their gaze direction, so that objects looked at are liked more than objects looked away from. But when can others' preferences be trusted? Here, we show that group size influences the extent to which individuals tend to conform to others' gaze preferences. We adopted the conventional gaze-cuing paradigm and modified the design in such a way that some objects were consistently cued by only one face (single-face condition), whereas other objects were consistently cued by several different faces (multiple-faces condition). While response time measures revealed equal gaze-cuing effects for both conditions, a boost in affective evaluation was observed only for objects looked at by several different faces. Objects looked at by a single face were not rated differently than objects looked away from. These findings suggest that observers make use of group size to evaluate the generalizability of the epistemic information conveyed by others' gaze: Objects looked at are liked more than objects looked away from, but only when they are looked at by multiple faces.

  14. Eye'm talking to you: speakers' gaze direction modulates co-speech gesture processing in the right MTG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Judith; Kokal, Idil; Toni, Ivan; Hagoort, Peter; Kelly, Spencer D; Özyürek, Aslı

    2015-02-01

    Recipients process information from speech and co-speech gestures, but it is currently unknown how this processing is influenced by the presence of other important social cues, especially gaze direction, a marker of communicative intent. Such cues may modulate neural activity in regions associated either with the processing of ostensive cues, such as eye gaze, or with the processing of semantic information, provided by speech and gesture. Participants were scanned (fMRI) while taking part in triadic communication involving two recipients and a speaker. The speaker uttered sentences that were and were not accompanied by complementary iconic gestures. Crucially, the speaker alternated her gaze direction, thus creating two recipient roles: addressed (direct gaze) vs unaddressed (averted gaze) recipient. The comprehension of Speech&Gesture relative to SpeechOnly utterances recruited middle occipital, middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri, bilaterally. The calcarine sulcus and posterior cingulate cortex were sensitive to differences between direct and averted gaze. Most importantly, Speech&Gesture utterances, but not SpeechOnly utterances, produced additional activity in the right middle temporal gyrus when participants were addressed. Marking communicative intent with gaze direction modulates the processing of speech-gesture utterances in cerebral areas typically associated with the semantic processing of multi-modal communicative acts. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The politics of attention contextualized: gaze but not arrow cuing of attention is moderated by political temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Luciana; Dalmaso, Mario; Castelli, Luigi; Galfano, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    It is known that an averted gaze can trigger shifts of attention in an observer, a phenomenon known as gaze-cuing effect. Recently, Dodd et al. (Atten Percept Psychophys 73:24-29, 2011) have reported a reliable gaze-cuing effect for liberals but not for conservatives. The present study tested whether this result is gaze-specific or extends over nonsocial spatial signals. Conservatives and liberals took part in a spatial-cuing task in which centrally placed gaze and arrow cues, pointing rightward or leftward, were followed by a peripheral onset target requiring a simple detection response. Whereas a reliable cuing effect was present for both gaze and arrow cues in the case of liberals, conservatives showed a reduced cuing response only for gaze cues. These results provide further support for the pattern reported by Dodd et al. (2011) and are consistent with the view that conservatives are less susceptible to the influence of spatial cues provided by other individuals.

  16. Use of a Remote Eye-Tracker for the Analysis of Gaze during Treadmill Walking and Visual Stimuli Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Serchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the visual strategies adopted while walking in cognitively engaging environments is extremely valuable. Analyzing gaze when a treadmill and a virtual reality environment are used as motor rehabilitation tools is therefore critical. Being completely unobtrusive, remote eye-trackers are the most appropriate way to measure the point of gaze. Still, the point of gaze measurements are affected by experimental conditions such as head range of motion and visual stimuli. This study assesses the usability limits and measurement reliability of a remote eye-tracker during treadmill walking while visual stimuli are projected. During treadmill walking, the head remained within the remote eye-tracker workspace. Generally, the quality of the point of gaze measurements declined as the distance from the remote eye-tracker increased and data loss occurred for large gaze angles. The stimulus location (a dot-target did not influence the point of gaze accuracy, precision, and trackability during both standing and walking. Similar results were obtained when the dot-target was replaced by a static or moving 2D target and “region of interest” analysis was applied. These findings foster the feasibility of the use of a remote eye-tracker for the analysis of gaze during treadmill walking in virtual reality environments.

  17. Use of a Remote Eye-Tracker for the Analysis of Gaze during Treadmill Walking and Visual Stimuli Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serchi, V; Peruzzi, A; Cereatti, A; Della Croce, U

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the visual strategies adopted while walking in cognitively engaging environments is extremely valuable. Analyzing gaze when a treadmill and a virtual reality environment are used as motor rehabilitation tools is therefore critical. Being completely unobtrusive, remote eye-trackers are the most appropriate way to measure the point of gaze. Still, the point of gaze measurements are affected by experimental conditions such as head range of motion and visual stimuli. This study assesses the usability limits and measurement reliability of a remote eye-tracker during treadmill walking while visual stimuli are projected. During treadmill walking, the head remained within the remote eye-tracker workspace. Generally, the quality of the point of gaze measurements declined as the distance from the remote eye-tracker increased and data loss occurred for large gaze angles. The stimulus location (a dot-target) did not influence the point of gaze accuracy, precision, and trackability during both standing and walking. Similar results were obtained when the dot-target was replaced by a static or moving 2D target and "region of interest" analysis was applied. These findings foster the feasibility of the use of a remote eye-tracker for the analysis of gaze during treadmill walking in virtual reality environments.

  18. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  19. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  20. The Gaze and Being Gazed:From Madama Butterfly to M. Butterfly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼华

    2012-01-01

      Abstrac]Through the analysis of both Madama Butterfly and M. Butterfly,this paper expores the gaze of the Occidental upon the Oriental especially the women. It analyzes the change of the Occi-dental gaze and gets the result that the misconception of the Oriental and its culture might form a big mockery to the Orientalism.

  1. Impact of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior in children with hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof eSandgren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore verbal-nonverbal integration, we investigated the influence of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior during spoken language conversation between children with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment (HI and normal-hearing (NH peers. Ten HI-NH and ten NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model associations between performance on cognitive and linguistic tasks and the probability of gaze to the conversational partner’s face. Analyses compare the listeners in each dyad (HI: n = 10, mean age = 12;6 years, SD = 2;0, mean better ear pure-tone average 33.0 dB HL, SD = 7.8; NH: n = 10, mean age = 13;7 years, SD = 1;11. Group differences in gaze behavior – with HI gazing more to the conversational partner than NH – remained significant despite adjustment for ability on receptive grammar, expressive vocabulary, and complex working memory. Adjustment for phonological short term memory, as measured by nonword repetition, removed group differences, revealing an interaction between group membership and nonword repetition ability. Stratified analysis showed a twofold increase of the probability of gaze-to-partner for HI with low phonological short term memory capacity, and a decreased probability for HI with high capacity, as compared to NH peers. The results revealed differences in gaze behavior attributable to performance on a phonological short term memory task. Participants with hearing impairment and low phonological short term memory capacity showed a doubled probability of gaze to the conversational partner, indicative of a visual bias. The results stress the need to look beyond the hearing impairment in diagnostics and intervention. Acknowledgment of the finding requires clinical assessment of children with hearing impairment to be supported by tasks tapping

  2. Gaze perception in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2013-12-16

    Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhanced self-directed perception of gaze directions and demonstrate a pronounced fear of direct eye contact, though findings are less consistent regarding the avoidance of mutual gaze in SAD. Prospects for future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  3. The link between perception of clinical empathy and nonverbal behavior: The effect of a doctor's gaze and body orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugel, Sabrina; Postma-Nilsenová, Marie; Tates, Kiek

    2015-10-01

    Clinical empathy is considered to be one of the most important skills for medical professionals. It is primarily conveyed by nonverbal behavior; however, little is known about the importance of different types of cues and their relation to engagement and sincerity as possible correlates of perceived clinical empathy (PCE). In this study, we explored the effect of doctor's gaze and body orientation on PCE with the help of 32 video vignettes. Actors impersonating medical interns displayed different combinations of gaze and body orientation while uttering an empathetic verbal statement. The video vignettes were evaluated in terms of the perceived clinical and general empathy, engagement and sincerity. A principal component analysis revealed a possible single-factor solution for the scales measuring the two types of empathy, engagement and sincerity; therefore, they were subsumed under general perceived empathy (GPE). An analysis of variance showed a main effect of gaze and body orientation, with a stronger effect of gaze, on GPE. We subsequently performed a linear random effects analysis, which indicated possible gender-related differences in the perception of gaze. The outcomes of our experiment confirm that both gaze and body orientation have an influence on the GPE. The effect of gaze, however, appears to be gender-dependent: in the experiment, males were perceived as slightly more empathetic with patient-centered gaze, while for females averted gaze resulted in higher GPE scores. The findings are directly relevant in the context of medical communication training. Perception of clinical empathy supports medical information transfer, diagnosis quality and other patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental Esthetics and Interpersonal Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, James T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to determine the effects of visual environmental esthetics on interpersonal attraction and concludes that visual esthetics influence participants' perspectives of their partners in live interpersonal communication settings. (MH)

  5. Frequency analysis of gaze points with CT colonography interpretation using eye gaze tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Shoko; Tamashiro, Wataru; Sato, Mitsuru; Okajima, Mika; Ogura, Toshihiro; Doi, Kunio

    2017-03-01

    It is important to investigate eye tracking gaze points of experts, in order to assist trainees in understanding of image interpretation process. We investigated gaze points of CT colonography (CTC) interpretation process, and analyzed the difference in gaze points between experts and trainees. In this study, we attempted to understand how trainees can be improved to a level achieved by experts in viewing of CTC. We used an eye gaze point sensing system, Gazefineder (JVCKENWOOD Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), which can detect pupil point and corneal reflection point by the dark pupil eye tracking. This system can provide gaze points images and excel file data. The subjects are radiological technologists who are experienced, and inexperienced in reading CTC. We performed observer studies in reading virtual pathology images and examined observer's image interpretation process using gaze points data. Furthermore, we examined eye tracking frequency analysis by using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). We were able to understand the difference in gaze points between experts and trainees by use of the frequency analysis. The result of the trainee had a large amount of both high-frequency components and low-frequency components. In contrast, both components by the expert were relatively low. Regarding the amount of eye movement in every 0.02 second we found that the expert tended to interpret images slowly and calmly. On the other hand, the trainee was moving eyes quickly and also looking for wide areas. We can assess the difference in the gaze points on CTC between experts and trainees by use of the eye gaze point sensing system and based on the frequency analysis. The potential improvements in CTC interpretation for trainees can be evaluated by using gaze points data.

  6. Comment on "The influence of planetary attractions on the solar tachocline" by Callebaut, de Jager and Duhau

    CERN Document Server

    Scafetta, Nicola; Solheim, J -E; Stordahl, K; 10.1016/j.jastp.2013.03.007

    2013-01-01

    Callebaut et al. (2012)'s claim that Scafetta (2010)'s results about a correlation between 20-year and 60-year temperature cycles and the orbital motion of Jupiter and Saturn were not confirmed by Humlum et al. (2011) is erroneous and severely misleading. Also Callebaut et al. (2012)'s absolute claim that a planetary influences on the Sun should be ruled out as a possible cause of solar variability is not conclusive because: (1) their calculations are based on simplistic classical Newtonian analytical mechanics that does not fully characterize solar physics; (2) the planetary theory of solar variation is supported by empirical findings. We show that both claims are already questioned in the scientific literature.

  7. Models for Gaze Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva Arantxa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most confusing aspects that one meets when introducing oneself into gaze tracking technology is the wide variety, in terms of hardware equipment, of available systems that provide solutions to the same matter, that is, determining the point the subject is looking at. The calibration process permits generally adjusting nonintrusive trackers based on quite different hardware and image features to the subject. The negative aspect of this simple procedure is that it permits the system to work properly but at the expense of a lack of control over the intrinsic behavior of the tracker. The objective of the presented article is to overcome this obstacle to explore more deeply the elements of a video-oculographic system, that is, eye, camera, lighting, and so forth, from a purely mathematical and geometrical point of view. The main contribution is to find out the minimum number of hardware elements and image features that are needed to determine the point the subject is looking at. A model has been constructed based on pupil contour and multiple lighting, and successfully tested with real subjects. On the other hand, theoretical aspects of video-oculographic systems have been thoroughly reviewed in order to build a theoretical basis for further studies.

  8. Models for Gaze Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa Villanueva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most confusing aspects that one meets when introducing oneself into gaze tracking technology is the wide variety, in terms of hardware equipment, of available systems that provide solutions to the same matter, that is, determining the point the subject is looking at. The calibration process permits generally adjusting nonintrusive trackers based on quite different hardware and image features to the subject. The negative aspect of this simple procedure is that it permits the system to work properly but at the expense of a lack of control over the intrinsic behavior of the tracker. The objective of the presented article is to overcome this obstacle to explore more deeply the elements of a video-oculographic system, that is, eye, camera, lighting, and so forth, from a purely mathematical and geometrical point of view. The main contribution is to find out the minimum number of hardware elements and image features that are needed to determine the point the subject is looking at. A model has been constructed based on pupil contour and multiple lighting, and successfully tested with real subjects. On the other hand, theoretical aspects of video-oculographic systems have been thoroughly reviewed in order to build a theoretical basis for further studies.

  9. Atypical face gaze in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepagnier, Cheryl; Sebrechts, Marc M; Peterson, Rebecca

    2002-06-01

    An eye-tracking study of face and object recognition was conducted to clarify the character of face gaze in autistic spectrum disorders. Experimental participants were a group of individuals diagnosed with Asperger's disorder or high-functioning autistic disorder according to their medical records and confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Controls were selected on the basis of age, gender, and educational level to be comparable to the experimental group. In order to maintain attentional focus, stereoscopic images were presented in a virtual reality (VR) headset in which the eye-tracking system was installed. Preliminary analyses show impairment in face recognition, in contrast with equivalent and even superior performance in object recognition among participants with autism-related diagnoses, relative to controls. Experimental participants displayed less fixation on the central face than did control-group participants. The findings, within the limitations of the small number of subjects and technical difficulties encountered in utilizing the helmet-mounted display, suggest an impairment in face processing on the part of the individuals in the experimental group. This is consistent with the hypothesis of disruption in the first months of life, a period that may be critical to typical social and cognitive development, and has important implications for selection of appropriate targets of intervention.

  10. Vestibular and cerebellar contribution to gaze optimality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Murat; Glasauer, Stefan; Lehnen, Nadine

    2014-04-01

    Patients with chronic bilateral vestibular loss have large gaze variability and experience disturbing oscillopsia, which impacts physical and social functioning, and quality of life. Gaze variability and oscillopsia in these patients are attributed to a deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex, i.e. impaired online feedback motor control. Here, we assessed whether the lack of vestibular input also affects feed-forward motor learning, i.e. the ability to choose optimal movement parameters that minimize variability during active movements such as combined eye-head gaze shifts. A failure to learn from practice and reshape feed-forward motor commands in response to sensory error signals to achieve appropriate movements has been proposed to explain dysmetric gaze shifts in patients with cerebellar ataxia. We, therefore, assessed the differential roles of both sensory vestibular information and the cerebellum in choosing optimal movement kinematics. We have previously shown that, in the course of several gaze shifts, healthy subjects adjust the motor command to minimize endpoint variability also when movements are experimentally altered by an increase in the head moment of inertia. Here, we increased the head inertia in five patients with chronic complete bilateral vestibular loss (aged 45.4±7.1 years, mean±standard deviation), nine patients with cerebellar ataxia (aged 56.7±12.6 years), and 10 healthy control subjects (aged 39.7±6.3 years) while they performed large (75° and 80°) horizontal gaze shifts towards briefly flashed targets in darkness and, using our previous optimal control model, compared their gaze shift parameters to the expected optimal movements with increased head inertia. Patients with chronic bilateral vestibular loss failed to update any of the gaze shift parameters to the new optimum with increased head inertia. Consequently, they displayed highly variable, suboptimal gaze shifts. Patients with cerebellar ataxia updated some movement parameters to

  11. Gaze position reveals impaired attentional shift during visual word recognition in dysfluent readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Hautala

    Full Text Available Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level.

  12. Gaze position reveals impaired attentional shift during visual word recognition in dysfluent readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level.

  13. Visual Foraging With Fingers and Eye Gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Thornton, Ian M; Smith, Irene J; Chetverikov, Andrey; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-03-01

    A popular model of the function of selective visual attention involves search where a single target is to be found among distractors. For many scenarios, a more realistic model involves search for multiple targets of various types, since natural tasks typically do not involve a single target. Here we present results from a novel multiple-target foraging paradigm. We compare finger foraging where observers cancel a set of predesignated targets by tapping them, to gaze foraging where observers cancel items by fixating them for 100 ms. During finger foraging, for most observers, there was a large difference between foraging based on a single feature, where observers switch easily between target types, and foraging based on a conjunction of features where observers tended to stick to one target type. The pattern was notably different during gaze foraging where these condition differences were smaller. Two conclusions follow: (a) The fact that a sizeable number of observers (in particular during gaze foraging) had little trouble switching between different target types raises challenges for many prominent theoretical accounts of visual attention and working memory. (b) While caveats must be noted for the comparison of gaze and finger foraging, the results suggest that selection mechanisms for gaze and pointing have different operational constraints.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions HGPPS horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis ( HGPPS ) is a disorder that affects vision and ...

  15. Timetable Attractiveness Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make...... these timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers...... and heterogeneous traffic, add complexity to the timetable. The risk of spreading initial delays to other trains and parts of the network increases with the level of timetable complexity....

  16. Fractal fluctuations in gaze speed visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Damian G; Anastas, Jason

    2011-04-01

    Visual search involves a subtle coordination of visual memory and lower-order perceptual mechanisms. Specifically, the fluctuations in gaze may provide support for visual search above and beyond what may be attributed to memory. Prior research indicates that gaze during search exhibits fractal fluctuations, which allow for a wide sampling of the field of view. Fractal fluctuations constitute a case of fast diffusion that may provide an advantage in exploration. We present reanalyses of eye-tracking data collected by Stephen and Mirman (Cognition, 115, 154-165, 2010) for single-feature and conjunction search tasks. Fluctuations in gaze during these search tasks were indeed fractal. Furthermore, the degree of fractality predicted decreases in reaction time on a trial-by-trial basis. We propose that fractality may play a key role in explaining the efficacy of perceptual exploration.

  17. The Gaze as constituent and annihilator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Carlsson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to join the contemporary effort to promote a psychoanalytic renaissance within cinema studies, post Post-Theory. In trying to shake off the burden of the 1970s film theory's distortion of the Lacanian Gaze, rejuvenating it with the strength of the Real and fusing it with Freudian thoughts on the uncanny, hopefully this new dawn can be reached. I aspire to conceptualize the Gaze in a straightforward manner. This in order to obtain an instrument for the identification of certain strategies within the filmic realm aimed at depicting the subjective destabilizing of diegetic characters as well as thwarting techniques directed at the spectorial subject. In setting this capricious Gaze against the uncanny phenomena described by Freud, we find that these two ideas easily intertwine into a draft description of a powerful, potentially reconstitutive force worth being highlighted.

  18. A Direct Link between Gaze Perception and Social Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Bartlett, Jessica; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada

    2011-01-01

    How information is exchanged between the cognitive mechanisms responsible for gaze perception and social attention is unclear. These systems could be independent; the "gaze cueing" effect could emerge from the activation of a general-purpose attentional mechanism that is ignorant of the social nature of the gaze cue. Alternatively, orienting to…

  19. Gaze Following Is Modulated by Expectations Regarding Others' Action Goals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Perez-Osorio

    Full Text Available Humans attend to social cues in order to understand and predict others' behavior. Facial expressions and gaze direction provide valuable information to infer others' mental states and intentions. The present study examined the mechanism of gaze following in the context of participants' expectations about successive action steps of an observed actor. We embedded a gaze-cueing manipulation within an action scenario consisting of a sequence of naturalistic photographs. Gaze-induced orienting of attention (gaze following was analyzed with respect to whether the gaze behavior of the observed actor was in line or not with the action-related expectations of participants (i.e., whether the actor gazed at an object that was congruent or incongruent with an overarching action goal. In Experiment 1, participants followed the gaze of the observed agent, though the gaze-cueing effect was larger when the actor looked at an action-congruent object relative to an incongruent object. Experiment 2 examined whether the pattern of effects observed in Experiment 1 was due to covert, rather than overt, attentional orienting, by requiring participants to maintain eye fixation throughout the sequence of critical photographs (corroborated by monitoring eye movements. The essential pattern of results of Experiment 1 was replicated, with the gaze-cueing effect being completely eliminated when the observed agent gazed at an action-incongruent object. Thus, our findings show that covert gaze following can be modulated by expectations that humans hold regarding successive steps of the action performed by an observed agent.

  20. Children with ASD Can Use Gaze to Map New Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean Ellawadi, Allison; McGregor, Karla K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The conclusion that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) do not use eye gaze in the service of word learning is based on one-trial studies. Aims: To determine whether children with ASD come to use gaze in the service of word learning when given multiple trials with highly reliable eye-gaze cues. Methods & Procedures:…

  1. Eye gaze in intelligent user interfaces gaze-based analyses, models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Yukiko I; Bader, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in eye-tracking technologies opened the way to design novel attention-based intelligent user interfaces, and highlighted the importance of better understanding of eye-gaze in human-computer interaction and human-human communication. For instance, a user's focus of attention is useful in interpreting the user's intentions, their understanding of the conversation, and their attitude towards the conversation. In human face-to-face communication, eye gaze plays an important role in floor management, grounding, and engagement in conversation.Eye Gaze in Intelligent User Interfac

  2. Towards Wearable Gaze Supported Augmented Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toshiaki Kurauchi, Andrew; Hitoshi Morimoto, Carlos; Mardanbeigi, Diako;

    to reduce the amount of information and provide an appropriate mechanism for low and divided attention interaction. We claim that most current gaze interaction paradigms are not appropriate for wearable computing because they are not designed for divided attention. We have used principles suggested...... by the wearable computing community to develop a gaze supported augmented cognition application with three interaction modes. The application provides information of the person being looked at. The continuous mode updates information every time the user looks at a different face. The key activated discrete mode...

  3. Influence of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on the Use of the Most Abundant and Attractive Floral Resources in a Plant Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatto, L P; Chaud-Netto, J

    2013-12-01

    Some factors influence the distribution of abundance of floral visitors, especially the amount and quality of the floral resources available, the size of the area occupied by the visitor, habitat heterogeneity, and the impact caused by natural enemies and introduced species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the distribution of abundance of the foraging activity of native floral visitors and Apis mellifera L. in the most abundant and attractive food sources in a secondary forest fragment with features of Cerrado-Atlantic Forest. Some plant species were selected and the frequency of foraging made by floral visitors was recorded. A high abundance of visits in flowers was performed by A. mellifera. Two factors may have influenced this result: (1) the occupation of the forest fragment predominantly by vines and shrubs at the expenses of vegetation with arboreal characteristics that favored the encounter of the flowering plants by A. mellifera; (2) rational beekeeping of A. mellifera, causing the number of natural swarms which originate annually from colonies of commercial apiaries and colonies previously established in the environment to be very high, thus leading to an increase in the population size of this bee species in the study site. The frequent occurrence of human-induced fire and deforestation within the forest fragment may have reduced the population size of the bee species, including A. mellifera. As the populations of A. mellifera have the capacity to quickly occupy the environment, this species possibly became dominant after successive disturbances made in the forest fragment.

  4. A kinematic model for 3-D head-free gaze-shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemi, Mehdi; Crawford, J Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Rotations of the line of sight are mainly implemented by coordinated motion of the eyes and head. Here, we propose a model for the kinematics of three-dimensional (3-D) head-unrestrained gaze-shifts. The model was designed to account for major principles in the known behavior, such as gaze accuracy, spatiotemporal coordination of saccades with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), relative eye and head contributions, the non-commutativity of rotations, and Listing's and Fick constraints for the eyes and head, respectively. The internal design of the model was inspired by known and hypothesized elements of gaze control physiology. Inputs included retinocentric location of the visual target and internal representations of initial 3-D eye and head orientation, whereas outputs were 3-D displacements of eye relative to the head and head relative to shoulder. Internal transformations decomposed the 2-D gaze command into 3-D eye and head commands with the use of three coordinated circuits: (1) a saccade generator, (2) a head rotation generator, (3) a VOR predictor. Simulations illustrate that the model can implement: (1) the correct 3-D reference frame transformations to generate accurate gaze shifts (despite variability in other parameters), (2) the experimentally verified constraints on static eye and head orientations during fixation, and (3) the experimentally observed 3-D trajectories of eye and head motion during gaze-shifts. We then use this model to simulate how 2-D eye-head coordination strategies interact with 3-D constraints to influence 3-D orientations of the eye-in-space, and the implications of this for spatial vision.

  5. A Kinematic Model for 3-D Head-Free Gaze-Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi eDaemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotations of the line of sight are mainly implemented by coordinated motion of the eyes and head. Here, we propose a model for the kinematics of three-dimensional (3-D head-unrestrained gaze-shifts. The model was designed to account for major principles in the known behavior, such as gaze accuracy, spatiotemporal coordination of saccades with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, relative eye and head contributions, the non-commutativity of rotations, and Listing’s and Fick constraints for the eyes and head respectively. The internal design of the model was inspired by known and hypothesized elements of gaze control physiology. Inputs included retinocentric location of the visual target and internal representations of initial 3-D eye and head orientation, whereas outputs were 3-D displacements of eye relative to the head and head relative to shoulder. Internal transformations decomposed the 2-D gaze command into 3-D eye and head commands with the use of three coordinated circuits: 1 a saccade generator, 2 a head rotation generator, 3 a VOR predictor. Simulations illustrate that the model can implement: 1 the correct 3-D reference frame transformations to generate accurate gaze shifts (despite variability in other parameters, 2 the experimentally verified constraints on static eye and head orientations during fixation, and 3 the experimentally observed 3-D trajectories of eye and head motion during gaze-shifts. We then use this model to simulate how 2-D eye-head coordination strategies interact with 3-D constraints to influence 3-D orientations of the eye-in-space, and the implications of this for spatial vision.

  6. Owners' direct gazes increase dogs' attention-getting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkita, Midori; Nagasawa, Miho; Kazutaka, Mogi; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether dogs gain information about human's attention via their gazes and whether they change their attention-getting behaviors (i.e., whining and whimpering, looking at their owners' faces, pawing, and approaching their owners) in response to their owners' direct gazes. The results showed that when the owners gazed at their dogs, the durations of whining and whimpering and looking at the owners' faces were longer than when the owners averted their gazes. In contrast, there were no differences in duration of pawing and likelihood of approaching the owners between the direct and averted gaze conditions. Therefore, owners' direct gazes increased the behaviors that acted as distant signals and did not necessarily involve touching the owners. We suggest that dogs are sensitive to human gazes, and this sensitivity may act as attachment signals to humans, and may contribute to close relationships between humans and dogs.

  7. Gaze interaction with textual user interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulin Hansen, John; Lund, Haakon; Madsen, Janus Askø

    2015-01-01

    ” option for text navigation. People readily understood how to execute RSVP command prompts and a majority of them preferred gaze input to a pen pointer. We present the concept of a smartwatch that can track eye movements and mediate command options whenever in proximity of intelligent devices...

  8. Gaze Patterns and Audiovisual Speech Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Astrid; Wong, Willy; Eizenman, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to quantify the relationships between speech intelligibility (perception) and gaze patterns under different auditory-visual conditions. Method: Eleven subjects listened to low-context sentences spoken by a single talker while viewing the face of one or more talkers on a computer display. Subjects either…

  9. The Use of Gaze to Control Drones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Alapetite, Alexandre; MacKenzie, I. Scott

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of gaze-based control modes for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or “drones”). Ten participants performed a simple flying task. We gathered empirical measures, including task completion time, and examined the user experience for difficulty, reliabil...

  10. Between Gazes: Feminist, Queer, and 'Other' Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    In this book Camelia Elias introduces key terms in feminist, queer, and postcolonial/diaspora film. Taking her point of departure in the question, "what do you want from me?" she detours through Lacanian theory of the gaze and reframes questions of subjectivity and representation in an entertaini...

  11. Between Gazes: Feminist, Queer, and 'Other' Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    In this book Camelia Elias introduces key terms in feminist, queer, and postcolonial/diaspora film. Taking her point of departure in the question, "what do you want from me?" she detours through Lacanian theory of the gaze and reframes questions of subjectivity and representation in an entertaini...

  12. Exploring associations between gaze patterns and putative human mirror neuron system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hugh Donaldson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human mirror neuron system (MNS is hypothesised to be crucial to social cognition. Given that key MNS-input regions such as the superior temporal sulcus are involved in biological motion processing, and mirror neuron activity in monkeys has been shown to vary with visual attention, aberrant MNS function may be partly attributable to atypical visual input. To examine the relationship between gaze pattern and interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; an index of putative MNS activity, healthy right-handed participants aged 18-40 (n = 26 viewed videos of transitive grasping actions or static hands, whilst the left primary motor cortex received transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs recorded in contralateral hand muscles were used to determine IMR. Participants also underwent eyetracking analysis to assess gaze patterns whilst viewing the same videos. No relationship was observed between predictive gaze (PG and IMR. However, IMR was positively associated with fixation counts in areas of biological motion in the videos, and negatively associated with object areas. These findings are discussed with reference to visual influences on the MNS, and the possibility that MNS atypicalities might be influenced by visual processes such as aberrant gaze pattern.

  13. Gaze interaction in UAS video exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Brüstle, Stefan; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    A frequently occurring interaction task in UAS video exploitation is the marking or selection of objects of interest in the video. If an object of interest is visually detected by the image analyst, its selection/marking for further exploitation, documentation and communication with the team is a necessary task. Today object selection is usually performed by mouse interaction. As due to sensor motion all objects in the video move, object selection can be rather challenging, especially if strong and fast and ego-motions are present, e.g., with small airborne sensor platforms. In addition to that, objects of interest are sometimes too shortly visible to be selected by the analyst using mouse interaction. To address this issue we propose an eye tracker as input device for object selection. As the eye tracker continuously provides the gaze position of the analyst on the monitor, it is intuitive to use the gaze position for pointing at an object. The selection is then actuated by pressing a button. We integrated this gaze-based "gaze + key press" object selection into Fraunhofer IOSB's exploitation station ABUL using a Tobii X60 eye tracker and a standard keyboard for the button press. Representing the object selections in a spatial relational database, ABUL enables the image analyst to efficiently query the video data in a post processing step for selected objects of interest with respect to their geographical and other properties. An experimental evaluation is presented, comparing gaze-based interaction with mouse interaction in the context of object selection in UAS videos.

  14. Gaze direction affects visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries were investigated by changing the horizontal position of stimuli that had to be remembered in a visuo-spatial short-term memory task. Observers looked at matrices containing a variable number of filled squares on the left or right side of the screen center. At stimulus offset, participants reproduced the positions of the filled squares in an empty response matrix. Stimulus and response matrices were presented in the same quadrant. We observed that memory performance was better when the matrices were shown on the left side of the screen. We distinguished between recall strategies that relied on visual or non-visual (verbal) cues and found that the effect of gaze position occurred more reliably in participants using visual recall strategies. Overall, the results show that there is a solid enhancement of visuo-spatial short-term memory when observers look to the left. In contrast, vertical position had no influence on performance. We suggest that unilateral gaze to the left activates centers in the right hemisphere contributing to visuo-spatial memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Male and Female Perception of Physical Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Garza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR and breast size are morphological traits that are associated with female attractiveness. Previous studies using line drawings of women have shown that men across cultures rate low WHRs (0.6 and 0.7 as most attractive. In this study, we used additional viewing measurements (i.e., first fixation duration and visual regressions to measure visual attention and record how long participants first focused on the female body and whether they regressed back to an area of interest. Additionally, we manipulated skin tone to determine whether they preferred light- or dark-skinned women. In two eye tracking experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of female nude images varying in WHR (0.5–0.9, breast size, and skin tone. We measured first fixation duration, gaze duration, and total time. The overall results of both studies revealed that visual attention fell mostly on the face, the breasts, and the midriff of the female body, supporting the evolutionary view that reproductively relevant regions of the female body are important to female attractiveness. Because the stimuli varied in skin tone and the participants were mainly Hispanic of Mexican American descent, the findings from these studies also support a preference for low WHRs and reproductively relevant regions of the female body.

  16. Perception of stereoscopic direct gaze: The effects of interaxial distance and emotional facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Jussi; Kätsyri, Jari; Takala, Tapio; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2016-07-01

    Gaze perception has received considerable research attention due to its importance in social interaction. The majority of recent studies have utilized monoscopic pictorial gaze stimuli. However, a monoscopic direct gaze differs from a live or stereoscopic gaze. In the monoscopic condition, both eyes of the observer receive a direct gaze, whereas in live and stereoscopic conditions, only one eye receives a direct gaze. In the present study, we examined the implications of the difference between monoscopic and stereoscopic direct gaze. Moreover, because research has shown that stereoscopy affects the emotions elicited by facial expressions, and facial expressions affect the range of directions where an observer perceives mutual gaze-the cone of gaze-we studied the interaction effect of stereoscopy and facial expressions on gaze perception. Forty observers viewed stereoscopic images wherein one eye of the observer received a direct gaze while the other eye received a horizontally averted gaze at five different angles corresponding to five interaxial distances between the cameras in stimulus acquisition. In addition to monoscopic and stereoscopic conditions, the stimuli included neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The observers judged the gaze direction and mutual gaze of four lookers. Our results show that the mean of the directions received by the left and right eyes approximated the perceived gaze direction in the stereoscopic semidirect gaze condition. The probability of perceiving mutual gaze in the stereoscopic condition was substantially lower compared with monoscopic direct gaze. Furthermore, stereoscopic semidirect gaze significantly widened the cone of gaze for happy facial expressions.

  17. Look Together: Analyzing Gaze Coordination with Epistemic Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eAndrist

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When conversing and collaborating in everyday situations, people naturally and interactively align their behaviors with each other across various communication channels, including speech, gesture, posture, and gaze. Having access to a partner's referential gaze behavior has been shown to be particularly important in achieving collaborative outcomes, but the process in which people's gaze behaviors unfold over the course of an interaction and become tightly coordinated is not well understood. In this paper, we present work to develop a deeper and more nuanced understanding of coordinated referential gaze in collaborating dyads. We recruited 13 dyads to participate in a collaborative sandwich-making task and used dual mobile eye tracking to synchronously record each participant's gaze behavior. We used a relatively new analysis technique—epistemic network analysis—to jointly model the gaze behaviors of both conversational participants. In this analysis, network nodes represent gaze targets for each participant, and edge strengths convey the likelihood of simultaneous gaze to the connected target nodes during a given time-slice. We divided collaborative task sequences into discrete phases to examine how the networks of shared gaze evolved over longer time windows. We conducted three separate analyses of the data to reveal (1 properties and patterns of how gaze coordination unfolds throughout an interaction sequence, (2 optimal time lags of gaze alignment within a dyad at different phases of the interaction, and (3 differences in gaze coordination patterns for interaction sequences that lead to breakdowns and repairs. In addition to contributing to the growing body of knowledge on the coordination of gaze behaviors in joint activities, this work has implications for the design of future technologies that engage in situated interactions with human users.

  18. Effects of student physical attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Implicit personality theories suggest that people draw conclusions about other persons by using a relatively small number of visible features. The formation of "the first impression" is influenced by the factors, such as sex, age, appearances, race or nationality. Frequently, conclusions based on those factors lead to developing social stereotypes. Attractiveness is a good example of "the first impression" effect, because physical attractiveness entails the creation of impression about another person along a relatively great number of dimensions. Experimental paradigm, introduced in the sphere of interpersonal perception around the mid-20th century, led to a relatively great number of studies on stereotype based on physical attractiveness. One of the most often quoted conclusions of studies on physical attractiveness is summarized by the idiom "what is beautiful is good". For example, socially desirable personality traits (responsibility kindness, energy quality, modesty, more successful private and professional life, are all attributed to physically attractive persons. In addition physical attractiveness is coupled with positive expectations, peer acceptance, academic achievement etc. On the basis of studies on the "what is beautiful is good" stereotype, we have situated our analysis within the domain of roles regulating social interaction between teachers and students i.e. effects of physical attractiveness on teacher expectations, peer acceptance and academic achievement.

  19. Social eye gaze modulates processing of speech and co-speech gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Judith; Schubotz, Louise; Kelly, Spencer; Hagoort, Peter; Schuetze, Manuela; Özyürek, Aslı

    2014-12-01

    In human face-to-face communication, language comprehension is a multi-modal, situated activity. However, little is known about how we combine information from different modalities during comprehension, and how perceived communicative intentions, often signaled through visual signals, influence this process. We explored this question by simulating a multi-party communication context in which a speaker alternated her gaze between two recipients. Participants viewed speech-only or speech+gesture object-related messages when being addressed (direct gaze) or unaddressed (gaze averted to other participant). They were then asked to choose which of two object images matched the speaker's preceding message. Unaddressed recipients responded significantly more slowly than addressees for speech-only utterances. However, perceiving the same speech accompanied by gestures sped unaddressed recipients up to a level identical to that of addressees. That is, when unaddressed recipients' speech processing suffers, gestures can enhance the comprehension of a speaker's message. We discuss our findings with respect to two hypotheses attempting to account for how social eye gaze may modulate multi-modal language comprehension.

  20. Effects of gaze direction, head orientation and valence of facial expression on amygdala activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Andreas; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing evidence for a role of the amygdala in processing gaze direction and emotional relevance of faces. In this event-related functional magnetic resonance study we investigated amygdala responses while we orthogonally manipulated head direction, gaze direction and facial expression (angry, happy and neutral). This allowed us to investigate effects of stimulus ambiguity, low-level factors and non-emotional factors on amygdala activation. Averted vs direct gaze induced increased activation in the right dorsal amygdala regardless of facial expression and head orientation. Furthermore, valence effects were found in the ventral amygdala and strongly dependent on head orientation. We observed enhanced activation to angry and neutral vs happy faces for observer-directed faces in the left ventral amygdala while the averted head condition reversed this pattern resulting in increased activation to happy as compared to angry and neutral faces. These results suggest that gaze direction drives specifically dorsal amygdala activation regardless of facial expression, low-level perceptual factors or stimulus ambiguity. The role of the amygdala is thus not restricted to the detection of potential threat, but has a more general role in attention processes. Furthermore, valence effects are associated with activation of the ventral amygdala and strongly influenced by non-emotional factors.

  1. Sociability and gazing toward humans in dogs and wolves: Simple behaviors with broad implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentosela, Mariana; Wynne, C D L; D'Orazio, M; Elgier, A; Udell, M A R

    2016-01-01

    Sociability, defined as the tendency to approach and interact with unfamiliar people, has been found to modulate some communicative responses in domestic dogs, including gaze behavior toward the human face. The objective of this study was to compare sociability and gaze behavior in pet domestic dogs and in human-socialized captive wolves in order to identify the relative influence of domestication and learning in the development of the dog-human bond. In Experiment 1, we assessed the approach behavior and social tendencies of dogs and wolves to a familiar and an unfamiliar person. In Experiment 2, we compared the animal's duration of gaze toward a person's face in the presence of food, which the animals could see but not access. Dogs showed higher levels of interspecific sociability than wolves in all conditions, including those where attention was unavailable. In addition, dogs gazed longer at the person's face than wolves in the presence of out-of-reach food. The potential contributions of domestication, associative learning, and experiences during ontogeny to prosocial behavior toward humans are discussed. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Inspection time as mental speed in mildly mentally retarded adults: analysis of eye gaze, eye movement, and orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettelbeck, T; Robson, L; Walwyn, T; Downing, A; Jones, N

    1986-07-01

    The effect of eye movements away from a target on accuracy of visual discrimination was examined. In Experiment I inspection time was measured for 10 mildly mentally retarded and 10 nonretarded adults under two conditions, with each trial initiated by the subject or under experimental control. Retarded subjects did not gain any advantage from controlling trial onset. Video records of eye movements revealed that retarded subjects glanced off-target more than did nonretarded controls, but this was not sufficient to explain appreciably slower inspection time of the retarded group. Experiment 2 supported this conclusion; the same subjects completed a letter-discrimination task with direction of gaze monitored automatically. Although retarded subjects' eye gaze was more scattered early during a trial, gaze was appropriately directed by the time that the target appeared. Results from both experiments supported the hypothesis that speed of central, perceptual processing is slower among retarded persons, over and above the influence of distractibility. Results from three experiments in Part II were consistent with this interpretation. Experiment 3 was designed to eradicate trials among retarded subjects in which gaze was not properly directed, but results showed that too few such events occurred to influence accuracy. Experiment 4 demonstrated that the preparatory procedure in the previous studies resulted in efficient eye gaze among retarded subjects. Experiment 5 confirmed that lower discriminative accuracy among 10 retarded adults (compared with 10 nonretarded controls) was not due to less-efficient orientation prior to discrimination.

  3. Noise Challenges in Monomodal Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Henrik

    Modern graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are designed with able-bodied users in mind. Operating these interfaces can be impossible for some users who are unable to control the conventional mouse and keyboard. An eye tracking system offers possibilities for independent use and improved quality...... of life via dedicated interface tools especially tailored to the users’ needs (e.g., interaction, communication, e-mailing, web browsing and entertainment). Much effort has been put towards robustness, accuracy and precision of modern eye-tracking systems and there are many available on the market. Even...... stream are most wanted. The work in this thesis presents three contributions that may advance the use of low-cost monomodal gaze tracking and research in the field: - An assessment of a low-cost open-source gaze tracker and two eye tracking systems through an accuracy and precision test and a performance...

  4. Towards gaze-controlled platform games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Jorge; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Mulvey, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of using gaze as a sole modality for fully controlling player characters of fast-paced action computer games. A user experiment is devised to collect gaze and gameplay data from subjects playing a version of the popular Super Mario Bros platform game. The initial...... analysis shows that there is a rather limited grid around Mario where the efficient player focuses her attention the most while playing the game. The useful grid as we name it, projects the amount of meaningful visual information a designer should use towards creating successful player character...... controllers with the use of artificial intelligence for a platform game like Super Mario. Information about the eyes' position on the screen and the state of the game are utilized as inputs of an artificial neural network, which is trained to approximate which keyboard action is to be performed at each game...

  5. Viewing Attractiveness Socialization from a Social Network Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris

    Providing a framework for a symposium exploring the influence of physical attractiveness on the socialization process, this paper (1) offers a working definition of physical attractiveness, (2) reviews stereotypes associated with attractiveness, and (3) discusses a social network perspective on the influence of attractiveness. Physical…

  6. Predictive gaze cues and personality judgments: Should eye trust you?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Andrew P; Tipper, Steven P

    2006-06-01

    Although following another person's gaze is essential in fluent social interactions, the reflexive nature of this gaze-cuing effect means that gaze can be used to deceive. In a gaze-cuing procedure, participants were presented with several faces that looked to the left or right. Some faces always looked to the target (predictive-valid), some never looked to the target (predictive-invalid), and others looked toward and away from the target in equal proportions (nonpredictive). The standard gaze-cuing effects appeared to be unaffected by these contingencies. Nevertheless, participants tended to choose the predictive-valid faces as appearing more trustworthy than the predictive-invalid faces. This effect was negatively related to scores on a scale assessing autistic-like traits. Further, we present tentative evidence that the "deceptive" faces were encoded more strongly in memory than the "cooperative" faces. These data demonstrate the important interactions among attention, gaze perception, facial identity recognition, and personality judgments.

  7. Gaze perception in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eSchulze

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD. Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhanced self-directed perception of gaze directions and demonstrate a pronounced fear of direct eye contact, though findings are less consistent regarding the avoidance of mutual gaze in SAD. Prospects for future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Paul Gauguin and the complexity of the primitivist gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Welten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the complexity of Paul Gauguin’s primitivism in a philosophical, more precisely, phenomenological way. It focuses on the phenomenological gaze that, in all its complexity, is active in Gauguin. In his ‘Tahitian’ paintings, we encounter a double gaze: the individual gaze, as painted by Gauguin, makes the spectator aware of the distance between Western and Polynesian cultures. Firstly, colonialism is a gaze that reduces the other to a primitive state in order to esteem this state as more pure and authentic. Secondly, it is precisely the other that resists representation and, as such, gazes back. Gauguin’s anti-conquest, therefore, is not a mere personal, political or cultural revolt, but something that is phenomenological, hidden within the power of his art. Instead, it is the spectator who becomes the intruder, the voyeur, caught red-handed in his own primitivist gaze.

  9. The physics of pollinator attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J

    2017-10-01

    Contents 350 I. 350 II. 350 III. 352 IV. 353 V. 353 353 References 354 SUMMARY: This Tansley Insight focuses on recent advances in our understanding of how flowers manipulate physical forces to attract animal pollinators and ensure reproductive success. Research has traditionally explored the role of chemical pigments and volatile organic compounds as cues for pollinators, but recent reports have demonstrated the importance of physical and structural means of pollinator attraction. Here we explore the role of petal microstructure in influencing floral light capture and optics, analysing colour, gloss and polarization effects. We discuss the interaction between flower, pollinator and gravity, and how petal surface structure can influence that interaction. Finally, we consider the role of electrostatic forces in pollen transfer and pollinator attraction. We conclude that this new interdisciplinary field is evolving rapidly. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. 3D Gaze Estimation from Remote RGB-D Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Funes Mora, Kenneth Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The development of systems able to retrieve and characterise the state of humans is important for many applications and fields of study. In particular, as a display of attention and interest, gaze is a fundamental cue in understanding people activities, behaviors, intentions, state of mind and personality. Moreover, gaze plays a major role in the communication process, like for showing attention to the speaker, indicating who is addressed or averting gaze to keep the floor. Therefore, many...

  11. Gaze-following behind barriers in domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Met, Amandine; Miklósi, Ádám; Lakatos, Gabriella

    2014-11-01

    Although gaze-following abilities have been demonstrated in a wide range of species, so far no clear evidence has been available for dogs. In the current study, we examined whether dogs follow human gaze behind an opaque barrier in two different contexts, in a foraging situation and in a non-foraging situation (food involved vs. food not involved in the situation). We assumed that dogs will spontaneously follow the human gaze and that the foraging context will have a positive effect on dogs' gaze-following behaviour by causing an expectation in the dogs that food might be hidden somewhere in the room and might be communicated by the experimenter. This expectation presumably positively affects their motivational and attentional state. Here, we report that dogs show evidence of spontaneous gaze-following behind barriers in both situations. According to our findings, the dogs gazed earlier at the barrier in the indicated direction in both contexts. However, as we expected, the context also has some effect on dogs' gaze-following behaviour, as more dogs gazed behind the barrier in the indicated direction in the foraging situation. The present results also support the idea that gaze-following is a characteristic skill in mammals which may more easily emerge in certain functional contexts.

  12. I Reach Faster When I See You Look: Gaze Effects in Human-Human and Human-Robot Face-to-Face Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-David; Pattacini, Ugo; Lelong, Amelie; Bailly, Gerrard; Elisei, Frederic; Fagel, Sascha; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Human-human interaction in natural environments relies on a variety of perceptual cues. Humanoid robots are becoming increasingly refined in their sensorimotor capabilities, and thus should now be able to manipulate and exploit these social cues in cooperation with their human partners. Previous studies have demonstrated that people follow human and robot gaze, and that it can help them to cope with spatially ambiguous language. Our goal is to extend these findings into the domain of action, to determine how human and robot gaze can influence the speed and accuracy of human action. We report on results from a human-human cooperation experiment demonstrating that an agent's vision of her/his partner's gaze can significantly improve that agent's performance in a cooperative task. We then implement a heuristic capability to generate such gaze cues by a humanoid robot that engages in the same cooperative interaction. The subsequent human-robot experiments demonstrate that a human agent can indeed exploit the predictive gaze of their robot partner in a cooperative task. This allows us to render the humanoid robot more human-like in its ability to communicate with humans. The long term objectives of the work are thus to identify social cooperation cues, and to validate their pertinence through implementation in a cooperative robot. The current research provides the robot with the capability to produce appropriate speech and gaze cues in the context of human-robot cooperation tasks. Gaze is manipulated in three conditions: Full gaze (coordinated eye and head), eyes hidden with sunglasses, and head fixed. We demonstrate the pertinence of these cues in terms of statistical measures of action times for humans in the context of a cooperative task, as gaze significantly facilitates cooperation as measured by human response times.

  13. Euclidean gravity attracts

    CERN Document Server

    De Bakker, B V; Bakker, Bas de; Smit, Jan

    1994-01-01

    We look at gravitational attraction in simplicial gravity using the dynamical triangulation method. On the dynamical triangulation configurations we measure quenched propagators of a free massive scalar field. The masses measured from these propagators show that gravitational attraction is present.

  14. Following gaze: gaze-following behavior as a window into social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V Shepherd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In general, individuals look where they attend and next intend to act. Many animals, including our own species, use observed gaze as a deictic (pointing cue to guide behavior. Among humans, these responses are reflexive and pervasive: they arise within a fraction of a second, act independently of task relevance, and appear to undergird our initial development of language and theory of mind. Human and nonhuman animals appear to share basic gaze-following behaviors, suggesting the foundations of human social cognition may also be present in nonhuman brains.

  15. Observing Third-Party Attentional Relationships Affects Infants' Gaze Following: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianwei; Uto, Yusuke; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    Not only responding to direct social actions toward themselves, infants also pay attention to relevant information from third-party interactions. However, it is unclear whether and how infants recognize the structure of these interactions. The current study aimed to investigate how infants' observation of third-party attentional relationships influence their subsequent gaze following. Nine-month-old, 1-year-old, and 1.5-year-old infants (N = 72, 37 girls) observed video clips in which a female actor gazed at one of two toys after she and her partner either silently faced each other (face-to-face condition) or looked in opposite directions (back-to-back condition). An eye tracker was used to record the infants' looking behavior (e.g., looking time, looking frequency). The analyses revealed that younger infants followed the actor's gaze toward the target object in both conditions, but this was not the case for the 1.5-year-old infants in the back-to-back condition. Furthermore, we found that infants' gaze following could be negatively predicted by their expectation of the partner's response to the actor's head turn (i.e., they shift their gaze toward the partner immediately after they realize that the actor's head will turn). These findings suggested that the sensitivity to the difference in knowledge and attentional states in the second year of human life could be extended to third-party interactions, even without any direct involvement in the situation. Additionally, a spontaneous concern with the epistemic gap between self and other, as well as between others, develops by this age. These processes might be considered part of the fundamental basis for human communication.

  16. Creating kampong as tourist attractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, N.; Utama, R.; Hidayat, A. R. T.; Zamrony, A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Tourism attractions become one of the main components and they drive the tourism activity in a region. The quality of tourism attractions would affect tourists’ visits. Tourism power can basically be built on any conditions which can attract people to visit. Towns is full of activities which include their economic, social, cultural and physical features, if they are presented properly, they can be a tourist attraction. Kampung City, as a form of urban settlement, has the potential to be developed as a tourism attraction. Kampung is not only a physical area of housing but it has also productive activities. Even the city’s economic activities are also influenced by the productive activities of its Kampung. The shape of Kampung which varies in physical, social, economic and cultural raises special characteristics of each Kampung. When it is linked with the city’s tourism activities, these special characteristics of course could be one of the attractions to attract tourists. This paper studies about one of Kampung in the Malang City. Administratively located in the Penanggungan Village Lowokwaru District, but the potential will just be focused on RW 4. Main productive activities of this village are pottery. In contrast to ceramics, pottery is made from clay and its uniqueness in color and shape. Based on the history of pottery in the Malang, it is concentrated in Penanggungan Village. But along with its development, pottery is decreasingly in demand and number of craftsmen is dwindling. Based on these circumstances, a concept is prepared to raise the image of the region as the Kampung of pottery and to repack it as a tourism attraction of the city.

  17. The Effect of Head Orientation on Perceived Gaze Direction: Revisiting Gibson and Pick (1963) and Cline (1967)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Verfaillie, Karl; Daems, Thalia; Pomianowska, Iwona; Germeys, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Two biases in perceived gaze direction have been observed when eye and head orientation are not aligned. An overshoot effect indicates that perceived gaze direction is shifted away from head orientation (i.e., a repulsive effect), whereas a towing effect indicates that perceived gaze direction falls in between head and eye orientation (i.e., an attraction effect). In the 60s, three influential papers have been published with respect to the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction (Gibson and Pick, 1963; Cline, 1967; Anstis et al., 1969). Throughout the years, the results of two of these (Gibson and Pick, 1963; Cline, 1967) have been interpreted differently by a number of authors. In this paper, we critically discuss potential sources of confusion that have led to differential interpretations of both studies. At first sight, the results of Cline (1967), despite having been a major topic of discussion, unambiguously seem to indicate a towing effect whereas Gibson and Pick’s (1963) results seem to be the most ambiguous, although they have never been questioned in the literature. To shed further light on this apparent inconsistency, we repeated the critical experiments reported in both studies. Our results indicate an overshoot effect in both studies. PMID:27559325

  18. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members: the group attractiveness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, Yvette; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H J; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-04-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of physical attractiveness are more positive than the average ratings of the group members. A meta-analysis on 33 comparisons reveals that the effect is medium to large (Cohen's d = 0.60) and moderated by group size. We explored two explanations for the GA-effect: (a) selective attention to attractive group members, and (b) the Gestalt principle of similarity. The results of our studies are in favor of the selective attention account: People selectively attend to the most attractive members of a group and their attractiveness has a greater influence on the evaluation of the group. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Gaze-centered coding of proprioceptive reach targets after effector movement: Testing the impact of online information, time of movement, and target distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Stefanie; Fiehler, Katja

    2017-01-01

    In previous research, we demonstrated that spatial coding of proprioceptive reach targets depends on the presence of an effector movement (Mueller & Fiehler, Neuropsychologia, 2014, 2016). In these studies, participants were asked to reach in darkness with their right hand to a proprioceptive target (tactile stimulation on the finger tip) while their gaze was varied. They either moved their left, stimulated hand towards a target location or kept it stationary at this location where they received a touch on the fingertip to which they reached with their right hand. When the stimulated hand was moved, reach errors varied as a function of gaze relative to target whereas reach errors were independent of gaze when the hand was kept stationary. The present study further examines whether (a) the availability of proprioceptive online information, i.e. reaching to an online versus a remembered target, (b) the time of the effector movement, i.e. before or after target presentation, or (c) the target distance from the body influences gaze-centered coding of proprioceptive reach targets. We found gaze-dependent reach errors in the conditions which included a movement of the stimulated hand irrespective of whether proprioceptive information was available online or remembered. This suggests that an effector movement leads to gaze-centered coding for both online and remembered proprioceptive reach targets. Moreover, moving the stimulated hand before or after target presentation did not affect gaze-dependent reach errors, thus, indicating a continuous spatial update of positional signals of the stimulated hand rather than the target location per se. However, reaching to a location close to the body rather than farther away (but still within reachable space) generally decreased the influence of a gaze-centered reference frame.

  20. The impact of coping style on gaze duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Klucken

    Full Text Available The understanding of individual differences in response to threat (e.g., attentional bias is important to better understand the development of anxiety disorders. Previous studies revealed only a small attentional bias in high-anxious (HA subjects. One explanation for this finding may be the assumption that all HA-subjects show a constant attentional bias. Current models distinguish HA-subjects depending on their level of tolerance for uncertainty and for arousal. These models assume that only HA-subjects with intolerance for uncertainty but tolerance for arousal ("sensitizers" show an attentional bias, compared to HA-subjects with intolerance for uncertainty and intolerance for arousal ("fluctuating subjects". Further, it is assumed that repressors (defined as intolerance for arousal but tolerance for uncertainty would react with avoidance behavior when confronted with threatening stimuli. The present study investigated the influence of coping styles on attentional bias. After an extensive recruiting phase, 36 subjects were classified into three groups (sensitizers, fluctuating, and repressors. All subjects were exposed to presentations of happy and threatening faces, while recording gaze durations with an eye-tracker. The results showed that only sensitizer showed an attentional bias: they gazed longer at the threatening face rather than at the happy face during the first 500 ms. The results support the findings of the relationship between anxiety and attention and extend these by showing variations according to coping styles. The differentiation of subjects according to a multifaceted coping style allows a better prediction of the attentional bias and contributes to an insight into the complex interplay of personality, coping, and behavior.

  1. The impact of coping style on gaze duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucken, Tim; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Chatziastros, Astros; Kagerer, Sabine; Netter, Petra; Hennig, Juergen

    2010-11-15

    The understanding of individual differences in response to threat (e.g., attentional bias) is important to better understand the development of anxiety disorders. Previous studies revealed only a small attentional bias in high-anxious (HA) subjects. One explanation for this finding may be the assumption that all HA-subjects show a constant attentional bias. Current models distinguish HA-subjects depending on their level of tolerance for uncertainty and for arousal. These models assume that only HA-subjects with intolerance for uncertainty but tolerance for arousal ("sensitizers") show an attentional bias, compared to HA-subjects with intolerance for uncertainty and intolerance for arousal ("fluctuating subjects"). Further, it is assumed that repressors (defined as intolerance for arousal but tolerance for uncertainty) would react with avoidance behavior when confronted with threatening stimuli. The present study investigated the influence of coping styles on attentional bias. After an extensive recruiting phase, 36 subjects were classified into three groups (sensitizers, fluctuating, and repressors). All subjects were exposed to presentations of happy and threatening faces, while recording gaze durations with an eye-tracker. The results showed that only sensitizer showed an attentional bias: they gazed longer at the threatening face rather than at the happy face during the first 500 ms. The results support the findings of the relationship between anxiety and attention and extend these by showing variations according to coping styles. The differentiation of subjects according to a multifaceted coping style allows a better prediction of the attentional bias and contributes to an insight into the complex interplay of personality, coping, and behavior.

  2. Referential Gaze and Word Learning in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaqre, Iyad; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While typically developing children can use referential gaze to guide their word learning, those with autism spectrum disorder are often described to have problems with that. However, some researchers assume that the ability to follow gaze to select the correct referent can develop in autism later compared to typically developing individuals. To…

  3. Segmentation of object-based video of gaze communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Forchhammer, Søren;

    2005-01-01

    Aspects of video communication based on gaze interaction are considered. The overall idea is to use gaze interaction to control video, e.g. for video conferencing. Towards this goal, animation of a facial mask is demonstrated. The animation is based on images using Active Appearance Models (AAM)....

  4. Visual Gaze Estimation by Joint Head and Eye Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, R.; Lablack, A.; Sebe, N.; Djeraba, C.; Gevers, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an unconstrained visual gaze estimation system. The proposed method extracts the visual field of view of a person looking at a target scene in order to estimate the approximate location of interest (visual gaze). The novelty of the system is the joint use of head pose and e

  5. Just one look: Direct gaze briefly disrupts visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Jessica; Apperly, Ian A

    2017-04-01

    Direct gaze is a salient social cue that affords rapid detection. A body of research suggests that direct gaze enhances performance on memory tasks (e.g., Hood, Macrae, Cole-Davies, & Dias, Developmental Science, 1, 67-71, 2003). Nonetheless, other studies highlight the disruptive effect direct gaze has on concurrent cognitive processes (e.g., Conty, Gimmig, Belletier, George, & Huguet, Cognition, 115(1), 133-139, 2010). This discrepancy raises questions about the effects direct gaze may have on concurrent memory tasks. We addressed this topic by employing a change detection paradigm, where participants retained information about the color of small sets of agents. Experiment 1 revealed that, despite the irrelevance of the agents' eye gaze to the memory task at hand, participants were worse at detecting changes when the agents looked directly at them compared to when the agents looked away. Experiment 2 showed that the disruptive effect was relatively short-lived. Prolonged presentation of direct gaze led to recovery from the initial disruption, rather than a sustained disruption on change detection performance. The present study provides the first evidence that direct gaze impairs visual working memory with a rapidly-developing yet short-lived effect even when there is no need to attend to agents' gaze.

  6. The Development of Emotional Face and Eye Gaze Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Stefanie; Striano, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that infants' attention towards novel objects is affected by an adult's emotional expression and eye gaze toward the object. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated how infants at 3, 6, and 9 months of age process fearful compared to neutral faces looking toward objects or averting gaze away…

  7. Direct Gaze Modulates Face Recognition in Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Teresa; Massaccesi, Stefano; Menon, Enrica; Johnson, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    From birth, infants prefer to look at faces that engage them in direct eye contact. In adults, direct gaze is known to modulate the processing of faces, including the recognition of individuals. In the present study, we investigate whether direction of gaze has any effect on face recognition in four-month-old infants. Four-month infants were shown…

  8. Gender Differences in College Students' Perceptions of Same-Sex Sexual Harassment: The Influence of Physical Attractiveness and Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…

  9. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  10. Non-intrusive eye gaze tracking under natural head movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Sked, M; Ji, Q

    2004-01-01

    We propose an eye gaze tracking system under natural head movements. The system consists of one CCD camera and two mirrors. Based on geometric and linear algebra calculations, the mirrors rotate to follow head movements in order to keep the eyes within the view of the camera. Our system allows the subjects head to move 30 cm horizontally and 20 cm vertically, with spatial gaze resolutions about 6 degree and 7 degree, respectively and a frame rate about 10 Hz. We also introduce a hierarchical generalized regression neural networks (H-GRNN) scheme to map eye and mirror parameters to gaze, achieving a gaze estimation accuracy of 92% under head movements. The use of H-GRNN also eliminates the need for personal calibration for new subjects since H-GRNN can generalize. Preliminary experiments show our system is accurate and robust in gaze tracking under large head movements.

  11. Eye Gaze Assistance for a Game-Like Interactive Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás (Tom D. Gedeon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human beings communicate in abbreviated ways dependent on prior interactions and shared knowledge. Furthermore, humans share information about intentions and future actions using eye gaze. Among primates, humans are unique in the whiteness of the sclera and amount of sclera shown, essential for communication via interpretation of eye gaze. This paper extends our previous work in a game-like interactive task by the use of computerised recognition of eye gaze and fuzzy signature-based interpretation of possible intentions. This extends our notion of robot instinctive behaviour to intentional behaviour. We show a good improvement of speed of response in a simple use of eye gaze information. We also show a significant and more sophisticated use of the eye gaze information, which eliminates the need for control actions on the user's part. We also make a suggestion as to returning visibility of control to the user in these cases.

  12. Statistical regularities attract attention when task-relevant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eAlamia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual attention seems essential for learning the statistical regularities in our environment, a process known as statistical learning. However, how attention is allocated when exploring a novel visual scene whose statistical structure is unknown remains unclear. In order to address this question, we investigated visual attention allocation during a task in which we manipulated the conditional probability of occurrence of colored stimuli, unbeknown to the subjects. Participants were instructed to detect a target colored dot among two dots moving along separate circular paths. We evaluated implicit statistical learning, i.e. the effect of color predictability on reaction times (RT, and recorded eye position concurrently. Attention allocation was indexed by comparing the Mahalanobis distance between the position, velocity and acceleration of the eyes and the 2 colored dots.We found that learning the conditional probabilities occurred very early during the course of the experiment as shown by the fact that, starting already from the first block, predictable stimuli were detected with shorter RT than unpredictable ones. In terms of attentional allocation, we found that the predictive stimulus attracted gaze only when it was informative about the occurrence of the target but not when it predicted the occurrence of a task-irrelevant stimulus. This suggests that attention allocation was influenced by regularities only when they were instrumental in performing the task. Moreover, we found that the attentional bias towards task-relevant predictive stimuli occurred at a very early stage of learning, concomitantly with the first effects of learning on RT.In conclusion, these results show that statistical regularities capture visual attention only after a few occurrences, provided these regularities are instrumental to perform the task.

  13. Impressions of Counselors as a Function of Counselor Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean A.

    1978-01-01

    Research assessed the effects of counselor physical attractiveness and inter-actions between attractiveness and counselor subject sex. It is suggested that sex of counselor and client may play a more important role independently and in conjunction with attractiveness than does attractiveness alone in influencing impressions and expectations.…

  14. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tuisku

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  15. Influence Factors of the Attractiveness of Shenzhen to Financial Personnel-Based on the Grounded Theory%基于扎根理论的深圳金融人才吸引力影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 赵朋; 苏方国

    2015-01-01

    城市对人才吸引力是城市发展研究的重要议题,而具体到金融城市对金融人才的吸引这一主题,学术界却鲜有深入研究。以深圳为例,对深圳金融人才吸引力的影响因素进行探析,具有借鉴意义。采用扎根理论的研究方法,研究结果表明,城市金融行业环境、文化氛围、生活环境、人才政策对深圳市金融人才的吸引力具有显著影响,且金融行业环境是城市金融人才吸引力的根本性影响因素。最后,提出了增强深圳对金融人才吸引力的若干建议。%The attractiveness of the city to talents is an important issue in the study of urban development. However, there have been few researches in the attractiveness of financial capitals to financial personnel. This paper discusses the influence factors of the attractiveness of Shenzhen to financial personnel, hopefully offering a reference in this regard. Based on the Grounded Theory,the study shows the financial industry environment, cultural climate, living environment, and talent policies of the city have significant influence on the attractiveness of the city to financial personnel. Among all the factors, the financial industry environment is fundamental. Finally, this paper proposes some suggestions on how to enhance the attractiveness of Shenzhen to financial personnel.

  16. Effects of Victim Gaze Behavior and Prior Relationship on Rape Culpability Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cynthia E.; Wrightsman, Lawrence S.

    1995-01-01

    Rape victims' gaze behavior when identifying a defendant and the prior relationship between victim and defendant were examined for effects on rape culpability attributions. In comparison with victims who used gaze maintenance or natural gaze behavior, rape victims' gaze avoidance was perceived as indicative of less truthfulness rather than…

  17. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  18. Assertiveness and Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, David M.; And Others

    Earlier research investigating the relationship between physical attractiveness and assertiveness found that physically attractive females were more assertive than other females. To investigate this relationship further and to broaden the scope of the study, 69 students were videotaped in groups of five to ten while responding to open-ended…

  19. Interacting with Objects in the Environment by Gaze and Hand Gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jeremy; Mardanbeigi, Diako; Rozado, David

    2013-01-01

    A head-mounted wireless gaze tracker in the form of gaze tracking glasses is used here for continuous and mobile monitoring of a subject's point of regard on the surrounding environment. We combine gaze tracking and hand gesture recognition to allow a subject to interact with objects in the envir......A head-mounted wireless gaze tracker in the form of gaze tracking glasses is used here for continuous and mobile monitoring of a subject's point of regard on the surrounding environment. We combine gaze tracking and hand gesture recognition to allow a subject to interact with objects...... in the environment by gazing at them, and controlling the object using hand gesture commands. The gaze tracking glasses was made from low-cost hardware consisting of a safety glasses' frame and wireless eye tracking and scene cameras. An open source gaze estimation algorithm is used for eye tracking and user's gaze...... in smart environments....

  20. "The Gaze Heuristic:" Biography of an Adaptively Rational Decision Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert P

    2017-02-21

    This article is a case study that describes the natural and human history of the gaze heuristic. The gaze heuristic is an interception heuristic that utilizes a single input (deviation from a constant angle of approach) repeatedly as a task is performed. Its architecture, advantages, and limitations are described in detail. A history of the gaze heuristic is then presented. In natural history, the gaze heuristic is the only known technique used by predators to intercept prey. In human history the gaze heuristic was discovered accidentally by Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter command just prior to World War II. As it was never discovered by the Luftwaffe, the technique conferred a decisive advantage upon the RAF throughout the war. After the end of the war in America, German technology was combined with the British heuristic to create the Sidewinder AIM9 missile, the most successful autonomous weapon ever built. There are no plans to withdraw it or replace its guiding gaze heuristic. The case study demonstrates that the gaze heuristic is a specific heuristic type that takes a single best input at the best time (take the best(2) ). Its use is an adaptively rational response to specific, rapidly evolving decision environments that has allowed those animals/humans/machines who use it to survive, prosper, and multiply relative to those who do not.

  1. Social decisions affect neural activity to perceived dynamic gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Love, Scott A; Rossi, Alejandra; Parada, Francisco J; Huang, Lisa; Conty, Laurence; George, Nathalie; James, Karin; Puce, Aina

    2015-11-01

    Gaze direction, a cue of both social and spatial attention, is known to modulate early neural responses to faces e.g. N170. However, findings in the literature have been inconsistent, likely reflecting differences in stimulus characteristics and task requirements. Here, we investigated the effect of task on neural responses to dynamic gaze changes: away and toward transitions (resulting or not in eye contact). Subjects performed, in random order, social (away/toward them) and non-social (left/right) judgment tasks on these stimuli. Overall, in the non-social task, results showed a larger N170 to gaze aversion than gaze motion toward the observer. In the social task, however, this difference was no longer present in the right hemisphere, likely reflecting an enhanced N170 to gaze motion toward the observer. Our behavioral and event-related potential data indicate that performing social judgments enhances saliency of gaze motion toward the observer, even those that did not result in gaze contact. These data and that of previous studies suggest two modes of processing visual information: a 'default mode' that may focus on spatial information; a 'socially aware mode' that might be activated when subjects are required to make social judgments. The exact mechanism that allows switching from one mode to the other remains to be clarified.

  2. The Mona Lisa effect: neural correlates of centered and off-centered gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarskaya, Evgenia; Sebastian, Alexandra; Bauermann, Thomas; Hecht, Heiko; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-02-01

    The Mona Lisa effect describes the phenomenon when the eyes of a portrait appear to look at the observer regardless of the observer's position. Recently, the metaphor of a cone of gaze has been proposed to describe the range of gaze directions within which a person feels looked at. The width of the gaze cone is about five degrees of visual angle to either side of a given gaze direction. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain regions involved in gaze direction discrimination would differ between centered and decentered presentation positions of a portrait exhibiting eye contact. Subjects observed a given portrait's eyes. By presenting portraits with varying gaze directions-eye contact (0°), gaze at the edge of the gaze cone (5°), and clearly averted gaze (10°), we revealed that brain response to gaze at the edge of the gaze cone was similar to that produced by eye contact and different from that produced by averted gaze. Right fusiform gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus showed stronger activation when the gaze was averted as compared to eye contact. Gaze sensitive areas, however, were not affected by the portrait's presentation location. In sum, although the brain clearly distinguishes averted from centered gaze, a substantial change of vantage point does not alter neural activity, thus providing a possible explanation why the feeling of eye contact is upheld even in decentered stimulus positions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  4. Discriminating between intentional and unintentional gaze fixation using multimodal-based fuzzy logic algorithm for gaze tracking system with NIR camera sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-06-01

    Gaze tracking systems are widely used in human-computer interfaces, interfaces for the disabled, game interfaces, and for controlling home appliances. Most studies on gaze detection have focused on enhancing its accuracy, whereas few have considered the discrimination of intentional gaze fixation (looking at a target to activate or select it) from unintentional fixation while using gaze detection systems. Previous research methods based on the use of a keyboard or mouse button, eye blinking, and the dwell time of gaze position have various limitations. Therefore, we propose a method for discriminating between intentional and unintentional gaze fixation using a multimodal fuzzy logic algorithm applied to a gaze tracking system with a near-infrared camera sensor. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional method for determining gaze fixation.

  5. Pullback incremental attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloeden Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pullback incremental attraction, a nonautonomous version of incremental stability, is introduced for nonautonomous systems that may have unbounded limiting solutions. Its characterisation by a Lyapunov function is indicated

  6. Physical Attractiveness and Courtship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Irwin

    1971-01-01

    This study shows a high and disquieting degree of similarity in physical attractiveness between dating partners, and suggests also that more similar partners tend to form stronger romantic attachments. (Author)

  7. WOMAN AS OBJECT OF MALE GAZE IN SOME WORKS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nkiruka

    I also take on the argument that some Nigerian male artists‟ perception of .... and such genre are observable in private spheres such as hotel rooms and ..... gaze, A thesis submitted to the Graduate College of Bowling Green, May 2006.

  8. Pupil dilation as an index of preferred mutual gaze duration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binetti, Nicola; Harrison, Charlotte; Coutrot, Antoine; Johnston, Alan; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    .... Deviations from this pattern of gazing behaviour generally make us feel uncomfortable and are a defining characteristic of clinical conditions such as autism or schizophrenia, yet it is unclear what...

  9. The Politics of the Gaze Foucault, Lacan and Zizek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Krips

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Joan Copjec accuses orthodox film theory of misrepresenting the Lacanian gaze by assimilating it to Foucauldian panopticon (Copjec 1994: 18-19. Although Copjec is correct that orthodox film theory misrepresents the Lacanian gaze, she, in turn, misrepresents Foucault by choosing to focus exclusively upon those as-pects of his work on the panopticon that have been taken up by orthodox film the-ory (Copjec 1994: 4. In so doing, I argue, Copjec misses key parallels between the Lacanian and Foucauldian concepts of the gaze. More than a narrow academic dispute about how to read Foucault and Lacan, this debate has wider political sig-nificance. In particular, using Slavoj Zizek's work, I show that a correct account of the panoptic gaze leads us to rethink the question of how to oppose modern techniques of surveillance.

  10. Gazing behavior and coordination during piano duo performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the roles of gazing behavior during piano duo performance by highlighting coordination among performers. Experiment 1 was conducted under four conditions: invisible, only the body visible, only the head visible, and face -to -face. Experiment 2 was conducted under three conditions: invisible, only the movable head visible, and only the fixed head visible. In both experiments, performers looked toward each other just before temporal changes during coordination moments, which improved synchronization accuracy. The results also showed that gazing without movement cues to some extent facilitated synchronization, although asynchrony was greater under the restricted- movement condition than under the free- movement condition. The following results were obtained:(1) Mutual gaze is important for reducing timing lag between performers. (2) Mutual gaze modulates remarkable and arbitrary temporal expressions, such as fermata. (3) Performers may utilize movements as visual cues for strict synchronization.

  11. Latvian government in double jeopardy with EU, Latvijas Gaze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti soovib saada Euroopa Komisjonilt ajapikendust gaasituru liberaliseerimiseks 2010. aastani ning lubab sel juhul sõlmida Latvijas Gaze'ga kokkuleppe, et viimane loobuks gaasitarnete ainuõigusest Lätis

  12. Enhancing Sensorimotor Activity by Controlling Virtual Objects with Gaze

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This fMRI work studies brain activity of healthy volunteers who manipulated a virtual object in the context of a digital game by applying two different control methods: using their right hand or using their gaze. The results show extended activations in sensorimotor areas, not only when participants played in the traditional way (using their hand) but also when they used their gaze to control the virtual object. Furthermore, with the exception of the primary motor cortex, regional motor activ...

  13. Segmentation of object-based video of gaze communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Forchhammer, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Aspects of video communication based on gaze interaction are considered. The overall idea is to use gaze interaction to control video, e.g. for video conferencing. Towards this goal, animation of a facial mask is demonstrated. The animation is based on images using Active Appearance Models (AAM......). Good quality reproduction of (low-resolution) coded video of an animated facial mask as low as 10-20 kbit/s using MPEG-4 object based video is demonstated....

  14. Using Gaze Patterns to Predict Task Intent in Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming eHuang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In everyday interactions, humans naturally exhibit behavioral cues, such as gaze and head movements, that signal their intentions while interpreting the behavioral cues of others to predict their intentions. Such intention prediction enables each partner to adapt their behaviors to the intent of others, serving a critical role in joint action where parties work together to achieve a common goal. Among behavioral cues, eye gaze is particularly important in understanding a person's attention and intention. In this work, we seek to quantify how gaze patterns may indicate a person's intention. Our investigation was contextualized in a dyadic sandwich-making scenario in which a worker'' prepared a sandwich by adding ingredients requested by a customer.'' In this context, we investigated the extent to which the customers' gaze cues serve as predictors of which ingredients they intend to request. Predictive features were derived to represent characteristics of the customers' gaze patterns. We developed a support vector machine-based (SVM-based model that achieved 76% accuracy in predicting the customers' intended requests based solely on gaze features. Moreover, the predictor made correct predictions approximately 1.8 seconds before the spoken request from the customer. We further analyzed several episodes of interactions from our data to develop a deeper understanding of the scenarios where our predictor succeeded and failed in making correct predictions. These analyses revealed additional gaze patterns that may be leveraged to improve intention prediction. This work highlights gaze cues as a significant resource for understanding human intentions and informs the design of real-time recognizers of user intention for intelligent systems, such as assistive robots and ubiquitous devices, that may enable more complex capabilities and improved user experience.

  15. Different but complementary roles of action and gaze in action observation priming: Insights from eye- and motion-tracking measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement eLetesson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Action priming following action observation is thought to be caused by the observed action kinematics being represented in the same brain areas as those used for action execution. But, action priming can also be explained by shared goal representations, with compatibility between observation of the agent’s gaze and the intended action of the observer. To assess the contribution of action kinematics and eye gaze cues in the prediction of an agent’s action goal and action priming, participants observed actions where the availability of both cues was manipulated. Action observation was followed by action execution, and the congruency between the target of the agent’s and observer’s actions, and the congruency between the observed and executed action spatial location were manipulated. Eye movements were recorded during the observation phase, and the action priming was assessed using motion analysis. The results showed that the observation of gaze information influenced the observer’s prediction speed to attend to the target, and that observation of action kinematic information influenced the accuracy of these predictions. Motion analysis results showed that observed action cues alone primed both spatial incongruent and object congruent actions, consistent with the idea that the prime effect was driven by similarity between goals and kinematics. The observation of action and eye gaze cues together induced a prime effect complementarily sensitive to object and spatial congruency. While observation of the agent’s action kinematics triggered an object-centered and kinematic-centered action representation, independently, the complementary observation of eye gaze triggered a more fine-grained representation illustrating a specification of action kinematics towards the selected goal. Even though both cues differentially contributed to action priming, their complementary integration led to a more refined pattern of action priming.

  16. Body mass index moderates gaze orienting biases and pupil diameter to high and low calorie food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Reiko; Hoover, Alison; Ceballos, Natalie A; Komogortsev, Oleg

    2011-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine eye gaze behavior to different kinds of food images in individuals differing in BMI status. Eye-tracking methods were used to examine gaze and pupil responses while normal weight and overweight women freely viewed pairs of different food images: high calorie sweet foods, high calorie savory foods, and low calorie foods. Self-report measures of hunger, state and trait cravings, and restrained eating were also obtained. Results revealed orienting biases to low calorie foods and decreases in pupil diameter to high calorie sweet foods relative to low calorie foods in the overweight group. Groups did not differ in the average amount of time spent gazing at the different image types. Furthermore, increased state cravings were associated with larger pupil diameters to high calorie savory foods, especially in individuals with lower BMIs. In contrast, restrained eating scores were associated with a decreased orienting bias to high calorie sweet foods in the high BMI group. In conclusion, BMI status appears to influence gaze parameters that are less susceptible to cognitive control. Results suggest that overweight individuals, especially those who diet, have negative implicit attitudes toward high calorie foods, especially sweets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreysa, Helene; Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins"). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze.

  18. Gaze Stripes: Image-Based Visualization of Eye Tracking Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzhals, Kuno; Hlawatsch, Marcel; Heimerl, Florian; Burch, Michael; Ertl, Thomas; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present a new visualization approach for displaying eye tracking data from multiple participants. We aim to show the spatio-temporal data of the gaze points in the context of the underlying image or video stimulus without occlusion. Our technique, denoted as gaze stripes, does not require the explicit definition of areas of interest but directly uses the image data around the gaze points, similar to thumbnails for images. A gaze stripe consists of a sequence of such gaze point images, oriented along a horizontal timeline. By displaying multiple aligned gaze stripes, it is possible to analyze and compare the viewing behavior of the participants over time. Since the analysis is carried out directly on the image data, expensive post-processing or manual annotation are not required. Therefore, not only patterns and outliers in the participants' scanpaths can be detected, but the context of the stimulus is available as well. Furthermore, our approach is especially well suited for dynamic stimuli due to the non-aggregated temporal mapping. Complementary views, i.e., markers, notes, screenshots, histograms, and results from automatic clustering, can be added to the visualization to display analysis results. We illustrate the usefulness of our technique on static and dynamic stimuli. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations and scalability of our approach in comparison to established visualization techniques.

  19. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    A speaker’s gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., “sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins”). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789

  20. EMOTIONAL MODULATION OF ATTENTION ORIENTING BY GAZE VARIES WITH DYNAMIC CUE SEQUENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Amandine; Itier, Roxane J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent gaze cueing studies using dynamic cue sequences have reported increased attention orienting by gaze with faces expressing fear, surprise or anger. Here, we investigated whether the type of dynamic cue sequence used impacted the magnitude of this effect. When the emotion was expressed before or concurrently with gaze shift, no modulation of gaze-oriented attention by emotion was seen. In contrast, when the face cue averted gaze before expressing an emotion (as if reacting to the object after first localizing it), the gaze orienting effect was clearly increased for fearful, surprised and angry faces compared to neutral faces. Thus, the type of dynamic sequence used, and in particular the order in which the gaze shift and the facial expression are presented, modulate gaze-oriented attention, with maximal modulation seen when the expression of emotion follows gaze shift.

  1. Gaze maintenance and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Leah; Kurtz, Marie; Tierney, Cheryl; Soni, Ajay; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    were equal and reactive without afferent pupillary defect, and normal visual tracking as assessed through pursuit and saccades. There were some head jerking motions observed which were not thought to be part of Chase's attempts to view objects. Gaze impersistence was noted, although it was not clear if this was due to a lack of attention or a true inability to maintain a gaze in the direction instructed. On review of the school's speech and language report, they state that he is >90% intelligible. He has occasional lip trills. Testing with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals shows mild delays in receptive language, especially those that require visual attention. Verbal Motor Production Assessment for Children reveals focal oromotor control and sequencing skills that are below average, with groping when asked to imitate single oromotor nonspeech movements and sequenced double oromotor nonspeech movements. At 5½ years, he returns for follow-up, and he is outgoing and imaginative, eager to play and socialize. He makes eye contact but does not always maintain it. He asks and responds to questions appropriately, and he is able to follow verbal directions and verbal redirection. He is very interested in Toy Story characters but willing to share them and plays with other toys. Chase's speech has predictable, easy to decode sound substitutions. On interview with him, you feel that he has borderline cognitive abilities. He also demonstrates good eye contact but lack of visual gaze maintenance; this is the opposite of the pattern you are accustomed to in patients with autism spectrum disorder. What do you do next?

  2. Perceptual Training in Beach Volleyball Defence: Different Effects of Gaze-Path Cueing on Gaze and Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eKlostermann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For perceptual-cognitive skill training, a variety of intervention methods has been proposed, including the so-called colour-cueing method which aims on superior gaze-path learning by applying visual markers. However, recent findings challenge this method, especially, with regards to its actual effects on gaze behaviour. Consequently, after a preparatory study on the identification of appropriate visual cues for life-size displays, a perceptual-training experiment on decision-making in beach volleyball was conducted, contrasting two cueing interventions (functional vs. dysfunctional gaze path with a conservative control condition (anticipation-related instructions. Gaze analyses revealed learning effects for the dysfunctional group only. Regarding decision-making, all groups showed enhanced performance with largest improvements for the control group followed by the functional and the dysfunctional group. Hence, the results confirm cueing effects on gaze behaviour, but they also question its benefit for enhancing decision-making. However, before completely denying the method’s value, optimisations should be checked regarding, for instance, cueing-pattern characteristics and gaze-related feedback.

  3. Perceptual Training in Beach Volleyball Defence: Different Effects of Gaze-Path Cueing on Gaze and Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, André; Vater, Christian; Kredel, Ralf; Hossner, Ernst-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    For perceptual-cognitive skill training, a variety of intervention methods has been proposed, including the so-called "color-cueing method" which aims on superior gaze-path learning by applying visual markers. However, recent findings challenge this method, especially, with regards to its actual effects on gaze behavior. Consequently, after a preparatory study on the identification of appropriate visual cues for life-size displays, a perceptual-training experiment on decision-making in beach volleyball was conducted, contrasting two cueing interventions (functional vs. dysfunctional gaze path) with a conservative control condition (anticipation-related instructions). Gaze analyses revealed learning effects for the dysfunctional group only. Regarding decision-making, all groups showed enhanced performance with largest improvements for the control group followed by the functional and the dysfunctional group. Hence, the results confirm cueing effects on gaze behavior, but they also question its benefit for enhancing decision-making. However, before completely denying the method's value, optimisations should be checked regarding, for instance, cueing-pattern characteristics and gaze-related feedback.

  4. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr; Croft, Darren P.; Thompson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others......Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus...... influencing the decision-making of males to their advantage. We tested this hypothesis in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species with high levels of male sexual harassment. First, we confirmed that non-receptive females were harassed less when they were paired with a more sexually attractive...

  5. Correlates of Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisbell, Marshall

    A study assessed the relationship of the independent variables of interpersonal attraction to the dependent variables of feeling good, relational safety, and uncertainty level. Subjects were 75 elementary and secondary school teachers, 61 communication students, 18 child development professionals, and 8 service club members. Each subject completed…

  6. Transperance Me I Want to be Visible: Gay Gaze in Tom Ford’s film A Single Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Gokcem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Classic gaze theory that was underlined by Laura Mulvey in 1975 which claims the male gaze objectifies woman and turns the woman into a sex object, is lack in the explaining gaze from man to man. In Tom Ford’s A Single Man the gaze is used from man to man different from man to woman and it is not perceived as something negative. By providing a queer gaze analysis, this article will show how homosexual people live their intimate feelings by gaze and how gay gaze can be different from the classic gaze in a way that it does not reduces the other one in an interior position.

  7. Noncontact binocular eye-gaze tracking for point-of-gaze estimation in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Craig; Lawrence, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Binocular eye-gaze tracking can be used to estimate the point-of-gaze (POG) of a subject in real-world 3-D space using the vergence of the eyes. In this paper, a novel noncontact model-based technique for 3-D POG estimation is presented. The noncontact system allows people to select real-world objects in 3-D physical space using their eyes, without the need for head-mounted equipment. Remote 3-D POG estimation may be especially useful for persons with quadriplegia or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. It would also enable a user to select 3-D points in space generated by 3-D volumetric displays, with potential applications to medical imaging and telesurgery. Using a model-based POG estimation algorithm allows for free head motion and a single stage of calibration. It is shown that an average accuracy of 3.93 cm was achieved over a workspace volume of 30 x 23 x 25 cm (W x H x D) with a maximum latency of 1.5 s due to the digital filtering employed. The users were free to naturally move and reorient their heads while operating the system, within an allowable headspace of 3 cm x 9 cm x 14 cm.

  8. 注视-西蒙效应的空间编码机制%The Spatial Coding Mechanisms of the Gaze-Direction Simon Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚军; 张智君; 刘炜

    2012-01-01

    采用注视-西蒙范式探讨了注视方向知觉的空间编码机制。实验一让被试采用双手交叉的反应方式,发现注视-西蒙效应并不随反应手的交叉而反转,说明它涉及抽象的空间方向编码,而非基于以手为参照系的半侧优势效应。实验二采用纯音音调辨别任务,发现了典型的注视-西蒙效应,结合实验-视觉通道的结果,注视-西蒙效应并非特异于视觉通道。结果支持注视线索能自动诱发观察者形成抽象的方向表征的观点。%As the gaze-direction Simon effect ( gaze Simon effect, GSE) shows, although completely irrelevant to the task, the direction of the gaze has an influence on reaction times in a two-choice spatial discrimination task based on the color of eyes. In fact, there were controversies on this topic. Many researchers tried to interpret the processing mechanism of GSE. Zorzi et al. (2003) assumed that a spatial code of perceived gaze direction was fast and automatically extracted in order to influence RT in the color discrimination task. However, numerous studies showed that observing averted gaze could also elicited spontaneous saccades in the direction of the gaze cue. Ricciardelli et al. (2002) claimed that perception of the gaze direction might act as a powerful trigger for involuntary imitation. Moreo- ver, Frischen et al. (2007) held that observing others' gaze shifts evoked a similar motor program (saccade preparation) in the observer. Such simulated or "mirrored" activation of motor programs by the mere observation of actions could explain the gaze cueing effect. In other words, observing gaze evokes a tendency to execute saccades in the corresponding direction, imitating the observed behavior. Thus, it remains unclear whether an abstract spatial coding is necessary for GSE. Two experiments were performed to investigate the spatial coding mechanisms of the gaze Simon effect. In the first experiment

  9. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Ueda

    Full Text Available As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear, B-type (only the eye position is clear, and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear. A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  10. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  11. Gaze, goals and growing up: Effects on imitative grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Sonja P; Roberts, Kim P; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2013-09-01

    Developmental differences in the use of social-attention cues to imitation were examined among children aged 3 and 6 years old (n = 58) and adults (n = 29). In each of 20 trials, participants watched a model grasp two objects simultaneously and move them together. On every trial, the model directed her gaze towards only one of the objects. Some object pairs were related and had a clear functional relationship (e.g., flower, vase), while others were functionally unrelated (e.g., cardboard square, ladybug). Owing to attentional effects of eye gaze, it was expected that all participants would more faithfully imitate the grasp on the gazed-at object than the object not gazed-at. Children were expected to imitate less faithfully on trials with functionally related objects than those without, due to goal-hierarchy effects. Results support effects of eye gaze on imitation of grasping. Children's grasping accuracy on functionally related and functionally unrelated trials was similar, but they were more likely to only use one hand on trials where the object pairs were functionally related than unrelated. Implications for theories of imitation are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Investigating gaze of children with ASD in naturalistic settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio Noris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual behavior is known to be atypical in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. Monitor-based eye-tracking studies have measured several of these atypicalities in individuals with Autism. While atypical behaviors are known to be accentuated during natural interactions, few studies have been made on gaze behavior in natural interactions. In this study we focused on i whether the findings done in laboratory settings are also visible in a naturalistic interaction; ii whether new atypical elements appear when studying visual behavior across the whole field of view. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten children with ASD and ten typically developing children participated in a dyadic interaction with an experimenter administering items from the Early Social Communication Scale (ESCS. The children wore a novel head-mounted eye-tracker, measuring gaze direction and presence of faces across the child's field of view. The analysis of gaze episodes to faces revealed that children with ASD looked significantly less and for shorter lapses of time at the experimenter. The analysis of gaze patterns across the child's field of view revealed that children with ASD looked downwards and made more extensive use of their lateral field of view when exploring the environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data gathered in naturalistic settings confirm findings previously obtained only in monitor-based studies. Moreover, the study allowed to observe a generalized strategy of lateral gaze in children with ASD when they were looking at the objects in their environment.

  13. Antipsychotics and physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2011-10-01

    Antipsychotics are effective in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia, but they may induce adverse effects, some of which-those that impact negatively on physical appearance-have not been sufficiently discussed in the psychiatric literature. Through a narrative review, to catalog antipsychotic side effects that interfere with physical attractiveness and to suggest ways of addressing them. PubMed databases were searched for information on the association between "antipsychotic side effects" and "attractiveness" using those two search phrases plus the following terms: "weight," "teeth," "skin," "hair," "eyes," "gait," "voice," "odor." Data from relevant qualitative and quantitative articles were considered, contextualized, and summarized. Antipsychotics, as a group, increase weight and may lead to dry mouth and bad breath, cataracts, hirsutism, acne, and voice changes; they may disturb symmetry of gait and heighten the risk for tics and spasms and incontinence, potentially undermining a person's attractiveness. Clinicians need to be aware of the impact of therapeutic drugs on appearance and how important this issue is to patients. Early in treatment, they need to plan preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  14. A non-verbal turing test: Differentiating mind from machine in gaze-based social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich J Pfeiffer; Bert Timmermans; Gary Bente; Kai Vogeley; Leonhard Schilbach

    2011-01-01

    In social interaction, gaze behavior provides important signals that have a significant impact on our perception of others. Previous investigations, however, have relied on paradigms in which participants are passive observers of other persons' gazes and do not adjust their gaze behavior as is the case in real-life social encounters. We used an interactive eye-tracking paradigm that allows participants to interact with an anthropomorphic virtual character whose gaze behavior is responsive to ...

  15. Utilizing Gaze Behavior for Inferring Task Transitions Using Abstract Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando Tello Gamarra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an improved method for utilizing observed gaze behavior and show that it is useful in inferring hand movement intent during goal directed tasks. The task dynamics and the relationship between hand and gaze behavior are learned using an Abstract Hidden Markov Model (AHMM. We show that the predicted hand movement transitions occur consistently earlier in AHMM models with gaze than those models that do not include gaze observations.

  16. Archetypal-Imaging and Mirror-Gazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Caputo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy. However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Recently, empirical research found that gazing at one’s own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the perception of bodily dysmorphic illusions of strange-faces. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions. They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them. On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Strange-face illusions may be the psychodynamic projection of the subject’s unconscious archetypal contents into the mirror image. Therefore, strange-face illusions might provide both an ecological setting and an experimental technique for “imaging of the unconscious”. Future researches have been proposed.

  17. Archetypal-imaging and mirror-gazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Giovanni B

    2014-03-01

    Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy. However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Recently, empirical research found that gazing at one's own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the perception of bodily dysmorphic illusions of strange-faces. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions. They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them. On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Strange-face illusions may be the psychodynamic projection of the subject's unconscious archetypal contents into the mirror image. Therefore, strange-face illusions might provide both an ecological setting and an experimental technique for "imaging of the unconscious". Future researches have been proposed.

  18. Ritual relieved axial dystonia triggered by gaze-evoked amaurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome, D E

    1997-11-01

    A woman with chronic posttraumatic axial lateropulsion cervical dystonia ("belly dancer's head") found relief of her spontaneous dystonic spasms by the sequential performance of an elaborate motor ritual. During an episode of left optic papillitis caused by central retinal vein occlusion, gaze-evoked amaurosis of the left eye developed, preceded by achromatopsia, during left lateral gaze. Gaze-evoked amaurosis triggered axial dystonia, which was followed by her unique, stereotyped, dystonia-relieving ritual that simulated a slow dance. Visual symptoms improved progressively in 1 year. Eventually, she was unable to trigger her dystonia by eye movements. Spontaneous dystonia remained otherwise unchanged from before the episode of papillitis and was still relieved by her unique ritual.

  19. Gaze strategy in the free flying zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Eckmeier

    Full Text Available Fast moving animals depend on cues derived from the optic flow on their retina. Optic flow from translational locomotion includes information about the three-dimensional composition of the environment, while optic flow experienced during a rotational self motion does not. Thus, a saccadic gaze strategy that segregates rotations from translational movements during locomotion will facilitate extraction of spatial information from the visual input. We analysed whether birds use such a strategy by highspeed video recording zebra finches from two directions during an obstacle avoidance task. Each frame of the recording was examined to derive position and orientation of the beak in three-dimensional space. The data show that in all flights the head orientation was shifted in a saccadic fashion and was kept straight between saccades. Therefore, birds use a gaze strategy that actively stabilizes their gaze during translation to simplify optic flow based navigation. This is the first evidence of birds actively optimizing optic flow during flight.

  20. Gaze strategy in the free flying zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmeier, Dennis; Geurten, Bart R H; Kress, Daniel; Mertes, Marcel; Kern, Roland; Egelhaaf, Martin; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Fast moving animals depend on cues derived from the optic flow on their retina. Optic flow from translational locomotion includes information about the three-dimensional composition of the environment, while optic flow experienced during a rotational self motion does not. Thus, a saccadic gaze strategy that segregates rotations from translational movements during locomotion will facilitate extraction of spatial information from the visual input. We analysed whether birds use such a strategy by highspeed video recording zebra finches from two directions during an obstacle avoidance task. Each frame of the recording was examined to derive position and orientation of the beak in three-dimensional space. The data show that in all flights the head orientation was shifted in a saccadic fashion and was kept straight between saccades. Therefore, birds use a gaze strategy that actively stabilizes their gaze during translation to simplify optic flow based navigation. This is the first evidence of birds actively optimizing optic flow during flight.

  1. Towards emotion modeling based on gaze dynamics in generic interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    Gaze detection can be a useful ingredient in generic human computer interfaces if current technical barriers are overcome. We discuss the feasibility of concurrent posture and eye-tracking in the context of single (low cost) camera imagery. The ingredients in the approach are posture and eye regi...... extraction based on active appearance modeling and eye tracking using a new fast and robust heuristic. The eye tracker is shown to perform well for low resolution image segments, hence, making it feasible to estimate gaze using a single generic camera.......Gaze detection can be a useful ingredient in generic human computer interfaces if current technical barriers are overcome. We discuss the feasibility of concurrent posture and eye-tracking in the context of single (low cost) camera imagery. The ingredients in the approach are posture and eye region...

  2. Gazing-detection of human eyes based on SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Su-mei; ZHANG Yan-xin; CHANG Sheng-jiang; SHEN Jin-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A method for gazing-detection of human eyes using Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on statistic learning theory (SLT) is proposed.According to the criteria of structural risk minimization of SVM,the errors between sample-data and model-data are minimized and the upper bound of predicting error of the model is also reduced.As a result,the generalization ability of the model is much improved.The simulation results show that,when limited training samples are used,the correct recognition rate of the tested samples can be as high as 100%,which is much better than some previous results obtained by other methods.The higher processing speed enables the system to distinguish gazing or not-gazing in real-time.

  3. Towards emotion modeling based on gaze dynamics in generic interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    Gaze detection can be a useful ingredient in generic human computer interfaces if current technical barriers are overcome. We discuss the feasibility of concurrent posture and eye-tracking in the context of single (low cost) camera imagery. The ingredients in the approach are posture and eye regi...... extraction based on active appearance modeling and eye tracking using a new fast and robust heuristic. The eye tracker is shown to perform well for low resolution image segments, hence, making it feasible to estimate gaze using a single generic camera.......Gaze detection can be a useful ingredient in generic human computer interfaces if current technical barriers are overcome. We discuss the feasibility of concurrent posture and eye-tracking in the context of single (low cost) camera imagery. The ingredients in the approach are posture and eye region...

  4. Gaze-direction-based MEG averaging during audiovisual speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Hirvenkari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To take a step towards real-life-like experimental setups, we simultaneously recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG signals and subject’s gaze direction during audiovisual speech perception. The stimuli were utterances of /apa/ dubbed onto two side-by-side female faces articulating /apa/ (congruent and /aka/ (incongruent in synchrony, repeated once every 3 s. Subjects (N = 10 were free to decide which face they viewed, and responses were averaged to two categories according to the gaze direction. The right-hemisphere 100-ms response to the onset of the second vowel (N100m’ was a fifth smaller to incongruent than congruent stimuli. The results demonstrate the feasibility of realistic viewing conditions with gaze-based averaging of MEG signals.

  5. COGAIN2009 - "Gaze interaction for those who want it most"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , with substantial amounts of applications to support communication, learning and entertainment already in use. However, there are still some uncertainties about this new technology amongst communication specialists and funding institutions. The 5th COGAIN conference will focus on spreading the experiences of people...... using gaze interaction in their daily life to potential users and specialists who have yet to benefit from it. The theme of the conference is "Gaze interaction for those who want it most". We present a total of 18 papers that have been reviewed and accepted by leading researchers and communication...... specialists. Several papers address gaze-based access to computer applications and several papers focus on environmental control. Previous COGAIN conferences have been a most effective launch pad for original new research ideas. Some of them have since found their way into journals and other conferences...

  6. Interacting with Objects in the Environment by Gaze and Hand Gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jeremy; Mardanbeigi, Diako; Rozado, David

    2013-01-01

    A head-mounted wireless gaze tracker in the form of gaze tracking glasses is used here for continuous and mobile monitoring of a subject's point of regard on the surrounding environment. We combine gaze tracking and hand gesture recognition to allow a subject to interact with objects...

  7. Revisiting the Relationship between the Processing of Gaze Direction and the Processing of Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganel, Tzvi

    2011-01-01

    There is mixed evidence on the nature of the relationship between the perception of gaze direction and the perception of facial expressions. Major support for shared processing of gaze and expression comes from behavioral studies that showed that observers cannot process expression or gaze and ignore irrelevant variations in the other dimension.…

  8. Toddlers' gaze following through attention modulation : Intention is in the eye of the beholder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bordes, Pieter F.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Hasselman, Fred; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated 20-month-olds' (N = 56) gaze following by presenting toddlers with a female model that displayed either ostensive or no ostensive cues before shifting her gaze laterally toward an object. The results indicated that toddlers reliably followed the model's gaze redirection after mutual

  9. Early averted gaze processing in the right Fusiform Gyrus: An EEG source imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchio, Cristina; Rihs, Tonia A; Piguet, Camille; Dayer, Alexandre G; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Michel, Christoph M

    2016-09-01

    Humans are able to categorize face properties with impressively short latencies. Nevertheless, the latency at which gaze recognition occurs is still a matter of debate. Through spatio-temporal analysis of high-density event-related potentials (ERP), we investigated the brain activity underlying the ability to spontaneously and quickly process gaze. We presented neutral faces with direct and averted gaze in a matching picture paradigm, where subjects had to detect repetition of identical faces and gaze was implicitly manipulated. The results indicate that faces with averted gaze were better discriminated than faces with direct gaze, and evoked stronger P100 amplitudes localized to the right fusiform gyrus. In contrast, direct gaze induced stronger activation in the orbital frontal gyrus at this latency. Later in time, at the beginning of the N170 component, direct gaze induced changes in scalp topography with a stronger activation in the right medial temporal gyrus. The location of these differential activations of direct vs. averted gaze further support the view that faces with averted gaze are perceived as less rewarding than faces with direct gaze. We additionally found differential ERP responses between repeated and novel faces as early as 50ms, thereby replicating earlier studies of very fast detection of mnestic aspects of stimuli. Together, these results suggest an early dissociation between implicit gaze detection and explicit identity processing.

  10. Early development of gaze following into distant space in juvenile Greylag geese (Anser anser)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kehmeier, Sophia; Schloegl, Christian; Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; Weiss, Brigitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Visual co-orientation with another's gaze direction (gaze following) may provide important information about the location of food, social interactions or predators. Gaze following has been shown in a variety of mammals, but only in few bird species, and has not been tested in precocial birds at all.

  11. Investigating social gaze as an action-perception online performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouriel eGrynszpan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In interpersonal interactions, linguistic information is complemented by non-linguistic information originating largely from facial expressions. The study of online face-to-face social interaction thus entails investigating the multimodal simultaneous processing of oral and visual percepts. Moreover, gaze in and of itself functions as a powerful communicative channel. In this respect, gaze should not be examined as a purely perceptive process but also as an active social performance. We designed a task involving multimodal deciphering of social information based on virtual characters, embedded in naturalistic backgrounds, who directly address the participant with non-literal speech and meaningful facial expressions. Eighteen adult participants were to interpret an equivocal sentence which could be disambiguated by examining the emotional expressions of the character speaking to them face-to-face. To examine self-control and self-awareness of gaze in this context, visual feedback is provided to the participant by a real-time gaze-contingent viewing window centered on the focal point, while the rest of the display is blurred. Eye-tracking data showed that the viewing window induced changes in gaze behaviour, notably longer visual fixations. Notwithstanding, only half the participants ascribed the window displacements to their eye movements. These results highlight the dissociation between non volitional gaze adaptation and self-ascription of agency. Such dissociation provides support for a two-step account of the sense of agency composed of pre-noetic monitoring mechanisms and reflexive processes. We comment upon these results, which illustrate the relevance of our method for studying online social cognition, especially concerning Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD where poor pragmatic understanding of oral speech are considered linked to visual peculiarities that impede face exploration.

  12. Integrating Body Movement into Attractiveness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard eFink

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available People judge attractiveness and make trait inferences from the physical appearance of others, and research reveals high agreement among observers making such judgments. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that interest in physical appearance and beauty reflects adaptations that motivate the search for desirable qualities in a potential partner. Although men more than women value the physical appearance of a partner, appearance universally affects social perception in both sexes. Most studies of attractiveness perceptions have focused on third party assessments of static representations of the face and body. Corroborating evidence suggests that body movement, such as dance, also conveys information about mate quality. Here we review evidence that dynamic cues (e.g., gait, dance also influence perceptions of mate quality, including personality traits, strength, and overall attractiveness. We recommend that attractiveness research considers the informational value of body movement in addition to static cues, to present an integrated perspective on human social perception.

  13. Integrating body movement into attractiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Weege, Bettina; Neave, Nick; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-01-01

    People judge attractiveness and make trait inferences from the physical appearance of others, and research reveals high agreement among observers making such judgments. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that interest in physical appearance and beauty reflects adaptations that motivate the search for desirable qualities in a potential partner. Although men more than women value the physical appearance of a partner, appearance universally affects social perception in both sexes. Most studies of attractiveness perceptions have focused on third party assessments of static representations of the face and body. Corroborating evidence suggests that body movement, such as dance, also conveys information about mate quality. Here we review evidence that dynamic cues (e.g., gait, dance) also influence perceptions of mate quality, including personality traits, strength, and overall attractiveness. We recommend that attractiveness research considers the informational value of body movement in addition to static cues, to present an integrated perspective on human social perception.

  14. Effects of switching behavior for the attraction on pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2014-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk i...

  15. The Rethorics of Gaze in Luhrmann's "Postmodern Great Gatsby"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fallerini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Baz Luhrmann’s latest movie amplifies to exasperation Fitzgerald's novel, in a triumph of saturated images, sparkling scenes, bombastic and overwhelming music.The representation of Jay Gatsby love obsession reaches so high-sounding tones to almost touch the tones of farce.The postmodern transposition of the novel highlights the game of gazes subtended to the narrative texture of the story and especially enhances the turning points of textual composition.Adopting the perspective suggested by the rhetoric of the gaze (Laura Mulvey it is highlighted the metalinguistic and metatextual reflection through which this movie contributes to the critical interpretation of Fitzgerald’s novel.

  16. Learning to interact with a computer by gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Hirotaka; Hansen, John Paulin; Itoh, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the learning processes that subjects undertake when they start using gaze as computer input. A 7-day experiment with eight Japanese students was carried out to record novice users’ eye movement data during typing of 110 sentences. The experiment revealed...... that inefficient eye movements was dramatically reduced after only 15 to 25 sentences of typing, equal to approximately 3-4 hours of practice. The performance data fits a general learning model based on the power law of practice. The learning model can be used to estimate further improvements in gaze typing...

  17. [Unilateral Solar Maculopathy after Gazing at Solar Eclipse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlan, J; Linke, S J; Wagenfeld, L; Steinberg, J

    2016-06-01

    A 43-year-old male patient with unilateral metamorphosia presented after gazing at an eclipse with only one eye. Damage of the macula was demonstrated funduscopically, with OCT and angiography. Six weeks after initial presentation and oral methylprednisolone therapy (40 mg/d for 10 days), the symptoms and the morphological changes decreased. Solar retinopathy is a photochemical alteration of the retina, usually seen after sun gazing. In younger patients, it mostly presents as bilateral solar maculopathy. Some patients exhibit partial or total recovery.

  18. Interpersonal Attraction and the Perception of Attitudinal Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Ronald M.; Nelson, Don A.

    One common laboratory manipulation in interpersonal attraction has been the exchange of reinforcements in the form of similar or dissimilar attitude statements. The first impression should influence not only attraction responses and subsequent behavior, but also should influence the perception of subsequent information received in the course of an…

  19. Rebound upbeat nystagmus after lateral gaze in episodic ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Jin-Hong; Choi, Kwang-Dong; Zee, David S

    2014-06-01

    Rebound nystagmus is a transient nystagmus that occurs on resuming the straight-ahead position after prolonged eccentric gaze. Even though rebound nystagmus is commonly associated with gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN), development of rebound nystagmus in a different plane of gaze has not been described. We report a patient with episodic ataxia type 2 who showed transient upbeat nystagmus on resuming the straight-ahead position after sustained lateral gaze that had induced GEN and downbeat nystagmus. The rebound upbeat nystagmus may be ascribed to a shifting null in the vertical plane as a result of an adaptation to the downbeat nystagmus that developed during lateral gaze.

  20. The Development of Joint Visual Attention: A Longitudinal Study of Gaze following during Interactions with Mothers and Strangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredeback, Gustaf; Fikke, Linn; Melinder, Annika

    2010-01-01

    Two- to 8-month-old infants interacted with their mother or a stranger in a prospective longitudinal gaze following study. Gaze following, as assessed by eye tracking, emerged between 2 and 4 months and stabilized between 6 and 8 months of age. Overall, infants followed the gaze of a stranger more than they followed the gaze of their mothers,…

  1. Watch out! Magnetoencephalographic evidence for early modulation of attention orienting by fearful gaze cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Lachat

    Full Text Available Others' gaze and emotional facial expression are important cues for the process of attention orienting. Here, we investigated with magnetoencephalography (MEG whether the combination of averted gaze and fearful expression may elicit a selectively early effect of attention orienting on the brain responses to targets. We used the direction of gaze of centrally presented fearful and happy faces as the spatial attention orienting cue in a Posner-like paradigm where the subjects had to detect a target checkerboard presented at gazed-at (valid trials or non gazed-at (invalid trials locations of the screen. We showed that the combination of averted gaze and fearful expression resulted in a very early attention orienting effect in the form of additional parietal activity between 55 and 70 ms for the valid versus invalid targets following fearful gaze cues. No such effect was obtained for the targets following happy gaze cues. This early cue-target validity effect selective of fearful gaze cues involved the left superior parietal region and the left lateral middle occipital region. These findings provide the first evidence for an effect of attention orienting induced by fearful gaze in the time range of C1. In doing so, they demonstrate the selective impact of combined gaze and fearful expression cues in the process of attention orienting.

  2. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  3. Rules of Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image composite shows two of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's magnets, the 'capture' magnet (upper portion of left panel) and the 'filter' magnet (lower portion of left panel). Scientists use these tools to study the origins of martian dust in the atmosphere. The left panel was taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The four panels to the right, taken by the microscopic imager, show close-up views of the two magnets. The bull's-eye appearance of the capture magnet is a result of alternating magnetic fields, which are used to increase overall magnetic force. The filter magnet lacks these alternating fields and consequently produces a weaker magnetic force. This weaker force selectively attracts only strong magnetic particles. Scientists were surprised by the large dark particles on the magnets because airborne particles are smaller in size. They theorize that these spots might be aggregates of small particles that clump together in a magnetic field.

  4. Flexible coordination of stationary and mobile conversations with gaze: Resource allocation among multiple joint activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mayor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaze is instrumental in coordinating face-to-face social interactions. But little is known about gaze use when social interactions co-occur with other joint activities. We investigated the case of walking while talking. We assessed how gaze gets allocated among various targets in mobile conversations, whether allocation of gaze to other targets affects conversational coordination, and whether reduced availability of gaze for conversational coordination affects conversational performance and content. In an experimental study, pairs were videotaped in four conditions of mobility (standing still, talking while walking along a straight-line itinerary, talking while walking along a complex itinerary, or walking along a complex itinerary with no conversational task. Gaze to partners was substantially reduced in mobile conversations, but gaze was still used to coordinate conversation via displays of mutual orientation, and conversational performance and content was not different between stationary and mobile conditions. Results expand the phenomena of multitasking to joint activities.

  5. The effect of gaze direction on three-dimensional face recognition in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Wakayo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2012-09-01

    Eye gaze is an important tool for social contact. In this study, we investigated whether direct gaze facilitates the recognition of three-dimensional face images in infants. We presented artificially produced face images in rotation to 6-8 month-old infants. The eye gaze of the face images was either direct or averted. Sixty-one sequential images of each face were created by rotating the vertical axis of the face from frontal view to ± 30°. The recognition performances of the infants were then compared between faces with direct gaze and faces with averted gaze. Infants showed evidence that they were able to discriminate the novel from familiarized face by 8 months of age and only when gaze is direct. These results suggest that gaze direction may affect three-dimensional face recognition in infants.

  6. Disfluencies and gaze aversion in unreliable responses to survey questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schober, Michael F.; Conrad, Frederick G.; Dijkstra, Wil; Ongena, Yfke P.

    2012-01-01

    When survey respondents answer survey questions, they can also produce "paradata" (Couper 2000, 2008): behavioral evidence about their response process. The study reported here demonstrates that two kinds of respondent paradata - fluency of speech and gaze direction during answers - identify answers

  7. The Relationship between Children's Gaze Reporting and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Entremont, Barbara; Seamans, Elizabeth; Boudreau, Elyse

    2012-01-01

    Seventy-nine 3- and 4-year-old children were tested on gaze-reporting ability and Wellman and Liu's (2004) continuous measure of theory of mind (ToM). Children were better able to report where someone was looking when eye and head direction were provided as a cue compared with when only eye direction cues were provided. With the exception of…

  8. Examining the durability of incidentally learned trust from gaze cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, James W A; Tipper, Steven P

    2017-10-01

    In everyday interactions we find our attention follows the eye gaze of faces around us. As this cueing is so powerful and difficult to inhibit, gaze can therefore be used to facilitate or disrupt visual processing of the environment, and when we experience this we infer information about the trustworthiness of the cueing face. However, to date no studies have investigated how long these impressions last. To explore this we used a gaze-cueing paradigm where faces consistently demonstrated either valid or invalid cueing behaviours. Previous experiments show that valid faces are subsequently rated as more trustworthy than invalid faces. We replicate this effect (Experiment 1) and then include a brief interference task in Experiment 2 between gaze cueing and trustworthiness rating, which weakens but does not completely eliminate the effect. In Experiment 3, we explore whether greater familiarity with the faces improves the durability of trust learning and find that the effect is more resilient with familiar faces. Finally, in Experiment 4, we push this further and show that evidence of trust learning can be seen up to an hour after cueing has ended. Taken together, our results suggest that incidentally learned trust can be durable, especially for faces that deceive.

  9. Maori in the Kingdom of the Gaze: Subjects or Critics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Carl; Stewart, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    For Maori, a real opportunity exists to flesh out some terms and concepts that Western thinkers have adopted and that precede disciplines but necessarily inform them. In this article, we are intent on describing one of these precursory phenomena--Foucault's Gaze--within a framework that accords with a Maori philosophical framework. Our discussion…

  10. Triadic Gaze Intervention for Young Children with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Dowden, Patricia; Feuerstein, Julie; Greenslade, Kathryn; Pinder, Gay Lloyd; Fleming, Kandace

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled study investigated whether a supplemental treatment designed to teach triadic gaze (TG) as a signal of coordinated joint attention would yield a significantly greater increase in TG in the experimental versus control group. Method: Eighteen 10- to 24-month-old children with severe motor impairments were randomly…

  11. Children's Bricolage under the Gaze of Teachers in Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Po Chi

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of dialogism and the literature on children's culture and cultural resistance, this article investigates the contextual and textual features of the cultural making of a group of children in sociodramatic play in a Hong Kong kindergarten. Different from other, similar studies, this study reports that under the gaze of the…

  12. Combining head pose and eye location information for gaze estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, R.; Sebe, N.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    Head pose and eye location for gaze estimation have been separately studied in numerous works in the literature. Previous research shows that satisfactory accuracy in head pose and eye location estimation can be achieved in constrained settings. However, in the presence of nonfrontal faces, eye

  13. What Captures Gaze in Visual Design - Insights from Cognitive Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Emil; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is vital for user behaviour and thus of utmost importance to design. Consequently, tracking and interpreting gaze data has been the target of increasing amounts of research in design science. This research is in part facilitated by new methods, such as eye-tracking, becoming more...

  14. Quality control of geological voxel models using experts' gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, van Peter-Paul; Busschers, Freek S.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Meulendijk, van der Michiel J.; Erp, van Jan B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Due to an expected increase in geological voxel model data-flow and user demands, the development of improved quality control for such models is crucial. This study explores the potential of a new type of quality control that improves the detection of errors by just using gaze behavior of 12 geologi

  15. Learning to Interact with a Computer by Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirotaka; Hansen, John Paulin; Itoh, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the learning processes that subjects undertake when they start using gaze as computer input. A 7-day experiment with eight Japanese students was carried out to record novice users' eye movement data during typing of 110 sentences. The experiment revealed that inefficient eye movements was dramatically reduced…

  16. Differences in gaze anticipation for locomotion with and without vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colas Nils Authié

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous experimental studies have shown a spontaneous anticipation of locomotor trajectory by the head and gaze direction during human locomotion. This anticipatory behavior could serve several functions: an optimal selection of visual information, for instance through landmarks and optic flow, as well as trajectory planning and motor control. This would imply that anticipation remains in darkness but with different characteristics.We asked ten participants to walk along two predefined complex trajectories (limacon and figure eight without any cue on the trajectory to follow. Two visual conditions were used: (i in light and (ii in complete darkness with eyes open. The whole body kinematics were recorded by motion capture, along with the participant's right eye movements.We showed that in darkness and in light, horizontal gaze anticipates the orientation of the head which itself anticipates the trajectory direction. However, the horizontal angular anticipation decreases by a half in darkness for both gaze and head. In both visual conditions we observed an eye nystagmus with similar properties (frequency and amplitude. The main difference comes from the fact that in light, there is a shift of the orientations of the eye nystagmus and the head in the direction of the trajectory.These results suggest that a fundamental function of gaze is to represent self motion, stabilize the perception of space during locomotion, and to simulate the future trajectory, regardless of the vision condition.

  17. Maternal oxytocin response predicts mother-to-infant gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuropeptide oxytocin is importantly implicated in the emergence and maintenance of maternal behavior that forms the basis of the mother–infant bond. However, no research has yet examined the specific association between maternal oxytocin and maternal gaze, a key modality through which the mothe...

  18. Creepy White Gaze: Rethinking the Diorama as a Pedagogical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzuk, Andrea; Mulholland, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on gaze and postcolonial theory, this article provides a theoretical discussion of a problematic photograph published in a provincial teachers' newsletter. The photo consists of a White settler child and two White settler educators gathered around his heritage fair entry diorama entitled "Great Plains Indians." This article…

  19. Lithium-Induced Downbeat Nystagmus and Horizontal Gaze Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jesper Skovlund; Landschoff Lassen, Lisbeth; Wegener, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus and horizontal gaze palsy in a 62-year-old woman who was treated for a bipolar affective disorder with lithium carbonate for one month. At presentation serum lithium was within therapeutic range. No alternative causes of the ocular motility...... disturbances were found, and the patient improved significantly as lithium carbonate was discontinued....

  20. More prolonged brain activity related to gaze cueing in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; Kahn, Rene S.; Cahn, Wiepke; Kemner, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The ability to use the gaze direction of another person to guide attention is important for social functioning, but behavioral reports on this topic among individuals with schizophrenia are inconclusive. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) can very accurately pinpoint the shifting of attentio

  1. Gaze Duration Frequency Distributions During Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, J. Craig; Stern, Daniel N.

    1976-01-01

    Gazing behavior of 10 twin infants (five male and five female) and their mothers were recorded weekly during the babies' fourth month of life. Videotape equipment was used in the home; data were gathered as naturalistically as possible. (Author/MS)

  2. Interpersonal attraction and personality: what is attractive--self similarity, ideal similarity, complementarity or attachment security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klohnen, Eva C; Luo, Shanhong

    2003-10-01

    Little is known about whether personality characteristics influence initial attraction. Because adult attachment differences influence a broad range of relationship processes, the authors examined their role in 3 experimental attraction studies. The authors tested four major attraction hypotheses--self similarity, ideal-self similarity, complementarity, and attachment security--and examined both actual and perceptual factors. Replicated analyses across samples, designs, and manipulations showed that actual security and self similarity predicted attraction. With regard to perceptual factors, ideal similarity, self similarity, and security all were significant predictors. Whereas perceptual ideal and self similarity had incremental predictive power, perceptual security's effects were subsumed by perceptual ideal similarity. Perceptual self similarity fully mediated actual attachment similarity effects, whereas ideal similarity was only a partial mediator.

  3. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness.

  4. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Muñoz-Reyes

    Full Text Available Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness.

  5. Physical attractiveness and personality development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, J; Crossman, S M; Adams, G R

    1978-05-01

    A test of the relationship between physical attractiveness and ego development was completed through an interview study of 294 men and women college students. Ss responded to personality measures assessing identity formation, locus of control, and ego functioning and were rated on facial attractiveness and body form scales. Contrary to the physical attractiveness stereotype, attractive and unattractive Ss did not differ in their personality styles.

  6. Gaze shifts during dual-tasking stair descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasike-daSilva, Veronica; McIlroy, William E

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the role of vision in stair locomotion, young adults descended a seven-step staircase during unrestricted walking (CONTROL), and while performing a concurrent visual reaction time (RT) task displayed on a monitor. The monitor was located at either 3.5 m (HIGH) or 0.5 m (LOW) above ground level at the end of the stairway, which either restricted (HIGH) or facilitated (LOW) the view of the stairs in the lower field of view as participants walked downstairs. Downward gaze shifts (recorded with an eye tracker) and gait speed were significantly reduced in HIGH and LOW compared with CONTROL. Gaze and locomotor behaviour were not different between HIGH and LOW. However, inter-individual variability increased in HIGH, in which participants combined different response characteristics including slower walking, handrail use, downward gaze, and/or increasing RTs. The fastest RTs occurred in the midsteps (non-transition steps). While gait and visual task performance were not statistically different prior to the top and bottom transition steps, gaze behaviour and RT were more variable prior to transition steps in HIGH. This study demonstrated that, in the presence of a visual task, people do not look down as often when walking downstairs and require minimum adjustments provided that the view of the stairs is available in the lower field of view. The middle of the stairs seems to require less from executive function, whereas visual attention appears a requirement to detect the last transition via gaze shifts or peripheral vision.

  7. Can we resist another person’s gaze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Barbara F. M.; Mirabella, Giovanni; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Bricolo, Emanuela; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive adjustments of strategies are needed to optimize behavior in a dynamic and uncertain world. A key function in implementing flexible behavior and exerting self-control is represented by the ability to stop the execution of an action when it is no longer appropriate for the environmental requests. Importantly, stimuli in our environment are not equally relevant and some are more valuable than others. One example is the gaze of other people, which is known to convey important social information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. Indeed, gaze direction has a significant impact on the execution of voluntary saccades of an observer since it is capable of inducing in the observer an automatic gaze-following behavior: a phenomenon named social or joint attention. Nevertheless, people can exert volitional inhibitory control on saccadic eye movements during their planning. Little is known about the interaction between gaze direction signals and volitional inhibition of saccades. To fill this gap, we administered a countermanding task to 15 healthy participants in which they were asked to observe the eye region of a face with the eyes shut appearing at central fixation. In one condition, participants were required to suppress a saccade, that was previously instructed by a gaze shift toward one of two peripheral targets, when the eyes were suddenly shut down (social condition, SC). In a second condition, participants were asked to inhibit a saccade, that was previously instructed by a change in color of one of the two same targets, when a change of color of a central picture occurred (non-social condition, N-SC). We found that inhibitory control was more impaired in the SC, suggesting that actions initiated and stopped by social cues conveyed by the eyes are more difficult to withhold. This is probably due to the social value intrinsically linked to these cues and the many uses we make of them. PMID:26550008

  8. Communication and Culture: Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lydia Ledesma; Emry, Robert A.

    Cultural differences in interpersonal attraction were studied using 93 black, 112 Chicano, and 112 white college students who completed 40 Likert-type rating scales for each of four concepts of attraction (intimate, friendship, acquaintance, and stranger attraction). When a factor solution was generated, differences were noted in the amount of…

  9. Communication and Culture: Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lydia Ledesma; Emry, Robert A.

    Cultural differences in interpersonal attraction were studied using 93 black, 112 Chicano, and 112 white college students who completed 40 Likert-type rating scales for each of four concepts of attraction (intimate, friendship, acquaintance, and stranger attraction). When a factor solution was generated, differences were noted in the amount of…

  10. Cycling around a curve: the effect of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Vansteenkiste

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that visual information guides steering, it is still unclear whether a curvature matching strategy or a 'look where you are going' strategy is used while steering through a curved road. The current experiment investigated to what extent the existing models for curve driving also apply to cycling around a curve, and tested the influence of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. Twenty-five participants were asked to cycle through a semicircular lane three consecutive times at three different speeds while staying in the center of the lane. The observed steering behavior suggests that an anticipatory steering strategy was used at curve entrance and a compensatory strategy was used to steer through the actual bend of the curve. A shift of gaze from the center to the inside edge of the lane indicates that at low cycling speed, the 'look where you are going' strategy was preferred, while at higher cycling speeds participants seemed to prefer the curvature matching strategy. Authors suggest that visual information from both steering strategies contributes to the steering system and can be used in a flexible way. Based on a familiarization effect, it can be assumed that steering is not only guided by vision but that a short-term learning component should also be taken into account.

  11. Cycling around a curve: the effect of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Van Hamme, David; Veelaert, Peter; Philippaerts, Renaat; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that visual information guides steering, it is still unclear whether a curvature matching strategy or a 'look where you are going' strategy is used while steering through a curved road. The current experiment investigated to what extent the existing models for curve driving also apply to cycling around a curve, and tested the influence of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. Twenty-five participants were asked to cycle through a semicircular lane three consecutive times at three different speeds while staying in the center of the lane. The observed steering behavior suggests that an anticipatory steering strategy was used at curve entrance and a compensatory strategy was used to steer through the actual bend of the curve. A shift of gaze from the center to the inside edge of the lane indicates that at low cycling speed, the 'look where you are going' strategy was preferred, while at higher cycling speeds participants seemed to prefer the curvature matching strategy. Authors suggest that visual information from both steering strategies contributes to the steering system and can be used in a flexible way. Based on a familiarization effect, it can be assumed that steering is not only guided by vision but that a short-term learning component should also be taken into account.

  12. Language/Culture Modulates Brain and Gaze Processes in Audiovisual Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisanaga, Satoko; Sekiyama, Kaoru; Igasaki, Tomohiko; Murayama, Nobuki

    2016-01-01

    Several behavioural studies have shown that the interplay between voice and face information in audiovisual speech perception is not universal. Native English speakers (ESs) are influenced by visual mouth movement to a greater degree than native Japanese speakers (JSs) when listening to speech. However, the biological basis of these group differences is unknown. Here, we demonstrate the time-varying processes of group differences in terms of event-related brain potentials (ERP) and eye gaze for audiovisual and audio-only speech perception. On a behavioural level, while congruent mouth movement shortened the ESs’ response time for speech perception, the opposite effect was observed in JSs. Eye-tracking data revealed a gaze bias to the mouth for the ESs but not the JSs, especially before the audio onset. Additionally, the ERP P2 amplitude indicated that ESs processed multisensory speech more efficiently than auditory-only speech; however, the JSs exhibited the opposite pattern. Taken together, the ESs’ early visual attention to the mouth was likely to promote phonetic anticipation, which was not the case for the JSs. These results clearly indicate the impact of language and/or culture on multisensory speech processing, suggesting that linguistic/cultural experiences lead to the development of unique neural systems for audiovisual speech perception. PMID:27734953

  13. Ontogenetic effects on gazing behaviour: a case study of kennel dogs (Labrador Retrievers) in the impossible task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Scandurra, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Life experiences and living conditions can influence the problem-solving strategies and the communicative abilities of dogs with humans. The goals of this study were to determine any behavioural differences between Labrador Retrievers living in a kennel and those living in a house as pets and to assess whether kennel dogs show preferences in social behaviours for their caretaker relative to a stranger when they are faced with an unsolvable task. Nine Labrador Retrievers living in a kennel from birth and ten Labrador Retrievers living in a family as pets were tested. The experimental procedure consisted of three "solvable" tasks in which the dogs could easily retrieve food from a container followed by an "unsolvable" task in which the container was hermetically locked. Dogs of both groups spent the same amount of time interacting with the experimental apparatus. Kennel dogs gazed towards people for less time and with higher latency than pet dogs; however, there were no significant preferences in gazing towards the stranger versus the caretaker in both groups. These findings demonstrated that kennel dogs are less prone to use human-directed gazing behaviour when they are faced with an unsolvable problem, taking the humans into account to solve a task less than do the pet dogs.

  14. Cross-channel effects of vocal and physical attractiveness and their implications for interpersonal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, M; Miyake, K; Hodgins, H S

    1991-04-01

    Judges' ratings of senders' vocal attractiveness from face-plus-voice (F+V) cues were influenced by senders' physical attractiveness, and ratings of senders' physical attractiveness from F+V cues were influenced by senders' vocal attractiveness. This occurred even when judges were warned not to pay attention to face when rating vocal attractiveness and not to pay attention to voice when rating physical attractiveness. Instructions to judge attractiveness without being told which channel to attend to resulted in ratings influenced by both vocal and physical attractiveness of senders. Because of cross-channel effects, F+V attractiveness ratings should be more highly related to F+V personality impressions than attractiveness ratings based on only face or only voice. The results supported this hypothesis. Implications of cross-channel effects for research on the attractiveness stereotype were discussed.

  15. 面孔吸引力、人格标签对于男女择偶偏好的影响%The Influence of Facial Attractiveness and Personality Labels on Men and Women’s Mate Preference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨晴; 姚鹏飞; 周国梅

    2015-01-01

    attractiveness and personality traits. We evaluated the partner choices made by both men and women. As for face attractiveness and personality traits, people think that beautiful people have more positive qualities, and their unique characteristics or qualities can get more favorable perception (Lorenzo, et al, 2010). On the other hand, people who have positive qualities are often judged as more beautiful (Gross, Crofton, 1977). To understand the influence of facial attractiveness and personality labels on men and women’s mate, we included the two independent variables in one experiment and examine their interactive effects on men and women's mate preferences. Chinese male faces and female faces along with Big-Five personality information materials were presented to 30 female students and 30 male students for rating of attractiveness and desirability as a lover (only for opposite-sex photos) .The results showed as that: (1) When seeing a photo of a beautiful opposite-sex face, men were more willing to have her as a lover than women. (2) Those people whose photos were labeled with positive personality were more likely chosen as lovers by women. (3) Compared with those labeled with negative personality, photos with positive personality were more likely to be chosen as lovers and such likelihood was clearly increased when the photos were more beautiful. (4) All five dimensions of Big-Five personalities influenced mate preferences of men and women, with the power gradually decreasing from conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness, emotional stability to extroversion. While women preferred extrovert men, whether or not women were extrovert had no effect on men’s mate preferences. These findings provide further evidence for understanding sex differences in mate selection.

  16. Assessing the precision of gaze following using a stereoscopic 3D virtual reality setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Artin; Marciniak, Karolina; Dicke, Peter W; Thier, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Despite the ecological importance of gaze following, little is known about the underlying neuronal processes, which allow us to extract gaze direction from the geometric features of the eye and head of a conspecific. In order to understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying this ability, a careful description of the capacity and the limitations of gaze following at the behavioral level is needed. Previous studies of gaze following, which relied on naturalistic settings have the disadvantage of allowing only very limited control of potentially relevant visual features guiding gaze following, such as the contrast of iris and sclera, the shape of the eyelids and--in the case of photographs--they lack depth. Hence, in order to get full control of potentially relevant features we decided to study gaze following of human observers guided by the gaze of a human avatar seen stereoscopically. To this end we established a stereoscopic 3D virtual reality setup, in which we tested human subjects' abilities to detect at which target a human avatar was looking at. Following the gaze of the avatar showed all the features of the gaze following of a natural person, namely a substantial degree of precision associated with a consistent pattern of systematic deviations from the target. Poor stereo vision affected performance surprisingly little (only in certain experimental conditions). Only gaze following guided by targets at larger downward eccentricities exhibited a differential effect of the presence or absence of accompanying movements of the avatar's eyelids and eyebrows.

  17. Early Left Parietal Activity Elicited by Direct Gaze: A High-Density EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Gaze is one of the most important cues for human communication and social interaction. In particular, gaze contact is the most primary form of social contact and it is thought to capture attention. A very early-differentiated brain response to direct versus averted gaze has been hypothesized. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to test this hypothesis. Topographical analysis allowed us to uncover a very early topographic modulation (40–80 ms) of event-related responses to faces with direct as compared to averted gaze. This modulation was obtained only in the condition where intact broadband faces–as opposed to high-pass or low-pas filtered faces–were presented. Source estimation indicated that this early modulation involved the posterior parietal region, encompassing the left precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. This supports the idea that it reflected an early orienting response to direct versus averted gaze. Accordingly, in a follow-up behavioural experiment, we found faster response times to the direct gaze than to the averted gaze broadband faces. In addition, classical evoked potential analysis showed that the N170 peak amplitude was larger for averted gaze than for direct gaze. Taken together, these results suggest that direct gaze may be detected at a very early processing stage, involving a parallel route to the ventral occipito-temporal route of face perceptual analysis. PMID:27880776

  18. 2D Gaze Estimation Based on Pupil-Glint Vector Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaze estimation methods play an important role in a gaze tracking system. A novel 2D gaze estimation method based on the pupil-glint vector is proposed in this paper. First, the circular ring rays location (CRRL method and Gaussian fitting are utilized for pupil and glint detection, respectively. Then the pupil-glint vector is calculated through subtraction of pupil and glint center fitting. Second, a mapping function is established according to the corresponding relationship between pupil-glint vectors and actual gaze calibration points. In order to solve the mapping function, an improved artificial neural network (DLSR-ANN based on direct least squares regression is proposed. When the mapping function is determined, gaze estimation can be actualized through calculating gaze point coordinates. Finally, error compensation is implemented to further enhance accuracy of gaze estimation. The proposed method can achieve a corresponding accuracy of 1.29°, 0.89°, 0.52°, and 0.39° when a model with four, six, nine, or 16 calibration markers is utilized for calibration, respectively. Considering error compensation, gaze estimation accuracy can reach 0.36°. The experimental results show that gaze estimation accuracy of the proposed method in this paper is better than that of linear regression (direct least squares regression and nonlinear regression (generic artificial neural network. The proposed method contributes to enhancing the total accuracy of a gaze tracking system.

  19. Empirical Study on Designing of Gaze Tracking Camera Based on the Information of User's Head Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weiyuan; Jung, Dongwook; Yoon, Hyo Sik; Lee, Dong Eun; Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Lee, Kwan Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-31

    Gaze tracking is the technology that identifies a region in space that a user is looking at. Most previous non-wearable gaze tracking systems use a near-infrared (NIR) light camera with an NIR illuminator. Based on the kind of camera lens used, the viewing angle and depth-of-field (DOF) of a gaze tracking camera can be different, which affects the performance of the gaze tracking system. Nevertheless, to our best knowledge, most previous researches implemented gaze tracking cameras without ground truth information for determining the optimal viewing angle and DOF of the camera lens. Eye-tracker manufacturers might also use ground truth information, but they do not provide this in public. Therefore, researchers and developers of gaze tracking systems cannot refer to such information for implementing gaze tracking system. We address this problem providing an empirical study in which we design an optimal gaze tracking camera based on experimental measurements of the amount and velocity of user's head movements. Based on our results and analyses, researchers and developers might be able to more easily implement an optimal gaze tracking system. Experimental results show that our gaze tracking system shows high performance in terms of accuracy, user convenience and interest.

  20. Making vasectomy attractive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, N

    1992-08-01

    In 1989, Pro-Pater, a private, nonprofit family planning organization in Brazil, used attractive ads with the message Vasectomy, An Act of Love to promote vasectomy. The number of vasectomies performed/day at Pro-Pater clinics increased from 11 to 20 during the publicity campaign and fell after the ads stopped but continued at higher levels. Word of mouth communication among friends, neighbors, and relatives who had vasectomies maintained these high levels. This type of communication reduced the fear that often involves vasectomies because men hear from men they know and trust that vasectomies are harmless and do not deprive them of potency. In Sao Paulo, the percentage of men familiar with vasectomies and how they are performed increased after the campaign, but in Salvador, knowledge did not increase even though the number of vasectomies in Pro-Pater clinics increased. Organizations in Colombia and Guatemala have also been effective in educating men about vasectomies. These successes were especially relevant in Latin American where machismo has been an obstacle of family planning programs. The no-scalpel technique 1st introduced in China in 1974 reduces the fear of vasectomy and has fewer complications than the conventional technique. Further trained physicians can perform the no-scalpel technique in about 10 minutes compared with 15 minutes for the conventional technique. In 1987 during a 1-day festival in Thailand, physicians averaged 57 no-scalpel vasectomies/day compared with only 33 for conventional vasectomies. This technique has not spread to Guatemala, Brazil, Colombia, the US, and some countries in Asia and Africa. Extensive research does not indicate that vasectomy has an increased risk of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, and myocardial infarction. Physicians are working on ways to improve vasectomy.

  1. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr; Croft, Darren P.; Thompson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others......Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus...... (receptive) female than with another non-receptive female. We then found that, indeed, females exploit this as a strategy to reduce sexual harassment; non-receptive females actively preferred to associate with receptive over non-receptive females. Importantly, when given access only to chemosensory cues, non...

  2. Gaze Behaviors of Preterm and Full-Term Infants in Nonsocial and Social Contexts of Increasing Dynamics: Visual Recognition, Attention Regulation, and Gaze Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Hagar; Gordon, Ilanit; Geva, Ronny; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated poor visual skills in premature infants, few studies assessed infants' gaze behaviors across several domains of functioning in a single study. Thirty premature and 30 full-term 3-month-old infants were tested in three social and nonsocial tasks of increasing complexity and their gaze behavior was micro-coded. In…

  3. Gaze Behaviors of Preterm and Full-Term Infants in Nonsocial and Social Contexts of Increasing Dynamics: Visual Recognition, Attention Regulation, and Gaze Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Hagar; Gordon, Ilanit; Geva, Ronny; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated poor visual skills in premature infants, few studies assessed infants' gaze behaviors across several domains of functioning in a single study. Thirty premature and 30 full-term 3-month-old infants were tested in three social and nonsocial tasks of increasing complexity and their gaze behavior was micro-coded. In…

  4. Judging attractiveness: Biases due to raters’ own attractiveness and intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Yen-Lin Sim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tennis and Dabbs (1975 reported that physically attractive males showed a positivity bias when rating the attractiveness of others. The opposite pattern was observed for females. We attempted to replicate and extend these findings by: (1 using self-assessed attractiveness rather than the experimentally derived attractiveness measure used in previous research, (2 using face-to-face interactions with targets as opposed to using photographs, and (3 examining the effect of another ego-involving attribute: intelligence. Consistent with previous research, attractiveness judgments made by men, but not women, correlated positively with their own self-perceived level of attractiveness (r = .51, p < .001. Attractiveness judgments made by women, but not men, correlated negatively with their intelligence (r = −.32, p = .001. Judgments of attractiveness are thus biased by a rater’s own attributes (e.g. attractiveness and intelligence, but these effects are not generalizable across men and women raters, and may be driven by different mechanisms.

  5. Beyond initial attraction: physical attractiveness in newlywed marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K; Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2008-02-01

    Physical appearance plays a crucial role in shaping new relationships, but does it continue to affect established relationships, such as marriage? In the current study, the authors examined how observer ratings of each spouse's facial attractiveness and the difference between those ratings were associated with (a) observations of social support behavior and (b) reports of marital satisfaction. In contrast to the robust and almost universally positive effects of levels of attractiveness on new relationships, the only association between levels of attractiveness and the outcomes of these marriages was that attractive husbands were less satisfied. Further, in contrast to the importance of matched attractiveness to new relationships, similarity in attractiveness was unrelated to spouses' satisfaction and behavior. Instead, the relative difference between partners' levels of attractiveness appeared to be most important in predicting marital behavior, such that both spouses behaved more positively in relationships in which wives were more attractive than their husbands, but they behaved more negatively in relationships in which husbands were more attractive than their wives. These results highlight the importance of dyadic examinations of the effects of spouses' qualities on their marriages.

  6. Effects of gender and physical attractiveness on visual attention to Facebook profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Gwendolyn; Miller, Olivia S

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined viewers' gaze while observing Facebook profiles of strangers varying in gender and physical attractiveness. Fifty-one participants viewed four Facebook profiles, a physically attractive and unattractive individual of each gender. Participants' eye movements were tracked as they viewed each profile for 60 seconds. Results showed that participants paid more attention to the physical appearance (main profile photograph) of female than of male profile owners and to the personal information (likes and interests) of male than to female profile owners. Participants spent more time focusing on information that was irrelevant to forming an impression of the profile owner (advertisements) when viewing the profiles of unattractive than attractive individuals, suggesting that they made a greater effort to learn about these individuals.

  7. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  8. Insulin signaling mediates sexual attractiveness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Kuo

    Full Text Available Sexually attractive characteristics are often thought to reflect an individual's condition or reproductive potential, but the underlying molecular mechanisms through which they do so are generally unknown. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS is known to modulate aging, reproduction, and stress resistance in several species and to contribute to variability of these traits in natural populations. Here we show that IIS determines sexual attractiveness in Drosophila through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the production of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC, many of which function as pheromones. Using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS together with newly introduced laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-MS we establish that CHC profiles are significantly affected by genetic manipulations that target IIS. Manipulations that reduce IIS also reduce attractiveness, while females with increased IIS are significantly more attractive than wild-type animals. IIS effects on attractiveness are mediated by changes in CHC profiles. Insulin signaling influences CHC through pathways that are likely independent of dFOXO and that may involve the nutrient-sensing Target of Rapamycin (TOR pathway. These results suggest that the activity of conserved molecular regulators of longevity and reproductive output may manifest in different species as external characteristics that are perceived as honest indicators of fitness potential.

  9. The Eyes Are the Windows to the Mind: Direct Eye Gaze Triggers the Ascription of Others' Minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Saara; Deska, Jason C; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Eye gaze is a potent source of social information with direct eye gaze signaling the desire to approach and averted eye gaze signaling avoidance. In the current work, we proposed that eye gaze signals whether or not to impute minds into others. Across four studies, we manipulated targets' eye gaze (i.e., direct vs. averted eye gaze) and measured explicit mind ascriptions (Study 1a, Study 1b, and Study 2) and beliefs about the likelihood of targets having mind (Study 3). In all four studies, we find novel evidence that the ascription of sophisticated humanlike minds to others is signaled by the display of direct eye gaze relative to averted eye gaze. Moreover, we provide evidence suggesting that this differential mentalization is due, at least in part, to beliefs that direct gaze targets are more likely to instigate social interaction. In short, eye contact triggers mind perception.

  10. Enhancing sensorimotor activity by controlling virtual objects with gaze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Modroño

    Full Text Available This fMRI work studies brain activity of healthy volunteers who manipulated a virtual object in the context of a digital game by applying two different control methods: using their right hand or using their gaze. The results show extended activations in sensorimotor areas, not only when participants played in the traditional way (using their hand but also when they used their gaze to control the virtual object. Furthermore, with the exception of the primary motor cortex, regional motor activity was similar regardless of what the effector was: the arm or the eye. These results have a potential application in the field of the neurorehabilitation as a new approach to generate activation of the sensorimotor system to support the recovery of the motor functions.

  11. Disseminated histoplasmosis causing reversible gaze palsy and optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J D; Girkin, C A; Miller, N R; Mann, R B

    1999-06-01

    Subacute disseminated histoplasmosis is an uncommon entity. Typical neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations are usually secondary to histoplasmomas or encephalitis. A 45-year-old man noted blurred vision while receiving empiric antituberculosis therapy for fever and diffuse granulomatous disease of unknown origin. Vertical-gaze palsy, right horizontal-gaze paresis, and mild right optic neuropathy were found on neuro-ophthalmologic examination. Further questioning revealed a history of frequent contact with fighting cocks from South America. Magnetic resonance images were consistent with multiple hemorrhagic infarcts, areas of inflammation, or both, and cerebral angiography showed changes consistent with vasculitis. A previously obtained biopsy specimen from the duodenum was restained and found to be positive for fungal elements. Serum antigen titers for Histoplasma capsulatum demonstrated evidence of active infection. This case is a rare example of a supranuclear ocular motility disturbance and optic neuropathy secondary to an occlusive vascular process in a patient with subacute disseminated histoplasmosis.

  12. Are you looking my way? Ostracism widens the cone of gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Pessi; Wirth, James H; Hietanen, Jari K

    2017-08-01

    Ostracized individuals demonstrate an increased need for belonging. To satisfy this need, they search for signals of inclusion, one of which may be another person's gaze directed at oneself. We tested if ostracized, compared to included, individuals judge a greater degree of averted gaze as still being direct. This range of gaze angles still viewed as direct has been dubbed "the cone of (direct) gaze". In the current research, ostracized and included participants viewed friendly-looking face stimuli with direct or slightly averted gaze (0°, 2°, 4°, 6°, and 8° to the left and to the right) and judged whether stimulus persons were looking at them or not. Ostracized individuals demonstrated a wider gaze cone than included individuals.

  13. Camera Mouse Including “Ctrl-Alt-Del” Key Operation Using Gaze, Blink, and Mouth Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents camera mouse system with additional feature: "CTRL - ALT - DEL" key. The previous gaze-based camera mouse systems are only considering how to obtain gaze and making selection. We proposed gaze-based camera mouse with "CTRL - ALT - DEL" key. Infrared camera is put on top of display while user looking ahead. User gaze is estimated based on eye gaze and head pose. Blinking and mouth detections are used to create "CTR - ALT - DEL" key. Pupil knowledge is used to improve robustness of eye gaze estimation against different users. Also, Gabor filter is used to extract face features. Skin color information and face features are used to estimate head pose. The experiments of each method have done and the results show that all methods work perfectly. By implemented this system, troubleshooting of camera mouse can be done by user itself and makes camera mouse be more sophisticated.

  14. Do as eye say: gaze cueing and language in a real-world social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Ross G; Tatler, Benjamin W

    2013-03-11

    Gaze cues are important in communication. In social interactions gaze cues usually occur with spoken language, yet most previous research has used artificial paradigms without dialogue. The present study investigates the interaction between gaze and language using a real-world paradigm. Each participant followed instructions to build a series of abstract structures out of building blocks, while their eye movements were recorded. The instructor varied the specificity of the instructions (unambiguous or ambiguous) and the presence of gaze cues (present or absent) between participants. Fixations to the blocks were recorded and task performance was measured. The presence of gaze cues led to more accurate performance, more accurate visual selection of the target block and more fixations towards the instructor when ambiguous instructions were given, but not when unambiguous instructions were given. We conclude that people only utilize the gaze cues of others when the cues provide useful information.

  15. Physical Attractiveness Stereotypes about Marriage: Attractiveness Matching Is Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; And Others

    Previous research on physical attractiveness stereotypes about marriage have used stimulus individuals in isolation. To examine these attractiveness stereotypes using couples as targets, 72 college students (36 females, 36 males) rated eight photographs of four male-female couple types. Members of each couple were either matched (attractive…

  16. What Do Eye Gaze Metrics Tell Us about Motor Imagery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Poiroux

    Full Text Available Many of the brain structures involved in performing real movements also have increased activity during imagined movements or during motor observation, and this could be the neural substrate underlying the effects of motor imagery in motor learning or motor rehabilitation. In the absence of any objective physiological method of measurement, it is currently impossible to be sure that the patient is indeed performing the task as instructed. Eye gaze recording during a motor imagery task could be a possible way to "spy" on the activity an individual is really engaged in. The aim of the present study was to compare the pattern of eye movement metrics during motor observation, visual and kinesthetic motor imagery (VI, KI, target fixation, and mental calculation. Twenty-two healthy subjects (16 females and 6 males, were required to perform tests in five conditions using imagery in the Box and Block Test tasks following the procedure described by Liepert et al. Eye movements were analysed by a non-invasive oculometric measure (SMI RED250 system. Two parameters describing gaze pattern were calculated: the index of ocular mobility (saccade duration over saccade + fixation duration and the number of midline crossings (i.e. the number of times the subjects gaze crossed the midline of the screen when performing the different tasks. Both parameters were significantly different between visual imagery and kinesthesic imagery, visual imagery and mental calculation, and visual imagery and target fixation. For the first time we were able to show that eye movement patterns are different during VI and KI tasks. Our results suggest gaze metric parameters could be used as an objective unobtrusive approach to assess engagement in a motor imagery task. Further studies should define how oculomotor parameters could be used as an indicator of the rehabilitation task a patient is engaged in.

  17. Does the 'P300' speller depend on eye gaze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, P.; Joshi, S.; Briskin, S.; Wolpaw, J. R.; Bischof, H.; Schalk, G.

    2010-10-01

    Many people affected by debilitating neuromuscular disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brainstem stroke or spinal cord injury are impaired in their ability to, or are even unable to, communicate. A brain-computer interface (BCI) uses brain signals, rather than muscles, to re-establish communication with the outside world. One particular BCI approach is the so-called 'P300 matrix speller' that was first described by Farwell and Donchin (1988 Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 70 510-23). It has been widely assumed that this method does not depend on the ability to focus on the desired character, because it was thought that it relies primarily on the P300-evoked potential and minimally, if at all, on other EEG features such as the visual-evoked potential (VEP). This issue is highly relevant for the clinical application of this BCI method, because eye movements may be impaired or lost in the relevant user population. This study investigated the extent to which the performance in a 'P300' speller BCI depends on eye gaze. We evaluated the performance of 17 healthy subjects using a 'P300' matrix speller under two conditions. Under one condition ('letter'), the subjects focused their eye gaze on the intended letter, while under the second condition ('center'), the subjects focused their eye gaze on a fixation cross that was located in the center of the matrix. The results show that the performance of the 'P300' matrix speller in normal subjects depends in considerable measure on gaze direction. They thereby disprove a widespread assumption in BCI research, and suggest that this BCI might function more effectively for people who retain some eye-movement control. The applicability of these findings to people with severe neuromuscular disabilities (particularly in eye-movements) remains to be determined.

  18. Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomfim, Rodrigo C.; Tavora, Daniel G.F.; Nakayama, Mauro; Gama, Romulo L. [Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Ceara (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and progressive scoliosis developing in childhood and adolescence. We present a child with clinical and neuroimaging findings typical of HGPPS. CT and MRI of the brain demonstrated pons hypoplasia, absence of the facial colliculi, butterfly configuration of the medulla and a deep midline pontine cleft. We briefly discuss the imaging aspects of this rare entity in light of the current literature. (orig.)

  19. Eye gaze estimation from the elliptical features of one iris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Tai-Ning; Chang, Sheng-Jiang

    2011-04-01

    The accuracy of eye gaze estimation using image information is affected by several factors which include image resolution, anatomical structure of the eye, and posture changes. The irregular movements of the head and eye create issues that are currently being researched to enable better use of this key technology. In this paper, we describe an effective way of estimating eye gaze from the elliptical features of one iris under the conditions of not using an auxiliary light source, a head fixing equipment, or multiple cameras. First, we provide preliminary estimation of the gaze direction, and then we obtain the vectors which describe the translation and rotation of the eyeball, by applying a central projection method on the plane which passes through the line-of-sight. This helps us avoid the complex computations involved in previous methods. We also disambiguate the solution based on experimental findings. Second, error correction is conducted on a back propagation neural network trained by a sample collection of translation and rotation vectors. Extensive experimental studies are conducted to assess the efficiency, and robustness of our method. Results reveal that our method has a better performance compared to a typical previous method.

  20. Remote Gaze Tracking System on a Large Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihun Cha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new remote gaze tracking system as an intelligent TV interface. Our research is novel in the following three ways: first, because a user can sit at various positions in front of a large display, the capture volume of the gaze tracking system should be greater, so the proposed system includes two cameras which can be moved simultaneously by panning and tilting mechanisms, a wide view camera (WVC for detecting eye position and an auto-focusing narrow view camera (NVC for capturing enlarged eye images. Second, in order to remove the complicated calibration between the WVC and NVC and to enhance the capture speed of the NVC, these two cameras are combined in a parallel structure. Third, the auto-focusing of the NVC is achieved on the basis of both the user’s facial width in the WVC image and a focus score calculated on the eye image of the NVC. Experimental results showed that the proposed system can be operated with a gaze tracking accuracy of ±0.737°~±0.775° and a speed of 5~10 frames/s.

  1. Gazes and Bodies in the Pornographies of Desire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Lino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio propone una lettura sociale della pornografia cinematografica usando la categoria dello sguardo e le sue declinazioni di genere. Partendo dal famoso saggio di Laura Mulvey, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (1975, si sposterà il centro dell’analisi dal cinema narrativo tradizionale al cinema pornografico, considerando quest’ultimo un modello che fa contrappunto al voyeurismo dello sguardo maschile (male gaze che la Mulvey riscontrava in alcuni film di Sternberg e di Hitckcock. Per dimostrare la natura contrappuntistica del cinema pornografico si metterà a confronto la medesima messa in scena di uno sguardo che desidera in due film molto differenti tra loro, Rear Window (1954 di Hitchcock e Behind the Green Door (1972 dei fratelli Mitchell. La natura contrappuntistica del porn movie si rintraccia anche nel dialogo che instaura con il cinema mainstream riguardo ai limiti del visibile in materia sessuale. Infine, la pornografia soddisfa la rappresentazione del desiderio delle altre identità di genere, mettendo in scena tipologie di sguardo adeguate – female gaze e queer gaze –, che diventano presto strumenti per una affermazione sociale della diversità sessuali.

  2. Holistic gaze strategy to categorize facial expression of varying intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Guo

    Full Text Available Using faces representing exaggerated emotional expressions, recent behaviour and eye-tracking studies have suggested a dominant role of individual facial features in transmitting diagnostic cues for decoding facial expressions. Considering that in everyday life we frequently view low-intensity expressive faces in which local facial cues are more ambiguous, we probably need to combine expressive cues from more than one facial feature to reliably decode naturalistic facial affects. In this study we applied a morphing technique to systematically vary intensities of six basic facial expressions of emotion, and employed a self-paced expression categorization task to measure participants' categorization performance and associated gaze patterns. The analysis of pooled data from all expressions showed that increasing expression intensity would improve categorization accuracy, shorten reaction time and reduce number of fixations directed at faces. The proportion of fixations and viewing time directed at internal facial features (eyes, nose and mouth region, however, was not affected by varying levels of intensity. Further comparison between individual facial expressions revealed that although proportional gaze allocation at individual facial features was quantitatively modulated by the viewed expressions, the overall gaze distribution in face viewing was qualitatively similar across different facial expressions and different intensities. It seems that we adopt a holistic viewing strategy to extract expressive cues from all internal facial features in processing of naturalistic facial expressions.

  3. Compact near-to-eye display with integrated gaze tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvenpää, Toni; Aaltonen, Viljakaisa

    2008-04-01

    Near-to-Eye Display (NED) offers a big screen experience to the user anywhere, anytime. It provides a way to perceive a larger image than the physical device itself is. Commercially available NEDs tend to be quite bulky and uncomfortable to wear. However, by using very thin plastic light guides with diffractive structures on the surfaces, many of the known deficiencies can be notably reduced. These Exit Pupil Expander (EPE) light guides enable a thin, light, user friendly and high performing see-through NED, which we have demonstrated. To be able to interact with the displayed UI efficiently, we have also integrated a video-based gaze tracker into the NED. The narrow light beam of an infrared light source is divided and expanded inside the same EPEs to produce wide collimated beams out from the EPE towards the eyes. Miniature video camera images the cornea and eye gaze direction is accurately calculated by locating the pupil and the glints of the infrared beams. After a simple and robust per-user calibration, the data from the highly integrated gaze tracker reflects the user focus point in the displayed image which can be used as an input device for the NED system. Realizable applications go from eye typing to playing games, and far beyond.

  4. Limiting Conditions of the "Physical Attractiveness Stereotype": Attributions about Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Subjects, reading a profile of a couple filing for divorce, made attributions about responsibility, financial settlement, future behavior, and personality traits. Reasons for divorce, physical attractiveness of husband and wife, and sex of subject were varied. Attractiveness strongly influenced personality ratings. Reason for divorce was related…

  5. Interpersonal Attraction as a Function of Appearance and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brent M.

    While the influence of competence on interpersonal attraction has been examined from several perspectives, the attraction literature is relatively silent with respect to competitive interactions between the sexes. A study was conducted to examine the roles of competence and physical appearance in liking responses. Male (N=43) and female (N=53)…

  6. Attracting College Candidates: The Impact of Perceived Social Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Anthony J.; Patrick, Michelle L.; Wilson, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores how perceived attractiveness of the social life at a college/university influences potential applicants' likelihood to request information from, visit and apply to (decision approach actions) that school. Results obtained from a study of high school juniors indicate that attractiveness of social life, defined in terms of…

  7. Gaze Duration Biases for Colours in Combination with Dissonant and Consonant Sounds: A Comparative Eye-Tracking Study with Orangutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlenbeck, Cordelia; Liebal, Katja; Pritsch, Carla; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Research on colour preferences in humans and non-human primates suggests similar patterns of biases for and avoidance of specific colours, indicating that these colours are connected to a psychological reaction. Similarly, in the acoustic domain, approach reactions to consonant sounds (considered as positive) and avoidance reactions to dissonant sounds (considered as negative) have been found in human adults and children, and it has been demonstrated that non-human primates are able to discriminate between consonant and dissonant sounds. Yet it remains unclear whether the visual and acoustic approach–avoidance patterns remain consistent when both types of stimuli are combined, how they relate to and influence each other, and whether these are similar for humans and other primates. Therefore, to investigate whether gaze duration biases for colours are similar across primates and whether reactions to consonant and dissonant sounds cumulate with reactions to specific colours, we conducted an eye-tracking study in which we compared humans with one species of great apes, the orangutans. We presented four different colours either in isolation or in combination with consonant and dissonant sounds. We hypothesised that the viewing time for specific colours should be influenced by dissonant sounds and that previously existing avoidance behaviours with regard to colours should be intensified, reflecting their association with negative acoustic information. The results showed that the humans had constant gaze durations which were independent of the auditory stimulus, with a clear avoidance of yellow. In contrast, the orangutans did not show any clear gaze duration bias or avoidance of colours, and they were also not influenced by the auditory stimuli. In conclusion, our findings only partially support the previously identified pattern of biases for and avoidance of specific colours in humans and do not confirm such a pattern for orangutans. PMID:26466351

  8. Fusing Eye-gaze and Speech Recognition for Tracking in an Automatic Reading Tutor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Højfeldt; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach for automatically tracking the reading progress using a combination of eye-gaze tracking and speech recognition. The two are fused by first generating word probabilities based on eye-gaze information and then using these probabilities to augment the langu......In this paper we present a novel approach for automatically tracking the reading progress using a combination of eye-gaze tracking and speech recognition. The two are fused by first generating word probabilities based on eye-gaze information and then using these probabilities to augment...

  9. Evaluating gaze-based interface tools to facilitate point-and-select tasks with small targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Henrik; Mateo, Julio C.; Hansen, John Paulin

    2011-01-01

    Gaze interaction affords hands-free control of computers. Pointing to and selecting small targets using gaze alone is difficult because of the limited accuracy of gaze pointing. This is the first experimental comparison of gaze-based interface tools for small-target (e.g. ... when using zoom, but total pointing times were shorter using zoom. Furthermore, participants perceived magnification as more fatiguing than zoom. The higher accuracy of magnification makes it preferable when interacting with small targets. Our findings may guide the development of interface tools...

  10. Simple gaze-contingent cues guide eye movements in a realistic driving simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarjanschi, Laura; Dorr, Michael; Bex, Peter J.; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Looking at the right place at the right time is a critical component of driving skill. Therefore, gaze guidance has the potential to become a valuable driving assistance system. In previous work, we have already shown that complex gaze-contingent stimuli can guide attention and reduce the number of accidents in a simple driving simulator. We here set out to investigate whether cues that are simple enough to be implemented in a real car can also capture gaze during a more realistic driving task in a high-fidelity driving simulator. We used a state-of-the-art, wide-field-of-view driving simulator with an integrated eye tracker. Gaze-contingent warnings were implemented using two arrays of light-emitting diodes horizontally fitted below and above the simulated windshield. Thirteen volunteering subjects drove along predetermined routes in a simulated environment popu­ lated with autonomous traffic. Warnings were triggered during the approach to half of the intersections, cueing either towards the right or to the left. The remaining intersections were not cued, and served as controls. The analysis of the recorded gaze data revealed that the gaze-contingent cues did indeed have a gaze guiding effect, triggering a significant shift in gaze position towards the highlighted direction. This gaze shift was not accompanied by changes in driving behaviour, suggesting that the cues do not interfere with the driving task itself.

  11. Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Arre, Alyssa M; Platt, Michael L; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-11

    Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behaviour. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Non-human primates also follow others' gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behaviour develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys began to follow gaze in infancy and this response peaked in the juvenile period-suggesting that younger monkeys were especially attuned to gaze information, like humans. After sexual maturity, monkeys exhibited human-like sex differences in gaze following, with adult females showing more gaze following than males. Finally, older monkeys showed reduced propensity to follow gaze, just as older humans do. In a second study (n = 80), we confirmed that macaques exhibit similar baseline rates of looking upwards in a control condition, regardless of age. Our findings indicate that-despite important differences in human and non-human primate life-history characteristics and typical social experiences-monkeys undergo robust ontogenetic shifts in gaze following across early development, adulthood and ageing that are strikingly similar to those of humans.

  12. The role of emotion in learning trustworthiness from eye-gaze: Evidence from facial electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manssuer, Luis R; Pawling, Ralph; Hayes, Amy E; Tipper, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Gaze direction can be used to rapidly and reflexively lead or mislead others' attention as to the location of important stimuli. When perception of gaze direction is congruent with the location of a target, responses are faster compared to when incongruent. Faces that consistently gaze congruently are also judged more trustworthy than faces that consistently gaze incongruently. However, it's unclear how gaze-cues elicit changes in trust. We measured facial electromyography (EMG) during an identity-contingent gaze-cueing task to examine whether embodied emotional reactions to gaze-cues mediate trust learning. Gaze-cueing effects were found to be equivalent regardless of whether participants showed learning of trust in the expected direction or did not. In contrast, we found distinctly different patterns of EMG activity in these two populations. In a further experiment we showed the learning effects were specific to viewing faces, as no changes in liking were detected when viewing arrows that evoked similar attentional orienting responses. These findings implicate embodied emotion in learning trust from identity-contingent gaze-cueing, possibly due to the social value of shared attention or deception rather than domain-general attentional orienting.

  13. Gaze as a Supplementary Modality for Interacting with Ambient Intelligence Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Gepner, Daniel; Carbonell, Noëlle

    2007-01-01

    We present our current research on the implementation of gaze as an efficient and usable pointing modality supplementary to speech, for interacting with augmented objects in our daily environment or large displays, especially immersive virtual reality environments, such as reality centres and caves. We are also addressing issues relating to the use of gaze as the main interaction input modality. We have designed and developed two operational user interfaces: one for providing motor-disabled users with easy gaze-based access to map applications and graphical software; the other for iteratively testing and improving the usability of gaze-contingent displays.

  14. The effect of gaze direction on three-dimensional face recognition in infant brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Wakayo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2012-09-12

    In three-dimensional face recognition studies, it is well known that viewing rotating faces enhance face recognition. For infants, our previous study indicated that 8-month-old infants showed recognition of three-dimensional rotating faces with a direct gaze, and they did not learn with an averted gaze. This suggests that gaze direction may affect three-dimensional face recognition in infants. In this experiment, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to measure infants' hemodynamic responses to averted gaze and direct gaze. We hypothesized that infants would show different neural activity for averted and direct gazes. The responses were compared with the baseline activation during the presentation of non-face objects. We found that the concentration of oxyhemoglobin increased in the temporal cortex on both sides only during the presentation of averted gaze compared with that of the baseline period. This is the first study to show that infants' brain activity in three-dimensional face processing is different between averted gaze and direct gaze.

  15. Satisfaction with visit to tourism attractions

    OpenAIRE

    Navrátil, Josef; Pícha, Kamil; Navrátilová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a several factors on satisfaction with a visit to water-based natural attractions. After reviewing relevant studies, it was hypothesized that satisfaction is influenced by push motivations, pull motivations, on-site experience, perceived quality and perceived values of visit. As a method of data reduction, the factor analysis based on principal component analysis was used for multi-item constructs (push motivations, pull motivations, on-site ex...

  16. Personality Mediators of Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles D.; And Others

    The current study was an examination of the effect of personality variables on the relationship between attitude disagreement and attraction. Attraction was measured in a neutral situation, designed to maximize any existing affective predispositions toward attitude agreement-disagreements. Subjects were placed in an ambiguous face-to-face…

  17. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  18. The Measurement of Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCroskey, James C.; McCain, Thomas A.

    This paper reports a factor analytic investigation of the interpersonal attraction construct. Two hundred-fifteen subjects completed 30 Likert-type, 7-step scales concerning an acquaintance. Factor analysis indicated three dimensions of the interpersonal attraction construct which were labeled "task,""social," and "physical." Obtained internal…

  19. Physical Attractiveness and Courtship Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gregory L.

    1980-01-01

    Among college students who were casual or serious daters, greater relative attractiveness was positively correlated with greater relative availability of opposite-sexed friends and negatively correlated with worrying about partner's potential involvement with others. A 9-month follow-up revealed that similarity of attractiveness was predictive of…

  20. Physical attractiveness stereotype and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments examined explicit and implicit memory for information that is congruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-positive and unattractive-negative) and information that is incongruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-negative and unattractive-positive). Measures of explicit recognition sensitivity and implicit discriminability revealed a memorial advantage for congruent compared to incongruent information, as evident from hit and false alarm rates and reaction times, respectively. Measures of explicit memory showed a recognition bias toward congruent compared to incongruent information, where participants tended to call congruent information old, independently of whether the information had been shown previously or not. This recognition bias was unrelated to reports of subjective confidence in retrieval. The present findings shed light on the cognitive mechanisms that might mediate discriminatory behavior towards physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals.

  1. African perceptions of female attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Coetzee

    Full Text Available Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness, skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness.

  2. 视觉分心时驾驶人注视行为特性分析%Analysis of Drivers' Gazing Behavior during Visual Distraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马勇; 付锐; 王畅; 郭应时; 袁伟; 宋殿明

    2013-01-01

    To explore the influences of visual distraction on drivers gazing behavior,and study the gazing behavior patterns during visual distraction,data on driver's eye movement data were recorded with a noncontact eye tracker faceLAB 5.0 when carrying out the naturalistic driving tests.By dividing drivers gazing area into four parts,driver's fixation frequencies and eyes off-road time duration features were analyzed.The results show that during the driver's eyes off-road,in-vehicle gazing is above 60%,and the fixation frequency on left rear-mirror is higher than that on right rear-mirror.About 90% duration of gazing behavior is shorter than 1.0 s,and more than 50% duration times are of 0.4-0.8 s.The average duration time for drivers gazing on left rear-mirror,dashboard and audio instruments are closely,while it is longer than these 3 areas for drivers gazing on right rear-mirror.%为探寻视觉分心对驾驶人注视行为的影响,研究视觉分心时的驾驶人注视行为,用非接触式眼动仪采集多位被试驾驶人在实际驾驶过程中的眼动数据,并将其注视区域分为4部分,分析驾驶人视线离开前方区域情况下的注视频次及注视时长特性.结果表明:驾驶人在视线离开前方区域情况下,超过60%的注视对象是车内区域,且驾驶人观察左后视镜区域的次数高于右后视镜区域.约90%的注视时长小于1.0s,注视时长为0.4~0.8 s的比例超过50%.驾驶人对左后视镜、仪表板和音响设备区域的注视时长均值比较接近,而对右后视镜的注视时长均值大于这3个区域.

  3. Smoking Artifacts as Indicators of Homophily, Attraction, and Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Mark, III; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a study of the influence of smoking artifacts on the perceptions of a source's homophily, interpersonal attraction, and credibility. Significant differences were found based upon the type of smoking artifact used and the sex of the subject. (JMF)

  4. Intermolecular Repulsion through Interfacial Attraction : Toward Engineering of Polymorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudernac, Tibor; Sändig, Nadja; Fernández Landaluce, Tatiana; Wees, Bart J. van; Rudolf, Petra; Katsonis, Nathalie; Zerbetto, Francesco; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the formation of crystalline polymorphs is of importance for various applications of materials science. Polymorphism of Schiff base derivatives has recently attracted considerable attention because of its influence on photochromic and thermochromic properties of their 3D crystals. The

  5. Contribution of malocclusion and female facial attractiveness to smile esthetics evaluated by eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael R; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R; Walther, Dirk B; Rosenstiel, Stephen; Sacksteder, James M

    2015-04-01

    There is disagreement in the literature concerning the importance of the mouth in overall facial attractiveness. Eye tracking provides an objective method to evaluate what people see. The objective of this study was to determine whether dental and facial attractiveness alters viewers' visual attention in terms of which area of the face (eyes, nose, mouth, chin, ears, or other) is viewed first, viewed the greatest number of times, and viewed for the greatest total time (duration) using eye tracking. Seventy-six viewers underwent 1 eye tracking session. Of these, 53 were white (49% female, 51% male). Their ages ranged from 18 to 29 years, with a mean of 19.8 years, and none were dental professionals. After being positioned and calibrated, they were shown 24 unique female composite images, each image shown twice for reliability. These images reflected a repaired unilateral cleft lip or 3 grades of dental attractiveness similar to those of grades 1 (near ideal), 7 (borderline treatment need), and 10 (definite treatment need) as assessed in the aesthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (AC-IOTN). The images were then embedded in faces of 3 levels of attractiveness: attractive, average, and unattractive. During viewing, data were collected for the first location, frequency, and duration of each viewer's gaze. Observer reliability ranged from 0.58 to 0.92 (intraclass correlation coefficients) but was less than 0.07 (interrater) for the chin, which was eliminated from the study. Likewise, reliability for the area of first fixation was kappa less than 0.10 for both intrarater and interrater reliabilities; the area of first fixation was also removed from the data analysis. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed a significant effect (P eyes overwhelmingly were most salient, with the mouth receiving the second most visual attention. At times, the mouth and the eyes were statistically indistinguishable in viewers' gazes of fixation and duration. As

  6. Gaze Synchrony between Mothers with Mood Disorders and Their Infants: Maternal Emotion Dysregulation Matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Lotzin

    Full Text Available A lowered and heightened synchrony between the mother's and infant's nonverbal behavior predicts adverse infant development. We know that maternal depressive symptoms predict lowered and heightened mother-infant gaze synchrony, but it is unclear whether maternal emotion dysregulation is related to mother-infant gaze synchrony. This cross-sectional study examined whether maternal emotion dysregulation in mothers with mood disorders is significantly related to mother-infant gaze synchrony. We also tested whether maternal emotion dysregulation is relatively more important than maternal depressive symptoms in predicting mother-infant gaze synchrony, and whether maternal emotion dysregulation mediates the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and mother-infant gaze synchrony. We observed 68 mothers and their 4- to 9-month-old infants in the Still-Face paradigm during two play interactions, before and after social stress was induced. The mothers' and infants' gaze behaviors were coded using microanalysis with the Maternal Regulatory Scoring System and Infant Regulatory Scoring System, respectively. The degree of mother-infant gaze synchrony was computed using time-series analysis. Maternal emotion dysregulation was measured by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale; depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Greater maternal emotion dysregulation was significantly related to heightened mother-infant gaze synchrony. The overall effect of maternal emotion dysregulation on mother-infant gaze synchrony was relatively more important than the effect of maternal depressive symptoms in the five tested models. Maternal emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and mother-infant gaze synchrony. Our findings suggest that the effect of the mother's depressive symptoms on the mother-infant gaze synchrony may be mediated by the mother's emotion dysregulation.

  7. Gaze Synchrony between Mothers with Mood Disorders and Their Infants: Maternal Emotion Dysregulation Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotzin, Annett; Romer, Georg; Schiborr, Julia; Noga, Berit; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Ramsauer, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    A lowered and heightened synchrony between the mother's and infant's nonverbal behavior predicts adverse infant development. We know that maternal depressive symptoms predict lowered and heightened mother-infant gaze synchrony, but it is unclear whether maternal emotion dysregulation is related to mother-infant gaze synchrony. This cross-sectional study examined whether maternal emotion dysregulation in mothers with mood disorders is significantly related to mother-infant gaze synchrony. We also tested whether maternal emotion dysregulation is relatively more important than maternal depressive symptoms in predicting mother-infant gaze synchrony, and whether maternal emotion dysregulation mediates the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and mother-infant gaze synchrony. We observed 68 mothers and their 4- to 9-month-old infants in the Still-Face paradigm during two play interactions, before and after social stress was induced. The mothers' and infants' gaze behaviors were coded using microanalysis with the Maternal Regulatory Scoring System and Infant Regulatory Scoring System, respectively. The degree of mother-infant gaze synchrony was computed using time-series analysis. Maternal emotion dysregulation was measured by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale; depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Greater maternal emotion dysregulation was significantly related to heightened mother-infant gaze synchrony. The overall effect of maternal emotion dysregulation on mother-infant gaze synchrony was relatively more important than the effect of maternal depressive symptoms in the five tested models. Maternal emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and mother-infant gaze synchrony. Our findings suggest that the effect of the mother's depressive symptoms on the mother-infant gaze synchrony may be mediated by the mother's emotion dysregulation.

  8. Experimental test of spatial updating models for monkey eye-head gaze shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Van Grootel

    Full Text Available How the brain maintains an accurate and stable representation of visual target locations despite the occurrence of saccadic gaze shifts is a classical problem in oculomotor research. Here we test and dissociate the predictions of different conceptual models for head-unrestrained gaze-localization behavior of macaque monkeys. We adopted the double-step paradigm with rapid eye-head gaze shifts to measure localization accuracy in response to flashed visual stimuli in darkness. We presented the second target flash either before (static, or during (dynamic the first gaze displacement. In the dynamic case the brief visual flash induced a small retinal streak of up to about 20 deg at an unpredictable moment and retinal location during the eye-head gaze shift, which provides serious challenges for the gaze-control system. However, for both stimulus conditions, monkeys localized the flashed targets with accurate gaze shifts, which rules out several models of visuomotor control. First, these findings exclude the possibility that gaze-shift programming relies on retinal inputs only. Instead, they support the notion that accurate eye-head motor feedback updates the gaze-saccade coordinates. Second, in dynamic trials the visuomotor system cannot rely on the coordinates of the planned first eye-head saccade either, which rules out remapping on the basis of a predictive corollary gaze-displacement signal. Finally, because gaze-related head movements were also goal-directed, requiring continuous access to eye-in-head position, we propose that our results best support a dynamic feedback scheme for spatial updating in which visuomotor control incorporates accurate signals about instantaneous eye- and head positions rather than relative eye- and head displacements.

  9. Mating strategies of young women: role of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra

    2004-02-01

    The female physical attractiveness stereotype has been reported to contain both desirable (sociable, poised, interesting) and undesirable (snobbish, likely to request divorce and have extra-marital affairs) personal qualities. To investigate whether such an attractiveness stereotype is cross-cultural, I asked men and women from Azore Island, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, and the U.S. to judge the attractiveness of female figures differing in body weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to rank these figures according to perceived personal attributes. There was a strong cross-cultural consensus for attractiveness; figures with low WHR were judged to be more attractive than figures with high WHR within each weight category. Participants also judged attractive figures as less faithful than less-attractive figures. To explore the basis of a possible 'darker side ' of the attractiveness stereotype, behavior tactics of young U.S. women were examined. Compared to women with high WHRs, low-WHR women reported engaging in more flirting to make dates jealous, suggesting some truth to the attractiveness stereotype. Taken together, these findings suggest that female attractiveness influences the type of mating strategies employed by women.

  10. Global social skill ratings: measures of social behavior or physical attractiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D A; Mindell, J A

    1994-05-01

    Calvert reviewed the literature on social skills and physical attractiveness and concluded that many ratings of social skill may be confounded by the physical attractiveness of the target individual, possibly due to a general perception that physical attractiveness and social competence are positively correlated. In order to examine the influence of physical attractiveness on social skill ratings, Ss made global ratings of social skill and attractiveness for a confederate whose appearance and behavior had been altered to appear attractive or unattractive and socially skilled or unskilled in an assertiveness and heterosocial vignette. The results indicated that the same skilled behavior was viewed as more competent when performed by an attractive person compared to an unattractive person. Attractiveness had no influence on ratings of generally incompetent behavior. Thus, it appears that physical attractiveness does not compensate for poor interpersonal skills, but a skilled, attractive individual may be judged to have particularly good skills. Implications for the assessment of social skills are discussed.

  11. Depression, Schizophrenia, and Social Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Philip C.; Murray, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    Compared the dysphoric mood induction and attraction that subjects reported after a vicarious experience with a depressed patient and a comparable experience with a schizophrenic patient. Results showed similar arousal of dysphoric mood and rejection for both patients. (RC)

  12. The most attractive energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, T.

    2003-07-01

    Photovoltaic modules for seamless integration into the roof or the facade are still relatively expensive. Only few building clients treat themselves to the luxury of this attractive power supply. The range on offer is nevertheless very diverse. (orig.)

  13. African perceptions of female attractiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    .... To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial...

  14. Pollinator and herbivore attraction to cucurbita floral volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elizabeth S; Theis, Nina; Adler, Lynn S

    2007-09-01

    Mutualists and antagonists may place conflicting selection pressures on plant traits. For example, the evolution of floral traits is typically studied in the context of attracting pollinators, but traits may incur fitness costs if they are also attractive to antagonists. Striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum) feed on cucurbits and are attracted to several volatiles emitted by Cucurbita blossoms. However, the effect of these volatiles on pollinator attraction is unknown. Our goal was to determine whether pollinators were attracted to the same or different floral volatiles as herbivorous cucumber beetles. We tested three volatiles previously found to attract cucumber beetles in a factorial design to determine attraction of squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa), the specialist pollinators of cucurbita species, as well as the specialist herbivore A. vittatum. We found that 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene was attractive to both the pollinator and the herbivore, indole was attractive only to the herbivore, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde was attractive only to the pollinator. There were no interactions among volatiles on attraction of squash bees or cucumber beetles. Our results suggest that reduced indole emission could benefit plants by reducing herbivore attraction without loss of pollination, and that 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene might be under conflicting selection pressure from mutualists and antagonists. By examining the attraction of both mutualists and antagonists to Cucurbita floral volatiles, we have demonstrated the potential for some compounds to influence only one type of interaction, while others may affect both interactions and possibly result in tradeoffs. These results shed light on the potential evolution of fragrance in native Cucurbita, and may have consequences for yield in agricultural settings.

  15. Some Effects of Attitudinal Similarity and Exposure on Attraction and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuntich, Richard J.

    1976-01-01

    Previous research investigating the relationship of attraction and aggression has yielded somewhat equivocal results. The present study investigated the influence of two variables, attitudinal similarity and exposure, on interpersonal attraction and physical aggression. (Editor)

  16. Blinded by Beauty: Attractiveness Bias and Accurate Perceptions of Academic Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talamas, Sean N; Mavor, Kenneth I; Perrett, David I

    2016-01-01

    ... are preferentially ascribed to attractive people. The impact of the attractiveness halo effect on perceptions of academic performance in the classroom is concerning as this has shown to influence students' future performance...

  17. Kinematic property of target motion conditions gaze behavior and eye-hand synergy during manual tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Ting; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated how frequency demand and motion feedback influenced composite ocular movements and eye-hand synergy during manual tracking. Fourteen volunteers conducted slow and fast force-tracking in which targets were displayed in either line-mode or wave-mode to guide manual tracking with target movement of direct position or velocity nature. The results showed that eye-hand synergy was a selective response of spatiotemporal coupling conditional on target rate and feedback mode. Slow and line-mode tracking exhibited stronger eye-hand coupling than fast and wave-mode tracking. Both eye movement and manual action led the target signal during fast-tracking, while the latency of ocular navigation during slow-tracking depended on the feedback mode. Slow-tracking resulted in more saccadic responses and larger pursuit gains than fast-tracking. Line-mode tracking led to larger pursuit gains but fewer and shorter gaze fixations than wave-mode tracking. During slow-tracking, incidences of saccade and gaze fixation fluctuated across a target cycle, peaking at velocity maximum and the maximal curvature of target displacement, respectively. For line-mode tracking, the incidence of smooth pursuit was phase-dependent, peaking at velocity maximum as well. Manual behavior of slow or line-mode tracking was better predicted by composite eye movements than that of fast or wave-mode tracking. In conclusion, manual tracking relied on versatile visual strategies to perceive target movements of different kinematic properties, which suggested a flexible coordinative control for the ocular and manual sensorimotor systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The strategic control of gaze direction in the Tower-of-London task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, T L; Bajwa, A; Owen, A M; Kennard, C

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel approach to the study of problem solving involving the detailed analysis of natural scanning eye movements during the "one-touch" Tower-of-London (TOL) task. We showed subjects a series of pictures depicting two arrangements of colored balls in pockets within the upper and lower halves of a computer display. The task was to plan (but not to execute) the shortest movement sequence required to rearrange the balls in one half of the display (the Workspace) to match the arrangement in the opposite half (the Goalspace) and indicate the minimum number of moves required for problem solution. We report that subjects are more likely to look towards the Goalspace in the initial period after picture presentation, but bias gaze towards the Workspace during the middle of trials. Towards the end of a trial, subjects are once again more likely to fixate the Goalspace. This pattern is found regardless of whether the subjects solve problems by rearranging the balls in the lower or upper visual fields, demonstrating that this strategy correlates with discrete phases in problem solving. A second experiment showed that efficient planners direct their gaze selectively towards the problem critical balls in the Workspace. In contrast, individuals who make errors spend more time looking at irrelevant items and are strongly influenced by the movement strategy needed to solve the preceding problem. We conclude that efficient solution of the TOL requires the capacity to generate and flexibly shift between control sets, including those underlying ocular scanning. The role of working memory and the prefrontal cerebral cortex in the task are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of a low-cost open-source gaze tracker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner; Møllenbach, Emilie;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost gaze tracking system that is based on a webcam mounted close to the user's eye. The performance of the gaze tracker was evaluated in an eye-typing task using two different typing applications. Participants could type between 3.56 and 6.78 words per minute, depending...

  20. Gaze-based interaction with public displays using off-the-shelf components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin; Tall, Martin Henrik

    Eye gaze can be used to interact with high-density information presented on large displays. We have built a system employing off-the-shelf hardware components and open-source gaze tracking software that enables users to interact with an interface displayed on a 55” screen using their eye movement...

  1. Brain activation related to combinations of gaze position, visual input, and goal-directed hand movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Patrick; Wu, Min; Sanes, Jerome N

    2011-06-01

    Humans reach to and acquire objects by transforming visual targets into action commands. How the brain integrates goals specified in a visual framework to signals into a suitable framework for an action plan requires clarification whether visual input, per se, interacts with gaze position to formulate action plans. To further evaluate brain control of visual-motor integration, we assessed brain activation, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Humans performed goal-directed movements toward visible or remembered targets while fixating gaze left or right from center. We dissociated movement planning from performance using a delayed-response task and manipulated target visibility by its availability throughout the delay or blanking it 500 ms after onset. We found strong effects of gaze orientation on brain activation during planning and interactive effects of target visibility and gaze orientation on movement-related activation during performance in parietal and premotor cortices (PM), cerebellum, and basal ganglia, with more activation for rightward gaze at a visible target and no gaze modulation for movements directed toward remembered targets. These results demonstrate effects of gaze position on PM and movement-related processes and provide new information how visual signals interact with gaze position in transforming visual inputs into motor goals.

  2. Impairment of Unconscious, but Not Conscious, Gaze-Triggered Attention Orienting in Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Okada, Takashi; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Impairment of joint attention represents the core clinical features of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), including autism and Asperger's disorder. However, experimental studies reported intact gaze-triggered attentional orienting in PDD. Since all previous studies employed supraliminal presentation of gaze stimuli, we hypothesized that…

  3. Coding gaze tracking data with chromatic gradients for VR Exposure Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Grillon, Helena; De Heras Ciechomski, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a simple and intuitive way to represent the eye-tracking data gathered during immersive virtual reality exposure therapy sessions. Eye-tracking technology is used to observe gaze movements during vir- tual reality sessions and the gaze-map chromatic gradient coding allows...

  4. Does Gaze Direction Modulate Facial Expression Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) integrate relevant communicative signals, such as gaze direction, when decoding a facial expression. In Experiment 1, typically developing children (9-14 years old; n = 14) were faster at detecting a facial expression accompanying a gaze direction with a congruent…

  5. Facial Expressions Modulate the Ontogenetic Trajectory of Gaze-Following among Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Christoph; Gutmann, Anke; Pirow, Ralph; Fischer, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Gaze-following, the tendency to direct one's attention to locations looked at by others, is a crucial aspect of social cognition in human and nonhuman primates. Whereas the development of gaze-following has been intensely studied in human infants, its early ontogeny in nonhuman primates has received little attention. Combining longitudinal and…

  6. Fuzzy Integral-Based Gaze Control of a Robotic Head for Human Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Bum-Soo; Kim, Jong-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    During the last few decades, as a part of effort to enhance natural human robot interaction (HRI), considerable research has been carried out to develop human-like gaze control. However, most studies did not consider hardware implementation, real-time processing, and the real environment, factors that should be taken into account to achieve natural HRI. This paper proposes a fuzzy integral-based gaze control algorithm, operating in real-time and the real environment, for a robotic head. We formulate the gaze control as a multicriteria decision making problem and devise seven human gaze-inspired criteria. Partial evaluations of all candidate gaze directions are carried out with respect to the seven criteria defined from perceived visual, auditory, and internal inputs, and fuzzy measures are assigned to a power set of the criteria to reflect the user defined preference. A fuzzy integral of the partial evaluations with respect to the fuzzy measures is employed to make global evaluations of all candidate gaze directions. The global evaluation values are adjusted by applying inhibition of return and are compared with the global evaluation values of the previous gaze directions to decide the final gaze direction. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with a robotic head, developed in the Robot Intelligence Technology Laboratory at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, through three interaction scenarios and three comparison scenarios with another algorithm.

  7. Reading pleasure : Light in August and the theory of the gendered gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses various components of the theory of the gendered gaze, in order to construct a framework for an analysis of how William Faulkner understood and fictionally presented the mechanism of the gaze in Light in August. Linking theory and praxis, this article explores the relationship

  8. Getting Down to Business: Talk, Gaze, and Body Orientation during Openings of Doctor-Patient Consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jeffrey David

    1998-01-01

    Uses conversation analysis to examine how doctors' and patients' practices of gaze and body orientation organize interaction such that doctors routinely initiate the sequence wherein patients disclose their chief complaint. Finds doctors use gaze/body orientation to communicate they are preparing but not yet ready to deal with complaints--while…

  9. Children's Knowledge of Deceptive Gaze Cues and Its Relation to Their Actual Lying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Anjanie; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    Eye gaze plays a pivotal role during communication. When interacting deceptively, it is commonly believed that the deceiver will break eye contact and look downward. We examined whether children's gaze behavior when lying is consistent with this belief. In our study, 7- to 15-year-olds and adults answered questions truthfully ("Truth" questions)…

  10. Eye can see what you want: Posterior Intraparietal Sulcus encodes the object of an actor's gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsey, R.; Cross, E.S.; Hamilton, A.F.D.C.

    2011-01-01

    In a social setting, seeing Sally look at a clock means something different to seeing her gaze longingly at a slice of chocolate cake. In both cases, her eyes and face might be turned rightward, but the information conveyed is markedly different, depending on the object of her gaze. Numerous studies

  11. The genealogical gaze: family identities and family archives in the fourteenth to seventeenth centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, E.

    2009-01-01

    In Renaissance Florence, early modern England, and the Netherlands during the Golden Age the "genealogical gaze" transfigured family archives into a cultural patrimony to be preserved, expanded, and transferred to future generations. Descendants, by appropriating the object of that genealogical gaze

  12. Impairment of Unconscious, but Not Conscious, Gaze-Triggered Attention Orienting in Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Okada, Takashi; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Impairment of joint attention represents the core clinical features of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), including autism and Asperger's disorder. However, experimental studies reported intact gaze-triggered attentional orienting in PDD. Since all previous studies employed supraliminal presentation of gaze stimuli, we hypothesized that…

  13. How does gaze direction affect facial processing in social anxiety? -An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Yu, Fengqiong; Ye, Rong; Chen, Xingui; Xie, Xinhui; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2017-02-09

    Previous behavioral studies have demonstrated an effect of eye gaze direction on the processing of emotional expressions in adults with social anxiety. However, specific brain responses to the interaction between gaze direction and facial expressions in social anxiety remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the time course of such interaction using event-related potentials (ERPs) in participants with social anxiety. High socially anxious individuals and low socially anxious individuals were asked to identify the gender of angry or neutral faces with direct or averted gaze while their behavioral performance and electrophysiological data were monitored. We found that identification of angry faces with direct but not averted gaze elicited larger N2 amplitude in high socially anxious individuals compared to low socially anxious individuals, while identification of neutral faces did not produce any gaze modulation effect. Moreover, the N2 was correlated with increased anxiety severity upon exposure to angry faces with direct gaze. Therefore, our results suggest that gaze direction modulates the processing of threatening faces in social anxiety. The N2 component elicited by angry faces with direct gaze could be a state-dependent biomarker of social anxiety and may be an important reference biomarker for social anxiety diagnosis and intervention.

  14. Adaptive Gaze Strategies for Locomotion with Constricted Visual Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colas N. Authié

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In retinitis pigmentosa (RP, loss of peripheral visual field accounts for most difficulties encountered in visuo-motor coordination during locomotion. The purpose of this study was to accurately assess the impact of peripheral visual field loss on gaze strategies during locomotion, and identify compensatory mechanisms. Nine RP subjects presenting a central visual field limited to 10–25° in diameter, and nine healthy subjects were asked to walk in one of three directions—straight ahead to a visual target, leftward and rightward through a door frame, with or without obstacle on the way. Whole body kinematics were recorded by motion capture, and gaze direction in space was reconstructed using an eye-tracker. Changes in gaze strategies were identified in RP subjects, including extensive exploration prior to walking, frequent fixations of the ground (even knowing no obstacle was present, of door edges, essentially of the proximal one, of obstacle edge/corner, and alternating door edges fixations when approaching the door. This was associated with more frequent, sometimes larger rapid-eye-movements, larger movements, and forward tilting of the head. Despite the visual handicap, the trajectory geometry was identical between groups, with a small decrease in walking speed in RPs. These findings identify the adaptive changes in sensory-motor coordination, in order to ensure visual awareness of the surrounding, detect changes in spatial configuration, collect information for self-motion, update the postural reference frame, and update egocentric distances to environmental objects. They are of crucial importance for the design of optimized rehabilitation procedures.

  15. Looking at Eye Gaze Processing and Its Neural Correlates in Infancy--Implications for Social Development and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Stefanie; Reid, Vincent M.; Parise, Eugenio; Handl, Andrea; Palumbo, Letizia; Striano, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    The importance of eye gaze as a means of communication is indisputable. However, there is debate about whether there is a dedicated neural module, which functions as an eye gaze detector and when infants are able to use eye gaze cues in a referential way. The application of neuroscience methodologies to developmental psychology has provided new…

  16. Gaze shifts during dual-tasking stair descent

    OpenAIRE

    Miyasike-daSilva, Veronica; McIlroy, William E

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of vision in stair locomotion, young adults descended a seven-step staircase during unrestricted walking (CONTROL), and while performing a concurrent visual reaction time (RT) task displayed on a monitor. The monitor was located at either 3.5 m (HIGH) or 0.5 m (LOW) above ground level at the end of the stairway, which either restricted (HIGH) or facilitated (LOW) the view of the stairs in the lower field of view as participants walked downstairs. Downward gaze shifts (...

  17. A comprehensive gaze stabilization controller based on cerebellar internal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannucci, Lorenzo; Falotico, Egidio; Tolu, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    based on the coordination of VCR and VOR and OKR. The model, inspired by neuroscientific cerebellar theories, is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. We present the results for the gaze stabilization model on three sets of experiments conducted on the SABIAN robot...... and on the iCub simulator, validating the robustness of the proposed control method. The first set of experiments focused on the controller response to a set of disturbance frequencies along the vertical plane. The second shows the performances of the system under three-dimensional disturbances. The last set...

  18. Attracting Interest: Dynamic Displays of Proceptivity Increase the Attractiveness of Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Clark

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Proceptive signals may influence judgments of opposite-sex attractiveness because these signals indicate high mate quality and/or non-threatening behavior but they may also signal high probable rate of return for mating effort. If so, individuals observing these signals may be sensitive to where the signals are directed to; signals directed toward other individuals may not predict what signals would be directed toward the observer. To explore these possibilities I made use of video stimuli composed of mock interviews with actors. Each actor did one proceptive and one unreceptive interview. Each interview was presented as being directed toward participants or toward an opposite sex interviewer. Proceptivity enhanced the attractiveness of opposite-sex actors and an interaction between proceptive state and signal direction was found, with this pattern varying substantially between actors. The possibility that this variation is mediated by the physical attractiveness and sex of the actors will be discussed.

  19. Implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness modulates prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Latinus, Marianne; Bruckert, Laetitia; Rouger, Julien; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Social interactions involve more than "just" language. As important is a more primitive nonlinguistic mode of communication acting in parallel with linguistic processes and driving our decisions to a much higher degree than is generally suspected. Amongst the "honest signals" that influence our behavior is perceived vocal attractiveness. Not only does vocal attractiveness reflect important biological characteristics of the speaker, it also influences our social perceptions according to the "what sounds beautiful is good" phenomenon. Despite the widespread influence of vocal attractiveness on social interactions revealed by behavioral studies, its neural underpinnings are yet unknown. We measured brain activity while participants listened to a series of vocal sounds ("ah") and performed an unrelated task. We found that voice-sensitive auditory and inferior frontal regions were strongly correlated with implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness. While the involvement of auditory areas reflected the processing of acoustic contributors to vocal attractiveness ("distance to mean" and spectrotemporal regularity), activity in inferior prefrontal regions (traditionally involved in speech processes) reflected the overall perceived attractiveness of the voices despite their lack of linguistic content. These results suggest the strong influence of hidden nonlinguistic aspects of communication signals on cerebral activity and provide an objective measure of this influence.

  20. A testimony to Muzil: Hervé Guibert, Foucault, and the medical gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    Testimony to Muzil: Hervé Guibert, Michel Foucault, and the "Medical Gaze" examines the fictional/autobiographical AIDS writings of the French writer Hervé Guibert. Locating Guibert's writings alongside the work of his friend Michel Foucault, the article explores how they echo Foucault's evolving notions of the "medical gaze." The article also explores how Guilbert's narrators and Guibert himself (as writer) resist and challenge the medical gaze; a gaze which particularly in the era of AIDS has subjected, objectified, and even sometimes punished the body of the gay man. It is argued that these resistances to the gaze offer a literary extension to Foucault's later work on power and resistance strategies.

  1. Subjects and Objects of the Embodied Gaze: Abbas Kiarostami and the Real of the Individual Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyenge Zsolt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that Abbas Kiarostami’s cinema revolves around the representation of the gaze. Many critics argue that he should be considered a late modernist who repeats the self-reflexive gestures of modernist European cinema decades after they were first introduced. The present paper will contradict this assertion by investigating the problematic of the Kiarostamian gaze and analyzing the perceptual side of the act of looking. I will argue that instead of focusing on the gaze of the spectator directed towards the filmic image, he exposes a gaze that is fully integrated into the reality to be captured on film. The second part of the paper will explain this by linking the concept of gaze to the Lacanian concept of the order of the Real. Finally, I will contextualize all this by discussing the Iranian director’s position between Eastern and Western traditions of representation.

  2. The late positive potential indexes a role for emotion during learning of trust from eye-gaze cues. : The LPP and learning of trust from gaze

    OpenAIRE

    Manssuer, Luis; Roberts, Mark; Tipper, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    Gaze direction perception triggers rapid visuospatial orienting to the location observed by others. When this is congruent with the location of a target, reaction times are faster than when incongruent. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that the non-joint attention induced by incongruent cues are experienced as more emotionally negative and this could relate to less favorable trust judgments of the faces when gaze-cues are contingent with identity. Here, we provide further...

  3. Mixed body- and gaze-centered coding of proprioceptive reach targets after effector movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Stefanie; Fiehler, Katja

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that an effector movement intervening between encoding and reaching to a proprioceptive target determines the underlying reference frame: proprioceptive reach targets are represented in a gaze-independent reference frame if no movement occurs but are represented with respect to gaze after an effector movement (Mueller and Fiehler, 2014a). The present experiment explores whether an effector movement leads to a switch from a gaze-independent, body-centered reference frame to a gaze-dependent reference frame or whether a gaze-dependent reference frame is employed in addition to a gaze-independent, body-centered reference frame. Human participants were asked to reach in complete darkness to an unseen finger (proprioceptive target) of their left target hand indicated by a touch. They completed 2 conditions in which the target hand remained either stationary at the target location (stationary condition) or was actively moved to the target location, received a touch and was moved back before reaching to the target (moved condition). We dissociated the location of the movement vector relative to the body midline and to the gaze direction. Using correlation and regression analyses, we estimated the contribution of each reference frame based on horizontal reach errors in the stationary and moved conditions. Gaze-centered coding was only found in the moved condition, replicating our previous results. Body-centered coding dominated in the stationary condition while body- and gaze-centered coding contributed equally strong in the moved condition. Our results indicate a shift from body-centered to combined body- and gaze-centered coding due to an effector movement before reaching towards proprioceptive targets.

  4. Training experience in gestures affects the display of social gaze in baboons' communication with a human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjade, Marie; Canteloup, Charlotte; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Gaunet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Gaze behaviour, notably the alternation of gaze between distal objects and social partners that accompanies primates' gestural communication is considered a standard indicator of intentionality. However, the developmental precursors of gaze behaviour in primates' communication are not well understood. Here, we capitalized on the training in gestures dispensed to olive baboons (Papio anubis) as a way of manipulating individual communicative experience with humans. We aimed to delineate the effects of such a training experience on gaze behaviour displayed by the monkeys in relation with gestural requests. Using a food-requesting paradigm, we compared subjects trained in requesting gestures (i.e. trained subjects) to naïve subjects (i.e. control subjects) for their occurrences of (1) gaze behaviour, (2) requesting gestures and (3) temporal combination of gaze alternation with gestures. We found that training did not affect the frequencies of looking at the human's face, looking at food or alternating gaze. Hence, social gaze behaviour occurs independently from the amount of communicative experience with humans. However, trained baboons-gesturing more than control subjects-exhibited most gaze alternation combined with gestures, whereas control baboons did not. By reinforcing the display of gaze alternation along with gestures, we suggest that training may have served to enhance the communicative function of hand gestures. Finally, this study brings the first quantitative report of monkeys producing requesting gestures without explicit training by humans (controls). These results may open a window on the developmental mechanisms (i.e. incidental learning vs. training) underpinning gestural intentional communication in primates.

  5. Potentials-attract or likes-attract in human mate choice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiao-Qiao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Tu, Ying; Ji, Ting; Tao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To explain how individuals' self-perceived long-term mate value influences their mate preference and mate choice, two hypotheses have been presented, which are "potentials-attract" and "likes-attract", respectively. The potentials-attract means that people choose mates matched with their sex-specific traits indicating reproductive potentials; and the likes-attract means that people choose mates matched with their own conditions. However, the debate about these two hypotheses still remains unsolved. In this paper, we tested these two hypotheses using a human's actual mate choice data from a Chinese online dating system (called the Baihe website), where 27,183 users of Baihe website are included, in which there are 590 paired couples (1180 individuals) who met each other via the website. Our main results show that not only the relationship between individuals' own attributes and their self-stated mate preference but also that between individuals' own attributes and their actual mate choice are more consistent with the likes-attract hypothesis, i.e., people tend to choose mates who are similar to themselves in a variety of attributes.

  6. Potentials-attract or likes-attract in human mate choice in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Qiao He

    Full Text Available To explain how individuals' self-perceived long-term mate value influences their mate preference and mate choice, two hypotheses have been presented, which are "potentials-attract" and "likes-attract", respectively. The potentials-attract means that people choose mates matched with their sex-specific traits indicating reproductive potentials; and the likes-attract means that people choose mates matched with their own conditions. However, the debate about these two hypotheses still remains unsolved. In this paper, we tested these two hypotheses using a human's actual mate choice data from a Chinese online dating system (called the Baihe website, where 27,183 users of Baihe website are included, in which there are 590 paired couples (1180 individuals who met each other via the website. Our main results show that not only the relationship between individuals' own attributes and their self-stated mate preference but also that between individuals' own attributes and their actual mate choice are more consistent with the likes-attract hypothesis, i.e., people tend to choose mates who are similar to themselves in a variety of attributes.

  7. Heritability of Attractiveness to Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Grandon, G. Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A.; Armour, John A. L.; Pickett, John A.; Logan, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development. PMID:25901606

  8. Multiple male traits interact: attractive bower decorations facilitate attractive behavioural displays in satin bowerbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricelli, Gail L; Uy, J Albert C; Borgia, Gerald

    2003-11-22

    Sexually selected male courtship displays often involve multiple behavioural and physical traits, but little is known about the function of different traits in mate choice. Here, we examine female courtship behaviours to learn how male traits interact to influence female mating decisions. In satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus), successful males give highly aggressive, intense behavioural displays without startling females. Males do this by modulating their displays in response to female crouching, which signals the display intensity that females will tolerate without being startled. Females typically visit multiple males for multiple courtships before choosing a mate, and females show differing tolerance for intense displays during their first courtship with each male. We test three hypotheses that may explain this: (i) familiarity with the courting male; (ii) the order of the courtship in mate-searching; and (iii) the attractiveness of the courting male. We found that females are more tolerant of intense displays during first courtships with attractive males; this increased female tolerance may allow attractive males to give higher intensity courtship displays that further enhance their attractiveness. We then examined why this is so, finding evidence that females are less likely to be startled by males with better physical displays (bower decorations), and this reduced startling then contributes to male courtship success. This role of physical displays in facilitating behavioural displays suggests a novel mechanism by which multiple physical and behavioural traits may influence female choice.

  9. Gaze, dominance and humiliation in the Schreber case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, John

    2004-04-01

    In this paper the author reviews Freud's study of Schreber's Memoirs and the Memoirs themselves from a perspective of nearly 100 years. He argues that Schreber's illness began as a melancholic depression but quickly developed paranoid features which subsequently escalated into a gross paranoia which nevertheless retained its depressive and hypochondriacal base. Finally the chaotic fragmentation became organized under the dominance of an omnipotent narcissistic organisation which led to a clinical improvement without any relinquishment of his delusional beliefs. As a subsidiary theme he examines the role of gaze in Schreber's object relations and argues that gaze was used to project into his objects, then to scrutinise the object to see if the projections had been received and tolerated, and finally as an expression of dominance. His urgent demand for relief provoked an omnipotence in his objects which he was then able triumphantly to frustrate and which ushered in a struggle over dominance in the course of which Schreber was abused and humiliated. He was unable to find an object who could contain his distress and these factors contributed to the failure to tolerate guilt and to work through his depression.

  10. Gaze contingent hologram synthesis for holographic head-mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Youngmin; Hong, Sunghee; Shin, Choonsung; Kang, Hoonjong

    2016-03-01

    Development of display and its related technologies provides immersive visual experience with head-mounted-display (HMD). However, most available HMDs provide 3D perception only by stereopsis, lack of accommodation depth cues. Recently, holographic HMD (HHMD) arises as one viable option to resolve this problem because hologram is known to provide full set of depth cues including accommodation. Moreover, by virtue of increasing computational power, hologram synthesis from 3D object represented by point cloud can be calculated in real time even with rigorous Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula. However, in HMD, rapid gaze change of the user requires much faster refresh rate, which means that much faster hologram synthesis is indispensable in HHMD. Because the visual acuity falls off in the visual periphery, we propose here to accelerate synthesizing hologram by differentiating density of point cloud projected on the screen. We classify the screen into multiple layers which are concentric circles with different radii, where the center is aligned with gaze of user. Layer with smaller radius is closer to the region of interest, hence, assigned with higher density of point cloud. Because the computation time is directly related to the number of points in point cloud, we can accelerate synthesizing hologram by lowering density of point cloud in the visual periphery. Cognitive study reveals that user cannot discriminate those degradation in the visual periphery if the parameters are properly designed. Prototype HHMD system will be provided for verifying the feasibility of our method, and detailed design scheme will be discussed.

  11. Looking ahead: anticipatory gaze and motor ability in infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Ambrosini

    Full Text Available The present study asks when infants are able to selectively anticipate the goals of observed actions, and how this ability relates to infants' own abilities to produce those specific actions. Using eye-tracking technology to measure on-line anticipation, 6-, 8- and 10-month-old infants and a control group of adults were tested while observing an adult reach with a whole hand grasp, a precision grasp or a closed fist towards one of two different sized objects. The same infants were also given a comparable action production task. All infants showed proactive gaze to the whole hand grasps, with increased degrees of proactivity in the older groups. Gaze proactivity to the precision grasps, however, was present from 8 months of age. Moreover, the infants' ability in performing precision grasping strongly predicted their ability in using the actor's hand shape cues to differentially anticipate the goal of the observed action, even when age was partialled out. The results are discussed in terms of the specificity of action anticipation, and the fine-grained relationship between action production and action perception.

  12. Following student gaze patterns in physical science lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengrant, David; Hearrington, Doug; Alvarado, Kerriann; Keeble, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates the gaze patterns of undergraduate college students attending a lecture-based physical science class to better understand the relationships between gaze and focus patterns and student attention during class. The investigators used a new eye-tracking product; Tobii Glasses. The glasses eliminate the need for subjects to focus on a computer screen or carry around a backpack-sized recording device, thus giving an investigator the ability to study a broader range of research questions. This investigation includes what students focus on in the classroom (i.e. demonstrations, instructor, notes, board work, and presentations) during a normal lecture, what diverts attention away from being on task as well as what keeps a subject on task. We report on the findings from 8 subjects during physical science lectures designed for future elementary school teachers. We found that students tended not to focus on the instructor for most parts of the lecture but rather the information, particularly new information presented on PowerPoint slides. Finally, we found that location in the classroom also impacted students' attention spans due to more distractors.

  13. DIAGNOSIS OF MYASTHENIA GRAVIS USING FUZZY GAZE TRACKING SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Rasti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia Gravis (MG is an autoimmune disorder, which may lead to paralysis and even death if not treated on time. One of its primary symptoms is severe muscular weakness, initially arising in the eye muscles. Testing the mobility of the eyeball can help in early detection of MG. In this study, software was designed to analyze the ability of the eye muscles to focus in various directions, thus estimating the MG risk. Progressive weakness in gazing at the directions prompted by the software can reveal abnormal fatigue of the eye muscles, which is an alert sign for MG. To assess the user’s ability to keep gazing at a specified direction, a fuzzy algorithm was applied to images of the user’s eyes to determine the position of the iris in relation to the sclera. The results of the tests performed on 18 healthy volunteers and 18 volunteers in early stages of MG confirmed the validity of the suggested software.

  14. Gaze and eye-tracking solutions for psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Maria Laura; Federici, Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Eye-tracking technology is a growing field used to detect eye movements and analyze human processing of visual information for interactive and diagnostic applications. Different domains in scientific research such as neuroscience, experimental psychology, computer science and human factors can benefit from eye-tracking methods and techniques to unobtrusively investigate the quantitative evidence underlying visual processes. In order to meet the experimental requirements concerning the variety of application fields, different gaze- and eye-tracking solutions using high-speed cameras are being developed (e.g., eye-tracking glasses, head-mounted or desk-mounted systems), which are also compatible with other analysis devices such as magnetic resonance imaging. This work presents an overview of the main application fields of eye-tracking methodology in psychological research. In particular, two innovative solutions will be shown: (1) the SMI RED-M eye-tracker, a high performance portable remote eye-tracker suitable for different settings, that requires maximum mobility and flexibility; (2) a wearable mobile gaze-tracking device--the SMI eye-tracking glasses--which is suitable for real-world and virtual environment research. For each kind of technology, the functions and different possibilities of application in experimental psychology will be described by focusing on some examples of experimental tasks (i.e., visual search, reading, natural tasks, scene viewing and other information processing) and theoretical approaches (e.g., embodied cognition).

  15. Attractive ellipsoids in robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...

  16. Designing attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Chang, Jen-Wei; Lee, Chun-Chia

    2013-06-01

    Gamification design is considered as the predictor of collaborative storytelling websites' success. Although aforementioned studies have mentioned a broad range of factors that may influence gamification, they neither depicted the actual design features nor relative attractiveness among them. This study aims to identify attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites. We first constructed a hierarchical system structure of gamification design of collaborative storytelling websites and conducted a focus group interview with eighteen frequent users to identify 35gamification features. After that, this study determined the relative attractiveness of these gamification features by administrating an online survey to 6333 collaborative storytelling websites users. The results indicated that the top 10 most attractive gamification features could account for more than 50% of attractiveness among these 35 gamification features. The feature of unpredictable time pressure is important to website users, yet not revealed in previous relevant studies. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  17. The Interactive Mechanism of New Media and Tourist Gaze%新媒体与游客凝视的互动机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓琴; 明庆忠; 刘宏芳

    2015-01-01

    Both traditional media and new media have an effect on the development of tourism. The developing speed and influence of new media emerging under the support of new technology are far more than those of traditional media, and its leadership for tourist gaze has a more extensive and far-reaching significance. Researches show that new media and"tourist gaze"keep a kind of mutual promotion and mutual restriction of interactive relationship in essence: new media plays a leading role in "tourist gaze". Moreover, tourist gaze is not fixed, tourists' pursuing of differentiation things and the tourism experience can react to agenda setting of new media. This paper takes Wechat, an important new medium, as an example to interpret the two-way interactive relationship of new media and tourist gaze, and discusses the interactive mechanism of the both. Wechat influences tourist gaze mainly from five points: fixed-point, timeliness, contingency and customization, and micro-content. Tourists gaze influences new media through convergence, time-efficiency, diffusion, feedback, and richness. Based on the thought, four efficient measures should be adopted to solve the problem of interaction of the two and keep its sustained and effective interaction, such as the crisis response and recovery, local cultural characteristics maintenance, comprehensive consideration of gaze domain, and sense balance of the virtual-real comparison.%旅游业的发展受新媒体与传统媒体共同作用和影响。新技术支撑下出现的新媒体发展速度和影响力远超传统媒体,其对旅游发展有着更为广泛和深远的影响。研究分析表明,新媒体与“游客凝视”实质上是表现为一种相互促进、相互制约的互动关系:新媒体对游客“凝视”起着先导作用;反之,游客凝视并非一成不变,游客对差异化事物的追寻和实地的旅游体验反馈亦可反作用新媒体这一传播媒介的议程设置。文章以重要新

  18. The Attraction Effect in Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimara, Evanthia; Bezerianos, Anastasia; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The attraction effect is a well-studied cognitive bias in decision making research, where one's choice between two alternatives is influenced by the presence of an irrelevant (dominated) third alternative. We examine whether this cognitive bias, so far only tested with three alternatives and simple presentation formats such as numerical tables, text and pictures, also appears in visualizations. Since visualizations can be used to support decision making - e.g., when choosing a house to buy or an employee to hire - a systematic bias could have important implications. In a first crowdsource experiment, we indeed partially replicated the attraction effect with three alternatives presented as a numerical table, and observed similar effects when they were presented as a scatterplot. In a second experiment, we investigated if the effect extends to larger sets of alternatives, where the number of alternatives is too large for numerical tables to be practical. Our findings indicate that the bias persists for larger sets of alternatives presented as scatterplots. We discuss implications for future research on how to further study and possibly alleviate the attraction effect.

  19. Quantifying naturalistic social gaze in fragile X syndrome using a novel eye tracking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S; Frank, Michael C; Pusiol, Guido T; Farzin, Faraz; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2015-10-01

    A hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the propensity for individuals with the syndrome to exhibit significant impairments in social gaze during interactions with others. However, previous studies employing eye tracking methodology to investigate this phenomenon have been limited to presenting static photographs or videos of social interactions rather than employing a real-life social partner. To improve upon previous studies, we used a customized eye tracking configuration to quantify the social gaze of 51 individuals with FXS and 19 controls, aged 14-28 years, while they engaged in a naturalistic face-to-face social interaction with a female experimenter. Importantly, our control group was matched to the FXS group on age, developmental functioning, and degree of autistic symptomatology. Results showed that participants with FXS spent significantly less time looking at the face and had shorter episodes (and longer inter-episodes) of social gaze than controls. Regression analyses indicated that communication ability predicted higher levels of social gaze in individuals with FXS, but not in controls. Conversely, degree of autistic symptoms predicted lower levels of social gaze in controls, but not in individuals with FXS. Taken together, these data indicate that naturalistic social gaze in FXS can be measured objectively using existing eye tracking technology during face-to-face social interactions. Given that impairments in social gaze were specific to FXS, this paradigm could be employed as an objective and ecologically valid outcome measure in ongoing Phase II/Phase III clinical trials of FXS-specific interventions.

  20. All eyes on me?! Social anxiety and self-directed perception of eye gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Lars; Lobmaier, Janek S; Arnold, Manuel; Renneberg, Babette

    2013-01-01

    To date, only little is known about the self-directed perception and processing of subtle gaze cues in social anxiety that might however contribute to excessive feelings of being looked at by others. Using a web-based approach, participants (n=174) were asked whether or not briefly (300 ms) presented facial expressions modulated in gaze direction (0°, 2°, 4°, 6°, 8°) and valence (angry, fearful, happy, neutral) were directed at them. The results demonstrate a positive, linear relationship between self-reported social anxiety and stronger self-directed perception of others' gaze directions, particularly for negative (angry, fearful) and neutral expressions. Furthermore, faster responding was found for gaze more clearly directed at socially anxious individuals (0°, 2°, and 4°) suggesting a tendency to avoid direct gaze. In sum, the results illustrate an altered self-directed perception of subtle gaze cues. The possibly amplifying effects of social stress on biased self-directed perception of eye gaze are discussed.

  1. Difference between visually and electrically evoked gaze saccades disclosed by altering the head moment of inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, A J; Lefèvre, P; Missal, M; Olivier, E

    2000-02-01

    Differences between gaze shifts evoked by collicular electrical stimulation and those triggered by the presentation of a visual stimulus were studied in head-free cats by increasing the head moment of inertia. This maneuver modified the dynamics of these two types of gaze shifts by slowing down head movements. Such an increase in the head moment of inertia did not affect the metrics of visually evoked gaze saccades because their duration was precisely adjusted to compensate for these changes in movement dynamics. In contrast, the duration of electrically evoked gaze shifts remained constant irrespective of the head moment of inertia, and therefore their amplitude was significantly reduced. These results suggest that visually and electrically evoked gaze saccades are controlled by different mechanisms. Whereas the accuracy of visually evoked saccades is likely to be assured by on-line feedback information, the absence of duration adjustment in electrically evoked gaze shifts suggests that feedback information necessary to maintain their metrics is not accessible or is corrupted during collicular stimulation. This is of great importance when these two types of movements are compared to infer the role of the superior colliculus in the control of orienting gaze shifts.

  2. Gaze-cueing requires intact face processing - Insights from acquired prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; Ramon, Meike

    2017-04-01

    Gaze-cueing is the automatic spatial orienting of attention in the direction of perceived gaze. Participants respond faster to targets located at positions congruent with the direction of gaze, compared to incongruent ones (gaze cueing effect, GCE). However, it still remains unclear whether its occurrence depends on intact integration of information from the entire eye region or face, rather than simply the presence of the eyes per se. To address this question, we investigated the GCE in PS, an extensively studied case of pure acquired prosopagnosia. In our gaze-cueing paradigm, we manipulated the duration at which cues were presented (70ms vs. 400ms) and the availability of facial information (full-face vs. eyes-only). For 70ms cue duration, we found a context-dependent dissociation between PS and controls: PS showed a GCE for eyes-only stimuli, whereas controls showed a GCE only for full-face stimuli. For 400ms cue duration, PS showed gaze-cueing independently of stimulus context, whereas in healthy controls a GCE again emerged only for full-face stimuli. Our findings suggest that attentional deployment based on the gaze direction of briefly presented faces requires intact processing of facial information, which affords salience to the eye region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous social orienting and gaze following in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephen V; Platt, Michael L

    2008-01-01

    Both human and nonhuman primates preferentially orient toward other individuals and follow gaze in controlled environments. Precisely where any animal looks during natural behavior, however, remains unknown. We used a novel telemetric gaze-tracking system to record orienting behavior of ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) interacting with a naturalistic environment. We here provide the first evidence that ringtailed lemurs, group-living prosimian primates, preferentially gaze towards other individuals and, moreover, follow other lemurs' gaze while freely moving and interacting in naturalistic social and ecological environments. Our results support the hypothesis that stem primates were capable of orienting toward and following the attention of other individuals. Such abilities may have enabled the evolution of more complex social behavior and cognition, including theory of mind and language, which require spontaneous attention sharing. This is the first study to use telemetric eye-tracking to quantitatively monitor gaze in any nonhuman animal during locomotion, feeding, and social interaction. Moreover, this is the first demonstration of gaze following by a prosimian primate and the first to report gaze following during spontaneous interaction in naturalistic social environments.

  4. Vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression during head-fixed saccades reveals gaze feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daye, Pierre M; Roberts, Dale C; Zee, David S; Optican, Lance M

    2015-01-21

    Previous experiments have shown that the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is partially suppressed during large head-free gaze (gaze = eye-in-head + head-in-space) shifts when both the eyes and head are moving actively, on a fixed body, or when the eyes are moving actively and the head passively on a fixed body. We tested, in human subjects, the hypothesis that the VOR is also suppressed during gaze saccades made with en bloc, head and body together, rotations. Subjects made saccades by following a target light. During some trials, the chair rotated so as to move the entire body passively before, during, or after a saccade. The modulation of the VOR was a function of both saccade amplitude and the time of the head perturbation relative to saccade onset. Despite the perturbation, gaze remained accurate. Thus, VOR modulation is similar when gaze changes are programmed for the eyes alone or for the eyes and head moving together. We propose that the brain always programs a change in gaze using feedback based on gaze and head signals, rather than on separate eye and head trajectories.

  5. Gaze-Contingent Music Reward Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2017-07-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder exhibit increased attentional dwelling on social threats, providing a viable target for therapeutics. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a novel gaze-contingent music reward therapy for social anxiety disorder designed to reduce attention dwelling on threats. Forty patients with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to eight sessions of either gaze-contingent music reward therapy, designed to divert patients' gaze toward neutral stimuli rather than threat stimuli, or to a control condition. Clinician and self-report measures of social anxiety were acquired pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Dwell time on socially threatening faces was assessed during the training sessions and at pre- and posttreatment. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy yielded greater reductions of symptoms of social anxiety disorder than the control condition on both clinician-rated and self-reported measures. Therapeutic effects were maintained at follow-up. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also reduced dwell time on threat, which partially mediated clinical effects. Finally, gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also altered dwell time on socially threatening faces not used in training, reflecting near-transfer training generalization. This is the first randomized controlled trial to examine a gaze-contingent intervention in social anxiety disorder. The results demonstrate target engagement and clinical effects. This study sets the stage for larger randomized controlled trials and testing in other emotional disorders.

  6. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did…

  7. Attracting Birds to Your Backyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Discusses methods for drawing birds to outdoor education areas, including the use of wild and native vegetation. Lists specific garden plants suitable for attracting birds in each season. Includes a guide to commercial bird seed and instructions for building homemade birdfeeders and nestboxes. (LZ)

  8. The Ambiguous Attractiveness of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ’ can help us understand the attractiveness of constantly being ‘on the move’. Qualitative data from three exemplars of this elite group of workers is used to illustrate how the ideal of being mobile is perceived as an often problematic imperative, but also as one which is nevertheless rewarding...

  9. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  10. Attracting and Preparing Worthy Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Mankichi; Chonan, Mitsuo

    1993-01-01

    Attracting worthy teachers to the compulsory education system in Japan requires attention to three issues: teacher salaries, strengthening initial teacher preparation, and expansion and systemization of teacher training. The one-year beginning teachers' inservice training program began in 1989 in response to the third issue. (IAH)

  11. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb. P

  12. The nonverbal basis of attraction: flirtation, courtship, and seduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, D B

    1978-11-01

    According to a familiar phrase, the "language" of love is universal. Recent ethological studies of nonlinguistic communication in courtship using facial expression, gesture, posture, distance, paralanguage, and gaze have begun to establish that a universal, culture-free, nonverbal sign system may exist (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1975), which is available to all persons for negotiating sexual relationships. The nonverbal mode, more powerful than the verbal for expressing such fundamental contingencies in social relationships as liking, disliking, superiority, timidity, fear and so on, appears to be rooted firmly in man's zoological heritage (Bateson, 1966, 1968). Paralleling a vertebrate-wide plan, human courtship expressivity often relies on nonverbal signs of submissiveness (meekness, harmlessness) and affiliation (willingness to form a social bond). Adoption of a submissive-affiliative social pose enables a person to convey an engaging, nonthreatening image that tends to attract potential mates. This report explores several conspicuous nonlinguistic cues that appear to be used widely in contexts of flirtation, courtship, and seduction. The expressive units are discussed from the standpoint of their occurence in five phases of courtship, and are illustrated by four cases.

  13. Malaria-induced changes in host odors enhance mosquito attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moraes, Consuelo M; Stanczyk, Nina M; Betz, Heike S; Pulido, Hannier; Sim, Derek G; Read, Andrew F; Mescher, Mark C

    2014-07-29

    Vector-borne pathogens may alter traits of their primary hosts in ways that influence the frequency and nature of interactions between hosts and vectors. Previous work has reported enhanced mosquito attraction to host organisms infected with malaria parasites but did not address the mechanisms underlying such effects. Here we document malaria-induced changes in the odor profiles of infected mice (relative to healthy individuals) over the course of infection, as well as effects on the attractiveness of infected hosts to mosquito vectors. We observed enhanced mosquito attraction to infected mice during a key period after the subsidence of acute malaria symptoms, but during which mice remained highly infectious. This attraction corresponded to an overall elevation in the volatile emissions of infected mice observed during this period. Furthermore, data analyses--using discriminant analysis of principal components and random forest approaches--revealed clear differences in the composition of the volatile blends of infected and healthy individuals. Experimental manipulation of individual compounds that exhibited altered emission levels during the period when differential vector attraction was observed also elicited enhanced mosquito attraction, indicating that compounds being influenced by malaria infection status also mediate vector host-seeking behavior. These findings provide important insights into the cues that mediate vector attraction to hosts infected with transmissible stages of malaria parasites, as well as documenting characteristic changes in the odors of infected individuals that may have potential value as diagnostic biomarkers of infection.

  14. Speaking and Listening with the Eyes: Gaze Signaling during Dyadic Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simon; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive scientists have long been interested in the role that eye gaze plays in social interactions. Previous research suggests that gaze acts as a signaling mechanism and can be used to control turn-taking behaviour. However, early research on this topic employed methods of analysis that aggregated gaze information across an entire trial (or trials), which masks any temporal dynamics that may exist in social interactions. More recently, attempts have been made to understand the temporal characteristics of social gaze but little research has been conducted in a natural setting with two interacting participants. The present study combines a temporally sensitive analysis technique with modern eye tracking technology to 1) validate the overall results from earlier aggregated analyses and 2) provide insight into the specific moment-to-moment temporal characteristics of turn-taking behaviour in a natural setting. Dyads played two social guessing games (20 Questions and Heads Up) while their eyes were tracked. Our general results are in line with past aggregated data, and using cross-correlational analysis on the specific gaze and speech signals of both participants we found that 1) speakers end their turn with direct gaze at the listener and 2) the listener in turn begins to speak with averted gaze. Convergent with theoretical models of social interaction, our data suggest that eye gaze can be used to signal both the end and the beginning of a speaking turn during a social interaction. The present study offers insight into the temporal dynamics of live dyadic interactions and also provides a new method of analysis for eye gaze data when temporal relationships are of interest.

  15. Photographic but not line-drawn faces show early perceptual neural sensitivity to eye gaze direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eRossi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our brains readily decode facial movements and changes in social attention, reflected in earlier and larger N170 event-related potentials (ERPs to viewing gaze aversions vs. direct gaze in real faces (Puce et al. 2000. In contrast, gaze aversions in line-drawn faces do not produce these N170 differences (Rossi et al., 2014, suggesting that physical stimulus properties or experimental context may drive these effects. Here we investigated the role of stimulus-induced context on neurophysiological responses to dynamic gaze. Sixteen healthy adults viewed line-drawn and real faces, with dynamic eye aversion and direct gaze transitions, and control stimuli (scrambled arrays and checkerboards while continuous electroencephalographic (EEG activity was recorded. EEG data from 2 temporo-occipital clusters of 9 electrodes in each hemisphere where N170 activity is known to be maximal were selected for analysis. N170 peak amplitude and latency, and temporal dynamics from event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs were measured in 16 healthy subjects. Real faces generated larger N170s for averted vs. direct gaze motion, however, N170s to real and direct gaze were as large as those to respective controls. N170 amplitude did not differ across line-drawn gaze changes. Overall, bilateral mean gamma power changes for faces relative to control stimuli occurred between 150-350 ms, potentially reflecting signal detection of facial motion.Our data indicate that experimental context does not drive N170 differences to viewed gaze changes. Low-level stimulus properties, such as the high sclera/iris contrast change in real eyes likely drive the N170 changes to viewed aversive movements.

  16. Speaking and Listening with the Eyes: Gaze Signaling during Dyadic Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ho

    Full Text Available Cognitive scientists have long been interested in the role that eye gaze plays in social interactions. Previous research suggests that gaze acts as a signaling mechanism and can be used to control turn-taking behaviour. However, early research on this topic employed methods of analysis that aggregated gaze information across an entire trial (or trials, which masks any temporal dynamics that may exist in social interactions. More recently, attempts have been made to understand the temporal characteristics of social gaze but little research has been conducted in a natural setting with two interacting participants. The present study combines a temporally sensitive analysis technique with modern eye tracking technology to 1 validate the overall results from earlier aggregated analyses and 2 provide insight into the specific moment-to-moment temporal characteristics of turn-taking behaviour in a natural setting. Dyads played two social guessing games (20 Questions and Heads Up while their eyes were tracked. Our general results are in line with past aggregated data, and using cross-correlational analysis on the specific gaze and speech signals of both participants we found that 1 speakers end their turn with direct gaze at the listener and 2 the listener in turn begins to speak with averted gaze. Convergent with theoretical models of social interaction, our data suggest that eye gaze can be used to signal both the end and the beginning of a speaking turn during a social interaction. The present study offers insight into the temporal dynamics of live dyadic interactions and also provides a new method of analysis for eye gaze data when temporal relationships are of interest.

  17. Can Speaker Gaze Modulate Syntactic Structuring and Thematic Role Assignment during Spoken Sentence Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeferle, Pia; Kreysa, Helene

    2012-01-01

    During comprehension, a listener can rapidly follow a frontally seated speaker's gaze to an object before its mention, a behavior which can shorten latencies in speeded sentence verification. However, the robustness of gaze-following, its interaction with core comprehension processes such as syntactic structuring, and the persistence of its effects are unclear. In two "visual-world" eye-tracking experiments participants watched a video of a speaker, seated at an angle, describing transitive (non-depicted) actions between two of three Second Life characters on a computer screen. Sentences were in German and had either subject(NP1)-verb-object(NP2) or object(NP1)-verb-subject(NP2) structure; the speaker either shifted gaze to the NP2 character or was obscured. Several seconds later, participants verified either the sentence referents or their role relations. When participants had seen the speaker's gaze shift, they anticipated the NP2 character before its mention and earlier than when the speaker was obscured. This effect was more pronounced for SVO than OVS sentences in both tasks. Interactions of speaker gaze and sentence structure were more pervasive in role-relations verification: participants verified the role relations faster for SVO than OVS sentences, and faster when they had seen the speaker shift gaze than when the speaker was obscured. When sentence and template role-relations matched, gaze-following even eliminated the SVO-OVS response-time differences. Thus, gaze-following is robust even when the speaker is seated at an angle to the listener; it varies depending on the syntactic structure and thematic role relations conveyed by a sentence; and its effects can extend to delayed post-sentence comprehension processes. These results suggest that speaker gaze effects contribute pervasively to visual attention and comprehension processes and should thus be accommodated by accounts of situated language comprehension.

  18. Can speaker gaze modulate syntactic structuring and thematic role assignment during spoken sentence comprehension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia eKnoeferle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During comprehension, a listener can rapidly follow a frontally-seated speaker's gaze to an object before its mention, a behavior which can shorten latencies in speeded sentence verification. However, the robustness of gaze-following, its interaction with core comprehension processes such as syntactic structuring, and the persistence of its effects are unclear. In two ``visual-world'' eye-tracking experiments participants watched a video of a speaker, seated at an angle, describing transitive (non-depicted actions between two of three Second Life characters on a computer screen. Sentences were in German and had either subject(NP1-verb-object(NP2 or object(NP1-verb-subject(NP2 structure; the speaker either shifted gaze to the NP2 character or was obscured. Several seconds later,participants verified either the sentence referents or their role relations. When participants had seen the speaker's gaze shift, they anticipated the NP2 character before its mention and earlier than when the speaker was obscured. This effect was more pronounced for SVO than OVS sentences in both tasks. Interactions of speaker gaze and sentence structure were more pervasive in role-relations verification: Participants verified the role relations faster for SVO than OVS sentences, and faster when they had seen the speaker shift gaze than when the speaker was obscured. When sentence and template role relations matched, gaze-following even eliminated the SVO-OVS response time differences. Thus, gaze-following is robust even when the speaker is seated at an angle to the listener; it varies depending on the syntactic structure and thematic role relations conveyed by a sentence; and its effects can extend to delayed post-sentence comprehension processes. These results suggest that speaker gaze effects contribute pervasively to visual attention and comprehension processes and should thus be accommodated by accounts of situated language comprehension.

  19. Photographic but not line-drawn faces show early perceptual neural sensitivity to eye gaze direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alejandra; Parada, Francisco J; Latinus, Marianne; Puce, Aina

    2015-01-01

    Our brains readily decode facial movements and changes in social attention, reflected in earlier and larger N170 event-related potentials (ERPs) to viewing gaze aversions vs. direct gaze in real faces (Puce et al., 2000). In contrast, gaze aversions in line-drawn faces do not produce these N170 differences (Rossi et al., 2014), suggesting that physical stimulus properties or experimental context may drive these effects. Here we investigated the role of stimulus-induced context on neurophysiological responses to dynamic gaze. Sixteen healthy adults viewed line-drawn and real faces, with dynamic eye aversion and direct gaze transitions, and control stimuli (scrambled arrays and checkerboards) while continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. EEG data from 2 temporo-occipital clusters of 9 electrodes in each hemisphere where N170 activity is known to be maximal were selected for analysis. N170 peak amplitude and latency, and temporal dynamics from Event-Related Spectral Perturbations (ERSPs) were measured in 16 healthy subjects. Real faces generated larger N170s for averted vs. direct gaze motion, however, N170s to real and direct gaze were as large as those to respective controls. N170 amplitude did not differ across line-drawn gaze changes. Overall, bilateral mean gamma power changes for faces relative to control stimuli occurred between 150-350 ms, potentially reflecting signal detection of facial motion. Our data indicate that experimental context does not drive N170 differences to viewed gaze changes. Low-level stimulus properties, such as the high sclera/iris contrast change in real eyes likely drive the N170 changes to viewed aversive movements.

  20. Facial-Attractiveness Choices Are Predicted by Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furl, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Do people appear more attractive or less attractive depending on the company they keep? A divisive-normalization account-in which representation of stimulus intensity is normalized (divided) by concurrent stimulus intensities-predicts that choice preferences among options increase with the range of option values. In the first experiment reported here, I manipulated the range of attractiveness of the faces presented on each trial by varying the attractiveness of an undesirable distractor face that was presented simultaneously with two attractive targets, and participants were asked to choose the most attractive face. I used normalization models to predict the context dependence of preferences regarding facial attractiveness. The more unattractive the distractor, the more one of the targets was preferred over the other target, which suggests that divisive normalization (a potential canonical computation in the brain) influences social evaluations. I obtained the same result when I manipulated faces' averageness and participants chose the most average face. This finding suggests that divisive normalization is not restricted to value-based decisions (e.g., attractiveness). This new application to social evaluation of normalization, a classic theory, opens possibilities for predicting social decisions in naturalistic contexts such as advertising or dating.

  1. Gaze behaviors of goaltenders under spatial-temporal constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, D; Vickers, J N

    2006-12-01

    It is still not known what underlies successful performance in goaltending. Some studies have reported that advanced cues from the shooter's body (hip, kicking leg or support leg) are most important (Savelsbergh, G. J. P., Williams, A. M., Van der Kamp, J., & Ward, P. (2002). Visual search, anticipation and expertise in soccer goalkeepers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 279-287; Savelsbergh, G. J. P., Williams, A. M., Van der Kamp, J., & Ward, P. (2005). Anticipation and visual search behaviour in expert soccer goalkeepers. Ergonomics, 48, 1686-1697; Williams, A. M., & Burwitz, L. (1993). Advanced cue utilization in soccer. In T. Reilly, J. Clarys, & A. Stibbe (Eds.), Science and football II (pp. 239-243). London, England: E&FN Spon), while others have found that the early tracking of the object prior to and during flight is most critical (Bard, C., & Fleury, M. (1981). Considering eye movement as a predictor of attainment. In: I. M. Cockerill, & W. M. MacGillvary (Eds.), Vision and Sport (pp. 28-41). Cheltenham, England: Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.). These results are similar to those found in a number of interceptive timing studies (Land, M. F., & McLeod, P. (2000). From eye movements to actions: How batsmen hit the ball. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 1340-1345; Ripoll and Fleurance, 1988; Vickers, J. N., & Adolphe, R. M. (1997). Gaze behaviour during a ball tracking and aiming skill. International Journal of Sports Vision, 4, 18-27). The coupled gaze and motor behavior of elite goaltenders were determined while responding to wrist shots taken from 5 m and 10 m on ice. The results showed that the goalies faced shots that were significantly different in phase durations due to distance (5 versus 10 m), but this was not a factor in making saves. Instead, the ability to stop the puck was dependent on the location, onset and duration of the final fixation/tracking gaze (or quiet eye) prior to initiating the saving action. The relative onset of quiet eye was

  2. A real-time gaze position estimation method based on a 3-D eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kang Ryoung

    2007-02-01

    This paper proposes a new gaze-detection method based on a 3-D eye position and the gaze vector of the human eyeball. Seven new developments compared to previous works are presented. First, a method of using three camera systems, i.e., one wide-view camera and two narrow-view cameras, is proposed. The narrow-view cameras use autozooming, focusing, panning, and tilting procedures (based on the detected 3-D eye feature position) for gaze detection. This allows for natural head and eye movement by users. Second, in previous conventional gaze-detection research, one or multiple illuminators were used. These studies did not consider specular reflection (SR) problems, which were caused by the illuminators when working with users who wore glasses. To solve this problem, a method based on dual illuminators is proposed in this paper. Third, the proposed method does not require user-dependent calibration, so all procedures for detecting gaze position operate automatically without human intervention. Fourth, the intrinsic characteristics of the human eye, such as the disparity between the pupillary and the visual axes in order to obtain accurate gaze positions, are considered. Fifth, all the coordinates obtained by the left and right narrow-view cameras, as well as the wide-view camera coordinates and the monitor coordinates, are unified. This simplifies the complex 3-D converting calculation and allows for calculation of the 3-D feature position and gaze position on the monitor. Sixth, to upgrade eye-detection performance when using a wide-view camera, the adaptive-selection method is used. This involves an IR-LED on/off scheme, an AdaBoost classifier, and a principle component analysis method based on the number of SR elements. Finally, the proposed method uses an eigenvector matrix (instead of simply averaging six gaze vectors) in order to obtain a more accurate final gaze vector that can compensate for noise. Experimental results show that the root mean square error of

  3. Are Gaze Shifts a Key to a Translator’s Text Segmentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2016-01-01

    the feasibility of identifying segments, understood as processing units, on the basis of gaze shifts, and to inquire into what motivates gaze shifts. It also seeks to illustrate how much our interpretation of gaze representations, not least suboptimal representations, depend on a theory of reading.......? And do such shifts give us more accurate information about segmentation or more information than keystroke intervals? Using a rather poorly calibrated recording of just one translator’s translation of a single sentence (within a longer task) for illustration, the paper seeks to tentatively explore...

  4. Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Suppression during Head-Fixed Saccades Reveals Gaze Feedback Control

    OpenAIRE

    Daye, Pierre M.; Dale C Roberts; David S Zee; Optican, Lance M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is partially suppressed during large head-free gaze (gaze = eye-in-head + head-in-space) shifts when both the eyes and head are moving actively, on a fixed body, or when the eyes are moving actively and the head passively on a fixed body. We tested, in human subjects, the hypothesis that the VOR is also suppressed during gaze saccades made with en bloc, head and body together, rotations. Subjects made saccades by following...

  5. Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Shalini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and accompanied by progressive scoliosis developing in childhood and adolescence. It occurs due to mutation in ROBO 3 gene/chromosome 11q23-q25. We report a case of a 60-year-old lady who presented with complaints of defective vision in both eyes. On examination, she had scoliosis with restricted abduction and adduction in both eyes with intact elevation and depression. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbit showed brainstem hypoplasia with absence of facial colliculi, presence of a deep midline pontine cleft (split pons sign, and a butterfly configuration of the medulla, which are the radiological findings seen in this disorder.

  6. Mobile gaze-based screen interaction in 3D environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Head-mounted eye trackers can be used for mobile interaction as well as gaze estimation purposes. This paper presents a method that enables the user to interact with any planar digital display in a 3D environment using a head-mounted eye tracker. An effective method for identifying the screens...... in the field of view of the user is also presented which can be applied in a general scenario in which multiple users can interact with multiple screens. A particular application of using this technique is implemented in a home environment with two big screens and a mobile phone. In this application a user...... was able to interact with these screens using a wireless head-mounted eye tracker....

  7. Gaze inspired subtitle position evaluation for MOOCs videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongli; Yan, Mengzhen; Liu, Sijiang; Jiang, Bo

    2017-06-01

    Online educational resources, such as MOOCs, is becoming increasingly popular, especially in higher education field. One most important media type for MOOCs is course video. Besides traditional bottom-position subtitle accompany to the videos, in recent years, researchers try to develop more advanced algorithms to generate speaker-following style subtitles. However, the effectiveness of such subtitle is still unclear. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between subtitle position and the learning effect after watching the video on tablet devices. Inspired with image based human eye tracking technique, this work combines the objective gaze estimation statistics with subjective user study to achieve a convincing conclusion - speaker-following subtitles are more suitable for online educational videos.

  8. Backward-gazing method for measuring solar concentrators shape errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquand, Mathieu; Henault, François; Caliot, Cyril

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes a backward-gazing method for measuring the optomechanical errors of solar concentrating surfaces. It makes use of four cameras placed near the solar receiver and simultaneously recording images of the sun reflected by the optical surfaces. Simple data processing then allows reconstructing the slope and shape errors of the surfaces. The originality of the method is enforced by the use of generalized quad-cell formulas and approximate mathematical relations between the slope errors of the mirrors and their reflected wavefront in the case of sun-tracking heliostats at high-incidence angles. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the measurement accuracy is compliant with standard requirements of solar concentrating optics in the presence of noise or calibration errors. The method is suited to fine characterization of the optical and mechanical errors of heliostats and their facets, or to provide better control for real-time sun tracking.

  9. A Framework for Controlling Wheelchair Motion by using Gaze Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razali Tomari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Users with severe motor ability are unable to control their wheelchair using standard joystick and hence an alternative control input is preferred. In this paper a method on how to enable the severe impairment user to control a wheelchair via gaze information is proposed. Since when using such an input, the navigation burden for the user is significantly increased, an assistive navigation platform is also proposed to reduce the user burden. Initially, user information is inferred using a camera and a bite-like switch. Then information from the environment is obtained using combination of laser and Kinect sensors. Eventually, both information from the environment and the user is analyzed to decide the final control operation that according to the user intention and safe from collision. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  10. Cheap and Easy PIN Entering Using Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprowski Pawel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PINs are one of the most popular methods to perform simple and fast user authentication. PIN stands for Personal Identification Number, which may have any number of digits or even letters. Nevertheless, 4-digit PIN is the most common and is used for instance in ATMs or cellular phones. The main advantage of the PIN is that it is easy to remember and fast to enter. There are, however, some drawbacks. One of them - addressed in this paper - is a possibility to steal PIN by a technique called `shoulder surfing'. To avoid such problems a novel method of the PIN entering was proposed. Instead of using a numerical keyboard, the PIN may be entered by eye gazes, which is a hands-free, easy and robust technique. References:

  11. The effects of facial adiposity on attractiveness and perceived leadership ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness has a positive influence on electoral success both in experimental paradigms and in the real world. One parameter that influences facial attractiveness and social judgements is facial adiposity (a facial correlate to body mass index, BMI). Overweight people have high facial adiposity and are perceived to be less attractive and lower in leadership ability. Here, we used an interactive design in order to assess whether the most attractive level of facial adiposity is also perceived as most leader-like. We found that participants reduced facial adiposity more to maximize attractiveness than to maximize perceived leadership ability. These results indicate that facial appearance impacts leadership judgements beyond the effects of attractiveness. We suggest that the disparity between optimal facial adiposity in attractiveness and leadership judgements stems from social trends that have produced thin ideals for attractiveness, while leadership judgements are associated with perception of physical dominance.

  12. On Attracting Lagrangian Coherent Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Karrasch, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this note, we show that in the autonomous, two-dimensional incompressible saddle flow, contrary to common intuition, also attracting Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) can show up as ridges of the forward finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. This raises the issue of characterization of attracting LCSs from forward time FTLE analysis. First, we extend recent results of Haller & Sapsis (2011) [11] on the relation between forward and backward maximal and minimal stretching rates to the whole finite-time Lyapunov spectrum and to stretching directions by considering the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the deformation gradient. We show two significant advantages of the SVD compared to the usual eigendecomposition of the Cauchy-Green strain tensor: (1) one gains theoretical insight into local deformation under a finite-time dynamical system, and (2) one obtains both complete forward and backward strain information from a single grid advection. Furthermore, we give a short and direct proof of t...

  13. Attract Visitors to Your Site

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    To be a success, a website has to attract-and keep--visitors. This Mini Missing Manual shows you how to attract new and return visitors and use the power of keywords and Web search engines to rise up in the rankings of search results. You'll also learn how to use a powerful-and free--service that tracks visitor activity on your site so you know which of your Web pages they love, and-just as important--which pages don't work for them. Using this information, you can fine-tune your site to keep the visitors coming. This Mini Missing Manual is excerpted from Creating a Web Site: The Missing Man

  14. Fingertip aura and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Hadjolian, S E

    1977-06-01

    Concluding from our survey of the literature that fingertip auras (Kirlian effect) might be associated with interpersonal attraction, four hypotheses were advanced to test this assertion. It was hypothesized that individuals would respond with bigger auras to (1) opposite-sex photographers as compared to same-sex photographers, (2) to seductive opposite-sex photographers as opposed to normally behaving opposite-sex photographers, (3) to opposite-sex unknown peers as opposed to same-sex unknown peers, and (4) to liked as opposed to disliked same-sex persons. All hypotheses except (2) were supported. The second hypothesis was significant in a direction contrary to hypothesis. Fingertip auras are seen as a promising measurement device in the study of interpersonal attraction.

  15. Pyrazines Attract Catocheilus Thynnine Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Bohman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five previously identified semiochemicals from the sexually deceptive Western Australian hammer orchid Drakaea livida, all showing electrophysiological activity in gas chromatography–electroantennogram detection (EAD studies, were tested in field bioassays as attractants for a Catocheilus thynnine wasp. Two of these compounds, (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-ylmethyl 3-methylbutanoate and 2-(3-methylbutyl-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, were attractive to male wasps. Additionally, the semiochemical 3-(3-methylbutyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, a close analogue to 2-(3-methylbutyl-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, identified in five other species of thynnine wasps, was equally active. The three remaining compounds from D. livida, which were EAD-active against Catocheilus, did not attract the insects in field trials. It is interesting that two structurally similar compounds induce similar behaviours in field experiments, yet only one of these compounds is present in the orchid flower. Our findings suggest the possibility that despite the high specificity normally characterising sex pheromone systems, the evolution of sexual deception may not be entirely constrained by the need to precisely match the sex pheromone constituents and blends. Such evolutionary flexibility may be particularly important during the early stages of speciation.

  16. Gaze transfer in remote cooperation: is it always helpful to see what your partner is attending to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Romy; Helmert, Jens R; Pannasch, Sebastian; Velichkovsky, Boris M

    2013-01-01

    Establishing common ground in remote cooperation is challenging because nonverbal means of ambiguity resolution are limited. In such settings, information about a partner's gaze can support cooperative performance, but it is not yet clear whether and to what extent the abundance of information reflected in gaze comes at a cost. Specifically, in tasks that mainly rely on spatial referencing, gaze transfer might be distracting and leave the partner uncertain about the meaning of the gaze cursor. To examine this question, we let pairs of participants perform a joint puzzle task. One partner knew the solution and instructed the other partner's actions by (1) gaze, (2) speech, (3) gaze and speech, or (4) mouse and speech. Based on these instructions, the acting partner moved the pieces under conditions of high or low autonomy. Performance was better when using either gaze or mouse transfer compared to speech alone. However, in contrast to the mouse, gaze transfer induced uncertainty, evidenced in delayed responses to the cursor. Also, participants tried to resolve ambiguities by engaging in more verbal effort, formulating more explicit object descriptions and fewer deictic references. Thus, gaze transfer seems to increase uncertainty and ambiguity, thereby complicating grounding in this spatial referencing task. The results highlight the importance of closely examining task characteristics when considering gaze transfer as a means of support.

  17. [Judgment of gaze direction related to social anxiety: facial expressions and interpretation biases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kenta; Okamura, Yoko; Okubo, Matia

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of social anxiety on judgments about gaze direction. The participants (N = 123) were divided into two groups on the basis of social anxiety scores (social anxiety and control group). Participants who scored high on a social anxiety scale judged the direction of slightly averted gaze to be straight more often for angry faces than for neutral faces. This pattern was reversed for participants in control group. An angry face looking straight at a person may be seen as an overt threat. People suffering from social anxiety tend to interpret ambiguous situations as negative or threatening. This negativity bias may contribute to the increased judgments of straight-gaze responses for angry faces with slightly averted gazes.

  18. Does gaze direction modulate facial expression processing in children with autism spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) integrate relevant communicative signals, such as gaze direction, when decoding a facial expression. In Experiment 1, typically developing children (9-14 years old; n = 14) were faster at detecting a facial expression accompanying a gaze direction with a congruent motivational tendency (i.e., an avoidant facial expression with averted eye gaze) than those with an incongruent motivational tendency. Children with ASD (9-14 years old; n = 14) were not affected by the gaze direction of facial stimuli. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2, which presented only the eye region of the face to typically developing children (n = 10) and children with ASD (n = 10). These results demonstrated that children with ASD do not encode and/or integrate multiple communicative signals based on their affective or motivational tendency.

  19. Collicular Microstimulation During Passive Rotation Does Not Generate Fixed Gaze Shifts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. D. Van Beuzekom; J.A.M. Van Gisbergen

    2002-01-01

    We investigated whether saccades evoked by electrical stimulation (E-saccades) in the superior colliculus can compensate for passive sinusoidal head rotation in yaw so as to keep the rapid gaze shift constant...

  20. Gaze stabilization reflexes in the mouse: New tools to study vision and sensorimotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Alphen (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__abstract__ Gaze stabilization reflexes are a popular model system in neuroscience for connecting neurophysiology and behavior as well as studying the neural correlates of behavioral plasticity. These compensatory eye movements are one of the simplest motor behaviors,