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Sample records for gaz naturel liquefie

  1. Liquefied natural gas; Gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total has interests in five of the world's largest liquefaction plants, which together account for roughly 40% of global LNG production capacity. This presentation illustrates the activities of the Group in the LNG sector. It discusses the advantages of the LNG as a clean energy, the LNG market, the liquefaction process and plants, the LNG trading marketing and shipping, the re-gasification and TOTAL promoting innovation. (A.L.B.)

  2. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  3. Development of a cryogenic flexible pipe for the transfer of liquefied natural gas; Mise au point d'un flexible cryogenique pour le transfert du gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaud, J.; Gerez, J.M.; Dieumegard, C. [Coflexip Stena Offshore, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    For historical reasons, the liquefaction of natural gas is performed with onshore equipments and LNG tanker-ships are loaded and unloaded using rigid articulated arms. When these operations are performed in harbors, the movement of the ship with respect to the pier are relatively limited. Today, several companies aim at liquefying natural gas using floating facilities. The loading of tanker-ships is performed offshore, and thus movements between the ship and the floating facility are enhanced. The use of a flexible pipe can be an interesting alternative solution to the articulated arm. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the LNG flexible technology developed by Coflexip Stena Offshore and the progress of the program of development of a cryogenic flexible: structure, fittings, safety (leaks detection), thermal calculations, optimization of the corrugated hose profile, pressure drops, fatigue tests and service life, materials development, prototype and real tests. (J.S.)

  4. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities; Les tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux de transport et des installations de gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  5. Le Gaz Naturel Véhicule Natural Gas for Vehicles

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    De Chauveron S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente le GNV (Gaz Naturel Véhicule. Le GNV a en effet de sérieux atouts, à la fois comme carburant de substitution et comme carburant propre. Ces atouts sont aussi bien économiques que techniques. La première partie est consacrée aux enjeux du développement du GNV. Les premiers pays utilisateurs ont été ceux qui disposent sur leur sol de ressources de gaz naturel. Aujourd'hui, alors que de nombreux pays doivent faire face à l'inquiétude croissante relative à l'augmentation de la pollution urbaine, le gaz naturel apparaît également comme un carburant propre, permettant de réduire rapidement les émissions de polluants des véhicules. Dans une deuxième partie, nous donnons une description technique sommaire des stations GNV et des véhicules GNV. Il s'agit de familiariser le lecteur avec les quelques spécificités techniques du GNV, par rapport à l'essence et au gazole. On constatera d'ailleurs que les technologies GNV sont très proches des technologies classiques. Enfin, la dernière partie est consacrée aux actions en cours, qui permettront le développement du GNV en France et en Europe : programmes de recherche, réduction des coûts de la filière, actions réglementaires, communication, etc. This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG, which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical description is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with

  6. Conversion chimique du gaz naturel Chemical Conversion of Natural Gas

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    Chaumette P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article sont passés en revue les travaux de recherche et développement et les procédés existants dans le domaine de la conversion chimique du gaz naturel. Les deux voies possibles, conversion directe du méthane et conversion indirecte, via le gaz de synthèse, sont présentées. Tant la préparation d'hydrocarbures utilisables comme carburants, que celle des composés de bases pour la pétrochimie ou la chimie sont évoquées. L'accent est mis sur l'étape clé du développement de chaque procédé qui, selon le produit visé, consiste en la mise au point d'un nouveau système catalytique, en un changement de la technologie du réacteur, ou en la mise au point d'une section fractionnement moins complexe. This article reviews the research and development work and the existing processes in the area of chemical conversion of natural gas. The two possible methods, direct conversion of methane and indirect conversion via synthesis gas, are discussed. The preparation of hydrocarbons that can be used as fuels and the production of building blocks for the petrochemical and chemical industries are both dealt with. The accent is placed on the key step in developing each process. Depending on the target product, this key step consists in working out a new catalytic system, changing reactor technology or engineering a less complex fractionation section.

  7. Les perspectives du gaz naturel dans le Monde World Natural Gas Prospects

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    Valais M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans un monde en quête de diversification énergétique, le gaz naturel apparaît comme une source d'énergie particulièrement attrayante. Par son abondance, sa facilité de substitution aux produits pétroliers dans une gamme très large d'usages, il pourrait assurément jouer un rôle beaucoup plus important dans la couverture des besoins énergétiques mondiaux. Toutefois, de nombreux obstacles semblent devoir ralentir sa progression. Cet article dégage les grands paramètres techniques et économiques qui devraient conditionner le développement de l'industrie du gaz dans le monde et présente des perspectives d'évolution de sa production et de son commerce international d'ici à la fin du siècle. For a world in search of energy diversification, natural gas is a particularly attractive source. Its abundance and its facility for being substituted for petroleum products over a wide range of uses should certainly mean that it will play a much more important rote in filling world energy needs. Nonetheless, many obstacles are hindering its progress. This article outlines the leading technical and economic parameters which should influence the development of the world gas industry, and the prospects for its production and international trade evolution between now and the end of the century.

  8. Natural Gas Storage Seismic Monitoring Suivi sismique des stockages de gaz naturel

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    Mari J.L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available IFP Energies nouvelles, CGGVeritas and GDF Suez have conducted together, since 1980, a series of seismic monitoring experiments in order to detect and follow the movements of the gas plume in natural gas geologic storages. Surface and well seismic surveys were carried out at different stages of the storage life. Permanent receiver arrays have been set down in wells. Permanent sources have been designed. Sources and receivers have been used to follow continuously the storage cycle during several years, providing time measurement accuracy within a tenth of a millisecond. Gas intrusion into an aquifer leads to an increase in the arrival times of reflections beneath the storage reservoir and to a variation of the reflection amplitudes at top and bottom of the reservoirs. Progressive variations of the seismic parameters may be followed during the initial infill period. Further movements of the gas plume with the annual in/out cycles are more difficult to follow, because of the simultaneous presence of gas and water in the pores. Arrival time variations of some tenths of a millisecond may be detected and measured. Saturations, using accurate picking of the arrival times, can be estimated in favourable cases. Because of the higher density of carbon dioxide, when stored in a supercritical phase, sensitivity of the seismic parameters, velocity, density and acoustic impedance to saturation variations will be about twice smaller for CO2 storages than it is for methane. IFP Energies nouvelles, la CGGVeritas et GDF Suez ont mené ensemble, depuis 1980, de nombreuses expériences de monitoring sismique afin de détecter et de suivre les mouvements du gaz dans des stockages géologiques de gaz naturel. Des acquisitions ont été réalisées à différents stades de la vie du stockage tant en sismique de surface qu’en sismique de puits. Des antennes de récepteurs permanentes ont été construites et implantées dans des puits. Des sources permanentes ont

  9. Household energy consumption: the future is in our hands. ITER, an experimental fusion reactor. Do CO{sub 2}-free energies exist? Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market; Consommation d'energie domestique: prenons l'avenir entre nos mains. ITER, un reacteur experimental de fusion. Existe-t-il des energies sans CO{sub 2}? Le gaz naturel liquefie, force motrice du marche du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-07-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - Household energy consumption - the future is in our hands: With energy resources growing scarcer and more expensive, everyone has a duty to conserve energy. Because combating global warming also means adopting simple habits and using the right equipment - with help from our governments to lead us to change. A practical look at what we can do. 2 - ITER, an experimental fusion reactor: The entire international community is trying to reproduce here on Earth the fusion of hydrogen atoms occurring naturally in the Sun, lured by the promise of a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. More on ITER from the project's Director General. 3 - Do CO{sub 2}-free energies exist?: As nations struggle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the question is moot. Environmental engineer Jean-Marc Jancovici gives us his point of view. 4 - Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market: LNG's many advantages are enticing industry to develop supply routes and infrastructure to meet strong demand. But the race for LNG is not without its limits.

  10. Les perspectives du commerce international de gaz naturel d'ici 2000 The World Natural Gas Trade Outlook to 2000

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    Valais M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'abondance des ressources gazières mondiales et l'excellence des qualités du gaz naturel, comme combustible et matière première pétrochimique, devraient lui permettre d'accroître sa pénétration sur les marchés énergétiques internationaux. Toutefois, la répartition géographique de ses réserves prouvées coïncide de moins en moins avec celle de sa consommation. En conséquence, la croissance du commerce international de gaz naturel apparaît comme une nécessité de plus en plus vitale du développement mondial de ses marchés. A partir d'une étude prospective menée au sein de l'Association Technique de l'industrie du Gaz en France (ATG, le présent mémoire se propose d'analyser les perspectives des échanges gaziers internationaux d'ici l'horizon 2000. The abundance of the world reserves of natural gas and the excellence of its qualities as a fuel and a petrochemical feedstock should enable natural gas to increase its penetration on international energy markets. However the geographic distribution of its proved reserves coincides less and less with the distribution of its consumption. Therefore, the increase in international gas trade appears more and more to be of vital necessity for the world development of its markets. On the basis of a study carried out within the Association Technique de l'industrie du Gaz en France (ATG, the present paper will attempt to analyse the outlook for international gas trade between now and the year 2000.

  11. On Mist Formation in Natural Gas Sur la formation de buée dans le gaz naturel

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    Muitjens M. J. E. H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mist formation that occurs during production, handling, and transport of natural gas is shown to be the result of non equilibrium thermodynamic processes. A simple analysis is presented of these nucleation and droplet growth phenomena in natural gas, and an estimate is given of the rate at which droplets are formed for typical process conditions. A model of droplet growth due to condensation is presented. The nucleation and condensation behaviour of two samples of a natural gas is investigated in a Wilson expansion cloud chamber for the initial pressure range of 5 to 50 bar and initial temperatures of 294-297 K (21-24°C. For a cooling rate of about 1 K/ms, a typical undercooling at the onset of condensation is found of 32 ý 3K and 60 ý 5K respectively for the two samples, which emphasizes the importance of non-equilibrium effects. La formation de buée au cours de la production, du maniement et du transport de gaz naturel est le résultat d'un déséquilibre thermodynamique. Une analyse simple de la nucléation et de la croissance des gouttelettes dans le gaz naturel est présentée. Une estimation du taux de formation dans de tels processus ainsi qu'un modèle de croissance des gouttelettes par condensation sont alors établis. La nucléation et la condensation de deux échantillons de gaz naturel ont été examinées dans une chambre d'expansion de Wilson dont les gammes de pression et de température initiales sont respectivement de 5 à 10 bar et de 294 à 297 K (21-24°C. Pour un taux de refroidissement de 1 K/ms, les valeurs de sous-refroidissement trouvées au moment de l'initialisation de la condensation sont respectivement pour les deux échantillons 32 ý 3K et 60 ý 5K, ce qui souligne l'importance des effets de déséquilibre.

  12. Natural gas and laundry: an efficient duo; Conference Cegibat: Gaz naturel et blanchisserie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference about the use of natural gas in the laundry sector. This document summarizes the content of the different talks dealing with: the history and evolution of laundry activity, the energy consumption problem, the gas appliances (dryers) and their advantages, some testimonies in the health sector (hospitals), the regulatory aspects, the economic aspects (tariffs), Gaz de France energy diagnostic offer, and the testimony of a launderette. (J.S.)

  13. Solar thermal and natural gas: an efficient complementarity; Solaire thermique et gaz naturel: une complementarite performante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes the content of a conference-debate organized by Cegibat, the information service of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, about the complementarity between natural gas and solar thermal energies, in particular for the production of domestic hot water: 1 - the market of solar thermal energy in France (development, energy efficiency, different technical solutions, financial help, questions and answers with the public); 2 - the 'Dolce Vita' solar offer for individual houses (customers expectations, available techniques, fitter's testimony, questions and answers with the public); 3 - presentation of a combines solar system: the direct solar floor; 4 - the domestic solar hot water offer 'Dolce Vita'; 5 -testimonies; 6 - results warranty; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  14. Natural Gas Potential of the United States Ressources potentielles en gaz naturel des États Unis

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    Kent H. C.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Updated resource estimates of the natural gas potential for the United States using the results of developments through 1978 are now available. The estimated resources include 200 trillion cubic feet of proved reserves and 1,019 trillion cubic feet of potential resources from conventional reservoirs. More than 50% of the proved reserves are located in three principal areas: South Louisiana; Alaska; and the Mid-Continent region of Oklahoma, Kansas and the Texas Panhandle. Approximately 50% of the potential resources are located in four areas: the northern and central Rocky Mountain states, the Mid-Continent region, offshore Alaska, and offshore Louisiana. Projections indicate that these potential sources, including Alaska, can continue to provide through the year 2000 approximately the same amount of gas, on an annual basis, as is currently being produced in the US. Slnce 1968, proved reserves of gas in the lower 48 states have declined. Part of the decline can be attributed to the decline in drilling activity from 1956 through 1972, but location and depth of wells are also important. About 14% of oil wells drilled in the United States in 1978 were drilled as new field wildcats and only 4% of the successful gas wells completed were drilled as new field wildcats. In 1977, 80% of the wells were completed in areas and at depths where only 22% of the natural gas resource potential is believed to exist. Clearly, the emphasis on exploration and drilling must be redirected toward those areas of greater gas resource potential in order to meet future needs. On dispose maintenant d'estimation à jour des ressources potentielles en gaz naturel pour les États-Unis utilisant les résultats des développements en 1978. Les ressources estimées comprennent 200 Tcf (± 5,7 Tm3 de réserves prouvées et 1,019 Tcf (± 29 Tm3 de ressources potentielles pour les réservoirs conventionnels. Plus de 50 % des réserves prouvées se situent dans trois secteurs

  15. Procédé de fabrication de Gaz Naturel de Synthèse par couplage d'une méthanation avec une électrolyse de vapeur d'eau à haute température

    OpenAIRE

    De Saint Jean, Myriam; Lacroix, Vincent; Baurens, Pierre; Bouallou, Chakib

    2013-01-01

    National audience; Le procédé présenté ici est un procédé de type Power-to-Gas dont l'objectif est de produire un gaz de synthèse injectable sur les réseaux de gaz naturel, en couplant une électrolyse de vapeur d'eau à haute température à cellule à oxyde solide (Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell) et une hydrogénation de CO2 afin de produire du méthane, composant majeur du gaz naturel de synthèse. La simulation de ce procédé est réalisée avec le logiciel de simulation ProSim Plus 3® et des modèles...

  16. Dosage du mercure dans le gaz naturel par absorption atomique sans flammes Mercury Titration in Natural Gas by Flameless Atomic Absorption

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    La Villa F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente la méthode mise au point par l'Institut Français du Pétrole pour déterminer par absorption atomique sans flamme, les traces de mercure métallique contenu dans un gaz naturel. La méthode d'analyse nécessite une extraction du mercure soit sous forme d'ion mercurique en faisant passer le gaz dans une solution oxydante, soit sous forme d'amalgame avec de l'or ou de l'argent. Le premier mode opératoire s'applique aux échantillons dont la concentration en mercure est supérieure à I ttg/Nm3, le second pour des concentrations inférieures à 5 pg/Nm3. Les seuils de détection sont respectivement 10 ng (en solution et 0,3 ng (en amalgame. La répétabilité pour 100 ng de mercure (en amalgame est de ± 7% pour une probabilité de.95 %. En conclusion, dans un échantillon de gaz naturel, compte tenu du volume des prélèvements effectués, il est possible de détecter des concentrations de l'ordre du nanogramme de mercure par mètre cube de gaz. This article describes the method developed by IFP using flameless atomic absorption to determine metallic mercury traces in a natural gas. The analyst method requires a mercury extraction either in the form of mercuric ions by making the gas pass through an oxidizing solution or in the form of an amalgam with gold or silver. The former operating method applies ta samples having a mercury concentration greater than I !ag/Nm3, and the latter for concentrations smaller than 5 (-Lg/Nm3. Detection thresholds are respectively 10 ng (in solution and 0.3 ng (in amalgam. The repeatability for 100 ng of mercury (in amalgam is ± 7 % with a probability of 95%. To conclude, in a sample of natural gas, considering the volume of the samples taken, it is possible ta detect concentrations in the vicinity of one nanogrom of mercury per cubic meter of gas.

  17. La formation de l'oxyde azotique dans les flammes de diffusion de gaz naturel Nitrogen. Oxyde Formation in Natural-Gas Diffusion Flams

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    Portrait L. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude de la formation de l'oxyde azotique dans des flammes de diffusion de ga naturel est effectuée depuis deux ans sur le four expérimental du Groupe d'Etude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel situé à Toulouse. Un certain nombre de variables ont été explorées : type de flamme, excès d'air, préchauffage de l'air, teneur en oxygène du comburant, puissance calorifique, et débit de moment cinétique. L'étude a mis en évidence une corrélation générale, quelle que soit la variable considérée, entre la quantité maximale d'oxyde d'azote formé et la température maximale de la flamme. Certains des résultats précédents ont été exploités à l'Institut Français du Pétrole, en vue d'établir une équation de vitesse de formation de NO applicable aux flammes axiales de diffusion de gaz naturel. Les calculs s'appuient sur les connaissances obtenues lors de l'étude cinétique de formation de NO effectuée au Laboratoire d'Aérothermique Fondamentale. Les résultats du calcul théorique confirment ceux de l'étude sur le four expérimental en ce qui concerne l'influence prépondérante de la température sur la formation de l'oxyde azotique. Par ailleurs, le calcul théorique retrouve bien les résultats obtenus lors de l'étude fondamentale, selon lesquels la cinétique de formation de NO évolue le long de la flamme depuis le front de flamme jusqu'aux gaz brûlés. La généralisation à un grand nombre de flammes de l'équation cinétique expérimentale obtenue nécessite maintenant de prendre en compte certains phénomènes de diffusion négligés jusqu'à présent. Research on the formation of nitrogen oxide in natural-gas diffusion flammes has been going on for two years in the experimental furnace of the Groupe d'Etude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel located in Toulouse. Different variables have been investigoted such as type of flamme, air excess, air preheating, oxygen content in the oxidant, heating power and kinetic moment output

  18. Géochimie des gaz naturels et origine des gisements de gaz en Europe occidentale Geochemistry of Natural Gas and Origins of Gas Fields in Western Europe

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    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux gisements de gaz sont connus en Europe, dans des conditions géologiques très diverses et dans des terrains d'âge Paléozoïque à Pleistocène. Le problème de leur origine peut être élucidé par l'étude de la composition chimique et isotopique des gaz associée à la connaissance de l'histoire géologique. On rappellera d'abord le schéma général de formation de l'huile et du gaz dans les bassins sédimentaires, puis on discutera les conditions particulières de formation des divers types de gaz. Enfin, on passera en revue, à titre d'exemple, un certain nombre de gisements de gaz d'Europe occidentale. A great many gas fields are known in Europe, having a wide variety of geological conditions and in formations ranging in age from the Paleozoic to the Pleistocene. The problem of their origin can be explained by analyzing the chemical and isotopic composition of the gases combined with knowing the geological history. This article first reviews the general pattern of oil and gas formation in sedimentary basins and then goes on to discuss the specific conditions for the formation of different types of gas. It concludes with a review of various gas fields in Western Europe.

  19. World Gas Prospects: Which Role for the Middle East? Perspectives mondiales du gaz naturel : quel rôle pourrait jouer le Moyen-Orient ?

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    Chabrelie M. F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1970s, the policies of energy diversification that have been implemented in the industrialized countries and in many developing countries have enabled natural gas to regularly increase its role in the world energy balance. Thus, during the past twenty years, natural gas recorded the highest growth rate among fossil fuels, and its share in the energy market has gradually risen from 18. 9% in 1975 to 23% in 1997. Today, thanks to favorable economic and environmental factors, natural gas has become the fuel of choice on many markets. Indeed, gas is blessed with a certain number of favorable assets (abundant reserves, flexibility, high-performance uses which give it a major role in all energy demand forecast scenarios. The most spectacular development will indisputably take place in the power generation sector. Endowed with a considerable gas potential, the Middle East will represent an essential source of supply for many industrialized countries and several gas export projects, either by LNG tanker or by pipelines are currently being contemplated. During the past decade, the contribution of natural gas to the energy mix also grew substantially in most Middle Eastern countries. The increase in gas demand should continue at a sustained rate, mainly driven by the power generation sector, petrochemicals and energy consumption by the hydrocarbons industry. These promising prospects for gas demand in most of the markets in the region might lead to the development of an intra-regional network. However, although opportunities exist, the region will have to meet many challenges in order to contribute more largely to the world gas balance in the years to come. de diversification énergétique mises en Suvre dans les pays industrialisés et dans de nombreux pays en voie de développement depuis le début des années 1970 ont permis au gaz naturel d'accroître régulièrement sa présence dans le bilan énergétique mondial. Ainsi, au cours des

  20. Application of Continuous Thermodynamics to Natural-Gas Mixtures Application de la thermodynamique continue aux mélanges de gaz naturel

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    Prausnitz J. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews recent progress in the application of continuous thermodynamics towards calculation of phase equilibria in natural-gas mixtures. In such mixtures, there may be too many components to identify each component individually. Continuous thermodynamics provides a theoretical framework for representing the composition of a portion of the natural-gas mixture by a continuous distribution function. Advances in continuous thermodynamics are discussed in three areas :(1 Characterization and representation of composition in a many-component mixture(2 Development and application of molecular-thermodynamic models for continuous mixtures, and(3 Implementation of efficient numerical techniques for solving material-balance and phase-equilibrium equations. While continuous thermodynamics provides a useful tool for calculation of phase equilibria in natural-gas mixtures, successful implementation requires better chemical-analytical characterization methods. Further, improved semi-theoretical techniques must be developed to relate experimental characterization information to physically significant parameters in molecular-thermodynamic models. Ce travail examine les récents développements de l'application de la thermodynamique continue au calcul des équilibres de phases de mélanges de gaz naturel. Dans ces mélanges, les composants sont souvent en trop grand nombre pour qu'on puisse les identifier individuellement. La thermodynamique continue fournit un schéma théorique permettant de représenter la composition d'une partie de mélange de gaz naturel par une fonction de distribution continue. Les progrès de la thermodynamique continue sont examinés dans les trois domaines suivants : 1 caractérisation et représentation de la composition d'un mélange de plusieurs produits; 2 mise au point et application des modèles de thermodynamique moléculaire aux mélanges continus; 3 mise en oeuvre de techniques numériques efficaces pour r

  1. New combustion, environment regulations: the answers for natural gas; Nouvelles reglementations, combustion, environnement: les reponses pour le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Peltier-Marc, A. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on the point of view from Gaz de France (GdF) company concerning the potential consequences of the use of natural gas in combustion systems with respect to the new regulations about combustion and environment. Details concerning the measures relative to the limitation of pollutants in small combustion installations (2 - 20 MW) are given (chimney height, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and dusts content in exhaust gases). (J.S.)

  2. Energy efficiency in buildings with the natural gas; L'efficacite energetique dans le batiment avec le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    This document summarizes the content of a conference-debate organized by Cegibat, the information service of Gaz de France (GdF) for building engineering professionals, about the improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings thanks to the use of natural gas: 1 - the environmental stakes of energy savings in buildings; 2 -evolution of the regulatory context; 3 - the R and D answers of appliance manufacturers; 4 - GdF's choices and commitments; 5 - efficiency analysis (technical inspections and audits); 6 - efficiency maintenance (renovation and follow-up); 7 - conclusions. (J.S.)

  3. The natural gas storage in France and in Europe; Le stockage de gaz naturel en France et en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The natural gas storages play a great role in the gas supplying security. They allow to compensate for the variations of the supply and demand. This document presents the different natural gas storage technic: in the phreatic cave, in salt hollows, in abandoned deposits and the natural liquefied gas. It includes also a map of the natural gas storage situation in France. (A.L.B.)

  4. Hydrodynamique, transfert de chaleur et combustion de gaz naturel en lit fluidisé circulant Hydrodynamics, Heat Transfer and Combustion of Natural Gas in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feugier A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'hydrodynamique, les transferts de chaleur et la combustion du gaz naturel ont été étudiés dans un réacteur à lit circulant de 15 cm de diamètre et de 7 m de haut. Ce réacteur peut opérer avec des vitesses de gaz allant jusqu'à 15 m/s, jusqu'à des températures de 880-900°C et avec des débits de solides compris entre 0 et 15t/h. Les charges utilisées sont des sables de granulométrie allant de 95 à 625 microns. Le profil de concentration en solides dans le réacteur est déterminé à partir du profil de pression. Une corrélation reliant la vitesse de glissement des particules aux principaux paramètres opératoires, rend compte de façon très satisfaisante de l'ensemble des résultats expérimentaux. La mise en place d'un échangeur en paroi dans la partie supérieure du réacteur a permis la détermination de coefficients d'échange thermique. Ces derniers sont essentiellement fonction de la, concentration en particules au droit de l'échangeur et de la granulométrie des particules. Des valeurs allant jusqu'à 200 W/m2 K peuvent, être obtenues. Enfin, la combustion du méthane s'avère très sensible à la présence de particules dans le réacteur. Ces particules ont un effet inhibiteur. Hydrodynamics, heat transfer and combustion of natural gas have been investigated in a circulating-bed reactor 15 cm in diameter and 7 m high. This reactor can operate with gas velocities up to 15 m/s, at temperature up to 880-900°C and with solids flow rates of between 0 and 15 t/h. The solids used are sands with a particle size ranging from 95 to 625 microns. The solids concentration profile in the reactor is determined from the pressure profile. A correlation linking the slippage velocity of particles to the principal operating parameters very satisfactorily takes into consideration the overall experimental results. The installation of a wall heat exchanger in the upper part of the reactor enabled the heat exchange coefficients to be

  5. Recovering Energy at Entry of Natural Gas into Customer Premises by Employing a Counter-Flow Vortex Tube Récupération d’énergie à l’arrivée du gaz naturel dans les installations des usagers grâce à l’emploi d’un tube Vortex à contre-courant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh-Gord M.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Throttling valves are currently utilised to reduce high-pressure natural gas flowing through the distribution pipeline to the working level of customers’ equipment. This wastes valuable energy of the gas. Due to low natural gas consumption at customer premises, it is not feasible to utilise expansion machines. In this study, a new idea is proposed to take advantage of the Vortex Tube and natural gas pressure reduction. The idea is to replace the throttling valve with a Vortex Tube in the natural gas pressure reduction system and take advantage of the generated cooling capacity. An experimental investigation was made to determine the effects of the cold orifice diameter and the energy separation of the counter-flow Vortex Tube when air and natural gas are used as the fluid. The energy separation was investigated by use of the experimentally obtained data. La reduction de la pression de gaz naturel entre les conduites de distribution haute pression et les installations des usagers est aujourd’hui assuree par des vannes de reduction de pression. Ce dispositif entraine une perte importante du contenu energetique du gaz. Les installations des usagers consommant trop peu de gaz naturel pour envisager d’avoir recours a des dispositifs d’expansion, notre etude explore les avantages potentiels de l’utilisation d’un tube Vortex pour la reduction de la pression de gaz naturel. Il s’agit de remplacer la vanne de reduction de pression par un tube Vortex dans le dispositif de reduction de la pression de gaz naturel et de tirer profit de la capacite de refroidissement produite. L’etude experimentale avait pour objectif de determiner l’effet du diametre de l’orifice froid ainsi que de l’utilisation de l’air et du gaz naturel comme fluides sur la production d’energie dans le tube Vortex a contre-courant. Le taux de recuperation de l’energie est determine a partir des mesures experimentales.

  6. Report of working committee 3 ''liquefied gases''; Rapport du comite de travail 3 ''gaz liquefies''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudino, M.

    2000-07-01

    Working Committee 3's report concerns the evolution of the liquefied gas industry: both liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Given the current state of the LNG market the Committee decided to concentrate on this area in particular. A number of aspects have been identified which the Committee has been looking at, while others have been given to Study Groups set up specifically for the purpose. The first aspects regard: - the development of LNG and LPG, new installations, future chains and relevant statistical data; - the role of LNG and LPG in starting up a gas industry; - operating and technological improvements in the LNG industry; - energy savings, cold utilization and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. The Study Groups which were set up dealt with the following subjects: Technological and Economical Developments for cost Reduction of LNG/LPG Facilities. Small Scale LNG Projects and Modular Systems. LNG/LPG Peak Shaving and Satellite Plants. LNG versus Pipeline Infrastructure. (author)

  7. Natural gas air conditioning in the tertiary sector. Ambitions, realizations and tools; Climatisation au gaz naturel dans le tertiaire. Ambitions, realisations et outils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This meeting, organized by the research center of Gaz de France (Cegibat), makes a status of the market of natural gas air conditioning in office and public buildings: experience feedback, improvements of the technology, available tools. After a brief presentation of the status and perspectives of this market in France, the representatives of different companies involved in the fitting of natural gas air conditioning systems present their point of view about this technology. A last part presents the 'climogaz.com' tool launched by Gaz de France. It consists in a web site devoted to the share of knowledge and experience about this technology between professionals and applied to hotels, swimming pools, office buildings, food trade and other trades. (J.S.)

  8. Algeria facing the challenges of Europe natural gas supply and the respect of the environment.; L'Algerie face aux defis de l'approvisionnement de l'Europe en gaz naturel et le respect de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Nadia Nait

    2010-09-15

    Taking into account the expectations, for the next decades, of a strong increase in the demand for gas in Europe, Algeria has committed to large structuring projects, adding to the two gas pipeline linking Algeria to Spain via Morocco and Algeria to Italy via Tunisia. Two more undertakings are added linking Algeria directly to two European partners. Sonatrach will play an important role in global environment protection, natural gas being less polluting than oil and coal and emitting less co2. Substitution of coal by natural gas will generate socio economical advantages and will preserve the environment. [French] Compte tenu des attentes, pour les decennies prochaines, d'une forte croissance de la demande de gaz en Europe, l'Algerie s'est engagee dans de grands projet structurants s'ajoutant aux deux gazoducs reliant l'Algerie a l'Espagne via le Maroc et l'Algerie a l'Italie via la Tunisie, viennent s'ajouter deux autres ouvrages reliant directement l'Algerie a deux partenaires europeens. Sonatrach Jouera un role important dans la protection de l'environnement a l'echelle mondiale, le gaz naturel est moins polluants que le petrole, le charbon et emet moins de co2. La substitution du charbon par le gaz naturel generera des avantages socio-economiques, preservation de l'environnement.

  9. Support to the electric power, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles; Les aides aux vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNV) ou au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This document brings together the different financial incentives proposed to the acquisition and utilization of electric power, natural gas or LPG vehicles. The financial assistance of the ADEME, the fiscal incentives and other proposals are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  10. Reconsideration of Methane Isotope Signature As a Criterion for the Genesis of Natural Gas: Influence of Migration on Isotopic Signatures Reconsidération de la signature isotopique du méthane comme critère pour la genèse du gaz naturel : influence de la migration sur les signatures isotopiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernaton E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed in the purpose of studying the isotopic consequences of the diffusional transport of hydrocarbon gases through sediment rocks. Linked to a numerical model, these gas diffusion experiments through a shale porous plug allowed us to correlate porosity and diffusivity of the migration medium. Significant isotopic fractionations (carbon and hydrogen of methane, and ethane at a lesser degree were observed. This is in contradiction with the actual dogma of isotope geochemistry of natural gases which claims that no fractionation occurs during gas migration. The genetic characterization of natural gases by using the isotopic signature of methane appears as an ambiguous method. Plusieurs expériences ont été réalisées dans le but d'étudier les conséquences isotopiques du transport par diffusion des gaz hydrocarbures au travers des roches sédimentaires. Associées à un modèle numérique, ces expériences de diffusion au travers d'une membrane d'argile reconstituée nous ont permis de corréler deux paramètres pétrophysiques du milieu de migration : la porosité et la diffusivité. D'importants fractionnements isotopiques ont été observés au cours de la diffusion du méthane et, à plus petite échelle, lors de la diffusion de l'éthane. Ces résultats remettent en cause le dogme actuel de la géochimie isotopique des gaz naturels qui stipule que la migration des gaz ne peut induire de fractionnements isotopiques. En conséquence, les méthodes de caractérisation génétique des gaz naturels utilisant la signature isotopique du méthane apparaissent comme insuffisantes.

  11. L'approvisionnement de l'Europe en gaz naturel à l'horizon 2010 European Natural Gas Supplies in Year 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauquis P. R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une prévision à l'horizon 2010 des besoins et de l'approvisionnement en gaz de l'Europe (Europe occidentale et orientale. Il montre qu'à cet horizon, tant la Norvège que l'Afrique du Nord augmenteront substantiellement leurs approvisionnements destinés à l'Europe, tandis que la plus forte augmentation en terme de volumes proviendra de l'ex-URSS et principalement de Russie. D'après cette analyse, la Russie serait capable de produire les volumes requis, même sans mettre en production les gisements de la péninsule de Yamal, tandis que les réserves gazières de la mer de Barentz russe (nommément le champ de Stockmanovskoye pourraient être développées d'ici 2005 ou même plus tôt. Durant la période 1995-2005, les quantités de gaz destinées à l'Europe en provenance du Moyen-Orient resteraient très limitées, alors qu'un premier gazoduc vers l'Europe pourrait entrer en opération vers 2010. Ultérieurement, le gaz du Moyen-Orient serait nécessaire pour maintenir un approvisionnement gazier de l'Europe en ligne avec les besoins européens. This article attempts to forecast european (Western and Eastern natural gas demand and gas supplies up to 2010. It shows that at such a horizon both Norway and North Africa will have substantially increased their gas exports supplied to the European markets while the largest increase in terms of additionnal volumes will comes the former USSR, essentially from Russia. According to this analysis, Russia would be able to produce the required volumes even without putting into production the Yamal Peninsula fields, while the Russian Barentz Sea gas reserves (namely Stockmanovskoye could be developed by 2005 or even earlier. During the period 1995-2005 only very limited gas exports to Europe would be required from the Middle East gas sources but the first gas pipeline between this region and Europe could begin to operate around 2010. Later on additionnal Middle East gas will be

  12. Guidebook of natural gas air conditioning in the buildings of territorial organizations; Guide de la climatisation gaz naturel dans les batiments des collectives territotiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    In the framework of the 'common energy' approach, a partnership between Gaz de France (GdF) and the territorial associations (association of French territorial engineers (AITF) and association of French territorial graduate technicians (ATTF)), the publication since 15 years of this book of good practices makes a status of the implementation of natural gas air-conditioning in the buildings of the territorial organizations. Its aim is to supply information about the absorption principle, the existing products, the design of a natural gas air-conditioning system, its implementation, exploitation and maintenance. It presents also some experience feedbacks (town halls, swimming pools..) and three reference files in appendix. (J.S.)

  13. Some economic aspects of natural uranium graphite gas reactor types. Present status and trends of costs in France; Quelques aspects economiques de la filiere uranium naturel - Graphite - gaz. Etat actuel et tendance des couts en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J.; Tanguy, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Leo, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    reduction in investment costs can be obtained without relying on fuel enrichment, and that this development is accompanied moreover by improvements in the operational safety of the reactor. The economic aspects of the main technical problems entailed by these developments are discussed: loading and unloading machines, blowers etc... (authors) [French] Dans une premiere partie, on situe l'interet economique de l'utilisation de l'uranium naturel comme combustible. Cet interet reside a la fois dans le nombre limite et la simplicite relative des operations de mise en forme des elements combustibles, dans le faible cout du produit fini par kwh et dans les immobilisations modestes en capital qu'implique ce cycle par rapport ou cycle de l'uranium enrichi. Tous ces elements permettent de reduire le caractere aleatoire des evaluations des couts, particulierement marque dans le cas de l'uranium enrichi, en raison de la complexite de son cycle et des incertitudes concernant le prix du plutonium. Enfin, la diversite des sources d'approvisionnement en concentre d'uranium naturel opposee au quasi monopole actuel de la separation isotopique, et le faible cout du stockage de ce concentre, offrent des garanties en matiere de securite d'approvisionnement et d'independance economique et politique appreciables par rapport a l'uranium enrichi. En ce qui concerne l'ensemble des capitaux immobilises, on montre que si le cout des centrales au graphite-gaz est plus eleve que celui des centrales eau legere pour certaines gammes de puissance, ce resultat est fortement nuance des que l'on fait intervenir dans un souci d'independance nationale le cout de l'equipement de production des combustibles de l'une et l'autre filiere. Enfin, le cout marginal de la puissance du reacteur au graphite est faible, ses limitations technologiques ont considerablement recule (grace en particulier a l'utilisation du beton

  14. A Comprehensive Numerical Study on Effects of Natural Gas Composition on the Operation of an HCCI Engine Une étude numérique complète sur les effets de la composition du gaz naturel carburant sur le réglage d’un moteur HCCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanian O.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine is a promising idea to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Natural Gas (NG, usually referred as clean fuel, is an appropriate choice for HCCI engines due to its suitable capability of making homogenous mixture with air. However, varying composition of Natural Gas strongly affects the auto-ignition characteristics of in-cylinder mixture and the performance of the HCCI engine. This paper has focused on the influence of Natural Gas composition on engine operation in HCCI mode. Six different compositions of Natural Gas (including pure methane have been considered to study the engine performance via a thermo-kinetic zero-dimensional model. The simulation code covers the detailed chemical kinetics of Natural Gas combustion, which includes Zeldovich extended mechanism to evaluate NOx emission. Validations have been made using experimental data from other works to ensure the accuracy needed for comparison study. The equivalence ratio and the compression ratio are held constant but the engine speed and mixture initial temperature are changed for comparison study. Results show that the peak value of pressure/temperature of in-cylinder mixture is dependent of fuel Wobbe number. Furthermore, engine gross indicated power is linearly related to fuel Wobbe number. Gross indicated work, gross mean effective pressure, and NOx are the other parameters utilized to compare the performance of engine using different fuel compositions. Le moteur HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, ou à allumage par compression d’une charge homogène est une idée prometteuse pour réduire la consommation de carburant et les émissions polluantes. Le gaz naturel, considéré généralement comme un carburant propre, est un choix approprié pour les moteurs HCCI en raison de sa capacité à former avec l’air un mélange homogène. Cependant, la composition du gaz naturel influe fortement sur les caract

  15. Patrimoines naturels

    OpenAIRE

    Bouisset, Christine; Degrémont, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Ce numéro consacré aux « Patrimoines naturels » veut explorer le processus de construction de la patrimonialisation de la nature et ses conséquences directes sur l’espace : qu’est-ce qu’un patrimoine naturel ? Est-ce la même chose qu’un patrimoine bâti ? Se construit-il sur les mêmes valeurs ? Travailler sur la notion de patrimoine naturel pose particulièrement la question de l’étendue spatiale touchée par le processus de patrimonialisation. Il nous semble que cette caractéristique n’est que ...

  16. Natural Gas Hydrate Phase Equilibria and Kinetics : Understanding the State-Of-The-Art Équilibres des phases des hydrates de gaz naturel et cinétique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan E. D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of gas hydrate phase equilibria and kinetics. It is suggested that with only a few exceptions hydrate phase equilibrium conditions may be predicted with acceptable accuracy for industrial purposes via the current state-of-the art. Hydrate research is at a milestone, going beyond equilibrium experiments to time-dependent measurements, such as in the kinetic arena, where there is a severe paucity of date. To illustrate the concepts, two qualitative microscopic models are presented :1 the hydrate guest: cavity size ratio and2 the dissolution of apolar molecules in liquid water. Hypotheses for macroscopic phase equilibria and kinetic nucleation phenomena are given, based upon the two models. Cet article présente brièvement les équilibres des phases des hydrates de gaz naturel et leur cinétique. Il signale qu'en l'état actuel des connaissances, les conditions d'équilibre des phases des hydrates peuvent être connues, à quelques exceptions près, avec une précision acceptable dans un but industriel. La recherche sur les hydrates atteint un point décisif, elle dépasse les expériences d'équilibre et s'intéresse aux mesures variant en fonction du temps, celles de la cinétique par exemple, où les données sont particulièrement rares. Pour illustrer le concept deux modèles qualitatifs microscopiques sont présentés : 1 le rapport de grosseur hydrate hôte/cavité, et 2 la dissolution des molécules apolaires dans l'eau liquide. L'auteur émet des hypothèses relatives aux phénomènes macroscopiques d'équilibres des phases et de nucléation cinétique, basées sur ces deux modèles.

  17. Contrôle et prévention des émissions de SO² à l'usine de traitement de gaz naturel de Lacq SO² Emission Control and Prevention At the Lacq Natural Gas Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonometti G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le gisement de gaz naturel de Lacq, mis en production à partir de 1958 dans le Sud-Ouest de la France, est aujourd'hui exploité avec les gisements satellites de Meillon, Saint-Faust, Pont-d'As à un régime journalier de près de 33 millions de mètres cubes. La forte proportion d'hydrogène sulfuré qu'ils contiennent entraîne une production de plus de 5500 tonnes par jour de soufre. La concentration sur un même site d'une source potentielle aussi importante d'anhydride sulfureux pouvait laisser craindre un impact d'autant plus grave sur l'environnement que les conditions météorologiques locales étaient généralement défavorables. Les systèmes de contrôle et de prévention étudiés, développés et exploités à l'usine de Lacq par la Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (Production SNEA (P, au fur et a mesure du développement des champs, sont présentés en même temps que les résultats obtenus. De nombreuses actions lancées simultanément ont apporté leur contribution particulière à la résolution du problème posé. The Lacq natural gas field, which has been producing since 1958 in Southwest France, is currently producing, together with thé satellite fields of Meillon, Saint-Faust and Pont-d'As, of a daily rate of nearly 33 million cubic meters. The high proportion of hydrogen sulfide they contain results in a daily production of more than 5,500 tonnes of sulfur. The concentration of such a large potentiel source of sulfur dioxide in one place might be considered as a serious threat to thé environment because local weather conditions are very often unfavorable. The control and prévention systems researched, developed and operated at the Lacq plant by Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (Production SNEA (PI as the gas fields have been developed are described together with the results obtained. Various measures token simultaneously have collectively helped ta overcome the problem.

  18. Proposition d'explication de la formation d'hydrogène sulfuré dans les stockages souterrains de gaz naturel par réduction des sulfures minéraux de la roche magasin Proposed Explanation of Hydrogen-Sulfide Formation in Underground Natural-Gas Storage Structures by Reduction of Mineral Sulfides in the Reservoir Rock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeois J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La formation d'hydrogène sulfuré dans les structures de stockage peu expliquer autrement que par l'action de bactéries sulfato-réductrices. La contenue dans la roche magasin constitue une source de sulfures capable d'alimenter en H2S le gaz naturel. La réduction de la pyrite en sulfures du type Fe 1-x S et l'équilibre de dissolution précipitation, lié principalement à la pression de CO2, dans les structures stockages, constituent un processus de formation d'H2S capable d'expliquer tativement et quantitativement les phénomènes observés sur le terrain. Un modèle simplifié de stockage reprend ce schéma et teste la sensibililté de la teneur en H2S à la valeur des paramètres physiques et chimiques définissant le stockage. Cette étude permet de proposer un certain nombre d'actions susceptibles de limiter la formation d'H2S et d'orienter les choix futurs du couple gaz naturel - structures de stockage. The formation of hydrogen sulfide in storage structures can be explained otherwise thon by the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The pyrite contained in the reservoir rock makes up a source of sulfides capable of supplying the natural gas with H2S.Reduction of pyrite ta sulfides of the Fe,-,S type and the dissolution precipitation equilibrium, linked mainly ta C02 pressure in storage structures, make up an H2S for-mation process capable of qualitatively and quantitatively explained phenomena observed in the field.A simplified storage model reflects this scheme and can be used ta test the sensi-tivity of the H2S content ta the value of the physical and chemical parameters defining the storage structure.This investigation can be used to propose various means of action (sable ta "mit H2S formation and ta guide future choices of natural gas/storage-structure pairs.

  19. Two-phase flows during a discharge of liquefied gases, initially at saturation. Effect of the nature of the fluid; Ecoulements diphasiques lors de la vidange de gaz liquefies initialement a saturation. Influence de la nature du fluide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alix, P.

    1997-10-03

    In the case of a confinement loss (breakage of a connection piece) on a pressurized liquefied gas tank, a critical two-phase (liquid-vapour) flow is generated. This thesis is aimed at the validation of models describing these flows with various fluids (water, R 11, methanol, ethyl acetate, pure butane, commercial butane), using a pilot experimental plant. Results show that reduced upstream pressure is the main parameter, thus indicating that a model can be validated using minimal fluids. The homogenous models DEM and HRM appear to be more precise

  20. Economical and geopolitical aspects bond to the foreseen development of the natural gas in an open market; Aspects economiques et geopolitiques lies au developpement prevu du gaz naturel dans un marche ouvert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    For the first time in 2000, the part of natural gas is equal to those of coal in the world energy accounting. The economy and the geo-policy of this developing energy is analyzed, showing an economy dominated by the transport costs, the specificity of the european sector and the opening market since 1980. The european market opening incertitudes and opportunities are detailed. In conclusion the Gaz De France role in the european energy pole and the new regulations are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Surface Gas Geochemistry above the Natural CO2 Reservoir of Montmiral (Drôme, France, Source Tracking and Gas Exchange between the Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere Échanges gazeux et géochimie des gaz à la surface du réservoir naturel profond de CO2 de Montmiral (Drôme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal F.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the options considered to mitigate greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere is underground storage of CO2. There is a strong need for enhancing and developing methods that would help throughout the duration life of such underground storage, to ensure the safety and able to monitor the evolution of the injected CO2 plume. Among these, geochemical methods can play an important role. Here, we describe results acquired under the research programme “Géocarbone-Monitoring”, partially funded by the French National Research Agency, on the Montmiral natural analogue in South-Eastern France. Other results obtained under the same research programme in the French Massif Central are reported elsewhere in this volume. Spot sampling methods allowing a great geographical coverage and continuous measurements on selected points were undertaken in 2006 and 2007, in order to determine soil gas concentrations and fluxes as well as carbon isotope ratio determinations. One important result is that without any evidence of deep CO2 leakage, both CO2 concentrations and fluxes appear to be higher than can be explained only by biological activities. Further investigations are thus needed to understand the gas evolution better throughout the year. Une des options envisagées pour réguler les concentrations de gaz à effet de serre dans l’atmosphère est le stockage souterrain du CO2. Dans ce domaine existe un fort besoin de renforcer et de développer des méthodes susceptibles d’être utilisées tout au long de la durée de vie de ces stockages souterrains, afin de s’assurer de leur sécurité et de pouvoir suivre l’évolution du panache de CO2 injecté. Parmi elles, les méthodes géochimiques peuvent jouer un rôle important. Nous décrivons ici les résultats acquis dans le cadre du programme de recherche « Géocarbone-Monitoring » financé en partie par l’Agence Nationale de la Recherche sur l’analogue naturel de Montmiral dans le Sud

  2. Performance of natural gas distribution networks during the Kocaeli earthquake - 17 august 1999; Comportement des reseaux de distributions de gaz naturel lors du tremblement de terre de Kocaeli 17 aout 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarea, M.; Adrien, M. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The Kocaeli (Izmit) earthquake struck recently, on August 17, 1999, a well developed area of Turkey. This earthquake, of a magnitude 7.4 on the open Richter scale, severely damaged numerous buildings, industrial infrastructure, and made a lot of victims. In this context, most attention is given to issues like: seismology (why and how did it happen, what will happen next, etc.), seismic design and construction (why buildings collapsed and how to avoid this in the future). Some other subjects get less attention, because their direct influence in the overall damage is smaller. The behaviour of 'lifelines', designating all the networks which contribute to 'modern' lifestyle: water, energy, communications, etc., belong to this category. Nevertheless, the performance of lifelines during such strong earthquakes is also important, because they can contribute to minimise its impact. This impact has its usual two aspects: integrity and operability. For instance, the integrity requirement means that failures of the considered lifeline due to the earthquake should not directly affect property and life. The operability requirement means that a given subset of the lifeline remains operational, in order to fulfill vital tasks. We propose here a brief analysis of the performance of two relatively recently commissioned gas distribution systems: IZGAZ in Izmit, close the epicenter, and IDGAS in Istanbul. They have the advantage of representing a large sample of a recent implementation of the PE (polyethylene) technique, which has reached maturity. Both are cases of the Gaz de France 4 bar PE technology transferred to a Turkish operator, who completely managed the crisis. The first part describes the two networks, both their high medium pressure steel network, regulators, and the intermediate PE network, finishing with service lines and boxes. Then, the damage reported by the operational teams and their very important shut-down and blowdown actions are summarised

  3. The natural gas vehicles; Le gaz naturel vehicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) is a new ''clean'' fuel used for the urban public transports which can be adapted to the vehicles. It is the same gas as those for the cooking and the heating, but compressed at 200 bars. this document presents this abundant energy sources, the bound emissions standards, the technical and economical aspects, the environmental advantages, the today implementation and compare the french policy towards the NGV to other countries. (A.L.B.)

  4. The natural gas for vehicles; Le gaz naturel pour vehicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    This document aims to present the trumps of the natural gas for vehicle (NGV). It discusses the particularities, the actions of the government in favor of the NGV by the creation of financial and legal incentives and the challenges. A detail description of the financial and fiscal assistances and the regulation references are given. (A.L.B.)

  5. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution

  6. Two-phase flows during draining of liquefied gases initially undersaturated. Validation by water and CFC11; Ecoulements diphasiques lors de la vidange de gaz liquifies initialement sous satures. Validation par l`eau et le CFC11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, L.

    1996-12-11

    In petroleum industry, the safety studies require to estimate the two-phase flow during accidental draining of pressurized liquefied gas storages. Meanwhile the mass flow strongly depends of initial conditions. Then it is primordial to be able to reckon it in the case where it is the highest, that is to say when the fluid is initially undersaturated. An experimental installation has been carried out. The used fluids are water and CFC11. The experimental measures show that the thermodynamic conditions at the inlet of the pipe (P at +/- 15 mbar and T at +/- 0.15 degrees Celsius) are well controlled. The measured mass flows are compared to different models. The frictions in the monophase domain have been taken into account. It has been shown that the extensive H.E.M. model perfectly estimates the mass flow (as well as for water than for CFC11) for large deviations to saturation. In order to correctly predict the domain of weak variation to saturation, D.E.M. (out of equilibrium) models or H.R.M. (homogeneous model of relaxation) models have to be used. (O.M.) 50 refs.

  7. Gaz de France annual report 2000; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  8. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  9. DRA-01 - analysis of the dispersion conditions of a liquefied gas in near field and obstacles. Progress report for the operations A and B bibliographic synthesis; DRA-01 - analyse des conditions de dispersion d'un gaz liquefie en champ proche en presence d'obstacles. Rapport d'etape pour les operations a et b synthese bibliographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplantier, S.

    2001-07-01

    Many industrial activities need the storage of liquefied gas, on the site. These gases are often toxic and easily set on fire. The aim of this study is to realize a tool taking into account an obstacle and a release following a pipe breaking, which is one of the most widely prevalent configuration in the industry. The first part presents a bibliographic study to take stock on the two phase jet simulation and a drop impact on a solid surface. In the second part, the described models have been used to realize a first simulation in order to evaluate the quantity of collected product by an obstacle placed on the two phase jet trajectory. (A.L.B.)

  10. Natural gas news; Gaz actualites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    This brochure is a compilation of practical information concerning the Gaz de France group: organization chart, daughter companies, services, economical activity, natural gas market, trade, regulations etc. A list of partners, directions, centres, groups, associations and other various organisms in relation with Gaz de France company is given. (J.S.)

  11. A Geochemical Approach for Monitoring a CO2 Pilot Site: Rousse, France. A Major gases, CO2-Carbon Isotopes and Noble Gases Combined Approach Une méthode géochimique pour la surveillance d’un site pilote de stockage de CO2 : Rousse, France. Approche combinant les gaz majeurs, l’isotopie du carbone du CO2 et les gaz rares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia B.

    2012-02-01

    storage pilot suggest that noble gas compositions produced by oxyfuel process are sufficiently exotic compared to compositions found in nature (reservoir, aquifer and air to be directly used as tracers of the injected CO2, and to detect and quantify leaks at soil and aquifer levels. Ce papier presente la caracterisation geochimique des differents gaz, naturels et anthropogeniques, impliques dans un pilote de stockage de CO2 en champ de gaz naturel appauvri (Rousse, France. Dans ce pilote, le CO2 est produit par oxycombustion d’un gaz naturel transforme en gaz domestique a l’usine de Lacq. Ce CO2 est transporte dans un pipeline de 30 km de longueur jusqu’au reservoir de gaz appauvri de Rousse. Les gaz produits a Rousse avant injection de CO2, le gaz commercial de Lacq et le CO2 resultant de l’oxycombustion ont ete echantillonnes, ainsi que les gaz situes dans un puits de surveillance (a une profondeur de 45 m et les gaz du sol situes au voisinage de Rousse. Pour tous ces echantillons, la composition en gaz majeurs, la signature isotopique du carbone ainsi que l’abondance et signature isotopique des gaz rares ont ete determinees. Les compositions gazeuses du gaz naturel de Rousse sont comparables a celle du gaz domestique de Lacq avec le methane comme compose principal et la fraction C2-C5 et CO2 comme gaz residuels. Les gaz des sols refletent typiquement des melanges entre l’air (pole pur et le CO2 d’origine biogenique (avec des teneurs maximales de l’ordre de 9-10 %, tandis que les gaz presents dans le puits de monitoring refletent typiquement la composition de l’air sans exces de CO2. Le gaz de Rousse et le gaz domestique du site de Lacq ont une composition isotopique δ13CCH4 egale a –41,0 ‰ et –43,0 ‰ respectivement. Le CO2 injecte sur Rousse a une composition isotopique δ13CCO2 egale a –40,0 ‰ a la sortie de la chambre d’oxycombustion, tandis que la composition isotopique δ13CCO2 des gaz des sols est comprise entre –15 et –25

  12. LNG to India - the role of innovation and technological development in enabling the Pipavav project; Le GNL (gaz naturel liquefie) en Inde - le role de l'innovation et du developpement technique dans l'etablissement du projet Pipavav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.A.; Haynes, D.A.; Humphreys, C.E. [BG Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom); Acton, A. [British Gas International (India)

    2000-07-01

    India offers a significant potential market for LNG. However, the difficulties in marketing LNG in the area are considerable with a limited availability of buyers prepared and able to commit to long term gas purchase contracts. This combined with the large number of competing projects makes it essential that Indian LNG projects take account of recent industry cost reduction initiatives and are designed and built to exacting and, where possible, accelerated schedules. The west coast of India provides the best markets but presents difficulties of a fundamental technical nature for LNG projects. Of particular concern are the limited availability of natural harbors with sufficient protection for LNG ships to operate during the monsoon period, the long distances to deep water from the high water line and the variable nature of local marine and seabed conditions. This poster concentrates on the design of the proposed import terminal at Pipavav in North West India to be owned and operated by Gujarat Pipavav LNG Co. It discusses the technical development work undertaken by BG Technology and BG International to enable the project to proceed with acceptable capital costs and schedule. (authors)

  13. La gazéification souterraine profonde du charbon en France. L'expérience de Bruay-en-Artois Underground Coal Gasification At Great Depth. The French Field Test of Bruay-En-Artois

    OpenAIRE

    Gadelle C.; Lessi J.; Sarda J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Le projet français de gazéification souterraine du charbon, dont l'objectif à terme est la production d'un substitut de gaz naturel, vise la gazéification de veines de charbon de faible épaisseur, situées à grande profondeur et non exploitables par les méthodes classiques. De nombreuses difficultés sont liées à la profondeur (plus de 1000 m), en particulier la nécessité d'opérer sous pression élevée dans un charbon très peu perméable. Les premiers essais, effectués sur un pilote à 1200 m de l...

  14. Absorption air conditioning press kit: natural gas air conditioning - market shows Gaz de France's falling back, technologies - absorption heat pumps are coming to France, heat recovery - free energy for a waste processing facility, natural gas air conditioning - ideal temperature in the departments of a supermarket, teaching - an absorption machinery in a college of Marseille; Dossier Absorption: clim au gaz - le marche accuse le repli de gaz de France, technologies - les pompes a chaleur a absorption arrivent en France, recuperation de chaleur - de l'energie gratuite pour un centre de traitement des dechets, climatisation au gaz naturel - temperature ideale dans les rayons d'un supermarche, enseignement - une machine a absorption dans un lycee de Marseille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, J.; Maes, P.

    2005-03-01

    The reorganization of Gaz de France (GdF) company (the former historical French gas utility) in the framework of the opening of energy markets has deeply changed the natural gas air conditioning sector. The professionals now have to promote this solution without the active sustain of GdF. The natural gas air conditioning technologies should develop in Europe in the coming years. The electricity prices and the necessity to reduce the summer consumption play in favor of natural gas. The ability of absorption air conditioning to valorize various heat sources is in good agreement with the sustainable development prospects and is one of the promotion way chosen in France by absorption equipment retailers. This press kit about absorption air conditioning systems comprises 5 articles dealing with: the natural gas air conditioning market in France, the start-up of absorption heat pumps commercialization in France, the in-situ valorization of wood wastes for the space heating and air conditioning at the municipal waste sorting facility of Plantaurel (Ariege, France), the natural gas air conditioning of a supermarket in Gap (Southern Alps, France), and a pedagogical gas air-conditioning facility in a technical college of Marseille (France). (J.S.)

  15. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

  16. Risques naturels en montagne et analyse spatiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Manche

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Le concept de risque repose sur deux notions :l'aléa, qui représente le phénomène physique par son amplitude et sa période retour ;la vulnérabilité, qui représente l'ensemble des biens et des personnes pouvant être touchés par un phénomène naturel.Le risque se définit alors comme le croisement de ces deux notions. Cette vision théorique permet de modéliser indépendamment les aléas et la vulnérabilité.Ce travail s'intéresse essentiellement à la prise en compte de la vulnérabilité dans la gestion des risques naturels. Son évaluation passe obligatoirement par une certaine analyse spatiale qui prend en compte l'occupation humaine et différentes échelles de l'utilisation de l'espace. Mais l'évaluation spatiale, que ce soit des biens et des personnes, ou des effets indirects se heurte à de nombreux problèmes. Il faut estimer l'importance de l'occupation de l'espace. Par ailleurs, le traitement des données implique des changements constants d'échelle pour passer des éléments ponctuels aux surfaces, ce que les systèmes d'information géographique ne gèrent pas parfaitement. La gestion des risques entraîne de fortes contraintes d'urbanisme, la prise en compte de la vulnérabilité permet de mieux comprendre et gérer les contraintes spatiales qu'impliquent les risques naturels. aléa, analyse spatiale, risques naturels, S.I.G., vulnérabilité

  17. 2002 survey - energy, petroleum, natural gas, automobile, environment; Panorama 2002 - energie, petrole, gaz naturel, automobile, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannesini, J.F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Schweitzer, L.; Fayolle, J.P. [Renault, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France); Nejat Veziroglu, T. [Association Hydrogen Energy (Canada); Alleau, Th. [Association Francaise de l' Hydogene, 75 - Paris (France); Gueguen, C. [Totalfinaelf raffinerie de Feyzin, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized its seventh annual international 'Panorama' colloquium on the theme: fuels of the future. This document brings together the different invited talks given in Paris, Lyon and Brussels on this theme: a summary of 2001 highlights in the oil and gas industry given by J.F. Giannesini (IFP head's adviser), a prospective analysis of future automotive fuels with respect to fossil fuel reserves depletion and environmental policy constraints given by L. Schweitzer (president of Renault car making industry), a presentation of the hydrogen and synthetic fuel energy systems of the 21. century by T. Nejat Veziroglu (president of the international association for hydrogen energy), a presentation of the economical, environmental, technical and political aspects of hydrogen as a future energy vector by T. Alleau (president of the French association of hydrogen AFH2), the formulation of future automotive fuels as seen from the eye of the refinery engineer by C. Geguen (technical director of Feyzin refinery (TotalFinaElf)), and a last paper about the recent and future evolutions of diesel engines for industrial vehicles by J.P. Fayolle (director of engines R and D, Renault industrial vehicles). (J.S.)

  18. Outlook for natural gas in the mediterranean region; Perspectives du gaz naturel en mediterranee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elandaloussi, H. [Observatoire Mediterraneen de l' Energie, 06 - Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2006-07-15

    In connection with the 3-year plan for 2003-2006, the international gas unions' committee on developing gas markets (PGC-C) has launched 4 case studies. The Mediterranean energy observatory (OME), in conjunction with 5 of its member companies, has carried out a study focusing on gas markets in the Mediterranean region. The aim was to analyze gas trends in North Africa, paying particular attention to the case of Egypt, which has both a growing level of domestic demand and strong export and transit potential. The results of this study were included in the presentation given to a round-table organized at the time of the 23. World gas congress, which was held in Amsterdam from June 4 to 9, 2006. This article summarizes the data presented at that time.

  19. Energy, petroleum, natural gas, automobiles, environment; Energie, petrole, gaz naturel, automobile, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IFP Group organized, for the eighth consecutive year, its international colloquium Panorama at Paris the 6 february, Lyon the 13 february and Bruxelles (Brussels) the 19 february 2003. The subject was ''the hydrocarbons reserves: abundance or penury?''. The presented allocution bring information on the reserves estimation and petroleum production forecasts, the geographical and political context instability of the energy and the fundamental question of the world resources availability. (A.L.B.)

  20. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wollan, J. [Cryenco, Inc. (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

  1. Active Gas Regenerative Liquefier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We offer a novel liquefier that has the potential to simultaneously increase thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduce complexity. The ?active gas...

  2. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

    1997-05-01

    Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

  3. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

  4. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  5. Gaz de France. Operation note; Gaz de France. Note d'operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  6. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  7. Péri-urbanisation et risques naturels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Astrade

    2009-03-01

    d’instabilités multiples. La périurbanisation au sein de bassins montagnards aux versants instables pose des problèmes spécifiques auxquels les acteurs locaux tentent de faire face. Le bassin du Lavanchon (sud-est de Grenoble, qui combine un accroissement urbain très rapide et des versants particulièrement dynamiques est représentatif de ce rapprochement entre les aléas et les activités. L’étude diachronique de l’évolution de l’utilisation du sol entre 1956 et 2001 montre la densification des infrastructures dans la vallée et au bas des versants. Dans ce contexte, une enquête a été réalisée auprès d’un certain nombre de résidents du bassin du Lavanchon dans le but l’évaluer le degré de conscience que les populations ont des risques naturels auxquels ils sont exposés. Les résultats montrent qu’un peu plus de la moitié de la population interrogée a conscience de la problématique des risques naturels sur ce territoire, plutôt marquée selon la plupart des habitants par les risques industriels et de pollution. Les nouveaux résidants ignorent ou occultent la réalité des risques. La faible fréquence d’événements naturels marquants, l’efficacité des ouvrages de protection réalisés, l’absence d’informations de la part des pouvoirs publics et le morcellement du bassin entre plusieurs gestionnaires semble avoir généré un sentiment de sécurité par rapport aux phénomènes naturels. La répartition géographique de cette appréhension du risque montre clairement une distinction entre les habitants de la plaine et ceux des bas de versants, qui correspond assez bien à la localisation historique et actuelle des principaux aléas.

  8. Gaz de France. Source document; Gaz de France. Document de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  9. Synthése de quelques aminoacides non naturels

    OpenAIRE

    OUICI, Houari

    2014-01-01

    Lévaluation des propriétés thérapeutiques des peptidomimétiques ainsi que des produits apparentés a montré que les amino acides non naturels constituaient des synthons intéressants à incorporer dans ce genre de structures . En effet , ils conferent aux peptides naturels et leurs analogues des preprietes jusque la inconnues . Ces amino acides peuvent etre synthetises a partir de plusieurs reactifs de depart . Pour notre part ,nous sommes fixes comme objectif d'obtenir des plusieurs reactifs...

  10. Etude, consolidation et protection de caoutchouc naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Duboisset

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Un exemplaire d’un fauteuil MAA de George Nelson produit en 1958 a été restauré dans l’atelier mobilier du département des restaurateurs de l’Institut National du Patrimoine. Ce fauteuil est un exemple très représentatif du modernisme américain par sa simplicité des formes et  son esthétisme recherché. Les articulations du dossier en caoutchouc naturel sont fortement fissurées suite à une exposition à la lumière couplée à l’utilisation du fauteuil. Un protocole technico-scientifique a permis d’établir une méthode de comblement réversible des fissures à l’aide d’éthylène vinyle acétate, résine thermoplastique souple. Ce procédé a été appliqué sur les caoutchoucs du fauteuil afin de redonner une cohérence mécanique aux pièces.A MAA chair of George Nelson dating of 1958 was restored in the workshop of furniture in the department of restoration at the National institute of heritage. This chair is a very representative example of American modernism by its simplicity of form and its refine style. The articulation of the back is composed with natural rubber. These are highly cracked due to exposure to light and coupled with the use of the chair. A protocol on scientific-technical established a reversible method of filling cracks with ethylene vinyl acetate with anti-oxidant, soft thermoplastic resin. This method has been applied on the rubber chair to give mechanical coherence to the parts and to the chair.

  11. Gaz de France annual report 2003; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  12. New regulations, combustion, environment: responses for natural gas; Nouvelles reglementations, combustion, environnement: les reponses pour le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Peltier-Marc, A. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction Commerciale

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French regulations concerning low- to medium-power combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on natural gas fired boilers, are discussed: lower pollutant emission limits are set for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes. The decree gives new regulations concerning plant location, combustion control systems, plant monitoring and maintenance, and air pollution control measures such as chimney stack height and emission limits. The French national gas utility promotes environmental high performance boilers

  13. Solubility of natural gases in water under high pressure; Solubilite des gaz naturels dans l`eau a pression elevee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhima, A.

    1998-10-08

    Under high pressure (up to 1200 bar) and high temperature (up to 200 deg C) petroleum reservoir conditions the hydrocarbon-water mutual solubilities may become important. Under such conditions, the prediction of hydrocarbon water solubilities is a challenge for petroleum engineers. Indeed, very few studies have been done ar pressures higher that 700 bars. New solubility data for methane, ethane, n-butane, CO{sub 2} and their mixtures in pure water were obtained at 344.25 K and from 2.5 to 100 MPa. The results agree very well with those of the literature in the case of pure hydrocarbons in water, but differ for the hydrocarbon mixtures. A rigorous thermodynamic analysis allows the elaboration of a model that combines a cubic equation of state (Peng-Robinson with k{sub ij} given in literature) with the Henry`s law approach. The (P,T) functional form of Henry`s constant is given by the Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation which involves two important parameters: partial molar volume at infinite dilution and Henry`s constant at the vapour pressure of water. For a given solute both parameters are only functions of temperature. A critical selection of binary solubility data for a large number of solutes has been used as a basis for a new correlation for calculating both this partial molar volume and the corresponding Henry`s constants as a function of temperature. (author) 169 refs.

  14. Natural gas integration in latin america: forward or backwards?; Integration du gaz naturel en Amerique Latine: avance ou recul?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutinho Dos Santos, E.; Oxilia Davalos, V.E.; Tadeu Werneck Faga, M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Graduate Energy Program, SP (Brazil)

    2006-05-15

    Throughout the 1990's to Year 2000, energy integration, and particularly natural gas integration, was seen as a major goal in the Southern Cone of South America, The regional perspective for energy was related to an even more challenging objective - Latin American economic integration, which was quickly moving forward by the constitution of MERCOSUR, the free trade zone built by Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay, and also having Bolivia and Chile as special partners. MERCOSUR was getting stronger and becoming a successful political project. Trade conflicts existed, but they were considered normal and nobody would disagree about the viability of MERCOSUR. By the beginning of the 21. Century, the economic integration process in South America was already advancing timidly as compared to the impetus from the beginning of 1990's. MERCOSUR started facing complex and almost insurmountable challenges after the numerous global financial crises (from 1998 to 2003) which had affected the economic balances in the region. Energy and gas integration in South America has equally lost perspective as fast as the importance of economic integration has declined. The economic crises in the region and poor energy policies have discouraged energy companies to invest. The paper presents this recent history of rising and falling in the concept of economic and energy integration in the Southern Cone of South America. Despite the abundance of energy resources, and particularly the plethora of recently discovered natural gas, the region has been experiencing systematic and important energy shortages, which may threaten its economic recovery. A stronger energy integration policy would help all the partner countries to reduce energy supply risks. Yet, energy (and gas) integration in the Southern Cone is still a complex long-term political project, which must involve all countries, but whose future perspective is unclear. It seems almost impossible to keep pushing forward this project without revitalizing the former communitarian and regional perception of the world that had led to the creation of MYIERCOSUR. The idea of energy or gas integration alone can hardly survive without the strong umbrella of a sustainable and wider economic integration policy. South American countries need a new initiative to restart the debate about such vital regional integration. (authors)

  15. Postface : La gestion des risques naturels est une dynamique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaboyedoff, M.; Charriere, M.K.M.; Derron, M.H.; Nicolet, P.; Sudmeier-Rieux, K.

    2013-01-01

    Les risques sont contrôlés par de nombreux facteurs dont, en premier lieu, les dangers, exprimés par leur fréquence (aléa) à une intensité donnée, mais aussi relativement à un fonctionnement de la société. La gestion des risques, liés aux dangers naturels, implique de les évaluer, en premier lieu, e

  16. The public safety and Gaz de France; La securite du public et Gaz de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of its utilities missions, Gaz de France has to assure the public safety and the continuity of the gas supply chain. To avoid accidents and help victims of accidents, Gas de France implemented a system of financial assistance but also a preventive action to verify the installations. The first part of the document presents the liabilities of Gas de France, the second part deals with the voluntarist approach of Gas de france towards the public safety. (A.L.B.)

  17. Gaz de France 2006 sustainable development report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A major European energy utility, the Gaz de France Group produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. this report presents the actions implemented by the group to incorporate sustainable development into its strategy. From the point of view of risks and opportunities, the group analyzes what it takes to ensure development that respects people and the environment, and it implements them in all its business lines and management systems. Content: Gaz de France, portrait of a major energy utility, highlights of 2006, challenges and strategy (defining strategy and sustainable development policy, specific risks and opportunities, activities of the Gaz de France group: challenges, impact for stakeholders, transparency and independence in governing), ranking and implementing (defining sustainable development policy: reviewing priorities, meeting all the challenges, publicizing and defending positions, increasing awareness, overseeing and monitoring results), results of the 2004-2006 sustainable development action plan, dialogue and action with stakeholders, performance assessment, performance in response to challenges: energy challenges (guaranteeing regular supplies, controlling atmospheric emissions, promoting energy conservation, developing renewable energy), industrial challenges (ensuring health and safety, limiting the overall environmental impact of group activities), social responsibility challenges (advocating corporate social responsibility, promoting human rights and fighting corruption, encouraging commitment to solidarity, promoting regional development through local initiatives, reconciling acquisitions, procurement and sustainable development, ensuring transparency in natural gas rates, providing shareholders with quality information, promoting diversity, a source of enrichment, making working conditions a performance factor), indicators and

  18. Gaz de France and the sustainable development in 2005; Gaz de France et le developpement durable en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This booklet provides information on the Gaz de France group involvement in the sustainable development: the stakes, the approach, the energy challenge answers, the security and the solidarity and the active part in the territories development. (A.L.B.)

  19. Factors Affecting the Resinification of Liquefied Phenolated Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiu-hui; Zhao Guang-jie1; Hu Shi-yu

    2005-01-01

    Wood of Chinese fir and poplar were liquefied in phenol at 150℃ and atmospheric pressure. The liquefied wood were reacted with formaldehyde to synthesize the liquefied wood-based resin. The factors affecting the resinification and the properties of new resin were investigated. The results show that the formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio have important influence on the resin characteristics. With the increase of formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, the yield of resin increases, and the free phenol content of resins decreases, showing that the resinification of liquefied wood is more complete at higher formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratios. The reaction temperature on the viscosity of the liquefied resin has considerable effect; the viscosity of resin increased with increasing reaction temperature,and the amount of liquefied poplar resin increased more quickly than that of liquefied Chinese fir resin. The resinification time also has obvious influence on the viscosity of resin; the viscosity of liquefied poplar resin is more sensitive to resinification time compared with that of liquefied Chinese fir. The amount of sodium hydroxide can improve the water miscibility of liquefied wood resin.The optimum sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio for preparation of liquefied wood-based resins exceeds 0.4.

  20. Gaz de France. 2006 reference document; Gaz de France. Document de reference 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents the relevant informations relative to the annual consolidated financial statements of the group according to IFRS and French standards for the year 2005 (selected financial information, business overview, liquidity and capital resources, profit forecasts or estimates, compensation and benefits, issuer assets etc..). It includes also some complementary information about the activities of the group, its estate property, plants and equipments, its R and D and patenting activities, its management and administration, its 2005 and 2006 contracts etc.. (J.S.)

  1. Gaz de France 2006 annual report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary.

  2. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007.

  3. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007.

  4. Unconventional Gas Resources in the Paleozoic of Central Europe Ressources de gaz non conventionnels dans le Paléozoïque de l’Europe Centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littke R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whereas gas production from unconventional reserves has greatly increased over the past decades, there is still a largely unexplored potential in the Paleozoic of Central Europe. For this area, the paper summarizes some important aspects of the geology of tight sandstone gas reservoirs, gas shales and coalbed methane. Tight sandstones with low permeabilities are especially present in the Permian (Rotliegend Formation of The Netherlands and northern Germany, but also in the underlying Carboniferous. There is already active production from some of these reservoirs. Further development greatly depends on understanding of gas charge as well as the regional distribution of porosity and permeability which in turn depend on facies and diagenesis. In contrast exploration for gas shales is just at the very beginning. Whereas Mesozoic shales in the southern Lower Saxony Basin have to be regarded as prime targets due to thickness, maturity and organic matter content, there are additional targets in the Mississippian, but also in older rocks. Currently an international gas shale research programme (Gas shales in Europe, GASH gathers relevant data for these units. Coalbed methane exploration started already about 20 years ago in the Ruhr Basin, but was not successful at that time due to small flow rates. On the other hand, production from abandoned coal mines provided substantial amounts of gas. Due to the abundance of coal seams and the suitable maturity conditions and gas contents, there is a high potential for future substantial coalbed methane in the area. Alors que l’extraction du gaz naturel des gisements non conventionnels a fortement augmenté ces dernières dizaines d’années, un large potentiel de ressources reste inexploré dans les couches paléozoïques de l’Europe Centrale. Cet article présente, pour cette région, quelques aspects importants de la géologie des grès de faible perméabilité (tight gas sands, des gaz de schiste (gas

  5. Ecoulements diphasiques gaz-liquide à poches et à bouchons en conduites Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Slug Flow in Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferschneider G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les écoulements diphasiques gaz-liquide ont été étudiés afin de contribuer à développer des modèles de calculs prédictifs des pertes de charge dans les conduites de production des bruts pétroliers. Les expériences nécessaires ont été réalisées sur la boucle diphasique de Boussens dans les conditions suivantes représentatives des conditions industrielles : diamètre 6 , longueur 120 m, disposition de la conduite horizontale ou faiblement ascendante, couple de fluide gaz naturel-huile légère. Le gradient de pression, le contenu global, et la distribution locale des phases ont été mesurés. Le traitement des équations de conservation phasique intégrées sur la section par différents types de moyennes a permis de développer un modèle cellulaire qui inclue un nombre limité d'équations constitutives nécessaires à sa fermeture. Ce modèle prédétermine convenablement le gradient de pression, le contenu gaz global et la longueur des poches et des bouchons. Two-phase gas-liquid flows were analyzed so as to develop models for prediction of pressure drops in crude-oil production lines. The experiments were performed on the two-phase loop at Boussens under the following representative industrial conditions: 6 diameter, 120 m length, horizontal or slightly rising pipe, couple of fluids natural gas and light oil. The pressure gradient, average content and local phase distribution were measured. Conservation phase equations integrated along the cross-section were processed by different time-averaged operators so as to develop a cellular model including a limited number of constitutive equations required for its closure. This model suitably predetermines the pressure gradient, the average gas content and the length of gas and liquid slug.

  6. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of § 1065...

  7. Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

  8. The Global Market for Liquefied Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    David Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) provides an economic means to transport natural gas over long distances, bringing production from remote gas reserves to market. A large expansion in global LNG trade is currently under way, and Australia is likely to emerge as the second largest supplier globally in coming years. This article describes the functioning of the global LNG market and outlines Australia's position within the market.

  9. Gaz de France and market regulation; Gaz de France et la regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, J.F.; Balard, Th. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-10-01

    Following an overview of the specific features of the European gas sector (characterised by highly concentrated production and increasing levels of production outside Europe and over long distances), the article describes the lead up to the opening of the market place in France. Following the application of the first directive in 2000, Gaz de France has carried out various measures, the aim of which was to achieve immediate efficiency (with the organizational separation of the transport and trading divisions, the separation of activities from an accounting viewpoint and the publication of a transparent TPA tariff as opposed to a discriminatory one). This opening of the gas sector has seen the start of a gradual process based on this experience. In addition to these initial measures, the opening of the gas markets has been subject to a regulatory framework as from January 2003, and the task of regulating the French gas sector has been given to the CRE (Commission de regulation de l'electricite). Thanks to the ongoing dialogue initiated by the latter with all key players in the market, progress has been achieved in various fields related to regulation. Even if this process is not complete, the French example demonstrates that the combined actions of the regulator and the market operators working together in a constructive manner and in stages, makes it possible to successfully introduce a genuinely open market. (authors)

  10. A helium liquefier using three 4 k pulse tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Oviedo, Abner

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a helium liquefier which can be used for recondensing/reliquefying helium vapor in a helium cryostat or liquefying helium gas in a storage dewar. The helium liquefier employs three 4 K pulse tube cryocoolers, Cryomech model PT415. Each PT415 has remote motor/rotary valve assembly to minimize vibration, providing ≥ 1.5W at 4.2K. The liquefier can liquefy room temperature helium gas with a liquefaction rate of 62 Liter/day. When installing it in the cryostat, it can recondense and reliquefy helium vapor with a rate of 78 L/day. The liquefier will be installed in a gravitational wave detector in Brazil to recondense/reliquefy the helium boil off from the cryostat.

  11. La gazéification souterraine profonde du charbon en France. L'expérience de Bruay-en-Artois Underground Coal Gasification At Great Depth. The French Field Test of Bruay-En-Artois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadelle C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le projet français de gazéification souterraine du charbon, dont l'objectif à terme est la production d'un substitut de gaz naturel, vise la gazéification de veines de charbon de faible épaisseur, situées à grande profondeur et non exploitables par les méthodes classiques. De nombreuses difficultés sont liées à la profondeur (plus de 1000 m, en particulier la nécessité d'opérer sous pression élevée dans un charbon très peu perméable. Les premiers essais, effectués sur un pilote à 1200 m de la surface sur le site de Bruay-en-Artois (nord de la France, ont consisté à :- relier deux puits distants de 65 m par fracturation hydraulique, un test de la liaison par injection d'azote indiquant un taux de récupération du gaz injecté proche de 50 % ; - allumer le charbon au moyen d'un allumeur électrique ; - initier et tenter de propager une combustion à contre-courant avec injection d'air à faible débit. Des expériences de laboratoire, consécutives à cet essai pilote, ont mis en évidence les risques d'allumage spontané du charbon lorsque la pression partielle d'oxygène dans le gaz injecté est élevée. Un nouvel essai de combustion à contre-courant a alors été entrepris sur le site de Bruay-en-Artois, avec injection d'un gaz contenant 5 % d'oxygène et 95 % d'azote. Les résultats de cette expérimentation arrêtée en juillet 1981 sont en cours d'exploitation. The French underground coal gasification (UCG project, which has the objective of producing synthetic natural gas, aims to gasify deep thin coal seams that cannot be mined by conventional methods. Many difficulties are connected with depth (more than 1000 m, in particular the necessity to operate under high pressure in low permeable coal. The initial pilot tests performed at a depth of 1200 m from the surface at Bruay-en-Artois (northern France consisted in: (a linking two boreholes 65 m apart by hydraulic fracturing, a linkage test by nitrogen injection

  12. A contribution from Gaz de France to the economic performance of industries; Contribution de Gaz de France a la perfomance economique des industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depail, J.C. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the policy of the French national gas utility, Gaz de France, towards industries, is to promote natural gas as a competitive fuel compared to fuels and electric power, with energy efficient solutions that are easy to implement and maintain: space heating, paint curing, surface cleaning, bath heating, vapour generation, waste treatment (especially for molding sand and volatile organic compounds, sludge drying). Gaz de France proposes also expertise schemes and audits

  13. Structure and operation of the natural gas market in France; La structure et le fonctionnement du marche du gaz naturel en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The French natural gas market is organized around six main activities: production, transport, methane terminals, storage, distribution and commercialization. This paper describes the facilities related to each activity: gas fields, pipelines network and distribution systems, terminals capacity and underground storage facilities. The selling activity is opened to competition but the French gas market follows a progressive and controlled opening which will be complete in July 2007. (J.S.)

  14. Natural gas combustion and indoor air quality in domestic premises; Combustion du gaz naturel et qualite de l'air a l'interieur des habitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Occhio, L.; Riva, A. [Snam, (Italy); Canci, F.; Scevarolli, V. [Italgas, Torino (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Indoor air quality depends on many factors; combustion appliances are one of the sources of emissions inside dwellings. Their installation is regulated by UNI-CIG standards which also establish the ventilation and aeration requirements needed to guarantee the safety and healthiness of the environment. In order to critically evaluate the effect on indoor air quality of using gas appliances under different operational regimes and in different types of building, Snam and Italgas have developed a research project in co-operation with Enitecnologie and Turin Polytechnic, even to provide theoretical and experimental support for standardisation activities. The results of the presented research include experimental measurements made in real buildings, mathematical modelling and analysis of Italian and international literature. The results show that use of combustion appliances has little influence on indoor air quality and does not affect people's health. (authors)

  15. Radio-active pollution near natural uranium-graphite-gas reactors; La pollution radioactive aupres des piles uranium naturel - graphite - gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.; Pouthier, J.; Delmar, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1967-07-01

    The results of numerous evaluations of the contamination are given: - Reactors in operation during maintenance operations. - Reactors shut-down during typical repair operations (coolants, exchangers, interior of the vessel, etc. ) - Following incidents on the cooling circuit and can-rupture. They show that, except in particular cases, it is the activation products which dominate. Furthermore, after ten years operation, the points at which contamination liable to emit strong doses accumulates are very localized and the individual protective equipment has not had to be reinforced. (authors) [French] Les resultats de nombreuses evaluations de la contamination sont donnes: - Piles en marche pendant les operations d'entretien - Piles a l'arret au cours des chantiers caracteristiques (refrigerants, echangeurs, interieur du caisson, etc.) - A la suite d'incidents sur le circuit de refroidissement et de rupture de gaine. Ils montrent que, sauf cas particulier, ce sont essentiellement les produits d'activation qui dominent. Par ailleurs apres 10 ans de fonctionnement, les points d'accumulation de la contamination susceptibles de delivrer des debits de dose importants restent tres localises et les moyens de protection individuels utilises n'ont pas du etre renforces. (auteurs)

  16. Proposal of law relative to the electricity and natural gas regulated prices; Proposition de loi relative aux tarifs reglementes d'electricite et de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    This proposal of law relative to regulated electricity and gas tariffs, concerns one important modification of the article 66 from the law no 2005-781 of July 13, 2005 about the main guidelines of the French energy policy. This modification allows the households who have made the choice of a de-regulated energy supplier to change back and benefit again of the regulated tariffs. This document presents the items added in this way to the article 66. (J.S.)

  17. Conclusions of the commission: property transfer of natural gas transport networks; Conclusions de la commission: transfert de propriete des reseaux de transport de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document deals with the evolution of the avoidance of the natural gas transport allowances and their transfers modalities. The first part recalls the juridical, technical and economical situation and the european context taking into account by the commission in this project. The commission choices of the evaluation methods are then presented. The evaluations and the conclusions of the commission are presented in the last part. (A.L.B.)

  18. Development of the ceramic natural gas engine co-generation system; Developpement d'un systeme de cogeneration a moteur a gaz naturel en ceramique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Iwamoto, H. [Japan Gas Association (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The Japan Gas Association is developing ceramic gas engines (CGE) for use in co-generation systems driven by natural gas. Ceramic gas engines are lightweight, compact power units with high power generation efficiency, enabling a high level of waste heat utilization from the hot exhaust. Although the Japanese office building market has the potential of becoming a major market for co-generation systems, the heat-electricity ratio of such facilities (with a significantly large electricity demand in comparison to the heat demand) renders conventional co-generation systems unsuitable for application to office buildings. The newly-developed engine system should allow this previously unexplored market to be exploited. Development of the engine system was initiated in 1993, and has now entered its seventh year. This report describes the current development status of the CGE technology. Development of the engine was funded as an auxiliary project by the Ministry of International Trade. and Industry (MITI) from 1993 through 1999, after which activities will continue within the private sector. (authors)

  19. Fuel cell powered by natural gas. The projet `Gazel` four years later; La pile a combustible au gaz naturel. Le projet `Gazel` apres quatre ans de exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D.N. [Service de Gaz, Services Industriels de Geneve (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    The Services Industriels of Geneve (SIG) acted as a pioneer when in 1993 they purchased and commenced the operation of a first generation phosphoric acid fuel cell ONSI PC25A. The object of the SIG fuel cell pilot project, Gazel, is to promote the technology of fuel cells powered by natural gas, by demonstrating the feasibility of exploitation of the technique, and by seeking to optimize profitability conditions in an installation on an industrial scale. For almost four years, the operational results obtained conform to, and in some cases even exceed, the initial estimates, which were already very favourable in comparison with traditional technologies of electricity production. Indeed, ecological and technical performances more than corresponds to the manufacturer expectations. Long duration tests should allow to evaluate the profitability of the fuel cell, justly considered to be a technology of the future for the gas industry. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1993 haben die Industriellen Betriebe in Genf (SIG) auf eigene Rechnung die Brennstoffzelle PC25A von ONSI erworben und als erste deren regulaeren Betrieb aufgenommen. Mit diesem Projekt hatten die SIG sich zum Ziel gesetzt, die Brennstoffzellen-Technologie zu lancieren. Erdgas wird zur Speisung der Brennstoffzelle benutzt, und das Projekt ist eine Demonstration des zuverlaessigen Betriebs dieser Technologie, mit dem im industriellen Massstab die Rentabilitaetsbedingungen reell optimiert werden. Die in den beinahe vier Jahrzehnten Betriebsdauer erzielten resultate entsprechen voll den Erwartungen und uebertreffen in einzelnen Details die urspruenglichen Vorgaben, die im Vergleich zu den herkoemmlichen Technologien der Elektrizitaetserzeugung bereits sehr viel guenstiger sind. Den an sie gestellten technischen und oekologischen Forderungen von Seiten des Herstellers hat die realisierte Anlage tatsaechlich voellig entsprochen. Langzeitversuche dieser Art sind ideal, um die Rentabilitaet der Brennstoffzelle gegenwaertig noch abzuschaetzen, die bereits jetzt fuer die Gaswirtschaft mit vollem Recht als die Zukunftstechnologie bezeichnet werden muss. (orig.)

  20. Natural gas: clearly part of the solution to global climate change; Gaz naturel: un element de la solution au changement de climat de la planete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, W. [Westcoast Energy Inc. (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    While scientific data may be incomplete, there remains little doubt that much of the negative impact on the global climate arises from our use of fossil fuels. Equally there seems little reason to believe that our reliance on fossil fuels will diminish over the short term. World demand for energy continues to grow and alternatives to fossil fuels, such as solar, have yet to assume their full rote. For example, OECD studies released late in 1999 note that renewable account for only two percent of electricity generation in developed countries, while fossil fuels continue to account for some 60 percent. Conservation holds promise but all too often gains are offset by shifting consumer preferences: the widespread popularity of sports utility vehicles and light trucks in North America is playing havoc with the automotive industry's fuel efficiency gains of recent years. For corporations, for governments and for the public at large, the challenge remains to find solutions that are both possible and practical for a problem that has no single cure, nor a certain outcome. But during the transition period to new energy sources, natural gas is destined to play a leading role, as the least carbon intensive of the fossil fuels. (author)

  1. Social tariff of the natural gas. Part of the receivers and the lessors; Tarif social du gaz naturel. Role des syndics et des bailleurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Since the fifteen of August 2008, low resources customers can buy their natural gas at a special social cost. This document presents the content of this derogation and the corresponding administrative procedures. A particular attention is given to the case of the group housing. (A.L.B.)

  2. Natural gas integration in Latin America: end of a dream?; Integration du gaz naturel en Amerique latine: la fin d'un reve?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutinho dos Santos, E.; Oxilia Davalos, V.E.; Tadeu Werneck Faga, M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Throughout the 1990's to year 2000, energy integration, and particularly natural gas integration, was seen as a major goal in the southern cone of South America. The regional perspective for energy was related to an even more challenging objective - Latin American economic integration, which was quickly moving forward by the constitution of Mercosur, the free trade zone built by Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay, and also having Bolivia and Chile as special partners. Mercosur was getting stronger and becoming a successful political project. Trade conflicts existed, but they were considered normal and nobody would disagree about the viability of Mercosur. By the beginning of the 21. century, the economic integration process in South America was already advancing timidly as compared to the impetus from the beginning of 1990's. Mercosur started facing complex and almost insurmountable challenges after the numerous global financial crises (from 1998 to 2003) had affected the economic balances in the region. Energy and gas integration in South America has equally lost perspective as fast as the importance of economic integration has declined. The economic crises in the region and poor energy policies have discourage energy companies to invest. The paper presents this recent history of rise and fall in the concept of economic and energy integration in the southern cone of South America. Despite the abundance of energy resources, and particularly the plethora of recently discovered natural gas, the region has been experiencing systematic and important energy shortages, which may threaten its economic recovery. A stronger energy integration policy would help all the partner countries to reduce energy supply risks. Yet, energy (and gas) integration in the southern cone is still a complex long-term political project, which must involve all countries, but whose future perspective is unclear. It seems almost impossible to keep pushing forward this project without revitalizing the former 'communitarian and regional perception of the world' that had led to the creation of Mercosur. The idea of energy or gas integration alone can hardly survive without the strong umbrella of a sustainable and wider economic integration policy. South American countries need a new initiative to restart the debate about such vital regional integration. (author)

  3. The multi service cable network along a natural gas network for urban distribution; Reseau cable multiservice associe a un reseau de gaz naturel pour la consommation publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, D.; Krsmanovic, Z. [NIS-Energogas (Yugoslavia)

    2000-07-01

    The paper discusses parallel construction and development of natural gas and telecommunications projects in Europe, with an emphasis on the situation in FR Yugoslavia. Deregulation of postal services has created an opportunity for joint construction of multipurpose cable networks and gas distribution systems. Advantages are shown of such joint construction of gas pipeline and cable systems, and the strategy of further development of telecommunications and gas supply projects in FR Yugoslavia is presented. (authors)

  4. High pressure long distance pipelines: technical - economic analysis; Les conduites a haute pression pour le transport a grande distance de gaz naturel: analyse technico-economique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donati, E.; Ercolani, D. [Snamprogetti (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Over the second half of the Nineties, Snamprogetti and Snam, with the cooperation of ENI Divisione Agip, Saipem and EniTecnologie, have been working for a new concept of long distance (LD) transportation of natural gas via cross country pipelines, based on high pressure (HP) larger than the traditional 7.5 to 10 MPa, here called low pressure (LP), and advanced technologies. This paper describes the economic advantages of the new long distance high pressure (LDHP) gas transportation concept, in terms of investment and operating costs; the findings of the application of a mathematical model developed for the determination of the optimum pipe diameter and number of compression stations for both HP and LP alternatives are discussed. The economic comparison, referred to a representative case i.e. a transmission system of 5,000 km for a specified transport capacity of 15 to 30 x 10{sup 9} Sm{sup 3}/y, shows that the competitiveness of LDHP transportation increases with the increase of the flow rates, reaching a very remarkable advantage for quantities exceeding 10 x 10{sup 9} Sm{sup 3}/y. At present ENI Group companies are engaged in further development focused on the application of high grade steels (X-100), and aiming at obtaining further cost reduction while both ensuring the required system reliability and meeting the specified safety requirements. (authors)

  5. Low intensity natural gas infrared in sports centres; L'infrarouge a basse intensite au gaz naturel dans les centres sportifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, S. [Gaz Metropolitain, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-09-30

    Infrared devices are being employed more and more for heating buildings. They were traditionally used to heat large spaces higher than 3 metres, such as aviation hangars and industrial buildings. Natural gas infrared devices have found other applications, namely in sports centres, due in large part to the energy efficiency and the resulting comfort. There are three types of infrared devices: low intensity or low intensity tubes, high intensity, and catalytic infrared. Each type of device possesses specific characteristics and applications. For example, infrared tubes are used to uniformly heat a specific area. High intensity devices possess a more intense heat and concentrated in a confined space. Catalytic devices do not have flames, and they can be used in industrial drying processes and thermoforming. In the case of skating rinks, the use of low intensity natural gas infrared tubes is ideal. They reduce the crossed effects of ice cooling load and the spectators need for heat. This is due to infrared acting more on mass (spectators and bleachers) than ambient air. The author described the situation at the Val d'Or arena, Quebec where an energy saving project was initiated two years ago, involving the installation for one of the ice surfaces, of movement sensors to turn off infrared tubes when the rink is unoccupied. The payback period for such equipment is short. The case of the Soccerplex at Lachine, part of the larger City of Montreal, was also discussed. This sports centre comprises indoor soccer fields with 30 foot-high ceilings and large area covering 66,000 square feet (3 soccer fields). Once again, low intensity natural gas infrared tubes were installed and have proved successful.

  6. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  7. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  8. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  9. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  10. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson Pender... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  11. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  12. A Liquefier for Mars Surface Propellant Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Lou J.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.; Kittel, P.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's planned Mars exploration missions will require that cryogenic propellants be manufactured on the surface. The present scenario calls for oxygen and methane gases to he produced using the carbon dioxide atmosphere plus seed hydrogen brought from Earth. Gases will require liquefaction for both storage on the Martian surface and for use in the ascent vehicle. The planned liquefaction rates range from 12.6 g/hr of oxygen for the 2003 robotic mission to 2500 g/hr for the later human missions. This paper presents the results of a nitrogen liquefaction demonstration using a commercially available cryocooler. The experiment was set up to liquefy nitrogen gas instead of oxygen to limit laboratory safety concerns. A nitrogen gas condensor, attached to the cooler's cold tip, was sized to liquefy up to 42 gN2/hr at the intended storage pressure (0.2 MPa). The experiment was conducted inside an atmospheric, air-filled, refrigerated chamber simulating the average Martian daytime temperature (240 K). In this demonstration a liquefaction rate of 9.1 gN2/hr was realized, which is equivalent to 13 gO2/hr.

  13. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance work...

  14. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  15. Description d'un nouveau brûleur compact. Fonctionnement en régime de gaz prémélangés Description of a New Compact Premixed Gas Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minetti R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On décrit un nouveau brûleur compact à gaz, de haut rendement et d'une puissance variable de 1 à 5 kW. La source de chaleur est une flamme plate d'un prémélange stoechiométrique de gaz naturel et d'air stabilisé sur une grille d'une surface de 100 cm2. Plusieurs grilles en acier inoxydable sont comparées. Elles diffèrent par leur épaisseur, le nombre et la dimension des trous. Un échangeur de chaleur en laiton à circulation d'eau peut être approché jusqu'à 7 mm de la surface du brûleur. La température des gaz frais, le débit et la position de l'échangeur ont été modifiés et les conditions optimales de fonctionnement sont décrites. Les températures à travers les gaz frais, la flamme, les gaz brûlés et les fumées, ont été mesurées. Un modèle simple des échanges de chaleurs est présenté. Il permet une meilleure compréhension des processus de transfert et facilite le choix des conditions opératoires. Dans les meilleures conditions, 93 % du contenu thermique du mélange gazeux est transféré à l'échangeur. Some general characteristics of a compact and efficient gas burner are described (1-5 kW. The heat source is a premixed flat flame stabilized on a 100 cm2 grid fed by a stoechiometric mixture of air and natural gas. Various types of stainless steel grids have been investigated. They differ according to their thickness and to the number and size of the holes. A circulating water heat exchanger made of brass can be approached to the flame as close as 7 mm above the burner surface. The temperature of the inlet gas mixture, the flow rate, and the position of the heat exchanger have been varied. The best working conditions are given as well as the temperature through the fresh gaseous mixture, the temperature profiles of the flame and the temperature of the fumes. From heat transfer calculations a simple model is presented. It gives better insight into the heat transfer processes and facilitates a judicious

  16. Multi-objective Optimization on Helium Liquefier Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. R.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Meng, Y. R.; Liu, L. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Research on optimization of helium liquefier is limited at home and abroad, and most of the optimization is single-objective based on Collins cycle. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization is conducted using genetic algorithm (GA) on the 40 L/h helium liquefier developed by Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Science (TIPC, CAS), steady solutions are obtained in the end. In addition, the exergy loss of the optimized system is studied in the case of with and without liquid nitrogen pre-cooling. The results have guiding significance for the future design of large helium liquefier.

  17. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58.16-7... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more that...

  18. Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

    2002-01-01

    Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances

  19. Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

  20. A Comparative Study of Liquefied Natural Gas: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Khan Memon; Saleem Qadir Tunio; Khalil Rehman Memon; Arshad Ahmed Lashari

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is the world’s fastest growing fuel and being produced by many countries of the world in the commercial quantities. Increasing natural gas price and new development in the technologies, liquefied natural gas industry is economically attractive in the major gas exporting countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is an important energy source and continued to contribute the growth of natural gas industry. The new advance LNG technology is used for natural gas transportation for long di...

  1. Gaz de France adopts low hydrogen, downhill welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Gaz de France has become the first gas transmission pipeline operator to adopt the low-hydrogen, downhill welding technique made possible by the introduction of the Phillips 27PM electrodes. The use of these electrodes permits tie-in joints at road, railway, and river crossings, where optimum security demands a low-hydrogen-content weld metal. Welding of the 90-mile section from the Nozay compressor station to Le Mans involved some 1100 tie-in weld joints. Spie-Capag, contractor for the section, confirmed the 27PM electrode's success: The downhill welding method resulted in faster filling and capping passes than for cellulosic or uphill low-hydrogen electrodes, while the repair rate compared favorably with that for regular line joints.

  2. Impacts, adaptation et vulnérabilité des systèmes naturels et humains en Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Salas y Mélia, David; Badeau, Vincent; Delire, Christine; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Lemonsu, Aude; Masson, Valéry; Pigeon, Grégoire; Regimbeau, Mathieu; Viguié, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Cet article analyse les impacts observés et projetés du changement climatique sur les systèmes humains et naturels, leur vulnérabilité et les possibilités d’adaptation. Il donne un aperçu des principaux résultats pour l’hydrologie, l’agriculture, les écosystèmes naturels, les infrastructures, le transport, l’énergie, le tourisme, la santé et les aspects sociaux. L’article reprend les principales conclusions du chapitre Europe de la contribution du Groupe II au 5e rapport du Giec paru en 2014....

  3. L'action des Parcs Naturels Régionaux pour un tourisme durable

    OpenAIRE

    Marsat, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    / Les Parcs naturels régionaux français agissent pour le développement durable y compris dans le domaine du tourisme, ce qui met en jeu les acteurs des sphères touristique, environnementale, et territoriale. L'analyse part de l'autonomie stratégique des PNR et rend compte de leurs options : s'engager plus ou moins dans l'action pour le tourisme, recourir aux outils comme le marquage des prestations (marque parc), et ou la mise en réseau des prestataires. La Charte du tourisme durable dans les...

  4. Improving outcome of in vitro sperm activation using non–liquefied versus liquefied semen of oligoasthenozoospermic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fakhrildin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of in vitro sperm activation (ISA using non-liquefied versus liquefied asthenozoospermic semen samples for improvement of sperm parameters. Materials and Methods: Fifty six oligoasthenozoospermic (OA patients (age range: 22-44 years; mean: 32.089 years were enrolled in this study. OA patients were classified according to type of infertility. Also, duration of infertility was recorded. Fifty six semen samples were collected, and seminal fluid analyses were done involving macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed according to WHO methodology. Direct swim–up technique was used to separate the motile spermatozoa from seminal plasma. Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEME enriched with 5% Human serum albumin (HSA was used. One mL of either non–liquefied or liquefied semen was layered beneath 1 mL of MEME enriched with 5% HSA, and placed for incubation in an air incubator at 37 oC for 30 minutes. Then, one drop (10 μL from upper layer of culture medium was taken using automatic pipette to be examined under high power field (40 X for assessment of sperm parameters.Results: According to type of infertility, infertile patients were classified into patients with either primary infertility (no. 46; 82.15 % or secondary infertility (no. 10; 17.85 %. In contrast to other parameters, significant (P<0.05 reductions were noticed in the percentages of sperm motility and progressive sperm motility for OA patients with primary infertility as compared to OA patients with secondary infertility. All sperm parameters were significantly (P<0.001 enhanced after in vitro activation of liquefied and non-liquefied semen samples when compared to pre-activation. In the present study, best results were achieved for non-liquefied semen samples as compared to liquefied semen samples.Conclusion: It was concluded that the outcome of ISA was enhanced in regard to sperm parameters when using non-liquefied semen of OA patients

  5. Liquefied after cataract and its surgical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Bhattacharjee, Pankaj; Das, Dipankar; Gogoi, Krishna; Arati, Diyali

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To describe liquefied after cataract (LAC) and its surgical management following an uneventful phacoemulsification with posterior chamber in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis (CCC). Design: Interventional case series. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients with LAC, following uneventful phacoemulsification with CCC and in-the-bag IOL implantation were enrolled. After the basic slit lamp examination, each case was investigated with Scheimpflug photography and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Each case was treated with capsular lavage. Biochemical composition of the milky fluid was evaluated and ring of anterior capsular opacity (ACO) was examined under electron microscope. Results: All 11 cases presented with blurring of vision after 6-8 years of cataract surgery with IOL implantation. All cases had IOL microvacuoles, 360° anterior capsule, and anterior IOL surface touch along with ACO, ring of Soemmering, and posterior capsule distension filled with opalescent milky fluid with whitish floppy or crystalline deposits. Biochemically, the milky fluid contained protein (800 mg/dl), albumin (100 mg/dl), sugar (105 mg/dl), and calcium (0.13%) and was bacteriologically sterile. Histologically, the dissected ACO showed fibrous tissue. All cases were successfully treated with capsular lavage with good visual recovery and with no complication. There was no recurrence of LAC during 2 years postoperative follow-up in any of the cases. Conclusions: LAC is a late complication of standard cataract surgery. It may be a spectrum of capsular bag distension syndrome (CBDS) without shallow anterior chamber and secondary glaucoma. Capsular bag lavage is a simple and effective treatment for LAC and a safe alternative to neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) capsulotomy. PMID:24881605

  6. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na świecie powoduje, że produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje się coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem związanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze około 111K pod ciśnieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezbędny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciekłej w gazową dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umożliwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do różnych zastosowań, między innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znaną techniką analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na określenie dystrybucji, źródła i wielkości nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a więc ustalić wytyczne dotyczące efektywnego zużycia energii. Ponieważ zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego są energochłonne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezbędny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  7. 113 Étude de la qualité des eaux épurées par le lagunage naturel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sam

    Mots-clés : lagunage naturel, performances, eaux usées, Algérie. Abstract ... domaine de l'irrigation agricole. Le ratio entre les ..... [4] - A.Gaid , épuration biologique des eaux usées urbaines tome1, offices des publications universitaires (1984).

  8. 75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Maritime Administration TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas...) for the TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG... Natural Gas Pipeline, Williams Natural Gas Pipeline, Destin Natural Gas Pipeline, and Viosca...

  9. 75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... collections from operators of natural gas pipelines, hazardous liquid pipelines, and liquefied natural......

  10. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. This notice provides updates to the information... and liquefied natural gas (LNG) operators. New operators use the national registry to obtain...

  11. 78 FR 44937 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... export liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced from domestic sources in an amount up to 104,250,000 million... Granting Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel Pursuant to the Long-Term Contract...

  12. 49 CFR 173.313 - UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.313 UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases. The UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied...

  13. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Progress is reported in research on the safety and environmental aspects of four principal liquefied gaseous material systems: liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hydrogen, and ammonia. Each section of the report has been abstracted and indexed individually. (JGB)

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable gas...

  15. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... are also included); and (3) Sales for use in the production of a specific product in which the gas is an essential ingredient or principal raw material, such as sales of liquefied-petroleum-gas for...

  16. Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest,

  17. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...

  18. Transient Analysis of Monopile Foundations Partially Embedded in Liquefied Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Bayat, Mehdi; Meysam, Saadati

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors present a coupled fluid-structures-seabed interaction analysis of a monopile type of wind turbine foundations in liquefiable soils. A two dimensional analysis is performed with a nonlinear stiffness degradation model incorporated in the finite difference program Fast La...

  19. Ce qui fait les êtres. La caractérisation des êtres naturels et surnaturels

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrié, Jean-Noël

    2012-01-01

    Le Centre Jacques Berque (USR 3136 du CNRS) à Rabat vient de publier sous format électronique Ce qui fait les êtres. La caractérisation des êtres naturels et surnaturels (collection : Les Rencontres du CJB, n° 2). Le monde dans lequel nous vivons est, en effet, peuplé d’êtres de différentes sortes, dont l’existence relève d’ontologies et d’épistémologies variées. Nous considérons comme « êtres » des entités dotées d’une intentionnalité semblable à la nôtre ou compatible avec elle, s’établiss...

  20. Simulation of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. State of the Art Simulation des réservoirs naturellement fracturés. État de l’art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemonnier P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Naturally fractured reservoirs contain a significant amount of the world oil reserves. The production of this type of reservoirs constitutes a challenge for reservoir engineers. Use of reservoir simulators can help reservoir engineers in the understanding of the main physical mechanisms and in the choice of the best recovery process and its optimization. Significant progress has been made since the first publications on the dual-porosity concept in the sixties. This paper and the preceding one (Part 1 present the current techniques of modeling used in industrial simulators. The optimal way to predict matrix-fracture transfers at the simulator cell scale has no definite answer and various methods are implemented in industrial simulators. This paper focuses on the modeling of physical mechanisms driving flows and interactions/ exchanges within and between fracture and matrix media for a better understanding of proposed flow formula and simulation methods. Typical features of fractured reservoir numerical simulations are also described with an overview of the implementation of geomechanics effects, an application of uncertainty assessment methodology to a fractured gas reservoir and finally a presentation of a history matching methodology for fractured reservoirs. Les réservoirs naturellement fracturés contiennent une partie significative des réserves en huile mondiales. La production de ce type de réservoirs constitue un défi pour les ingénieurs de réservoir. L’utilisation des simulateurs de réservoir peut aider l’ingénieur de réservoir à mieux comprendre les principaux mécanismes physiques, à choisir le procédé de récupération le mieux adapté et à l’optimiser. Des progrès sensibles ont été réalisés depuis les premières publications sur le concept double-milieu dans les années soixante. Cet article et le précédent (Partie 1 présentent les techniques actuelles de modélisation utilisées dans les simulateurs

  1. Cloning and Expression of Laccase Enzyme from B. pumilus strain GAZ23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Zamani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laccases (benzene diol oxygen oxidoreductase: EC 1.10.3.2 are one of the multicopper oxidase family members that catalyze the oxidation of various phenolic compounds by using molecular oxygen Materials and methods Laccase gene was from strain GAZ23 amplified by cloning primers. PCR product cloned in the expression vector (pET21a and transferred to BL21 strain of E. coli and sequence analysis were carried out. Biochemical properties were investigated using common laccase substrates, 2,2ˊ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothioazolin-6-sulphonicacid ABTS. Results: 16S rRNA gene of strain GAZ23 isolated from Iran soils, showed high similarity to Bacillus pumilus (100%. The gene of the GAZ23 has an open reading frame composed of 1533 bases, which encode 510 amino acid residues. Discussion and conclusion: The laccase gene from GAZ23 shows 67% similarity with CotA from B. subtilis. The expression was performed under microaerobic condition and decreased temperature in order to obtain high amounts of soluble protein. This protein contains four histidine rich copper-binding domains.

  2. Bio-climatic accommodation, a natural cooling approach; Le logement bioclimatique, une demarche de rafraichissement naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    In bio-climatic accommodations the structure of a building is assimilated to a living system. This architectural approach takes advantage of and adapts the traditional methods of construction to reach the best thermal comfort conditions in summer like in winter. This approach, complementary to the classical space heating solutions, is compatible with the thermal regulation rules and combines with a high environmental quality approach. This meeting, organized by the research center of Gaz de France (Cegibat) was a good opportunity for specialists of bio-climatic buildings to explain the key-factors of success of the thermal comfort performances of such buildings: orientation, ventilation, shading to avoid greenhouse effects, limitation of the sunlight reflection of terraces. (J.S.)

  3. Le Fils naturel (1757), de Diderot, o la espectacularidad de una «condition» jurídico-familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo González,José

    2014-01-01

    Estudio interdisciplinario de «Derecho y Literatura» sobre Le fils naturel con análisis de la categoría dramática y jurídica de «condition». Referencia a la posición jurídica del «hijo natural» en el derecho francés de la época y el Code civil, así como al valor de su espectacularidad escénica en la teoría del drama burgués diderotiano, y posterior excursus jurídico-literario en Honoré Balzac y Alejandro Dumas (hijo). Interdisciplinary Study of «Law and Literature» on Le fils naturel with ...

  4. artographie des risques naturels dans les Pyrénées et sur leur piémont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc ANTOINE

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches menées par le CIMA URA-366 sur les risques naturels dans les Pyrénées privilégient leur dimension historique et l’étude des contextes socio-écologiques dans lesquels ils s’inscrivent. Cette approche novatrice débouche sur une cartographie historique des phénomènes, conjugant plusieurs niveaux d’analyse spatiotemporels.

  5. Lateral response of pile foundations in liquefiable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asskar Janalizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction has been a main cause of damage to civil engineering structures in seismically active areas. The effects of damage of liquefaction on deep foundations are very destructive. Seismic behavior of pile foundations is widely discussed by many researchers for safer and more economic design purposes. This paper presents a pseudo-static method for analysis of piles in liquefiable soil under seismic loads. A free-field site response analysis using three-dimensional (3D numerical modeling was performed to determine kinematic loads from lateral ground displacements and inertial loads from vibration of the superstructure. The effects of various parameters, such as soil layering, kinematic and inertial forces, boundary condition of pile head and ground slope, on pile response were studied. By comparing the numerical results with the centrifuge test results, it can be concluded that the use of the p-y curves with various degradation factors in liquefiable sand gives reasonable results.

  6. A Case Study: Foundation Design in Liquefiable Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Ayadat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquefaction is a phenomenon which occurs under seismic solicitation. The passage of a seismic wave (i.e. strong shaking leads, in certain geological formations, to the loss of shearing resistance in saturated sandy materials. This is caused mainly by the increase of the pore water pressure generated by the cyclical deformations. The instantaneous deconsolidation of the soil is reflected by the destruction of the soil mass; making the constructions on such soils unstable. In this geotechnical investigation a case study of foundation design on liquefiable site is described. The geotechnical investigation, carried out at Kent (Ontario, consisted of the construction of a new electrical station on a liquefiable site

  7. Residual oil aerosol measurements on refrigerators and liquefiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflueckhahn, D.; Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-01

    The purity of the process gas is essential for the reliability of refrigerators and liquefiers. Filtration and adsorption of impurities like water, nitrogen, and oil result in a major effort, cost, and maintenance in the helium process. Expensive impurity monitors for moisture, nitrogen, and hydrocarbon contents are required to identify filter failures and leakage immediately during the operation. While water and nitrogen contaminants can be detected reliably, the measurement of oil aerosols at the ppb-level is challenging. We present a novel diagnostic oil aerosol measurement system able to measure particles in the sub-μm range. This unit enabled us to evaluate and improve the oil separation system on a LINDE TCF 50 helium liquefier.

  8. Capacity enhancement of indigenous expansion engine based helium liquefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doohan, R. S.; Kush, P. K.; Maheshwari, G.

    2017-02-01

    Development of technology and understanding for large capacity helium refrigeration and liquefaction at helium temperature is indispensable for coming-up projects. A new version of helium liquefier designed and built to provide approximately 35 liters of liquid helium per hour. The refrigeration capacity of this reciprocating type expansion engine machine has been increased from its predecessor version with continuous improvement and deficiency debugging. The helium liquefier has been built using components by local industries including cryogenic Aluminum plate fin heat exchangers. Two compressors with nearly identical capacity have been deployed for the operation of system. Together they consume about 110 kW of electric power. The system employs liquid Nitrogen precooling to enhance liquid Helium yield. This paper describes details of the cryogenic expander design improvements, reconfiguration of heat exchangers, performance simulation and their experimental validation.

  9. Visual Investigation of Retrograde Phenomena and Gas Condensate Flow in Porous Media Étude visuelle des phénomènes rétrogrades et de l'écoulement des gaz de condensat en milieux poreux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danesh A.

    2006-11-01

    és avec des mélanges synthétiques d'hydrocarbures gazeux multicomposants, mais aussi avec un condensat naturel provenant de la mer du Nord. Le comportement en écoulement polyphasique des systèmes soumis à l'essai, observé et enregistré en vidéo, est présenté ici, accompagné des données mesurées. En milieu poreux mouillé à l'eau, on a observé que le condensat se forme en film mince continu sur l'eau connée, site préférentiel de condensation. En abaissant la pression au-dessous de la cricondenbar du système, on a provoqué la croissance du condensat presque exclusivement sur les anneaux d'eau à l'entrée des pores et sur les pores aveugles. On a constaté que le condensat passe à travers les films minces même en cas de saturation faible, sans que cela améliore sa récupération. Le rythme de la baisse de pression influence le cisaillement de l'écoulement de gaz et influence fortement, on l'a constaté, la propagation du condensat. Des instabilités localisées pourraient entraîner des mouvements importants du condensat dans certaines zones poreuses, mais en aval les effets capillaires exerceraient une action retardatrice qui diminuerait la récupération du condensat. On ne doit pas penser que les rapports entre la perméabilité relative et la saturation du gaz de condensat prendront la même forme que la perméabilité relative pétrole-gaz dans le cas de récupération par un gaz en solution ou un gaz injecté.

  10. Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane Resins from Liquefied Benzylated Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ping WEI; Fa CHENG; Hou Ping LI; Jiu Gao YU

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, polyurethane resins were synthesized from liquefied benzylated wood and TDI (toluene diisocyanate)-TMP (trihydromethylene propane) prepolymer. And the relation between microphase structure and properties of PU samples were also studied. The results indicated that coatings obtained had good mechanical and thermal properties. The amount of the curing agent has great effect on the degree of phase segregation. In addition, with increased the curing agent amount, the thermal stabilities were also improved.

  11. Challenges of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers in 21" Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zanne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is relatively cheap, environmentally friendlyand energetically efficient fossil fuel that is gaining in attractivenessdaily as it can be used in many sectors. As not all consumerscan be reached by pipelines the technique of transp01tingnatural gas in the liquefied form has been developed at the beginningof 20th century but it was only in 1959 that the firstoverseas transport of liquefied natural gas ( LN G occurred. Inthe fifty years of operation LNG shipping has shown immaculatesafety records. LNG tankers can be described only in superlatives;they are without any doubt the most sophisticated and·expensive ships that sail around the globe, they demand specialattention when navigating to or out of harbours and need to bemanned with the most educated and experienced crew. LNGmarket is expanding and changing; demand is surpassing theproductivity, new importing and exporting countries appear,LNG fleet is growing in capacity and number at high pace, exploitationcontracts for the ships are being modified giving theopportunity for new companies to enter( . .. . The paper givesan overview on liquefied natural gas market and the historic developmentof LNG shipping. It focuses on the recent boom inLNG shipping and emphasises questions concerning the safety,crewing and exploitation of the LNG tankers in the future.

  12. Process Control Migration of 50 LPH Helium Liquefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, U.; Mandal, A.; Das, A.; Behera, M.; Pal, Sandip

    2017-02-01

    Two helium liquefier/refrigerators are operational at VECC while one is dedicated for the Superconducting Cyclotron. The first helium liquefier of 50 LPH capacity from Air Liquide has already completed fifteen years of operation without any major trouble. This liquefier is being controlled by Eurotherm PC3000 make PLC. This PLC has become obsolete since last seven years or so. Though we can still manage to run the PLC system with existing spares, risk of discontinuation of the operation is always there due to unavailability of spare. In order to eliminate the risk, an equivalent PLC control system based on Siemens S7-300 was thought of. For smooth migration, total programming was done keeping the same field input and output interface, nomenclature and graphset. New program is a mix of S7-300 Graph, STL and LAD languages. One to one program verification of the entire process graph was done manually. The total program was run in simulation mode. Matlab mathematical model was also used for plant control simulations. EPICS based SCADA was used for process monitoring. As of now the entire hardware and software is ready for direct replacement with minimum required set up time.

  13. Liquefied Bleed for Stability and Efficiency of High Speed Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J. David; Davis, David; Barsi, Stephen J.; Deans, Matthew C.; Weir, Lois J.; Sanders, Bobby W.

    2014-01-01

    A mission analysis code was developed to perform a trade study on the effectiveness of liquefying bleed for the inlet of the first stage of a TSTO vehicle. By liquefying bleed, the vehicle weight (TOGW) could be reduced by 7 to 23%. Numerous simplifying assumptions were made and lessons were learned. Increased accuracy in future analyses can be achieved by: Including a higher fidelity model to capture the effect of rescaling (variable vehicle TOGW). Refining specific thrust and impulse models ( T m a and Isp) to preserve fuel-to-air ratio. Implementing LH2 for T m a and Isp. Correlating baseline design to other mission analyses and correcting vehicle design elements. Implementing angle-of-attack effects on inlet characteristics. Refining aerodynamic performance (to improve L/D ratio at higher Mach numbers). Examining the benefit with partial cooling or densification of the bleed air stream. Incorporating higher fidelity weight estimates for the liquefied bleed system (heat exchange and liquid storage versus bleed duct weights) could be added when more fully developed. Adding trim drag or 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory analysis for higher fidelity. Investigating vehicle optimization for each of the bleed configurations.

  14. Preparation of liquefied wood-based resins and their application in molding material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiu-hui; Zhao Guang-jie; Yu Li-li; Jie Shu-jun

    2007-01-01

    To investigate value in use of liquefied wood-based resin applications in molding material, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and poplar (Populus tomentosa) wood meal were liquefied in phenol. The reactant was co-condensed with formaldehyde to obtain liquefied wood-based resin. For this paper, we investigated the characterization of the resin and its application in molding material. The result shows that the basic properties of liquefied wood-based resin were satisfactory; the bonding strength of plywood prepared with liquefied Chinese fir and liquefied poplar resin can reach 1.54 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The compression strengths of the molding material prepared with two kinds of liquefied wood resin were 73.01 and 73.58 MPa, almost the same as that of PF resin molding material. The limiting volume swelling of molding material made with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were 8.5% and 8.3%, thickness swelling rates of water absorption were 3.3% and 4.2%, and the maximum weight ratios of water absorption were 25.9% and 26.2%, respectively. The soil burial test result shows that the weight loss rate of the molding materials made with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were 8.3% and 9.1% and that of the PF resin molding material was 7.9%. After the soil internment test, the reduction ratio of compression strength of the two kinds of molding material achieved 16.9%and 17.7%, while that of the PF resin molding material was 15.4%. The test results of wood fungi inoculation on the three surfaces of the molding material indicate the breeding rate of molding material prepared with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were at level 4 and that of PF resin molding material was at level 1 of the ISO standard.

  15. La rapide création du Parc Naturel marin de Mayotte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Legoff

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Le second Parc Naturel marin français a été officialisé à Mayotte en janvier 2010. C’est à la fois le résultat d’une procédure rapide et d’une forte détermination politique. Il marque clairement la volonté de la France de gérer un large espace dans le sud-ouest de l’océan Indien même si les moyens d’action restent à déterminer. Au-delà de la protection environnementale, le Parc est perçu comme un outil utile à cette île encore synonyme de sous-développement. De la pêche au tourisme, bien des activités espèrent tirer profit de la dynamique enclenchée.The 2nd french Marine Protected Area was officially created in Mayotte in January 2010, thanks both to a swift procedure and to a strong determined policy. It clearly shows the will of France to manage a broad area in south-west of the Indian Ocean even if its means of action are still to settle. Beyond environemental protection, the park is seen as a useful tool for an island still considered as emergent. From fishing to tourism, many activities hope to take advantage from the dynamic set in motion.

  16. Methode particulaire multiniveaux pour la dynamique des gaz, application au calcul d'ecoulements multifluides

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This work is devoted to the evaluation of the ability of a particle-mesh method, inspired from Vortex-In-Cell methods, to simulate gaz dynamics, especially multifluids. We firstly develop a particle-mesh method, associated with a conservative remeshing step, which is performed with high order interpolating kernels. We study theoretically and numerically this method. This analysis gives evidence of a strong relationship between the particle method and high order Lax-Wendroff-like finite differ...

  17. Aflatoxin in pistachio nuts used as ingredients in Gaz sweets produced in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanmard, Elham; Azarani, Farzaneh; Sharifi, Mehran; Esfandiari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    In Isfahan province of Iran, pistachio and almond are used specifically as ingredients to produce Gaz sweets, which are a typical product of Isfahan and exported to many countries. In this survey, 112 samples were gathered from different corresponding Gaz producers from 2007 to 2012 to evaluate the occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in these products. Samples were analysed for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 using immunoaffinity column clean-up (IC) and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Among the samples analysed, AFB1 was detected in 13.4% of the samples above the maximum limit (ML) as set in Iran (5 µg/kg). Total AF (AFT) was above the ML in 9.8% of the samples. This study showed that full consideration is equally essential for nuts used as ingredients in special food products such as the Gaz sweets as for nuts for direct human consumption. It suggests a need for modifying the current trend of supervision.

  18. Temperature distribution and control in liquefied petroleum gas fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Ping Wu; Yanping Zhang; Jing Yang; Lige Tong

    2004-01-01

    Temperature distribution and control have been investigated in a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fluidized bed with hollow corundum spheres (A12O3) of 0.867-1.212 mm in diameter at moderately high temperatures (800-1100℃). Experiments were carried out for the air consumption coefficient α in the range of 0.3 to 1.0 and the fluidization number N in the range of 1.3 to 3.0. Particle properties, initial bed height, α and N all affect temperature distribution in the bed. Bed temperature can be adjusted about 200℃ by combined the adjusting of α and N.

  19. Influence de facteurs biotiques et abiotiques, induits et naturels, sur l'efficacité larvicide de Bacillus sphaericus Neide, 1904

    OpenAIRE

    Monteny, Nicole

    1990-01-01

    Après les problèmes apparus suite à l'utilisation des insecticides chimiques (résistance, pollution), l'alternative de la lutte biologique s'est imposée. #Bacillus sphaericus$ est une bactérie entomopathogène active essentiellement sur des larves du genre #Culex$. Son utilisation en milieu naturel révèle une perte d'efficacité imputable à des facteurs environnementaux. L'analyse de l'effet inactivant de diverses bandes spectrales de l'énergie solaire attribue ce rôle aux rayons U.V.A. (315 à ...

  20. De la recherche des principes des mixtes naturels chez Du Clos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Franckowiak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Samuel Cottereau Du Clos (1598–1685 paraît être le premier Français à marier dans une chimie, pour lui science des substances, physique des qualités, une démonstration légale – suivant les lois du mouvement – et une démonstration causale – suivant les interprétations principielles –, en ramenant les phénomènes naturels à deux ordres de raisons différents et complémentaires. Les considérations mécanistes représentent pour lui une première approche, une étape vers la connaissance de la « vérité des choses » en chimie. Cette proposition originale qui vise à introduire en chimie des considérations mécanistes tout en conservant les explications principielles est développée au sein de l’ancienne Académie des Sciences, en particulier à travers sa critique de 1668/1669 des Certain Physiological Essays de Boyle.Samuel Cottereau Du Clos (1598–1685 appears as the first French chemist to combine in chemistry (for him, the science of substances, the physics of qualities demonstrations using the laws of motion with demonstrations using the qualities of chemical principles. In this way, he brought to bear two different and complementary orders of explanation. According to Du Clos, the mechanical considerations represent a first approach, a stage towards the knowledge of “the truth of things” (la vérité des choses in natural philosophy. He set out his chemistry at the Académie royale des sciences de Paris, especially through his criticism of Boyle’s Certain Physiological Essays in 1668–1669.

  1. A Comparative Study of Liquefied Natural Gas: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan Memon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is the world’s fastest growing fuel and being produced by many countries of the world in the commercial quantities. Increasing natural gas price and new development in the technologies, liquefied natural gas industry is economically attractive in the major gas exporting countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG is an important energy source and continued to contribute the growth of natural gas industry. The new advance LNG technology is used for natural gas transportation for long distances. LNG can be transported by the large insulated cryogenic tankers at affordable cost. This study presents an overview of LNG liquidation facilities from natural gas as feed gas to LNG storage and transport. The main objective of the study is to highlight the current data for reviewers on LNG world market, mainly on LNG production, supply, demand, price and new development of LNG plants. The technology is growing gradually with increasing number of LNG consuming countries in overall the world. In the near future, LNG price may be affected by the advanced shale gas production in the United States of America and China. Australia becomes the world second largest exporter of LNG market after Qatar. Australia will increase LNG supply by 15 Bcf/day from 2014 and accounting for 25% of world LNG production by 2030. Global LNG production forecast will be reached 540 Bcm by 2020 and LNG trade will be reached 425 Mtpa by 2025. New countries are interested to enter in the LNG world market as importers and exporters.

  2. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra), requesting blanket authorization to export up to a total of 250 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of foreign sourced liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a two-year...

  3. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.212 Synthetic and liquefied... liquefied natural gas and that are not “related jurisdictional natural gas facilities” as defined in § 153.2... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  4. 75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of... The Dow Chemical Company (Dow), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG... equivalent of 390 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot market basis. The LNG...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  6. 78 FR 26056 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Nederland, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Nederland... proposed expansion of its Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) facility in Nederland, Texas, and increased LHG... solicit public comments on the proposed increase in LHG marine traffic in Nederland, Texas....

  7. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  8. Synthesis Gas Purification Purification des gaz de synthèse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiche D.

    2013-10-01

    ce faire, une étape de gazéification convertit la charge carbonée en un gaz de synthèse (mélange de CO et H2, lequel, après ajustement du ratio H2/CO et élimination du CO2, subit ensuite la réaction de FischerTropsch. Les gaz de synthèse contiennent cependant de nombreuses impuretés qui nécessitent d’être éliminées afin d’éviter l’empoisonnement des catalyseurs Fischer-Tropsch. En raison de la grande variété de charges pouvant être mises en oeuvre, la composition des gaz de synthèse est susceptible de subir d’importantes variations, en particulier de part la nature des impuretés (éléments, spéciation présentes ainsi que leurs teneurs relatives. La composition des gaz de synthèse est également soumise à des spécifications extrêmement sévères en terme de pureté liées à l’importante sensibilité aux poisons des catalyseurs FT. Pour ces raisons, la purification des gaz de synthèse constitue un défi majeur pour le développement des procédés B-XTL. Dans cet article, nous présentons les principaux enjeux liés à la purification des gaz de synthèse. Les différents types d’impuretés pouvant être présentes dans les gaz de synthèse sont présentées. L’influence de la nature de la charge, des technologies de gazéification ainsi que des conditions opératoires associées sur la nature des impuretés et leurs teneurs relatives est discutée. Une attention particulière est portée au devenir des composés soufrés, azotés, des halogènes, métaux lourds et métaux de transition. Les principales technologies de purification des gaz de synthèse (adsorption, absorption, réactions catalytiques, etc. sont finalement décrites, ainsi que les défis associés.

  9. 77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to the equivalent of 740... Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel from the Golden Pass LNG Terminal to Free Trade Agreement Nations,...

  10. 78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, and Vacating Prior Authority During February 2013 FE Docket Nos. J.P. MORGAN COMMODITIES... and liquefied natural gas and vacating prior authority. These orders are summarized in the...

  11. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  12. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250 kW...

  13. Gestion des risques naturels et prise en compte du développement durable : un lien équivoque. Le cas du sud grenoblois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Andres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article questionne la nature du lien envisageable entre risque naturel et développement durable à travers l’étude du territoire du sud grenoblois, soumis notamment à deux aléas naturels majeurs : le mouvement de terrain de grande ampleur dit des « Ruines de Séchilienne » et les probables crues de la Romanche et du Drac. Trois étapes structurent cette réflexion questionnant la transition supposée entre une gestion des risques naturels et une gestion durable des territoires soumis aux risques naturels : une association toute relative, un lien logique mais limité sur le terrain, une relation surtout indirecte. Les interactions identifiées, en termes législatifs mais aussi idéels et opérationnels, entre risque et durabilité se révèlent ainsi complexes et ne sont pas forcément explicites ; elles dépendent en particulier de multiples échelles territoriales (nationales à locales, confrontant alors pour l’essentiel des stratégies d’acteurs – porteurs des décisions ou du savoir technique – distinctes.

  14. Experimental study of a separated jets burner: application to the natural gas-pure oxygen combustion; Etude experimentale du comportement de bruleurs a jets separes: application a la combustion gaz naturel-oxygene pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salentey, L.

    2002-04-15

    The evolution of pollution standards and the optimisation of furnaces performances require a development of new burner generation and also the improvement of combustion techniques. Actually, the use of oxy-combustion in separated jets burners offers interesting prospects for NO{sub x} emission reduction and on the modularity of flames properties (lift off, flame front topology, flame length). The complex geometry of those burners leads to several problems like the three-dimensional character of the flow, which may sometimes disturb the flame stability as flames are lifted above the burner. This experimental study deals with a simplified version of that kind of burner constituted with a central natural gas jet surrounded by two oxygen jets. Primary, the study of non-reactive jet was planned in order to understand dynamic and mixture phenomena involved between jets and to provide a database useful for the computer code validation. The reactive flow developed in a furnace, which simulates the real conditions, had been characterised. The studies of the dynamic field using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and of the turbulent mixture by conditional Laser tomography were supplemented in combustion by the visualisation of the spontaneous emission of radical OH, in the initial and final zone of the oxy-flames, like by the measurement of pollutants like NO{sub x} and soot. The measurements carried out while varying speeds of injection as well as the gap between the jets made possible the highlight of the influence of these parameters upon the stabilisation of the oxy-flames as well as the modification of the topology and the characteristics of the flows. The comparison of the measurements made in non-reactive and reactive flow shows the influence of oxy-combustion on the dynamic and scalar development of the flow for this type of burners. (author)

  15. LA LIBÉRALISATION DES MARCHÉS DE L´ÉLECTRICITÉ ET DU GAZ NATUREL AU NIVEAU EUROPÉEN – ENJEUX ET DÉFIS ACTUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Maria Găman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an internal energy market at the European level becomes nowadays a sine qua non condition for a single and coherent voice on energy issues at the global level for the EU. One essential step to be done is the liberalization of energy sectors, such as electricity and natural gas. This process of liberalization for the electricity and gas market should have been totally and homogeneously accomplished by the mid of 2007 by the member states of the EU, goal established by the European Commission through two legal instruments, more precisely the Directive 2003/54/EC and the Directive 2003/55/EC. Despite the European legislative settlement and despite the existence of common institutions of regularization, the liberalization has its limits. How these limits can be explained and which are the factors for the heterogeneous degree of liberalization of the electricity and gas markets at the European level? This article is focusing on the specific economic and political factors through which the limits of liberalization of energy markets can be explained.

  16. Draft of law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises; Avant projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricq [ed.] [Deputee de Seine-et-Marne, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    The state secretariat for industry has launched a large public debate between June and October 1999 based on a white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the gas sector'. The suggestions obtained were substantial. A brief presentation is added to the draft of the law devoted to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises. The presentation addresses the following points: 1. A public gas supply service modern and thought to reconcile the dynamism, equity and solidarity. 2. A controlled opening of the natural gas market towards competition: participating to the struggle for employment. 3. Tools ensuring the quality of gas supply and security of resources. 4. A transparent and efficient regulation: creating the conditions of a nondiscriminatory competition. 5. Requirements for developing the transport of natural gas regime. 6. Storage. 7. Social questions. The draft of the law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises is a working document, not engaging the government. It is based on six titles. Title 1 and Title 2 treat the points 1 and 2 mentioned above. Title 3 contains two chapters devoted to transparency and accounting dissociation and to regulation in the natural gas sector, respectively. The Title 4 contains three chapters devoted to: 1. authorization of the works of natural gas transport; 2. gas distribution and 3. exploitation of the transport and natural gas distribution network. The fifth Title is dedicated to underground storage. The sixth Title presents diverse directives.

  17. French wholesale electricity and gas markets in 2007. Monitoring report; Le fonctionnement des marches de gros francais de l'electricite et du gaz naturel en 2007. Rapport de surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    Settled on 24 March 2000, the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is an independent authority. CRE supports an efficient functioning of the electricity and natural gas markets, to the advantage of final consumers. CRE ensures the absence of any discrimination, cross subsidy or obstacle to competition. CRE has examined the functioning of the wholesale markets for electricity and gas for the year 2007. The report discloses the results of a first set of analyses, as well as the next actions to be conducted in order to explain some observed behaviour. On the basis of analyses led on the electricity market, CRE observes that nuclear generation was marginal during 15% of the hours in 2007. Hydraulic generation was marginal during 25% of the hours, coal generation during 25% to 30% of the hours and oil generation during less than 2% of the hours in 2007. Finally, prices on the border markets were of high importance on the French prices which they determined during 20% to 25% of the hours of the year. On an efficient market, the price is driven by the marginal power plant among all those which contribute to satisfy the demand. Therefore the wholesale price formation is conditioned by the frequency of marginality of each generation sector and by the associated valuation of production. On the day-ahead market, when nuclear or hydraulic generation was marginal, the day-ahead price reflected the associated valuation which was decided by EDF. The level of this valuation was generally higher than the marginal generation cost of these plants. As a matter of fact, a producer, even market dominant, may legitimately seek to optimise its income, provided that there is no abuse of a dominant position or any price manipulation. Consequently, at this stage, the relevance of the valuation method for nuclear and hydraulic generation on the wholesale market is still to be checked. CRE has also demonstrated that generation transparency, even if it gradually increased, still needs to be improved at this stage. Published information on availability forecasts of power generation facilities were insufficient. Finally, CRE has established that the limited development of competition on the retail market and the implementation of the transitional regulated tariff for balancing markets (TaRTAM) have curbed the increase of the wholesale electricity market's activity. Considering these findings, CRE will carry out audits on the valuation methods used by EDF for its nuclear and hydraulic generation. Based on a public consultation, CRE will also formulate recommendations on generation transparency. On the gas wholesale market, CRE observes that the activity on the wholesale market has grown all along 2007 but remained focused on short-term trading. In particular, little public information was available on the market because most of the deals were concluded without intermediary. Moreover, CRE notes that the supplying conditions of suppliers who are not former incumbents in Europe were not satisfactory. These suppliers had to acquire most of their gas on the French market. In order to improve the transparency of the gas wholesale market, CRE will publish aggregated and anonymous information on the bilateral market according to information on volumes that will be collected from market participants.

  18. Report of working committee 1 ''exploration, production, treatment and underground storage of natural gas''; Rapport du comite de travail 1 ''exploration, production, traitement et stockage souterrain du gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rekdal, Ottar

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the activities of Working Committee 1 during the triennium 1997 - 2000. The first part of the report gives an overview of the current situation world-wide within the basic activities of the committee, i.e. exploration, production, treatment and underground storage of natural gas. In the second part of the report analyses of three prioritized topics important to the industry are described: - Improving the performance of existing gas storages; - Use of 3-D seismic data in exploration, production and underground storage. - Development of small-scale offshore gas fields. The report will be presented during the WOC 1 sessions at the World Gas Conference 2000, together with papers selected by the committee. Other relevant papers will be presented during the poster session. Furthermore, the committee will organize a round table session addressing reductions of greenhouse gas emissions along the gas chain. Representatives from industry, environmental organisations and politicians will take part in this round table discussion. (author)

  19. Geochemical monitoring using noble gases and carbon isotopes: study of a natural reservoir; Monitoring geochimique par couplage entre les gaz rares et les isotopes du carbone: etude d'un reservoir naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandel, E

    2008-12-15

    To limit emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, CO{sub 2} geological sequestration appears as a solution in the fight against climate change. The development of reliable monitoring tools to ensure the sustainability and the safety of geological storage is a prerequisite for the implementation of such sites. In this framework, a geochemical method using noble gas and carbon isotopes geochemistry has been tested on natural and industrial analogues. The study of natural analogues from different geological settings showed systematic behaviours of the geochemical parameters, depending on the containment sites, and proving the effectiveness of these tools in terms of leak detection and as tracers of the behaviour of CO{sub 2}. Moreover, an experience of geochemical tracing on a natural gas storage has demonstrated that it is possible to identify the physical-chemical processes taking place in the reservoir to a human time scale, increasing interest in the proposed tool and providing general information on its use. (author)

  20. The natural gas fuel cell project Gazel of the Services Industriels de Geneve - results and perspectives. La pile a combustible au gaz naturel. Le projet Gazel des SIG: Resultats et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D.L. (Service du Gaz, Services Industriels de Geneve (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    The demonstration and pilot project Gazel, of the Services Industriels de Geneve has as its objective the promotion of the technology of the natural gas-operated fuel cell. The probability of the technical application shall be demonstrated by the gas industry, as well as the development of optimum scientific marginal requirements for a facility of industrial magnitude. The first results after more than a year operation correspond to the original expectations, even surpassing these in certain aspects, although these expectations compared to the traditional technology of electrical utilisation had already been very favourably assigned. It has been proved that the technical as well as the environmental performance of the facility corresponds to our expectations and thus provide a good basis start for our project. Long-term tests will permit our employees to refine further the economic manner of operation of the fuel cell which can be looked upon as a future technology of the gas industry. The experiences already gathered in the facility at Lignon, in the fields of operation and maintenance, as well as the knowledge obtained by intensive international contacts, permit us to look to the future with great confidence. (orig.)

  1. The opening of electricity and gas markets to professional clients. Main lessons - December 2007; L'ouverture des marches du gaz naturel et de l'electricite pour les clients professionnels. Principaux enseignements - decembre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since 2004, electricity and gas markets are opened to all professional clients who can freely chose their energy supplier. A quantitative inquiry has been carried out by BVA on behalf of the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) on a sample of 1503 companies representative of both the private and public sectors. The aim of this inquiry is to gain information on the following points: what are the professionals' motivations or brakes concerning the change of energy supplier? What is their general opinion about markets opening? What are the false questions or ideas? what is their level of knowledge about the July 2004 opening of energy markets? What has it changed for them? Do they know the new suppliers? What are the new terms and conditions? What is their intention (faithfulness or changing). The lessons learnt from this inquiry are summarized in this document. (J.S.)

  2. The gas pipeline Bolivia-Brazil and the natural gas market expansion in Sao Paulo state; Le gazoduc Bolivie-Bresil et l'expansion du marche du gaz naturel dans l'etat de Sao-Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pileggi, Valneo; Finavaro, Carlos Alberto; Itagaki, Armando Riuti [Comgas (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper will present the main interesting points of COMGAS Investments to increase the distribution and sales of the Natural Gas purchased from Bolivia. It will also present the technical and economic aspects of PETROBRAS - COMGAS Natural Gas Furnish Contract, the sale strategy adopted to achieve the objectives and the schedules coming from this contract. (authors)

  3. Regulations concerning the cooking installations using the natural gas in the bakeries and the cake shops of the shopping Centers; Reglementation des installations de cuisson au gaz naturel en boulangerie-patisserie dans les centres commerciaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This brochure presents the regulation relative to the cooking installations using the natural gas in bakeries and cake shops of the shopping Centers. Following the general regulation context, the guide presents the ovens which can be installed and the associated technical restraints. The necessary conditions for the buildings, the gas alimentation, the natural gas pipelines in the buildings and the installations conditions are also presented. Finally the guide presents the maintenance facilities obligations. (A.L.B.)

  4. The current trend of oil and natural gas exploration in Quebec; L'engouement actuel pour l'exploration du petrole et du gaz naturel au Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcil, J.S. [Junex, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Canadian Inst. of Mining and Metallurgy, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Although Quebecers spend more than $10 million per year in hydrocarbon fuels, the production of hydrocarbons in the province is very small. Recently however, companies such as Junex of Quebec and Corridor Resources of Halifax have launched important hydrocarbon exploration programs in the province of Quebec. Quebec has a refining capacity of 500,000 barrels of oil per day and has 3 important refineries and an important petrochemical industry. In addition, the newly launched exploration programs are now beginning to yield results. Other companies have embarked in the exploration trend. These include Gastem, Aquatex, Petrolia, Talisman Energy, Amque and Petrolympia. In September 2006 the Quebec Ministry of Natural Resources issued 383 exploration permits. Since 2006, Junex has produced 1000 barrels of light crude that has been sold to the Ultramar refinery in Saint-Romuald. Junex has also been producing from wells in the Gaspe Peninsula. It was noted however, that successful development of hydrocarbon reservoirs in Quebec will require access to the offshore reserves in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where a current exploration moratorium is in place. Also, legal boundary definitions will need to be addressed to allow for exploration in the gulf. 3 figs.

  5. Natural gas: which growth and which markets in a context of high petroleum prices?; Le gaz naturel: quelle croissance, quels marches dans un conteste de prix eleves du petrole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [CEDIGAZ, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Zofrea, F.; Bellussi, G. [EniTecnologie (Italy); Dauger, J.M. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Bigeard, P.H. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 69 - Vernaison (France); Courtois, A.; Renaudie, Th. [Gaz de France, 26 - Valence (France); Cervantes, V. [IRISBUS / Iveco (France); Buffet, P. [Groupe Suez (France)

    2006-07-01

    Beyond the technological stakes linked with the use of natural gas, a new geopolitical equilibrium is coming due to the different geographical distribution of gas and petroleum reserves. New countries and new markets are entering the game and may change the worldwide balance of energy powers. At the occasion of its annual 'Panorama' colloquium, the French institute of petroleum (IFP) tackles the question of the crucial role that natural gas will play in a context of high petroleum prices. Natural gas has serious economical and environmental advantages and already occupies an important position in the residential, industrial and power generation sectors and should become a major fuel for tomorrows' transportation systems. This document gathers 10 presentations (article and transparencies) given at the colloquium and dealing with: the 2005 world energy outlook: analyses and impacts (O. Appert); the future of natural gas in Europe (M.F. Chabrelie); the perspectives and new openings for LNG in a changing market (P. Buffet); the perspectives of the gas-to-liquid (GTL) industry (F. Zofrea); the opening of the natural gas market in Europe (J.M. Dauger); a presentation of natural gas (P.H. Bigeard); the 2005 world energy outlook: analyses and impacts (O. Appert); the new synthetic fuels from the GTL industry (G. Bellussi); the successes and perspectives of natural gas in the transportation sector (A. Courtois); the urban natural gas-fueled captive fleets: point of view of a car-maker (V. Cervantes). A press kit with 11 synthetic notes written by IFP's experts complete the preceding presentations, they treat of: activities and markets in exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, natural gas industry at the 2020 prospects, petroleum supply and demand, gas reserves, discoveries and production, strategy of the European gas market actors, gas markets liberalization in Europe, natural gas for vehicles, perspectives of development of the GTL technology, LNG: a coming up convenience, ties between natural gas and petroleum prices. (J.S.)

  6. Underground storages for natural gas - automation, tele-diagnostics of malfunctions and the effects on the operating philosophy; Stockages souterrains de gaz naturel - automatisation, diagnostic a distance des pannes et consequences pour l'exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, M. [BEB Erdgas und Erdol GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Since 1996 BEB's operating department for underground storages has been preparing itself for the conditions of a liberalized gas market. Besides necessary partial substitution and improvement of existing installations, above all the adaption of remote control and diagnostic systems is leading to higher efficiency and changing the responsibilities and duties of employees. The objectives of increased availability of our assets with a corresponding reduction of specific costs have to be achieved without loss of technical integrity. Individual steps of this project are outlined in the following presentation. (author)

  7. Latvia - the new key region for increasing natural gas supply reliability and security in europe; La Lettonie - une region - cle pour augmenter la fiabilite et la securite de l'approvisionnement en gaz naturel de l'europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Freibergs, G. [Latvian gas company ' ' Latvijas Gaze' ' (Latvia); Zebergs, V.; Zeltinsh, N. [Institute of Physical Energetics, Latvian Academy of Sciences (Latvia)

    2000-07-01

    The territory of Latvia is situated near the geographical centre of Europe. This means that its distance from the Russian gas fields is greater than 3000 km, while from those of Northern Europe - only 1000 km. The geological structure of Latvian territory is a unique one, because it allows siting new highly reliable underground gas storage facilities (UGSs). At present, in Latvia there is functioning one UGS with an active capacity of 2.3 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} of gas. This storage provides non-stop gas supply for Latvia and, partially, for the neighbouring countries during the whole year. In future, it is possible to site in Latvia a new UGS (or a network of storage's) with an active capacity for gas of 50 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}. Such a huge storage could become a basis for a new, economically substantiated, concept of gas pipeline building that would provide a high level of gas supply in the scale of Northern Europe as well as Central and Eastern Europe. In the work, we analyse the existing as well as newly proposed schemes of supplying Europe with gas, and present the results of research concerning UGSs - both existing and potential. We also consider the UGS from the viewpoint of economic efficiency in the context of gas supply systems of Europe and Latvia. The conclusions are drawn that would serve as a basis for international cooperation and help to attract investments for UGS construction. (authors)

  8. Opening up natural gas exploration and production in Mexico, liberalism or nationalism; L'ouverture de l'exploration et de la production de gaz naturel au Mexique, liberalisme ou nationalisme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Padilla, V. [Universite Nationale Autonome UNAM (Mexico); Cavatorta, T.; Favennec, J.P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2002-11-01

    Mexico, which not long ago did not want to call on international oil companies to conduct exploration and production activities in its territory, is changing. After a small opening carried out by President Zedillo (1994-2000), President Vicente Fox wishes to conduct much more radical changes, by opening natural gas fields to major groups. But the President's party is still a minority in Congress, and the majority nationalist party refuses any constitutional amendment allowing the granting of mining rights. Thus, Vicente Fox is considering using special service agreements, known as 'Multiple Service contracts' (CSMs) which would first apply to developing proven gas reserves, and then to areas with greater geological risks, including oil areas. Many major international companies answered the CSM call for bids, as they cannot stay away from a country opening up with as much hydrocarbons, all the more since they feel that legally, such contracts are compliant with the Mexican Constitution and Law. However, they expressed concerns regarding the unbalance of the contracts in terms or risk sharing and profits, saying that such an unbalance put Mexico in a unfavourable position compared with other exporting countries such as Venezuela and Iran. These first CSMs in Cuenca de Burgos between PEMEX and international companies are only a first co-operation step. But a true opening of Mexico request essential institutional reforms that need a majority at Congress. Though Chamber of Representatives elections are scheduled for 2003, Senate elections will not take place before 2006. (authors)

  9. Dehumidification by dessiccant regenerated by natural gas at the Campeau ice rink in Gatineau; La deshumidification par dessiccant regenere par le gaz naturel a l'Arena Campeau de Gatineau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, S.

    2003-03-01

    As air quality gains in importance, dehumidification by dessiccant represents an interesting technological solution, especially in ice rinks where bad air quality (carbon monoxide) is not unknown. Contrary to conventional technologies, dehumidification by dessiccant allows to maintain adequate levels of air quality and optimum humidity levels. Three major advantages are: improved user comfort, the building structure is protected from corrosion, and superior air quality levels are achieved. The document first provided the reader with a brief overview of conventional mechanical dehumidification systems before discussing dehumidification by natural gas dessiccant. A quick historical review of the Campeau ice rink in Gatineau, Quebec was provided, including results obtained. The article concluded by indicating that the technology offers interesting potential for ice rinks. Energy savings are made possible through the utilization of this technology, and improves revenues by stretching operations for longer periods. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  10. Liberalization and enlargement: impacts on the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe; Liberalisation et elargissement: impacts sur l'organisation industrielle des marches du gaz naturel en Europe de l'Est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirovska, M

    2004-12-01

    In 2004, the EU has opened its commercial natural gas industry to competition, 'while eight former socialist countries have become member states. This ongoing institutional evolution is expected to have a great impact on the industrial organisation of the East European natural gas markets. Specificities and rigidities of the transport networks, as well as strong import dependency may in fact weaken the security of supply and confirm that natural gas is strongly affected by geopolitical constraints. By levering on an analysis of structure and strategies across natural gas markets in Eastern Europe, this dissertation explores the stakes of integration and liberalization on the industrial organisation of European natural gas and reveals the risk of an emerging oligopoly, and the cooperation between dominant players. Our main contention is that this evolution could possibly hinder network interconnection thereby thwarting the achievement of an integrated and single competitive natural gas market in the Union. (author)

  11. Preparation of radioactive gaseous standard; Preparation des etalons de gaz radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondel, M.; Phan, X.D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    To prepare a radioactive gaseous standard it is necessary on the one hand to put into a sealed vial a well defined quantity of the gas concerned, and on the other hand to measure its specific activity. The determination of the quantity of gas which constitutes the standard implies accurate measurements of volume, temperature and pressure. To measure the specific activity, the method of compensated internal gas counters is used. The final accuracy on the specific activity of this standards is better than 0.8 per cent. The validity of the method used for the measurements was checked by measuring the specific activity of the tritiated hydrogen extracted from a tritiated-water standard. (authors) [French] La preparation d'un etalon gazeux radioactif necessite, d'une part, la mise en ampoule scellee d'une quantite bien determinee de ce gaz et, d'autre part, la mesure de son activite specifique. La determination de la quantite de gaz constituant l'etalon conduit a des mesures precises de volume, de temperature et de pression. La mesure de l'activite specifique est effectuee par la methode des compteurs a gaz interne compenses. L'exactitude finale sur l'activite specifique de ces etalons est meilleur que 0,8 pour cent. La validite de la methode de mesure est verifiee en mesurant l'activite specifique de l'hydrogene tritie extrait d'un etalon d'eau tritiee. (auteurs)

  12. Together on the same planet. Gaz de France and sustainable development in 2006; Ensemble sur la meme planete. Gaz de France et le developpement durable en 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the sustainable development policy of Gaz de France group. It identifies the challenges the group has to face in order to control the environmental impact of the Group's activities (exploration, production, procurement, re-gasification, transmission, storage, distribution, marketing and shares, services). The approach used is based on a voluntary commitment of the Group to dialogue and share current challenges with all its stakeholders, and to imagine other roads to development. The initiatives consist in clean production practices, development of renewable energy sources, energy conservation, investment in research, safety improvement, solidarity with underprivileged people, respect of local environment and of codes of conduct, accompanying local economic development and development of clean transport systems. (J.S.)

  13. EDF and Gaz de France reinforce their solidarity actions with clients in trouble; EDF et Gaz de France renforcent leurs actions de solidarite envers les clients en difficulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Electricite de France (EdF)and Gaz de France (GdF) public utility companies committed themselves to apply a volontarist solidarity policy with customers undergoing financial problems. An `energy solidarity charter` was signed in November 1996 between the ministry of housing, EdF and GdF. In 1998, EdF and GdF will participate to the employment of 500 young people in territorial organizations for giving help to such customers. This press dossier presents the poverty-precariousness conventions, commissions and funds devoted to customers in need, the convention signed between EdF and the national union of federations of council house organizations (Unfohlm) to improve the electric space heating in council flats, the convention signed between GdF and the Unfohlm for the renewal of individual or collective natural gas space heating installations, and the `energy keeping service` to ensure a minimum supply of electricity to customers in need. (J.S.)

  14. Cover stones on liquefiable soil bed under waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    of stone layers (including the effect of an intermediate filter layer) were investigated. Pore pressure was measured across the soil depth. The experiments show that the soil liquefaction depended mainly on two parameters: the packing density of stones, and the number of stone layers. When the liquefaction...... occurs, stones sink in the soil. Mechanisms of liquefaction and sinking are described, and practical guidelines are recommended.......The paper describes the results of an experimental study on the behavior of cover stones on a liquefiable soil bed exposed to a progressive wave. The soil was silt with d50=0.098mm. Stones, the size of 4cm, were used as cover material. The effect of packing density of stones, and that of number...

  15. 2006 annual results: Gaz de France announces record-high results and exceeds its objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 13 March 2007 - In fiscal year 2006, Gaz de France had the best operational performance in its history. The Group confirms the strength of its business model, with sound Infrastructure business and sharp growth in Exploration - Production, Trading and Sales: - Net income, Group share: 2.3 billion euros; - EBITDA: 5.15 billion euros; - Dynamic dividend policy: 1.1 euro per share (+62%); - Investments at stepped-up pace: 4 billion euros (+38%); - Contribution of Group's international activities doubled in two years (39% of sales); - Many operational advances: strengthened operations, Exploration-Production, LNG Infrastructures and Electricity; - Major steps completed in merger project with Suez.

  16. 2006 annual results: Gaz de France announces record-high results and exceeds its objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 13 March 2007 - In fiscal year 2006, Gaz de France had the best operational performance in its history. The Group confirms the strength of its business model, with sound Infrastructure business and sharp growth in Exploration - Production, Trading and Sales: - Net income, Group share: 2.3 billion euros; - EBITDA: 5.15 billion euros; - Dynamic dividend policy: 1.1 euro per share (+62%); - Investments at stepped-up pace: 4 billion euros (+38%); - Contribution of Group's international activities doubled in two years (39% of sales); - Many operational advances: strengthened operations, Exploration-Production, LNG Infrastructures and Electricity; - Major steps completed in merger project with Suez.

  17. Le potentiel d’atténuation des gaz à effet de serre en productions bovines

    OpenAIRE

    Agabriel, Jacques; Dollé, J.-B.; Faverdin, Philippe; VAN DER WERF, Hayo

    2014-01-01

    L’élevage bovin est l’un des principaux contributeurs aux émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES), le principal poste étant la fermentation entérique. En contrepartie, le stockage de carbone par les prairies et les haies compense de 25 à 30% des émissions nationales. L’élevage est également la phase qui domine l’empreinte carbone des produits lait et viande. L’analyse à l’échelle des exploitations fait apparaître une grande variabilité des niveaux d’émissions et de compensation et permet l’id...

  18. Impact environnemental d'une désulfuration poussée des gazoles Environmental Impact of Gaz Oil Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armengol C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En une dizaine d'années, le diesel a connu un développement spectaculaire sur les marchés automobile français et européen et pourrait atteindre, en 1995, la moitié des immatriculations de véhicules particuliers en France et le quart en Europe de l'Ouest. Cette situation n'est évidemment pas sans poser de problèmes. Problèmes environnementaux puisque le moteur diesel est une source plus importante d'émissions d'oxydes d'azote et de particules que le convertisseur essence, mais également au niveau de l'industrie du raffinage qui, en France, n'est plus en mesure de satisfaire la demande en gazole. De plus, à compter du 1er octobre 1996, la teneur en soufre du gazole routier ne devra pas excéder 0,05 %, conformément aux nouvelles spécifications européennes. Cette perspective de production de carburants fortement désulfurés va affecter directement l'équilibre en hydrogène de la raffinerie et donc les autoconsommations et les émissions de CO2. L'objectif de cette étude est de mesurer l'impact sur l'environnement d'une réduction de la teneur en soufre des gazoles de 0,3 à 0,05 %. Le bilan est réalisé sur l'ensemble de la filière énergétique, depuis l'extraction du pétrole jusqu'à la combustion du carburant dans le moteur. Les gains et les pertes en termes de pollution locale ou globale sont évalués suivant la nature de l'hydrogène utilisé (oxydation partielle de résidus sous vide ou de charbon, reformage à la vapeur de gaz naturel ou de naphta électrolyse et la nature de la charge à traiter (gazole straight run ou light cycle oil lors de l'hydrodésulfuration. Over the past decade, diesel had made large advances in the French and European automobile markets. In 1995, diesel could account for half of all private vehicle registrations in France, and a quarter in Western Europe. This situation inevitably raises a number of problems : environmental problems, because the diesel engine emits more nitrogen oxides and

  19. Laptop-assisted Helium Liquefier: software for tailored monitoring and control

    CERN Document Server

    Marceddu, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Computer running human machine interfaces are fast supplanting conventional hardware dedicated to monitoring and supervising tasks. This kind of approach was successfully employed to develop a new monitoring and control software, running on a conventional laptop computer, for a small size helium liquefier. This software was realized with a SCADA development package and hallowed to manage all the liquefier functionalities. Being conceived as an open structure suitable for further upgrades, this liquefier HMI can be tailored on demand to satisfy specific needs of the end-user, even if not provided by the original manufacturer project.

  20. Evolution dans la gestion de la détection gaz

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, F

    1999-01-01

    Cet article présente l'interface graphique qui a été développée pour gérer d'une façon visuelle et globale la détection des gaz inflammables utilisés dans les expériences du hall EHN1 (NA49, NA56, tests pour ATLAS, CMS, Alice, etc.). A cet effet, on utilise des détecteurs catalytiques connectés à une centrale. Afin de retransmettre les alarmes à la salle de contrôle des pompiers, cette centrale est couplée à un automate programmable connecté au réseau Ethernet du CERN. Une liaison filaire entre l'automate et le synoptique câblé des alarmes de niveau 3 assure la redondance nécessaire à ce type d'alarmes. Le logiciel de contrôle LabView a été utilisé pour développer l'interface graphique. Elle permet de visualiser sur n'importe quel PC ou X-Terminal le taux de remplissage des bouteilles de gaz, la position des électrovannes ainsi que les asservissements qui pilotent lors d'une alarme, notamment les ventilations, les panneaux de signalisation et les arrêts d'urgence.

  1. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Deepwater...

  2. Stability of submerged rock berms exposed to motion of liquefied soil in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Dixen, Figen Hatipoglu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the results of an experimental study on the behaviour of a submerged rock berm in liquefied backfill soil. The soil is liquefied by waves, and the rock berm is subject to the orbital motion of the liquefied soil. The soil used in the experiments was silt with d50=0.075mm....... Various berm materials were used, stones of size 0.74–2.5cm, plastic balls of size 3.6cm, brass of size 2.5cm and steel of size 1.0cm. The experiments show that rock berms that are stable under very large waves can be unstable when they are exposed to the motion of liquefied soil. The limited data...

  3. Thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues using thermogravimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yuzhu Chen; Feng Li

    2017-01-01

    The thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues with respect to liquefaction condition and pyrolysis conversion were investigated using a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer at the heating rates of 5, 20, 50

  4. Study of a multi-strategy controller on a helium liquefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L. L.; Meng, Y. R.; Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Tang, J. C.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Helium liquefier is widely used in the fields of superconducting, nuclear fusion energy and high-energy physics. However, the present PID controlling system of the liquefier is not able to keep the compressor suction pressure, outlet pressure and turbine inlet pressure all in the expected range at the same time. Thus, a multi-strategy controller for a helium liquefier is proposed in this paper. A dynamic simulation model of this liquefier is also developed and shown. To study the control effect, an operation process including cool-down, steady-state and pulse of heat is described. The simulation result of this process is presented and compared with the result of the present PID controlling system.

  5. Two Heat-Transfer Improvements for Gas Liquefiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jerry L.

    2005-01-01

    Two improvements in heat-transfer design have been investigated with a view toward increasing the efficiency of refrigerators used to liquefy gases. The improvements could contribute to the development of relatively inexpensive, portable oxygen liquefiers for medical use. A description of the heat-transfer problem in a pulse-tube refrigerator is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the first improvement. In a pulse-tube refrigerator in particular, one of in-line configuration heat must be rejected from two locations: an aftercooler (where most of the heat is rejected) and a warm heat exchanger (where a small fraction of the total input power must be rejected as heat). Rejection of heat from the warm heat exchanger can be problematic because this heat exchanger is usually inside a vacuum vessel. When an acoustic-inertance tube is used to provide a phase shift needed in the pulse-tube cooling cycle, another problem arises: Inasmuch as the acoustic power in the acoustic-inertance tube is dissipated over the entire length of the tube, the gas in the tube must be warmer than the warm heat exchanger in order to reject heat at the warm heat exchanger. This is disadvantageous because the increase in viscosity with temperature causes an undesired increase in dissipation of acoustic energy and an undesired decrease in the achievable phase shift. Consequently, the overall performance of the pulse-tube refrigerator decreases with increasing temperature in the acoustic-inertance tube. In the first improvement, the acoustic-inertance tube is made to serve as the warm heat exchanger and to operate in an approximately isothermal condition at a lower temperature, thereby increasing the achievable phase shift and the overall performance of the refrigerator. This is accomplished by placing the acoustic-inertance tube inside another tube and pumping a cooling fluid (e.g., water) in the annular space between the tubes. Another benefit of this improvement is added flexibility of

  6. VAPOR MIXER FOR GELATINIZATION OF STARCH IN LIQUEFYING STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ananskikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch hydrolysis is main technological process in production of starch sweeteners. Acid hydrolysis of starch using hydrochloric acid is carried out very fast but it does not allow to carry out full hydrolysis and to produce products with given carbohydrate composition. Bioconversion of starch allows to eliminate these limitations. At production of starch sweeteners from starch using enzymes starch hydrolysis is carried out in two stages At first starch – starch liquefaction the rapid increase of viscosity takes place which requires intensive mixing. Liquefying station consists of jet-cooker, holder, pressure regulator and evaporator. Jet-cooker of starch is its main part, starch is quickly turns into soluble (gelatinized state and it is partially liquefied by injection of starch suspension by flow of water vapor under pressure not less than 0,8 MPa. Heat and hydraulic calculation were carried out in order to determine constructive sizes of mixer for cooking of starch. The main hydraulic definable parameters are pressure drop in mixer, vapor pressure at mixer inlet, daily capacity of station by glucose syrup M, product consumption (starch suspension, diameter of inlet section of vapor nozzle. The goal of calculation was to determine vapor consumption M1, diameter d2 of outlet section of confuser injector, length l2 of gelatinization section. For heat calculation there was used Shukhov’s formula along with heat balance equation for gelatinization process. The numerical solution obtained with adopted assumptions given in applied mathematical package MATHCAD, for M = 50 t/day gives required daily vapor consumption M1 = 14,446 т. At hydraulic calculation of pressure drop in mixer there was used Bernoulli’s theorem. Solving obtained equations using MATHCAD found diameter of outlet section of consufer d2 = 0,023 м, vapor pressure inside of mixer p2 = 3,966·105 Па, l2 = 0,128 м. Developed method of calculation is used to determine

  7. Des risques « naturels » aux politiques urbaines à Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mancebo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available L’agglomération de Mexico, à plus de 2 000 mètres d’altitude, adossée à la Sierra Madre et la Cordillère Volcanique est assise sur un site accueillant mais redoutable. Il s’agit d’un des endroits les plus exposés du globe, soumis à une combinaison de risques naturels, de risques technologiques souvent mal maîtrisés dus à des industries lourdes, de nuisances, de cumul des polluants et d’un épuisement des ressources locales utilisables, tout particulièrement les ressources en eau. Après le séisme dévastateur de 1985, les acteurs de l’aménagement de Mexico tentent d’intégrer risques et durabilité dans la définition de nouvelles politiques urbaines. Mais, si les risques sont bien identifiés et des réponses sont données, leur applicabilité est quasi-nulle. Une approche normative et n’incluant pas l’ensemble de l’agglomération, mais utilisant les périphéries pour améliorer la durabilité des centres (sorte de durabilité importée à l’échelle de la métropole explique cette situation. Comme dans le mythe de Sisyphe, acteurs locaux et nationaux tentent de faire remonter la pente au rocher du risque mais ce dernier finit toujours par redescendre ? C’est qu’en réalité le problème n’est pas le rocher. Le problème, c’est la pente, c’est-à-dire le substrat fait de représentations territoriales et d’usages de l’espace qui fondent la société mexicaine, sur laquelle roule le rocher.Mexico City is located at an altitude of over 2 000 metres where it occupies an attractive but hazardous site hemmed in by the Sierra Madre and volcanic mountain ranges.The site is one of the most disaster-prone locations in the world, threatened by a combination of natural hazards, poorly controlled technological hazards created by the city’s heavy industry, pollution – particularly air pollution and diminishing local resources, the most seriously threatened being water. Since the devastating earthquake

  8. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  9. Modeling and Diagnostic Software for Liquefying-Fuel Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott; Iverson, David; Ou, Jeremy; Sanderfer, Dwight; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a study of five modeling and diagnostic computer programs considered for use in an integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) system during testing of liquefying-fuel hybrid rocket engines in the Hybrid Combustion Facility (HCF) at NASA Ames Research Center. Three of the programs -- TEAMS, L2, and RODON -- are model-based reasoning (or diagnostic) programs. The other two programs -- ICS and IMS -- do not attempt to isolate the causes of failures but can be used for detecting faults. In the study, qualitative models (in TEAMS and L2) and quantitative models (in RODON) having varying scope and completeness were created. Each of the models captured the structure and behavior of the HCF as a physical system. It was noted that in the cases of the qualitative models, the temporal aspects of the behavior of the HCF and the abstraction of sensor data are handled outside of the models, and it is necessary to develop additional code for this purpose. A need for additional code was also noted in the case of the quantitative model, though the amount of development effort needed was found to be less than that for the qualitative models.

  10. Evaluation of burn injuries related to liquefied petroleum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2014-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a fuel that is widely used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. LPG is also commonly used in restaurants, industries, and cars; however, the home continues to be the main site for accidents. In Turkey, the increased usage of LPG as a cooking or heating fuel has resulted in many burn injuries from LPG mishaps. Between January 2000 and June 2011, 56 LPG-burned patients were compared with 112 flame-burned patients. There were no significant differences with respect to the mean age, sex, hospitalization time, and mortality in both groups. In the LPG-caused burn cases, 41 burns (73.2%) occurred at home, seven (12.5) were work-related mishaps, and eight (14.3) were associated with car accidents. The majority of the LPG burns (82%, 46 patients) resulted from a gas leak, and 18% of them were related to the failure to close LPG tubes in the patients' kitchens (10 patients). Burns to the face and neck (82 vs 67%, P = .039) and upper (62 vs 23%, P = .000) and lower (70 vs 45%, P = .002) extremities were significantly higher in LPG-caused burn cases than flame-burned cases. General awareness regarding the risk of LPG and first aid for burns appears to be lacking. The LPG delivery system should be standardized throughout countries that widely use LPG.

  11. Les recherches menées par le Gaz de France dans le domaine de l'hydrogène Research on Hydrogen by Gaz de France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donat G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les besoins en énergie de l'humanité allant croissant et les ressources en combustibles de la Terre étant obligatoirement limitées, le temps viendra où la demande en hydrocarbures excédera la capacité mondiale de production; cette situation s'aggravera encore ultérieurement du fait de l'épuisement des réserves récupérables. Un recours massif aux énergies nucléaire et solaire semble donc indispensable et l'utilisation de l'hydrogène comme vecteur de ces énergies retient depuis quelques années l'attention, notamment en France où les ressources propres en pétrole sont faibles. Le Gaz de France a entrepris des recherches sur la production massive de l'hydrogène par décomposition de l'eau et vient de parvenir à des conclusions pessimistes quant à la compétitivité, par rapport à la voie électrolytique, de la filière utilisant des cycles thermochimiques. Par contre, l'électrolyse de l'eau offre des perspectives intéressantes à condition d'améliorer ses performances et son économie. D'autre part, des études concernant le stockage et le transport de l'hydrogène ont permis d'ores et déjà de tirer quelques conclusions dans ces domaines où les vecteurs gazeux disposent d'excellents atouts. With the increasing energy needs of mankind and the earth's necessarily limited resources of fuel, the time will come when the demand for hydrocarbons will exceed the world production capacity. This situation will subsequently get even worse becouse of the depletion of recoverable reserves. Massive recourse ta nuclear and solar energy thus appears indispensable, and the use of hydrogen as a vector for such energies has been under consideration for several years, especially in France where petroleum resources are very limited. Gaz de France has been doing research on the mass production of hydrogen by the decomposition of water and has just come ta rather pessimistic conclusions as ta the competitiveness of thermochemical processes in

  12. Le zonage : un outil pour la gestion des forêts de montagne à fonction de protection contre les risques naturels

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, F.; F. Rey; Liévois, J.

    2003-01-01

    Les forêts peuvent jouer un important rôle de protection contre les aléas naturels en milieu de montagne, en particulier contre l`érosion et les chutes de pierres. Cet article présente dans un premier temps les connaissances concernant la capacité des forêts dans la maîtrise des aléas naturels. Ensuite, des principes de zonage sont présentés ; basés sur l`utilisation d`un SIG, ils permettent de déterminer des zones d`interventions forestières prioritaires, dans une optique de « gestion minima...

  13. Geochemical Study of Natural CO2 Emissions in the French Massif Central: How to Predict Origin, Processes and Evolution of CO2 Leakage Étude géochimique des émissions naturelles de CO2 du Massif Central : origine et processus de migration du gaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battani A.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an overview of some results obtained within the French ANR (National Agency of Research supported Géocarbone-Monitoring research program. The measurements were performed in Sainte-Marguerite, located in the French Massif Central. This site represents a natural laboratory for CO2/fluid/rock interactions studies, as well as CO2 migration mechanisms towards the surface. The CO2 leaking character of the studied area also allows to test and validate measurements methods and verifications for the future CO2 geological storage sites. During these surveys, we analyzed soil CO2 fluxes and concentrations. We sampled and analyzed soil gases, and gas from carbo-gaseous bubbling springs. A one-month continuous monitoring was also tested, to record the concentration of CO2 both in atmosphere and in the soil at a single point. We also developed a new methodology to collect soil gas samples for noble gas abundances and isotopic analyses, as well as carbon isotopic ratios. Our geochemical results, combined with structural geology, show that the leaking CO2 has a very deep origin, partially mantle derived. The gas rises rapidly along normal and strike-slip active faults. CO2 soil concentrations (also showing a mantle derived component and CO2 fluxes are spatially variable, and reach high values. The recorded atmospheric CO2 is not very high, despite the important CO2 degassing throughout the whole area. Cette étude présente les principaux résultats de campagnes de monitoring géochimique menées en 2006 et 2007 dans le cadre du projet Géocarbone-Monitoring, sur le site de Sainte-Marguerite, situé dans le Massif Central. Ce site constitue un « laboratoire naturel » pour l’étude des interactions CO2/fluides/roches et des mécanismes de migration du CO2 vers la surface, à l’échelle des temps géologiques. Le caractère particulièrement émissif de cet « analogue » permet également de tester et valider des méthodes de mesure et

  14. Activite locomotrice de souris isolees, de deux lignees consanguines, dans un environnement semi-naturel ou en cages d'elevage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, G; Lassalle, J M

    1979-10-01

    Des enregistrements continus d'activité locomotrice ont été effectués sur des souris mâles isolées des lignées Balb/c et C57bl/6, vivant en cages d'élevage ou en milieu semi- naturel. Les résultats montrent que les différences entre ces deux situations ne sont pas perçues de la même façon par les animaux des deux lign'ees: alors qu'en cages d'élevage les souris des deux lignées experiment la même quantité totale d'activaté, en milieu semi-naturel les souris Balb/c sont plus actives que les C57bl/6. En outre, l≐s différences observées entre les lignées pour la repartition de l'activité au cours du nycthèmere s'inversent lorsque l'on passe d'une situation à l'autre. L'étude de la variabilité fait aparaître une dispersion plus grande des performances dans la lignée C57bl/6 en cages d'élevage, alors qu'en milieu semi-naturel la dispersion est plus chez Bal/c.

  15. Law project on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development. Law project synthesis on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development; Projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres.Synthese du projet de loi sur la modernisation du service public du gaz et le developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The french government would like to develop a law concerning the gas utility modernization and gas industries development, which completes the today system, more particularly, the law of 1946. This project specifies and comforts the gas utility, it gives to the energy policy tools adapted to the new european context. It helps the natural gas industry to become more competitive. The method chosen by the government is presented and discussed in these three documents. (A.L.B.)

  16. Lois cinétiques et calcul des réacteurs gaz-solide

    OpenAIRE

    Soustelle, Michel; Pijolat, Michèle

    2007-01-01

    National audience; Alors que les expressions de vitesse de réactions gaz – solide utilisées dans la simulation des réacteurs supposent que la vitesse à un instant donné est déterminée par la connaissance des valeurs des variables intensives (température, pression, composition de la phase gazeuse) et du degré d'avancement de la réaction à cet instant, on montre que cette propriété n'est pas toujours vraie. On montre qu'elle est mise en défaut, en particulier, lorsque les deux processus de germ...

  17. Les émissions de CO2 et autres gaz à effets de serre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Durand-Dastès

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cette note envisage les composantes explicatives des émissions de Gaz à effet de serre : coefficient d’émission par habitant et par unité monétaire de PNB, effets des masses de population et de production. La part de ces derniers est parfois curieusement sous estimée dans la littérature, et il semble nécessaire d’insister sur leur rôle majeur. Après une présentation cartographique et graphique de quelques données essentielles, on se livre à une expérimentation prospective à partir de ces données et des objectifs couramment mentionnés dans les accords internationaux. On cherche à en tirer quelques leçons.

  18. Natural uranium lattice in heavy water; Reseaux uranium naturel-eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y.; Koechlin, J.C.; Moreau, J.; Naudet, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    calcul, on estime qu'un certain nombre d'ajustements sont necessaires, or ceux-ci ne peuvent donner d'efficacite dans la prevision que s'ils recouvrent un nombre suffisant de resultats experimentaux. On a donc cherche a la fois a rattacher etroitement les mesures entre elles et a les recouper par des formules se deduisant logiquement les unes des autres. Le principal souci a ete celui de la coherence. On donne les regles de calcul qui ont ete utilisees pour ce travail interpretatif. Dans un premier temps, on emploie des formules simples; on s'attache en premier lieu aux barres pleines et on ajuste {eta} et les integrales effectives; on cherche ensuite a transposer les calculs au cas des barreaux plus complexes. Dans un deuxieme temps, on s'efforce d'ameliorer l'ensemble en etudiant plus en detail chaque facteur du calcul de reseau. Une interpretation satisfaisante des resultats conduit en definitive a des methodes de calcul applicables aux reseaux uranium naturel-eau lourde les plus varies. On a tenu compte des resultats obtenus dans d'autres pays, notamment au Canada. (auteur)

  19. Les gaz à effet de serre en élevage bovin : évaluation et leviers d'action

    OpenAIRE

    Dollé, Jean-Baptiste; Agabriel, Jacques; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Faverdin, Philippe; Manneville, Vincent; Raison, Christelle; Gac, Armelle; Le Gall, André

    2011-01-01

    Le contexte environnemental actuel, tant politique (objectifs de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre) que sociétal (information du consommateur), nécessite de préciser les impacts de l'activité d'élevage bovin en matière de changement climatique. L'enjeu est de connaître précisément les niveaux d'émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) et de stockage de carbone, des différents modes de production. Pour cela, une évaluation basée sur la méthodologie de l'Analyse du Cycle de Vie (AC...

  20. Le développement durable du tourisme dans les territoires insulaires français et la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels littoraux métropolitains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Lombard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article aborde la question du développement touristique dans les territoires insulaires, et propose un éclairage plus particulier sur la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels. Il présente, tout d’abord, les enjeux du développement durable du tourisme dans les territoires insulaires français. En fonction de la taille des îles, de leur accessibilité, de l’importance de leur fréquentation touristique on peut distinguer différents types d’îles.  Le défi pour chaque  île réside dans la mise en oeuvre d’un projet en étroite adéquation avec ses propres ressources et les spécificités de son territoire pour assurer un développement durable du tourisme. L’article illustre ensuite l’exemple de la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels, l’ambivalence du rapport entre le tourisme et ces espaces. Il s’attache à montrer en quoi le tourisme qui peut être parfois à l’origine de la  dégradation des espaces naturels peut être source de retombées positives pour l’environnement dès lors que les acteurs du territoire sont en situation de gérer leur développement. L’article s’achève sur un essai d’élaboration de grille d’évaluation des retombées économiques liées à la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels, appliqué à l’exemple du site naturel de la Pointe d’Agon, situé au nord du Mont Saint Michel, dans le département de la Manche.This article tackles with the issue of tourism in islands and focuses on tourist development of natural sites. First it highlights the issue of sustainable tourism for French islands. Several types of islands can be characterized, according to size, accessibility, tourist-going... To guarantee a sustainable development, the challenge is to lead a project based on the characteristics of the island and its own ressources.Then, this article enlarges on the paradox between tourism and conservation. Tourism can damage the environment but, when it

  1. Extraction of PCBs and water from river sediment using liquefied dimethyl ether as an extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Takaoka, Masaki; Kitade, Sin-ichiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Kanda, Hideki; Makino, Hisao; Matsumoto, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and water could be simultaneously removed from river sediment by solvent extraction using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) as the extractant. DME exists in a gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure and can dissolve organic substances and some amount of water; therefore, liquefied DME under moderate pressure (0.6-0.8 MPa) at room temperature can be effectively used to extract PCBs and water from contaminated sediment, and it can be recovered from the extract and reused easily. First, we evaluated the PCB and water extraction characteristics of DME from contaminated sediment. We found that 99% of PCBs and 97% of water were simultaneously extracted from the sediment using liquefied DME at an extraction time of 4320 s and a liquefied DME/sediment ratio of 60 mL g(-1). The extraction rate of PCBs and water was expressed in terms of a pseudo-first-order reaction rate. Second, we estimated the amount of DME that was recovered after extraction. We found that 91-92% of DME could be recovered. In other words, approximately 5-10% of DME was lost during extraction and recovery. It is necessary to optimize this process in order to recover DME efficiently. The extraction efficiency of the recovered DME is similar to that of the pure DME. From the results, we conclude that solvent extraction using liquefied DME is suitable for extracting PCBs and water from contaminated sediment. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novolak PF resins prepared from phenol liquefied Cryptomeria japonica and used in manufacturing moldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Jau; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2008-10-01

    The wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) was liquefied in phenol with H2SO4 and HCl as catalysts. The liquefied wood was reacted with formalin to prepare the novolak PF resin. The results showed that the reaction of liquefied Japanese cedar with formalin was an exothermic reaction, and formed a solid-like resin without extra heating. Two novolak PF resins were prepared from the liquefied wood which were identified as SF and CF that using the liquefied wood with H2SO4 and HCl as catalyst respectively. The novolak PF powder displayed thermo-melting characteristic. The resins of SF and CF had weight average molecular weight of 3638 and 3941 respectively and melting temperature of 149.4 degrees C and 127.5 degrees C respectively. Both of the novolak resins could be used to make moldings with good performance by mixing the novolak resin with wood powder, hardener and zinc stearate at the weight ratio of 60:30:10:1 and hot-pressed under 200 degrees C for 10min.

  3. Effect of thickness of liquefiable foundation on the seismic performance of earth dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Tensay; Wu, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Earthquake induced liquefaction continues to be a major threat to many civil engineering structures on the earth. Among these structures are earthfill dams. There are two major causes for the seismically inadequacy of a statically stable earthfill dams around the world. These are the liquefaction of the foundation layer and shell of the dams. In order to gain a better understanding of the seismic performance of earthfill dams on liquefiable foundation layer, a numerical model of an earthfill dam with mixed clay core founded on a liquefiable foundation subjected to earthquake is being studied. The properties and thickness of the liquefiable layer are varied to determine the related effects on the overlying earthfill dam. In order to explore the effect of the varying depth and thickness of liquefiable layer on the seismic response of earthfill dams, the total foundation thickness is divided into three equal layers so that the properties of each layer can be varied and studied. A finite difference numerical code, FLAC3D is used during the study. Results and discussions related to the significance of the depth and thickness of liquefiable layer in the foundation and resulting damage to the earthfill dam and hence the seismic performance of earthfill dam are presented. Keywords: Earthquake, liquefaction, earthfill dams, seismic performance, varying depth.

  4. The Mooring Pattern Study for Q-Flex Type LNG Carriers Scheduled for Berthing at Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Nas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ever growing energy industry requires larger quantities of LNG to be transported by bigger ships between terminals. Every day, new kind of large vessels created by new technologies, and these are used to trade around the globe. This is the dynamic change in shipping industry. But on the other hand these new vessels need to safely berth to existing terminals which we may accept as more static part of the trade. Thus this study born by the request of Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal management to determine if it is safe to berth to the terminal by a new breed of large LNG carrier type named as Q-Flex and Q-Max. Transas Bridge Simulator NTPRO 5000 series was used in this study for extensive experiments which had been simulated by the use of hook function. During the study, every force applied to mooring hooks and dolphins by the ship lines were divided into 3 dimensions and then measured by simulation experiments. With analysis of the data, required hook and dolphins strengths were determined for the safe mooring arrangements. Upon the completion of the study Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal became the first safe berth for Q-Flex type vessels in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. And finally all experiments were confirmed with real life experience when the first Q-Flex type LNG carrier berthed to the Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal.

  5. Contribution to the chromatography of atmospheric gases (1963); Contribution a la chromatographie des gaz de l'air (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghalamsiah, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    In the first part, the author studies the gas-phase chromatographic separation of the atmospheric rare gases, of hydrogen, and of some gaseous compounds of carbon (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) using inactive gases to obtain the most favourable operational conditions far this separation. In the second part, the optimum conditions for detecting non-active gases using an ionisation chamber and a {sup 239}Pu radioactive source emitting 5.15 MeV {alpha} particles are determined. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie, l'auteur etudie la separation par chromatographie en phase gazeuse des gaz rares de l'air, de l'hydrogene, et de quelques composes gazeux du carbone (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) en utilisant des gaz inactifs an vue d'obtenir les conditions experimenales les plus favorables en vue de cette separation. Dans une deuxieme partie, les conditions optimales de detection de gaz non actifs a l'aide d'une chambre d'ionisation, en utilisant comme source radioactive du {sup 239}Pu qui emet des particules {alpha} de 5,15 MeV, sont determinees. (auteur)

  6. Behaviour of rare gases in solids at high temperature; Comportement des gaz rares dans les solides a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In this article a number of simple results regarding the solubility and displacement of rare gases in solids have been assembled. These results were obtained from elementary considerations on highly compressed gases and on dislocations. They provide a better understanding of the now fairly numerous experiments dealing with the swelling of irradiated fuels, this swelling being due to the presence of a high proportion of gases in the fission products. Finally, the chances of success of the various methods which may be devised to diminish the swelling are examined. (author) [French] Nous avons rassemble dans ce texte un certain nombre de resultats simples relatifs a la solubilite et au deplacement des gaz rares dans les solides. Ces resultats ont ete obtenus par des considerations elementaires sur les gaz tres comprimes et sur les dislocations. Ils permettent de mieux comprendre les experiences, maintenant assez nombreuses, qui ont trait au gonflement des combustibles irradies; gonflement qui est du a la presence d'une forte proportion de gaz dans les produits de fission. On examine finalement les chances de succes des differents moyens que l'on peut imaginer pour attenuer le gonflement. (auteur)

  7. Learning Equipment for the Flammability Limits of Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriratchanee Sirisawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This article was developing learning equipment for flammability limit behavior which designed for study the relation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG and combustion. The equipment can be use as an instructional media for obviously experiment of combustion. Approach: The test chamber was designed by using the stainless as a structure. The mirror with safety film was used for safety purpose to the tester. The mirror was the additional equipment for the ignition vision. The size of test chamber was 40×25×20 cm. The top of chamber can be opened when the ignition was occurred to reduce the inner pressure that can break the mirror or can be a cause of damage to other parts. The 2 of stainless plates with the size of 15×40 cm. were used and the hinges were attached at the upper edges of the chamber from both sides. The metal was closely attached at the chamber edge to reduce the leak of fuel to outer environment. The bottom structure of the chamber installs the control mainboard of electronics system and motor. The control of heat gain system inside the heat chamber. Results: The test chamber is designed to demonstrate the ignition. So, the size has to be suitably designed and large enough for convenience in monitoring. It can be seen that when the test is conducted in a real system, the result is extremely differed from the theory. The reason is the experimentation by the theory using the cup burner or a cylindrical glass cup. This cup has an outside diameter of 28 mm. and around the cup tunnel has an inside diameter of 8.5 or 9.5 cm with 53.5 cm. of height. The ratios of both testing equipments are extremely differed, so there is an opportunity that the accuracy is highly shifted. Conclusion: The test chamber shows that the flammability limit of LPG vary with temperature and can be compare with burgess-wheeler law. This law mentioned “LFL and UFL is relative with the chemical in Paraffin Hydrocarbon (Alkane Group in

  8. Liquefied natural gas: a harbor plan; Plano diretor portuario para o gas natural liquefeito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Aluisio de Souza; Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Rego, Erik Eduardo [Excelencia Energetica Consultoria Empresarial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present the structuring of a port directing plan for the liquefied natural gas. In this sense, an integrated approach between the applied logistic and the requested market conditions was used. For the large distances transportation of liquefied natural gas, the marine modal must attain technical requirements that are not usual in the port routine. Apart from the proper dimensioning of the naval fleet in order to maximize the transported load, providing the optimization of the economic distance, the entire port infra-structure is planned for the reception of liquefied natural gas, in order to attend the physical peculiarities as well as security aspects of extreme importance. The selection of the studied local was motivated by the fuel supply shortage suffered by the country, especially in the northeast region, which owns already installed thermal units in need of the fuel supply to be operated. (author)

  9. Removal of organic contaminants from water or wastewater with liquefied gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study utilized liquefied gases (LG) as extractant to remove various organic contaminants including halogenated hydrocarbons and phenols as well as aromatic compounds from aqueousmatrices. Orthogonal experiments were performed to optimize theoperating conditions such as temperature, co-solvents and so on.Under favorable conditions, high removal efficiencies can bereadily achieved for a great number of representative model organiccontaminants, the removal efficiencies for most of the hydrophobiccontaminants were greater than 90% in a single extraction stage.Tentative effort was also done for the removal of extractedcontaminants from recycled liquefied gases.

  10. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF BURIED BEND WITH THRUST RESTRAINT IN LIQUEFYING GROUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Toshinori; Sawada, Yutaka; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Ling, Hoe I.

    In this study, a shaking table test was carried out in order to discuss the dynamic behavior for the bend of pressure pipeline with a concrete block and thrust restraints using geogrids or gravels in liquefying ground. As a result, it was revealed that the concrete block was largely moved and the relative displacement between the bend and the adjacent pipe became large. On the other hand, it was proved that geogrids and gravels were very effective for the lateral resistance in liquefying ground. In addition, the relative displacement was small because of the same difference between the bend and the adjacent pipe.

  11. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  12. 75 FR 62510 - Chevron U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... prohibited by U.S. law or policy. The application was filed under section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as... U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of..., 2010, by Chevron U.S.A. Inc. (Chevron), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their...

  14. 77 FR 66454 - Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... on August 31, 2012, by Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC (GLLC), requesting long-term, multi... liquefied natural gas (LNG), the equivalent of approximately 547.5 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural...

  15. 77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... on August 31, 2012, by Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 4 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas (LNG),...

  16. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... application filed on March 4, 2010, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting an amendment to its blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) granted by DOE/FE on May 28,...

  17. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Magnolia Liquefied Natural Gas Project (Magnolia LNG Project) involving construction and operation of facilities by Magnolia LNG, LLC (Magnolia) in...

  18. 77 FR 4028 - Orders Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas FE Docket Nos. Gas Natural Caxitlan, S. DE R.L 11-147-NG Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P 11-127-LNG Irving..., amending and vacating authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These......

  19. 78 FR 19696 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas and Vacating Prior Authority During December 2012 FE Docket Nos. DIAMOND CAPITAL INTERNATIONAL... during December 2012, it issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and......

  20. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During January 2012... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas.... DOMINION COVE POINT LNG, LP 11-98-LNG ENERGY PLUS NATURAL GAS LLC 11-155-NG BROOKFIELD ENERGY......

  1. 77 FR 33446 - Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic and Canadian Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25..., multi-contract authorization to export as liquefied natural gas (LNG) both natural gas...

  2. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for Rehearing During January 2013 ] FE Docket... January 2013, it issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied......

  3. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April..., it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These... Capital International, LLC....... 12-33-NG Phillips 66 Company 12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company......

  4. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013... authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized... of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Docket Room 3E-033,......

  5. 78 FR 53739 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas and... export natural gas, to import and export liquefied natural gas and to vacate prior authority. These... ENERGY) 13-83-LNG STANDARD NATURAL GAS, INC.) 13-81-LNG CASTLETON COMMODITIES CANADA LP) 1...

  6. 78 FR 65304 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas During... issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas, and to import and export liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and may be found on the FE Web site...

  7. 78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2013... natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and... INC 13-41-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION 13-43-NG ENCANA MARKETING (USA) INC 13-44-NG......

  8. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas..., ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS INC 11-163-NG ALCOA INC 12-11-NG JPMORGAN LNG CO 12-15-LNG CNE......

  9. 78 FR 44940 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas During May 2013 FE DOCKET NOS. CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION........ 12-179-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS... orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and to import and export liquefied......

  10. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  11. 49 CFR 173.302b - Additional requirements for shipment of non-liquefied (permanent) compressed gases in UN pressure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-liquefied (permanent) compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles. 173.302b Section 173.302b Transportation... (permanent) compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles. (a) General. A cylinder filled with a non-liquefied gas must be offered for transportation in UN pressure receptacles subject to the requirements in...

  12. Dilute alkali and hydrogen peroxide treatment of microwave liquefied rape straw residue for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Feng Li; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yongze Jiang; Yuzhu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of rape straw in methanol was conducted to collect the liquefied residues for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs).The liquefied residue with content of 23.44% from 180∘C/7.5 min was used to fibrillate CNCs with dilute alkali (2% NaOH) and hydrogen peroxide (5% H2O2...

  13. Assembly of cell-laden hydrogel fiber into non-liquefied and liquefied 3D spiral constructs by perfusion-based layer-by-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Praveen; Oliveira, Sara M; Borges, João; Mano, João F

    2015-01-06

    In this work, three-dimensional (3D) self-sustaining, spiral-shaped constructs were produced through a combination of ionotropic gelation, to form cell-encapsulated alginate fibers, and a perfusion-based layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Single fibers were assembled over cylindrical molds by reeling to form spiral shapes, both having different geometries and sizes. An uninterrupted nanometric multilayer coating produced by a perfusion-based LbL technique, using alginate and chitosan, generated stable 3D spiral-shaped macrostructures by gripping and affixing the threads together without using any crosslinking/binding agent. The chelation process altered the internal microenvironment of the 3D construct from the solid to the liquefied state while preserving the external geometry. L929 cell viability by MTS and dsDNA quantification favor liquefied 3D constructs more than non-liquefied ones. The proposed technique setup helps us to generate complex polyelectrolyte-based 3D constructs for tissue engineering applications and organ printing.

  14. 78 FR 44934 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. SPL requests... for trade in natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

  15. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... receive and transfer natural gas from purpose-build LNG regasification vessels (LNGRVs) with a total cargo tank capacity of approximately 145,000 m\\3\\. The vessels would be equipped to vaporize LNG cargo...

  16. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Liberty Deepwater Port would receive and transfer natural gas from purpose-built LNG regasification... equipped to vaporize LNG cargo to natural gas through onboard closed loop vaporization systems and...

  17. Liquefaction of corn stover and preparation of polyester from the liquefied polyol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Liu, Yuhuan; Pan, Xuejun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Chengmei; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated a novel process to prepare polyester from corn stover through liquefaction and crosslinking processes. First, corn stover was liquefied in organic solvents (90 wt% ethylene glycol and 10 wt% ethylene carbonate) with catalysts at moderate temperature under atmospheric pressure. The effect of liquefaction temperature, biomass content, and type of catalyst, such as H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and ZnCl2, was evaluated. Higher liquefaction yield was achieved in 2 wt% sulfuric acid, 1/4 (w/w) stover to liquefying reagent ratio; 160 degrees C temperature, in 2 h. The liquefied corn stover was rich in polyols, which can be directly used as feedstock for making polymers without further separation or purification. Second, polyester was made from the liquefied corn stover by crosslinking with multifunctional carboxylic acids and/or cyclic acid anhydrides. The tensile strength of polyester is about 5 MPa and the elongation is around 35%. The polyester is stable in cold water and organic solvents and readily biodegradable as indicated by 82% weight loss when buried in damp soil for 10 mo. The results indicate that this novel polyester could be used for the biodegradable garden mulch film production.

  18. Bond quality of phenol-based adhesives containing liquefied creosote-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Feng Fu; Hui Pan

    2009-01-01

    Liquefaction of spent creosote-treated wood was studied to determine the technological practicability of its application in converting treated wood waste into resin adhesives. A total of 144 plywood panels were fabricated with experimental variables included 2 phenol to wood (P/W) ratios in liquefaction, 6 resin formulations (3 formaldehyde/liquefied wood (F/...

  19. Dynamic Instability of Pile-Supported Structures in Liquefiable Soils during Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adhikari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are long slender columns installed deep into the ground to support heavy structures such as oil platforms, bridges, and tall buildings where the ground is not strong enough to support the structure on its own. In seismic prone zones, in the areas of soft soils (loose to medium dense soil which liquefies like a quick sand piles are routinely used to support structures (buildings/ bridges. The pile and the building vibrate, and often collapse, in liquefiable soils during major earthquakes. In this paper an experimental and analytical approach is taken to characterize this vibration. The emphasis has been given to the dynamic instability of piled foundations in liquefied soil. The first natural frequency of a piled-structure vibrating in liquefiable soil is obtained from centrifuge tests. The experimental system is modelled using a fixed-free Euler-Bernoulli beam resting against an elastic support with axial load and tip mass with rotary inertia. Natural frequencies obtained from the analytical method are compared with experimental results. It was observed that the effective natural frequency of the system can reduce significantly during an earthquake.

  20. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... piping for heating and cooking. (a) Leak tests as described in paragraph (b) of this section shall...

  1. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied...

  2. Some insights in novel risk modeling of liquefied natural gas carrier maintenance operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaoha, T. C.; John, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches and maintenance techniques applicable to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. Various novel modeling techniques are discussed; including genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning. We also identify the usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling.

  3. Cartographie de la vulnérabilité globale d'une population citadine face aux risques naturels: le cas de Manizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine CHARDON

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette méthode cartographique sert à évaluer la vulnérabilité de la population d’une grande ville andine (Manizales, Colombie, exposée aux séismes et à de fréquents glissements de terrain. Sept facteurs naturels et huit facteurs socio-économiques, mesurés à l’échelle du quartier, sont intégrés, avec d’autre facteurs géographiques, dans une carte de vulnérabilité globale.

  4. Mesure du rayonnement naturel pour la modélisation de la température des organes : application aux fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Marquier, André; Adam, Boris; Guilioni, Lydie; Saudreau, Marc; Chelle, Michaël; Sinoquet, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Cet article présente une expérimentation mise en place dans un projet innovant du département Environnement et agronomie (EA). Nous développons, plus particulièrement les principes de la mesure du rayonnement naturel à l’aide d’un bilanmètre de chez Kipp & Zonen : les capteurs qui le constituent, les grandeurs mesurées et les précautions à prendre lors de son utilisation notamment dans le domaine de l’infrarouge thermique. Ensuite nous montrons l’intérêt de telles mesures lors de la validatio...

  5. Le monument naturel dans le mythe de l’Ouest chez Washington Irving, Mark Twain et Walt Whitman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Louis-Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à la fonction de l’image du monument naturel dans les représentations de l’Ouest au xixe siècle, et plus particulièrement dans trois récits de voyages, A Tour on the Prairies de Washington Irving, Roughing It de Mark Twain et Specimen Days de Walt Whitman. Icône des vieilles nations européennes, le monument est paradoxalement omniprésent dans les représentations de l’espace sauvage et y fait figure de paradigme structurant. Il s’agit d’analyser conjointement les enjeux esthétiques et politiques de sa transposition sur le sol américain. On montrera ainsi comment ce motif autour duquel se construit le paysage de l’Ouest se fait aussi incarnation de la démocratie américaine et, simultanément, principe d’écriture.This article deals with the image of the natural monument and considers its function in 19th-century representations of the West, especially in three travel narratives—A Tour on the Prairies by Washington Irving, Roughing It by Mark Twain and Specimen Days by Walt Whitman. An emblem of the old European nations, the monument is paradoxically omnipresent in the representations of the Western wilderness and appears as a structuring paradigm. The purpose of this reflexion is to analyse jointly the aesthetic and political implications of its transposition onto the American soil. Indeed, this motive on which the construction of the Western landscape is based also appears as the embodiment of American democracy while defining a writing principle.

  6. Gas market is today strategical; Le marche du gaz est aujourd'hui strategique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darricarrere, Y.L. [Total, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2006-07-01

    The energy market, and in particular the gas market, is today seething with excitement. In France, in Europe and in the rest of the world, the energy stakes are in the center of preoccupations. This article is an interview of Y.L. Darricarrere, general director of the gas and electricity division of Total group, who explains his opinions about the opening of European and French energy markets, presents the ambitions of Total group on these markets, and comments some recent events of the European energy scene: concentration between gas and electric utilities, the Suez and Gaz de France (GdF) project of merger, the risks linked with the coming in of national companies from producing countries, like Gazprom and Sonatrach, on the European market, the restriction of access of foreign companies to hydrocarbon reserves in Russia and Latin America (come back of the 'energy nationalism'), Total's policy for anticipating the increase of the world energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. (J.S.)

  7. Adsorption de gaz sur les materiaux microporeux modelisation, thermodynamique et applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Marc-Andre

    2009-12-01

    Nos travaux sur l'adsorption de gaz dans les materiaux microporeux s'inscrivent dans le cadre des recherches visant a augmenter l'efficacite du stockage de l'hydrogene a bord des vehicules. Notre objectif etait d'etudier la possibilite d'utiliser l'adsorption afin d'ameliorer l'efficacite de la liquefaction de l'hydrogene des systemes a petite echelle. Nous avons egalement evalue les performances d'un systeme de stockage cryogenique de l'hydrogene base sur la physisorption. Comme nous avons affaire a des plages de temperatures particulierement etendues et a de hautes pressions dans la region supercritique du gaz, nous avons du commencer par travailler sur la modelisation et la thermodynamique de l'adsorption. La representation de la quantite de gaz adsorbee en fonction de la temperature et de la pression par un modele semi-empirique est un outil utile pour determiner la masse de gaz adsorbee dans un systeme mais egalement pour calculer les effets thermiques lies a l'adsorption. Nous avons adapte le modele Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) pour modeliser des isothermes d'adsorption d'hydrogene, d'azote et de methane sur du charbon actif a haute pression et sur une grande plage de temperatures supercritiques en considerant un volume d'adsorption invariant. Avec cinq parametres de regression (incluant le volume d'adsorption Va), le modele que nous avons developpe permet de tres bien representer des isothermes experimentales d'adsorption d'hydrogene (de 30 a 293 K, jusqu'a 6 MPa), d'azote (de 93 a 298 K, jusqu'a 6 MPa) et de methane (de 243 a 333 K, jusqu'a 9 MPa) sur le charbon actif. Nous avons calcule l'energie interne de la phase adsorbee a partir du modele en nous servant de la thermodynamique des solutions sans negliger le volume d'adsorption. Par la suite, nous avons presente les equations de conservation de la niasse et de l'energie pour un systeme d'adsorption et valide notre demarche en comparant des simulations et des tests d'adsorption et de desorption. En plus de l

  8. Gas transport through porous media; Sur le transport des gaz a travers les milieux poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    In the first part of this work we derive a rigorous transport theory for a mixture of gases passing through a bed of spheres, when the temperature is uniform. We solve the Boltzmann equation, putting boundary conditions in the solution. Two different methods are used, according to the nature of the flow. The second part deals with the experimental work: measurements of permeability, of separation and of interdiffusion. In the last part, with the help of the new theory presented here, we are for the first time able to explain all the experimental data. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie de ce travail nous developpons une theorie rigoureuse du transport d'un melange de gaz a travers un lit de spheres, quand la temperature est uniforme. Nous integrons l'equation de Boltzmann en introduisant des conditions aux limites dans la solution. Nous utilisons deux methodes differentes selon le regime d'ecoulement. La seconde partie est consacree a l'etude experimentale: mesures de permeametrie, de separation et d'interdiffusion. Dans la derniere partie, a l'aide de la nouvelle theorie developpee ici, nous expliquons tous les resultats experimentaux, ce qui n'avait pas ete fait jusque la. (auteur)

  9. Les techniques de séparation de gaz par membranes Gas Separation Techniques by Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrillon R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Deux types de membranes peuvent être utilisés pour la séparation des gaz. Les unes sont poreuses et séparent les gaz sur la base de leur masse moléculaire selon un mécanisme de diffusion de Knudsen dans des micropores. Les facteurs de séparation obtenus sont généralement trop faibles pour présenter un intérêt industriel. Les autres, appelées membranes non poreuses, mettent en oeuvre un mécanisme de dissolution-diffusion des gaz dans une fine couche de polymère dénuée de toute porosité. C'est de ces dernières que nous allons parler. Commencé il y a une vingtaine d'années, le développement de ce type de membranes a conduit aux premières applications industrielles en 1979 avec l'introduction par Monsanto des séparateurs PRISM pour la récupération d'hydrogène à partir de différents gaz de raffinerie et de pétrochimie. Après des débuts modestes par suite de la compétition avec des technologies éprouvées comme la cryogénie, l'adsorption et l'absorption, la perméation gazeuse est en train de conquérir sa place parmi les techniques de séparation de gaz. Elle est aujourd'hui l'une des techniques membranaires présentant le plus fort taux de progression (30 % par an. Après un rappel des principes de base de la perméation gazeuse on abordera successivement les points suivants : - le choix du polymère constituant la couche séparatrice, - l'élaboration des membranes à structure asymétrique présentant une peau dense et fine, - les principales applications industrielles. Cela permettra de mettre en évidence les avantages et les limitations actuelles de la perméation gazeuse et de souligner les différents domaines où les efforts de R et D peuvent amener des progrès significatifs. Principle of Gas permeation - Gas permeation is a technique for fractionating gas mixtures by using nonporous polymer membranes having a selective permeability to gas according to a dissolution-diffusion mechanism. Gas is made to pass

  10. Ecoulements intermittents de gaz et de liquide en conduite verticale Intermittent Gas and Liquid Flows in a Vertical Pipe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le modèle présenté ici permet la pré-détermination du gradient de pression, du taux global de gaz, et de grandeurs caractéristiques de l'intermittence, dans un écoulement à poches et bouchons en conduite verticale. L'écriture des lois de conservation en moyenne phasique conditionnelle conduit à la définition d'une cellule moyenne équivalente. La fermeture du modèle est assurée par des lois de contrainte de cisaillement film-paroi, film-poche, bouchon-paroi, par une loi d'arrachage du gaz au culot de la poche, une loi de glissement du gaz dans les bouchons et par une loi de la vitesse moyenne de propagation des fronts de poches. Le calibrage et la qualification du modèle s'appuient sur deux banques de données, dont l'une a été obtenue avec des fluides pétroliers dans des conditions proches des situations industrielles (boucle diphasique de Boussens. The model described here can be used to predetermine the pressure gradient, the overall gas rate and the characteristic intermittence magnitudes in pocket and slug flow in a vertical pipe. The way governing equations in the conditional phase average are written defines an equivalent average cell. The model is closed by film/wall, film/pocket and slug/wall shear-stress laws, by a pulloff law for the gas at the bottom of the pocket, a slippage law for the gas in the slugs, and a mean propagation velocity law for the pocket fronts. The calibration and qualification of the model are based on two data banks, one of which contains data on petroleum fluids under conditions close to industrial situations (two-phase loop at Boussens.

  11. Dévalaison et survie d'alevins de saumon atlantique (Salmo salar L. en milieu semi-naturel contrôlé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEALL E.

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans un chenal artificiel expérimental, des œufs de saumon atlantique (Salmo salar L. ont été pondus naturellement ou ont été enfouis au stade embryonné. A la fin de la résorption de la vésicule, une fraction importante des alevins survivants dévale de la zone de frayère. La dévalaison semble stimulée par des baisses de niveau ou des hausses de température et ralentie en période de pleine lune. D'autres facteurs pouvant être responsables de cette dévalaison sont discutés. La survie jusqu'à la collecte de tous les alevins est estimée à 74 p. 100 pour les sujets issus de la reproduction naturelle et est égale à 80 p. 100 pour ceux issus d'œufs introduits dans le gravier au stade embryonné. Des comparaisons entre ces résultats et ceux obtenus dans d'autres chenaux de fraie ou en milieu naturel montrent la validité de cette méthode pour la production d'alevins de saumon atlantique destinés au repeuplement.

  12. La modelisation mathematique dans l'enseignement de la chimie des gaz a des eleves de la cinquieme annee du secondaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Diane

    Les problemes d'enseignement de la chimie des gaz parfaits sont donc importants. Si plusieurs etudes ont ete realisees dans le but d'identifier et d'interpreter ces problemes, aucune recherche, a notre connaissance, n'a ete realisee sur l'enseignement des lois sur les gaz parfaits. Notre recherche sur l'enseignement est donc pionniere. Elle a pour objectif general de construire et d'analyser une sequence d'enseignement de la chimie des gaz comportant diverses situations de modelisation mathematique des conduites des gaz. Les principaux objectifs specifiques sont les suivants: (1) identifier et caracteriser les situations qui provoquent une evolution des conceptions naives des eleves, evolution vers des connaissances plus adequate sur les gaz; (2) identifier et caractEriser les situations qui provoquent une evolution des connaissances mathematiques des eleves leur permettant d'interpreter convenablement les resultats des experiences, d'eprouver leurs conceptions, de donner un sens aux notions et aux relations impliquees dans les lois des gaz parfaits, lois de Boyle-Mariotte et Gay-Lussac. Une sequence d'enseignement comportant huit situations est d'eleves de secondaire V. La construction de ces situations est orientee par les recherches sur les conceptions naives des eleves, par les etudes sur l'evolution historique des conceptions sur les gaz et des pratiques scientifiques, ainsi que par les etudes theoriques et empiriques realisees en didactique des sciences et des mathematiques. La methodologie de l'ingenierie didactique (Artigue, 1998) qui constitue une application de la theorie des situations didactiques (Brousseau, 1986) est utilisee dans la construction et l'analyse des situations d'enseignement. Une analyse a priori de chacune des situations d'enseignement est effectuee; elle a pour but dexpliquer les choix des taches qui font partie des situations et de preciser la gestion didactique des situations. Diverses situations d'enseignement de la chimie ont ainsi

  13. An experimental study on dynamic response for MICP strengthening liquefiable sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiguang; Cheng, Xiaohui; Ma, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    The technology of bio-grouting is a new technique for soft ground improvement. Many researchers have carried out a large number of experiments and study on this topic. However, few studies have been carried out on the dynamic response of solidified sand samples, such reducing liquefaction in sand. To study this characteristic of microbial-strengthened liquefiable sandy foundation, a microorganism formula and grouting scheme is applied. After grouting, the solidified samples are tested via dynamic triaxial testing to examine the cyclic performance of solidified sand samples. The results indicate that the solidified sand samples with various strengths can be obtained to meet different engineering requirements, the use of bacteria solution and nutritive salt is reduced, and solidified time is shortened to 1-2 days. Most importantly, in the study of the dynamic response, it is found that the MICP grouting scheme is effective in improving liquefiable sand characteristic, such as liquefaction resistance.

  14. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

  15. FIELD STUDIES OF SINGLE POINT IMPACT ON LIQUEFIABLE SOIL FOUNDATION OF HIGHWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈正; 刘志彬; 方磊; 李汉光

    2013-01-01

    A highway in the floodplain of the Abandoned Yellow River in the north of Jiangsu Province is recently remediated to reduce liquefaction potential using the dynamic compaction (DC) method of densification of in-place soils .Firstly ,the liquefaction potential of the soil at the project site is analysed according to the code of seismic de-sign .Then the in-situ single point impact tests are performed on the liquefiable soil .Settlement of crater ,excess pore pressure ,ground heave and lateral deformation under DC impact are measured and analyzed .Subsequently , the standard penetration test (SPT ) and cone penetration test (CPT ) are used for investigating the compaction ef-fectiveness .At last ,the improvement effect of DC is discussed according to the technical specification of dynamic consolidation to ground treatment .The investigation results indicate that the DC technique is an effective way for remediating liquefiable soil in highway engineering practice .

  16. First Operating Results of a Dynamic Gas Bearing Turbine in AN Industrial Hydrogen Liquefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L.

    2010-04-01

    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  17. Excitations Solitoniques Du Gaz D'electrons Bidimensionnel Dans Un Double Puits Quantique En Champ Magnetique (french Text)

    CERN Document Server

    Doiron, C

    2005-01-01

    L'état fondamental du gaz d'électrons bidimensionnel (GE2D) dans un double puits quantique (DPQ) en champ magnétique à remplissage ν = 4N + 1 est, pour une certaine gamme de distances interpuits, une onde de densité de charge cohérente. Cette phase présente des canaux cohérents unidimensionnels où l'électron est totalement délocalisé dans les deux puits. Il a été proposé que ces canaux puissent jouer un rôle important sur les propriétés de transport du gaz électronique dans la phase onde de densité de charge cohérente en permettant l'existence d'excitations topologiques chargées de faible énergie, des solitons de pseudospin. Dans ce mémoire, on présente une vérification théorique de la pertinence de ces excitati...

  18. Plant Design of Cluster LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas in Bukit Tua Well, Gresik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya A. Putri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas alam atau yang sering disebut sebagai gas bumiadalah bahan bakar fosil berbentuk gas yang terutama terdiridari metana (CH. Gas alam cair (Liquefied Natural Gas adalahgas alam yang telah diproses untuk menghilangkan pengotor danhidrokarbon berat kemudian gas alam dikondensasi menjadicairan pada tekanan atmosfer dengan mendinginkannya sekitar 160oPlant Design of Cluster LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas inBukit Tua Well, Gresik Pradnya A. Putri, Shinta S. Hajar, Gede Wibawa dan WinarsihJurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS 4C dengan tujuan untuk mempermudah pengangkutan karenavolume gas sebelum dan sesudah dicairkan adalah 600:1. Saat inigas alam diolah menjadi Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG danLiquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG, sedangkan sisa pencairan gasalam yang berupa condensate juga memiliki nilai ekonomis yangtinggi karena sifatnya yang mirip minyak mentah (crude oildengan kualitas yang terbaik. Gas alam tidak berwarna, tidakberbau, tidak korosif, tidak beracun, dan ramah lingkungan. Gasalam juga digunakan sebagai pembangkit listrik PLTG danPLTU. Berdasarkan data Neraca Gas Indonesia pada tahun 2010Indonesia mengalami defisit sebesar 18,57 MTPA (Million TonPer Annum. Pabrik Cluster LNG direncanakan dibangun padatahun 2015 dengan target siap beroperasi pada tahun 2018.Pabrik ini berlokasi di Gresik dengan bahan baku yang diperolehdari sumur Lapangan Bukit Tua, Gresik, Jawa Timur dengancadangan gas alam sebesar 52359,62 MMSCFD. Kapasitaspabrik ini adalah 20 MMSCFD. Pabrik ini akan memenuhikebutuhan konsumen skala kecil hingga menengah atas sepertihalnya pembangkit listrik untuk daerah Bali, Lombok dan JawaTimur. Rangkaian proses pabrik ini adalah unit Dehydration, unitAcid Gas Removal, unit Refrigeration dan unit Liquefaction.Analisa ekonomi dari pabrik ini adalah investasi sebesar 60MUSD, IRR sebesar 39,67%, POT selama 2,38 tahun, BEPsebesar 18% dan NPV 10 tahun sebesar 63,904 MUSD.

  19. Impact of Coaching and Mentoring in the Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas Company Limited, Bonny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agwu Mba Okechukwu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the impact of coaching and mentoring in the Nigeria liquefied natural gas company limited, bonny. The research question addressed the extent at which improved employees job performance/reduced employees turnover  is influenced by the implementation of coaching and mentoring program in the Nigeria liquefied natural gas company limited, bonny. It views coaching and mentoring as learning relationships that improve employees’ job skills and develop their potentials for better performance. The core aspect of the study is the use of cross-sectional survey research design in generating the required primary data. The place of study is the bonny industrial area of the Nigeria liquefied natural gas company while the duration of study is between December 2013 and November 2014. A sample of 370(184 Direct staff, 150 Contract staff and 36 Seconded staff respondents determined at 5% level of significance for sample error, using Yamane’s formula, was selected from a population of 4,895 employees using stratified random sampling method for the purpose of questionnaire administration. The results indicated that implementation of coaching and mentoring  program in the Nigeria liquefied natural gas company limited bonny, to a large extent influenced improved employees’ performance(74.32% response rate and reduced employees turnover(67.57% response rate.It therefore recommends among others: sustenance of the current coaching and mentoring program, regular appraisal of employees job skill requirements, continuous staff development, regular improvement of employees’ condition of service and sustenance of current team building efforts/ incentive scheme. Keywords: Coaching and mentoring, employees’ performance, employees’ turnover,organizational performance, NLNG bonny. 

  20. Feasibility Analysis of Liquefying Oxygen Generated from Water Electrolysis Units on Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts for liquefying oxygen (O2) generated from water electrolysis subsystems on the Lunar surface were explored. Concepts for O2 liquefaction units capable of generating 1.38 lb/hr (0.63 kg/hr) liquid oxygen (LOX) were developed. Heat and mass balance calculations for the liquefaction concepts were conducted. Stream properties, duties of radiators, heat exchangers and compressors for the selected concepts were calculated and compared.

  1. Physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites from wood particles and liquefied wood resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    Compression molded composites were made from wood particles and a liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde co-condensed resin. Based on our previous research, a phenol to wood (P/W) ratio of 2/1 was chosen for this study. The two experimental variables selected were: 1) liquefaction temperature (150o and 180oC) and 2) cooking method (atmospheric and sealed). Panels were...

  2. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  3. Proposal of an innovative, high-efficiency, large-scale hydrogen liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, Gianluca; Macchi, Ennio [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    An innovative, efficient and large hydrogen liquefier is described. Innovations lie in the fact that (i) the feed, 10 kg s{sup -1}, is refrigerated in heat exchangers catalytically promoting the ortho-para conversion (ii) down to the low temperature of 20.5 K and at the high pressure of 60 bar at which it is available and (iii) lastly expanded to the storage conditions of 1.5 bar and 20 K through a liquid-phase turbomachine; (iv) refrigeration is via four helium recuperative Joule-Brayton cycles arranged so that the refrigerant follows the cooling curve of hydrogen and the volume flow rates in compression and expansion processes are typical of axial-flow high-efficiency turbomachines; (v) compression is accomplished in 15 intercooled 8-stage devices derived from gas turbine technology. Heat exchangers require specific surfaces comparable to current state-of-the-art liquefiers. Nevertheless, the predicted work of approximately 18 MJ kg{sup -1} is half as much as the requirement of those liquefiers and corresponds to a second-law efficiency of almost 48%. (author)

  4. The optimization on flow scheme of helium liquefier with genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. R.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Liu, L. Q.

    2017-01-01

    There are several ways to organize the flow scheme of the helium liquefiers, such as arranging the expanders in parallel (reverse Brayton stage) or in series (modified Brayton stages). In this paper, the inlet mass flow and temperatures of expanders in Collins cycle are optimized using genetic algorithm (GA). Results show that maximum liquefaction rate can be obtained when the system is working at the optimal parameters. However, the reliability of the system is not well due to high wheel speed of the first turbine. Study shows that the scheme in which expanders are arranged in series with heat exchangers between them has higher operation reliability but lower plant efficiency when working at the same situation. Considering both liquefaction rate and system stability, another flow scheme is put forward hoping to solve the dilemma. The three configurations are compared from different aspects, they are respectively economic cost, heat exchanger size, system reliability and exergy efficiency. In addition, the effect of heat capacity ratio on heat transfer efficiency is discussed. A conclusion of choosing liquefier configuration is given in the end, which is meaningful for the optimal design of helium liquefier.

  5. Approche méthodologique pour une aide à la gestion des risques naturels sur une route de haute-Tarentaise

    OpenAIRE

    Malatrait, Alain-Michel; Messin, Michel

    1990-01-01

    Mémoire HS n° 15 - Géologie Alpine Risques naturels dans le Sud-est de la France - Colloque Association des Géologues du Sud-est - Avignon, 19 et 20 octobre 1989; La route qui relie Bourg-Saint-Maurice à Val-d'Isère est connue depuis longtemps pour être exposée à des chutes de blocs et des éboulements. La perception des risques varie selon qu'on se réfère à l'accident mortel d'avril 1986, aux chutes de blocs répertoriés, etc. Avant d'engager des travaux de mise en sécurité, à l'approche des J...

  6. L'accès aux espaces naturels: l'apport des chorèmes à la gestion des conflits d'usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Michel

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Les espaces naturels, agricoles ou forestiers sont des lieux où se rencontrent toutes sortes d'usagers. L'accès à ces espaces est remis en cause lorsque augmentent des conflits d'usage entre ces différents utilisateurs. Cette étude dans une commune du Puy-de-Dôme montre les configurations spatiales propices à leur émergence: proximité entre une maison et un chemin de randonnée, traversée d'une zone d'estive par un chemin de randonnée, etc. La «grammaire spatiale» des chorèmes permet de caractériser des situations types et d'imaginer des solutions.

  7. Effet de l'interaction coulombienne sur la localisation d'Anderson dans le gaz bidimensionnel d'électrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, G.

    2010-09-01

    Nous étudions l’effet des interactions coulombiennes sur la localisation d’Anderson dans le gaz bidimensionnel d’électrons désordonné. L’objectif est de statuer sur la question de l’existence de métaux à deux dimensions. En l’absence d’interaction, la théorie d’échelle de la localisation prédit qu’un désordre infinitésimal suffit à localiser la fonction d’onde électronique et donc à rendre le système isolant à température nulle (Abrahams et al., 1979). Dans certaines limites extrêmes, les interactions peuvent être prises en compte et l’on aboutit également à un état isolant. Cependant, aucune théorie analytique ne permet de traiter le régime quantique non-perturbatif où désordre et interaction sont intermédiaires. Expérimentalement, il est possible de l’explorer dans des échantillons de haute mobilité et basse densité. Depuis 1994, des comportements métalliques inexpliqués y ont été observés (Kravchenko et al., 1994). Nous avons mis au point une méthode numérique permettant d’étudier le problème couplé de la localisation d’Anderson en présence d’interaction. Cette méthode mêle Monte Carlo quantique à température nulle et théorie d’échelle pour la conductance de Thouless. Nous trouvons que la théorie d’échelle de la localisation est préservée en présence d’interaction et donc que le gaz bidimensionnel, même corrélé, est isolant à température nulle. Nos résultats montrent de plus que les interactions délocalisent le gaz bidimensionnel et que cet effet de délocalisation est accru en présence de dégénérescence de vallées. Ils nous permettent de proposer un mécanisme simple rendant compte des principales caractéristiques des comportements métalliques observés expérimentalement.

  8. Génération interfaciale des transistors NMOS implantes et naturels, à drain simple et doublement diffusé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oualid, J.; Dugas, J.; Jérisian, R.; Bouassis, A.; Labrunye, D.; Mirabel, J. M.

    1991-03-01

    We have compared the true interfacial generation velocities (S_0) and the diffusion lengths near the vicinity of the Si-SiO2 interface (L_s) on implanted and natural NMOS transistors with single diffused drain (SDD) or double diffused drain (DDD). An iterative procedure is proposed which allows the determination of both these electronic parameters by means of the measurement of the apparent interfacial velocities S'_0 on two transistors with different gate lengths. S'_0 values are deduced from the leakage current variation with gate polarization of the transistors used as gate controlled diodes (GCD). We show that the ionic implantation of boron for threshold voltage adjustment has a negligible influence on the true interfacial generation velocity, but it reduces L_s and consequently S'_0 when the gate length is greater than L_s. We attribute the reduction of the true interfacial generation velocity observed on DDD transistors to the gettering effect due to phosphorus which is not homogeneous along the channel. Nous avons comparé les vitesses de génération interfaciale (S_0) et les longueurs de diffusion au voisinage de l'interface Si-SiO2 (L_s) dans les transistors NMOS implantés et naturels, à drain simple (SDD) et doublement diffusé (DDD). Nous avons proposé une procédure itérative qui permet la détermination de ces deux grandeurs, qui caractérisent l'activité électronique au voisinage de l'interface, à partir des vitesses apparentes de génération interfaciale (S'_0) de deux transistors voisins, de longueurs de canal différentes, utilisés comme des diodes contrôlées par grille (DCG) en reliant la source et le drain. Nous avons montré que l'implantation ionique de bore, d'ajustement de la tension de seuil, a une influence pratiquement négligeable sur la vitesse de génération interfaciale S_0. Par contre, l'implantation ionique réduit notablement la longueur de diffusion au voisinage de l'interface, L_s, et par conséquent la vitesse

  9. Désulfuration sélective du gaz soutiré d'un stockage souterrain Selective Desulfurization of Gas Withdrawn from an Underground Storage Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaubertou G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La présence d'H2S constatée dès les premiers soutirages de gaz au stockage souterrain en nappe aquifère de Chémery avait nécessité la mise en place d'unités de désulfuration. Le gaz injecté étant exempt de gaz carbonique, le procédé par voie liquide utilisant la monoéthanolamine avait été retenu. Depuis 1977, le gaz injecté contenant des quantités appréciables de gaz carbonique a rendu inutilisable ce procédé. Parallèlement à l'injection de ce composé acide, la production d'H2S a fortement augmenté. La mise en oeuvre d'une amine sélective (MDEA a permis d'éliminer les composés soufrés en laissant pratiquement inchangée la composition du gaz chargé en C02. Les installations existantes ont pu être conservées, la banalisation des circuits facilitant l'utilisation de cette nouvelle amine. La communication présente les études et essais réalisés ainsi que les résultats d'exploitation qui se sont révélés particulièrement intéressants tant au point de vue technique qu'économique The presence of H2S in the first gas withdrawn from the underground storage aquifer at Chémery, France, required the installation of desulfurization units. Since there was no carton dioxide in the injected gas, a liquid process using monoethanolamine was selected. This process has become unusable since 1977 because the injected gas contains appreciable amounts of carton dioxide. At the same time as the injection of this acid compound, the production of H2S has considerably increased. A selective amine (MDEA was used tg eliminate the sulfur-containing compounds while leaving the composition of the C02-containing gas almost unchanged. The existing installations have been maintained as the result of the standardizing of the circuits for this new amine. This article describes the research and tests performed as well as the operational results which have turned out to be particularly intersting from both the technical and economic stand

  10. Experimental investigation of mobile small-scale liquefier for 10000 NM3/D of coal bed methane gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaohu; Wu, J. F.; Gong, Maoqiong; Guo, Ping

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing recognition that unconventional sources of gas, such as shale gas, coal bed methane (CBM) and deep tight gas will contribute a significant component of future gas supplies as technologies evolve. In recent years, the interest in such source of gas utilization technologies based on small-scale LNG production has been rising steeply. In this paper, a mobile liquefier prototype for 10000 Nm3/d of CBM has been designed, constructed and tested. It has two cascade refrigeration systems. The high-temperature refrigeration system will pre-cool the resource gas to 5oC, and the low-temperature refrigeration system will continue to cool the resource gas to the liquefied point with a Mixed Refrigerant Cycle (MRC). The kernel compressor is a conventional oil-lubricated air-conditioning compressor with the discharge pressure of 2.0 MPa. The main heat exchanger is plate-fin heat exchanger with four passages. A series of experiments have been done on the prototype liquefier at different resource gas pressures and environmental temperatures. It is less than one hour from the start of the equipment to the existence of LNG. The maximum production of LNG is about 20 m3/d when a stream of about 12500 Nm3/d of pure CBM at a process pressure of 1.3 MPa is liquefied. The energy consumption of liquefying 1 Nm3 methane is 0.612 kWh.

  11. Natural Gas and Indoor Air Pollution: A Comparison With Coal Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE ZHANG; BAO-SHENG CHEN; GUANG-QUAN LIU; JU-NING WANG; ZHEN-HUA ZHAO; LIAN-QING LIN

    2003-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the combustion products of coal gas, liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in relation to indoor air pollution. Methods Regular pollutants including B(a)P were monitored and 1-hydroxy pyrene were tested in urine of the enrolled subjects.Radon concentrations and their changes in four seasons were also monitored in the city natural gas from its source plant and transfer stations to final users. To analyze organic components of coal gas,liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas, a high-flow sampling device specially designed was used to collect their combustion products, and semi-volatile organic compounds contained in the particles were detected by gas chromatograph-mass spectrograph (GC/MS). Results Findings in the study showed that the regular indoor air pollutants particles and CO were all above the standard in winter when heating facilities were operated in the city, but they were lowest in kitchens using natural gas;furthermore, although NO2 and CO2 were slightly higher in natural gas, B(a)P concentration was lower in this group and 1-hydroxy pyrene was lowest in urine of the subjects exposed to natural gas.Organic compounds were more complicated in coal gas and liquefied petroleum gas than in natural gas. The concentration of radon in natural gas accounted for less than 1‰ of its effective dose contributing to indoor air pollution in Beijing households. Conclusion Compared to traditional fuels, gases are deemed as clean ones, and natural gas is shown to be cleaner than the other two gases.

  12. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.-S.; Wegrzyn, J.; Prasad, V.

    2004-10-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations of fuel flow and changes of fuel composition. Boil-off is caused by the heat added into the LNG fuel during the storage and fueling. Heat can leak into the LNG fuel through the shell of tank during the storage and through hoses and dispensers during the fueling. Gas from tanks onboard vehicles, when returned to LNG tanks, can add additional heat into the LNG fuel. A thermodynamic and heat transfer model has been developed to analyze different mechanisms of heat leak into the LNG fuel. The evolving of properties and compositions of LNG fuel inside LNG tanks is simulated. The effect of a number of buses fueled each day on the possible total fuel loss rate has been analyzed. It is found that by increasing the number of buses, fueled each day, the total fuel loss rate can be reduced significantly. It is proposed that an electric generator be used to consume the boil-off gas or a liquefier be used to re-liquefy the boil-off gas to reduce the tank pressure and eliminate fuel losses. These approaches can prevent boil-off of natural gas emissions, and reduce the costs of LNG as transportation fuel.

  13. Analysis of the liquefied and solubilized coals by the action of microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, N.; Fernandez, M.; Monistrol, I.F.; Laborda, F. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1997-12-31

    The analysis of liquefied/solubilized products from lignite by microorganisms showed some alterations in the chemical composition with regard to the original coal. Noteworthy, a reduction in the average molecular weight and an increase in the condensation index of humic acids derived from the liquid lignite were observed. These results could indicate that microorganisms degrade the humic acids to rend them more suitable as microbial nutrients. The observation that microorganisms could use humic acids as the only carbon source supported this supposition. (orig.)

  14. On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

    2007-02-20

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-epsilon model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills.

  15. [Ecological/hygienic and toxicological evaluation of combustion products of aviation kerosene and liquefied natural gas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'ev, R V; Berezin, G I; Raznoschikov, V V

    2006-01-01

    Products of kerosene combustion in the present-day aeroengines contain more than 200 compounds of incomplete combustion, partial oxidation, and thermal decomposition of fuel and oil. Most of these are strong toxicants for humans. Increase of temperature in the turbine engine combustion chamber led to production of very toxic nitrogen oxides. In search for the ecologically safe and less toxic alternative attention of fuel engineers was drawn to liquefied natural gas which compares well and even excels kerosene in ecological, economic and many other respects.

  16. Size Distribution of Particles Emitted from Liquefied Natural Gas Fueled Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The results of measurements conducted to determine the number and mass concentration of particles emitted from the liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled spark ignition engines are presented. Particle size distributions were measured at different speeds, different loads and ESC cycles. The nanoparticles with diameter smaller than 39nm, measured by the electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI), are dominant in number concentration that is nearly 92.7% of the total number of the emitted particles at the peak point. As for the mass of emission particle, it is shown that the mass of the particles greater than 1.2μm is more than 65% that of the emitted particles.

  17. Large >60 gallon/day ‘pulse-tube’ oxygen liquefier for aircraft carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    An oxygen liquefier using a large ‘pulse-tube’ or acoustic-Stirling cryocooler is described, which has a liquefaction rate in excess of 60 gallons per day (227 liters per day) as measured by the increase in weight of a storage dewar, from <20 kWe input. Several of these systems will be deployed on U.S. Navy aircraft carriers to provide shipboard liquid oxygen. Paths to improvement in future systems are identified, although it is noted that since the present system exceeds the required specifications, these improvements may not be implemented in the near term.

  18. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwen Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth Composite Materials Radiating Far Infrared for Activating Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth composite materials radiating far-infrared rays were prepared according to far infrared absorption spectrum of main component in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The composite materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformed infrared spectra(FTIR). The results show that after the composite materials were calcined at 873 K for 4 h, FTIR spectra of rare earth composite materials display two new peaks at 1336 and 2926 cm-1 available for activating LPG.

  20. Performance analysis of different organic Rankine cycle configurations on board liquefied natural gas-fuelled vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, Enrico; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Gas-fuelled shipping is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Similarly, much effort is devoted to the study of waste heat recovery systems to be implemented on board ships. In this context, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology is considered one of the most promising...... solutions. The ORC favorably compares to the steam Rankine cycle because of its simple layout and high efficiency, achievable by selecting a working fluid with desirable properties. This paper aims at assessing the fuel savings attainable by implementing ORC units on board vessels powered by liquefied...

  1. No 3017. Resolution proposal aiming at creating an inquiry commission relative to the project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez, to the conditions of its preparation and announcement and to the consequences of Gaz de France privatization on users and on the energy market balance; N. 3017. Proposition de resolution tendant a la creation d'une commission d'enquete relative au projet de fusion entre Gaz de France et Suez, aux conditions de sa preparation et de son annonce et aux consequences de la privatisation de Gaz de France pour les usagers et l'equilibre du marche de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balligand, J.P.; Ayrault, J.M.; Hollande, F.; Besson, E.; Migaud, D.; Emmanuelli, H.; Brottes, F.; Bataille, Ch.; Ducout, P.; Gaubert, J.; Habib, D

    2006-04-15

    On February 25, 2006, the French government took the decision of merging together Gaz de France and Suez energy companies as an answer to Enel's project of takeover bid on Suez. This document wonders about: the real motivations of Gaz de France (the French gas utility) privatization, the possible intervention of public authorities in Enel and Veolia companies project of controlling the Suez group, the governing way of the share-holding government and the preservation of its industrial interests, and the consequences for consumers. Therefore, the creation of a parliamentary inquiry commission is requested to shade light on these different points and to give notice of any bad practices in this affair. (J.S.)

  2. Fick Sistemini Kullanarak Dört Bilesenli Su-Gaz Degisim Reaksiyonunun Difüzyon Katsayılarının Teoriksel İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZTÜRK

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalısmada; izotermik kosulu saglanmıs, ideal boru reaktörde, ekzoterm, heterojen katalitik bir gaz reaksiyonu olan su-gaz degisim reaksiyonu model olarak alınarak dört bilesenli gaz difüzyonu incelenmistir. T=523 oK ve 623 oK'de dört bilesene ait on iki adet poliner difüzyon katsayısı Fick sistemi için elde edilmistir. Teoriksel olarak hesaplanan poliner difüzyon katsayıları CO mol sayısının (x1 degisim miktarına baglı olarak diyagramlar halinde sunulmustur. Bu diyagramlardan altı tanesinin karbonmonoksit mol sayısı azalınca arttıgı, diger altı tanesinin ise azaldıgı görülmüstür. Ayrıca, artan reaksiyon sıcaklıgı ile beraber difüzyon katsayılarının degerlerinde artıs oldugu tespit edilmistir.

  3. Au sensitized ZnO nanorods for enhanced liquefied petroleum gas sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakate, U.T., E-mail: umesh.nakate@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Deemed University, Pune 411025 (India); Bulakhe, R.N.; Lokhande, C.D. [Department of Physics, Thin films Physics Laboratory, Shivaji University Kolhapur 416004 (India); Kale, S.N. [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Deemed University, Pune 411025 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • We studied ZnO nanorods film for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing. • The Au sensitization on ZnO nanorods gives improved LPG sensing response. • The Au–ZnO shows 48% LPG response for 1040 ppm with fast response time of 50 S. • We proposed schematic for sensing mechanism using band diagram. - Abstract: The zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have grown on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) method using zinc acetate solution. The phase formation, surface morphology and elemental composition of ZnO films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing response was remarkably improved by sensitization of gold (Au) surface noble metal on ZnO nanorods film. Maximum LPG response of 21% was observed for 1040 ppm of LPG, for pure ZnO nanorods sample. After Au sensitization on ZnO nanorods film sample, the LPG response greatly improved up to 48% at operating temperature 623 K. The improved LPG response is attributed Au sensitization with spill-over mechanism. Proposed model for LPG sensing mechanism discussed.

  4. Extraction of Fucoxanthin from Raw Macroalgae excluding Drying and Cell Wall Disruption by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kanda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae are one of potential sources for carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin, which are consumed by humans and animals. This carotenoid has been applied in both the pharmaceutical and food industries. In this study, extraction of fucoxanthin from wet brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (water content was 93.2% was carried out with a simple method using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME as an extractant in semi-continuous flow-type system. The extraction temperature and absolute pressure were 25 °C and 0.59 MPa, respectively. The liquefied DME was passed through the extractor that filled by U. pinnatifida at different time intervals. The time of experiment was only 43 min. The amount of fucoxanthin could approach to 390 μg/g dry of wet U. pinnatifida when the amount of DME used was 286 g. Compared with ethanol Soxhlet and supercritical CO2 extraction, which includes drying and cell disruption, the result was quite high. Thus, DME extraction process appears to be a good method for fucoxanthin recovery from U. pinnatifida with improved yields.

  5. Ataxia with Parkinsonism and dystonia after intentional inhalation of liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godani M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Massimiliano Godani,1 Francesca Canavese,1 Sonia Migliorini,2 Massimo Del Sette1 1Neurology Unit, 2Department of Neuroradiology, Sant’Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy Abstract: The practice of inhaling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG to commit suicide is uncommon and almost exclusively a prerogative of the prison population. Numerous cases of sudden deaths caused by intentional propane and/or butane inhalation have been described, but these cases survived and a description of the consequences is very rare. We describe a prisoner who survived after voluntary inhalation of LPG, and who developed ataxia, Parkinsonism, and dystonia. Brain MRI showed bilateral hyperintensity in the basal ganglia and in the cerebellar hemispheres. The clinical evolution and the MRI abnormalities are similar to those described in cases of poisoning by CO where the mechanism of brain injury is related to histotoxic hypoxia. We believe that LPG, considered until now a mixture of gas with low neurotoxic power, may have caused direct toxic damage to the brain, mediated by a mechanism of hypoxia, such as in CO intoxication. Keywords: ataxia, Parkinsonism, dystonia, liquefied petroleum gas

  6. Étude et modélisation du comportement d'un écoulement annulaire dispersé : application à la mesure de débit de gaz humide à l'aide d'un débitmètre à Venturi

    OpenAIRE

    Lupeau, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    Le travail proposé a pour but d'apporter des éléments de compréhension sur le comportement d’un débitmètre gaz sec de type Venturi en configuration d'écoulement annulaire dispersé (gaz humide). Ce type d'écoulement se présente sous la forme d’un mélange gaz/liquide avec des fractions volumiques de gaz supérieures à 99%. Le liquide se répartit à l'intérieur des conduites sous forme de gouttes et d'un film ruisselant sur les parois. Ce sont les interactions entre le gaz et ces différents constitu...

  7. Investigation of Methane Hydrate Formation in a Recirculating Flow Loop: Modeling of the Kinetics and Tests of Efficiency of Chemical Additives on Hydrate Inhibition Étude de la formation de l'hydrate de méthane dans une conduite de recirculation : modélisation de la cinétique et tests d'efficacité d'additifs chimiques inhibiteurs d'hydrates de gaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peytavy J. L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas hydrates can be formed when light gases, such as the components of natural gas, come into contact with water under particular conditions of temperature and pressure. These solid compounds give rise to problems in natural gas and oil industry because they can plug pipelines and process equipment. To prevent hydrate formation methanol and glycols are commonly and extensively used as inhibitors. Today, the thermodynamic equilibria of hydrate formation are well known, but the kinetics of gas hydrate formation and growth has to be studied in order to find means of controlling these processes and to explore the mechanisms for hydrate formation that follows non equilibrium laws. The present work deals with the kinetics of methane hydrate formation studied in a laboratory loop where the liquid blend saturated with methane is circulated up to a pressure of 75 bar. Pressure is maintained at a constant value during experimental runs by means of methane gas make-up. First the effects of pressure (35-75 bar, liquid velocity (0. 5-3 m/s, liquid cooling temperature ramp (2-15°C/h, and liquid hydrocarbon amount (0-96%, on hydrate formation kinetics are investigated. Then a new method is proposed to predict firstly the thermodynamic conditions (pressure and temperature at the maximum values of the growth rate of methane hydrate and secondly the methane hydrate growth rate. A good agreement is found between calculated and experimental data. Finally the evaluation of the efficiency of some kinetic additives and some surfactants developed to avoid either nucleation or crystal growth and agglomeration of methane hydrates is tested based on the proposed experimental procedure. Les hydrates de gaz des composés légers du gaz naturel se forment lorsque ceux-ci entrent en contact avec l'eau dans certaines conditions de température et de pression. Ces composés solides sont nuisibles pour les industries gazière et pétrolière car des bouchons solides peuvent

  8. Idea on safety of large-sized liquefied oxygen and liquefied nitrogen tank%对大型液氧、液氮贮槽安全的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马大方

    2012-01-01

    简述大型液氧、液氮贮槽的常规安全措施,结合大型低温液体贮槽的爆炸事故,阐述在排液口设置重锤式快速切断阀和顶盖设计为薄弱结构的必要性及其作用,分析在大型液氧、液氮贮槽槽区不设安全围堰的可行性。%The routine safety measures for large-sized liquefied oxygen and liquefied nitrogen tank are briefed. In combination with explosion accident of large-sized low-temperature liquid tank, the necessity to set a harmer type quick cut off valve at drain port and design the top cover as a weak structure and their reached effects are described, and the feasibility not to set a safe weir in the large-sized liquefied oxygen and liquefied nitrogen tank is analyzed.

  9. POSSIBILITY FOR APPLICATION OF LIQUEFIED GASES FOR PURIFICATION OF BARBERRY ALKALOIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko D.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Biologically active substances (BAS of barberry roots represented by alkaloids of isoquinoline group are perspective substances for development of preparations with multiple pharmacological activities. However, now manufacture of them in Ukraine is stopped. One of the reasons of this is out-of-date production technologies of alkaloids involving use of toxic and/or flammable solvents. In the article possibility for application of liquefied gases in technology of obtaining of alkaloids from barberry roots has been studied. Materials and methods. Initial raw herb drug were barberry (Berberis vulgaris roots harvested in spring on the territory of Southern Ukraine. Their moisture content was 11%, comminuting degree was 0,5-1,4 mm. At the first stage purification of raw herb drug from lipophilic impurities (defatting was made with use of some liquefied gases: tetrafluoroethane, isobutane, difluorochloromethane and difluoromethane. Extraction of the alkaloid sum was made with difluoromethane mixed with various quantities of liquid ammonia or diethylamine as alkaline agent. Crude extracts were exposed to two-level liquefied-gas purification. At first the alkaloid bases were transformed into saline forms with aqueous solutions of acids and purified from ballast impurities with liquefied freon-22. Then alkaloid salts were reextracted from aqueous phase in the base form with liquefied mixture of difluoromethane and ammonia. Mixing of liquid phases was provided by creation of alternate gradients of temperatures and, as consequence, pressures between separators feeding alternately cool water into jacket of one of them, and warm water – into jacket of another one. Quantity of lipophilic ballast impurities and also weight of extractives were determined gravimetrically. Quantitative analysis of the alkaloid sum was made by titrimetric method after sedimentation of alkaloids with volumetric solution of phosphomolybdic acid. Results and discussion

  10. 76 FR 34212 - Lake Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... prohibited by United States law or policy. The Application was filed under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act... Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY...-contract authorization to export up to 15 million metric tons per annum (mmtpa) of domestic natural gas as...

  11. 78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. FME requests... Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 30- Year Period...

  12. 78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From..., by Barca LNG LLC (Barca), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced...) of natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Barca seeks authorization to export the LNG for a...

  13. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LNG...) filed on July 16, 2012, by LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b/a Oregon LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 9.6 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas...

  14. 76 FR 76698 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application To Export Domestic Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-31518] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 11-128-LNG] Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP..., by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting long- term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 7.82 million metric tons per year of domestically produced liquefied natural gas...

  15. 49 CFR 173.304b - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles. 173.304b Section 173.304b Transportation Other Regulations...; Preparation and Packaging § 173.304b Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN... UN pressure receptacles subject to the requirements in this section and § 173.304. In addition,...

  16. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... November 30, 2010, by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA), requesting blanket authorization to export... and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000...

  17. Enhancement of the Liquefaction Rate in Small-Scale Helium Liquefiers Working Near and Above the Critical Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, C.; Gabal, M.; Lozano, M. P.; Sesé, J.; Spagna, S.; Diederichs, J.; Sager, R.; Chialvo, C.; Terry, J.; Rayner, G.; Warburton, R.; Reineman, R.

    2015-05-01

    Low-temperature research laboratories with typical liquid-helium consumption of the order of tens of liters per day have greatly benefited from the recent development of small-scale liquefiers. In general, these liquefiers are based on Gifford-McMahon or pulse-tube closed-cycle refrigerators with a nominal cooling power ranging from 1 to 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The liquefaction rate for these cryocooler-based liquefiers depends on the pressure at which the helium is liquefied, although the final user conditions of the produced liquid helium are always atmospheric pressure and boiling temperature (e.g., 4.2 K at 100 kPa). Here, we show a systematic study on this effect, in which an enhancement in excess of 70% in liquefaction rate is found experimentally for pressures near and above the critical point of helium (220 kPa). We propose that the underlying mechanism for the liquefaction enhancement is based on the increase in cryocooler cooling power with temperature and the decrease of the helium enthalpy with pressure.

  18. Oil and Gas Prospects in Egypt Recherches d'huile et de gaz en Égypte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ayouti M. K.

    2006-10-01

    and gas pools mainly vvithin the Upper and Lower Cretaceous. Recent advances in seismic techniques are helping in locating deeper structures, which might prove instrumental in the upgrading of the oil possibilites of the region. At present, the exploration activities are going on in the different oil and gas provinces in Egypt. These activilles are expected to increase and are also expected to expand to new areas in the eastern part of the Gulf of Suez Basin, offshore and onland, in Northern Sinai and in the Offshore Mediterranean. These new areas are believed to house very good prospects which will be tested not before long. It is also hoped that progress in seismic tools and techniques will add to the possibilities of finding more oil and gas. On connaît des accumulations d'huiles depuis 1868, quelque 10 ans après le célèbre puits de Drake en Pennsylvanie (août 1859. Ces accumulations ont été trouvées comme des suintements dans des tunnels forés pour l'extraction du soufre dans la région de Gemsa sur la côte ouest du golfe de Suez. Depuis cette époque, les activités d'exploration se sont poursuivies à travers une longue histoire d'opérations qui témoignaient des derniers développement dans les outils et les techniques. Jusqu'à maintenant, la principale province à huile d'Egypte est le bassin du golfe de Suez où la majorité des réserves ont été trouvées. D'autres provinces à hydrocarbures sont le bassin du delta du Nil, celui d'Abu Garadig et la ride d'El Alamein, les deux derniers situés dans le désert occidental. Il y a eu trois importantes découvertes de gaz dans le delta du Nil, dont deux en mer, en plus de quelques indices de gaz encore non commerciaux. Outre les découvertes mentionnées, les activités d'exploration au cours de cette longue période ont apporté une masse d'informations géologiques et géophysiques qui ont contribué largement à la connaissance géologique de l'Egypte, et en particulier à la géologie p

  19. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project: a tax overview; Projeto Gas Natural Liquefeito (GNL): uma abordagem tributaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Claudia W.M.; Faria, Viviana C.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the second semester of 2008, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will be introduced in the Brazilian energy matrix, it will be done through an innovator project according technical and tax points of view. Mentioned the enormous effort of adapting the federal legislation approved for this new activity which begins in the country, uncharged both the admission of the vessel as the import of the commodity in the incidence of federal taxes. The market for LNG demand simplified customs procedures in order to benefit from the dynamism that this industry offers, and in addition, a tax burden that encourages the use of a competitive and compatible with the precepts of sustainable development of the country. (author)

  20. Sinking/floatation of pipelines and other objects in liquefied soil under waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Christensen, S.

    1999-01-01

    , and the experiments with the structure model (a pipeline, a sphere, and a cube). In the former experiments, the pore-water pressure was measured across the soil depth. The pore-water pressure built up, as the waves progressed. The soil was liquefied for wave heights larger than a critical value. Regarding...... the experiments with the structure model, the displacement of the structure (sinking or floatation) was measured simultaneously with the pore-water pressure. The influence of various parameters (such as the initial position of the object, the specific gravity, the soil layer thickness, and the wave height......) was investigated. It was found that while the pipe sank in the soil to a depth of 2-3 times the pipe diameter, the sphere sank to even larger depths. The pipe with a relatively small specific gravity, initially buried, floated to the surface of the soil. The drag coefficients for the objects sinking...

  1. Semi-analytical models of hydroelastic sloshing impact in tanks of liquefied natural gas vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, I; Malenica, Š; Korobkin, A

    2011-07-28

    The present paper deals with the methods for the evaluation of the hydroelastic interactions that appear during the violent sloshing impacts inside the tanks of liquefied natural gas carriers. The complexity of both the fluid flow and the structural behaviour (containment system and ship structure) does not allow for a fully consistent direct approach according to the present state of the art. Several simplifications are thus necessary in order to isolate the most dominant physical aspects and to treat them properly. In this paper, choice was made of semi-analytical modelling for the hydrodynamic part and finite-element modelling for the structural part. Depending on the impact type, different hydrodynamic models are proposed, and the basic principles of hydroelastic coupling are clearly described and validated with respect to the accuracy and convergence of the numerical results.

  2. Mathematical Simulation of Convective Heat Transfer in the Low-Temperature Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shestakov Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in the low-temperature storage of liquefied natural gas. Regime of natural convection in an enclosure with different intensity of the heat flux at the external borders are investigated. Was examined two-dimensional nonstationary problem within the model of Navier-Stokes in dimensionless variables “vorticity - stream function - temperature”. Distributions of hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures that characterize the basic regularities of the processes are obtained. Circulating flows are determined and carried out the analysis of vortices formation mechanism and the temperature distribution in solution at conditions of natural convection when the Grashof number (Gr = 106. A significant influence of heat transfer rate on solutions boundary on flow structure and temperature field in LNG storage tanks.

  3. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  4. Uplifting behavior of shallow buried pipe in liquefiable soil by dynamic centrifuge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Liu, Jingwen; Lin, Peng; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  5. Uplifting Behavior of Shallow Buried Pipe in Liquefiable Soil by Dynamic Centrifuge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  6. Estimation on Global Reaction Heat for the Aromatization Process of Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎小辉; 朱建华; 郝代军

    2013-01-01

    The reaction heat effect analysis for the aromatization process of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was completed in this paper. In order to characterize this complex reaction system, one set of independent reactions was determined by means of atomic coefficient matrix method. Based on reaction thermodynamic and stoichiometric knowledge, the heat effect, Gibbs free energy change and equilibrium constant for each independent reaction was calculated for the specified conditions. Under these conditions, based on the initial and final composition data from LPG aromatization experiments, the actual extent of reaction for each independent reaction was determined. Fur-thermore, the global reaction heat and adiabatic temperature rise of LPG aromatization reaction system could be es-timated. This work would provide a theoretical guidance for the design and scale-up of reactor for LPG aromatiza-tion process, as well as for the selection of proper operating conditions.

  7. Multipurpose closed-cycle cryocooler for liquefying hydrogen, helium-4 or helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Calvin

    1990-08-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator utilizing helium-4 gas in closed-cycle Gifford-McMahon and Joule-Thomson cooling loops was built and achieves continuous operating temperatures of 2.8R. The object cooled is a thin walled (0.1mm) seamless electroformed nickel target sample cell with a volume of 160m1. Room temperature hydrogen, helium-4 or helium-3 gas, supplied at a pressure slightly above atmospheric, is liquefied by the cryocooler and fills the cell. Unusual features include: horizontal operation; a long narrow extension on the vacuum shroud (900mm long, 76mm diameter) and special valves to select an operating temperature appropriate to the sample gas and maximize the cooling power available at that temperature.

  8. Liquefaction of bamboo,preparation of liquefied bamboo adhesives,and properties of the adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Shenyuan; Ma Lingfei; Li Wenzhu; Cheng Shuna

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the liquefaction of bamboo in phenol,which involved the effects of weight ratios of phenol to bamboo,amount of catalyst,temperature,etc.The study showed that liquefaction could be accomplished with a phenol to bamboo weight ratio of 2-1:1,a 5% catalyst of HCI or BF3,and a temperature of 1150C.Liquefied bamboo formaldehyde (BLF) resin adhesive for exterior use could be obtained with a phenol to formaldehyde molar ratio of 1:1.6-2.0.The curing behavior of BLF resin adhesive,studied by TG-DSC and IR analyses,showed that BLF resin adhesives had a lower curing temperature than PF adhesives but had the same characteristic trough in IR spectra as PF adhesives.

  9. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: third status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    This Status Report contains contributions from all contractors currently participating in the DOE Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LG) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program and is presented in two principal sections. Section I is an Executive Summary of work done by all program participants. Section II is a presentation of fourteen individual reports (A through N) on specific LGF Program activities. The emphasis of Section II is on research conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Reports A through M). Report N, an annotated bibliography of literature related to LNG safety and environmental control, was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of its LGF Safety Studies Project. Other organizations who contributed to this Status Report are Aerojet Energy Conversion Company; Applied Technology Corporation; Arthur D. Little, Incorporated; C/sub v/ International, Incorporated; Institute of Gas Technology; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for Reports A through N for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  10. Brazilian liquefied natural gas terminals: from the conception to the operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renata N.R. dos; Lemos, Marcelo C. de; Silva, Marcos Jose M. da; Borges, Jorge Luiz P.; Soares, Fabio L.; Grieco, Eduardo P.; Melchior, Jose Carlos [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    To guarantee more flexibility and safety in supplying natural gas to the Brazilian market, PETROBRAS designed and constructed two liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminals. These terminals are unprecedented in the world since they are the only ones to use vessels that have been adapted to store LNG and re gasify the product onboard and to adopt the model of transferring LNG from a supply ship to a regasification vessel via cryogenic arms. Due to these different characteristics, TRANSPETRO, the PETROBRAS subsidiary in charge of operating these terminals, had to prepare itself not only to deal with a new product but also to operate terminals that have no counterparts in the world. This article gives an overview of the LNG supply chain and of the new Brazilian LNG Terminals from their conception to the preparation process to operate them. (author)

  11. IR spectra of halothane-acetone complex in liquefied noble gases (Kr and Xe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikova, S. M.; Rutkowski, K. S.; Rospenk, M.

    2017-07-01

    IR absorption spectra of solutions of halothane (C2HBrClF3) and acetone ((CD3)2CO) mixtures in liquefied noble gases (krypton and xenon) have been recorded and analyzed. Bands due to weak hydrogenbonded complexes are identified. The complex-formation enthalpy is estimated in a series of temperature experiments on the change in the total intensity of the bands due to monomers and complexes. Second-order bands are found, which are assigned to the first overtone of stretching vibration CH of halothane and the Raman band related to simultaneous excitation of stretching vibration CH of halothane and stretching vibration CO of acetone. The results of ab initio calculation performed within the MP2/6-311++G(d, p) approximation are used to analyze the spectroscopic data.

  12. Solid-state titania-based gas sensor for liquefied petroleum gas detection at room temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Yadav; Anuradha Yadav; Tripti Shukla; Satyendra Singh

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing of titanium dioxide (Qualigens, India). Scanning electron micrographs and X-ray diffraction studies of samples were done. SEM shows that the material is porous and has grapes-like morphology before exposure to the LPG. XRD patterns reveal the crystalline nature of the material. The crystallites sizes of the TiO2 were found in the range of 30–75 nm. Variations in resistance with exposure of LPG to the sensing element were observed. The average sensitivity for different volume percentages of gas was estimated. The maximum value of average sensitivity was 1.7 for higher vol.% of LPG. Percentage sensor response (%SR) as a function of time was calculated and its maximum value was 45%. Response time of the sensor was 70 s. The sensor was quite sensitive to LPG and results were found reproducible.

  13. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): emerging control; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): controle de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2008-07-01

    The operation to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is innovative for the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO will operate two LNG flexible terminals. In accordance with the health, safety and environmental policy - training, education and awareness action plans were formulated by TRANSPETRO to assure the operational safety for the activity. Part of this action plan includes the training of LNG spill control and fire suppression. The training was carried out in 20 hours and divided into two parts: theoretical and practice. In the practice part, 3.000 gallons of LNG were unloaded and the students could verify the behaviour of the LNG and the effectiveness of the resources available for the emergency control. The knowledge was introduced in the company to create specific procedures, local emergency plans and develop internal instructors. (author)

  14. Influence of storage conditions on the formation of some volatile compounds in white fortified wines (Vins doux naturels) during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutzach, I; Chatonnet, P; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-06-01

    Sweet fortified wines, traditionally aged under strong oxidation conditions, have a characteristic aroma. An experimental study investigated the aging of white sweet fortified wines under various conditions. The development of various molecules, previously identified as characteristic of the aroma of this type of wine, was monitored by analysis. The development of these compounds during accelerated aging was affected by oxidation and the color of the wine. Aging in oak containers, variable storage temperatures, and variable modes of oxidation affect the formation of many of the volatile compounds responsible for the aging aroma of vins doux naturels (fortified wines). Furfural (1), 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (2), and sotolon (3) always reach concentrations above their perception thresholds in wood-aged wines, especially when new oak is used. The isomers of methyl-gamma-octalactone (4 and 5) are reliable indicators of aging in oak. Among the many identifiable volatile phenols, only the vanillin (7) content increases with aging, particularly if the container is made of wood and there is a high degree of oxidation. This molecule frequently reaches and even exceeds its perception threshold. We show here that vanillin and isomers of methyl-gamma-octalactone have a major impact on the aromas of fortified wines.

  15. Experimental contribution to the study of gas bearings; Contribution experimentale a l'etude des paliers a gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobert, G

    1962-07-01

    Developments for gas-lubricated bearings are discussed. The study of how the fluid film behaves compared to what one can expect is discussed. Various devices are described which have allowed us to go up to peripheral velocity greater than 400 m/s, leading to rotational speed of several thousand revolutions per second. This is obtained by using an automatic setting for the distance between fixed and rotating walls. (author) [French] Le present travail debute par un apercu de l'etat actuel des connaissances sur le processus de la lubrification, notamment sur les paliers a lubrification par gaz. Apres une analyse effectuee au moyen des recentes theories de R. Comolet sur le film fluide entre disques paralleles, nous decrivons des machines dont les charges axiales et radiales specialement etudiees ont permis, au moyen d'un reglage automatique des jeux entre parois fixes et parois tournantes, d'atteindre des vitesses peripheriques superieures a 400 m/s correspondant a des vitesses de plusieurs milliers de tours par seconde. (auteur)

  16. Étude des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification en vue de l'optimisation du rapport vapeur/comburant injecté dans un gazogène souterrain Study of Thermodynamic Equilibria in Gasification Reactions So As to Optimise the Steam/Oxidizer Ratio Injected Into an Underground Gas Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Pirard J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Le but de cette étude est de déterminer sur la base des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification le rapport vapeur/comburant à injecter dans un gazogène fonctionnant sous pression pour optimaliser les compositions, les pouvoirs calorifiques, les rendements de gazéification et la consommation d'agent gazéifiant. The aim of this study is to determine, on the basis of the thermodynamic equilibria of gazification reactions, the steam/oxidizer ratio to be injected into a gas g...

  17. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de

  18. Couplage de capteurs passifs (POCIS) et de tests de toxicité pour évaluer l'effet des mélanges des pesticides organiques sur des biofilms naturels

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce, Stéphane; Morin, Sophie; Lissalde, Sophie; Mazzella, Sophie; Montuelle, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    L’utilisation de capteurs passifs, tels que les POCIS (Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler) pour les pesticides organiques les plus hydrophiles, permet une estimation de l’exposition moyenne des biocénoses aux xénobiotiques en milieu aquatique. Ces outils ouvrent donc de nouvelles perspectives pour caractériser les relations entre l’état chimique et l’état biologique et apprécier l’impact écologique des pesticides dans le milieu naturel. Ils présentent également l’avantage de pré-conce...

  19. Operation modes research of liquefied natural gas storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Korolev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG in the space-rocket equipment is motivated by some advantages. That is why a lot of tests and works are actively carried out now on rocket engines using liquefied natural gas.To provide the engine tests and subsequent rocket complex operation a creation of LNG storages is demanded as a part of ground processing equipment and support for their safe operation conditions.One of LNG danger factor is its low boiling temperature, and also changing the condition, density and LNG boiling temperature at storage due to evaporation of light component, namely methane. At refill of the storages having fuel remains with a new LNG portion these factors can lead to formation of the stratified macro-layers and cause a mode of the intensive mixing that is called "rollover", with almost instant evaporation of LNG big mass and sharp pressure boost, capable to result in the storage distraction with catastrophic effects.The work objectives are formulated such as a technique development for forecasting of the LNG parameters in operating storages including the rollover mode, a comparison of calculated results of the LNG parameters with the experimental data, and a definition of possible recommendations for safe operation of LNG storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment.The paper reviews 12 publications concerning the issues and proceeding processes at operation of LNG storages, including the rollover mode.To verify the reliability of process simulation results in the LNG, represented in models by the binary methane-ethane mixture the calculated values have been compared with the experimental data for a LNG storage mode in the reservoir of a ground test complex.The reliability of developed models of the heat-mass-exchange processes in stratified on density and temperature in LNG storage with emergence of conditions for the rollover mode has been verified by comparing the settlement characteristics to the published

  20. Irreversibility of Gas-Condensate Flow in Gas Cycling Projects: Kinetically Stable Saturation Patterns Irréversibilité des écoulements de gaz à condensat dans les projets de recyclage de gaz : profils stationnaires de saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitlin V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a two-phase multicomponent reservoir system which is approaching the steady-state flow regime are studied. First, the compositional model is analyzed in the linear approximation, for the case of a small initial deviation from the steady-state regime. An analytical expression is obtained for the characteristic relaxation time. Next, numerical simulations are performed for situations where there is a substantial deviation from the steady-state regime. The linear injection of an enriched gas into a gas-condensate reservoir, followed by the extraction regime, is simulated. It is shown that the change in phase compositions and pressure on the way to equilibrium proceeds with characteristic times of the order of the injection time. However, the change in the saturation and overall composition takes approximately 200 times longer than the injection time. Thus, the reservoir system manifests a spatially inhomogeneous saturation distribution for an abnormally long time. Similar kinetically stable patterns have been also discovered in the nonlinear dynamics of phase transitions, plasma, and thin films. The question of the existence of discontinuous steady states for this multicomponent flow is considered. In the case of a binary mixture, it is shown that such solutions do not exist. Cet article présente une étude de la dynamique d'un réservoir biphasique multiconstituant approchant le régime d'écoulement stationnaire. En premier lieu, nous procédons à une approximation linéaire du modèle compositionnel dans le cas des petites fluctuations autour du régime permanent. Une expression analytique est ainsi obtenue pour le temps caractéristique de transition. Des simulations numériques sont ensuite effectuées pour les déviations importantes par rapport au régime permanent. Nous avons ainsi pu étudier le déplacement linéaire d'un mélange gaz/condensat par un gaz enrichi suivi d'un régime de production. On montre alors que le

  1. Risks associated to liquefied petroleum gas: evaluation and management; Riscos do gas liquefeito de petroleo: avaliacao e gerenciamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Gonzalez, Amelia Beatriz [Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima (Peru). Facultad de Ingenieria Ambiental; Rocha, Aristides Almeida [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Saude Publica

    1997-07-01

    This work presents the discussion and evaluation of the environmental risks related to the use of liquefied petroleum gas (GLP) when the safety standards and proceedings are not obeyed. It also presents a bibliographic review mainly concerning the actual legislation and a case study in a industrial plant. The methodologies used in such a study are based in the HAZOP and WHAZAM models. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Law proposal aiming at imposing the domestic consumption tax to the natural gas used for hydrogen generation for petroleum refining purposes; Proposition de loi visant a soumettre a la taxe interieure de consommation le gaz naturel utilise pour la production d'hydrogene a des fins de raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    In France, natural gas benefits from tax exemptions in several situations and in particular when used as raw material for hydrogen generation, which in turn, is used for crude oil refining and fuels generation. However, crude oil is cheaper when it is heavier but more hydrogen, and thus more natural gas, is needed to refine it and more CO{sub 2} is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, refining cheap crude oil increases the refining margins of oil companies but their environmental impact as well. The aim of this law proposal is to impose the domestic consumption tax to natural gas when used in oil refining processes in order to finance the development of the renewable hydrogen industry through the creation of a High Council of Hydrogen Industry. This High Council would be in charge of promoting the development of renewable hydrogen production facilities and distribution circuits, of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and of fuel cells. (J.S.)

  3. Chemical and isotopic fractionations of natural gases during their migration. Importance of methane solubilization and diffusion during geological times; Fractionnements chimiques et isotopiques des gaz naturels lors de leur migration. Importance de la solubilisation et de la diffusion du methane au cours des temps geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernaton, E.

    1998-09-09

    Two experimental devices have been elaborated in the purpose of simulating in laboratory the solubilization of methane in water and the migration by solubilization/diffusion of some gas species (methane, ethane, propane and nitrogen) through porous media saturated with water. Significant shifts in isotopic ratios of diffused methane (carbon and hydrogen) have been observed. Those fractionations for carbon isotopes, which in most cases are characterised by a {sup 12}C-enriched diffused methane, have fundamental consequences about the interpretation of the origin of methane in sedimentary basins and, in a more general way, about the genetic characterisation of hydrocarbon gases in reservoirs. Indeed, this gives an ambiguous origin for any gas having {sup 12}C-enriched methane, two different interpretations are possible: mixing between thermogenic and bacterial hydrocarbon gases and a diffusive trend during migration. Using a diagram C2/C1 versus {delta}{sup 13}C1, we have shown that in some geological cases, these two processes, mixing and diffusion, exist and that it is possible to discern them.The chemical and isotopic compositions of natural gases do not only reflect genetic processes but are also an indication of their migration. Moreover, the experiments have shown that the gas transport by solubilization/diffusion is a potential operator of gas leakage from natural accumulations. In consequence, a numerical model of gas migration through cap rocks of reservoirs has been elaborated and will be integrated into sedimentary basin models. (author)

  4. Surface Gas Geochemistry above the Natural CO{sub 2} Reservoir of Montmiral (Drome, France), Source Tracking and Gas Exchange between the Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere; Echanges gazeux et geochimie des gaz a la surface du reservoir naturel profond de CO{sub 2} de Montmiral (Drome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, F.; Le Pierres, K.; Brach, M.; Braibant, G.; Beny, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France); Battani, A.; Jeandel, E.; Tocque, E.; Benoit, Y. [Institut francais du petrole, IFP, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Pokryszka, Z.; Charmoille, A.; Bentivegna, G. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique ALATA, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Pironon, J.; De Donato, P.; Garnier, C.; Cailteau, C.; Barres, O.; Radilla, G.; Bauer, A. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (INPL), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2010-07-15

    One of the options considered to mitigate greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere is underground storage of CO{sub 2}. There is a strong need for enhancing and developing methods that would help throughout the duration life of such underground storage, to ensure the safety and able to monitor the evolution of the injected CO{sub 2} plume. Among these, geochemical methods can play an important role. Here, we describe results acquired under the research programme 'Geocarbone-Monitoring', partially funded by the French National Research Agency, on the Montmiral natural analogue in South-Eastern France. Other results obtained under the same research programme in the French Massif Central are reported elsewhere in this volume. Spot sampling methods allowing a great geographical coverage and continuous measurements on selected points were undertaken in 2006 and 2007, in order to determine soil gas concentrations and fluxes as well as carbon isotope ratio determinations. One important result is that without any evidence of deep CO{sub 2} leakage, both CO{sub 2} concentrations and fluxes appear to be higher than can be explained only by biological activities. Further investigations are thus needed to understand the gas evolution better throughout the year. (authors)

  5. The transition from monopoly to competition on natural gas markets in europe. The strategic stakes of underground storage; La transition du monopole a la concurrence sur les marches du gaz naturel en europe: l'importance strategique du stockage souterrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esnault, B

    2000-07-01

    The liberalization of the natural gas market permits to the actors the use of the existing distribution networks, which remain managed by ancient monopolies. To manage efficiently a variable demand in spite of the importations and the bottleneck on canalizations, the monopolies have to install storages near the consumption areas. Meanwhile the storages are a rare resource owned by the historical operators, thus it reinforces their market power. The european directive proposes to define an access right to the storage. What kind of legislation should we applied? This thesis analyses the process of deregulation and the storage needs of the different actors. Propositions of regulations are presented. (A.L.B.)

  6. Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria; Evaluation radiologique de radionucleides naturels dans le sol collectes a l'interieur et autour des stations de compression des gaz dans le delta du Niger, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ademola, J.A.; Atare, E.E. [University of Ibadan, Department of Physics, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2010-04-15

    Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th varied from 30.1 +- 3.0 to 59.0 +- 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 +- 2.3 and 7.9 +- 3.7 to 10.9 +- 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 muSv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 muSv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

  7. The opening of electricity and gas markets to residential customers. Annual barometer - First wave. December 2007; L'ouverture des marches de l'electricite et du gaz naturel pour les clients residentiels. Barometre annuel - vague 1. Decembre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since July 1, 2007, French residential customers can freely chose their energy supplier. A quantitative inquiry has been carried out by LH2 on behalf of the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) on a sample of 1501 households representative of the overall French households. The aim of this barometer is to answer the following questions: what is the level of knowledge and information of individuals about the opening of energy markets and the new regulation in force? How do they perceive this opening? What is their behaviour in front of the opening of markets to competition? Four years after the full opening of energy markets, this first inquiry has permitted to draw up a first status of the knowledge, behaviour and opinion of individuals with respect to the opening of these markets. (J.S.)

  8. International negotiation methods on climatic risks, the limits of global incentives: Natural gas example. Procedures de negociation internationale sur les risques climatiques, les limites de la globalisation: etude autour d'un cas d'ecole, le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourcade, J.C.; Journe, V. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France))

    The discussion on economic instruments for coordinating an international strategy for climatic risks prevention does not take sufficiently into account the importance of the relevant scientific controversies. These ones determine strongly the negotiation process for the settlement of such a system. We illustrate this point with the simple case of the natural gas whose superiority in terms of emission contents compared to the other fossil fuels, could be contested in case of too important CH[sub 4] releases. We show that the negotiation process cannot come to a positive end if the incentive system relies only on the price signal. This process can converge only if one thinks about the combination of various tools, namely technological norms and ad hoc funds for the renewal of transmission and distribution networks combined with tax systems. 17 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. An experimental investigation of a lean-burn natural-gas pre-chamber spark ignition engine for cogeneration; Swiss Motor. Modification d'un moteur diesel pour le fonctionnement au gaz naturel en cogeneration. Fonctionnement avec prechambre de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roethlisberger, R.; Favrat, D.

    2001-07-01

    This thesis presented at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne describes the conversion and testing of a commercial diesel engine for use as a lean-burn, natural gas, pre-chamber, spark ignition engine with a rated power of 150 kW, in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The objective of the investigations - to evaluate the potential of reducing exhaust gas emissions - is discussed in detail with respect to NO{sub x} and CO emissions. The approach adopted includes both experimental work and numerical simulation. The report describes the testing facilities used. The results obtained with experimental spark-plug configurations based on simulation results are presented and the influence of various pre-chamber configuration variants are discussed. The results of the tests are presented and the significant reduction of NO{sub x}, CO and unburned-hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are discussed. The authors state that the engine, which achieves a fuel efficiency of more than 36.5%, fulfils the Swiss requirements on exhaust gas emissions. Also, ways of compensating for the slight loss in fuel-conversion efficiency in the pre-chamber configuration are discussed.

  10. Prognosis, prospecting and development of gas fields in the far north of Siberia - as a single methodological approach to an optimal development of the territorial resources; Prevision, prospection et developpement des champs de gaz naturel du grand nord Siberien - approche methodologique unique pour un developpement optimal des ressources du territoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remizov, V.V.; Dmitrievsky, A.N.; Ermilov, O.M.; Neelov, Y.V.; Chugunov, L.S.; Gurari, F.G.; Goldin, S.V.; Karagodin, Y.N. [OJSC Gaprom, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    This presentation realizes a systems approach to the study of the oil and gas complex of the Far North of Siberia as a single sophisticated system starting from prognosis and prospecting of fields to their development at different stages of operation. This paper shows for the first time the whole complex of studies, including the methodology of systems studies of the structure, evolution and genesis of oil and gas reservoirs, the model of geologic structure and the evaluation of oil and gas resources, the technique of prospecting and surveys of oil and gas fields, techniques and methods of an effective system of prospecting and development, particularly at the stage of achieving maximum and the onset of production decrease. (authors)

  11. Economic missions. Synthetic file: the petroleum sector in Brazil (exploration and production); the refining activity in Brazil; natural gas in Brazil: a fragile market, inferior to forecasts; Missions economiques. Fiche de synthese: le secteur petrolier au Bresil (exploration et production); le raffinage au Bresil; gaz naturel au Bresil: un marche fragile, inferieur aux previsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-12-01

    This dossier prepared by the economic mission of the French embassy in Brazil makes a synthesis of the exploration-production and refining activities of the petroleum industry, and of the natural gas distribution market in Brazil: oil reserves and production, Petrobras company, partnership agreements with Petrobras, legal aspects, concessions, projects financing, refining capacity, refinery projects in progress or under study, para-petroleum market perspectives and opportunities, natural gas market development, pipelines network, gas utilities, privatization and foreign participation, lack of expertise and of gas infrastructures and equipments. (J.S.)

  12. Analysis of conditions concerning the natural gas internal market organization in four european countries: Germany, Spain, Netherlands and United Kingdom; Analyse des conditions encadrant l'organisation du marche interieur du gaz naturel dans quatre pays europeens: Allemagne, Espagne, Pays-Bas, Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this economic study is the wording of a synthetic document for the public information in the framework of the 98/30/CE european directive transposition to the gas internal market. It is writing in four main chapters, one for each country concerned: the Germany, the Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Each one presents the historical context, the actors of the natural gas industry and the main provisions. (A.L.B.)

  13. Order of the 27 October 2006 relative to the national urgency measures aiming to guarantee the supplying security of the natural gas in crisis; Arrete du 27 octobre 2006 relatif aux mesures nationales d'urgence visant a garantir la securite de l'approvisionnement en gaz naturel en cas de crise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    The dispositions of this order and of the associated national urgency concern a crisis prevention and the management of the country natural gas supplying. The concerned articles are presented. The national urgency plan is detailed: the legal framework, the principles and organization of the national urgency device, the organization of the crisis cell and the typology of the urgency measures. (A.L.B.)

  14. Isolation and identification of an agar-liquefying marine bacterium and some properties of its extracellular agarases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATURRAHMAN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Faturrahman, Meryandini A, Junior MZ, Rusmana I (2011 Isolation and identification of an agar-liquefying marine bacterium and some properties of its extracellular agarases. Biodiversitas 12: 192-197. A new agar-liquefying bacterium, designated Alg3.1, was isolated from Gracilaria samples collected from the Kuta Coast at Central Lombok in West Nusa Tenggara and was identified as Aeromonas sp. on the basis of morphology, biochemical-physiological character and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The bacterium appeared capable of liquifying agar in nutrient agar-plate within 48 hours of incubation and the agar was completely liquefied after l5 days at 29oC. When the isolate was grown in basal salts solution medium B supplemented with peptone and yeast extract, produced extracellular agarases within a short period of time (4-16 h and the maximum agarase activity was 0.489 nkat/mL at 36h after incubation.

  15. Effects of a thin liquefiable foundation layer on deformations of a rockfill dam subjected to earthquake shaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seid-Karbasi, M.; Atukorala, U. [Golder Associates Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada); Gowan, M.; Barrett, A. [Golder Associates Pty, Toowong, Queensland (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed a coupled stress-flow dynamic analysis procedure designed to predict the stability and seismic deformations of an 85 meter high earth dam located near a polymetallic mine in Vietnam. The procedure was developed to capture sand element behaviours observed in previous laboratory tests. The analysis was conducted using a UBCSAND model to capture the liquefiable soil response. Nonlinear behaviour of the non-liquefiable materials was modelled using the UBCHYST simulation tool. Both models were incorporated within the FLAC model. Dam specifications, foundation characteristics, and predicted behaviours were discussed. The dam body and its foundation were analyzed under gravity loads with drained conditions in order to establish the pre-earthquake stress state. A dynamic analysis was then conducted using undrained properties for fine-grained soils. The FLAC model finite difference analysis was used to examine stress-flow under static and dynamic loading conditions. Earthquake motions were applied as a time history of excitation at the model's boundaries. Volumetric strains were controlled by the compressibility of the pore fluid and the flow of water through the soil elements. The model was calibrated using laboratory and centrifuge data. Results of the study showed that the tailings and downstream free-field alluvial soils developed high excess pore water pressures and liquefied during strong shaking motions. Results suggested that the seismic performance of the Oxide dam were satisfactory. 41 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  16. Kinetic modeling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) reduction of titania in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tan Wei; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Rezan, Sheikh Abdul; Noor, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Izah Shoparwe, Noor; Alizadeh, Reza; Roohi, Parham

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, reduction of Titania (TiO2) by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-hydrogen-argon gas mixture was investigated by experimental and kinetic modelling in MATLAB. The reduction experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 1100-1200°C with a reduction time from 1-3 hours and 10-20 minutes of LPG flowing time. A shrinking core model (SCM) was employed for the kinetic modelling in order to determine the rate and extent of reduction. The highest experimental extent of reduction of 38% occurred at a temperature of 1200°C with 3 hours reduction time and 20 minutes of LPG flowing time. The SCM gave a predicted extent of reduction of 82.1% due to assumptions made in the model. The deviation between SCM and experimental data was attributed to porosity, thermodynamic properties and minute thermal fluctuations within the sample. In general, the reduction rates increased with increasing reduction temperature and LPG flowing time.

  17. Activities to support the liquefied gaseous fuels spill test facility program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.; Routh, T.

    1997-03-01

    Approximately a hundred years ago the petrochemical industry was in its infancy, while the chemical industry was already well established. Today, both of these industries, which are almost indistinguishable, are a substantial part of the makeup of the U.S. economy and the lifestyle we enjoy. It is difficult to identify a single segment of our daily lives that isn`t affected by these industries and the products or services they make available for our use. Their survival and continued function in a competitive world market are necessary to maintain our current standard of living. The occurrence of accidents in these industries has two obvious effects: (1) the loss of product during the accident and future productivity because of loss of a portion of a facility or transport medium, and (2) the potential loss of life or injury to individuals, whether workers, emergency responders, or members of the general public. A great deal of work has been conducted at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill test Facility (LGFSTF) on hazardous spills. WRI has conducted accident investigations as well as provided information on the research results via the internet and bibliographies.

  18. VidaGas : powering health clinics and households in Mozambique with liquefied petroleum gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprague, C. [Witwatersand Univ. (South Africa). Graduate School of Business Administration; Woolman, S. [Pretoria Univ., Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described a pro-poor venture established to provide a sustainable supply of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in northern Mozambique. The venture is needed in order to become a venue-generating entity within 3 years. Challenges to the success of the VidaGas project include insufficient LPG supply and storage facilities, and a lack of commercial and industrial infrastructure. Retailers and consumers in the region have little experience in dealing with LPG. Most households and medical practices in the region rely on wood or charcoal for cooking. The deforestation of local mangroves is now imperilling the region's commercial fishing industry. To date, the venture has replaced kerosene refrigerators in health facilities with LPG refrigerators. Staff have also been trained to deliver LPG and lamps to healthcare workers on a regular basis. The healthcare initiative has increased interest in the use of LPG in the region, and the VidaGas project now involves several large commercial and industrial consumers. LPG emits fewer greenhouse gases (GHGs) than many other fuels, and is highly portable. The LPG in Mozambique is supplied by South Africa. It was concluded that VidaGas is now achieving financial sustainability in the region. 24 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-09-15

    With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  20. Distribution and Chain Pattern of Liquefied Natural Gas Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The production and consumption of natural gas in China has been developing rapidly in recent years. It is expected that the annual growth rate of the demand for natural gas will reach 12% in the next 15 years, and the gas consumption in the primary energy will increase from 0.3% to 10% or more by 2020. However, since the supply of natural gas cannot satisfy the requirements, China has begun to build liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals in the coastal regions such as Guangdong and Fujian, and solve this problem by importing LNG from foreign countries. LNG needs to be transported by LNG ships from abroad. With the rapid growth of global gas production, the volume of LNG trade also increases, and the interregional production increased from 0.3% in 1970 to 26.2% in 2004. So, we need LNG ships more than before. This article puts forward the distribution of LNG ships and the speculation of the future of LNG transportation based on the studies on foreign LNG production, the LNG trade, the building of LNG ships, the LNG transportation, the chain model of LNG distribution, etc.

  1. ANALISIS INVESTASI PROYEK PEMBANGUNAN TERMINAL LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG DI LABUAN MARINGGAI BERDASARKAN ANALISA BEBAN MODAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebinner Sinaga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya kebutuhan akan energi gas bumi tidak terlepas dari kondisi makro ekonomi di Indonesia. Dampak yang paling besar adalah dengan semakin berkembangnya sektor industri dalam negeri terutama di wilayah Jawa Barat dan Lampung, maka kebutuhan gas di wilayah ini meningkat untuk masa mendatang.Kondisi ini oleh PGN harus disikapi dengan serius dikarenakan kemampuan supply untuk gas saat ini tidak bisa untuk memenuhi kenaikan gas di masa mendatang yaitu sekitar 44% kenaikan kebutuhan gas. Saat ini PGN untuk wilayah Jawa Barat dan Lampung hanya mampu untuk mensupply sekitar 590 MMscfd, dengan target PGN untuk sepuluh tahun mendatang yaitu 1000 MMscfd, maka terjadi defisit supply gas sekitar 410 MMscfd. Dalam mencapai target supply gas yang telah ditetapkan yaitu 1000 Mmscfd dikarenakan terbatasnya pasokan gas dari sumber gas, maka PGN akan melakukan terobosan baru dengan keluar dari konsep supplay gas konvesional yakni dengan menggunakan gas alam cair atau Liquefied Natural Gas  (LNG. Dengan konsep ini, maka pasokan gas menjadi tidak terbatas, karena dapat didatangkan dari berbagai tempat ataupun dari negara lain. Dalam mendatangkan gas alam cair ini, dibutuhkan suatu stasiun penerima gas yang biasa disebut LNG Receiving yang penempatannya dengan berbagai pertimbangan dipilih di darat (onshore. Pembangunan terminal LNG ini sangat dibutuhkan untuk meningkatkan supply gas PGN. Pembangunan terminal LNG ini diperlukan satu arahan secara economical value. Dengan menggunakan metode Nilai Sekarang Bersih (NSB, Nilai Tahunan Bersih (NTB, dan Tingkat Pengembalian Internal (IRR maka proyek Pembangunan Terminal LNG ini layak untuk dilaksanakan.

  2. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  3. Effect of liquefied petroleum gas on ozone formation in Guadalajara and Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-López, J Luis; Sandoval-Fernández, Julio; González-Ortíz, Emmanuel; Vázquez-García, Marcos; González-Macías, Uriel; Zambrano-García, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Leakages of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are suspected to contribute greatly to ozone (O3) formation in Mexico City. We tested such a hypothesis by outdoor captive-air irradiation (CAI) experiments in the two largest Mexican metropolitan areas: Guadalajara (GMA) in 1997 and Mexico City (MCMA) in 2000. O3 was monitored in each city for 20 days (8:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m.) in smog chambers containing unaltered morning air or morning air enriched with either commercial LPG or LPG synthetic mixture 60/40 (propane and butane). Tested additions of both components were 35% (by volume) in GMA and 60% (by volume) in MCMA. The addition effects on O3 (max) were compared with effects from diluting LPG components or total nonmethane hydrocarbons (tNMHCs) by 50%. Diluting tNMHCs had the greatest absolute effect at both cities: it lowered O3 (max) by 24% in GMA and 55% in MCMA. Adding commercial LPG increased O3 (max) by 6% in GMA and 28% in MCMA; whereas adding LPG synthetic mixture 60/40 caused a similar increase in O3 (max), 4 and 21% in GMA and MCMA, respectively. Compared with dilution of tNMHCs, dilution of LPG-associated compounds had a smaller decreasing effect on O3 (max), only 4% in GMA and 15% in MCMA. These results show that commercial LPG and LPG synthetic mixture 60/40 affect O3 formation to a lesser extent than estimated previously.

  4. The Effect of Polymer-Cement Stabilization on the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Liquefiable Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ateş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil stabilization has been widely used as an alternative to substitute the lack of suitable material on site. The use of nontraditional chemical stabilizers in soil improvement is growing daily. In this study a laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of waterborne polymer on unconfined compression strength and to study the effect of cement grout on pre-venting of liquefiable sandy soils. The laboratory tests were performed including grain size of sandy soil, unit weight, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and unconfined compressive strength test. The sand and various amounts of polymer (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% and cement (10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were mixed with all of them into dough using mechanical kneader in laboratory conditions. Grouting experiment is performed with a cylindrical mould of  mm. The samples were subjected to unconfined compression tests to determine their strength after 7 and 14 days of curing. The results of the tests indicated that the waterborne polymer significantly improved the unconfined compression strength of sandy soils which have susceptibility of liquefaction.

  5. Cooperation among liquefied natural gas suppliers. Is rationalization the sole objective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, Olivier [Center for Economics and Management, IFP School, 228-232 av. Napoleon Bonaparte, F-92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Department of Economics, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Tchung-Ming, Stephane [Economic Studies Division, IFP, 1-4 av. de Bois-Preau, F-92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); CREDEN, Universite Montpellier I, Av. de la mer, BP 9606, F-34054, Montpellier (France)

    2010-07-15

    This paper examines the development of cooperative strategies between countries exporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). This economic study focuses specifically on an often-raised scenario: the emergence of a cooperative approach designed with the sole aim of logistic rationalization, and which would not have any effect on LNG prices. We first assess the annual gains that may result from this market-power-free cooperative approach using a simple static transportation model. The numerical results obtained suggest that, in the absence of a gain redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy will probably not be adopted because cooperation would not be a rational move for some exporters. The problem of gain sharing is then formulated using cooperative game theory concepts. Several gain-sharing methods have been studied, including the Shapley value and various nucleolus-inspired concepts. Our results suggest that the choice of a redistribution policy appears relatively restricted. Out of the methods studied, only one - per capita nucleolus - satisfies two key requirements. core belonging and monotonicity (in the aggregate). Lastly, we look at how cooperation may give rise to a coordination cost and try to determine the maximum amount of this cost. In view of the low level of this amount and the relative complexity of the sharing method implemented, we consider that the credibility of a logistic cooperation scenario exempt from market power should be reappraised. (author)

  6. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  7. Comparative investigation of diesel and mixed liquefied petroleum gas/diesel injection engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, J.; Bian, Y.; Qi, D.; Cheng, Q.; Wu, T. [Changan University, Xian (China). Automobile Faculty

    2004-05-01

    Experiments are conducted on engine performance and sprays and a characteristics analysis is made between diesel and mixed liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/diesel injection engines. The performance test results show that with LPG the mixed ratio increases, engine power reduces slightly, fuel consumption and engine noise have almost no change, pollutant emissions of smoke, CO and NO{sub x} at full load are improved significantly, but the amount of unburned HC increases. The experimental results of the sprays indicate that because of flash boiling injection of mixed fuel, mean diameters in a spray decrease, the number distribution curve of fuel droplet size moves towards smaller diameters, small-size droplet numbers increase, spray quality is good and engine smoke reduces accordingly. Because large-size droplet diameters show almost no change and small-size droplet diameters decrease, the relative span factor and dispersion boundary factor of the droplet diameter increase. High-resolution digital camera photography is invaluable when carrying out a comparative investigation of spray. (author)

  8. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center - Qatar, Texas A and M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Mannan, M. Sam, E-mail: mannan@tamu.edu [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  9. Polyaniline-Cadmium Ferrite Nanostructured Composite for Room-Temperature Liquefied Petroleum Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotresh, S.; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Tiwari, S. K.; Vijaya Kumari, S. C.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce polyaniline-cadmium ferrite (PANI-CdFe2O4) nanostructured composite as a room-temperature-operable liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensor. The structure of PANI and the composite prepared by chemical polymerization was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Comparative XRD and FT-IR analysis confirmed CdFe2O4 embedded in PANI matrix with mutual interfacial interaction. The nanostructure of the composite was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. A simple LPG sensor operable at room temperature, exclusively based on spin-coated PANI-CdFe2O4 nanocomposite, was fabricated with maximum sensing response of 50.83% at 1000 ppm LPG. The response and recovery time of the sensor were 50 s and 110 s, respectively, and it was stable over a period of 1 month with slight degradation of 4%. The sensing mechanism is discussed on the basis of the p- n heterojunction barrier formed at the interface of PANI and CdFe2O4.

  10. Sperm counts in enzymatically liquefied cervical mucus: quantitative validation using donor cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Agostini, A; Campana, A

    1996-02-01

    The post-coital test evaluates the penetration of spermatozoa into cervical mucus; it relies on subjective measurements and therefore lacks precision. Enzymatic liquefaction of cervical mucus allows sperm concentration to be measured in post-coital test samples, but the reliability of such measurements is not known. Donor cervical mucus was used as a model to test the accuracy and sensitivity of sperm quantification in liquefied cervical mucus. Donor cervical mucus was dissolved by enzymatic treatments in the presence of known numbers of spermatozoa and the recovery of sperm cells was assessed after liquefaction of the samples. Enzymatic treatment of cervical mucus with a combination of bromelin and glycosidases resulted in reliable and fast liquefaction of the samples. The accuracy of sperm concentration measurements was 89 +/- 10% (mean +/- SD, n = 50), and the sensitivity limits were 1 x 10(6) and 0.2 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml for quantitative concentration measurement and qualitative sperm detection respectively. This study demonstrates that liquefaction of cervical mucus by combined protease and glycosidases allows accurate and sensitive determination of sperm concentration in the sample. Therefore we believe that valuable data can be obtained for sperm concentration and total sperm counts in post-coital tests, that should help to improve the reliability of the post-coital test.

  11. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  12. Calculation models for prediction of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing during ship transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miana, Mario; Hoyo, Rafael del; Rodrigalvarez, Vega; Valdes, Jose Ramon [Instituto Tecnologico de Aragon, Area de Investigacion, Desarrollo y Servicios Tecnologicos, Maria de Luna 7, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Llorens, Raul [ENAGAS SA, Direccion de Ingenieria y Tecnologia del Gas, Autovia A - 2, km. 306.4, 50012 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A group of European gas transportation companies within the European Gas Research Group launched in 2007 the 'MOLAS' Project to provide a software program for the analysis of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing process during ship transportation. This program contains two different modeling approaches: a physical algorithm and an 'intelligent' model. Both models are fed with the same input data, which is composed of the ship characteristics (BOR and capacity), voyage duration, LNG composition, temperature, pressure, and volume occupied by liquid phase at the port of origin, together with pressure at the port of destination. The results obtained are the LNG composition, temperature and liquid volume at the port of destination. Furthermore, the physical model obtains the evolution over time of such variables en route as it is based on unsteady mass balances over the system, while the i-model applies neural networks to obtain regression coefficients from historical data composed only of origin and destination measurements. This paper describes both models and validates them from previous published models and experimental data measured in ENAGAS LNG regasification plants. (author)

  13. Life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment of Nigerian liquefied natural gas addressing uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Amir; Freire, Fausto; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos

    2015-03-17

    Natural gas (NG) has been regarded as a bridge fuel toward renewable sources and is expected to play a greater role in future global energy mix; however, a high degree of uncertainty exists concerning upstream (well-to-tank, WtT) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of NG. In this study, a life-cycle (LC) model is built to assess uncertainty in WtT GHG emissions of liquefied NG (LNG) supplied to Europe by Nigeria. The 90% prediction interval of GHG intensity of Nigerian LNG was found to range between 14.9 and 19.3 g CO2 eq/MJ, with a mean value of 16.8 g CO2 eq/MJ. This intensity was estimated considering no venting practice in Nigerian fields. The mean estimation can shift up to 25 g CO2 eq when considering a scenario with a higher rate of venting emissions. A sensitivity analysis of the time horizon to calculate GHG intensity was also performed showing that higher GHG intensity and uncertainty are obtained for shorter time horizons, due to the higher impact factor of methane. The uncertainty calculated for Nigerian LNG, specifically regarding the gap of data for methane emissions, recommends initiatives to measure and report emissions and further LC studies to identify hotspots to reduce the GHG intensity of LNG chains.

  14. The risks of Bobtail truck LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) distribution in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Cesar A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway)], e-mail: cesar.leal@dnv.com

    2008-07-01

    The use of 'Bobtail' trucks (6 and 9 ton) for distribution of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in Brazilian cities represents a new and mobile source of risk. In this paper, it will be presented a discussion about some of the possible accident scenarios that can occur with this kind of vehicle, with emphasis on the possible consequences (BLEVE/fireball). The goal is to spread information and call attention of Government Authorities and gas distribution companies, as well as the general public, about this source of risk. In the case of a 9 ton fireball, fatalities could be expected up to 176 m, according to TNO models. Collapse of the tank engulfed in fire is expected in 10 to 20 minutes, a too short time interval for the arrival of a fire brigade and control of the situation. Suggestions are presented for the use of insulating coating in the tanks capable of withstanding an external fire for two hours without collapsing and the realization of a risk study for estimation of the impact of the use of insulation in terms of risk reduction for the population and a comparison of risks associated to the two forms of LPG distribution. (author)

  15. Plasmas pour valorisation totale ou partielle des gaz contenant de l'H2S Plasmas for Total Or Partial Upgrading of H2s Containing Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czernichowski A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Des procédés par plasmas alternatifs au procédé Claus sont proposés pour produire de l'hydrogène et récupérer du soufre à partir des gaz contenant une forte teneur en H2S. Quand la teneur en H2S est moins importante, des techniques plasma peuvent également être utiles pour assister certains étages du procédé classique Claus ou réaliser ce procédé pour des gaz non conventionnels. Les tests allant jusqu'à l'échelle industrielle sont menés dans divers réacteurs à plasmas et les résultats encourageants rapportés de la littérature et de la recherche propre laissent envisager des prochaines applications. Plasma assisted processes are proposed to act as an alternative to the Claus process in order to recover hydrogen and sulphur from high H2S gases. For less concentrated gases plasma techniques may also be inserted into classical Claus plant or may allow treatment of non conventional gases. Up to industrial scale tests are performed using different plasma reactors. The literature-based results as well as our own ones make the future applications quite optimistic.

  16. Economic and environmental assessment of liquefied natural gas as a supplemental aircraft fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mitch R.; Malina, Robert; Gilmore, Christopher K.; Gibbs, Jonathan M.; Trigg, Chris; Wolfe, Philip J.; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-04-01

    In 2013, natural gas is 70-80% cheaper than jet fuel on an energy basis. As an alternative aviation fuel, natural gas may reduce operating costs. In this paper, we assess the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a supplemental aircraft fuel in a military context, with detailed assessments of the Lockheed Martin C-130H and C-130J transport aircraft. We estimate the cost of retrofitting these aircraft to use LNG and the savings from reduced fuel expenses. We evaluate the societal impacts of LNG within a cost-benefit framework, taking into account resource consumption, human health impacts related to air quality, and climate damage. In order to compare alternative uses of natural gas in aviation, we include in our analysis Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas as a drop-in alternative. Uncertainty analysis is performed with Monte Carlo simulations. We find that aircraft operators can save up to 14% on fuel expenses (retrofit costs included) by employing LNG retrofits, with a 95% confidence interval of 2-23%. Society can also benefit by 12% (3-20%) from LNG use as a result of improved surface air quality, lower resource consumption, and net climate neutrality. These results are highly dependent on fuel prices, the quantity and cost of the LNG retrofits, and the frequency and length of missions. FT jet fuel is not cost-competitive with conventional fuel and results in increased fuel expenses by 17%. FT fuel provides marginal societal benefits relative to jet fuel.

  17. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  18. Refueling emissions from cars in Japan: Compositions, temperature dependence and effect of vapor liquefied collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Refueling emissions from cars available on the Japanese market, which were not equipped with specific controlling devices, were investigated. For the composition analysis, a proton transfer reaction plus switchable reagent ion mass spectrometry (PTR + SRI-MS), which is capable of real-time measurement, was used. In addition, the performance of a vapor liquefied collection system (VLCS), which is a recently developed controlling device, was evaluated and compared with an onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) system. The refueling emission factor of uncontrolled vehicles at 20 °C was 1.02 ± 0.40 g/L in the case dispensing 20 L of fuel. The results of composition analysis indicated that the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) of refueling emissions in Japan was 3.49 ± 0.83. The emissions consist of 80% alkanes and 20% alkenes, and aromatics and di-enes were negligible. C4 alkene had the highest impact on the MIR of refueling emissions. The amounts of refueling emissions were well reproduced by a function developed by MOVE2010 in the temperature range of 5-35 °C. The compositions of the refueling emissions varied in this temperature range, but the change in MIR was negligible. The trapping efficiency of VLCS was the same level as that of the ORVR (over 95%). The MIRs of refueling and evaporative emissions were strongly affected by that of the test fuel. This study and our previous study indicated that MIRbreakthrough ≈ MIRrefueling ≈ MIRfuel + 0.5 and MIRpermeation ≈ MIRfuel. The real-world estimated average MIRfuel in Japan was about 3.0.

  19. Application of computational chemistry methods to obtain thermodynamic data for hydrogen production from liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Sousa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate thermodynamic data, such as standard enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy changes of reaction and, consequently, chemical equilibrium constants, for a reaction system describing the hydrogen production from Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG. The acquisition of those properties was made using computational chemistry methods and the results were compared with experimental data reported in the literature. The reaction system of steam reforming of LPG was reported as a set of seven independent reactions involving the chemical species n-C4H10, C3H8, C2H6, C2H4, CH4, CO2, CO, H2O, H2 and solid carbon. Six computational approaches were used: Density Functional Theory (DFT employing Becke's three parameter hybrid exchange functional, and the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (B3LYP using the 6-31G++(d,p basis set and the composite methods CBS-QB3, Gaussian-1 (G1, Gaussian-2 (G2, Gaussian-3 (G3 and Gaussian-4 (G4. Mole fractions of the system components were also determined between 873.15 and 1173.15 K, at 1 atm and a feed with a stoichiometric amount of water. Results showed that the hybrid functional B3LYP/6-31G++(d,p, G3 and G4 theories were the most appropriated methods to predict the properties of interest. Gaussian-3 and Gaussian-4 theories are expected to be good thermodynamic data predictors and the known efficient prediction of vibrational frequencies by B3LYP is probably the source of the good agreement found in this study. This last methodology is of special interest since it presents low computational cost, which is important when more complex molecular systems are considered.

  20. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  1. Melt With This Kiss: Paralyzing and Liquefying Venom of The Assassin Bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Madio, Bruno; Jin, Jiayi; Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2017-04-01

    Assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are venomous insects, most of which prey on invertebrates. Assassin bug venom has features in common with venoms from other animals, such as paralyzing and lethal activity when injected, and a molecular composition that includes disulfide-rich peptide neurotoxins. Uniquely, this venom also has strong liquefying activity that has been hypothesized to facilitate feeding through the narrow channel of the proboscis-a structure inherited from sap- and phloem-feeding phytophagous hemipterans and adapted during the evolution of Heteroptera into a fang and feeding structure. However, further understanding of the function of assassin bug venom is impeded by the lack of proteomic studies detailing its molecular composition.By using a combined transcriptomic/proteomic approach, we show that the venom proteome of the harpactorine assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis includes a complex suite of >100 proteins comprising disulfide-rich peptides, CUB domain proteins, cystatins, putative cytolytic toxins, triabin-like protein, odorant-binding protein, S1 proteases, catabolic enzymes, putative nutrient-binding proteins, plus eight families of proteins without homology to characterized proteins. S1 proteases, CUB domain proteins, putative cytolytic toxins, and other novel proteins in the 10-16-kDa mass range, were the most abundant venom components. Thus, in addition to putative neurotoxins, assassin bug venom includes a high proportion of enzymatic and cytolytic venom components likely to be well suited to tissue liquefaction. Our results also provide insight into the trophic switch to blood-feeding by the kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae). Although some protein families such as triabins occur in the venoms of both predaceous and blood-feeding reduviids, the composition of venoms produced by these two groups is revealed to differ markedly. These results provide insights into the venom evolution in the insect suborder

  2. Experimental and numerical investigation of the roll motion behavior of a floating liquefied natural gas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, WenHua; Yang, JianMin; Hu, ZhiQiang; Xiao, LongFei; Peng, Tao

    2013-03-01

    The present paper does an experimental and numerical investigation of the hydrodynamic interaction and the response of a single point turret-moored Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) system, which is a new type of floating LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) platform that consists of a ship-type FPSO hull equipped with LNG storage tanks and liquefaction plants. In particular, this study focuses on the investigation of the roll response of FLNG hull in free-decay motions, white noise waves and also in irregular waves. Model tests of the FLNG system in 60%H filling condition excited by both white noise waves and irregular waves combined with steady wind and current have been carried out. Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) and time histories of the responses are obtained for sway, roll and yaw motions. Obvious Low Frequency (LF) components of the roll motions are observed, which may be out of expectation. To facilitate the physical understanding of this phenomenon, we filter the roll motions at the period of 30 s into two parts: the Wave Frequency (WF) motions and the Low Frequency (LF) motions respectively. The results indicate that the LF motions are closely related to the sway and yaw motions. Possible reasons for the presence of the LF motions of roll have been discussed in detail, through the comparison with the sway and yaw motions. As for the numerical part, the simulation of the modeled case is conducted with the help of the software SESAM®. A good agreement between experiments and calculations is reported within the scope of trends. However, the numerical simulations should be further improved for the prediction of the FLNG system in the heading sea.

  3. Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Scott; Blake, Donald R.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Lu, Rong; Brown, Michael J.; Williams, Michael D.; Russell, Armistead G.; Bossert, James E.; Streit, Gerald E.; Santoyo, Marisa Ruiz; Guzman, Francisco; Porch, William M.; McNair, Laurie A.; Keyantash, John; Kao, Chih-Yue Jim; Turco, Richard P.; Eichinger, William E.

    1997-09-01

    The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to escape from the basin. The gas Chromatographie measurements which have drawn attention to their sources within the urban area are used here to estimate rates of ventilation into the free troposphere. The calculations are centered on several well studied February/March pollution episodes. Carbon monoxide observations and emissions data are first exploited to provide a rough time constant for the removal of typical inert pollutant species from the valley. The timescale obtained is validated through an examination of meteorological simulations of three-dimensional flow. Heuristic arguments and transport modeling establish that propane and the butanes are distributed through the basin in a manner analogous to CO despite differing emissions functions. Ventilation rates and mass loadings yield outbound fluxes in a box model type computation. Estimated in this fashion, escape from the Valley of Mexico constitutes of the order of half of 1% of the northern hemispheric inputs for both propane and n-butane. Uncertainties in the calculations are detailed and include factors such as flow into the basin via surface winds and the size of the polluted regime. General quantification of the global propane and butane emissions from large cities will entail studies of this type in a variety of locales.

  4. The impact of liquefied petroleum gas usage on air quality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasca, J.; Ortiz, E.; Castillo, H.; Jaimes, J. L.; González, U.

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is the main fuel used in the residential sector of the Metropolitan Zone in the Valley of Mexico (MZVM). LPG represents 16% of the total fuel consumption in the MZVM and its demand increased 14% from 1986 to 1999. Propane and butanes, the main compounds of LPG, constituted 29% of all non-methane hydrocarbons found in the air of Mexico City. Some researchers have reported that LPG losses are a significant cause of high ozone concentration in MZVM. Three analyses are carried out in this work to estimate LPG's share of responsibility for MZVM pollution problems. First, the correlation between LPG consumption and three ozone pollution indicators was calculated for the period of 1986-1999. The non-significant correlation of these indicators with LPG consumption in a monthly basis suggests that LPG associated emissions are not the foremost cause of ozone formation. Second, a simulation model is applied to three LPG related emission control strategies to estimate the reduction in the maximum ozone concentration. The most noticeable effect was obtained when both hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) emissions associated with LPG use were totally reduced. The other two strategies, that only reduce HC emissions, had a minimum effect on the ozone concentration. Third, organic compounds consumption in air samples captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers is used to determine the chemical loss rate of LPG associated species and aromatics in the MZVM. The smog chamber results showed that 70% of propane and n-butane remain at the end of a 1-day irradiation, therefore they remain in the MZVM atmosphere for several days being the reason for the high concentration of these compounds. LPG associated compounds only account for 18% of ozone formed but aromatics contribute 35% to ozone in smog chamber.

  5. Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Blake, D.R.; Sherwood Rowland, F. [Chemistry Department, University of California, Irvine (United States); Lu, R. [Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Brown, M.J.; Williams, M.D. [Technology and Safety Assessment Division, Energy and Environmental Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Russell, A.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Bossert, J.E. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Streit, G.E. [Technology and Safety Assessment Division, Energy and Environmental Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Santoyo, M.R.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Gerencia de Ciencias del Ambiente, (Mexico) D.F.; Porch, W.M. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); McNair, L.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Keyantash, J. [Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Kao, C.J. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Turco, R.P. [Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Eichinger, W.E. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to escape from the basin. The gas chromatographic measurements which have drawn attention to their sources within the urban area are used here to estimate rates of ventilation into the free troposphere. The calculations are centered on several well studied February/March pollution episodes. Carbon monoxide observations and emissions data are first exploited to provide a rough time constant for the removal of typical inert pollutant species from the valley. The timescale obtained is validated through an examination of meteorological simulations of three-dimensional flow. Heuristic arguments and transport modeling establish that propane and the butanes are distributed through the basin in a manner analogous to CO despite differing emissions functions. Ventilation rates and mass loadings yield outbound fluxes in a box model type computation. Estimated in this fashion, escape from the Valley of Mexico constitutes of the order of half of 1{percent} of the northern hemispheric inputs for both propane and n-butane. Uncertainties in the calculations are detailed and include factors such as flow into the basin via surface winds and the size of the polluted regime. General quantification of the global propane and butane emissions from large cities will entail studies of this type in a variety of locales.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  6. The impact of liquefied petroleum gas usage on air quality in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasca, J.; Ortiz, E.; Castillo, H.; Jaimes, J.L.; Gonzalez, U. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is the main fuel used in the residential sector of the Metropolitan Zone in the Valley of Mexico (MZVM). LPG represents 16% of the total fuel consumption in the MZVM and its demand increased 14% from 1986 to 1999. Propane and butanes, the main compounds of LPG, constituted 29% of all non-methane hydrocarbons found in the air of Mexico City. Some researchers have reported that LPG losses are a significant cause of high ozone concentration in MZVM. Three analyses are carried out in this work to estimate LPG's share of responsibility for MZVM pollution problems. First, the correlation between LPG consumption and three ozone pollution indicators was calculated for the period of 1986-1999. The non-significant correlation of these indicators with LPG consumption on a monthly basis suggests that LPG associated emissions are not the foremost cause of ozone formation. Second, a simulation model is applied to three LPG related emission control strategies to estimate the reduction in the maximum ozone concentration. The most noticeable effect was obtained when both hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions associated with LPG use were totally reduced. The other two strategies, that only reduce HC emissions, had a minimum effect on the ozone concentration. Third, organic compounds consumption in air samples captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers is used to determine the chemical loss rate of LPG associated species and aromatics in the MZVM. The smog chamber results showed that 70% of propane and n-butane remain at the end of a 1-day irradiation, therefore they remain in the MZVM atmosphere for several days being the reason for the high concentration of these compounds. LPG associated compounds only account for 18% of ozone formed but aromatics contribute 35% to ozone in smog chamber. (Author)

  7. 2001-2003 ''public utility'' contract between the French government and Gaz de France; Contrat de ''service public'' 2001-2003 entre l'etat et Gaz de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The ''public utility'' contract aims at specifying the actions of Gaz de France (GdF), the French gas utility, in terms of national development and public utility presence at the local scale. It extends and completes the 'contract of group' established between the government and GdF in the domain of quality of the services offered to clients, development of gas infrastructures and extension of gas supplies, and sustainable development. (J.S.)

  8. Matériaux pour la dépollution des gaz d'échappement automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouaddib-Moral, N.; Gauthier, C.

    2002-04-01

    Les premières législations antipollution ont été mises en place suite à la détection, aux Etats Unis plus particulièrement en Californie, du smog photochimique et des pluies acides, néfastes pour la faune et la flore. Les estimations de la contribution de l'automobile aux émissions de composés, considérés comme précurseurs de ces phénomènes, ont été suffisantes pour provoquer la mise en place de normes draconiennes en matière d'émissions automobiles. Les matériaux catalytiques ont été évalués en tant que solution possible pour réduire les émissions à l'échappement. En Europe, l'utilisation des catalyseurs trois voies a été généralisée sur les véhicules essence fonctionnant à richesse stoechiométrique à partir de 1993. Une nouvelle génération de catalyseurs appelée piège à oxydes d'azote (NOx) est maintenant nécessaire pour le post-traitement des gaz d'échappement des motorisations à essence fonctionnant en mélange pauvre (combustion en présence d'un excès d'oxygène) pour diminuer la consommation et par conséquent réduire les émissions du CO2 connu pour son impact sur l'effet de serre. La dépollution des moteurs diesel via un catalyseur d'oxydation a été généralisée en Europe depuis 1996. La sévérisation des normes européennes impose pour les moteurs diesel le recours à des matériaux spécifiques pour le traitement des oxydes d'azotes et des particules par l'intermédiaire de filtres à particules dont l'efficacité de filtration est supérieure à 95%, mais doivent subir des régénérations périodiques.

  9. ENVIR IONMENTAL ISSUES OF COMPETITIVENESS OF RUSSIAN MULTINATIONAL OIL AND GAS CORPORATIONS IN LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Piskulova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to tough state environmental management requirements and ecological regulations, oil and gas multinational corporations (MNC make more and more attempts to mitigate negative environmental impacts resulting from their industrial activities, their competitiveness beingstrengthened therewith. The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG is associated with less environmental impact in comparison with oil and coal, particularly so far as the hotbed effect is concerned. In the field of innovative technological development, Russian MNC drag so far well behind most advanced western corporations who provide for less negative impact of their production activities upon environment.

  10. Investigation on the heat transfer characteristics during flow boiling of liquefied natural gas in a vertical micro-fin tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Shi, Yumei; Chen, Dongsheng

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the heat transfer characteristics of liquefied natural gas flow boiling in a vertical micro-fin tube. The effect of heat flux, mass flux and inlet pressure on the flow boiling heat transfer coefficients was analyzed. The Kim, Koyama, and two kinds of Wellsandt correlations with different Ftp coefficients were used to predict the flow boiling heat transfer coefficients. The predicted results showed that the Koyama correlation was the most accurate over the range of experimental conditions.

  11. Arrimer le Nord au Sud pour réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre grâce au MDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moïse Tsayem Demaze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Le Mécanisme pour un développement propre (MDP est le seul outil du Protocole de Kyoto qui associe les pays développés aux pays en développement afin de réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Les relations Nord-Sud qu’il crée sont illustrées dans cet article par les exemples du Royaume-Uni, des Pays-Bas, de la France et de la Belgique, qui prennent part à plus de la moitié des projets MDP. Ces exemples confirment la position dominante des pays émergents (Chine, Inde, Brésil qui, grâce à divers facteurs (économique, géographique, institutionnel, sont les principaux bénéficiaires de ce mécanisme.

  12. Ecoulement de gaz dans un long micro-canal : comparaison des modèles continu et cinétique

    OpenAIRE

    De Izarra, Léonard; Trouette, Benoît; Rouet, Jean-Louis; Izrar, Boujema

    2013-01-01

    National audience; Les écoulements de gaz dans des micro ou nano conduites mettent en jeu des effets de raréfaction et de compressibilité. Différents régimes d'écoulement (hydrodynamique, de glissement ou transitionnel) sont alors susceptibles de cohabiter et il est nécessaire d'utiliser une approche et des méthodes numériques adaptées. Les solutions obtenues par une méthode de résolution de l'équation de Boltzmann-BGK sont comparées aux solutions des équations de Navier-Stokes compressibles ...

  13. Olgunlaşma Döneminin Kinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)’da Ot Verimi ve Kalitesi ile Gaz ve Metan Üretimine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    KAPLAN, Mahmut; ÜKE, Özlem; KALE, Hasan; KAMALAK, Adem

    2016-01-01

    Çalışmanın amacı farklı olgunlaşma dönemlerinde (çiçeklenme öncesi, tam çiçeklenme ve tohum bağlama) hasat edilen kinoa bitkisinin (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) yeşil ve kuru ot verimi, besleme değeri, in vitro gaz ve metan üretimi, metabolik enerji (ME) ve organik madde sindirim derecesine (OMS) etkisini belirlemektir. Kinoa bitkisinin olgunlaşması araştırmada incelenen tüm parametreleri etkilemiştir (P≤0.01). Çalışma sonuçlarına göre olgunlaşma döneminin ilerlemesiyle yeşil ve kuru ot verimle...

  14. Modélisation et simulation de la boucle des gaz dans un moteur diesel suralimenté à injection directe

    OpenAIRE

    Sabeh, Zahi; Ragot, José; Maquin, Didier

    2008-01-01

    National audience; La complexité des moteurs diesel modernes contrôlés par l'électronique, avec un nombre croissant de capteurs et d'actionneurs, nécessite des systèmes de mesure et de diagnostic améliorés et automatisés à bord des véhicules utilisant ces moteurs. La surveillance appropriée et la détection précoce des défauts nécessite de disposer de modèles de bon fonctionnement des composants et, dans cette communication, on s'intéresse à la boucle des gaz d'un moteur diesel à injection dir...

  15. Microgénérateurs à aimants permanents entraînés par des microturbines à air ou des micromachines à gaz chaud

    OpenAIRE

    Herrault, Florian

    2009-01-01

    L'énergie nécessaire au fonctionnement des systèmes électroniques est en train de surpasser les capacités des batteries actuelles. Par conséquent, l'application des technologies MEMS pour la conception de nouvelles sources de puissance à haute performance est très attractive. Cette thèse considère la fabrication de microgénérateurs entraînés par gaz froid ou chaud. Tout d'abord, nous avons développé des microgénérateurs à aimants permanents compatibles avec le fonctionnement de micromachin...

  16. Transport diphasique de gaz et de condensat. Aspects techniques et économiques Technical and Economic Aspects of Two-Phase Pipelining of Gas and Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeois T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évacuation diphasique de la production d'un gisement de gaz à condensat présente des avantages importants, en particulier sur le plan économique. Les caractéristiques des écoulements diphasiques sont exposées, avec les conséquences principales sur la définition d'un schéma d'exploitation. Une comparaison économique est ensuite présentée, pour illustrer la réduction des investissements qui peut être apportée par l'évacuation diphasique de la production. Enfin, les recherches françaises sur les écoulements diphasiques dans les conduites pétrolières sont brièvement décrites, ainsi qu'un exemple de calcul sur une conduite de gaz à condensat en exploitation diphasique. The two-phase pipelining of a wet gas field production presents many advantages, especially from an economic point of view. The characteristics of two-phase flow are described, together with their main consequences on the operational scheme. Then an economic comparison is made to illustrate the reduction in investment costs that can by achieved with two-phase pipelining. Research in France on two-phase flow in gas and condensate pipelines is briefly described, and an example is given of the designing of a wet-gas pipeline currently being operated in the two-phase mode.

  17. Strategy of adaptation to competition of a local public utility company in a situation of monopoly: the case of Gaz de Strasbourg SA; Strategie d'adaptation a la concurrence d'une societe locale de service public en monopole: le cas de Gaz de Strasbourg SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonnier, R.

    2001-07-01

    This work deals with the creation process and the definition of the strategy content of Gaz de Strasbourg company at a time when this local monopoly company has to face the deregulation of the gas market and the competition. Its aim is to give help to the company in the identification of the stakes and to adopt and implement the proper strategies in a context dominated by the 'essential facility doctrine' which makes a distinction between the activities linked with the physical network infrastructures, considered as 'natural monopoly', and the commercialization activities of the natural gas product. The strategy proposals are built with the prospect of splitting of the company into two or three different layers of activities and using the concepts and tools of structural analysis, inspired from Michael Porter, and the resources and competences model. It includes an analysis of the activities of a natural gas network company, like Gaz de Strasbourg, and of their evolution in an integrated or in a disintegrated structure. (J.S.)

  18. Gasification in Petroleum Refinery of 21st Century La gazéification dans la raffinerie du pétrole du XXIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furimsky E.

    2006-12-01

    goudrons, le coke et l'asphalte, résultant respectivement de la viscoréduction, de la carbonisation et du désasphaltage. Les résidus finaux peuvent être, à leur tour, convertis en produits utilisables comme l'hydrogène, la vapeur, l'électricité, l'ammoniac et des produits chimiques. Dans ce contexte, la gazéification est apparue comme la technologie de choix pour la valorisation des résidus en raison de ses meilleures performances. De même, les boues de raffinerie peuvent être cogazéifiées avec les résidus finaux et devenir alors des produits valorisables. Intégrée à la raffinerie de pétrole, la gazéification peut aider à résoudre les problèmes environnementaux liés à l'élimination des résidus et des boues. Les résultats économiques de la raffinerie peuvent également être améliorés. Les tendances de déréglementation du marché de l'énergie permettent aux raffineries de pétrole d'y pénétrer, soit toutes seules, soit en partenariat avec les fournisseurs d'utilités. Le potentiel de coproduction de produits chimiques et de vapeur avec l'électricité offre une souplesse de réaction permettant de répondre aux demandes du marché. L'intérêt de la technologie de la gazéification est commercialement démontré. Parmi d'autres, les gazéificateurs à lit entraîné sont les gazéificateurs de prédilection. Plusieurs projets commerciaux en Europe, en Asie et aux États-Unis font appel à un gazéificateur utilisant soit un système d'alimentation en suspension, soit un système d'alimentation par voie sèche.

  19. Première analyse du contenu et de la qualité des Plans de Prévention des Risques Naturels (PPR). D'une complexité originelle à une pluralité fonctionnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchi, Raphaëlle; Robert, Frédéric; Guarnieri, Franck

    2003-01-01

    Mise en ligne des articles sur le site de l'éditeur : http://www.annales.org/ri/2003/ri-mai2003/blanchi61-68.pdf; L'analyse de plusieurs dossiers de Plans de prévention des risques naturels (PPR), ainsi que les entretiens menés avec les services instructeurs, ont permis d'apporter les premiers éléments d'appréciation de leur contenu et de leur qualité. Les résultats de l'étude concernant la connaissance du risque, les supports cartographiques et les règlements mettent en évidence une grande d...

  20. Some results on the fluorescence of gases excited by high-energy charged particles; Quelques resultats concernant la fluorescence de gaz excites par des particules chargees de grande energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L.; Lesureur, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The essential characteristics of rare gases for use as scintillators are as follows: a very brief period of luminescence, generally less than 10{sup -8} s; a linear response as a function of the energy lost by the nuclear particle in the gas, even in the case of strongly ionising particles (fission fragments). In the gaseous or condensed state therefore, they are of great interest in nuclear physics. (author) [French] Les caracteristiques essentielles des gaz rares en tant que scintillateurs sont: une duree de luminescence tres breve, inferieure a 10{sup -8} s en general; une reponse lineaire en fonction de l'energie perdue par la particule nucleaire dans le gaz, meme dans le cas de particules fortement ionisantes (fragments de fission). A l'etat gazeux ou condense, ils presentent donc un grand interet en physique nucleaire. (auteur)

  1. The Fire Protection Design of Liquefied Hydrocarbon Spherical Tank%液化烃球罐的消防设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵军

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis of the composition and fire characteristics of liquefied hydrocarbon,the fire control cooling method and system of liquefied hydrocarbon spherical tank were described.According to the design experience,taking the spherical tank of 3000 m3 as an example,starting from the protection area of water spray cone,the number of nozzles and water quantity of the cooling device was estimated,and the economy and rationality of the entire cooling system was back calculated.%通过分析液化烃的组成和着火特点,阐述液化烃球罐发生火灾时的消防冷却方式及系统组成,并根据自己的设计经历,以容积为3000 m3的球罐为例,从水雾喷头水雾锥的保护面积入手,估算出冷却装置所需要的喷头数量和水量,反向核算整个冷却系统的经济性和合理性。

  2. Determination of trace anions in liquefied petroleum gas using liquid absorption and electrokinetic migration for enrichment followed by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meilan; Yang, Jianmin; Li, Hai-Fang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-06-01

    A simple sample enrichment technique, electrokinetic migration enrichment in single phase using a designed device, coupled with ion chromatography is presented for the determination of four anions (H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), and SO(4)(2-)) in liquefied petroleum gas by liquid adsorption. The electrokinetic migration enrichment is based on the phenomenon of ion electrokinetic migration to the opposite electrode. When the anions migrated to the anode in a smaller volume chamber under the electric field, the concentration was realized. The main parameters affecting enrichment efficiency of applied voltage and enrichment time were investigated. The ion chromatography condition for anions separation was also studied. Under the optimal electrokinetic migration enrichment and ion chromatography conditions, the four anions were detected simultaneously with good linear relationship (r(2) = 0.9908-0.9968) and high precisions (less than 5% of the relative standard deviations of peak areas). The limits of detection of anions (S/N of 3) were in the range of 8-600 μg L(-1). The enrichment factors of the four anions ranged from 3.1 to 5.8. The established method was successfully applied to the analysis of the trace anions in liquefied petroleum gas by liquid adsorption with satisfactory results. The advantages of this method are simple operation and low cost.

  3. Effect of temperature and time on microstructure and surface functional groups of activated carbon fibers prepared from liquefied wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers were prepared from liquefied wood through stream activation. The effects of activation temperature and time on the microstructure and surface functional groups of the liquefied wood activated carbon fibers (LWACFs were studied using analysis of burning behavior, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and SEM. The results showed that the burn-off value of the LWACFs increased gradually with the increase in temperature or time. All the LWACFs were far from being structurally graphitized, and in general, as temperature or time increased, the degree of graphitization and thickness of crystal structure increased. In addition, the LWACFs possessed rich micropores, and their specific surface area, pore volume, micropore size, and mesopore quantity were directly related to the activation temperature or time. The maximum specific surface area was found to be 2641 m2/g. The fractal dimension values of all samples were close to 3, indicating that their surfaces were very rough. Furthermore, with an increase in temperature or time, the elemental content of carbon increased, while that of oxygen decreased. Meanwhile, as the temperature or time increased, the relative content of graphitic carbon decreased, whereas that of carbon bonded to oxygen-containing functions increased. The surface of samples prepared at higher temperature or with longer time formed a considerable amount of holes.

  4. Gas and electric power opening of the markets. Reality, limits and paradoxes the position of the cogeneration; Gaz electricite ouverture des marches. Realite, limites et paradoxes place de la cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    During these two days of the colloquium on gas and electric power market opening, industrial and french administration discussed about the new market deregulation impacts and the cogeneration position in this context. The position of EDF and Gaz De France, the european competition and the government policy are presented. These nineteen papers proposed an economic analysis and the state of the art of the situation. (A.L.B.)

  5. Circadian long call distribution in wild orangutans Distribution circadienne des cris longs (long calls chez l’orang-outan en milieu naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geissmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We present first data on circadian long call distribution of wild orangutans in Northwest Borneo. Data were collected during two months in Batang Ai National Park. A total of 151 male long calls were heard, exhibiting a bimodal distribution pattern with peaks at 05:00-06:00 hours and 18:00-19:00 hours. An earlier study found pronounced differences between the calling rates of Bornean orangutans, which showed an almost unimodal call distribution with its peak at mid-morning, and those of Sumatran orangutans, which showed a bimodal call distribution with a distinct calling peak at predawn and a more moderate peak near dusk (MacKinnon 1974. Our findings from Batang Ai resemble more closely the pattern reported for Sumatra than those reported for other Bornean localities and, therefore, contradict earlier reports suggesting a Sumatra-Borneo dichotomy in orangutan call distribution. In addition, orangutans in Batang Ai were heard to regularly emit long calls throughout the night. This behaviour is unusual for a diurnal species.Nous présentons les premières données sur la distribution circadienne des cris longs (long calls chez les mâles orangs-outans vivant en milieu naturel au nord-ouest de Bornéo. Les données ont été récoltées lors d’une étude de terrain de deux mois au Parc National de Batang Ai. Les 151 cris longs entendus montraient une distribution bimodale, caractérisée par des pics à 05:00-06:00 et 18:00-19:00 heures. Une étude précédente avait révélé des différences profondes entre les taux de cris longs des orangs-outans de Bornéo et de Sumatra. Alors que la distribution des cris longs à Bornéo était presque unimodale et montrait un pic en milieu d’avant-midi, la distribution à Sumatra était bimodale et montrait un pic distinct avant l’aube et un second pic plus modéré au crépuscule (MacKinnon 1974. Nos résultats à Batang Ai ressemblent davantage au schéma rapporté précédemment à Sumatra qu

  6. Detection of radioactive gases in the CO{sub 2} cooling the reactors G 2 - G 3; Detection des gaz radioactifs dans le CO{sub 2} de refroidissement des piles G2 - G3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouthier, J.; Rossi, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1968-07-01

    The carbon dioxide cooling the reactors G2 - G3 contains activation gases and fission gases. It is of interest to know their concentration, for example to be able to deduce rapidly the norms which would have to be applied in the case of an incident in the circuit. Gas-phase chromatography is applied daily for carrying out analyses. The chromatogram has separate peaks due to tritium, argon 41, krypton 85 and the 133 and 135 isotopes of xenon. By integrating each peak it is possible to calculate the specific activity of each product. The construction of an apparatus for carrying out continuous measurements is under consideration. (authors) [French] Le gaz carbonique, refroidissant les reacteurs G2 - G3, contient des gaz d'activation et des gaz de fission. Il est interessant de connaitre leur teneur par exemple pour etre en mesure de deduire rapidement les normes qu'il y aurait lieu d'appliquer en cas d'incidents sur le circuit. La methode de chromatographie en phase gazeuse est employee quotidiennement pour faire des analyses. Le chromatogramme se presente sous forme de pics distincts dus au tritium, a l'argon 41, au krypton 85 et aux isotopes 133 et 135 du xenon. L'integration de chaque pic permet de calculer l'activite specifique de chaque compose. Il est envisage de construire un appareil pour des mesures en continu. (auteurs)

  7. Emballage naturel de produits biologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.

    2011-01-01

    Hoe milieuvriendelijk zijn hernieuwbare en biologisch afbreekbare kunststofverpakkingen eigenlijk? Voor het verpakkend bedrijfsleven is het lastig om daarachter te komen en dus weloverwogen keuzes te maken. In het onderzoek ‘Natuurlijk verpakt’ – uitgevoerd door Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research – is zoveel mogelijk informatie verzameld en samengevat.Les emballages en plastique, renouvelables et biodégradables, sont-ils vraiment écologiques? Pour les entreprises d’emballage, il est d...

  8. Emballage naturel de produits biologiques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.

    2011-01-01

    Hoe milieuvriendelijk zijn hernieuwbare en biologisch afbreekbare kunststofverpakkingen eigenlijk? Voor het verpakkend bedrijfsleven is het lastig om daarachter te komen en dus weloverwogen keuzes te maken. In het onderzoek ‘Natuurlijk verpakt’ – uitgevoerd door Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Res

  9. Depo Gazı Enerji Üretim Tesisi Baca Gazı Atık Isısının Seralarda Değerlendirilmesi: İstanbul Örneği / Utilization of Waste Heat in Energy Production Plant from Landfill Gas at Greenhouses – Case Study in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Enç

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Evsel atık düzenli depolama sahaları kullanım ömrü dolduktan sonra yararlı kullanım alanları sınırlı sahalardır. Çoğunlukla yeşil alan olarak kullanılan bu yerler ekonomik ve çevresel anlamda atıl durumda bulunmaktadır. Depolama sahalarının İstanbul gibi arazi sıkıntısı çeken bir şehirde yararlı amaçlar için kullanılması elzemdir. Depolama sonrası sahalarda metan gazı oluşmakta ve farklı yöntemlerle kontrol altına alınmaktadır. Bu gazların toplanması, taşınması ve özel motorlarda yakılması ile elektrik enerjisi üretilmektedir. Tesislerde gazın yakılması, depo gazı içerisinde bulunan CH4 (metan gazının CO2’e indirgenmesini sağlayarak sera etkisini azaltmakta, elektrik enerjisi üreterek ekonomiye katkı sağlamaktadır. Çevresel ve ekonomik yarar göz önüne alındığında, depo gazından enerji üretim tesislerinde, enerji üretiminde mümkün olabilecek maksimum verime ulaşılmalıdır. Bu düşünce ile bakıldığında, depo gazı enerji üretim tesisinde oluşan atık ısının değerlendirilemeden atmosfere verilmesi önemli bir sorun olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. Oldukça yüksek debi ve sıcaklığa sahip bu ısı, enerji bakımından önemli bir potansiyele sahiptir. Bu sıcaklıktaki ve debideki ısının değerlendirilmeden atmosfere verilmesi, çevreyi olumsuz etkilemesinin yanında ekonomik kayıplara yol açmaktadır. Seralarda mevsimlik çiçek üretimi, maliyeti yüksek bir faaliyettir. Maliyetlerin önemli bir kısmını sera ısıtılması ve gübre kullanımı oluşturmaktadır. Isıtma işlemi için Türkiye’nin büyük bir bölümünde kömür ve doğalgaz kullanılmaktadır. Kışın seraların ısıtılması için kullanılan fosil yakıtların hem maliyeti yüksek, hem de çevresel standardı düşüktür. Bu çalışma, İstanbul Kalkınma Ajansı (İSTKA tarafından desteklenen “Depo Gazı Enerji Üretim Tesisi Atık Isının ve Kompostun Seralarda

  10. Fractionation of heavy metals in liquefied chromated copper arsenate 9-treated wood sludge using a modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Hse, Chung-Yun; Gambrell, Robert; Shupe, Todd F

    2009-09-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was liquefied with polyethylene glycol/glycerin and sulfuric acid. After liquefaction, most CCA metals (98% As, 92% Cr, and 83% Cu) were removed from liquefied CCA-treated wood by precipitation with calcium hydroxide. The original CCA-treated wood and liquefied CCA-treated wood sludge were fractionated by a modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure. The purpose of the BCR-sequential extraction used in this study was to examine the availability of CCA metals in treated wood for reuse. Both As and Cr had a slightly higher concentration in the sludge sample than in original CCA-treated wood. The sequential extraction showed that As and Cr were principally existed in an oxidizable fraction (As, 67%; Cr, 88%) in original CCA-treated wood. Only 1% of both As and Cr were extracted by hot nitric acid with the last extraction step. The distribution of As and Cr changed markedly in liquefied CCA-treated wood sludge. The amount of As in the exchangeable/acid extractable fraction increased from 16% to 85% while the amount of Cr increased from 3% to 54%. Only about 3% of As was present in the oxidizable fraction. However, there was still about 34% of Cr in the same fraction. Based on these results from sequential extraction procedures, it can be concluded that the accessibilities of CCA metals increase markedly by the liquefaction-precipitation process.

  11. L'effet de serre par le CO2 et les gaz traces Greenhouse Effect from CO2 and Trace Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Selon une opinion assez répandue le CO2 et les gaz traces, produits par l'activité humaine depuis le début de la révolution industrielle (1850, principalement du fait de la combustion et de la déforestation, et progressivement accumulés dans l'atmosphère terrestre, pourraient par effet de serre provoquer au XXIe siècle un réchauffement de la Terre de quelques degrés. Les conséquences climatiques (fonte des glaces. . . en seraient désastreuses. Aussi avons-nous étudié les principaux paramètres impliqués par ce phénomène : nature de l'effet de serre, cycle du carbone, transfert de CO2 à l'échelle du globe, gaz traces, conséquences climatiques de l'effet de serre dû au CO2 et aux gaz traces. Nous en sommes arrivés aux conclusions suivantes : - La concentration de l'atmosphère en CO2 et en gaz traces augmente de façon exponentielle en absence de toute réglementation et cela parallèlement à une production humaine également exponentielle de ces mêmes substances. - On n'a encore décelé aucun accroissement de la température moyenne de la Terre dû à l'effet de serre, d'ailleurs depuis 1940 nous traversons une période de refroidissement. - L'activité humaine engendre aussi des effets antagonistes de refroidissement (action des poussières dans l'atmosphère. . . assez mal connus. - L'étude des climats anciens indique une succession régulière de périodes froides et chaudes, cela doit nous rassurer sur le risque d'une brusque modification irréversible du climat. - Cependant il est absolument nécessaire d'améliorer nos connaissances fondamentales sur les principaux facteurs réglant le climat terrestre (chimie de l'atmosphère, transfert océan-atmosphère. . . et éventuellement de restreindre la production de certains gaz traces (fréons en particulier. According to a fairly widespread opinion, CO2 and trace gases, which have been produced by human activity since the start of the industrial revolution (1850

  12. Energy consumption, destruction of exergy and boil off during the process of liquefaction, transport and regasification of liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stradioto, Diogo Angelo; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)], e-mail: pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    A supply chain of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is composed by several processes like extraction, purification, liquefaction, storage, transport, regasification and distribution. In all these stages, processes need of energy. The main objective of this work is to quantify the energy consumption, mass loss and exergy destruction occurred throughout the chain. Results show that the process of liquefaction is the largest consumer of energy. Storage and transport by ship are responsible for the bigger mass losses and regasification is the process of larger destruction of exergy. A case study is performed considering a stream of pure methane at the input of a liquefaction plant, and evaluates energy along the chain, ending up at the distribution of NG after its regasification. (author)

  13. LNG低温管道支架设计%Introduce the Designing for Liquefied Natural Gas Cryogenic Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方锦坤

    2012-01-01

    管道支架是用以保持管道稳固和保证管线安全运行的重要组成部分。文章介绍了LNG低温管道支架设计中支架保冷结构和管部设计的要求,以及一种常用的滑动支架结构详图。%Pipe support is a significant part for fixing the pipeline and ensuring the safely operation of pipeline.The paper introduced the requirement for the structure of heat proof and support design in Liquefied Natural Gas cryogenic support,as well as a detail structural drawing of slide support in common use.

  14. Application of RAM Analyses in Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal%RAM分析在LNG接收站中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静

    2011-01-01

    The reliability engineering and its application were summarized.The importance to modern companies and product were emphasized.The application of RAM in liquefied natural gas terminal was introduced, interrelated application case was provided, and improvement suggestions according to the analysis result were recommended.%概述了可靠性工程的发展和应用,阐明了可靠性对现代企业和产品的重要意义.介绍了RAM(可靠性、可用性、可维护性)分析在液化天然气接收站中的应用过程,并且提供了应用案例和改进建议.

  15. Analysis of Influence of Heat Insulation on the Thermal Regime of Storage Tanks with Liquefied Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimov Vyacheslav I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Is numerically investigated the process of convective heat transfer in the reservoirs of liquefied natural gas (LNG. The regimes of natural convection in a closed rectangular region with different intensity of heat exchange at the external borders are investigated. Is solved the time-dependent system of energy and Navier-Stokes equations in the dimensionless variables “vorticity – the stream function”. Are obtained distributions of the hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures, that characterize basic regularities of the processes. The special features of the formation of circulation flows are isolated and the analysis of the temperature distribution in the solution region is carried out. Is shown the influence of geometric characteristics and intensity of heat exchange on the outer boundaries of reservoir on the temperature field in the LNG storage.

  16. Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum gas on workers at filling and distribution stations of Gaza governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdah, M M; Al Laham, N A; El Madhoun, R A

    2013-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is widely used in the Gaza Strip for domestic purposes, in agriculture and industry and, illegally, in cars. This study aimed to identify possible health effects on workers exposed to LPG in Gaza governorates. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview, and haematological and biochemical analyses of venous blood samples were made from 30 workers at filling and distribution stations and 30 apparently healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were found in all self-reported health-related complaints among LPG workers versus controls. LPG workers had significantly higher values of red blood cell counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelet counts. They also had significantly higher values of kidney function tests (urea, creatinine and uric acid) and liver function enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). LPG workers at Gaza Strip petroleum stations are at higher risk for health-related symptoms and clinical abnormalities.

  17. Large scale production of carbon nanotube arrays on the sphere surface from liquefied petroleum gas at low cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), a cheap industrial material, is used as carbon source to produce carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on ceramic spherical surface on a large scale in the floating catalyst process. The ceramic spheres provide huge surface area and good mobility, leading to the mass production of CNT arrays continuously. The arrays obtained from the surface are of good alignment, and the purity is as high as 97.5%. With the decrease of the growth temperature, CNTs in the array form with small-diameter of about 13 nm can be obtained. Therefore, with the industrial fuel as carbon source and the ceramic sphere as substrate, CNT arrays can easily be produced on large scale at low cost.

  18. Numerical simulation of ejected molten metal-nanoparticles liquefied by laser irradiation: Interplay of geometry and dewetting

    CERN Document Server

    Afkhami, S

    2013-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles, liquefied by fast laser irradiation, go through a rapid change of shape attempting to minimize their surface energy. The resulting nanodrops may be ejected from the substrate when the mechanisms leading to dewetting are sufficiently strong, as in the experiments involving gold nanoparticles [Habenicht et al., Science 309, 2043 (2005)]. We use a direct continuum-level approach to accurately model the process of liquid nanodrop formation and the subsequent ejection from the substrate. Our computations show a significant role of inertial effects and an elaborate interplay of initial geometry and wetting properties: e.g., we can control the direction of ejection by prescribing appropriate initial shape and/or wetting properties. We validate our computations by comparing directly with the experiments specified above involving the length scales measured in hundreds of nanometers, and with molecular dynamics simulations on much shorter scales measured in tens of atomic diameters, as in M. Fue...

  19. Safety considerations regarding the use of propane and other liquefied gases as coolants for rapid freezing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K P; Liddicoat, M I

    1987-09-01

    Liquid propane and similar coolants are used in the rapid freezing of biological specimens. These coolants form explosive gas mixtures with air, with a 14,000-fold increase in volume over that of the liquid. The liquefied gases have high vapour pressures and, unless they are maintained below their flashpoint, the vapour above them will reach ignitable concentrations. The flashpoint of liquid propane is -104 degrees C. Ethane has a higher vapour pressure, and vapour mixed with air above liquid ethane can be ignited at a coolant temperature of -130 degrees C. The danger is minimized if the coolant is maintained near its freezing point and under a nitrogen atmosphere, in a fume cupboard. Liquid nitrogen evaporates to a 690-fold increase in volume at room temperature. It is important to ventilate the working area, especially when cryo-sectioning in a small room, otherwise there is a possibility of asphyxiation.

  20. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  1. Gaz - almaz / Jekaterina Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodina, Jekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Venemaa Energiapoliitika Instituudi arvutuste kohaselt võib maagaasi tootmise ja nõudluse vahe ulatuda 2010. aastaks 100 miljardi kuupmeetrini, Kui maagaasi tarned Eestisse ära jäävad, saab meie riik omal jõul hakkama kõige rohkem kuu aega. Vt. samas: Gaas arvudes

  2. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  3. Gaz - almaz / Jekaterina Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodina, Jekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Venemaa Energiapoliitika Instituudi arvutuste kohaselt võib maagaasi tootmise ja nõudluse vahe ulatuda 2010. aastaks 100 miljardi kuupmeetrini, Kui maagaasi tarned Eestisse ära jäävad, saab meie riik omal jõul hakkama kõige rohkem kuu aega. Vt. samas: Gaas arvudes

  4. Gazâlî ve Thomas Aquinas’ta Tanrı’nın Kudreti ve İmkânsızlık

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Akdağ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ortaçağ’da, İslam düşüncesi içerisinde yazılmış olan İbn Sînâ’nın eş-Şifâ: İlahiyat’ı, Gazâlî’nin Makâsıdu’l-Felâsife’si ve İbn Rüşd’ün, Aristoteles’in eserlerine yazmış olduğu şerhler gibi pek çok felsefî ve teolojik eser Latinceye çevrilmiştir. Söz konusu çeviri eserler vasıtasıyla, İslam düşüncesinde carî olan, Tanrı’nın tikelleri kendi zatlarında bilip bilmediği, Tanrı’nın zatı gereği fiilde bulunup bulunmadığı, din ve felsefenin uzlaşıp uzlaşmayacağı gibi tartışmalı pek çok mesele Batı’ya intikal etmiştir. Bunlara ilaveten Tanrı’nın mutlak kudretinin alanının ne olduğu sorunu da Batı düşüncesinde bilinir hale gelmiştir. Bu çalışmada, “Tanrı mantıksal olarak mümkün olanı yapabilir ve bu durum Tanrı’nın mutlak kudretine halel getirmez” anlayışının Latin Batı dünyasına İbn Sînâ’nın eş-Şifâ’sı ve Gazâlî’nin Makâsıd’ının çevrileri vasıtasıyla intikal ettiği ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Tespit edebildiğimiz kadarıyla, Gazâlî’nin Makâsıd’ta bu konuya ilişkin serdettiği fikirler ile Hıristiyan teolog/düşünür Thomas Aquinas’ın fikirleri arasında önemli ölçüde benzerlik söz konusudur. Söz konusu benzerlik temele alınarak, Thomas Aquinas’ın bu hususta İslam düşüncesinden beslendiği düşüncesinin kuvvetle muhtemel olduğu söylenebilir.

  5. The reactions of magnesium and its alloys with moist gases at high temperatures; Les reactions du magnesium et de ses alliages avec les gaz humides aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-02-15

    The kinetics and mechanisms of the reaction of pure or low alloyed magnesium with various gas saturated by water vapor: oxygen, argon, nitrogen, air, carbon dioxide, have been studied and compared in the temperature range 350-600 deg C. After picturing the large chemical reactivity of magnesium surface, the more or less properties of the oxide film, always made of magnesia, have been shown depending on the nature of the gas carrying water vapor; in fact, metal sublimation occurs the more easily as the surrounding atmosphere is less oxidizing. Moreover, an activation energy change is systematic, but at a temperature which depends also on the latter. In the case of the alloys, the linear oxidation rate is generally obtained only after short induction periods, parabolic in nature. Two possibilities of corrosion inhibition of magnesium by water vapor are then demonstrated and explained: either by a partial superficial fluoridation, or when the carrier gas is carbon dioxide. Also, the extreme conditions of oxidation were studied, that is the ignition processes that occur at a particular temperature in every gas mixture. Finally, it is tried to evolve the fundamental and practical significance of all the results. (author) [French] On a etudie et compare par voie thermogravimetrique, micrographique et radiocristallographique, les cinetiques et les mecanismes de reaction du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages avec diverses atmospheres saturees en vapeur d'eau: oxygene, argon, azote, air, gaz carbonique, dans un domaine de temperatures s'etendant de 350 a 600 deg C, Apres avoir illustre l'extreme sensibilite chimique de la surface du magnesium, on a tout d'abord montre que la valeur plus ou moins protectrice de la couche d'oxyde formee, pourtant toujours constituee de magnesie normale, depend de la nature du gaz porteur de la vapeur d'eau; en effet, la sublimation du metal intervient d'autant plus facilement que les atmospheres en

  6. Étude des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification en vue de l'optimisation du rapport vapeur/comburant injecté dans un gazogène souterrain Study of Thermodynamic Equilibria in Gasification Reactions So As to Optimise the Steam/Oxidizer Ratio Injected Into an Underground Gas Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirard J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cette étude est de déterminer sur la base des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification le rapport vapeur/comburant à injecter dans un gazogène fonctionnant sous pression pour optimaliser les compositions, les pouvoirs calorifiques, les rendements de gazéification et la consommation d'agent gazéifiant. The aim of this study is to determine, on the basis of the thermodynamic equilibria of gazification reactions, the steam/oxidizer ratio to be injected into a gas generator operating under pressure so as to optimize the compositions, the heating values, the gasification efficiencies and the consumption of gasifying agent.

  7. CO{sub 2} direct cycles suitable for AGR type reactors; Cycles directs de gaz carbonique applicables aux reacteurs du genre AGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillet, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1967-10-01

    The perspectives given by the gas turbines under pressure, to build simple nuclear power plants and acieving significantly high yield, are specified. The CO{sub 2} is characterised by by good efficiency under moderate temperature (500 to 750 Celsius degrees), compactness and the simpleness of machines and the safe exploitation (supply, storage, relief cooling, thermosyphon). The revision of thermal properties of the CO{sub 2} and loss elements show that several direct cycles would fit in particular to the AGR type reactors. Cycles that would diverge a little from classical models and able to lead to power and heat generation can lead by simple means to the best results. Several satisfying solutions present for the starting up, the power regulation and the stopping. The nuclear power plant components and the functioning safety are equally considered in the present report. The conclusions stimulate the studies and realizations of carbon dioxide gas turbines in when approprite. [French] Les perspectives offertes par la turbine a gaz sous pression, pour construire des centrales nucleaires simples et de rendement progressivement eleve, se precisent actuellement. le CO{sub 2} se distingue par sa bonne efficacite a temperature moderee (500 a 750 degres celsius), la compacite et la simplicite des machines, et la surete qu'il apporte a l'exploitation ( approvisionnement, stockage, refroidissement de secours, thermosiphon). La revision des proprietes thermophysiques du CO{sub 2} et des elements de pertes montre que divers cycles directs conviendraient en particulier aux reacteurs agr ou derives. Des cycles s'ecartant peu des modeles classiques, et se pretant ulterieurement a la production simultanee d'electricite et de chaleur, peuvent conduire par des moyens simples aux meilleurs resultats d'ensemble. Plusieurs solutions satisfaisantes se presentent pour le demarrage, le reglage de la puissance et l'arret. Les composants de la centrale et la

  8. Etude du déplacement de l'huile par le gaz Analysis of Oil Displacement by Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delclaud J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les ingénieurs « réservoir u prévoient avec beaucoup de difficultés l'exploitation des gisements en utilisant les relations perméabilités relatives-saturations fournies par les laboratoires. Ceci amène à se demander si le concept est valide en écoulement transitoire, si les mesures sont effectuées selon des procédures convenables, si la relation statique entre la pression capillaire et la saturation est conservée en régime variable, si enfin la méconnaissance des lois de combinaison de ces fonctions n'est pas la cause de l'insatisfaction des ingénieurs. Le travail présenté ici traite des trois premiers points. Deux séries d'expériences sont réalisées à cet effet : - d'une part, des expériences de déplacement de l'huile par le gaz, où l'on s'intéresse à l'établissement et à la caractérisation de phénomènes pseudo-stationnaires. Les échantillons poreux choisis sont de faibles dimensions. Ils permettent ainsi de réduire la durée des périodes transitoires; - d'autre part, des expériences de déplacement sur des échantillons homogènes de grandes dimensions où l'on étudie les phénomènes transitoires. On mesure, tout au long du massif, la pression dans les deux phases et la saturation. Les perméabilités relatives sont calculées en tout point et à tout instant, à partir des équations de continuité. II ressort de ces travaux que la relation perméabilité relative-saturation est la même en tout point du milieu poreux, tout au long de l'écoulement transitoire, qu'elle ne dépend pas de la vitesse d'écoulement et que la relation pression capillaire-saturation coïncide avec celle établie par la méthode des états restaurés. La validité du concept en écoulement transitoire est donc prouvée. La méthode de WELGE, JOHNSON, BOSSLER et NAUMANN conduit à des résultats différents de ceux obtenus. On montre, pour expliquer ces écarts, que les hypothèses théoriques de cette méthode sont

  9. PAMUK YAĞI-GAZ YAĞI KARIŞIMI KULLANILAN BİR DİZEL MOTORUNUN PERFORMANS DEĞERLENDİRMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, pamuk yağı değişik oranlarda gaz yağına katılarak hazırlanan yakıt karışımı(COK), 4 zamanlı, tek silindirli hava soğutmalı bir dizel motorunda test edilmiştir. Değişik oranlarda hazırlanan karışımlar kullanılarak motor gücü, motor momenti, özgül yakıt tüketimi ve özgül enerji tüketimi parametreleri tespit edilmiş ve dizel yakıtı ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Deneysel sonuçlar motor gücü, motor momenti ve özgül yakıt tüketimi gibi parametrelerin dizel yakıtına göre çok az farklı olduğ...

  10. Epidemiological Surveillance at Electricite de France and Gaz de France: Health Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Employers between 1993 and 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, A.; Gros, H.; Carrier, E.; Labon, G.

    2004-07-01

    Because the 17,500 employees working in nuclear power plants at Electricite de France, the national power company, may be exposed to a wide variety of industrial hazards, the health insurance department of the company has set up an epidemiologic surveillance programme for them. This descriptive, cross-sectional,and exhaustive study examined sick-leaves, mortality and cancer incidence to assess the health of the employees working from 1993 through 1998. The analysis comparing the employees in nuclear power plants, considered exposed, to the rest of the personnel of Electricite de France-Gaz de France, the non-exposed (125,000 persons) showed that globally, the employees in the nuclear sector appeared to have fewer health problems than the other company employees. This was true regardless of age and especially for men, operating employees, and supervisory employees. Nonetheless three points must be noted: non-work accidents generated a non-significant excess of absenteeism and mortality among these employees, especially among management and supervisory personnel; suicides affected supervisors in particular; and an excess of primary malignant brain tumors affected both mortality (RR{sub 1}.96, NS) and incidence, especially among operating employees (RR=2.87, 95% CL=(1.00-8.43)). No excess of malignant blood disease was observed. (Author) 38 refs.

  11. Design on Gas Station of Liquefied Natural Gas Vehicle(LNGV)%液化天然气汽车加气站设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳朝辉; 李晓倩; 靳从娟

    2012-01-01

    液化天然气(LNG)是清洁能源,LNG用于液化天然气汽车(LNGV)是环境保护的需要,也是减少我国石油对外依存度的需要。介绍了LNG加气站的卸车流程、加气流程、调压流程、主要设备及管材、自控仪表等方面的工艺设计方案。%Liquefied natural gas(LNG), a kind of clean energy, is used in liquefied natural gas vehicle(LNGV), and plays roles of protecting environment and educing our dependence on foreign oil. To introduce the design scheme of LNGV in some aspects of LNG unloading process, gas flow process, pressure regulating process, the main equipments and pipe,automatic control instruments and so on.

  12. 液化烃储罐水喷雾冷却系统设计%Designing of Water-Spray Cooling System for Liquefied Hydrocarbon Storage Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦永

    2000-01-01

    通过对液化烃储罐火灾特点及水喷雾冷却系统灭火机理的分析,对液化烃储罐水喷雾消防冷却系统的设计方法加以探讨。提出了"罐上喷头工作压力为定值"的假设,从而简化了设计计算。%Discussions are made on the methods for designing water-spray cooling system for liquefied hydrocarbonstorage tanks through analyzing the characteristics of the fire hazards with liquefied hydrocarbon storage tanks and the fireextinguishing mechanism of water-spray cooling system, with the hypothesis of "The working pressure of the spray nozzleson the tanks is a set value." advanced,so that design calculations are simplified.

  13. Climate change in the Alps: impacts and natural risks. ONERC's Technical Report N.1; Changement climatiques dans les Alpes: Impacts et risques naturels. Rapport Technique N.1 de l'ONERC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Mountain ranges are very sensitive to climatic variations. The impacts of climate change on theses territories can be various, from the modification of the biodiversity to the permafrost melting and the evolution of natural hazards. The assessment of temperature rise and its impacts on mountains constitutes an important issue considering the strong uncertainties and the specific sensitivity linked to these areas. The territorial manager - policy makers and technicians - have to deal with this questioning for the implementation of short term actions as well as for strategic choices in terms of land planning and spatial development. This is why 22 public institutions from seven Alpine countries were involved in the European ClimChAlp project. The ONERC participated actively to this project in collaboration with the Rhone-Alpes Region and the Pole Grenoblois Risques Naturels. This report is based on the synthesis realised by the French partners to propose a common base of knowledge about climate change and its impacts in the Alps. (authors)

  14. Radio-vulcanization of natural rubber in the latex phase. Study of an experimental 1 tonne per hour production; Radio-vulcanisation du caoutchouc naturel en phase latex. Etude d'une production experimentale de 1 tonne par heure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P.; Puig, J.R.; Roudeix, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    After briefly reviewing the main research carried out on the radio-vulcanization of latex and elastomers, a description is given of 4 types of cell which have been used successively with a view to industrial irradiation. They have made it possible to acquire the information necessary for resolving the main problem arising during irradiation - the formation of coagulum. The first two cell are designed for irradiation by a horizontal beam ('Dynamitron'), the two others use a vertical beam ('Circe'). The study of the properties of the rubber obtained shows it to compare favorably with 'Revultex'. In the appendix are given some characteristics of natural latex and information about its processing. (authors) [French] Apres un rappel des principales etudes sur la radio-vulcanisation du latex et des elastomeres, on decrit les quatre types de cellules successivement essayes en vue de l'irradiation industrielle. Ils ont permis d'acquerir les informations necessaires a la resolution du probleme principal pose par l'irradiation, la formation de coagulum au cours de celle,-ci. Les deux premiers sont concus pour l'irradiation par un faisceau horizontal ('Dynamitron'), les derniers par un faisceau vertical ('Circe'). L'etude des proprietes du caoutchouc obtenu montre qu'il se compare favorablement au 'Revultex'. Un apercu est donne en annexe des caracteristiques du latex naturel et de sa mise en oeuvre. (auteurs)

  15. Test and survey on a next generation coal liquefying catalyst. Coal molecule scientific test and survey as the base for commercializing the coal liquefying technology; Jisedai sekitan ekika shokubai shiken chosa. Sekitan ekika gijutsu shogyoka kiban to shite no sekitan bunshi kagaku shiken chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The test and survey on a next generation coal liquefying catalyst present a new proposal to raise catalytic activity in coal liquefaction, and perform demonstration experiments in a laboratory scale to search for possibility of developing a new coal liquefying catalyst from various viewpoints. To explain, discussions were given on the catalyst to perform the followings: liquefaction under extremely mild conditions by using ultra strong acids not limited only to metals; ion exchange method and swell carrying method to raise catalyst dispersion very highly, enhance the catalytic activity, and reduce the amount of catalyst to be used; mechanism of producing catalyst activating species to further enhance the activity of iron catalysts; and pursuit of morphological change in the activating species. The coal molecule scientific test and survey as the base for commercializing the coal liquefying technology performed the studies on the following items: pretreatment of coal that can realize reduction of coal liquefaction cost; configuration of the liquefaction reaction, liquefying catalysts, hydrocarbon gas generating mechanism, status of catalysts after liquefaction reaction, and reduction in gas purification cost by using gas separating membranes. Future possibilities were further searched through frank and constructive opinion exchanges among the committee members. (NEDO)

  16. Deformation Control of Liquefied Natural Gas Storage Tank%液化天然气储罐制造中的变形控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾乃刚

    2012-01-01

    论述了液化天然气储罐制造中引起变形的因素,对预制阶段和焊接过程中的变形及防变形控制进行了简要介绍.%The factors that cause deformation in the liquefied natural gas storage tank manufacturing are discussed, deformation in prefabricated stage and welding process and anti-distortion control are introduced briefly.

  17. Excellence in service level of logistic for air liquefied gases; Excelencia em nivel de servico logistico para gases do ar liquefeitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Cynthia; Duarte, Paulo Eduardo; Reis, Jeferson [Air Liquide Brasil Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    Provide an effective strategy for logistics service to the customer of Liquefied Gases Air that will add value throughout the organization. This paper presents the mapping of the main components of the supply chain of a chemical gas besides providing an overview of the business. Also reported that the main challenges facing the logistics and initiatives to achieve the level of excellence in service. (author)

  18. Risk Analysis of Flare Flame-out Condition in a Gas Process Facility Analyse des risques des conditions d’extinction de torche au sein d’une installation de traitement de gaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadakbar O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Flaring is a common method of disposal of flammable waste gases in the downstream industries. Flare flame out (flame lift-off or blow-outs often occurs causing toxic vapors to discharge. The toxic gases released may have hazardous effects on the surrounding environment. To study the effect of inhalation exposure of these toxic gases on human health, the four steps of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency framework with the field data to quantify the cancer and non-cancer health risks are integrated in this paper. As a part of exposure assessment, gas dispersion modeling using AERMOD and UDM-PHAST is applied in two different conditions of normal flaring and flare flame out during a particular climate condition in Khangiran region. Recommendations to avoid flare flame out conditions are also presented here. Le torchage est un procédé courant d’élimination des gaz résiduaires inflammables dans les industries de traitement. L’extinction de la torche (par décollage ou soufflage de flamme provoque souvent une émission de vapeurs toxiques. Ces gaz toxiques libérés peuvent présenter des effets dangereux sur le milieu environnant. Pour étudier l’effet d’une exposition par inhalation de ces gaz toxiques sur la santé, cet article croise les quatre étapes de la démarche de l’EPA (Environmental Protection Agency, Agence de protection de l’environnement avec les données d’exploitation afin de quantifier le risque sanitaire cancérologique et non cancérologique. Dans le cadre de l’estimation d’exposition, une modélisation de dispersion des gaz utilisant AERMOD et UDM-PHAST est évaluée dans deux configurations différentes de torchage normal et d’extinction de torche à l’occasion de conditions climatiques particulières dans la région du Khangiran. L’article propose également des recommandations destinées à éviter les conditions d’une extinction de flamme de torche.

  19. Libéralisation du marché de l'énergie, réorganisation du travail et mobilisation collective dans l'entreprise. Le cas de Gaz de Bordeaux

    OpenAIRE

    Dif-Pradalier, Maël

    2011-01-01

    Thèse réalisée dans le cadre d'une convention CIFRE (convention industrielle de formation par la recherche); Formerly in a monopolistic situation and running on a politico-administrative mode, Gaz de Bordeaux is a network industry now part of a competitive market. The present case study of this local public utility is meant to identify the nature of its modernisation and to measure its effects as well on the system of social regulations and professional identities, as on the capacities of act...

  20. Possibilités de contribution de la gazéification Lurgi à notre approvisionnement énergétique futur Potential Contribution of Lurgi Gasification to Our Future Energy Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckert G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour la valorisation du charbon, la gazéification est une possibilité immédiatement utilisable et industriellement éprouvée, qui présente l'avantage de permettre la production des formes d'énergie secondaire, auxquelles nous sommes habitués. Indépendamment du produit final, une unité de conversion du charbon est toujours constituée d'étapes de transformation successives, mettant en oeuvre des procédés adaptés, parmi lesquels la gazéification de charbon proprement dite constitue la première étape qui n'est cependant qu'une opération parmi d'autres. Le traitement des gaz et la séparation des produits secondaires sont mis en oeuvre également et sont importants dans l'ensemble du complexe de traitement. Dans la communication présentée, trois possibilités différentes sont évoquées : - production de gaz de chauffage de différents pouvoirs calorifiques ; - production de méthanol et transformation éventuelle de celui-ci en essence ; - production d'hydrocarbures par la synthèse de Fischer-Tropsch. Une approche économique générale dégage une idée d'ensemble sur la situation et l'intérêt des techniques de conversion du charbon à l'heure actuelle. For the upgrading of coal, gasification is an immediately available and industrially well-proven possibility which has the advantage of making it possible to produce the types of secondary energy to which we have become accustomed. Independently of the end product, a coal conversion plant always consists of successive transformation steps making use of suitable processes, among which coal gasification itself is the first such step, although being only one operation among others. Gas processing and secondary products separation are also implemented and are important in the overall processing complex. This article brings out three different possibilities: (a production of fuel gas with different heating values; (b production of methanol and eventual transformation into gasoline

  1. Development of a Measurement and Control System for a 40l/h Helium Liquefier based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Liu, L. Q.; Xu, X. D.; Liu, T.; Li, Q.; Hu, Z. J.; Wang, B. M.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Yan, T.

    A 40l/h Helium Liquefier has been commissioned by the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this Helium Liquefier is developed. Proper sensors are selected, for example, three types of transmitters are adopted respectively according to detailed temperature measurement requirements. Siemens S7-300 PLC CPU315-2PN/DP operates as a master station and three sets of ET200 M DP remote expand I/O operate asslave stations. Profibus-DP field communication is used between the master station and the slave stations. The upper computer HMI(Human Machine Interface) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V7.0. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. A specific control logic for this Helium Liquefier is developed. The control of the suction and discharge pressures of the compressor and the control of the turbo-expanders loop are being discussed in this paper. Following the commissioning phase, the outlet temperature of the second stage turbine has reached 8.6K and the temperature before the throttle valve has reached 13.1K.

  2. On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, Saâdane; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2014-08-01

    On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO₂ were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPG's intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPG's performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Predicting the performances of a CAMPRO engine retrofitted with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG system using 1-dimensional software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruddin M. Hazeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the depletion of petroleum resources and the impact of exhaust emission caused by combustion towards environmental has been forced to all researchers to come out with an alternative ways to prevent this situation become worse. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG is the most compatible and have a potential to become a source of energy for internal combustion engine. Unfortunately, the investigation of LPG in internal combustion engine among researcher still have a gap in research. Thus, in this study a 1-Dimensional simulation CAMPRO 1.6L engine model using GT-Power is developed to predict the performances of engines that using LPG as a fuel for internal combustion engine. The constructed model simulation will throughout the validation process with the experimental data to make sure the precision of this model. The validation process shows that the results have a good agreement between the simulation model and the experimental data. As a result, the performance of LPG simulation model shows that a Brake Torque (BT, Brake Power (BP and Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP were significantly improved in average of 7% in comparison with gasoline model. In addition, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC also shows an improvement by 5%, which is become more economic. Therefore, the developed GT-Power model offer a successful fuel conversion to LPG systems via retrofit technology to provide comprehensive support for implementation of energy efficient and environmental friendly vehicles.

  4. Numerical studies on sizing/ rating of plate fin heat exchangers for a modified Claude cycle based helium liquefier/ refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, M.; Chakravarty, A.; Atrey, M. D.

    2017-02-01

    Performance of modern helium refrigeration/ liquefaction systems depends significantly on the effectiveness of heat exchangers. Generally, compact plate fin heat exchangers (PFHE) having very high effectiveness (>0.95) are used in such systems. Apart from basic fluid film resistances, various secondary parameters influence the sizing/ rating of these heat exchangers. In the present paper, sizing calculations are performed, using in-house developed numerical models/ codes, for a set of high effectiveness PFHE for a modified Claude cycle based helium liquefier/ refrigerator operating in the refrigeration mode without liquid nitrogen (LN2) pre-cooling. The combined effects of secondary parameters like axial heat conduction through the heat exchanger metal matrix, parasitic heat in-leak from surroundings and variation in the fluid/ metal properties are taken care of in the sizing calculation. Numerical studies are carried out to predict the off-design performance of the PFHEs in the refrigeration mode with LN2 pre-cooling. Iterative process cycle calculations are also carried out to obtain the inlet/ exit state points of the heat exchangers.

  5. Foam production as a side effect of an offshore liquefied natural gas terminal: how do plankton deal with it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Annalisa; Karuza, Ana; Celussi, Mauro; Fornasaro, Daniela; Beran, Alfred; Di Poi, Elena; Del Negro, Paola

    2015-06-01

    The future growing demand of fossil fuels likely will lead to an increased deployment of liquefied natural gas terminals. However, some concerns exist about their possible effects on the marine environment and biota. Such plants showed to cause the production of foam, as occurred at the still operative terminal of Porto Viro (northern Adriatic Sea). Here, we present results from two microcosm experiments focused on the effects of such foam on microbially mediated degradation processes and its consequent incorporation within the pelagic food web. Such material could be considered as a heterogeneous matrix of both living and non-living organic matter, which constitutes an important substrate for exoenzymes as suggested by the faster hydrolytic rates measured in the treatment microcosms. In the second experiment, a quite immediate and efficient carbon transfer to planktonic biomass through prokaryotic incorporation and consequent predation by heterotrophic flagellates was highlighted. Although no negative effect was evidenced on the overall microbes' growth and foam-derived C seemed to be easily reworked and transferred to higher trophic levels, an important reduction in biodiversity was evidenced for microalgae. Among them, mixotrophic organisms seemed to be favoured suggesting that the addition of foam could cause a modification of the microbial community structure.

  6. In-use NOx emissions from diesel and liquefied natural gas refuse trucks equipped with SCR and TWC respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Chandan; Ruehl, Chris; Collins, John Francis; Chernich, Don; Herner, Jorn

    2017-02-07

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the City of Sacramento undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions from model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and hydraulic hybrid diesel engines during real-world refuse truck operation. Emissions from five trucks: two diesels equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), two LNG's equipped with three-way catalyst (TWC) and one hydraulic hybrid diesel equipped with SCR were measured using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area. Results showed that the brake-specific NOx emissions for the LNG trucks equipped with the TWC catalyst were lowest of all the technologies tested. Results also showed that the brake specific NOx emissions from the conventional diesel engines were significantly higher despite the exhaust temperature being high enough for proper SCR function. Like diesel engines, the brake specific NOx emissions from the hydraulic hybrid diesel also exceeded certification although this can be explained on the basis of the temperature profile. Future studies are warranted to establish whether the below average SCR performance observed in this study is a systemic issue or is it a problem specifically observed during this work.

  7. A Novel Boil-Off Gas Re-Liquefaction Using a Spray Recondenser for Liquefied Natural-Gas Bunkering Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiheon Ryu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design of a novel boil-off gas (BOG re-liquefaction technology using a BOG recondenser system. The BOG recondenser system targets the liquefied natural gas (LNG bunkering operation, in which the BOG phase transition occurs in a pressure vessel instead of a heat exchanger. The BOG that is generated during LNG bunkering operation is characterized as an intermittent flow with various peak loads. The system was designed to temporarily store the transient BOG inflow, condense it with subcooled LNG and store the condensed liquid. The superiority of the system was verified by comparing it with the most extensively employed conventional re-liquefaction system in terms of consumption energy and via an exergy analysis. Static simulations were conducted for three compositions; the results indicated that the proposed system provided 0 to 6.9% higher efficiencies. The exergy analysis indicates that the useful work of the conventional system is 24.9%, and the useful work of the proposed system is 26.0%. Process dynamic simulations of six cases were also performed to verify the behaviour of the BOG recondenser system. The results show that the pressure of the holdup in the recondenser vessel increased during the BOG inflow mode and decreased during the initialization mode. The maximum pressure of one of the bunkering cases was 3.45 bar. The system encountered a challenge during repetitive operations due to overpressurizing of the BOG recondenser vessel.

  8. Thermodynamic design of a cascade refrigeration system of liquefied natural gas by applying mixed integer non-linear programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meysam Kamalinejad; Majid Amidpour; S.M. Mousavi Naeynian

    2015-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the most economical way of transporting natural gas (NG) over long distances. Liq-uefaction of NG using vapor compression refrigeration system requires high operating and capital cost. Due to lack of systematic design methods for multistage refrigeration cycles, conventional approaches to determine op-timal cycle are largely trial-and-error. In this paper a novel mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model is introduced to select optimal synthesis of refrigeration systems to reduce both operating and capital costs of an LNG plant. Better conceptual understanding of design improvement is illustrated on composite curve (CC) and exergetic grand composite curve (EGCC) of pinch analysis diagrams. In this method a superstruc-ture representation of complex refrigeration system is developed to select and optimize key decision variables in refrigeration cycles (i.e. partition temperature, compression configuration, refrigeration features, refrigerant flow rate and economic trade-off). Based on this method a program (LNG-Pro) is developed which integrates VBA, Refprop and Excel MINLP Solver to automate the methodology. Design procedure is applied on a sample LNG plant to illustrate advantages of using this method which shows a 3.3% reduction in total shaft work consumption.

  9. Commissioning and Operational Experience with 1 kW Class Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier for SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhard, C. P.; Sarkar, B.; Misra, Ruchi; Sahu, A. K.; Tanna, V. L.; Tank, J.; Panchal, P.; Patel, J. C.; Phadke, G. D.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2004-06-01

    The helium refrigerator/liquefier (R/L) for the Steady State Super conducting Tokamak (SST-1) has been developed with very stringent specifications for the different operational modes. The total refrigeration capacity is 650 W at 4.5 K and liquefaction capacity of 200 l/h. A cold circulation pump is used for the forced flow cooling of 300 g/s supercritical helium (SHe) for the magnet system (SCMS). The R/L has been designed also to absorb a 200 W transient heat load of the SCMS. The plant consists of a compressor station, oil removal system, on-line purifier, Main Control Dewar (MCD) with associated heat exchangers, cold circulation pump and warm gas management system. An Integrated Flow Control and Distribution System (IFDCS) has been designed, fabricated and installed for distribution of SHe in the toroidal and poloidal field coils as well as liquid helium for cooling of 10 pairs of current leads. A SCADA based control system has been designed using PLC for R/L as well as IFDCS. The R/L has been commissioned and required parameters were achieved confirming to the process. All the test results and commissioning experiences are discussed in this paper.

  10. Liquefied Wood as Inexpensive Precursor-Feedstock for Bio-Mediated Incorporation of (R-3-Hydroxyvalerate into Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Koller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied wood (LW prepared in a microwave process was applied as a novel; inexpensive precursor feedstock for incorporation of (R-3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV into polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA biopolyesters in order to improve the biopolyester’s material quality; Cupriavidus necator was applied as microbial production strain. For proof of concept, pre-experiments were carried out on a shake flask scale using different mixtures of glucose and LW as carbon source. The results indicate that LW definitely acts as a 3HV precursor, but, at the same time, displays toxic effects on C. necator at concentrations exceeding 10 g/L. Based on these findings, PHA biosynthesis under controlled conditions was performed using a fed-batch feeding regime on a bioreactor scale. As major outcome, a poly(3HB-co-0.8%-3HV copolyester was obtained displaying a desired high molar mass of Mw = 5.39 × 105 g/mol at low molar-mass dispersity (ĐM of 1.53, a degree of crystallinity (Xc of 62.1%, and melting temperature Tm (176.3 °C slightly lower than values reported for poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB homopolyester produced by C. necator; thus, the produced biopolyester is expected to be more suitable for polymer processing purposes.

  11. Combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel engine operated with mahua oil and liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadar Kapilan N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the present work, a single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. To study the feasibility of using methyl ester of mahua oil as pilot fuel, it was used as pilot fuel and liquefied petroleum gas was used as primary fuel. In dual fuel mode, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure are the few variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine. Hence, in the present work, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure were varied. From the test results, it was observed that the pilot fuel quantity of 5 mg per cycle and injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. Also the exhaust emissions such as smoke, unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide are lower than other pressures and pilot fuel quantities. The higher injection pressure and proper pilot fuel quantity might have resulted in better atomization, penetration of methyl ester of mahua oil and better combustion of fuel.

  12. Descriptif et qualification d'un mode opératoire de soudage pour les matériaux métalliques - Épreuve de qualification d'un mode opératoire de soudage - Partie 6: Soudage à l'arc et aux gaz du cuivre et de ses alliages

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Descriptif et qualification d'un mode opératoire de soudage pour les matériaux métalliques - Épreuve de qualification d'un mode opératoire de soudage - Partie 6: Soudage à l'arc et aux gaz du cuivre et de ses alliages

  13. Enjeux juridiques du contrôle des émissions personnelles de gaz à effet de serre par un dispositif de carte carbone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Rousseaux

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La carte carbone individuelle est un dispositif innovant, qui permet d’impliquer les particuliers dans la lutte face au changement climatique. Ce dispositif consiste à limiter leurs émissions de gaz à effet de serre, ce qui suppose de suivre leur consommation de certains produits et services. Ce mode de contrôle des émissions personnelles soulève parfois des controverses, la carte carbone pouvant être perçue comme un instrument de rationnement potentiellement liberticide. Ces deux aspects sont discutés sur la base d’une analyse comparative de la conception et des modalités de mise en œuvre des différents dispositifs de carte carbone, établis ou envisagés en Europe et aux États-Unis. Il en ressort que les controverses ne sont pas réellement fondées.The individual carbon card is an innovative mechanism that helps involve individuals in the fight against climate change. It consists in limiting their greenhouse gas emissions, which requires monitoring a part of their goods and services consumption. This method of personal emissions control is much debated since the carbon card may be perceived as a rationing tool and raises civil liberty issues. Both of these controversial aspects are discussed on the basis of a comparative analysis of how the various carbon card programs, established or contemplated in Europe and in the USA, are designed and implemented. The findings are these controversies are somewhat groundless.

  14. A study on the isotope effects in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc; Etude des effets isotopiques dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senegacnik, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-06-15

    We have determined the isotope effects which occur in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc. It has been shown that in the case of irreversible surface reactions, Bernstein's equation which permits the calculation of the fractionation factor is still valid. These experimental factors are in good agreement with those obtained by calculating the partition functions of the adsorbed activated complexes. In the reaction mechanism used, the model of the activated complex corresponds to the dissociation of one of the carbon oxygen bonds CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Perturbations arising from the slight reversibility of the reaction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO on the isotope effects on the carbon and oxygen atoms have also been calculated. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les effets isotopiques qui ont lieu dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc. La validite de l'equation de Bernstein qui permet de calculer le facteur de fractionnement a ete demontree pour le cas d'une reaction irreversible de surface. Ces facteurs de fractionnement experimentaux sont en bon accord avec ceux obtenus par le calcul des fonctions de partition isotopiques des complexes actives adsorbes. Dans le mecanisme de reaction utilise, le modele du complexe active correspond a la dissociation d'une des liaisons carbone oxygene CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Les effets perturbateurs de la reversibilite de la reduction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO sur les effets isotopiques du carbone et ceux de l'oxygene ont ete egalement evalues. (auteur)

  15. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and of the territory about the proposal of law, adopted by the Senate, relative to electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Economiques, de l'Environnement et du Territoire sur la proposition de loi, adoptee par le Senat, relative aux tarifs reglementes d'electricite et de gaz naturel (n.238)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This report aims at filling up some gaps in the French legislation relative to the determination of electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs and to the beneficiaries of these tariffs. It makes a synthesis of four proposals of law dealing with: the possibility for end-users and small companies to benefit again of the regulated electricity prices (proposals no 369 and 149), the permission of reversibility in the exercise of the rights relative to the eligibility for the purchase of electric power (proposal no 427), and the preservation of households' purchasing power by keeping up the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas (proposal no 462). The different articles are examined and some amendments are proposed by the commission. (J.S.)

  16. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the proposal of law, adopted in second lecture with modifications by the Senate, relative to the electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Economiques, de l'Environnement et du Territoire sur la proposition de loi, adoptee avec modifications par le Senat en deuxieme lecture, relative aux tarifs reglementes d'electricite et de gaz naturel (n.565)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    This text is the conclusion of a long parliamentary procedure with several debates about electricity and natural gas prices, for both individual users and companies. The first article of the proposal of law relative to regulated electricity and gas tariffs, is the only one that remains to be discussed, and concerns the households and the companies with a low power consumption. Examined first at the Senate on October 1, 2007, this proposal of law was debated at the House of Commons on December 11, 2007 and modified for one important point: the possibility for households who have made the choice of a de-regulated energy supplier to change back and benefit again of the regulated tariffs. The adoption of this amendment has led to make some adjustments in the proposal of law which are presented in this document. (J.S.)

  17. Le problème des hydrates dans le contexte de la production et du transport polyphasiques des pétroles bruts et des gaz naturels. Première partie : physico-chimie de la formation et de la dissociation des hydrates Hydrates Problem Within the Framework of Multiphase Production and Transport of Crude Oils and Natural Gases. Part One: Physical-Chemistry of Hydrates Formation and Dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'exploitation en mer des gisements de combustibles fossiles fluides a amplifié le besoin d'accroître nos connaissances sur les hydrates qui sont susceptibles de boucher les installations de production, de traitement et de transport. Dans cette publication, la structure moléculaire des hydrates I, II et H est rappelée, ensuite l'analyse physico-chimique de leur formation est succinctement décrite tant sur les plans thermodynamique que cinétique. Enfin, les remèdes possibles aux problèmes rencontrés par les compagnies opératrices sont indiqués, essentiellement les inhibiteurs thermodynamiques classiques tels que les alcools ou les sels qui diminuent la température de formation des hydrates, et les additifs dispersants qui évitent la croissance et/ou l'agglomération des cristaux. Pour terminer, une boucle pilote de circulation originale est présentée, ses caractéristiques qui permettent la validation des additifs dispersants dans des conditions hydrodynamiques et physico-chimiques représentatives étant soulignées. Offshore exploitation of fossil fluid fuels has emphasized the need of improving our knowledge on hydrates which can plug production, treatment and transport facilities. In this paper, the molecular structure of I, II and H hydrates is recalled, then the physical-chemistry of their formation is briefly reviewed from both the thermodynamic and the kinetic points of view. Finally, the possible remedies to the problems met by operating companies are described, mainly classical thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohols or salts which decrease the hydrates formation temperature, and dispersant additives which avoid crystals growth and/or agglomeration. At last an original circulation loop at pilot scale is presented, its characteristics which allow the testing of dispersant additives under representative hydrodynamic and physico-chemical conditions being outlined.

  18. Membrane Tank Lng Carriers Les méthaniers à membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvin J. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the two membranes containment systems developed by the company Gaztransport & Technigaz for the transportation at sea of liquefied natural gas (LNG and applied by several shipyards in Europe, United States, Japan and Korea. The merits of both containment systems are underlined with respect to the competition for operating flexibility as well as safety during LNG carrier operation. Finally, the merits of both containment systems in terms of construction and coasts are presented. Cet article présente les deux techniques membranes proposées par la société Gaztransport & Technigaz pour le transport par mer de gaz naturel liquéfié (GNL et mises en oeuvre par les chantiers navals européens, américains, japonais et coréens. Il souligne les avantages de ces techniques par rapport aux techniques concurrentes, aussi bien du point de vue opérationnel que sur le plan de la sécurité en cours d'exploitation du navire méthanier. Enfin, il présente également les mérites de ces techniques en termes de coûts de construction, d'investissement et délais de réalisation.

  19. Etudes préliminaires à la gazéification souterraine profonde des charbons. Perspectives et problèmes Preliminary Research on the Deep Underground Gasification of Coal. Outlook and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottier M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après création dans une couche de charbon d'une communication entre deux forages, la gazéification in situ vise à réaliser l'extraction de l'énergie du charbon grâce au soutirage par l'un des puits de gaz combustible résultant de la combinaison du charbon en place avec les réactifs gazeux injectés par l'autre puits. Si une méthode de mise en communication des forages peut être découverte pour des couches de charbon profondes (plus de 800 m il restera à déterminer comment conduire l'opération de gazéification et à évaluer la quantité de gaz, susceptible de méthanation, récupérable, dans un gisement donné, par un doublet de forages ; cette quantité gouverne en effet l'intérêt économique de l'opération. Un recensement des couches de charbon situées en France au delà de 800 m de profondeur, d'épaisseur au moins égale à 2 m et que rien n'empêche actuellement de considérer comme utilisables pour le procédé fournit une estimation totale, avec pondération suivant l'incertitude, de 2 milliards de tonnes. L'ampleur de ces ressources incite sur le plan français à s'efforcer d'établir si le procédé de gazéification souterraine permet leur récupération à un coût acceptable. Sur le plan mondial l'enjeu est, bien entendu, encore plus considérable. After a communication has been created between two boreholes in a Goal bed, insitu gasification is a way of trying to extract the energy contained tn the coal by with-drowing, via one of the wells, the combustible gas resulting from the combination of the Goal in place with gaseous reactants injected via the other well. If a method con be discovered for creating a communication betwen boreholes for deep Goal beds (deeper than 800 m, a method will still have ta be discovered for carrying out the gasification operation and for evaluating the amount of gas available for methanationthot is recoverable in a given deposit via a pair of boreholes. This amount effectively

  20. Improvements in gas supply systems for heavy-water moderated reactors; Etudes de perfectionnements aux systemes d'alimentation en gaz d'un reacteur modere a l'eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, G.; Hassig, J.M.; Laurent, N.; Thomas, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In a heavy-water moderated reactor cooled by pressurized gas, an important problem from the point of view, of the reactor block and its economics is the choice of the gas supply system. In the pressure tube solution, the whole of the reactor block structure is at a relatively low temperature, whereas the gas supply equipment is at that of the gas, which is much higher. These parts, through which passes the heat carrying fluid have to present as low a resistance as possible to it so as to avoid costly extra blowing power. Finally, they may only be placed in the reactor block after it has been built; the time required for putting them in position should therefore not be too long. The work reported here concerns the various problems arising in the case of each channel being supplied individually by a tube at the entry and the exit which is connected to a main circuit made up of large size collectors. This individual tubing is sufficiently flexible to absorb the differential expansion and the movement of its ends without stresses or prohibitive reactions being produced; the tubing is also of relatively short length so as to reduce the pressure head of the pressurized gas outside the channels; the small amount of space taken up by the tubing makes it possible to assemble it in a manner which is satisfactory from the point of view both of the time required and of the technical quality. (authors) [French] Dans un reacteur modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi au gaz sous pression, un probleme important du point de vue du trace du bloc pile et de son economie est le choix du systeme d'alimentation en gaz. Pour une solution a tubes de force, l'ensemble des structures du bloc reacteur est a temperature relativement faible, alors que les organes d'alimentation en gaz sont a celle, notablement plus elevee, du gaz. Ces organes, traverses par le debit du caloporteur, doivent lui opposer le minimum de resistance afin de ne pas necessiter un supplement onereux de

  1. An assessment of air emissions from liquefied natural gas ships using different power systems and different fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afon, Yinka; Ervin, David

    2008-03-01

    The shipping industry has been an unrecognized source of criteria pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds, coarse particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has traditionally been transported via steam turbine (ST) ships. Recently, LNG shippers have begun using dual-fuel diesel engines (DFDEs) to propel and offload their cargoes. Both the conventional ST boilers and DFDE are capable of burning a range of fuels, from heavy fuel oil to boil-off-gas (BOG) from the LNG load. In this paper a method for estimating the emissions from ST boilers and DFDEs during LNG offloading operations at berth is presented, along with typical emissions from LNG ships during offloading operations under different scenarios ranging from worst-case fuel oil combustion to the use of shore power. The impact on air quality in nonattainment areas where LNG ships call is discussed. Current and future air pollution control regulations for ocean-going vessels (OGVs) such as LNG ships are also discussed. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare emissions of criteria pollutants from conventional ST and DFDE ships using different fuels. The results of this study suggest that newer DFDE ships have lower SO2 and PM2.5/PM10 emissions, conventional ST ships have lower NOx, volatile organic compound, and CO emissions; and DFDE ships utilizing shore power at berth produce no localized emissions because they draw their required power from the local electric grid.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss among liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cylinder infusion workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Ju; Chang, Chin-Kuo

    2009-12-01

    We assessed the exposure levels of noise, estimated prevalence, and identify risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among male workers with a cross-sectional study in a liquefied petroleum gas cylinder infusion factory in Taipei City. Male in-field workers exposed to noise and administrative controls were enrolled in 2006 and 2007. Face-to-face interviews were applied for demographics, employment history, and drinking/smoking habit. We then performed the measurements on noise levels in field and administration area, and hearing thresholds on study subjects with standard apparatus and protocols. Existence of hearing loss > 25 dBHL for the average of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz was accordingly determined for NIHL. The effects from noise exposure, predisposing characteristics, employment-related factors, and personal habits to NIHL were estimated by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. A total of 75 subjects were involved in research and 56.8% of in-field workers had NIHL. Between the in-field and administration groups, hearing thresholds on the worse ear showed significant differences at frequencies of 4 k, 6 k, and 8 kHz with aging considered. Adjusted odds ratio for field noise exposure (OR=99.57, 95% CI: 3.53, 2,808.74) and frequent tea or coffee consumption (OR=0.03, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.51) were found significant. Current study addressed NIHL in a specific industry in Taiwan. Further efforts in minimizing its impact are still in need.

  3. La palmeraie des Îles Kerkennah (Tunisie, un paysage d'oasis maritime en dégradation : déterminisme naturel ou responsabilité anthropique ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noômène Fehri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available L'archipel des Kerkennah, situé dans le Golfe de Gabès à environ 18 kilomètres au large de la ville de Sfax, se caractérise par la fragilité de son "milieu naturel". Une fragilité qui peut être résumée en trois points :- un climat semi-aride caractérisé par la longue durée de la saison estivale sèche avec un déficit hydrique moyen qui dépasse 1000 mm/an ; - une prépondérance des formations meubles, en particulier les limons rouges würmiens favorables à l'érosion marine, aggravée par une ancienne subsidence qui remonterait au Tyrrhénien ;- une prédominance des sols salés qui couvrent près de la moitié de la superficie totale.Cette fragilité se traduit par deux problèmes majeurs, à savoir : un rapide recul du trait de la côte et une extension continue des sebkhas au détriment de la palmeraie dont les arbres sont en train de mourir par centaines.Cet article met l'accent sur les interventions humaines ayant accéléré la dégradation de ces milieux naturellement fragiles.Une activité salinière en net accroissement, un déclin de l'intérêt porté par la population locale au palmier, certains aménagements entrepris sans étude d'impact, l'ouverture de carrières et l'extraction illicite des sables pour les besoins de la construction, le surpâturage, tels sont les principaux facteurs anthropiques de cette dégradation accélérée.La prise en compte de l'ensemble des particularités environnementales des Kerkennah s'impose donc comme étant une condition indispensable pour toute action de développement qui se veut rationnelle et durable.The archipelago of Kerkennah, located in the Gulf of Gabes at about 18 kilometers off the town of Sfax, is characterized by the fragility of its “natural environment”. This fragility could be summarized in three points:- a semi-arid climate characterized by a long dry summer with an annual hydric deficit greater than 1000 mm/year;- a preponderance of soft formations

  4. The Soviet-West European Energy Relationship: Implications of the Shift from Oil to Gas,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    currency energy exports. (- RESUME Ce rapport examine d’une perspective historique les exportations soviftiques de p6trole et de gaz naturel vers...on shipment of graink phosphates and goods destined for the 1980 Olympic games. With the support of Senator -enrv Jackson, Zbigniew Brzezinski had

  5. Capital and operating costs of irradiated natural uranium reprocessing plants; Couts d'investissement et d'exploitation des usines de retraitement de l'uranium naturel irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L.; Jouannaud, C.; Couture, J.; Duboz, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Oger, C. [Saint Gobain Nucleaire (France)

    1966-07-01

    This paper presents first a method of analysing natural uranium reprocessing plants investment costs (method similar to LANG and BACH well known in the fuel oil industry) and their operating costs (analysed according to their economic type). This method helps establishing standard cost structures for these plants, allowing thus comparisons between existing or planned industrial facilities. It also helps evaluating the foreseeable consequences of technical progress. Some results obtained are given, concerning: the investment costs sensitivity to the various technical parameters defining the fuel and their comparison according to the country or the economic area taken into account. Finally, the influence of the plants size on their investment costs is shown. (author) [French] La communication expose d'abord une methode d'analyse des couts d'investissement des usines de retraitement de l'uranium naturel irradie (inspiree de celles de LANG et de BACH, bien connues dans l'industrie petroliere) et de leurs couts d'exploitation (selon leur nature economique). Cette methode permet d'etablir des structures types de couts de ces usines et de comparer les realisations industrielles et les projets. Elle facilite l'exploration des consequences previsibles du progres technique. On indique un certain nombre de resultats obtenus, concernant la sensibilite des couts d'investissement de ces usines aux differents parametres techniques definissant le combustible et leur confrontation selon les pays ou aires economiques envisages. On montre enfin comment doit pouvoir s'exprimer l'influence de la taille des usines sur leur cout d'investissement. (auteur)

  6. Natural uranium toxicology - evaluation of internal contamination in man; Toxicologie de l'uranium naturel - essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne chez l'homme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalabreysse, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    After reminding the physical and chemical properties of natural uranium which might affect its toxicology, a comprehensive investigation upon natural uranium metabolism and toxicity and after applying occupational exposure standards to this particular poison, it has been determined, from accident reports and human experience reported in the related literature, a series of formulae obtained by theoretical mathematical development giving principles for internal contamination monitoring and disclosure by determining uranium in the urine of occupationally exposed individuals. An assay is performed to determine individual internal contamination according to the various contamination cases. The outlined purposes, mainly practical, required some options and extrapolations. The proposed formula allows a preliminary approach and also to determine shortly a contamination extent or to discuss the systematical urinalysis results as compared with individual radio-toxicology monitoring professional standards. (author) [French] Apres le rappel des caracteristiques physiques et des proprietes chimiques de l'uranium naturel pouvant avoir une influence sur sa toxicologie, l'etude detaillee de son metabolisme et de sa toxicite, puis l'application des normes professionnelles d'exposition au cas particulier de ce toxique, il est etabli, a partir des comptes rendus d'accidents et de l'experimentation humaine rapportes dans la litterature, une serie de formules obtenues par developpement mathematique theorique qui posent les principes de la surveillance et de la mise en evidence de la contamination interne par la recherche et le dosage de l'uranium dans les urines d'individus professionnellement exposes. Un essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne individuelle suivant les differents cas de contamination est effectue. Le formulaire propose permet de faire une premiere approximation et d'apprecier rapidement l'importance d

  7. Étude des impacts écologiques du dynamisme spatio-temporel des habitats naturels sur la faune menacée du Complexe Zones Humides Mahavavy-Kinkony, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rado Hanitriniaina Andriamasimanana

    2013-11-01

    estimated the most affected, but at the site level Decken’s sifaka (Propithecus deckeni, kotsovato (Paretroplus kieneri and Madagascan big-headed turtle (Erymnochelys madagascariensis are also threatened. Local enforcement of national legislation on hunting means that MKWC is among the sites where the flying fox (Pteropus rufus and Madagascan rousette (Rousettus madagascariensis are well protected. Ecological restoration, ecological research and actions to reduce anthropogenic pressures are recommended. RÉSUMÉCette recherche menée dans le Complexe Zones Humides Mahavavy-Kinkony a pour but d’évaluer les impacts écologiques du changement des habitats naturels sur les espèces menacées de sa faune. Des outils tels que le SIG, la télédétection ainsi que Marxan ont été combinés avec les études bibliographiques et les travaux de terrains pour (i identifier les habitats naturels prioritaires pour la faune menacée du site, (ii évaluer leur changement entre 1950 et 2005, (iii déceler les causes du changement, (iv élaborer une prospective des changements en 2050 et (v évaluer les impacts du changement. Le changement des habitats naturels s’est déroulé au cours des temps mais il n’a pas été assez important au niveau global du site pour transformer radicalement les occupations du sol. Toutefois, le recul des phragmitaies du lac Kinkony et des forêts de Tsiombikibo et de Marofandroboka menace les espèces qui en dépendent. Le suivi du delta de Mahavavy doit être poursuivi et intensifié pour évaluer les menaces qui pèsent sur lui dans le contexte des changements climatiques. La situation de la forêt d’Andohaomby est préoccupante et son avenir menacé en l’absence d’actions concrètes. L’analyse de vulnérabilité à l’érosion du bassin du Kinkony a démontré que les changements physico-chimiques dus à l’érosion dans les quatre bassins au Sud du lac rendent nécessaires des aménagements anti-érosifs. Parmi les espèces de la faune

  8. 汶川地震液化土层类型验证及土性分析%Characteristic analysis of liquefied soil in Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯龙清; 徐红梅; 曹振中; 袁晓铭

    2011-01-01

    2008年5月12日汶川特大地震中,除在山区引发了大量山体滑坡、崩塌和泥石流外,在成都平原等地液化现象也十分普遍.液化主要分布在含砂、砾石和卵石等的第四系地层.依据地层分布特征和地震烈度,选择6个典型液化点(带)进行现场勘测和试验,以验证液化土层类型、了解液化土层的土性特征,并检验中液化判别方法的适应性.结果表明:(1)典型液化点土类包含砂、砾石和卵石等,6个验证点中有2个为砂层液化(其中1个为砾砂)、3个为砾石层液化和1个为卵石层液化;(2)与非液化地层相比,液化地层结构松散,均匀性差,颗粒大小分布曲线较平缓,不均匀系数较大,其中液化砂土级配良好,砾石和卵石级配不良;(3)依据液化判别方法,将验证点1中砂液化判为非液化,其余5个验证点由于含较多粗颗粒,因无法进行标准贯入试验而无法进行液化判别.%The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake caused destructive geologic hazard such as mountain landslide, collapse and debris flow in the mountainous area.Meanwhile, the liquefaction occurred extensively in the Chengdu plain that was mainly underlain by gravelly soils.Six typical liquefied sites were selected for drilling and field test in order to undersrand the features of liquefied soil and verify the feasibility of the liquefaction evaluation method in the Codefor Seismic Design of Buildings.The results indicate: ( 1 ) The liquefied soils of six typical sites range from sand to gravels, two of which are sand and the rest are gravels.(2) The liquefied soil layers are loose and non-uniform with gently grain size distribution curve and large coefficient of uniformity; and the liquefied sands are well-graded soils and liquefied gravels are not.(3) The liquefaction evaluation method in the seismic code predicts one of the six typical sites as non-liquefaction site.Moreover.the code method is not feasible for gravels liquefaction assessment

  9. Analysis of the Safety Technology of Liquefied Natural Gas Storage and Transportation%解析液化天然气储存运输的安全技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑妃志

    2015-01-01

    在液化天然气储存运输过程中,应用安全技术十分必要——只有充分应用安全技术,才能保证液化天然气储存运输的安全性,降低液化天然气的储存运输风险。但在当前的液化天然气储存运输中,还存在关于安全技术的应用问题。主要分析了液化天然气储存运输中安全技术的应用,并针对其中的问题提出了相应的解决方法。%In liquefied natural gas storage transport process and application of security technology is necessary——only make full use of the security technology, in order to ensure the safety of the transportation of liquefied natural gas storage, reduce the liquefied natural gas storage and transportation risk. But in the current liquefied natural gas storage transportation, there is also the application of safety technology. This paper mainly analyzes the application of safety technology in storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas, and puts forward the corresponding solution to the problem.

  10. Experimental Study of the Burners for Liquefied Petroleum Gas%液化石油气烧嘴的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璋保; 陶保国

    2000-01-01

    介绍了LYS2液化石油气烧嘴的结构特点和热工特点。它具有空-煤气混合好、调节比大、助燃空气压力低、可用于冷风或热风、适应性强等特点。%In this paper,the design and thermal characteristics of LYS2 type burner for liquefied petroleum gas are introduced. This kind of burner has good air/gas mixture ,large regulating ratio and low combustion air pressure ,and is applicable to cold or hot air.

  11. The Analysis on Global Liquefied Natural Gas Supply and Demand Situation%全球液化天然气供需形势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈成

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the global LNG supply and demand situation and trend of development, and predicts that the trading price of liquefied natural gas will subsequently be higher along with the higher demand in the future 10 years.%文章主要介绍了全球液化天然气供需现状和发展趋势,提出未来10年内该产业将处于供应紧张状态,液化天然气交易价格也将随之走高。

  12. Review on Detection Standards for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Dimethyl Ether%液化石油气、二甲醚检测方法述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智裕; 江禄森; 李坚; 陈世泰; 吴世逵

    2013-01-01

    Current valid determination LPG, DME standard methods included GB/T 10410-2008“artificial gas and liquefied petroleum gas composition by gas chromatographic analysis constants”, SH/T 0230-1992 liquefied petroleum gas composition determination (chromatography France), SH/T 1483-2004“industrial isobutylene oxygenates by gas chromatography”. Liquefied petroleum gas and dimethyl ether product standards (national standards or enterprise standards) also provided for the use of liquefied petroleum gas and dimethyl ether detection methods. These test methods were recommended and chromatography. Many improved methods were reported in the literatures. According to the need of socio-economic development and the development of DME industry, It was necessary to study the introduction of arbitration could be used for LPG and DME testing standards.%  现行有效测定液化石油气、二甲醚组分的标准方法有GB/T 10410-2008《人工煤气和液化石油气常量组分气相色谱分析方法》、SH/T 0230-1992液化石油气组成测定法(色谱法)、SH/T 1483-2004《工业异丁烯中含氧化合物的测定气相色谱法》,液化石油气、二甲醚产品标准(国家标准或企业标准)中也规定了所采用的液化石油气、二甲醚检测方法。这些检测方法都是推荐性的,均为色谱法,文献也报道了许多改进方法。根据社会经济发展需要和二甲醚产业发展情况,有必要研究出台可用于仲裁的液化石油气、二甲醚检测标准。

  13. Clean sailing. LNG terminals. Maritime infrastructure for liquefied natural gas; Sauber auf See. LNG-Terminals. Maritime Infrastruktur fuer fluessiges Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-09-01

    Ports act as essential hubs in the global economy. But the rise in maritime traffic is taking a toll on the quality of air in ports and out at sea. From 2015 onwards, threshold governing harmful emissions are being tightened in a bid to clear the air. All of which is driving interest in more environmentally sound fuels. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the perfect fit, more than complying with the upcoming regulations. To enable its widespread adoption, Linde is working full steam ahead to create a network of LNG terminals in Europe. (orig.)

  14. Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Combined Power Cycle Using the Organic Rankine Cycle and the Cold Energy of Liquefied Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this work, energy and exergy analyses are carried out for a combined cycle consisting of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and a liquefied natural gas (LNG) Rankine cycle for the recovery of low-grade heat sources and LNG cold energy. The effects of the turbine inlet pressure and the working fluid on the system performance are theoretically investigated. A modified temperature-enthalpy diagram is proposed, which can be useful to see the characteristics of the combined cycle, as well as the te...

  15. Studi Awal Desain LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Plant Dari Coal Bed Methane (CBM Dengan Kapasitas Feed 40 MMSCFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini telah dilakukan perancangan Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG Plant dari CBM degan kapasitas feed 40 MMSCFD dan waktu operasi 24 jam/hari dan 330 hari/tahun. Perancangan LNG plant dari CBM ini bertujuan untuk membantu usaha Negara dalam melakukan diversifikasi energi untuk mengatasi krisis energi. Salah satu contoh diversifikasi energi adalah mengganti bahan bakar pembangkit listrik High Speed Diesel (HSD menjadi LNG yang harganya relative lebih murah. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada simulasi dengan Aspen HYSYS, dimana terdapat batasan penelitian yakni gas alam yang dicairkan dengan cara didinginkan pada temperatur sekitar -161.3oC dan pada tekanan 1.06 bar. Tujuan pabrik LNG ini adalah Provinsi Bali hal ini dikarenakan elektrifikasi daerah tersebut cukup rendah. Dengan konsumsi minyak HSD yang tinggi tetapi elektrifikasi yang rendah maka diperlukan sumber energi alternatif untuk meningkatkan daya yang dihasilkan dan area distribusi sehingga tingkat elektrifikasi akan menjadi lebih tinggi. Pabrik LNG ini didirikan di Muara Enim, Sumatera Selatan pada tahun 2016. Penentuan lokasi pabrik berorientasi pada ketersediaan sumber bahan baku CBM. Menurut data DITJEN MIGAS Muara enim memiliki potensi CBM sebesar 0.5 TCF. Potensi sebesar ini dapat digunakan selama 60 tahun dengan kapasitas feed LNG plant sebesar 40 MMSCFD Proses pembuatan LNG dari gas alam ini menggunakan Proses On-Shore LNG menggunakan beberapa rangkaian proses yaitu : Unit Penghilang CO2 dan H2S : menggunakan Amine Cycle, Unit Dehidrasi : menggunakan molecular sieve, Unit Refrigeran dan Pencairan : menggunakan MCR Coldbox Sumber dana investasi berasal dari modal sendiri sebesar 20 % biaya investasi dan pinjaman jangka pendek sebesar 80 % biaya investasi dengan bunga sebesar 12 % per tahun. Dari analisa perhitungan ekonomi didapat hasil-hasil sebagai berikut : Investasi : 163,557 MUSD, Internal Rate of Return : 25.66 %, POT : 3.26 tahun, BEP : 58.86 %, NPV 10 year   :120

  16. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. liquefied natural gas exports: implications for end uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Leslie S; Samaras, Constantine; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2015-03-03

    This study analyzes how incremental U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports affect global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We find that exported U.S. LNG has mean precombustion emissions of 37 g CO2-equiv/MJ when regasified in Europe and Asia. Shipping emissions of LNG exported from U.S. ports to Asian and European markets account for only 3.5-5.5% of precombustion life cycle emissions, hence shipping distance is not a major driver of GHGs. A scenario-based analysis addressing how potential end uses (electricity and industrial heating) and displacement of existing fuels (coal and Russian natural gas) affect GHG emissions shows the mean emissions for electricity generation using U.S. exported LNG were 655 g CO2-equiv/kWh (with a 90% confidence interval of 562-770), an 11% increase over U.S. natural gas electricity generation. Mean emissions from industrial heating were 104 g CO2-equiv/MJ (90% CI: 87-123). By displacing coal, LNG saves 550 g CO2-equiv per kWh of electricity and 20 g per MJ of heat. LNG saves GHGs under upstream fugitive emissions rates up to 9% and 5% for electricity and heating, respectively. GHG reductions were found if Russian pipeline natural gas was displaced for electricity and heating use regardless of GWP, as long as U.S. fugitive emission rates remain below the estimated 5-7% rate of Russian gas. However, from a country specific carbon accounting perspective, there is an imbalance in accrued social costs and benefits. Assuming a mean social cost of carbon of $49/metric ton, mean global savings from U.S. LNG displacement of coal for electricity generation are $1.50 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) of gaseous natural gas exported as LNG ($.028/kWh). Conversely, the U.S. carbon cost of exporting the LNG is $1.80/Mcf ($.013/kWh), or $0.50-$5.50/Mcf across the range of potential discount rates. This spatial shift in embodied carbon emissions is important to consider in national interest estimates for LNG exports.

  17. Talking about the advantages and prospects of liquefied natural gas (LNG)%浅谈液化天然气(LNG)的优势及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董相军; 苏芮锋

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly from the definition and characteristics of liquefied natural gas to make simple introduction, elaborated natural gas liquefaction process, analyzes the advantages of liquefied natural gas and liquefied natural gas in the strategy of sustainable development the necessity of development and future prospects.%本文主要从液化天然气的定义特点对其做简单介绍,阐述了天然气的液化处理流程,分析了液化天然气的突出优势及液化天然气在可持续发展战略中发展的必要性和未来的发展前景。

  18. A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid Bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty.

  19. Development Status of Large-scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Tanks%大型液化天然气储罐的发展状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月; 王为民; 李明鑫; 郝晶; 曹彦青

    2013-01-01

    随着液化天然气的需求量日益增加,它的储存运输问题也得到了越来越大的重视。液化天然气储罐是储存液化天然气的一种重要设备。主要简介了液化天然气的优点,液化天然气储罐的分类,国内外现状,以及建造时可能遇到的问题,并简单总结了液化天然气储罐的发展趋势。%With the increasing of LNG demand,its storage and transportation problem has got more and more attention. The liquid natural gas storage tank is a kind of important equipment to store liquefied natural gas. In this article, advantages of liquefied natural gas were introduced as well as classification of LNG storage tanks. The common problems during building the liquid natural gas storage tank were discussed, and the development trend of LNG storage tanks was put forward.

  20. 我国液化天然气接收站防爆设计%China's liquefied natural gas receiving station explosion proof design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱向东

    2015-01-01

    天然气所具有易燃、易爆特点,使得液化天然气(LNG)接收站工程设计中要始终把防爆安全问题放在首要位置来考虑.文章依据LNG接收站爆炸事故特征,通过对于接收站中不同程度危险区域的划分,研究了液化天然气接收站防爆设计.%Natural gas is flammable, explosive has characteristics, which makes the liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving station project design should always put the explosion-proof safety problems in the first place to consider. According to the characteristics of explosion accident of LNG receiving station, through the division of the different degree for hazardous area in a receiving station, studies the liquefied natural gas receiving station explosion proof design.

  1. 大型液化天然气储气罐沉降分析%SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS ON LARGE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS STORAGE TANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺超; 杨建江

    2012-01-01

    随着我国天然气利用的不断增长,对大型液化天然气储气罐的研究显得越来越重要.本文介绍了Randolph和Worth提出的单桩及群桩基础沉降公式并结合Ansys有限元分析软件对高承台大型液化天然气储气罐进行沉降分析.Ansys模型分析得出的沉降结果与已有工程经验有很好的吻合.%With the growing use of natural gas, the study of large-scale liquefied natural gas storage tank is becoming increasingly important. This paper introduces the formula of single pile and group pile foundation settlement proposed by Randolph and Worth, and also analysis the settlement of the high cap foundation of the large-scale liquefied natural gas storage tank with Ansys finite element analysis software. The sedimentation results educed from Ansys model analysis are in good agreement with the existing engineering experience.

  2. Technology and System Maintenance of Liquefied Natural Gas Vehicle%液化天然气汽车(LNGV)技术及系统维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨尚宾

    2009-01-01

    液化天然气作为车用燃料,具有环保、能量密度大、充装速度快及安全的特点.本文针对液化天然气的的特点,对液化天然气汽车供气工艺及系统组成进行详细介绍.并结合北京50辆LNG公交车在实际应用中存在的问题,对系统维护中影响车辆安全和经济性能的储罐真空度的现场维护问题进行了阐述.%Liquefied Natural Gas used as Vehicle Fuel has the advantages of environment-protecting, high energy density, high-speed filling and safety. Based on the characteristics of the liquefied natural gas, gas supply technology and system composition were discussed in detail. The effects of vacuum tank on the vehicle safety and economic performance in the system maintenance were also described by the problems in practical application of the 50 LNG buses in Beijing.

  3. Review on Standards for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Dimethyl Ether%液化石油气、二甲醚产品标准述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世逵; 江禄森; 陈智裕; 李坚; 陈世泰

    2013-01-01

    The key content about our country current effectively national standards and industry standards of liquefied petroleum gas and dimethyl ether products was introduced. The currently effective products’standards of liquefied petroleum gas and dimethyl ether including national standards, industrial standards and part of provinces and cities’DME/LPG composite fuel standards have promoted the development of gas industry. And they have also laid a solid foundation for implementing national standards of DME/LPG composite fuel.%介绍了我国现行有效的液化石油气、二甲醚产品的国家标准、行业标准的关键内容。现行有效的液化石油气、二甲醚产品的国家标准、行业标准以及部分省市DME与LPG复合燃料的地方标准推动了燃气产业发展,为DME与LPG复合燃料国家标准的发布实施奠定了坚实基础。

  4. Discussion on the height of the protective wall of the whole pressure liquefied petroleum gas storage tank%浅谈全压力式液化石油气储罐防护墙高度设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔国西

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了全压力式液化石油气储罐防护墙适宜高度的影响因素,总结了全压力式液化石油气储罐防护墙适宜高度的选取原则.%This paper analyzes the influencing factors of the suitable height of the protective wall of the full pressure liquefied petroleum gas storage tank,and summarizes the selection principle of the suitable height of the protective wall of the whole pressure liquefied petroleum gas storage tank.

  5. 水稻秸秆液化物制备聚氨酯泡沫的研究%Preparation of Polyurethane Foam from Liquefied Rice Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万雨; 王敦; 张玉苍

    2015-01-01

    The rice straw was liquefied by using polyethylene glycol 400 and glycerol as mixed liquefier and concentrated sulfuric acid as catalyst. And this liquefied rice straw was employed to prepare the polyurethane ( PU ) foam, and followed by a characterization of its structure and performance. The effects of isocyanate index,water content,the proportion of the catalyst,and the amount of silicone oil on properties of the PU foam were studied. The results showed that the PU foam can be prepared with good properties by using the liquefied rice straw and isocyanate ( PAPI) as raw materials,under the optimum condition,namely, 2% weight content of water against the mass of the liquefied rice straw, triethylenediamine and stannous octoate composite catalysts with the weight ratio of 0. 1:0. 3(g:g),4% silicone oil as foam stabilizer against liquid agent and the isocyanate index of 1. 2. And the properties of these PU foam i. e. the density, the tensile strength and the compressive strength were 35.78 kg/m3,222. 60 kPa,110. 90 kPa,respectively. TGA analysis indicated that rice straw-based PU foam had good heat resistance with the initial decomposition temperature of 241 ℃ and the most rapid decomposing temperature of 420 ℃.%以聚乙二醇400与丙三醇为混合液化剂,浓硫酸为催化剂,对水稻秸秆进行液化,并对水稻秸秆液化产物制备的聚氨酯泡沫进一步分析,讨论了异氰酸根指数、发泡剂水的用量、催化剂比例及硅油用量对聚氨酯泡沫性能的影响. 实验结果表明:以水稻秸秆液化产物10 g和异氰酸酯( PAPI)为原料,水作发泡剂最佳用量为稻杆液化物质量的2%,三乙烯二胺和辛酸亚锡为复合催化剂,最佳用量比为0. 1:0. 3(g:g),水溶性硅油为泡沫稳定剂,最佳用量为液化物质量的4%,异氰酸根指数为1. 2,此条件下制备的聚氨酯( PU)泡沫材料,其性能良好,泡沫的密度为35. 78 kg/m3 ,拉伸强度为222. 60 kPa,压缩强度为110. 90 kPa,TGA分

  6. Project of law relative to the electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the definitive text of this project of law adopted by the French house of commons. The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  7. Model-Based Throttle Control using Static Compensators and Pole Placement Commande des gaz basée sur un modèle utilisant des compensateurs statiques et un placement de pôles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomasson A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern spark ignited engines, the throttle is controlled by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU, which gives the ECU direct control of the air flow and thereby the engine torque. This puts high demands on the speed and accuracy of the controller that positions the throttle plate. The throttle control problem is complicated by two strong nonlinear effects, friction and limp-home torque. This paper proposes the use of two, simultaneously active, static compensators to counter these effects and approximately linearize the system. A PID controller is designed for the linearized system, where pole placement is applied to design the PD controller and a gain scheduled I-part is added for robustness against model errors. A systematic procedure for generating compensator and controller parameters from open loop experiments is also developed. The controller performance is evaluated both in simulation, on a throttle control benchmark problem, and experimentally. A robustness investigation pointed out that the limp-home position is an important parameter for the controller performance, this is emphasized by the deviations found in experiments. The proposed method for parameter identification achieves the desired accuracy. Au sein des moteurs à allumage commandé modernes, les gaz sont régulés par le boîtier de commande électronique (ECU; Electronic Control Unit, qui permet la régulation directe par l’ECU du flux d’air et ainsi du couple moteur. Cela conduit à des exigences élevées quant à la vitesse et à la précision du régulateur qui positionne le papillon des gaz. Le problème de commande des gaz est compliqué par deux forts effets non linéaires, le frottement et le couple de mode de secours (“limp-home”. Cet article propose l’utilisation de deux compensateurs statiques, actifs simultanément, pour contrer ces effets et linéariser approximativement le système. Un régulateur PID est conçu pour le système linéarisé, où un

  8. High Pressure Behavior of Hydrocarbons. Joule-Thomson Expansion of Gas Condensates Comportement des hydrocarbures à haute pression. Détente de Joule-Thomson de gaz à condensats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortekaas W. G.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents calculations of Joule-Thomson inversion effects in high-pressure-high-temperature gas condensates. Isenthalpic expansions were modeled for several gas condensate mixtures reported in literature using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong and the Peng-Robinson equations of state. The calculations confirmed qualitatively the heating of gas condensates at expansion. Although reservoir temperatures are in the region where cooling occurs, i. e. , inside the inversion curve, it was shown that reservoir pressures lie outside this region, and that the temperature will increase until the inversion curve is reached. The calculated temperature increases are not very large. Although exact values depend on fluid composition, reservoir conditions, and pressure drop, typical calculated temperature increases are in the range of 10-30°C for reservoir pressures of 1000 bar. A sensitivity study showed that both reservoir pressure and fluid composition greatly affect the temperature increase. With increasing pressures and increasing amounts of heavy constituents present in gas condensate mixtures, the maximum possible temperature effect will also increase. Unfortunately, due to lack of experimental information, the reliability of the calculated results could not be verified. Cet article présente des calculs de l'effet d'inversion de Joule-Thomson pour des gaz à condensats à haute température et haute pression. La détente isenthalpique a été modélisée pour plusieurs compositions de gaz à condensats trouvées dans la littérature, en utilisant les équations d'état de Soave-Redlich-Kwong et de Peng-Robinson. Ces calculs confirment qualitativement le réchauffement des gaz à condensat lors de la détente. Bien que les températures de gisement se trouvent dans la région où un refroidissement s'observe, c'est-à-dire à l'intérieur de la courbe d'inversion, on a montré que les pressions de gisement correspondent à l'extérieur de cette r

  9. GAZ ABSORPSİYONUNDA KULLANILABİLİR SCHIFF BAZI-METAL KOMPLEKSLERİNİN KUARTZ KRİSTAL MEMBRAN SENSÖRÜ OLARAK GELİŞTİRİLMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    NAZIR, Hasan

    1990-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, gravimetrik sensör uygulamalarından biri olan Kuartz Kristal Mikrobalans (QCM; Quartz Crystal Microbalance) sisteminin elle taşınabilir, pille de çalışabilen ve bilgisayar ile kontrol edilebilir küçük bir modülünün geliştirilmesi, sentezlenecek Schiff bazı-metal kompleksleriyle de sistemin gaz fazında çalışmasının test edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. QCM sistemi temel olarak üç ana parçadan oluşmaktadır; Frekansmetre, kristal ösilatör ve SiO2 kristali. Yapılan çalışmada, PIC (Peripheral...

  10. Contribution to the study of the ionization and heating of gases by laser radiation; Contribution a l'etude de l'ionisation et du chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement d'un laser declenche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrie, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-01-01

    The ionization and heating of gases by the concentrated radiation of a neodymium laser is studied. The power is 300 MW, the gas studied is primarily deuterium between 300 mm and 2280 mm. The first part concerns a certain number of experimental results on the absorption of the radiation and on changes produced in the plasma as a function of time. From these results are deduced a certain number of consequences, amongst which may be mentioned the definition of a pre-ionization threshold. These experimental results are interpreted in the second part. A calculation is made of the length of the period during which the electrons multiply up to when the absorption becomes measurable. The last phase corresponds to the hydrodynamics evolution, the calculations are compared with the experiments. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory for the different phases. (author) [French] On etudie l'ionisation et le chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement concentre d'un laser au neodyme. La puissance est de 300 MW, le gaz etudie est principalement le deuterium entre 300 mm et 2280 mm. La premiere partie concerne un certain nombre de resultats experimentaux. Il s'agit de l'absorption du rayonnement et de l'evolution chronologique du plasma. De ces resultats on deduit un certain nombre de consequences parmi lesquelles il faut citer la definition d'un seuil de preionisation. Ces resultats experimentaux sont interpretes dans la deuxieme partie. On calcule la duree de la phase pendant laquelle se multiplient les electrons jusqu'a ce que l'absorption soit mesurable. La derniere phase correspond a l'evolution hydrodynamique. Les calculs sont confrontes avec l'experience. L'accord entre theorie et experience est satisfaisant pour les differentes phases. (auteur)

  11.  Standardy rachunkowości stanowiące podstawę sporządzania sprawozdań finansowych przez jednostki wydobywające gaz łupkowy w Polsce i w Stanach Zjednoczonych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Galimska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Celem artykułu jest analiza oraz porównanie standardów rachunkowości wykorzystywanych przez przedsiębiorstwa poszukujące i wydobywające gaz łupkowy w Stanach Zjednoczonych i w Polsce. Autorka dokonała zestawienia regulacji służących do sporządzania i prezentacji sprawozdań finansowych, na których opierają się jednostki eksploatujące węglowodory niekonwencjonalne. Wciąż postępujący rozwój rynków kapitałowych znajduje swoje odzwierciedlenie w intensyfikacji oczekiwań interesariuszy względem atrybutów, którymi winny charakteryzować się sprawozdania finansowe. Rozważania zawarte w artykule ukazują wysoki poziom specjalizacji amerykańskich standardów rachunkowości, na których bazują podmioty wydobywające gaz łupkowy w Stanach Zjednoczonych. Natomiast standardy międzynarodowe poruszają jedynie kwestię początkowego stadium procesu wydobycia alternatywnych węglowodorów, co rzutuje na spójność przygotowywanych na ich podstawie sprawozdań finansowych. Ponadto istotna jest kwestia rozbieżności merytorycznych czy też interpretacyjnych analizowanych standardów zarówno w zakresie identyfikacji kosztów oraz ich klasyfikacji, jak i określania wysokości odpisów z tytułu utraty wartości.

  12. Karabük İlindeki Hava Kirliliğinin Doğal Gaz Kullanımı İle Değişimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdülaziz YILDIZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetFosil kaynaklı yakıtların kullanımı, hava kirliliğine sebebiyet veren en önemli unsurlardan bir tanesidir. Bu yakıtların bilinçsizce kullanılması sonucunda çevre problemlerine özellikle de hava kirliliğine neden olmaktadır. Yapılan bu çalışmada, Karabük ilinin doğalgaz kullanmaya başlamadan önceki ve doğalgaza geçiş ile hava kirlilik parametreleri (SO2 ve PM10 incelenmiştir. Doğal gaz kullanımının hava kalitesine etkisi araştırılmıştır. İlde ısınma ihtiyacını karşılamak için kömür, fuel-oil ve mazot kullanılırken 2010 yılı itibariyle doğal gaza geçilmiştir. Doğal gazın kullanılmaya başlanmasıyla bu yakıtların kullanımı azalmıştır. Çalışmanın sonunda, Hava Kalitesi Değerlendirme ve Yönetimi Yönetmeliğinde (HKDYY belirtilen, SO2 için 250 μg/m3 değerinin doğal gaz kullanımına geçilmeden önce bazı aylarda üzerinde olduğu görülmüş ve doğal gaz kullanılmaya başlanmasından sonraki dönemlerde ise 250 μg/m3 değerinin aşılmadığı görülmüştür. PM10 için yönetmelikte belirtilen 200 μg/m3 değerinin kış sezonunda aşıldığı tespit edilmiştir. 2010 yılında Doğal gaz kullanımına geçiş ile birlikte bu değerde tekrar bir düşüş gözlenmiştir. Doğal gaz kullanım oranı artıkça havadaki SO2 ve PM10 değerlerinde ciddi düşüşler olduğu gözlenmiştir.AbstractThe Usage of fossil origin fuels is one of the most important cause of air pollution. The usage of these fuels unconsciously causes environmental problems especially air pollution. In this study air pollution parameters (SO2 ve PM10 were analyzed before and after the usage of natural gas in Karabuk. The effect of usage natural gas on air quality is researched. In this city before 2010 coal, foul-oil and diesel were used to provide heat demanded then it is started using natural gas by 2010.With starting the usage of natural gas, the usage of these kind of fuels (coal, foul

  13. Energy Equation Derivation of the Oil-Gas Flow in Pipelines Dérivation de l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans des pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan J.M

    2012-09-01

    well describe the oil-gas two-phase flow. Lors de la simulation d’un écoulement multiphasique huile-gaz dans une conduite, le calcul thermodynamique représente un processus important en interaction avec le calcul hydraulique; il influence la convergence du programme et la précision des résultats. La forme de l’équation d’énergie constitue la clef du calcul thermodynamique. Basée sur l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans un pipeline, la formule de chute de température explicite (ETDF; Explicit Temperature Drop Formula est dérivée pour un calcul de température d’état stable huile-gaz. Cette nouvelle équation d’énergie prend en compte de nombreux facteurs, tels que l’effet Joule-Thomson, le travail de pression, le travail de frottement, ainsi que l’incidence des ondulations de terrain et le transfert de chaleur avec le milieu extérieur le long de la ligne. Ainsi, il s’agit d’une forme globale de l’équation d’énergie, laquelle pourrait décrire précisément la réalité d’un pipeline à phases multiples. Pour cette raison, un certain nombre de points de vue de la littérature à propos du calcul de température d’un écoulement diphasique huile-gaz dans des pipelines sont passés en revue. L’élimination de la boucle d’itération de température et l’intégration de l’équation de température explicite, au lieu de l’équation d’énergie d’enthalpie, dans le calcul conjugué hydraulique et thermique, se sont avérées améliorer l’efficacité de l’algorithme. Le calcul a été appliqué non seulement au modèle de composants mais aussi au modèle Black-Oil. Ce modèle est incorporé respectivement dans le modèle de composants ainsi que le modèle Black-Oil et deux simulations sont effectuées sur deux pipelines en service, les pipelines multiphasiques Yingmai-Yaha et Lufeng; les résultats de température sont comparés à la simulation calculée par OLGA et aux résultats mesurés. Il

  14. Comments on Potential Geologic and Seismic Hazards Affecting Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Site in Santa Monica Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Lee, Homa J.; Parsons, Tom E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Boore, David M.; Conrad, James E.; Edwards, Brian D.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hough, Susan E.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Luco, Nicolas; McCrory, Patricia A.; McGann, Mary; Nathenson, Manuel; Nolan, Michael; Petersen, Mark D.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Powell, Charles L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Tinsley, John C.; Wills, Chris J.; Wong, Florence L.; Xu, Jingping

    2008-01-01

    In a letter to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dated March 25, 2008, Representative Jane Harman (California 36th district) requested advice on geologic hazards that should be considered in the review of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility off the California coast in Santa Monica Bay. In 2004, the USGS responded to a similar request from Representative Lois Capps, regarding two proposed LNG facilities offshore Ventura County, Calif., with a report summarizing potential geologic and seismic hazards (Ross and others, 2004). The proposed LNG Deepwater Port (DWP) facility includes single point moorings (SPMs) and 35 miles of underwater pipelines. The DWP submersible buoys, manifolds, and risers would be situated on the floor of the southern Santa Monica Basin, in 3,000 feet of water, about 23 miles offshore of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Twin 24-inch diameter pipelines would extend northeastward from the buoys across the basin floor, up the basin slope and across the continental shelf, skirting north around the Santa Monica submarine canyon. Figure 1 provides locations of the project and geologic features. Acronyms are defined in table 1. This facility is being proposed in a region of known geologic hazards that arise from both the potential for strong earthquakes and geologic processes related to sediment transport and accumulation in the offshore environment. The probability of a damaging earthquake (considered here as magnitude 6.5 or greater) in the next 30 years within about 30 miles (50 km) of the proposed pipeline ranges from 16% at the pipeline's offshore end to 48% where it nears land (Petersen, 2008). Earthquakes of this magnitude are capable of producing strong shaking, surface fault offsets, liquefaction phenomena, landslides, underwater turbidity currents and debris flow avalanches, and tsunamis. As part of the DWP license application for the Woodside Natural Gas proposal in Santa Monica Bay (known as the OceanWay Secure Energy Project), Fugro

  15. Analysis of Simultaneous Gas-Liquid Flow Through an Orifice and Its Application to Flow Metering Etude de l'écoulement simultané d'un mélange gaz-liquide à travers un orifice et son application à la mesure du débit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show a more accurate orifice equation for a two-phase flow, such a compressible mixture of gas and liquid. The orifice equation given here con be used for the measurement of a gas-liquid mixture of fine emulsions by the orificemeter method. From the thermodynamic point of view, an equation of state has been formulated which provides the relationship between the specific mass of the mixture and pressure, under conditions of adiabatic expansion. The results obtained enable the mass flow rates of gas and liquid ta be determined without separation of the phases, provided thot the gas liquid mass ratio is known. The critical pressure ratio corresponding ta sonic velocity is also determined. Cet article présente une relation plus précise pour l'écoulement d'un système à deux phases, tel qu'un mélange compressible gaz-liquide, à travers un diaphragme. Cette relation peut être utilisée pour des mesures de mélanges gaz-liquide très finement divisés, c'est-à-dire des émulsions ou brouillards, par la méthode du diaphragme en paroi mince. Du point de vue thermodynamique, on a formulé une équation d'état donnant la relation entre la masse spécifique du mélange et la pression dans des conditions d'expansion adiabatique. Les résultats obtenus per-mettent de déterminer le débit massique du gaz et du liquide, sans séparation des deux phases, à condition que le rapport de masse gaz-liquide soit connu. On détermine également le rapport de pression critique correspondantà la vitesse du son.

  16. LNG(Liquefied Natural Gas)Development and Automation System%LNG(液化天然气)发展及其自动化系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强

    2016-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas,analyzes the production process and the principle of liquefied natural gas,and from the three bus control systems,security systems,and explosion-proof intelligent temperature control system,we discussed the LNG automation system,with a view to promote the development of liquefied natural gas automation system,improve the utilization of liquefied natural gas to provide reference.%阐述了液化天然气的特点,分析了液化天然气的工艺流程及生产原理,并从总线控制系统、安全防爆系统和智能温控系统三个方面,探讨了液化天然气的自动化系统,以期为推动液化天然气自动化系统的发展,提高液化天然气的利用率提供借鉴。

  17. Fluctuations Magnetiques des Gaz D'electrons Bidimensionnels: Application AU Compose Supraconducteur LANTHANE(2-X) Strontium(x) Cuivre OXYGENE(4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Pierre

    Nous presentons une etude des fluctuations magnetiques de la phase normale de l'oxyde de cuivre supraconducteur La_{2-x}Sr _{x}CuO_4 . Le compose est modelise par le Hamiltonien de Hubbard bidimensionnel avec un terme de saut vers les deuxiemes voisins (modele tt'U). Le modele est etudie en utilisant l'approximation de la GRPA (Generalized Random Phase Approximation) et en incluant les effets de la renormalisation de l'interaction de Hubbard par les diagrammes de Brueckner-Kanamori. Dans l'approche presentee dans ce travail, les maximums du facteur de structure magnetique observes par les experiences de diffusion de neutrons sont associes aux anomalies 2k _{F} de reseau du facteur de structure des gaz d'electrons bidimensionnels sans interaction. Ces anomalies proviennent de la diffusion entre particules situees a des points de la surface de Fermi ou les vitesses de Fermi sont tangentes, et conduisent a des divergences dont la nature depend de la geometrie de la surface de Fermi au voisinage de ces points. Ces resultats sont ensuite appliques au modele tt'U, dont le modele de Hubbard usuel tU est un cas particulier. Dans la majorite des cas, les interactions ne determinent pas la position des maximums du facteur de structure. Le role de l'interaction est d'augmenter l'intensite des structures du facteur de structure magnetique associees a l'instabilite magnetique du systeme. Ces structures sont souvent deja presentes dans la partie imaginaire de la susceptibilite sans interaction. Le rapport d'intensite entre les maximums absolus et les autres structures du facteur de structure magnetique permet de determiner le rapport U_ {rn}/U_{c} qui mesure la proximite d'une instabilite magnetique. Le diagramme de phase est ensuite etudie afin de delimiter la plage de validite de l'approximation. Apres avoir discute des modes collectifs et de l'effet d'une partie imaginaire non-nulle de la self-energie, l'origine de l'echelle d'energie des fluctuations magnetiques est examinee

  18. Sensibilité à la température d'un capteur de pression partielle de gaz carbonique à fibres optiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendamardji, S.; Alayli, Y.

    1998-03-01

    An optical fibre sensor to measure weak partial pressures of carbon dioxide has been designed and realized. This sensor is based on direct molecular absorption in the near infrared at 4.3 μ{m}. It is an extrinsic and amplitude modulation type sensor. In the linear region between 0 and 2000μbar, the calibration curve that represents the transmitted power versus the carbon dioxide partial pressure in air shows a sensitivity of 20 nW/mbar with a minimum detectable pressure of 25 μbar. This article describes a temperature sensitivity analysis for all optoelectronic components and proposes a calculation method to distinguish two successive levels of partial pressure in a surrounding atmosphere where the temperature can vary. The experimental results show that without using a reference signal, the maximum variation of temperature is ± 1.4^circC. The use of a reference signal combined with thermoelectric cooling of the photodetector tolerates a temperature variation of ± 25^circC. Un capteur à fibres optiques permettant la mesure de faibles pressions partielles de gaz carbonique a été conçu et réalisé. Ce capteur basé sur l'absorption moléculaire directe dans l'infrarouge à 4,3μ m est de type extrinsèque à modulation d'amplitude. Dans la région linéaire entre 0 et 2000 μbar, la courbe d'étalonnage représentant la puissance transmise en fonction de la pression partielle de CO_2 dans l'air montre une sensibilité de 20 nW/mbar avec une pression minimale de détection de 25 μbar. Cet article concerne une analyse de sensibilité à la température de l'ensemble des constituants optoélectroniques du capteur en proposant une méthode de calcul qui permette de discerner deux niveaux successifs de pression partielle dans un environnement assujetti à une variation de la température. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent que, sans utilisation d'un signal de référence, la variation maximale de température admise est de ± 1,4^circC alors que l

  19. Prospective of the market of Petroleum liquefied gas 2002-2011; Prospectiva del Mercado de Gas Licuado de Petroleo 2002-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum liquefied gas regulation (PLGR) establishes in it 8 Th Article that the Secretaria de Energia will draw up annually a prospective document about the Mexican market behavior of PL gas where its can be describing and analysing the necessities of the country in relation with this industry for an horizon of 10 years. Subjects such as: the panorama about the situation and perspectives of the international market of PL gas as well as the information at regional level of this fuel for 1990-2015 are treated. The main laws, regulations and arrangements of this industry, the evolution of the internal market of PL gas of 1995-2001 including prices which have been presented during this period, the expected evolution of the supply and demand of PL gas and the opportunities which exist in the industry in savings and efficient use of energy matter are presented. (Author)

  20. 液化气船事故频发的根源和对策%Roots and counter measure of frequent accidents on vessels for liquefied natural gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连俊鸿

    2001-01-01

    近年来,国内液化气船恶性事故接连不断,已严重危害液化气海上运输事业的健康发展。而要遏止这种趋势,必须准确分析事故频发的根源,并采取有力措施。%There are frequent vicious accidents on vessels for liquefiednatural gas,which harm the healthy development of sea-transportation for liquefied natural gas.To keep away from such a tendency,the roots and counter measure for these accidents must be precisely analysed.