... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gay and Lesbian Parents Page Content Article Body I am gay. Should I worry how this will affect my children? Millions of children have one or more gay and/or lesbian parents. For some children, having ...
Gay still be controversial and viewed negatively in Indonesian society. Most assume that it is impossible for gay to have religiosity. But in the reality, gays also have religiosity. This study aims to determine how the religiosity that is owned by a gay. In addition to knowing religiosity, this study also aims to determine the factors that led to participants being gay. This study used a qualitative phenomenological method. Participants in this study consists of 3 people. M...
Newmanxy, Bernie Sue
SUMMARY This study measured the effects of religious affiliation and gender on attitudes about lesbians and gay men among 2,846 college graduates who were beginning graduate study in social work or counseling. Males were more negative than females in their attitudes toward both lesbians and gay men. Conservative Protestants were the most negative in their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, while those who were Atheist, Agnostic, Jewish or claimed no religion were most positive. Beliefs that the Bible forbids homosexuality are discussed and readings and arguments challenging this belief that can be used as class content are presented.
... men who have sex with men (MSM), including gay and bisexual men. GLMA President Jesse Joad, MD, ... to establish clear and comprehensive regulations ensuring lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people do not face discrimination ...
Ladino, L. A.; Rondón, S. H.
In this paper, we present a low-cost method to study the Gay-Lussac's law. We use a heating wire wrapped around the test tube to heat the air inside and make use of a solid state pressure sensor which requires a previous calibration to measure the pressure in the test tube.
Shield, Andrew DJ
In this (open-access) essay, I assess the idea that Grindr and related apps render urban gay spaces obsolete, and offer three counter-arguments based on my research with immigrants and tourists who use Grindr. In short: newcomers who use Grindr might actually bring new life to queer urban spaces...
... Objectives » Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Overview (active tab) Objectives National Snapshots Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health View HP2020 Data for: ...
Yafi Sabila Rosyad
Full Text Available Background: The presence of gays in the community still makes heterosexual as normal sex orientation.Thereareunfair perceptionsof heterosexual group that develop into real behaviorswhicharevery detrimental for homosexuals group in the form of stigmatization against homosexuals.Stigmatization for gay in society also comes fromhealthprofessionals when they think homosexualsconduct violationto theruleof law,social andreligiousvalues.Therefore gays tend to visit certain healthcare providers who are familiar with them or to hide the identity that they are homosexuals.Objective:Todeterminetheperceptionsof gaysregarding gaystigmatizationofhealthcare providers.Methods:A qualitativeby using snowball samplingwith the total of 10participants was applied.TheConceptual Content CognitiveMap(3CMmethods followedby interviewwere utilized to gather data.Results:Six themesregarding gaystigmatizationofhealthcare as perceived by gays as follows: (1 gay isa divergence and contagious; (2 being gay is normal; (3 flamboyant and hedonist personality; (4 exclusiveand bad personality; (5 at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases, lack of self-control, and diseased; and(6 having good personality.Conclusion:Six themes with predominantly negative perceptions regarding stigmatization on gays byhealth careproviders as perceived by gays describe the need of transformation of health care service toincrease the quality of health of minor population like gay.
Full Text Available As members of consumerist societies, we are socialized into what it means to be good citizens and participate in society through our consumption. For many, this is taught in the home, yet for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ individuals, home is often not a source of reliable information about our identities. As such, LGBTQ individuals turn to the marketplace to seek information about their sexual and gender identities. This autoethnographic account shares, through three vignettes, how coming out as a queer man is shaped by consumptive pedagogy—that is, learning through consumption. First, material goods are explored as the signifier of sexual orientation. Then, the gay bar as marketplace and the online marketplace for relationships are explored.
Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Cash, Brian M; McCormack, Mark; Rieger, Gerulf
This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47). Although they were not significantly distinguishable based on physiological (pupil dilation) responses to nude stimuli, on behavioral and self-report measures a descending linear trend toward the less preferred sex (female) was significant regarding sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, romantic relationship, sex appeal, and gazing time to the porn stimuli. Results supported a continuum of sexuality with distinct subgroups only for the self-report measure of sexual attraction. The other behavioral and self-report measures followed the same trend but did not significantly differ between the bisexual leaning gay and mostly gay groups, likely the result of small sample size. Results suggest that romantic indicators are as good as sexual measures in assessing sexual orientation and that a succession of logically following groups from bisexual leaning gay, mostly gay, to gay. Whether these three groups are discrete or overlapping needs further research.
Hyde, Margaret O.; Forsyth, Elizabeth H.
Homosexuality has emerged as a major issue making headlines across the country, including initiatives, which have been put on state and local ballots, that limit or guarantee the civil rights of gays and lesbians. This book, designed as a guide for juveniles, separates fact from fiction about gays and lesbians and explains homosexuality in clear,…
Vernedering, in: Gay Amsterdam News 125 (jan 2002), pp. 20-21; Webseks, zaad, zweetseks, in: Gay Amsterdam News 126 (feb 2002), pp. 30-31; Wurgseks, in: Gay Amsterdam News 127 (mrt 2002), pp. 30-31; Wijnandus Johannes Sengers (1927-2002), in: Gay Amsterdam News 133 (sept 2002), pp. 49.
van der Meer, T.A.M.
Most of what is known about the perpetrators of anti-gay violence is reported by victims of such violence. None the less, it is obvious from such reports that 'gay bashers' are overwhelmingly young men who operate in groups, sometimes at gay cruising sites or near gay bars. Drawing on finding from
The present research draws from literature relating to gay identity in psychology and sociology and feminist theory to consider the effect of gay identity and gender on gays' and lesbians' attitudes toward various types of advertising content that are most commonly used to target gay consumers. As such, this study empirically tests whether gay males' and lesbians' responses to gay-oriented advertising content are moderated by individual characteristics: (1) the degree to which they identify as gay, and (2) their gender, and by the explicitness and gender of the gay-oriented advertising imagery.
... Lifestyle Adult health Understand important health issues for gay men and men who have sex with men — ... Staff All men face certain health risks. However, gay men and men who have sex with men ...
... Text Size Email Print Share Health Concerns for Gay and Lesbian Teens Page Content Article Body Sexual activity Most teens, whether they are gay, lesbian, bisexual , or straight, are not sexually active. ...
... Awards AGLP News Newsletter Archives Education Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health GAP LGBT Online Curriculum ... an End to Harmful ‘Religious Freedom’ Laws...> WPA: Gay “Cures” Are Harmful And Don’t Work See ...
Van Borsel, John; De Bruyn, Els; Lefebvre, Evelien; Sokoloff, Anouschka; De Ley, Sophia; Baudonck, Nele
This study evaluated the stereotype that gay men lisp. Two clinicians who were unaware of the specific purpose of the study and the populations involved judged randomized audio-recordings of 175 gay males, 100 heterosexual males and 100 heterosexual females for the presence of lisping during reading of a standardized text. In the gay males a…
Ibañez, Gladys E; Van Oss Marin, Barbara; Flores, Stephen A; Millett, Gregorio; Diaz, Rafael M
Latino gay men report experiences of racial discrimination within and outside the gay community. This study focused on correlates of racism within general and gay contexts. Racism was assessed in a probability sample of 911 Latino gay men recruited from 3 U.S. cities. Factor analysis of the 10-item scale produced 2 factors: (a) General Racism Experiences, and (b) Racism Experiences in Gay Contexts. The scale and each factor showed adequate reliability and validity. Latino gay men with darker skin, more Indian features, more time in the United States, and low self-esteem reported more racism in both general and gay contexts. The authors examine the psychometric properties of a measure that assesses interpersonal racism among Latinos, report correlates of racism within a gay context, and provide an assessment tool for understanding the role of racism in the lives of Latino gay men.
Chesebro, James W., Ed.
In a departure from previous statistical studies, this book focuses on the social responses to homosexuality rather than on homosexual behavior itself. The essays in the book maintain that communication--how gay men and lesbians relate to one another as well as to heterosexuals--is the major factor that determines public opinion about…
Decades' worth of studies point to the importance of parental involvement in K-12 schooling. Yet when it comes to policies related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students, families are often deliberately left out of the conversation, according to several leading experts in LGBT youth development. Even in schools where…
Putri Aprilina, Noni; Naryoso, Agus
Gay people in Indonesia are still a minority. The low population of gays causes jealousy and possessiveness to be the gay nature feeling of gay with each other. They will be very angry if their partner see theyre dating someone else (Aditya, 2009). Based on the above phenomenon can be concluded that gays also experience conflict in the relationship they live. Conflict experienced by gay is different from one another. Some show conflict-related issues of jealousy, usually higher sexual jealous...
Matharu, Kabir; Kravitz, Richard L; McMahon, Graham T; Wilson, Machelle D; Fitzgerald, Faith T
Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or w...
Sánchez, Francisco J; Vilain, Eric
Some gay men are preoccupied with traditional notions of masculinity and express negative feelings towards effeminate behavior in gay men. Various scholars have speculated that such attitudes by gay men reflect internalized negative feelings about being gay. Thus, we sought to assess the importance of masculinity among gay men, to compare their ideal versus perceived masculinity-femininity, to ask how gay men assess masculinity, and to test whether masculine consciousness and anti-effeminacy could predict negative feelings about being gay. Results from an online survey of 751 gay men in the United States (MAge=32.64 years, SD=11.94) showed that the majority rated masculinity for themselves and in a same-sex partner as important, and they ideally wished that their behavior was more masculine (Cohen's d=.42) and less feminine (d=.42) than they perceived it to be. Furthermore, one's behavior was more important than how one looks when assessing masculinity. A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they were preoccupied with masculinity and expressed anti-effeminacy accounted for 30% of the variance in negative feelings about being gay. These finding further support the idea that masculinity is an important construct for gay men and that masculine consciousness and anti-effeminacy are related to negative feelings about being gay.
Suen, Yiu Tung
Previous research saw older gay men as subject to structural marginalization of ageism but yet possessing agency to interpret aging in diverse ways. I move beyond this duality, drawing on the theory of defensive othering to understand how older gay men live with the aging discourse in the gay community. Informed by grounded theory, I analyzed interviews with 25 self-identified single gay men aged 50 or above in England inductively. It emerged that many older gay men found it difficult to escape the discourse that marginalizes the aging body. Even when they argued they were the exception and "looked good," they were discursively producing a two-tier system: they themselves as the "good older gay men," as opposed to the other "bad older gay men," who "had given up." Such a defensive othering tactic seemingly allowed them to resist age norms from applying to them personally, but unintentionally reinforced an ageist discourse.
Reports research on the nature of enduring sexual liaisons among homosexual men. Such relationships vary widely and may be subinstitutional adaptions to lack of community support. Gay men committed to the heterosexual world were less likely to enter enduring relationships. Open marriage is the more enduring form of gay male liaisons. (Author)
Wright, Sara L.; Canetto, Silvia Sara
This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…
Full Text Available Background Sexuality is a part of one’s identity and personality that is shaped under the influence of biological and environmental factors and interactions with society. The results of research conducted so far and concerning the personality traits of gay men and women are not consistent, and only a small number of them concern the Polish population. Hence the objective of the present research was to provide personality profiles of men and women with different sexual orientations. Participants and procedure The participants (N = 346 included 84 gay women, 82 gay men, 95 heterosexual women and 85 heterosexual men. The following measures were used: a survey developed by the author, the Kinsey Scale, the EPQ-R (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised adapted by Brzozowski and Drwal (1995, and the Sixteen-factor Personality Questionnaire of Cattell adapted by Nowakowska (1970. Results The results support the hypothesis that gay women and heterosexual men share similar personality traits, while gay men have more diverse traits, similar to the traits typical for heterosexual women and men. In particular, personalities of gay men are described by such traits as progressive attitude, independence, or willingness to take risks, which means traits linked to factor Q1. The highest values of that factor are observable in the case of gay men, as compared to gay women, and also in comparison with heterosexual men and women. Conclusions Sexual orientation is responsible for differences in personality traits of the studied group to a greater extent than their biological sex.
Full Text Available The article deals with the development of the gay and lesbian scene in ACC Metelkova, while specifying the preliminary aspects of establishing and building gay and lesbian activism associated with spatial issues. The struggle for space or occupying public space is vital for the gay and lesbian scene, as it provides not only the necessary socializing opportunities for gays and lesbians, but also does away with the historical hiding of homosexuality in the closet, in seclusion and silence. Because of their autonomy and long-term, continuous existence, homo-clubs at Metelkova contributed to the consolidation of the gay and lesbian scene in Slovenia and significantly improved the opportunities for cultural, social and political expression of gays and lesbians. Such a synthesis of the cultural, social and political, further intensified in Metelkova, and characterizes the gay and lesbian community in Slovenia from the very outset of gay and lesbian activism in 1984. It is this long-term synthesis that keeps this community in Slovenia so vital and politically resilient.
The current study examined whether there are differences between gay father families (n = 36) and heterosexual families (n = 36) on father-child relationship, fathers' experiences of parental stress and children's wellbeing. The gay fathers in this study all became parents while in same-sex
American Library Association Social Responsibilities Round Table.
This selective nonfiction bibliography features materials that present or support positive views of the gay experience, that help in understanding a gay-related issue, or that have special historical value. Listed are 200 nonfiction items: books, pamphlets, articles, periodicals, audiovisuals, directories,and other bibliographies. Complete…
... represents gay images that are in agreement with the 1996 Constitution of South Africa, which protects the rights of gay people. The analysis of male gayness is situated within the theoretical framework of intercultural communication. Intercultural communication theory regards gay identities as microcultures or subcultures ...
Bartone, Michael D.
Are being Black and gay problematic in the United States? Are Black gay youth "suffering" with these two intersecting identities? Traditional Eurocentric epistemologies would have one believe that Black males, Black gay males, and gay males (liminal groups) are suffering, rarely acknowledging those successfully navigating through…
A history of literature and views existing within the COC (Cultural and Recreational Center), the major Dutch organization of homosexual men and women, regarding pedophilia and its relationship to homosexuality are discussed, beginning with definite separation between the pedophile and homosexual identities and ending with an abolishment of oppression towards pedophilia, for which the COC is in part responsible. The article argues that the homosexual identify is by no means a "constant" but a fluid identity, based on societal views and conditions. By accepting pedophilia, the COC hopefully will broaden the idea of the gay identity.
This paper is a strategic intervention in the debate over the value of globalised gay identity for emerging sexual minority communities in the South. Focusing on self-identifying gay men in Botswana using semi-structured interviews, it explores their views of what characterises 'modern gay culture' and relates these to international media clichés of a glamorous, stylish, hedonistic gayness. I argue that identifying with what is so visibly a Western image of gayness exposes sexual minority communities to the most dangerous of the justifications for homophobia in Africa, the argument that sexual dissidence is a neo-colonial conspiracy to subvert 'African values'. The 'unAfrican' argument has to be taken very seriously, not only because it taps into the intense, conflicted emotions at the heart of the post-colonial condition, but also because it contains an undeniable germ of truth. This poses a dilemma, since global gay discourses, including the media clichés, are an important source of inspiration for African sexual minorities. A communication activism strategy is proposed to undermine the unAfrican argument by cultivating and asserting the 'tswanarisation' of gay culture in Botswana that is already taking place. A similar strategy may also be effective in other African societies.
Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine
Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian
The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.
Petersen, Michael Nebeling
Based on eight interviews with Danish gay male couples and one gayman, who had or were planning to become fathers through transnationalcommercial surrogacy, I examine the ways the men form familysubjectivities between traditional kinship patterns and fundamentally newforms of kinship and family....... Arguing that class, mobility, and privilegeshould also be understood as relational and negotiated positions, I showthat gay men engaged in surrogacy must be understood as more flexibleand differentiated. Second, I show how kinship as synonymous withbiogenetic relatedness is supplemented by notions...
Brewer, Paul R; Wilson, David C; Habegger, Michael
This study uses an experiment embedded in a large, nationally representative survey to test whether exposure to imagery of a gay or lesbian couple's wedding influences support for gay marriage. It also tests whether any such effects depend on the nature of the image (gay or lesbian couple, kissing or not) and viewer characteristics (sex, age, race, education, religion, and ideology). Results show that exposure to imagery of a gay couple kissing reduced support for gay marriage relative to the baseline. Other image treatments (gay couple not kissing, lesbian couple kissing, lesbian couple not kissing) did not significantly influence opinion.
Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…
In July 1977, the Ontario Humans Rights Commission recommended adding sexual orientation to the Code. This move was generally supported but Toronto newspapers and evangelists sought assurances that school boards could still dismiss homosexual teachers. They demanded children be shielded from gay teachers, who they accused of sexual predation. I historically link this to a reenergized fear of homosexuals which emerged during Toronto sex education debates in the 1970s. Later, influenced by Anita Bryant's Save the Children crusade, Toronto newspapers and evangelists argued gay teachers were the dangerous effect of gay rights. After the 1977 murder of Emanuel Jaques and the publication of Gerald Hannon's "Men Loving Boys, Loving Men" article, anti-gay sentiment in Toronto exploded, temporarily halting the progress of gay rights.
Simon Rosser, B R; West, William; Weinmeyer, Richard
This study sought to identify how urban gay communities are undergoing structural change, reasons for that change, and implications for HIV prevention planning. Key informants (N=29) at the AIDS Impact Conference from 17 cities in 14 countries completed surveys and participated in a facilitated structured dialog about if gay communities are changing, and if so, how they are changing. In all cities, the virtual gay community was identified as currently larger than the offline physical community. Most cities identified that while the gay population in their cities appeared stable or growing, the gay community appeared in decline. Measures included greater integration of heterosexuals into historically gay-identified neighborhoods and movement of gay persons into suburbs, decreased number of gay bars/clubs, less attendance at gay events, less volunteerism in gay or HIV/AIDS organizations, and the overall declining visibility of gay communities. Participants attributed structural change to multiple factors including gay neighborhood gentrification, achievement of civil rights, less discrimination, a vibrant virtual community, and changes in drug use. Consistent with social assimilation, gay infrastructure, visibility, and community identification appears to be decreasing across cities. HIV prevention planning, interventions, treatment services, and policies need to be re-conceptualized for MSM in the future. Four recommendations for future HIV prevention and research are detailed.
... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Black/African American a gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with ...
... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons and Tobacco Use Recommend ... and Influence Resources References People who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) include all races and ...
... their lives. The Effects of Negative Attitudes on Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Some people may have negative attitudes toward gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with ...
Monterrubio, J. Carlos
The present article aims to contribute to the recognition of two relevant aspects in gay travel; identity and sex. The paper explores the existing published work related to the relationships between tourism, gay men and identity. It concludes that the issue of identity commonly plays a crucial role as a travel reason in gay tourism. Also, it analyses the research evidence to suggest that sex is a frequently-present phenomenon in gay travel. By critically analysing the available research, the ...
Reed, Donald B.
Gay youth enter high school with the knowledge that they are different and with the belief that heterosexuality is normal and that homosexuality is not normal. Also, gay youth enter high school with the belief that honesty and integrity are important personal values. Additionally, the gay youth enter high school without family knowledge of their…
Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael
The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexual men, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.
There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…
van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Pasley, Kay; Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret; King, Erin
This Internet-based study used data from a convenience sample of 176 gay men in current partnerships to examine differences in outness, cohesion, and relationship quality between three types of gay male couples: first cohabiting partnerships, repartnerships, and gay stepfamilies. Also, we tested whether relationship quality mediated the link…
Slaatten, Hilde; Hetland, Jørn; Anderssen, Norman
The aim of this study was to examine whether attitudes about gay-related name-calling, social norms concerning gay-related name-calling among co-students, teacher intervention, and school-related support would predict whether secondary school pupils had called another pupil a gay-related name during the last month. A total of 921 ninth-grade…
Kus, Robert J
.... Addiction and Recovery is a vital resourcefor anyone providing servicesfor gay, lesbian, and bisexualclients. Rik Isensee,LCSW Author, LOVE BEIWEEN MEN, and GROWING UP GAY IN A DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILYMore pre-publication REVIEWS,COMMENTARIES, EVALUATIONS . .. "A ddiction and Recovery in Gay and Lesbian Persons" is an excellentcollection of multifa...
Koc, Yasin; Vignoles, Vivian L
In most parts of the world, hegemonic masculinity requires men to endorse traditional masculine ideals, one of which is rejection of homosexuality. Wherever hegemonic masculinity favours heterosexuality over homosexuality, gay males may feel under pressure to negotiate their conflicting male gender and gay sexual identities to maintain positive self-perceptions. However, globalization, as a source of intercultural interaction, might provide a beneficial context for people wishing to create alternative masculinities in the face of hegemonic masculinity. Hence, we tested if global identification would predict higher levels of gay-male identity integration, and indirectly subjective well-being, via alternative masculinity representations for gay and male identities. A community sample of 219 gay and bisexual men from Turkey completed the study. Structural equation modelling revealed that global identification positively predicted gay-male identity integration, and indirectly subjective well-being; however, alternative masculinity representations did not mediate this relationship. Our findings illustrate how identity categories in different domains can intersect and affect each other in complex ways. Moreover, we discuss mental health and well-being implications for gay men living in cultures where they experience high levels of prejudice and stigma. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…
LaSala, Michael C.
To begin to understand the role that family relationships and interactions play in young gay men's decisions to avoid unsafe sexual practices, parents and sons (ages 16 to 25) in 30 families were qualitatively interviewed about issues and concerns related to HIV risk. Most of the youths reported feeling obliged to their parents to stay healthy,…
Matharu, Kabir; Kravitz, Richard L; McMahon, Graham T; Wilson, Machelle D; Fitzgerald, Faith T
Healthcare providers' attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.
Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy
A bill that has been sent to the floor of the California Senate would require textbooks used in public schools to include information on the roles and contributions of gay people throughout history, a move that could affect the content of instructional materials throughout much of the country. The measure would help build tolerance of diverse…
Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches. PMID:22873668
Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371 with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.
Cramer, Elizabeth P.; Ford, Charles H.
The environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students, staff, and faculty on college campuses has certainly improved over the last generation, but recent dramatic episodes confirm the continuing need for vigilance and reform. Students remain the constituency most vulnerable to the effects of entrenched bigotry: the harassment…
Meyer, Ilan H.; Wilson, Patrick A.
Sampling has been the single most influential component of conducting research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. Poor sampling designs can result in biased results that will mislead other researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. Investigators wishing to study LGB populations must therefore devote significant energy and…
Chonody, Jill M.; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Rutledge, Scott Edward
A variety of pedagogical techniques have shown promising results in promoting acceptance and affirmation of gays and lesbians among students in social work, allied health, and education professions. In this article we examine whether 211 students enrolled in a human sexuality course in a southeastern university changed their attitudes toward gays…
Ng, Henry H
The article addresses the author's perspectives on the Gay Games on individual, community and public health. Using the Gay Games motto of "Participation, Inclusion, Personal Best," the author will explore the many benefits and effects of the Gay Games.
Sánchez, Francisco J; Greenberg, Stefanie T; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
This exploratory study used consensual qualitative research methodology (Hill et al., 2005) to analyze what gay men associate with masculinity and femininity, how they feel masculine ideals affect their self-image, and how masculine ideals affect their same-sex relationships. Written responses were collected from 547 self-identified gay men in the U.S. via an Internet-based survey. Findings supported previous reports that perceptions of gender roles among gay men appear based on masculine and feminine stereotypes. Additionally, more adverse versus positive effects on self-image and same-sex romantic relationships were reported including difficulty being emotional and affectionate, pressure to be physically attractive, and pressure to appear masculine in order to be accepted by society and to be seen as desirable by other gay men. While research on gay men's experience with masculinity continues, psychologists should consider the possible influence of traditional masculine ideals when conceptualizing their gay male clients.
When lacking explicit knowledge of someone's sexual orientation, gay people commonly assess the likelihood that another is gay using their "gaydar." The term gaydar is a playful mix of the word gay with radar, suggesting that one can sense, intuit, or perceive some set of characteristics in another that signal a shared minority status. While commonly mentioned, the exact criteria a gay person uses when employing their gaydar are little discussed. Drawing methodologically on a series of five focus groups of self-identified lesbians and gay men, this study explores the physical, visual, energetic, and conversational cues gay people consider when they employ the trope of gaydar. Specifically, interview subjects most often described their gaydar as triggered by the following elements: physical presentation, including mannerisms, dress, and voice; interactions, especially eye contact; a presence or absence of certain conversational social norms; and, intangibly, as a kind of energetic exchange.
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Greenberg, Stefanie T.; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
This exploratory study used consensual qualitative research methodology (Hill et al., 2005) to analyze what gay men associate with masculinity and femininity, how they feel masculine ideals affect their self-image, and how masculine ideals affect their same-sex relationships. Written responses were collected from 547 self-identified gay men in the U.S. via an Internet-based survey. Findings supported previous reports that perceptions of gender roles among gay men appear based on masculine and...
... for Reproductive Medicine Counseling issues to discuss with gay men and lesbians seeking assisted reproductive technology (ART) More lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and couples are ...
Alexander, Christopher J
...: parenting, coming out processes of lesbians, gay men's self-image, adolescence as a homosexual, parental guidance of homosexual children, eating disorders, aging, dual needs of ethnic homosexuals...
Taywaditep, K J
Contemporary research has shown that a significant portion of gay men have traits, interests, occupations, and behaviors that are consistent with the stereotype of gay men as effeminate, androgynous, or unmasculine. A great number of gay men exhibit gender nonconformity during childhood; most, however, "defeminize" during adolescence, possibly in response to stigmatization and society's gender-role prescription. Only a relatively small percentage of gay men continue to be gender-nonconforming in their adulthood, often at a price, as they also tend to have lower psychological well-being. Although gay culture historically appreciated camp and drag, which subvert the gender-based power hierarchy and celebrate gender nonconformity, anti-effeminacy prejudice is widespread among gay men. Ironically, gender-nonconforming gay men may suffer from discrimination not only from society at large, but from other gay men, who are most likely to have experienced stigmatization and may have been effeminate earlier in their lives. Drawing from anecdotes and findings from various sources, this article suggests that beyond many gay men's erotic preference for masculinity lies contempt and hostility toward effeminacy and effeminate men on sociopolitical and personal levels. Two correlates of gay men's anti-effeminacy attitudes are proposed: (a) hegemonic masculinity ideology, or the degree to which one subscribes to the value system in which masculinity is an asset, and men and masculinity are considered superior to women and femininity; and (b) masculinity consciousness, or the saliency of masculinity in one's self-monitoring, public self-consciousness, and self-concept. These two variables are hypothesized to interact with gay men's self-perceived masculinity-femininity and their history of defeminization in predicting attitudes toward effeminacy. Research is underway to measure levels of anti-effeminacy attitudes and explore hypothesized correlates.
Sexual politics in the gay male world would be enhanced by a serious engagement with radical feminist politics, particularly critiques of pornography and the sex industry. As the domination/subordination dynamic at the heart of patriarchy damages homosexual men, such engagement is crucial to the future of a gay movement.
Sánchez, Francisco J; Westefeld, John S; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen's d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen's f(2) = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client's lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being.
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Westefeld, John S.; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen’s d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen’s f2 = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client’s lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being. PMID:20428323
In this article, Cris Mayo examines the relationship among anti-LGBTQ policies, gay marriage, and sexuality education. Her concern is that because gay marriage is insufficiently different from heterosexual marriage, adding it as an issue to curriculum or broader culture debate elides rather than addresses sexual difference. In other words,…
Bailey, J. Michael; And Others
Examined the sexual orientation of 82 adult sons of 55 gay men. Found that more than 90% of the sons whose sexual orientation could be rated were heterosexual. Gay and heterosexual sons did not differ on potentially relevant variables such as length of time they had lived with their fathers. (MDM)
Nagorski, Alec P.
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the relationship between a gay male's low self-esteem and environmental oppression, thereby establishing guidelines for the counselor in directing the client toward a more positive gay identity. This document is divided into the following sections: (1) Initial Interview; (2) Theory of…
VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by one of several ... each virus is spread in different ways. Are gay and bisexual men at risk for viral hepatitis? ...
Herbstrith, Julie C.; Tobin, Renée M.; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S.; Schneider, W. Joel
Gay and lesbian parents are raising an increasing number of children, but little is known about how these parents are viewed by school personnel. In this study, preservice teacher attitudes toward gay and lesbian parents were assessed using implicit, explicit, behavioral, and behavioroid measures. Implicit measures indicate that participants rated…
Harper, Gary W.; Brodsky, Asya; Bruce, Douglas
This article explores gay and bisexual male adolescents' positive perceptions of their sexual orientation identity. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents in Chicago (N = 42) and Miami (N = 21). Data revealed two major conceptual categories: (1) positive personal…
Hart, Trevor A.; Schwartz, Danielle R.
The purpose of the present paper is to assist cognitive-behavioral therapists who are treating erectile dysfunction among gay men. Little information is available to cognitive-behavioral therapists about the psychological and social effects of erectile dysfunction in this population, or how to incorporate the concerns of gay men with erectile…
Dunn, Merrily; Glassmann, Danny; Garrett, J. Matthew; Badaszewski, Philip; Jones, Ginny; Pierre, Darren; Fresk, Kara; Young, Dallin; Correll-Hughes, Larry
This study examines the experiences of gay-identified college men related to their faith and sexual orientation identity development. The findings suggest that for gay-identified college men, faith and sexual orientation identity development includes examination of one's faith and sexual orientation identity, important relationships, and a desire…
American Psychologist, 2012
The "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients" provide psychologists with (a) a frame of reference for the treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients and (b) basic information and further references in the areas of assessment, intervention, identity, relationships, diversity, education, training, and…
Rowell, Elizabeth H.
Early childhood educators carefully reflect on the messages conveyed about family diversity in the materials they select to use. Picture books depicting gay and lesbian families can enhance the curriculum and make an important contribution to young children's development. Families comprised of same-sex parents or those who have gay and lesbian…
Wu, S. (Shangwei); J.R. Ward (Janelle)
textabstractA growing body of literature focuses on gay men's use of mobile dating applications or “dating apps.” Running on smartphones and working with GPS, dating apps connect users to others in close geographic proximity and often in real time. These apps allow users to create profiles to
Currie, Sean; Mayberry, Maralee; Chenneville, Tiffany
Drawing upon research with Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) advisors, high-school principals, and two district-level administrators, we examine the potential and limits of the safe-space discourse that encompasses the aims of GSAs. We argue that this discourse conceals heteronormative school environments, which supplies the groundwork for hostility…
Full Text Available In recent years, the use of the word “gay” as a synonym for dumb or lame or stupid has become prevalent in our culture. Because of this, it is clear that many individuals do not consider the word to be a slur and are not offended by its use. Using an original data set (N = 790 collected from four Midwestern universities in the winter of 2011-2012, this article examines the characteristics of those college students who perceive the word gay to be a slur or who are offended. We find that those individuals who report having more gay friends are more likely to take offense at the use of the word gay as a slur even after controls are instituted. We also find that, contrary to expectations, attendance at religious services appears to have a direct relationship, with more frequent attenders more likely to express offense at the use of gay as a slur. Egalitarianism also emerged as a significant predictor. We offer suggestions as to why some college students perceive the word to be a slur while a majority of college students do not.
Wu, S.; Ward, J.
textabstractA growing body of literature focuses on gay men's use of mobile dating applications or “dating apps.” Running on smartphones and working with GPS, dating apps connect users to others in close geographic proximity and often in real time. These apps allow users to create profiles to
Kuhar, Roman; Svab, Alenka
The article deals with the comparison of the characteristics, experiences, and perceptions of everyday life of gays and lesbians living in rural and urban areas of Slovenia. We focus on the following thematic aspects: (1) coming out; (2) intimate partnerships; (3) the access and the use of gay infrastructure; and (4) violence against gays and lesbians. The article also addresses and discusses the urban/rural divide as a Western construct that might not be completely applicable to other social and cultural contexts. Taking Slovenia as an example, this article questions the self-evidence of rural/urban divide as an analytical concept. On the basis of our research, we conclude that this concept requires continuous revisions and reinterpretations in a concrete social and cultural context(s). The characteristics of gay and lesbian everyday life either in rural or in urban context in Slovenia lead to the conclusion that even within a specific social and cultural context, the concept of urban/rural divide should be used carefully, taking into account complexities of everyday lives and various factors that influence them.
Corneau, Simon; van der Meulen, Emily
Despite the proliferation of writing on pornography generally, much of the literature that focuses on gay pornography specifically conforms to either a pro- or anti-porn framework. This overly simplistic dichotomy positions pornography as a homogeneous construct, albeit one that is either "good" or "bad." Even theorists who situate pornography on a continuum, with erotica at one end and hardcore at the other, tend to reify these discourses. Further, it is not uncommon for researchers to draw conclusions about the effects of pornography consumption without defining exactly what pornography is. This ethnographic research draws on qualitative interviews with 20 consumers' of gay pornography in Toronto, Canada. By using a thematic analysis to document the ways in which gay men define, distinguish, and conceptualize gay pornography, five definitional categories were developed: Mellow; Commercial; Raunch; Amateur; and Bareback. These broad conceptualizations are discussed in reference to writing on gay pornography. Our research results emphasize the importance of clear definitions of pornography within pornography research.
Peters, Brian M.
This is an exploration of gay youth subculture and emo boys. The study is a mesh of findings and related theoretical understandings about gay emo subculture, masculinities, style, and alternative gay youth. This study looks at gay male teenagers who identify with emo, a movement that stems from music and aesthetics creating a particular visual for…
Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce
Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…
Murphy, Heather Elise
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students face many risk factors every day when they enter their school's door. These students often fear for their safety at school, are victimized, have academic difficulties, suffer from issues with their identity development, and are at risk for suicide. School-based Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs)…
Gay men have been implicated in neoliberal urban development strategies (e.g. the creative city) as a ‘canary’ population that forecasts growth. Paradoxically, both neoliberal re-development of North American inner-cities and the ways in which gay men become neoliberalised as individuals contribute to the dissolution of urban gay communities. In contrast to discourses of homonormativity, which suggest that gay men’s declining attachments to gay communities stem from new equalities and consequ...
Leap, William L
Erotic imagery is an important component of gay pornographic cinema, particularly, where work of audience reception is concerned. However, to assume the audience engagement with the films is limited solely to the erotic realm is to underestimate the workings of ideological power in the context and aftermath of reception. For example, the director of the film under discussion here (Men of Israel; Lucas, 2009b) intended to present an erotic celebration of the nation-state. Yet, most viewers ignore the particulars of context in their comments about audience reception, placing the "Israeli" narrative within a broader framework, using transnational rather than film-specific criteria to guide their "reading" of the Israeli-centered narrative. This article uses as its entry point the language that viewers employ when describing their reactions to Men of Israel on a gay video club's Web site; this article shows how the work of audience reception may draw attention to a film's erotic details while invoking social and political messages that completely reframe the film's erotic narrative.
Public policy regarding bathhouses has been criticized as being based on political expediency rather than on medical or social science. To affect that shortcoming, we include here a brief history of gay bathhouses. The history of the baths is rarely told, but whenever it is told it necessarily reflects the times in which it was written. For that reason, we include a history written in 1984, at the time that much of what was known about AIDS, routes of transmission and the role of the bathhouses was very much in flux. This history not only gives a context for the current discussion, but also allows the reader to see the history from that distant point in time. This paper was first published in December 1984 as an article in Coming Up!, a lesbian and gay community newspaper published monthly in San Francisco (California). It was later edited and reprinted in a book titled Policing Public Sex (1996). The version of the paper presented here is from the original 1984 article (pp. 15-19); several images appeared with the article that are not reproduced here. As with all the reprinted papers in this volume, no editorial changes were made to the paper and only minor typographical errors were corrected.
Lacaba Gutiérrez, José Juan
Full Text Available In this paper, I explain the development of a tourist village in the Catalonian coast (northeast of Spain as a gay destination during carnival times during the month February. My intention is to include my reflections in this paper in the symbolic - cognitive studies about tourism and I want also to reflect about the idea of the constructions in gay culture of different places all around the world of leisure or/and pilgrimage. Sitges is a scale gay destination really knowledge in Western Europe during the hole year, but during carnival times, it's convert in a gay pilgrimage in different ways and there is have been crated during those last years gays places of leisure in the village that make me create the idea of the existence of a gay Carnival in Sitges Carnival. Because we cannot consider the gay carnival independent of what I call Sitges Carnival, I explain also the development and the historical conflicts between those two carnivals, and how those separate spaces have been created
Drasin, Harry; Beals, Kristin P; Elliott, Marc N; Lever, Janet; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A
As the social context in which gay men live changes due to greater visibility, greater acceptance, and easier access to gay subculture, gay males may self-identify and take part in gay social activities at earlier ages than in the past. This study examined whether developmental milestones associated with sexual orientation for gay men have changed over the past several decades. A large and diverse sample of 2,402 gay men who responded to a 1994 survey published in a national magazine provided retrospective information on the age at which they reached individual psychological, social, and sexual behavior developmental milestones. We found evidence that individual psychological and sexual behavior milestones (e.g., awareness of attraction to males, having an orgasm with other male) are slowly moving toward earlier chronological ages (by 1 year of age every 8-25 years, p coming out) are moving more rapidly in a similar direction (by 1 year of age every 2-5 years, p < 0.001). The authors perform an innovative sensitivity test to demonstrate the persistence of the finding after correcting for the bias attributable to underrepresentation of those who have not yet self-identified as gay in such samples.
Thirty years of academic and critical scholarship on the subject of gay porn have born witness to significant changes not only in the kinds of porn produced for, and watched by, gay men, but in the modes of production and distribution of that porn, and the legal, economic and social contexts in which it has been made, sold/shared, and watched. Those thirty years have also seen a huge shift in the cultural and political position of gay men, especially in the US and UK, and other apparently ‘ad...
Manalansan, M F
This paper attempts to critically analyze issues of postcolonial displacement, immigration, and homosexuality by examining the works of two Filipino gay immigrant writers, John Silva and Ralph Peña. Using postcolonial and critical theories, anthropological studies, and ethnographic fieldwork in New York City, this paper focuses on the role of language, memory, the body, race/ethnicity, and social class in the narrative strategies of the two writers. This paper argues that gay postcolonial writers such as these two relocate and reconfigure homosexual/gay identity in the face of new and oppressive hierarchies, identities, and practices.
McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam; Morris, Max
This article draws on in-depth interviews with 35 openly gay male undergraduates from four universities in England to develop an understanding of the changing nature of language related to homosexuality. In addition to finding a diminution in the prevalence of homophobic language, we demonstrate that participants maintain complex and nuanced understandings of phrases that do not use homophobic pejoratives, such as 'that's so gay'. The majority of participants rejected the notion that these phrases are inherently homophobic, instead arguing that the intent with which they are said and the context in which they are used are vital in understanding their meaning and effect. We conceptualize an intent-context-effect matrix to understand the interdependency of these variables. Highlighting the situated nature of this matrix, we also demonstrate the importance of the existence of shared norms between those saying and hearing the phrase when interpreting such language. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.
Tan, Chris K K
Anglo-American ontologies posit that gay men should come out to match their outer selves with their inner ones. In Confucianized Singapore, however, gay men refrain from coming out to their parents to avoid shaming their families. Instead, they couch their homosexuality in kinship terms and "go home" with their boyfriends (Chou, 2000). "Going home" gains familial acceptance, but it does not challenge mainstream discourses of homosexuality. By examining how Singaporean gay men negotiate their sexuality with their families, I question the validity of coming out and going home as both ontological discourses and strategies.
Sigelman, C K; Howell, J L; Cornell, D P; Cutright, J D; Dewey, J C
We investigated the operation of courtesy stigma with American male college students who reacted to a fictitious male student described as gay, rooming by choice with a gay male student, involuntarily assigned to room with a gay, or rooming with a male heterosexual. Among respondents who expressed strong intolerance of gays, the voluntary associate of a gay was perceived as having homosexual tendencies and as possessing the same stereotyped personality traits attributed to a gay. No such courtesy stigma was attached to the involuntary associate of a gay by these respondents. Relatively tolerant respondents engaged in no courtesy stigmatization at all. Thus, courtesy stigmatization occurred only under circumscribed conditions and appeared to depend more on the tendency of highly intolerant individuals to infer that a male student who apparently liked a gay individual was himself gay than on a motivation to maintain cognitive consistency.
Filipa Daniela Marques
Full Text Available Abstract Research in the field of older gay men remains scarce. This exploratory study examines older gay men's experiences in the construction of family integrity (versus disconnection and alienation. The family integrity approach is a developmental perspective that links ego integrity to a larger process of constructing meaning within the family system. The sample comprises ten participants (from 60 to 88 years old. A semi-structured interview was conducted and submitted to content analysis. The main findings suggest three experiences in older gay men's construction of family integrity: (i influence of homosexuality throughout life; (ii establishing a family of choice; (iii creating a legacy associated with homosexuality. Family integrity in older gay men seems to evolve from disclosure at a young age to making homosexuality a legacy in old age.
Netzley, Sara Baker
A content analysis of 98 episodes of primetime entertainment programs on commercial broadcast and cable television stations from the 2005-2006 season showed that gay characters on television were more likely to be shown in sexual situations than straight characters, and women were more likely to be shown in same-sex sexual situations than men. In addition, gay characters were more likely to be depicted as sexually active on cable television than they were on commercial broadcast television, and they were more likely to be relegated to guest star status on commercial broadcast television than on cable television. The study also showed that gay characters made up 7.5% of all the characters studied. This study discusses the implications of these findings for gay and straight audiences.
frames to express anti-gay sentiments, the Mail & Guardian primarily used these ... it is often silenced among traditional sources of knowledge such as friends, ... suggested by Van Dijk (1991) in considering issues of language and power, the ...
Maney, D W; Cain, R E
This preliminary investigation assessed preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward homosexual parents and their children. The study populations included 195 college students enrolled in an elementary school health methods course at a large northeastern university. A 51-item " and Lesbian Parenting Questionnaire" was used for data collection purposes. Reliability estimates for the scales were: attitudes toward lesbians and gay men (alpha = .90), comfort toward gay and lesbian families (alpha = .92), and knowledge about homosexuality (alpha = .52). Most respondents agreed gay men: were not disgusting, should be allowed to teach, were not perverted, and should not overcome their feelings of homosexuality. Most respondents disagreed lesbians cannot fit into society or were sick. Nearly all agreed female homosexuality should not be a basis for job discrimination. Females were significantly (p attitudes toward gay fathers than did male respondents. Respondents with stronger religious attitudes had significantly (p attitudes toward lesbian parents than respondents with weaker religious attitudes.
Peterson, Grant Tyler
This article adopts an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the intersections of gender, sexuality, and dance. It examines the expressions of sexuality among gay males through culturally popular forms of club dancing. Drawing on political and musical history, I outline an account of how gay men's gendered choreographies changed throughout the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. Through a notion of "technologies of the body," I situate these developments in relation to cultural levels of homophobia, exploring how masculine expressions are entangled with and regulated by musical structures. My driving hypothesis is that as perceptions of cultural homophobia decrease, popular choreographies of gay men's dance have become more feminine in expression. Exploring this idea in the context of the first decade of the new millennium, I present a case study of TigerHeat, one of the largest weekly gay dance club events in the United States.
Luz María Rubio Rivas
Full Text Available Este documento aborda desde el campo de los estudios culturales, las representaciones del personaje gay en la novela colombiana de los primeros siete años del presente siglo. Fue posible reconocer en las representaciones, una serie de normas positivas y negativas que rigen la sexualidad y el género de los personajes, los cuales se encuentran inscritos en estructuras de poder y de subordinación basadas en dichas normas, impuestas o administradas a través de diversas estrategias. También se encontró, en mayor o menor medida, la presencia de estereotipos, creencias y atribuciones de causalidad, de las que se presenta una breve mención.
de Miguel, E.; Rull, L.F.; Gubbins, K.E.
Using molecular-dynamics computer simulation, we study the dynamical behavior of the isotropic and nematic phases of highly anisotropic molecular fluids. The interactions are modeled by means of the Gay-Berne potential with anisotropy parameters κ=3 and κ'=5. The linear-velocity autocorrelation function shows no evidence of a negative region in the isotropic phase, even at the higher densities considered. The self-diffusion coefficient parallel to the molecular axis shows an anomalous increase with density as the system enters the nematic region. This enhancement in parallel diffusion is also observed in the isotropic side of the transition as a precursor effect. The molecular reorientation is discussed in the light of different theoretical models. The Debye diffusion model appears to explain the reorientational mechanism in the nematic phase. None of the models gives a satisfactory account of the reorientation process in the isotropic phase
To discuss lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific survivorship issues including: integrating sexual and gender minority identities with cancer survivor identities; coordinating medical care and disclosing identities to health care providers; dealing with late effects of treatment; and addressing LGBT family and relationship issues. Published articles, quotes from an online survey of 311 LGBT survivors. The transition from active cancer treatment to survivorship presents challenges, and LGBT cancer survivors may face additional challenges as they enter the survivorship phase. Oncology nurses can improve the quality of survivorship care delivered to LGBT survivors and their caregivers by addressing the disparities and gaps in health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A
Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.
Weiner, Brittany A; Zinner, Leah
This study examined American attitudes toward transsexual and gay male parenting, compared to straight parenting. After reporting levels of transphobia, participants read a vignette regarding a couple seeking child adoption. Individuals high in transphobia perceived nontraditional couples as more emotionally unstable than straight couples and were less willing to grant custody of a child to the nontraditional couples vs. the straight couples. In addition, the transsexual couple faced more prejudice and discrimination than the gay male couple. Implications of these findings are discussed.
support from the lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender ( LGBT ) community and in return made several campaign promises along the way. One of the campaign ...Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender] ( LGBT ) rights is exploited by those seeking to divide us. But at its core, this issue is about who we are as...No. 85. July 2007. Donnelly, Elaine. Who Will Confront the “ LGBT Left?”. Center for Military Readiness. (5 February 2008). Frank
Morgan, John F; Arcelus, Jon
Recent research has emphasized vulnerability to eating disorders in gay men, with calls for research on causality, cultural factors and focus on a younger age cohort. This study aimed to examine body image and related eating behaviours in younger gay and straight men. Qualitative study using a sample of gay and straight male university students, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Fifteen young men (18-24) with a spectrum of sexual orientation (gay, straight and bisexual) agreed to participate. Five dominant categories emerged: body image ideal, external influences, perception of body image, dieting, mechanisms for modification (diet, exercise, cosmetics) and sexual orientation. Health and aesthetic ideals appear less divorced for young men than women, offering some degree of protection from eating disorders. Nonetheless there is widespread body dissatisfaction. Media and social influences are powerful, particularly for single gay men, but the study suggests fewer differences than similarities between gay and straight men. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Prestage, Garrett; Brown, Graham; De Wit, John; Bavinton, Benjamin; Fairley, Christopher; Maycock, Bruce; Batrouney, Colin; Keen, Phillip; Down, Ian; Hammoud, Mohamed; Zablotska, Iryna
Gay and bisexual men (GBM) who participate in gay community subcultures have different profiles, including differing risk behaviors. We examined men's participation in gay community subcultures, and its association with risk behavior. In a cross-sectional survey, 849 GBM provided information about men in their personal networks. We devised measures of their participation in five subcultural groupings and explored their associations with sexual behavior. We identified five subcultural groupings: sexually adventurous; bear tribes; alternative queer; party scene; and sexually conservative. Higher scores on the sexually adventurous measure was associated with being older, having more gay friends, being HIV-positive, and being more sexually active. It was also independently associated with unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (AOR 1.82; 95 % CI 1.20-2.76; p = 0.005). HIV prevention strategies need to account for the different subcultural groupings in which GBM participate. Measures of engagement with gay subcultures are useful indicators of differential rates of risk behavior and modes of participation in gay community life. Men in more sexually adventurous subcultures are more likely to engage in sexual risk behavior.
Zhang, Yan-hui; Bao, Yu-gang; Chen, Hao; Tan, Hong-zhuan
To explore the relevant factors of the causes of sexual orientations of gay. From March to June 2013, 350 gays were recruited from one music bar and three bath centers where gays frequently visited in Changsha city, by proportional stratified sampling method. Meanwhile, another 332 males who identify themselves as non-homosexuality were also recruited considering the composition of ages, gender and educational background. Questionnaire survey was conducted to all the subjects, with 300 effective ones reclaimed. The questionnaire included the general demographic information, traits of character, the condition of foster in childhood and information of family members. The differences between the gays and non-homosexuality groups were analyzed to explore the causes of the sexual orientations of gays. There were statistical significant differences between gays and non- homosexuality group on following indexes (χ(2) was 59.63, 5.90, 16.01, 84.99, 161.57, 77.77, 112.32, 190.84, 30.10 respectively, all of P books or films about homosexual and experienced sexual pleasure from that before the age of 18. The rate of gays on these indexes was separately 62.3% (187/300), 57.7% (173/300) , 62.3% (187/300) , 63.0% (189/300), 67.3% (202/300) , 62.7% (189/300), 68.0% (204/300), 65.0% (195/300) and the rate on these indexes of non-homosexuality group was separately 21.3% (64/300), 28.0% (84/300) , 25.0% (75/300) , 12.7% (38/300), 31.3% (94/300), 17.7% (53/300) , 12.7% (38/300), 42.7% (128/300) . The rate of gays on these factors:the youngest boy in family, had the father or twin brothers who were homosexual or self identified as gay was 62.7% (188/300), 56.0% (168/300) and 62.0% (18/29) respectively; and the rate was 40.7% (122/300), 4.0% (12/300) and 20.0% (2/10), respectively among non-homosexuality group. The difference showed statistical significance (χ(2) was 34.52, 193.14, 5.27 respectively, all of P gays maybe was family relationship, tend and education since childhood
Neville, Stephen; Kushner, Bernie; Adams, Jeffery
Explore the coming out narratives in a group of older gay men. A narrative gerontological approach was employed to explore the coming out narratives of older gay men. Semi-structured digitally recorded individual interviews were undertaken with 12 gay men aged between 65 and 81 years who lived in the community. Data were analysed using a narrative data analytic process. Three collective narratives related to the coming out of older gay men were identified: 'early gay experiences', 'trying not to be gay' and 'acceptance'. Older gay men come from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. However, they all grew up in an era where same-sex attraction was a criminal offence. The path to accepting being a gay man was individualised and stressful for these participants. Consequently health and social service providers need to support the ongoing development of resilience and provide a person-centred approach to care that promotes wellbeing. © 2015 AJA Inc.
Reese, G.; Steffens, M.C.; Jonas, K.J.
Previous research suggests that people from some religious backgrounds hold more negative attitudes towards gay men than others do. The current research focuses on psychological variables as an alternative explanation to religious affiliation, testing whether masculinity beliefs regarding gay men
... Conference Newsroom Support GLMA Site Search Ten Things Gay Men Should discuss with Their Healthcare Provider ( Download . ... have identified as most commonly of concern for gay men. While not all of these items apply ...
Wald, Kenneth D; Rienzo, Barbara A; Button, James W
In what has sometimes provoked a "culture war" over America's schools, gays and lesbians have sought an expanded voice in the making of education policy. This paper explores the factors that promote gay representation on school boards, how this variable in turn influences gay representation in both administrative and teaching positions, and how all three forms of gay representation relate to school board policies regarding sexual orientation education. Three of the four models drawn from the social movement literature help to explain gay school board representation. In a manner similar to other minority groups, gay representation on school boards directly or indirectly promotes the appointment of gays to administrative and teaching positions and the adoption of policies that address the problems faced by gay and lesbian students in the public schools.
Clarke, V.; Kitzinger, C.; Potter, J.
Psychologists recognise homophobic bullying as a serious problem for young lesbians and gay men; however, when it comes to children in lesbian and gay households the issue is not so clear cut. Whereas some psychologists sympathetic to lesbian and gay parenting regard it as a problem, most do not. Despite this, the inevitability and severe psychological consequences of homophobic bullying is a prevalent theme in discussions of lesbian and gay parenting in contexts ranging from custody cases to...
This dissertation research is aimed at analyzing the gay roles portrayal in print advertisements by the advertisers. In order to conduct this study, the researcher had selected sample of gay advertisements from the leading US gay magazine and the mainstream magazine. The researcher also developed a coding sheet for the purpose of this analysis. The coding sheet was developed on the basis of various aspects which would enable to find out the various roles that could be portrayed by the gay men...
Collier, Kate L.; Horn, Stacey S.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.
Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the U.S. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight schools. Findings indicated the Dutch participants were more tolerant of lesbians and gays, after adjusting for the gender, age, and racial/ethnic minority status of the participants. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes. American participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to social norms and religious opposition, while the Dutch participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to individual rights and the biological/genetic basis of homosexuality. The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context-dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. PMID:24512056
This study utilizes a qualitative thematic analysis methodology and a social identity theory framework to explore ways in which early midlife gay men report enhancing their social identities through social and psychological creativity. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty early midlife gay men (aged 40-53) in four US cities. Men discussed the collective and individual essences of their age and gay identities, including attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours that they embraced to self-enhance at midlife. These discussions emphasized differences from the younger gay outgroup, often in the context of intergenerational interaction. Identified were three strategies (and seven substrategies) that summarized the ways that interviewees constructed their identities in the interest of self-enhancement, specifically in the context of intergenerational comparisons with younger gay men. These strategies may be considered as extensions to social creativity strategies presented in Tajfel and Turner's (Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago, IL: Nelson, 1986: 7) social identity theory. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Riggs, Damien W; Due, Clemence; Power, Jennifer
While growing numbers of Australian gay men are entering into 'offshore' surrogacy arrangements in order to become parents, little empirical research has been conducted with this population. This article reports on a qualitative analysis of interviews with 12 gay men who had entered into surrogacy arrangements in India. The findings outline both positive and negative experiences in terms of support pre-conception, during the birth and post-birth. Changes to legislation in India mean that gay men can no longer access surrogacy services there, but it is important to understand the experiences of men who had previously accessed those services. The article concludes by highlighting aspects of the data that demonstrate the particular experiences of gay men who undertake offshore surrogacy arrangements, especially with regard to their need for support and involvement in all aspects of the process. A more thoroughly developed network of care may help to facilitate such support and this may further increase the positive outcomes reported by gay men who form families through surrogacy arrangements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they thought they had resolved. Being victimized can reinvoke shame that is rooted in failure or unwillingness to uphold masculine norms. For some gay men, victimization therefore has connotations of nonmasculinity that make being a victim an undesirable status, yet that status must be claimed to obtain a response from criminal justice or victim services. Men who experience homophobic abuse are helped by accepting a victim identity, but only if they can quickly move on from it by reconstructing a masculine gay (nonvictim) identity. This process can be facilitated by agencies such as the police and victim services, provided they help men exercise agency in "fighting back," that is, resisting further victimization and recovering.
Full Text Available Interrogeant le rôle des populations homosexuelles dans la gentrification d’un ancien quartier historique de Paris (celui du Marais, cet article aborde cette question dans sa dimension commerciale. Depuis le début des années 80, l’implantation de commerces gays dans ce secteur a accompagné les effets de la gentrification et les a même accélérés pour partie depuis les années 90. Aujourd’hui cependant, la relation entre cette présence commerciale spécifique et les transformations socio-économiques de ce quartier parisien apparaissent nettement plus ambigus.In this paper, we examinate the role of gay men towards gentrification and urban renaissance by focusing on gay business development in “Le Marais”. We demonstrate that, in this old neighbourhood of the city-center, the emergence of a gay commercial area has supported gentrification during the eighties and then contributed to the urban, economical and cultural renaissance. The historical link between gentrification and “gay spaces” has changed and became since a few years more and more diversified.
Mental health professionals working with people with HIV disease are often confronted by the patients' feelings of shame and should be prepared to recognize and treat what can sabotage the openness crucial to the therapeutic process. Shame is unlike guilt in that instead of being a transgression against some moral code or value, it is the failure to live up to an internal ideal image of oneself; its sanction is rejection or abandonment as opposed to punishment. Shame can have many triggers, and when faced with these triggers, a strong sense of self can protect a person. However, most people with HIV find that shame does arise in some situations. In its wake, shame can cause withdrawal, substance abuse, depression, denial, rage, grandiosity, lack of entitlement, and perfectionism. Therapists can help gay men deal with shame and cope better with the indignities of HIV infection. Guidelines include building a strong patient/therapist relationship to build trust and improve self-esteem; and identifying the shame, and bringing it out for validation by the patient. Therapists must guide patients to an awareness of their true feelings, and help them trust their perceptions of these needs and feelings.
Kissen, Rita M.
This study explores issues of importance to gay and lesbian teachers. It seeks to answer questions and to dramatize the damaging effects of homophobia on the lives of gay teachers, as well as all teachers and students. The project was narrative and qualitative, consisting of informal and open ended interviews of 10 self-identifies gay or lesbian…
Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda; Neberich, Wiebke
There is currently little knowledge about what gay men and lesbians seek in a romantic relationship. This study extends the literature on gay men and lesbians' partnership preferences by engaging in the first large-scale empirical study of the long-term dating intentions and monogamy beliefs of gay
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. DI11-12-000] Gay & Robinson... Filed: July 11, 2011. d. Applicant: Gay & Robinson, Inc. e. Name of Project: Olokele River Hydroelectric... Contact: Charles Okamoto, President, Gay & Robinson, Inc., P.O. Box 156, Kaumakani, Hawaii 96747...
Mizzi, Robert C.
This paper expands on the extant research on gay male educators by comparing two research projects on such educators who taught in international settings. One study focused on five gay, male, adult educators who relocated to Canada from countries in the Global South and the second study focused on eight gay, male, adult educators who relocated to…
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A... live and love as we see fit. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community has written a... coverage to someone just because they are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Because we understand...
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... equality from founding promise into lasting reality. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT... Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim June 2013 as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and...
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.
The current qualitative study of 35 preadoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to…
Despite a significant increase in gay representation in contemporary television fiction, many media scholars argue that the representation of gay men and women is governed by heteronormativity. They postulate that even rounded and heterogeneous representations of gay men and women are characters that desire to participate in institutions,…
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Project No. 14219-000] Gay & Robinson... Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 1, 2011, Gay & Robinson, Inc., filed an application for a.... Applicant Contact: Mr. Charles Okamoto, President, Gay & Robinson, Inc., P.O. Box 156, Kaumakani, Hawaii...
..., Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Pride Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of America's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) community is the story of..., Don't Tell'' policy. With this repeal, gay and lesbian Americans will be able to serve openly in our...
Annes, Alexis; Redlin, Meredith
This research focuses on the complex meaning and role of the city in American and French rural gay men's imaginary and life experience. It explores how gay men who grew up in the country build their sense of self through back-and-forth movement from rural to urban spaces. Therefore, it questions traditional gay migration studies, which have often…
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... equality on behalf of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This month, as we.... That is why we must give committed gay couples the same rights and responsibilities afforded to any...
In this paper, I analyse the relationship between US high schools' organisational cultures and student perceptions of responses to anti-gay language in their school. Using data from 67 interviews with young people who identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual, I compare teachers' responses to anti-gay language in schools that do and schools that do…
In 2003 the book Gayle: the language of kinks and queens: a history and dictionary of gay language in South Africa was published, documenting more than 1400 lexical items used by South African gays and lesbians. Given that the field of gay language is an established discipline within sociolinguistic research elsewhere ...
Weststrate, Nic M; McLean, Kate C
Research on identity development has paid relatively little attention to the development of marginalised identities such as those of gays and lesbians, whose isolation from the canonical narrative of sexuality may limit the available resources required for establishing a coherent identity. We examined these contested identities in relation to cultural-historical factors that may have played a role in shaping these identities over the past 50 years, and looked at how such factors have impacted the voicing and silencing of gay experiences. Participants (N=251) reported (1) a memory of a cultural event relevant to their sexuality, and (2) a self-defining memory about their sexuality. Those in older cohorts reported cultural memories centred on politics and other external events (e.g., Stonewall riots), and younger cohorts reported more personal memories (e.g., coming out), suggesting that homosexual identities have become less culturally defined, and instead more personally defined. Further, participants of older cohorts reported self-defining events that were predominantly from one private domain (e.g., sex). In contrast, younger participants reported a variety of self-defining events. These results suggest that cultural-historical factors play an important role in defining the developmental pathway of individuals, perhaps especially those who have marginalised identities.
Jose M Prat Forga
Full Text Available Municipal governments increasingly turn to cultural and leisure activities to promote and revitalize their cities. This study analysed the development of gay tourism in Barcelona (Spain by means of music festivals. While a significant body of literature has examined revitalization strategies that focus primarily around entertainment and commerce, this paper focuses on strategies in the development of cultural and leisure activities around this specific tourism population. It presents findings from a local survey distributed to key stakeholders in the promotion and development of this tourism (local agents and gay tourists. The survey data indicate that although most agents are guided by a varied set of goals, marketing objectives (“image city” and “brand city” guide the development and support of urban gay tourism in Barcelona.
Samar, V J
This essay explores, in two parts, the problems of justifying civil rights legislation for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. Part I shows that discrimination against gays and lesbians at least in respect to employment, housing, and public accommodations is an evil unsupported by ethical traditions in utilitarianism, rights theory, and communitarianism. It also shows that two theories, Kantian theory and natural law theory, which do support such discrimination on the claim that homoerotic behavior is universally or objectively immoral only do so because of a failure to make precise the concept of "natural" which underlies those theories. Part II argues that anti-discrimination legislation is both an appropriate and effective means to promote the idea that discrimination against lesbians and gays in respect to most employment, housing, and public accommodations is sufficiently injurious to both individuals and society that it should not be tolerated. The section also explains how such legislation might succeed practically in eliminating discrimination in these areas.
Reyna, Christine; Wetherell, Geoffrey; Yantis, Caitlyn; Brandt, Mark J.
Attributions for sexual orientation strongly predict opposition to gay rights policies; however, we propose that beliefs that gays and lesbians violate important values drive gay rights opposition and account for the relationship between attributions and anti-gay discrimination. In two studies, we
Kousari-Rad, Pantea; McLaren, Suzanne
Body image dissatisfaction has been linked to belonging to the gay community and poor self-esteem among gay men. This study was designed to explore the applicability of a moderation model and a mediation model in explaining the relations between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem among 90 self-identified Australian gay men. Participants completed the psychological subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Body Satisfaction Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results supported the moderation model; the relation between body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem was found to be statistically significant only at average and high levels of belonging to the gay community. The mediation model was also supported; body image dissatisfaction partially mediated the sense of belonging-self-esteem relation. Educating gay men and health professionals about the possible negative outcomes of "belonging" to an appearance-oriented community is important.
Dibble, Suzanne; Eliason, Michele J; Dejoseph, Jeanne F; Chinn, Peggy
To provide an overview of health care needs and related sexuality issues of lesbian and gay patients. Research articles, books, clinical experience. Attitudes of health professionals as well as patients impact care in relation to sexuality and sexual issues. Oncology nurses using a framework of awareness, sensitivity, and knowledge can obtain and apply the essential information needed to provide culturally appropriate nursing care to this population. Lesbian and gay patients need nurses as allies in their fight with cancer. This is particularly true in assessment and managing concerns about sexuality and sexual issues.
Salinas Hernández, Héctor Miguel
El presente trabajo propone presentar un panorama sobre la pornografía hecha en México por y para varones gay, en el ámbito del video y del cine. Arranca con la hipótesis de que la posibilidad de creación en México de porno exclusivo para varones gay se inserta en la visibilidad adquirida por el Movimiento de Disidencia Sexual a nivel mundial, facilitado por el mercado como elemento preponderante en la globalización. El documento presenta algunas aproximaciones teóricas a la pornografía y sus...
Jaspal, Rusi; Cinnirella, Marco
This study explores identity processes, identity threat, and interpersonal relations with other gay men in a qualitative interview study with a sample of young British Muslim gay men of Pakistani background. Transcripts were subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. Data were analyzed through the interpretive lens of Identity Process Theory. Three superordinate themes are reported: (a) self-continuity and the transition from straight to gay space; (b) interpersonal relations with other gay men and self- and other categorization; and (c) interpersonal contact or identification with White gay men as an identity enhancer. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
O'Byrne, Patrick; Bryan, Alyssa; Hendriks, Andrew; Horvath, Cynthia; Bouchard, Christiane; Etches, Vera
A total of 27 gay and bisexual men were interviewed about how they perceived the criminal prosecution of persons living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status. The stories that emerged from the interviews raise questions about the nature of the gay community. The findings centre on the participants' descriptions of (1) the heterosexual meta-culture, (2) the locales of gay life, and (3) unsupportive elements in the gay community. Analysis of the interview data situates the gay community as a place of both inclusion and exclusion and as a heterogeneous environment. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.
Full Text Available Gay marriage has become a major transnational gay rights issue: a key marker of gay citizenship, to the extent that it is considered self-evident that its legalisation represents progress. Yet it is becoming apparent that this ‘progress’ is concurrent with other forms of exclusion. In this article, I argue that gay marriage is a convenient liberal smokescreen, leaving other exclusions unaddressed or even enabling their reinforcement. The discussion involves examination of three case studies: Argentina, the first Latin American country to legalise gay marriage in 2010; France, which legalised gay marriage in May, 2013; and Australia, which has not legalised gay marriage at the time of this writing.
Aline Ferraz da Silva
Full Text Available Nesse artigo apresento as considerações e análises presentes na pesquisa em processo, que realizo numa escola pública. Sua constituição deve seu primeiro movimento àsmanifestações de desconforto e homofobia com relação a um grupo específico de três estudantes gays na comunidade escolar na qual atuo como professora. Percebo que a presença desse grupo desacomoda o cotidiano escolar e desenvolvo minha argumentação com base no potencial desestabilizador desses sujeitos, na intenção de pensar o impensável no currículo escolar. Esse trabalho parte da visibilidade de uma identidade sexual que foge à norma heterossexual e desafia a tendência normalizadora e homogeneizadora da educação. A maneira como esse grupo gay se posiciona e constrói seus corpos cruza as fronteiras do masculino/feminino, desnaturalizando as identidadessexuais e de gênero que se baseiam em características biológicas e se apresentando como diferença que escapa às classificações binárias. Na construção da pesquisa utilizo como referência o pensamento de Michel Foucault, especialmente com relação à construção histórica e discursiva de conceitos como sexualidade, identidade, diferença enormalidade que têm servido para criação e manutenção de padrões de conduta. Ao levar a problematização desses conceitos para o contexto escolar, considero produtiva a teorização queer para pensar a possibilidade de uma educação não heteronormativa, produtora de diferenças, que desconstrua identidades ao invés de tentar cristalizá-las.Abstract This article presents the considerations and analysis that make part of my research in process in a public school. The construction of this research dues its first move to viewsof discomfort and homofobia related to a specific group of three gay students in a school where I work as a teacher. I realize that the presence of that group disarrenges the school quotidian and I develop my argumentation on the
Bozett, Frederick W.
Focuses on the spousal relationship of gay men who had been married. Describes the man's disclosure of his homosexuality, the wife's response, and the interactional effects on the marriage relationship. Suggests the wife appeared to be an enabler of his transition to a homosexual life-style. (Author/JAC)
Full Text Available My research and deliberation made in this study show that homosexuality is only one of the signs of human diversity - one from innumerable number of personality features. Therefore, one cannot talk about "gay identity", "homosexual personality", because, as far as I am concerned, it doesn't exist. Artificially generted gay population is only a group of peple being much different from one another and having only one common feature - their sexual orientation. Besides they differ from one another as much as one man from another. Gay relationships take on countless forms, but all of them, as the results of my research indicate, fulfil the majority of family in traditional point of view functions. The deliberation points out at one more conclusion - one cannot examine gay relationships as a separate model of family-marriage life. It should be forgotten about their different psyhosexual orientation and treat their trlationships, together with other interpersonal relationships, equally. Only from such position one can discern in their specific alternative models of family-marriage life.
Auerback, Sandra; Moser, Charles
Found groups for wives of gay and bisexual men to be an effective therapeutic intervention for the problems that arise when a husband makes a disclosure to his wife that he is interested in pursuing homosexual relationships. The groups helped wives resolve the issues of the marriage and to make positive changes in their lives. (Author)
Maree, Jacobus Gideon
This article reports on the value of career construction counselling (CCC) with a gay person. The participant was selected purposively, with the selection criteria calling for a mid-career woman who had sought career counselling. The intervention involved administration of the "Career Construction Interview" (CCI) and the creation of a…
This paper is a report of a study to examine the construction of the stereotype of male nurses as gay, and to describe how this discourse impacts on a group of New Zealand male nurses. A discourse stereotyping male nurses as gay is accompanied by one which privileges hegemonic masculinity and marginalizes homosexuality. This social constructionist study drew on data collected from existing texts on men, nursing and masculinity and interviews with 18 New Zealand men conducted in 2003-2004. Discourse analysis, informed by masculinity theory and queer theory, was used to analyse the data. Despite the participants' beliefs that the majority of male nurses are heterosexual, the stereotype persists. A paradox emerged between the 'homosexual' general nurse and the 'heterosexual' psychiatric nurse. The stigma associated with homosexuality exposes male nurses to homophobia in the workplace. The heterosexual men employed strategies to avoid the presumption of homosexuality; these included: avoiding contact with gay colleagues and overt expression of their heterosexuality. There is a paradox between widespread calls for men to participate more in caring and discourses which stereotype male nurses as gay and conflate homosexuality and sexual predation. These stigmatizing discourses create a barrier to caring and, aligned with the presence of homophobia in the workplace, deter men's entry into the profession and may be important issues with respect to their retention. Nurse educators must ensure that nurses are able to resist collusion with stigmatizing discourses that marginalize men (and women) in the profession through the perpetration of gender and sexual stereotypes.
Sadownick, Douglas G.
This article explores the possibility of a "homosexual hermeneutic" by which the great literary works of the western canon can be taught. This "interpretative methodology" is based in the author's own individuation process as gay. The author details his personal journey from engulfment in heteronormativity to the first crisis of his homosexual…
Security for women and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people in the conflict-affected regions in Colombia. Colombia is currently in the process of concluding peace negotiations with the guerrilla group Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC). One of the principal expectations generated by the ...
Social science research as well as a rise in sexually transmitted diseases and new HIV infections among men who have sex with men point to increasing numbers of gay men engaging in unprotected anal intercourse without condoms, a practice called "barebacking." There is some evidence that barebacking is linked to the rise of crystal methamphetamine…
Daugelli, Anthony R.; Grossman, Arnold H.; Starks, Michael T.
This study used a sample of 293 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth to examine factors that differentiated youth whose parents knew of their sexual orientation from youth whose parents did not know. Earlier awareness and disclosure of same-gender attractions, greater childhood gender atypicality, and less internalized homophobia were characteristic…
Hillman, Jennifer; Martin, Renee A.
We designed an active learning activity to allow students to experience stereotyping and consider the social stigma often directed toward gays and lesbians. We used an unusual fictional scenario to alleviate students' concerns about impression management and permit them to experience the role of someone faced with discrimination without the…
van Bergen, Diana; Bos, Henny M.W.; van Lisdonk, jantine; Keuzenkamp, S; Sandfort, T.G.M
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
Bayne, Hannah Barnhill
This article explores the impact of sexual and religious identity on college student development, examining developmental models and discussing how counselors can assist gay and lesbian students with integrating these 2 personal identities. Treatment approaches are presented, and the article concludes with an examination of ethical and…
Volchkov, Valerii V; Volchkov, Vitaly V
We obtain a solution of the Berenstein-Gay problem on the local analogue of spectral analysis on Riemannian symmetric spaces X of rank 1. The proof is based on constructing transmutation maps connected with eigenfunction expansions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on X.
Ferfolja, Tania; Hopkins, Lucy
Discrimination against lesbians and gay men has been endemic throughout Australia's history. However, in twenty-first century Australian society there are signs of growing sophistication and acceptance of sexual diversities. Despite this, schools continue to be organisations where sexual "difference" is marginalised and silenced, having…
Goldfried, Marvin R.
Illustrates how clinical and research writings on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues remain invisible to mainstream psychology in such areas as life span development and aging, teen suicide, substance abuse, victimization, and family and couple relationships, examining determinants of wellbeing among GLBs and discussing what mainstream…
Parnell, Martha Keeton; Lease, Suzanne H.; Green, Michael L.
This study examined career-related barriers that gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) individuals had encountered in the past and anticipated in the future and the degree of hindrance associated with future barriers. Two hundred forty-one GLB participants (126 women and 115 men) completed the Career Barriers Inventory-Revised and 11 additional items…
Odd Couples. A History of Gay Marriage in Scandinavia is het eerste omvangrijke boek over de geschiedenis van het geregistreerd partnerschap en het homohuwelijk in Scandinavië. Dit boek presenteert een grondig onderzoek naar de wisselwerking tussen het homoactivisme en traditionele partijpolitiek.
van Bergen, D.D.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Lisdonk, J.; Keuzenkamp, S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
van Bergen, D.D.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Lisdonk, J.; Keuzenkamp, S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
The Hetrick-Martin Institute and AIDS educators help gay and lesbian adolescents confront issues such as AIDS education and discrimination. Intolerance and religious convictions held by the community impede proper AIDS education. Peer education programs in schools or health care facilities, and use of near-peer educators, are effective vehicles for AIDS education.
Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer
Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth.
Mulcahy, Molly; Dalton, Sarah; Kolbert, Jered; Crothers, Laura
The authors identified the process that 10 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) high school students used to establish an informal adult-mentor relationship with a school personnel member. Five major themes emerged: (a) how LGBT students determined whether this person would be a safe mentor, (b) a listing of the important qualities of…
Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick
The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…
Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.
Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…
Lea, Toby; Mao, Limin; Hopwood, Max; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06883652X; Holt, Martin
BACKGROUND: Gay and bisexual men typically report high rates of illicit drug use, including methamphetamine use. This paper aimed to analyse trends in crystal methamphetamine ('crystal') and powder methamphetamine ('speed') use among gay and bisexual men in Australia, and characterise the
McCormick, Adam; Schmidt, Kathryn; Clifton, Emily
Few studies have examined the effectiveness of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on the social and academic experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youths. The limited research on GSAs suggests that they are associated with positive youth development and increased safety; however, little qualitative information…
Rob Jay Fredericksen
Full Text Available Young gay men’s negative perceptions of growing older have been indicated in prior research [Bergling, 2004; Jones & Pugh, 2005; Cohler & Galatzer-Levy, 2000]. A recent resurgence of HIV infection rates among young gay men [Mitsch et al, 2008] calls into question whether these negative perceptions contribute to a lack of future-oriented health investments; i.e., a “live for now” outlook. Strength of future orientation has repeatedly predicted risk aversion [McCabe & Barnett, 2000], hence, it is of great social and public health value to ask: what does aging mean to today’s youngest generation of gay men? How do cultural norms in the gay community inform how today’s young gay men imagine growing older? This research explores these questions.
Lewis, Nathaniel M.; Bauer, Greta R.; Coleman, Todd A.; Blot, Soraya; Pugh, Daniel; Fraser, Meredith; Powell, Leanne
Changes in gay and bisexual men’s connectedness to the gay community are related to the declining public visibility of HIV/AIDS and greater acceptance for homosexuality and bisexuality in mainstream society. Little work, however, has focused on perceived acceptance for subgroups within the gay community or broader society. Using interviews (n = 20) and a survey (n = 202) of gay and bisexual men in a mid-sized Canadian city, we find perceived hierarchies of acceptance for the various subgroups as well as an age effect wherein middle-aged men perceive the least acceptance for all groups. These differences are linked with the uneven impact of social, political, and institutional changes relevant to gay and bisexual men in Canada. PMID:26011048
Fasoli, Fabio; Maass, Anne; Paladino, Maria Paola; Sulpizio, Simone
The growing body of literature on the recognition of sexual orientation from voice ("auditory gaydar") is silent on the cognitive and social consequences of having a gay-/lesbian- versus heterosexual-sounding voice. We investigated this issue in four studies (overall N = 276), conducted in Italian language, in which heterosexual listeners were exposed to single-sentence voice samples of gay/lesbian and heterosexual speakers. In all four studies, listeners were found to make gender-typical inferences about traits and preferences of heterosexual speakers, but gender-atypical inferences about those of gay or lesbian speakers. Behavioral intention measures showed that listeners considered lesbian and gay speakers as less suitable for a leadership position, and male (but not female) listeners took distance from gay speakers. Together, this research demonstrates that having a gay/lesbian rather than heterosexual-sounding voice has tangible consequences for stereotyping and discrimination.
Huebner, David M; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M
We examined the 6-month cumulative incidence of anti-gay harassment, discrimination, and violence among young gay/bisexual men and documented their associations with mental health. Gay/bisexual men from 3 cities in the southwestern United States completed self-administered questionnaires. Thirty-seven percent of men reported experiencing anti-gay verbal harassment in the previous 6 months; 11.2% reported discrimination, and 4.8% reported physical violence. Men were more likely to report these experiences if they were younger, were more open in disclosing their sexual orientation to others, and were HIV positive. Reports of mistreatment were associated with lower self-esteem and increased suicidal ideation. Absent policies preventing anti-gay mistreatment, empowerment and community-building programs are needed for young gay/bisexual men to both create safe social settings and help them cope with the psychological effects of these events.
Rhodebeck, Laurie A
Drawing from the theory of policy voting, this study examines the impact of opinions about gay rights on voting for presidential candidates. Qualitative analysis of the major party platforms and candidate campaign rhetoric from the six presidential elections held between 1988 and 2008 indicates that Democratic and Republican presidential candidates began openly expressing opposing positions on gay rights issues in 1992. Quantitative analysis of public opinion shows that, starting in 1992 and continuing through 2008, gay rights issues became more salient to the public, and opinions about gay rights began to exert a significant effect on vote choice. The study concludes with a discussion of the partisan forces that shaped the electoral significance of gay rights issues during the period from 1988 to 2008 and speculation about the role of gay rights issues in shaping future partisan electoral strategy.
Savin-Williams, R C
Based on a population of 317 gay and lesbian youths, the current investigation explores the appropriateness of a reflected appraisals perspective in predicting the degree to which parental attitudes, as perceived by youth, affects their self-esteem and comfortableness being gay. A lesbian was most comfortable with her sexual orientation if she also reported that her parents accepted her homosexuality; these variables did not, however, predict her level of self-esteem. Among the gay males, parental acceptance predicted comfortable being gay if the parents were also perceived as important components of a youth's self-worth; a male most comfortable with his sexual orientation had the highest level of self-esteem. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) sex of parent, (b) sex-role development, (c) comparisons of gays and lesbians, and (d) research on gay and lesbian youth.
Hollekim, Ragnhild; Slaatten, Hilde; Anderssen, Norman
In Norway, a gender-neutral Marriage Law that secured equal marriage and parenting rights for lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples took effect in January 2009. The aim of the current study was to explore Norwegian beliefs about equal marriage and parenting rights for lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples and the welfare of children with lesbian and gay parents. A sample of 1,246 Norwegians participated in the study by filling out a questionnaire. The majority reported...
Adail Sebastião Rodrigues Júnior
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta parte dos resultados de minha pesquisa de doutorado, com foco em como personagens gays e suas realidades de mundo são representados por meio da transitividade (HALLIDAY; MATTHIESSEN, 2004. Os corpora sob análise são uma coletânea de contos gays intitulada Stud (ANDROS, 1969 e sua tradução brasileira As Aventuras de um Garoto de Programa (ANDROS, 1998, re-textualizada quase trinta anos após a publicação do original nos Estados Unidos da América. Cinco excertos foram escolhidos a fim de mostrar como partes dos corpos dos personagens são usadas para representar suas realidades de mundo, o que aponta para o papel do corpo na constituição de relações sociais homossexuais no contexto dos anos 1960 nos EUA. De igual modo, a tradução, embora feita nos anos 1990 no Brasil, enfatiza o mesmo papel empregado pelos fragmentos dos corpos dos personagens. Os resultados, portanto, abrem novas possibilidades de discussão de como os gays são representados no discurso literário.This paper aims at presenting part of the results of my doctorate research, with a focus on how gay characters and their world realities are represented by means of transitivity (HALLIDAY; MATTHIESSEN, 2004. The corpora under analysis are a collection of gay short stories entitled Stud (ANDROS, 1969 and its Brazilian translation As Aventuras de um Garoto de Programa (ANDROS, 1998, re-textualized almost thirty years after the original publication in the United States of America. Five excerpts were chosen in order to show how parts of the characters' bodies are used to represent their world realities, which points to the role of the body in the constitution of homosexual social relations in the context of the 1960s in the U.S. Likewise, the translation, though rendered in the 1990s in Brazil, emphasizes the same role played by fragments of the characters' bodies. Thus, the results open new possibilities for discussing further how gays are represented
Since the 1973 decision to remove homosexuality from the list of mental disorders, most mental health practitioners have shifted their clinical focus from "the cure" of homosexuality to treating the concerns of gay and lesbian patients. Some clinicians, however, reject the mental health mainstream's view and continue to conceptualize homosexuality as a mental disorder. Their clinical theories have been incorporated into wider societal debates regarding the status of gay and lesbian people. The sexual conversion or reparative therapies they practice, however, may include routine ethical violations in the realm of improper pressure, confidentiality, informed consent, and fiduciary responsibility to the patient's best interest. On the other hand, a normal/identity approach to treatment, particularly in its most reductionistic forms, may involve ethical lapses in the areas of informed consent and fiduciary responsibility to the patient's best interests as well.
Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.
This essay chooses as its texts three films representing contemporary gay male subjects from each of the "three" China's: HK, Taiwan, and the Mainland. Relocating the homoerotic image of the "sad young man," a trope popular from Hollywood rebellion films of the 1950s and 1960s, to contemporary China, I discuss how this masculine icon has been transformed from one of heroic rebellion to one of existential isolation. Indeed, as the politics of both the outmoded Confucian family and fractured Chinese nationhood intersect, what the sad young (gay) man rebels against is a political fluctuation which is no longer fixed; as the young man's opposition is no longer fixed, so too does he become alienated even from his own rebellious cause.
Kerr, Dianne L; Ding, Kele; Chaya, Julie
To compare self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students to heterosexual peers and to each other on alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) measures and alcohol use consequences. Preexisting data (Falls 2009-2011) from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA-II) were analyzed. Bisexual college students had greater odds of ATOD use than heterosexual and gay/lesbian students. Bisexual women had the highest levels of use. LGB students had more serious consequences due to alcohol use. ATOD use among LGB students was more prevalent than heterosexuals during the past 30 days, year, and life-time. LGB students report more negative alcohol consequences.
Full Text Available Resumo: Este ensaio introduz algumas questões relativas aos estudos feministas, gays, lésbicos, transgênecos e teoria queer na busca de contribuições teórico-metodológicas na análise da cultura contemporânea. Palavras-chave: Estudos gays e lésbicos, estudos transgêneros, teoria queer, cultura. Abstrat: This essay introduces some issues related tofeminist studies, gay and lesbian studies, transgender studies and queer theory in the search of theoretical and methodological contributions in the analysis of contemporary culture. Key-words: Gay and Lesbian Studies, transgender studies, queer theory, culture
Elizur, Y; Ziv, M
While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.
Jankowski, G.; Slater, A.; Tiggemann, M.; Fawkner, H.
Gay men's greater body dissatisfaction compared to straight men has been explained as a result of gay men’s more 'appearance potent' subculture. This study aimed to critically appraise this explanation by assessing images of men and women for their physical characteristics and objectification across 8 popular gay and straight men's dating and porn websites. 1,415 images of men and 715 images of women across the website’s main pages were coded. Results showed that the gay men's websites featur...
Kendall, Christopher N
In 2000, in the case of Little Sisters Book and Art Emporium, the Canadian Supreme Court was asked to determine whether gay male pornography violated the sex equality protections guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Throughout this case, gay male activists and academics emphasised the risk posed by antipornography legal strategies to the dissemination of materials intended to promote safer sexual behaviour. Other arguments were advanced that gay male pornography should not be restricted because it serves as a learning tool for young men and, in so doing, does much to reduce the alarming incidence of gay youth suicide. The author examines these assumptions within the context of the gay male pornography defended in Little Sisters. His conclusion is that the present gay male obsession with hyper-masculinity, best evidenced in the pornography now widely touted by some gay men as a source of gay male identity and freedom, undermines safer sexual practices and the self-respect needed to combat youth suicide. The author concludes that gay men must commit to a sexuality built on mutuality, respect and caring (i.e., an identity politic built around sex equality).
Severino Joaquim Nunes Pereira
Full Text Available It is not easy to study socially marginalized groups such as gays, ethnic minorities, and others. This is, however,an extremely relevant topic in the consumer behavior area since the status of members of a modern consumersociety is largely denied to stigmatized social groups (Barbosa, 2006. The objective of this work is to shed lighton how gay men in Rio de Janeiro use the discourse associated with their possessions to build and maintain thesymbolic and hierarchical boundaries between the gay and heterosexual worlds, as well as to investigate the roleconsumption plays in this boundary setting. An ethnographic observation of a group of gay men in Rio deJaneiro was conducted, along with 20 semi-structured interviews with openly gay men between 2005 and 2008.The results suggest that: (a the world culturally built by gays seems to be divided into a gay world and aheterosexual world, where the division between these two worlds not only happens in their minds, but also intheir possessions and purchasing decisions; (b the meaning of gay mens’ places of consumption range fromprofane to sacred along their lives; and (c in the gay world, the body is seen both as a cultural construction andas an asset.
Nordqvist, Petra; Smart, Carol
Legal and social attitudes towards gay men and lesbians have altered considerably in latter years and yet recent research suggests that â€˜coming outâ€™ as lesbian and gay may remain a troubled business, especially in oneâ€™s own family. Exploring this theme, we situate gay and lesbian identities in wider family networks and explore how gay men and women negotiate family relationships at particular and significant moments in their lives, such as weddings and child birth. In doing so, we draw ...
The objective of the thesis was to gather information on as well as draw attention to the Gay Market among representatives connected to the tourism business who met during the international fair Matka Expo 2012 held in the Helsinki Exposition and Convention Centre. The aim was to seek to improve the future situation on this particular niche market through increased interest and knowledge, which would lead to better understanding, cooperation and prejudice release. The thesis was aimed to make...
Nakamura, Nadine; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.
This study describes factors associated with methamphetamine initiation in a racially diverse sample of 340 methamphetamine-using, HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. A factor analysis was conducted on reasons for initiation, and four factors were identified: to party, to cope, for energy, and to improve self-esteem. Methamphetamine to party accounted for more than one-third of the variance in the factor analysis. Methamphetamine to cope captured almost 9% of the variance, methamphetamine for ...
This study ia a pre-experimental research that aimed to examine the effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) in improving psychological well-being in gay adolescent. CBT is a psychotherapy that focuses on thought and core beliefs that cause emotional distress, which aims to assist individuals in changing irrational thoughts or cognitions become more rational thinking. Psychological well-being improvement seen using Psychological Well-Being Scale that reveals self-acceptance, positive relati...
Russell, Stephen T.; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn
In the field of positive youth development programs, “empowerment” is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Through focus group interviews, fifteen youth leaders of GSAs fr...
Sonia Amparo Guerrero-Cabrera
Full Text Available Given the great importance of literary journalism has been gaining in the West, this work performs a scan of the main circumstances which allowed the emergence of it; then it resorts to one of the greatest representatives of this field to state its essential characteristics. Based on the book Portraits and meetings (2003 of Gay Talese, the key components of literary journalism are exemplified.
Meletti, Alexandre Trevisani; Scorsolini-Comin, Fabio
The aim of this study was to understand the processes of construction of the marital relationship and expectations about parenthood in same-sex couples. It has been interviewed four gay couples (four men and four women) who have been living together for four years, on average. Semi-structured interviews have been used and the technique of the life history has been also performed in an individual appliance. They have also been audio taped, fully and literally transcribed. The content analysis ...
Mitchell, Jason W
Research has shown that gay male couples' sexual agreements may affect their risk for HIV. Few U.S. studies have collected dyadic data nationally from gay male couples to assess what sexual behaviors they allow to occur by agreement type and the sequence of when certain behaviors occur within their relationships. In our cross-sectional study, dyadic data from a convenience sample of 361 male couples were collected electronically throughout the United States by using paid Facebook ads. Findings revealed that couples discussed their HIV status before having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) but established their agreement some time after having UAI. About half of the couples (N = 207) concurred about having an agreement. Among these couples, 58% concurred about explicitly discussing their agreement, 84% concurred about having the same type of agreement, and 54% had both men adhering to it. A variety of sexual behaviors were endorsed and varied by agreement type. Concordance about aspects of couples' agreements varied, suggesting the need to engage couples to be more explicit and detailed when establishing and communicating about their agreements. The allowed behaviors and primary reasons for establishing and breaking sexual agreements further highlight the need to bolster HIV prevention for gay male couples.
Holbrow, Charles H.; Amato, Joseph C.
In his 1802 paper Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac reported the first definitive experimental evidence that many different gases exhibit the same fractional expansion of volume when heated. This property is known as Charles Law, Amontons Law, Dalton's Law, or the law of volumes. Gay-Lussac concluded from his experiments that many gases expand by 37.5% when heated from 0 ,oC to 100,oC. Although his result is within 2.5% of the modern value of 36.6% = 100/273.15, the discrepancy is surprising because his direct and simple experimental method allowed him to measure changes in volume with a precision of a few tenths of a percent. An examination of his original paper suggests, however, that he did not take into account that his measurements of the initial and final volumes of gas were made at slightly different pressures. With reasonable assumptions about the diagrams in his paper, one can use Pascal's law and the ideal gas law to correct the measured volumes so that they correspond to the same initial and final pressure. With this correction the results imply δV/V = .366. Gay-Lussac did better than he knew.
Filip-Crawford, Gabrielle; Neuberg, Steven L
Negative behaviors targeting gay men and lesbians range from violent physical assault to casting a vote against gay marriage, with very different implications for those targeted. Existing accounts of such actions, however, are unable to differentially predict specific anti-gay behaviors, leaving a large theoretical hole in the literature and hindering the design of effective interventions. We propose (a) that many sexually prejudiced laypersons conceptualize homosexuality and pro-gay ideology as "contaminants" analogous to infectious pathogens and (b) that anti-gay behaviors can thus be viewed as strategic attempts to prevent, contain, treat, or eradicate the "pathogens" of homosexuality and pro-gay ideology. By considering analogues to disease-spread processes (e.g., susceptibility of specific subpopulations, inoculation procedures, prevalence in the local environment, interconnections among community members), we derive novel predictions regarding the incidence and nature of anti-gay behaviors and provide leverage for creating more tailored interventions to reduce such discrimination. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
This article outlines the shared identity construction of five gay and lesbian members of an LGBT youth group, situated in a conservative, working-class, Northern English town. It is shown that the young people’s identity work emerges in response to the homophobia and ‘othering’ they have experienced from those in their local community. Through ethnography and discourse analysis, and using theoretical frameworks from interactional sociolinguistics, the strategies that the young people employ ...
Duncan, D.; Prestage, G.; Grierson, J.
Few studies have explored how young gay men negotiate opportunities for rethinking sexual and relationship life associated with gay sexual cultures upon coming out. Drawing on qualitative interview data with Australian gay men aged 18–30, this article explores a tension these participants described between a desire for monogamy as the basis to a committed, enduring and mature relationship on one hand, and sexual opportunities associated with ‘the gay scene’ on the other. We analyse these men’...
Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Samayoa, Andrés Castro; Gasman, Marybeth; Mobley, Steve, Jr.
Background: Researchers have tended to favor scholarship that looks at institutional forms of support for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students in the context of resource centers specifically tailored to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students. Our study makes two distinct contributions to the study of gay and lesbian students…
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8387 of June 1, 2009. Lesbian, Gay... Proclamation 8387 of June 1, 2009 Proc. 8387 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2009By the... lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Out of this resistance, the LGBT rights movement...
Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.
Gay men face decisions associated with disclosure, the process of coming out as gay, when and if to disclose, and how much information. These decisions carry more weight in masculinized industries such as law enforcement. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to critically explore gay male law enforcement officers' experiences working in…
Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah
Using a sample of 284 sexual minority youth and young adults, this paper examines the relationships between mental health variables, the absence or presence of a gay-straight alliance, and membership status in a gay-straight alliance. The results suggest that the presence of a gay-straight alliance in a school or college, rather than actual…
Herdt, Gilbert; Boxer, Andrew
This book confronts myths about gay and lesbian youth and explores their real experiences of coming out. The research for the book was conducted at the Horizons lesbian and gay social service agency in Chicago, Illinois. Chapter 1 takes a historical look at homosexuality and proposes a new theory of gay and lesbian development to explain a…
Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon
Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…
Choi, Hee-sook; Thul, Candrice A.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Norris, James L.
School psychologists' attitudes and feelings toward gay and lesbian parents were surveyed in relation to their training and exposure, and professional services offered to gay and lesbian parents and their children. The relationship between attitudes, feelings, training, exposure, and demographic characteristics was explored as well. A stratified…
This brochure is written out of concern for the impact anti-gay prejudice and discrimination have on children--gay and straight. Although people have different views about homosexuality, most Americans believe that everyone should be treated fairly and with respect. American society has many kinds of families, and many people have neighbors,…
Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.
Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…
Anderson, Joel; Koc, Yasin
Research into the relationship between religion and anti-gay attitudes frequently focuses on Christianity. We explored the role of religiosity dimensions, previous contact, and factors in the dual-process motivation model as predictors of explicit and implicit anti-gay attitudes in samples of
Fankhanel, Edward H.
The purpose of this study was to gather basic exploratory-descriptive data regarding the self-perceptions and behaviors of Puerto Rican gay youth (16 to 24 years old) during their gay identity development and coming out process. The study was conducted in Puerto Rico to eliminate ethnic minority influences that may be present in Puerto Rican gay…
Clarke, Victoria; Kitzinger, Celia; Potter, Jonathan
Psychologists recognize homophobic bullying as a serious problem for young lesbians and gay men; however, when it comes to children in lesbian and gay households the issue is not so clear cut. Some psychologists sympathetic to lesbian and gay parenting regard it as a problem, but most do not. Despite this, the inevitability and severe psychological consequences of homophobic bullying is a prevalent theme in discussions of lesbian and gay parenting in contexts ranging from custody cases to television talk shows, and is used to implicate lesbians and gay men as unfit to parent. This is the broader context in which lesbian and gay parents discuss their children's experiences of bullying. In this study, we provide a discursive psychological analysis of six lesbian and gay parents' accounts of bullying. We argue that these accounts are discursively and rhetorically designed to deal with a heterosexist social/political context. Lesbian and gay parents face a dilemma of stake and accountability: reports of no bullying risk being heard as implausible given the prevalence of the bullying theme; at the same time, reports of bullying are equally if not more risky, raising the possibility of charges of bad parenting. We explore the detail of the parents' accounts of bullying to illustrate how they are designed to negotiate this web of accountability, and we argue for the importance for critical social psychology of analysing the talk of socially/politically marginalized groups.
This paper offers an examination of gay-straight alliance (GSA) members' engagement with sex education, sexual health, and prejudice and discrimination in Canadian public high schools. It explores how five students' (four straight and one gay-identifying) participation in GSAs served as a springboard for learning about and challenging stereotypes;…
Quasha, Scott; McCabe, Paul C.; Ortiz, Samuel O.
This program review examined a middle school Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) club within a northeastern suburban school situated in a large metropolitan area. The GSA was the first in the region to start exclusively in a standalone middle school. The review was accomplished through a staff survey comparing school climates for lesbian, gay, bisexual,…
Maher, Michael J.
The Catholic Magisterium has made a distinction between homosexual orientation (disordered but not sinful), homosexual activity (sinful, but judged "with prudence"), rights of gay and lesbian people, and the Church's pastoral responsibilities to gay and lesbian people. Both the Vatican and the American bishops have clearly stated that the topic of…
Stephan Cohen provides a unique comparative study of three queer youth groups that were active in New York City during the early 1970s, including Gay Youth, Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries (STAR), and Gay International Youth Society at George Washington High School. Cohen focuses on these three groups due to the related characteristics…
Meerendonk, Bas van de; Eisinga, Rob; Felling, Albert
national sample of 921 respondents from the Dutch populadon completed the translated, slightly modified version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale, originally developed in the USA for the assessment of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The present study was the first attempt
Meerendonk, B. van de; Eisinga, R.N.; Felling, A.J.A.
A national sample of 921 respondents from the Dutch population completed the translated, slightly modified version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale, originally developed in the USA for the assessment of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The present study was the first
Vare, Jonatha W.; Norton, Terry L.
Gay and lesbian youth encounter most of the typical biological and cognitive changes of adolescence. However, cultural circumstances create differences in the social and emotional development of many gay and lesbian teens. In the United States, these teens often live within social environments characterized by a hostile fear and an active…
Woodford, Michael R.; Howell, Michael L.; Kulick, Alex; Silverschanz, Perry
"That's so gay," a popular expression on campuses, is a sexual orientation microaggression that can contribute to a hostile environment for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students. Using data from a campus climate survey conducted at a large urban university, we investigated use of the phrase among heterosexual male undergraduates who…
Wentz, Joel M.; Wessel, Roger D.
Because some Christian colleges prohibit same-sex sexual behaviors, the development of authentic sexual identities on these campuses may be difficult for gay and lesbian students. This article introduces the idea of an identity conflict that may occur between sexual and spiritual identities for gay and lesbian students at Christian colleges and…
Case, Kim; Stewart, Briana
Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…
Gay sex is still a criminal act according to the Indian Penal Act. In 2013, the Supreme Court had quashed a judgment by a Delhi Court to decriminalise consensual gay sex. Now, there are signs that the Supreme Court might reconsider.
McFarland, William P.; McMahon, Timothy R.
The male archetypes of king, lover, magician, and warrior provide important and timeless insights into mature masculine qualities. Homosexual identity development models describe tasks that confront gay men as they move through the identity development process. Proposes that by understanding the metaphor of male archetypes, gay men will discover…
McKeown, Eamonn; Nelson, Simon; Anderson, Jane; Low, Nicola; Elford, Jonathan
Using findings from a qualitative investigation based on in-depth email interviews with 47 Black and South Asian gay men in Britain, this paper explores the cross-cutting identities and discourses in relation to being both gay and from an ethnic minority background. Taking an intersectional approach, detailed accounts of identity negotiation, cultural pressures, experiences of discrimination and exclusion and the relationship between minority ethnic gay men and mainstream White gay culture are presented and explored. The major findings common to both groups were: cultural barriers limiting disclosure of sexuality to family and wider social networks; experiences of discrimination by White gay men that included exclusion as well as objectification; a lack of positive gay role models and imagery relating to men from minority ethnic backgrounds. Among South Asian gay men, a major theme was regret at being unable to fulfil family expectations regarding marriage and children, while among Black gay men, there was a strong belief that same-sex behaviour subverted cultural notions related to how masculinity is configured. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of social location, particularly education and income, when examining the intersection of ethnicity and sexuality in future research.
Kwok, Diana K.; Wu, Joseph; Shardlow, Steven M.
There is a dearth of research on social work students' attitudes toward lesbians and gays in East Asian countries where intolerance toward nonheterosexuality has been documented. This article presents findings from the first study in Hong Kong using a Chinese version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) to measure…
Wolff, Joshua R.; Himes, Heather L.; Kwon, Ellen Miller; Bollinger, Richard A.
Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay…
Moradi, Bonnie; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Epting, Franz R.
Building on G. A. Kelly's (1991a, 1991b) personal construct theory, this study introduced concepts of threat and guilt as different manifestations of internalized antilesbian and gay prejudice. Results with 102 lesbian and gay participants indicated that internalized threat and guilt each accounted for unique variance in global internalized…
Sedillo, P. J.
Little empirical research has been conducted regarding suicide and suicidal ideation about gay gifted adolescents, so most of what is presented in the literature is based on theories and assumptions. One key assumption was that the psychological challenges of gay gifted youth stemming from sexual identity and giftedness contribute to suicidal…
Ferfolja, Tania; Stavrou, Efty
Historically, lesbian and gay teachers working in schools have experienced silencing, invisibility, and discrimination. This paper reports on research that examined the experiences of self-identified lesbian and gay teachers working in a variety of school types and school systems across Australia. Specifically, it explores these teachers'…
Strayhorn, Terrell L.
Scholars have examined the experiences of GLBT students in college and found that gay students often report encountering unwelcoming campus environments, physical or verbal assault, and homophobia. Rarely, however, have the experiences of Asian Pacific Islander (API) or more specifically South Korean gay men been accounted for in the literature. A…
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex Guidance Project AGENCY: National Institute of... result in a policy guide for corrections practitioners charged with the care and custody of lesbian, gay...
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Black, Kaitlin; Sweeney, Kristin; Moyer, April
Little research has examined the experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families in early childhood education settings. This study uses interview data to examine the perceptions and experiences of 45 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples (90 individuals) with 10 adopted children with respect to their (1) openness with…
Bullard, Eric A.
The purpose of this dissertation was to better understand the experiences of "out" gay and lesbian higher education presidents. Of the more than 4,500 institutions of higher education in the United States, only 30 presidents have identified themselves as gay or lesbian. As institutions of higher education face large scale retirements at…
Rankin, Susan R.; Hesp, Grahaeme A.; Weber, Genevieve N.
The study included 337 self-identified gay and bisexual fraternity members, with 170 joining their chapters in the year 2000 or after, 99 joining their chapters between the years 1990 and 1999, and 68 joining in the year 1989 or before. Participants who self-identified as gay or bisexual men and who joined in the year 2000 or after reported a more…
Lozano-Verduzco, Ignacio; Rosales Mendoza, Adriana Leona
This paper addresses how educational and cultural contexts incorporate lessons around sexuality, particularly sexual and gender identity, and how these contexts impact on identity construction of gay men in Mexico City. We analyse the experiences of 15 gay men reported through semi-structured in-depth interviews and how they incorporate sexuality…
Span, Sherry A.
One method frequently employed as an intervention to reduce anti-gay bias is a lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) speaker panel. These speakers share brief biographical sketches about their coming out experiences and then answer questions. A pretest/posttest control group design examined the impact of LGB speaker panels on university students'…
Sattler, Frank A; Franke, Gabriele H; Christiansen, Hanna
International studies have revealed that gay and bisexual men present more mental health problems than the general male population. Furthermore, there is evidence that minority stress predicts mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. The aim of the present study is to provide initial data on mental health differences in Germany and to analyze the effect of minority stress. Mental health data on n = 1903 German gay and bisexual men and n = 958 men from a population-based sample were assessed using a shortened version of the SCL-90-S. The mental health of the two samples was compared. Furthermore, a linear regression was conducted for the gay and bisexual sample: mental health was used as the criterion and minority stressors as predictors. As compared to our population sample, gay and bisexual men demonstrated more mental health problems with a moderate effect size. In the regression, minority stress predicted mental health problems in the gay and bisexual sample. We observed pronounced mental health differences between gay and bisexual men versus the population sample. These differences could be at least partly due to the minority stress gay and bisexual men face. Research should focus on how to reduce and cope with minority stress.
Because of an absence of dialogue, a tense relationship appears to exist between Wisconsin's gay men's book discussion groups and their local public libraries. Public library directors express interest in accommodating these groups if approached but face budget restrictions and local communities that may oppose these gatherings; gay men's book…
Nelson, Cynthia D.
This article focuses on a subset of the student cohort that has, until recently, been largely hidden from view in the literature of language education: gay immigrants. Little is known about what sorts of classroom experiences gay immigrant students find engaging or alienating, or why this sort of knowledge is needed. This case study uses interview…
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Derbyshire, Katherine
This study examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and their clinical correlates in a university sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) students.......This study examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and their clinical correlates in a university sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) students....
Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana
This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…
Bidell, Markus P.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) students often face considerable isolation, discrimination, and violence at school, which can exacerbate the acute psychosocial and academic problems they already encounter. The purpose of this article is to introduce gay-straight alliances (GSAs) as a social justice and advocacy approach…
Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) in Canadian public schools have gained considerable attention from print media since reports first surfaced in the year 2000. This study tracked and analyzed Canadian newspaper reporting about GSA creation. It summarized the shift in public opinion toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth…
Czaja, Sara J; Sabbag, Samir; Lee, Chin Chin; Schulz, Richard; Lang, Samantha; Vlahovic, Tatiana; Jaret, Adrienne; Thurston, Catherine
Despite the increasing number of lesbian and gay older adults, research geared towards health and well-being of this population is limited. Many lesbian and gay seniors experience health disparities and are at risk for poor health outcomes. The aims of this study were to gather in-depth information on the concerns of lesbian and gay elders with respect to aging and care needs. The sample included 124 gay men and lesbian women aged 50+ years. Data were gathered via focus groups and questionnaires. The focus groups addressed: (1) concerns about aging in the LGBT community, (2) barriers to needed support and services, (3) concerns about caregiving and (4) needed programs for lesbian and gay seniors. Concerns expressed about aging included: lack of financial security, lack of family or social support, fears about the lack of someone to provide needed care, and discrimination in healthcare or service communities. Participants also indicated concerns about being alone and vulnerable and a need for resources and support programs, specifically for lesbian and gay older adults and for lesbian and gay caregivers. These findings suggest needed areas of support and programs for older gay men and lesbian women. They also suggest that healthcare professionals might need more training regarding the particular needs and concerns of this community.
In this article, the author describes how he uses performance pedagogy to open students' minds to sexuality and gender issues. The author uses Tony Kushner's "Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes"--an epic play about the AIDS epidemic and its impact on the gay community in the 1980s. Through the possibilities of drama available in…
Wilkerson, J. Michael; Brooks, Ann K.; Ross, Michael W.
How collegiate gay and bisexual men acquire a sociosexual identity appears to affect their sexual health. Analysis of interview data from 25 self-identified collegiate gay or bisexual men resulted in the development of a collective sexual script for men acquiring a sociosexual identity. Changes in an individual's acting out of a cultural scenario…
Norton, Terry L.; Vare, Jonatha W.
Several books that provide guidance for the gay and lesbian teenagers, their friends and families are presented. The books depict the challenges faced by the gay and lesbian teenagers, conflicts among the young adults and parents or caretakers and the rejections faced by the heterosexual parents and friends.
In this paper, the author looks at how she attempted to teach her students--preservice teachers--to engage in dialogic conversation about gay and lesbian identity using children's literature with gay and lesbian characters as a jumping off point. Through her analysis, the author has identified two requirements for dialogic conversation among…
Discusses how for gay or lesbian youth, the issues of identity and acceptance that are ignored both in life and in literature are not only profound but also dangerous. Notes that books that include gay or lesbian characters usually elicit a strong negative reaction to their content by vocal conservative groups. (SG)
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Rothblum, Esther D.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.
Lifetime victimization was examined in a primarily European American sample that comprised 557 lesbian/gay, 163 bisexual, and 525 heterosexual adults. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants were recruited via LGB e-mail lists, periodicals, and organizations; these participants recruited 1 or more siblings for participation in the study (81%…
Hamilton, Christopher J.; Mahalik, James R.
The authors examined the contributions of the minority stress model, traditional masculine gender roles, and perceived social norms in accounting for gay men's use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and risky sexual practices. Three hundred fifteen gay men recruited from listserv communities completed measures assessing internalized homophobia,…
Roe, Stuart L.
School social workers can serve as valuable supporters of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths in the public school system by providing services aimed to improve school climates for all students. This article describes a qualitative study that examined gay and bisexual adolescent experiences with peer support using a…
Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Dever, Bridget V.; Greenberg, Daphne; Roach, Andrew T.; Morillas, Catalina
Using an ecological model, the individual-, school-, and sociocultural-level characteristics that affect gay-straight alliance (GSA) advisors were examined in the current study. The formation of GSAs has been one way that schools have sought to improve the school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Limited information…
Norcini Pala, Andrea; Villano, Paola; Clinton, Lauren
Attitudes of Italian heterosexual men and women toward gay men, both HIV positive and negative, are poorly investigated. Italian culture is still extremely conservative and provides limited support to the gay community (e.g., lack of same-sex marriage recognition). Consequently, gay men experience social exclusion and disparities. The present study explores the association between homophobia and closeness with sexual orientation and HIV status. 261 heterosexual Italian men and women were assessed for feelings of closeness and homophobia after reading a vignette where the character was C1: heterosexual and HIV negative; C2: gay and HIV negative; or C3: gay and HIV positive. Experiences of homophobia and closeness varied depending on gender of participant and condition assigned, and higher levels of homophobia were correlated with lower levels of closeness regardless of HIV status. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Goldberg, Abbie E; Downing, Jordan B; Moyer, April M
The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in part reflect their adoptive status. Men named age, finances, and relationship factors, as well as unique contextual factors such as the need to find and move to gay-friendly neighborhoods, as influencing their readiness to pursue parenthood at the current time. Gay men's motivations to parent echo normative life course decision-making processes, but also reflect concerns that are uniquely informed by their sexual minority status.
Natacha Secco Santos
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como intuito compreender o padrão normativo da contratação de gays em lojas de shopping. Para isso, a contratação na percepção contratantes e dos contratados gays é analisada a partir das categorias de análise: físico, cognitivo, material, representacional e seus atributos em comum na contratação de funcionários gays. Foram entrevistados cinco contratantes e seis contratados de lojas de um shopping de Maringá. Os resultados encontrados mostram que, contratantes são instruídos e enxergam a necessidade de contratar vendedores gays, mas priorizam pelo perfil heteronormativo. Conclui-se que existe discriminação na contratação de gays e um padrão comportamental exigido pelas organizações.
Jankowski, Glen S; Fawkner, Helen; Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
With little actual appraisal, a more 'appearance potent' (i.e., a reverence for appearance ideals) subculture has been used to explain gay men's greater body dissatisfaction in comparison to straight men's. This study sought to assess the respective appearance potency of each subculture by a content analysis of 32 issues of the most read gay (Attitude, Gay Times) and straight men's magazines (Men's Health, FHM) in the UK. Images of men and women were coded for their physical characteristics, objectification and nudity, as were the number of appearance adverts and articles. The gay men's magazines featured more images of men that were appearance ideal, nude and sexualized than the straight men's magazines. The converse was true for the images of women and appearance adverts. Although more research is needed to understand the effect of this content on the viewer, the findings are consistent with a more appearance potent gay male subculture. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen
To identify ways Chinese and South Asian gay and bisexual men living in Auckland talk about issues related to sexuality and experiences of living 'gay social lives.' Results will be available to inform health policy and practice. A qualitative design with individual interviews and thematic analysis was used. Semi-structured digitally recorded interviews were undertaken with 27 Chinese and 17 South Asian gay and bisexual men living in Auckland. Four themes in the data related to talk about sexuality and living gay social lives are reported: (a) 'Happy in my skin': Being gay is Ok! (b) 'To come out or not': Managing sexual identity, (c) 'Places to go, people to see': Connecting with others, and (d) 'What's wrong with being Asian': Tolerating discrimination. There are many similarities in the ways these men talked about their identity and sexuality that can be usefully considered by health policy makers and service planners. The concept of gay (and bisexual) sexuality had some salience for the men interviewed, despite the adoption and acknowledgement of same-sex identity being a relatively new phenomenon in some Asian countries. This supports the use of these terms in local health interventions. However, as these men closely managed their gay identity and typically had not disclosed their sexuality to others, including healthcare professionals, interventions to address the skills and comfort of healthcare providers in addressing sexuality in clinical settings appear warranted to facilitate optimal healthcare. These men are not well connected with others and this has implications for HIV health promotion that is based on creating cultural norms among networks to encourage safe sex. Discrimination results in many Chinese and South Asian gay and bisexual men disengaging from connecting with others and should be addressed.
Moody, Raymond L; Starks, Tyrel J; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T
The minority stress process of internalized homophobia (IH) has been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes among gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, evidence is mixed regarding the effect of IH on drug use, suggesting the potential role of multiple mediated pathways. Researchers have linked depression, sexual anxiety, and gay community attachment with IH. Depression, sexual anxiety, and gay community attachment have also been linked with drug use and drug-related problems suggesting potential mediating roles. A U.S. national sample of 1071 HIV-negative GBM completed at-home surveys, including measures of sociodemographic characteristics, IH, depression, sexual anxiety, gay community attachment, and drug use and associated problems. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, depression mediated the association between IH and recent drug use. IH was positively associated with depression, and depression was positively associated with recent drug use. Gay community attachment partially mediated drug-related problems. IH had a positive direct association with drug-related problems and a negative direct association with gay community attachment. Gay community attachment had a positive association with drug-related problems. IH was positively associated with sexual anxiety, but sexual anxiety was not associated with either drug outcome. Efforts to reduce IH among HIV-negative GBM are likely to have a positive impact on mental health problems, as well as reduce risk for drug use and drug-related problems. Gay communities could provide the social support necessary for reducing IH; however, emphasis on community level interventions that address factors that increase risk for drug-related problems remains important.
Soeker, Shaheed; Bonn, Gerri-Lee; de Vos, Zahraa; Gobhozi, Thobile; Pape, Candice; Ribaudo, Shelly
The South African constitution protects the rights of gays; however in the workplace gays experience discrimination and marginalization. As a result of marginalization they struggle to reach their potential regarding career development and the fulfilment of their worker role. The study explored the experiences and perceptions of gay males with regard to acquiring and maintaining their worker roles. The study is phenomenological and qualitative in design. Eleven of these men participated in two focus groups. One male participated in two in-depth interviews and one interview was conducted with a key informant. Three themes emerged: 1) Being boxed in, 2) The glass ceiling, 3) This is where I can wear my feather boa. The study findings clearly depicted the many barriers experienced by homosexual men and how this negatively impacts on their worker role. Minimal facilitatory factors exist, to assist gay males %in with regard to their worker role. It was found that homo-prejudice still exists in South Africa and its workplaces and has a negative impact not only on gay men's worker role but also their well-being. This significantly highlights the great need for occupational therapy intervention in the lives of these gay men, and their workplaces.
Reisen, Carol A; Brooks, Kelly D; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J; Bianchi, Fernanda T
The current study investigated a methodological question of whether traditional, additive, quantitative data can be used to address intersectional issues, and illustrated such an approach with a sample of 301 HIV-positive, Latino gay men in the United States. Participants were surveyed using A-CASI. Hierarchical logistic set regression investigated the role of sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, gender nonconformity, and gay and ethnic discrimination in relation to depression and gay collective identity. Results showed the discrimination set was related to depression and to gay collective identity, as was gender nonconformity. Follow-up logistic regression showed that both types of discrimination were associated with greater depression, but gender nonconformity was not. Gay discrimination and gender nonconformity were positively associated with gay collective identity, whereas ethnic discrimination was negatively associated. Results are discussed in terms of the use of traditional quantitative data as a potential means of understanding intersectional issues, as well as of contributing to knowledge about individuals facing multiple structural inequalities.
Full Text Available There is an increasing body of research on ageing and end-of-life care (EOLC of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT older people in the UK, USA and Australia. In contrast, in South Africa, despite progressive legislation to protect LGBT rights, there has been minimal research in this area. This article reports on a critical review of literature on ageing of the LGBT community. Key themes identified include discrimination by health care workers and health risks for LGBT older people alongside the need for training of health professionals. The article concludes with consideration of the needs of LGBT persons in South Africa
Schneebaum, Alyssa; Badgett, M. V. Lee
Poverty is a widely researched topic in economics. However, despite growing research on the economic lives of lesbians and gay men in the United States since the mid 1990s, very little is known about poverty in same-sex couple households. This study uses American Community Survey data from 2010 to 2014 to calculate poverty rates for households headed by different-sex versus same-sex couples. Comparing households with similar characteristics, the results show that those headed by same-sex coup...
Purcell, D W; Blanchard, R; Zucker, K J
The birth order of a contemporary North American sample of 97 gay men was quantified using Slater's Index. For the 84 probands with at least one sibling, the results showed a late mean birth order compared with the expected value of .50. Additional birth order indices derived from Slater's Index suggested that the mean later birth order was accounted for more strongly by the proband's number of older brothers than by his number of older sisters. The present findings constitute a replication of a series of recent studies and add to the growing body of evidence that birth order is a reliable correlate of sexual orientation in males.
Earnshaw, Valerie A; Bogart, Laura M; Poteat, V Paul; Reisner, Sari L; Schuster, Mark A
Bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth is prevalent in the United States, and represents LGBT stigma when tied to sexual orientation and/or gender identity or expression. LGBT youth commonly report verbal, relational, and physical bullying, and damage to property. Bullying undermines the well-being of LGBT youth, with implications for risky health behaviors, poor mental health, and poor physical health that may last into adulthood. Pediatricians can play a vital role in preventing and identifying bullying, providing counseling to youth and their parents, and advocating for programs and policies to address LGBT bullying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available L’orientation dominante des études sur le tourisme, longtemps marquées par l’importance de la dimension économique et par un désintérêt pour les questions touchant au corps, au sexe ou au genre, explique le silence autour du tourisme gay (qui n’est pas le tourisme des gays jusqu’aux années 1990. Pourtant, ce tourisme identitaire existe depuis longtemps et sa visibilité se développe, surtout dans les pays développés occidentaux. La métaphore du voyage et la recherche du paradis (sexuel perdu sont au cœur de l’identité homosexuelle depuis le 19 e siècle. Le tourisme gay se caractérise par des structures (tour-opérateurs, hébergements, croisières… et des destinations spécifiques. Pour les gays il s’agit, dans l’espace-temps des vacances, propice au relâchement et à la recréation de soi, de fuir un monde structuré par le système hétérosexiste et de rejoindre les autres (gays. La recherche de la rencontre du semblable et la sexualisation assumée du tourisme gay, à travers la libération et la dénudation des corps, participent d’une véritable quête pour valider son identité de gay. Elles font que les destinations préférées par les gays sont les stations balnéaires et les grandes villes : elles sont en effet dotées d’espaces publics, d’équipements commerciaux et de formes d’hébergement fermées favorables aux interactions et à la réalisation d’une éphémère « communauté gay ». The mainstream orientation of tourism studies, focused on the sole economic dimension for a long time, without any interest for questions about the body, sex or gender, explains the silence surrounding gay tourism (which is not the tourism of gay men since the 1990s. However, this identity tourism has existed for a long time and its visibility is growing, especially in Western developed countries. The metaphor of the journey and the search for a (sexual paradise lost have been at the core of the
Lingiardi, Vittorio; Nardelli, Nicola; Drescher, Jack
Although homosexuality was depathologized in the last century and the majority of mental health professionals consider it to be a normal variant of human sexuality, some psychologists and psychiatrists still have negative attitudes toward lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) clients. Sometimes they provide interventions aimed at changing sexual orientation through 'reparative' or 'conversion' therapies. At other times their interventions are influenced by anti-gay prejudices or simply by lack of knowledge about sexual minorities. This paper argues for the need for appropriate treatment guidelines aimed at providing bias-free, respectful, and effective interventions given that Italian health associations have delayed providing them. Some of the main guidelines recently approved by the Consiglio Nazionale dell'Ordine degli Psicologi (National Council of the Italian Association of Psychologists) are presented. Issues addressed include differences between gender and sexual orientation, minority stress, including perceived stigma and internalized stigma, homophobic bullying, coming out, and resilience. Respectful listening to LGB and questioning clients, affirming their identities and fostering a sense of resilience are essential requirements for all mental health professionals wishing to provide effective interventions in a society where sexual minorities are subjected to discrimination throughout their entire life cycle.
Varangis, Eleanna; Lanzieri, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tom; Feldman, Matthew
The purpose of this study was to examine gay men's perceived attractiveness of male figures based on short-term and long-term partner contexts. A sample of 190 gay adult men rated the attractiveness of line-drawings depicting male figures varying systematically in muscularity and body fat percentage in both short-term and long-term dating contexts. Mixed effects modeling was used to estimate the effects of figure (muscularity and body fat), dating context (short-term vs. long-term), and individual rater characteristics on attractiveness ratings. Results indicated that figure muscularity and body-fat had significant non-linear (i.e., quadratic) relationships with attractiveness ratings, and short-term dating context was associated with more discriminating ratings of attractiveness. Interactions between individual characteristics and figure characteristics indicated that the more available the individual and lower body fat, the more discriminating they were in ratings of attractiveness. The implications for future investigations considering both object and observer characteristics of attractiveness preferences are discussed. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet
Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Drawing on the work of Didier Eribon and his theorization of the construction of gay male subjectivity, this article examines different "texts," broadly defined, that grapple specifically with straight men attempting to represent male homosexuality: Norman Mailer's essay, "The Homosexual Villain"; the Bravo reality television series Boy Meets Boy, and Michael Griffith's short story, "Hooper Gets a Perm." These texts represent attempts by straight authors to grapple with queer experience in ways that move the imagination of queers beyond simple stereotypes or uncritical explorations of the sexual "other." In the process of examining these texts, the following questions are addressed: What happens when a straight man attempts to represent a gay man? Does he "get it right," and is such a question even useful? More specifically, what is the value in having straights imagine queerness? Is such an imagining possible? Is such desirable? And, if so, what are the contours of such an imagining-as well as its possibilities and limitations, pedagogically, personally, and politically? Ultimately, I contend that the straight imagining of queerness offers rich potential for mutual understanding; furthermore, attempting to understand what goes into the making of those representations tells us much about how queerness circulates in our culture as a subject, a figure of discussion, contention, and representation.
Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina
Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
Holbrow, C. H.; Amato, J. C.
Gay-Lussac's 1801 experiments establishing the law of volumes for gases are brilliantly simple, and he described them with a level of detail that was new to physics writing. But he did not present his actual measurements or tell us how he analyzed them to conclude that between 0 to 100 °C, a volume of any gas will expand by about 37.5%. We review his experiments and conclude that he measured initial and final volumes at slightly different pressures. By using the gas laws and his apparatus diagrams, we corrected his data so that they correspond to constant pressure. His corrected results give ΔV/V=36.6%, the currently accepted value for nearly ideal gases. Aside from their intrinsic interest, our analyses can provide students intriguing applications of the gas laws and Pascal's law and motivate them to consider Pascal's paradox. We also note the influence of ballooning and of the French Revolution on Gay-Lussac.
Families in which one or both parents are gay or lesbian are becoming increasingly common as social acceptance of this lifestyle increases and legal barriers slowly erode. Despite past concerns and occasional reports to the contrary, the bulk of research has shown no evidence that children of parents who are gay or lesbian suffer any greater physical or mental pathology than children of heterosexual parents. However, research does suggest that there may be ways in which health care providers can be more respectful and supportive of homosexual parents and their families. Health care providers should examine their own attitudes toward these families and consider how to provide a welcoming environment and presence. Using gender neutral language about spouses, displaying posters and publications related to varied family types, and acknowledging both parents as participants in care are some examples. Health care providers who are aware of the special concerns these parents and their children may have, including stigmatization, the issue of disclosure, teasing, feeling different, and the stress resulting from challenges faced due to anti-homosexual social attitudes, can demonstrate sensitivity to the involved children and provide families with anticipatory guidance, support, suggested reading material, and referrals to appropriate organizations.
Goldberg, Abbie E
Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families.
Beougher, Sean C.; Bircher, Anja E.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A.; Gómez Mandic, Carmen; Neilands, Torsten B.; Garcia, Carla C.; Hoff, Colleen C.
Previous studies of HIV testing among gay men describe the motivations, facilitators and barriers, behaviors, and demographic characteristics of individuals who test. What little research focuses on HIV testing among gay men in relationships shows that they do not test regularly or, in some cases, at all – their motivations to test have not been investigated. With so little data on HIV testing for this population, and the continued privileging of individually-focused approaches, gay men in relationships fall into a blind spot of research and prevention efforts. This study examined motivations to test for HIV using qualitative data from both partners in 20 gay male couples. Analysis revealed that the partners’ motivations were either event-related (e.g., participants testing the beginning of their relationship or HIV-negative participants in an HIV-discordant relationship testing after risky episode with their discordant primary partner) or partner-related (e.g., participants testing in response to a request or suggestion to test from their primary partner or participants testing out of concern for their primary partner’s health and wellbeing). These data provide insight into relationship-oriented motivations to test for HIV for gay men in relationships and, in doing so, demonstrates their commitment to their primary partner and relationship. These motivations can be leveraged to increase HIV testing among gay men in relationships, a population that tests less often than single gay men, yet, until recently, has been underserved by prevention efforts. PMID:25550145
Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie G
Opposition to gay rights is prevalent in countries around the world. Recent correlational research suggests that opposition to gay rights may be driven by an interaction between one's own short-term mating orientation (i.e. willingness to engage in casual sex) and representations of gay people as sexually promiscuous. Here, we experimentally manipulated representations of gay men by randomly assigning participants to read one of two versions of a fictitious newspaper article, one of which contained faux scientific evidence confirming the stereotype that gay men are promiscuous, and the other containing faux scientific evidence refuting the stereotype. We found that the manipulation interacted with short-term mating orientation (STMO) to predict opposition to gay rights, such that low-STMO individuals (i.e. more averse to casual sex) exhibited more support for gay rights when assigned to read the stereotype-refuting article compared to the stereotype-confirming article, whereas high-STMO individuals (i.e. less averse to casual sex) were not significantly influenced by the manipulation. We discuss the implications of these findings for the study of antigay attitudes, as well as for recent societal changes in acceptance of homosexuality.
Full Text Available As one of the most popular creative cultural products, film sometimes speaks beyond what it presents. It is not always produced merely for entertainment purposes, but also to spread a certain ideology and represent a particular culture. Anchored in queer theory, this research looks at the Indonesian film, Negeri Van Oranje, which was chosen purposely to be analyzed using Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis model with an aim to deconstruct the concealed gayness text in the film. From the analysis, it was found that the gay scenes in the film try to tell its audience about the positions, feelings, challenges, and rejections that Indonesian gay people experience living amongst heteronormative surroundings. Some new notions about gay people’s life in Indonesia are extracted based on the analysis of the gay scenes in the film. The strategy of inserting gay content into a film nationally released in Indonesia is also revealed. The results of the analysis could be used to create a picture of what gay life looks like in Indonesia, a multicultural country that is well-known as the place in which the world’s largest Muslim population dwells.
Emily K. Hobson
Full Text Available This article analyzes the radical imagination of lesbian and gay activism in solidarity with the Nicaraguan Revolution. It examines the reasons US lesbian and gay radicals supported that revolution and investigates the ways that homoerotic, especially lesbian, desire shaped their solidarity. Drawing on Herbert Marcuse and Michel Foucault, the article argues that lesbian and gay radicals viewed the Nicaraguan Revolution in erotic and heterotopic terms. Posters, fliers, and interviews reveal that US activists, people of color and white, represented the Revolution and solidarity through tropes of female masculinity and women’s affection. Many Nicaraguan lesbians and gay men shared these nonnormative images of socialist change. Yet while Nicaraguans claimed Sandinismo as their own, for US activists revolution remained a distant object of desire and solidarity a “seduction,” “crush,” or embrace. United States activists who embraced developmentalist views of Latin American sexualities remained unable to witness lesbian and gay life inside Nicaragua, while lesbian and gay Sandinistas kept silent about FSLN homophobia so as not to undermine solidarity against the Contra war. Desire served as a powerful tool for mobilizing transnational solidarity. By failing to examine desire critically, however, US activists limited their communications with Nicaraguan lesbians and gay men and weakened the relationship they sought with revolution itself.
Ramos, M M; Téllez, C M; Palley, T B; Umland, B E; Skipper, B J
To examine the attitudes of physicians practicing in New Mexico toward gay and lesbian medical students, house officers, and physician colleagues. In May 1996, the authors mailed a questionnaire with demographic and attitude questions to 1,949 non-federally employed physicians practicing in New Mexico. The questionnaire consisted of questions dealing with medical school admission, residency training, and referrals to colleagues. The response rate was 53.6%. Of all the responding physicians, 4.3% would refuse medical school admission to applicants known to be gay or lesbian. Respondents were most opposed to gay and lesbian physicians' seeking residency training in obstetrics and gynecology (10.1%), and least opposed to their seeking residency training in radiology (4.3%). Disclosure of homosexual orientation would also threaten referrals to gay and lesbian obstetrician-gynecologists (11.4%) more than to gay or lesbian physicians in other specialties. Physicians' attitudes toward gay and lesbian medical students, house officers, and physician colleagues seem to have improved considerably from those reported previously in the literature. However, gay men and lesbians in medicine continue to face opposition in their medical training and in their pursuit of specialty practice.
Philpot, Steven P; Duncan, Duane; Ellard, Jeanne; Bavinton, Benjamin R; Grierson, Jeffrey; Prestage, Garrett
When viewed over time, many gay men's relationships are not static, or firmly fixed to monogamy or non-monogamy. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 61 Australian gay men to explore how monogamy and non-monogamy are experienced over time, expectations of what constitutes the norms regarding gay men's relationships and how couples experience and practices change. Although some gay men may idealise monogamy, particularly at the beginning of a relationship, it is often experienced as temporary. Non-monogamy is often seen as a likely prospect for gay relationships owing to the social and cultural norms that operate in gay communities. These expected trajectories are reflected in practice - many relationships begin monogamously and then become non-monogamous over time. While the application of 'rules', experimentation and flexibility can facilitate change, couples may struggle to navigate new territory as their relationship structures shift. This is particularly the case when partners value monogamy and non-monogamy differently, or when one partner's values change. These findings shed light on how gay men approach change to the status of 'fidelity' within their relationships, and the tensions and opportunities that change can produce for couples.
Sherriff, Nigel; Gugglberger, Lisa
'Gay' businesses can be important settings through which to deliver health promotion interventions to vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) regarding HIV prevention. This article draws on data from the European Everywhere project, which represents the first scheme to develop and pre-test a common framework for HIV/STI prevention in 'gay' businesses across eight European countries. The scientific basis of the Everywhere framework was developed using a comprehensive consensus-building process over 30 months. This process included: formative scoping research; interviews with 54 'gay' businesses; meetings/workshops with representatives from project partners, 'gay' businesses, public health administrations and external experts; 15 interviews and three focus groups with project partners; a five-month pilot action phase in eight countries, together with support from the project's Advisory Group; and all Everywhere project partners including the Scientific Steering Committee. A voluntary European code setting out differentiated HIV/STI-prevention standards for 'gay' businesses (including sex venues, 'gay' and 'gay' friendly social spaces, travel agencies, hotels, dating websites) was developed and piloted in eight European cities. During a five-month pilot action, 83 'gay' businesses were certified with the Everywhere Seal of Approval representing a considerable increase on the expected pilot target of 30. Everywhere offers a major contribution to the public health and/or health promotion field in the form of a practical, policy-relevant, settings-based HIV-prevention framework for 'gay' businesses that is common across eight European countries. Findings suggest that a European-wide model of prevention is acceptable and feasible to businesses.
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.
Tomei, Jenna; Cramer, Robert J; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Panza, Nancy Ryba
Gay panic refers to a heterosexual man violently responding to unwanted sexual advances from a gay man. In court, the defendant may argue he was provoked or temporarily insane. This study utilized 352 jury-eligible citizens to assess differences across mediums of gay panic. Participants were asked to read vignettes depicting a control, gay panic as provocation, or gay panic as insanity condition and provide verdicts and ratings of blame and responsibility. Participants also completed measures assessing political orientation and homonegativity. Data were analyzed via a MANCOVA, a chi-square goodness-of-fit test, and general linear modeling. Verdicts, victim blame, and ratings of responsibility differed across vignette conditions, with an observed leniency effect when gay panic was claimed in either context. Homonegativity also exacerbated patterns of prodefendant views, as participants higher in homonegativity assigned higher victim blame, lower defendant responsibility, and more lenient verdicts in the gay panic conditions. The effect of political orientation was nuanced, as only republicans in the provocation condition followed the anticipated pattern in rendering more lenient verdicts. Results provide additional support for the notion gay panic defenses may be, in part, fueled by political beliefs and prejudicial beliefs against persons of sexual minority status. Drawing from a justification-suppression model, it may be that in cases of gay panic, a context is created in which prejudiced ideologies can be openly expressed via leniency on the defendant. Implications may be relevant to future criminal law policies and practices, particularly advocacy and policy efforts, judicial training, and trial consultation to attorneys for juror selection and development of trial strategy.
Skorska, Malvina N; Blanchard, Ray; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J; Bogaert, Anthony F
Recent findings suggest that there may be a maternal immune response underpinning the etiology of sexual orientation of gay male only-children. This maternal immune response appears to be distinct from that which is purported to explain the classic fraternal birth order effect found in studies of male sexual orientation. We tested two predictions related to the hypothesized maternal immune response in mothers of gay male only-children: (1) elevated fetal loss among mothers who have had gay male only-children and (2) lower birth weight in gay male only-children. Mothers of at least one gay son (n = 54) and mothers of heterosexual son(s) (n = 72) self-reported their pregnancy histories, including the birth weights of newborns and number of fetal losses (e.g., miscarriages). Mothers of gay male only-children (n = 8) reported significantly greater fetal loss compared with mothers of males with four other sibship compositions (gay with no older brothers, gay with older brothers, heterosexual only-children, heterosexual with siblings) (n = 118). Also, firstborn gay male only-children (n = 4) had a significantly lower birth weight than firstborn children in the four other sibship compositions (n = 59). Duration of pregnancy was not significantly different among the groups of firstborn children in the birth weight analyses. Thus, this study found further support for a distinct pattern of maternal immune response implicated in the etiology of male sexual orientation. Mechanisms that may underlie this potential second type of maternal immune response are discussed.
Lanzieri, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tom
This article reviews relevant research on male homosexual attraction. Utilizing masculinity as its theoretical frame, the authors use childhood experiences with both fathers and peers, the gay community's inculcation of heteronormative ideologies, and the gay media's adherence to masculine prototypes, to provide causal explanations for the appeal of muscular, lean, and athletic physiques. While the authors acknowledge that not all individuals within the gay community look toward muscularity and athleticism as the primary components of attractiveness, it nonetheless remains important to examine the theoretical perspectives that may explain the appeal of this specific aesthetic.
McKie, Raymond M; Milhausen, Robin R; Lachowsky, Nathan J
Technology is playing an increasingly pervasive role among young gay men in the process of meeting potential romantic or sexual partners. We investigated challenges posed by technology related to young gay men's relationships. Focus groups (n = 9) of young gay men aged 18-24 (n = 43) were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was used to identify two major themes regarding challenges to relationship development and maintenance. Subthemes include unrealistic expectations of relationships, inauthentic self-presentation online, sexual primacy over romance, increased opportunities for infidelity, and jealousy. The implications of this study for sexual education and sexual health promotion are discussed.
One of the most persistent popular notions of gay men and lesbians is that they either live in or move to larger cities. In this thesis, the geography and migration paths of gay men and lesbians are studied using the life course perspective to challenge this idea. It is argued that gay men and lesbians are affected by the time and place into which they are born. Like heterosexuals, they are subject to the normative conceptions of life paths that are present at a specific historical period and...
Felix, Rafael de Almeida Arruda [UNESP
Partindo da observação de que o uso do superlativo no português do Brasil, principalmente em formas com o sufixo -érrimo e -ésimo, poderia estar associado à fala de homens gays, esta pesquisa de mestrado propõe analisar a fala de homens gays através de entrevistas sociolinguísticas, a fim de verificar se o uso de superlativo poderia configurar uma característica real e/ou indiciária de um falar gay. Com vistas a alcançar esse objetivo, analisamos dados coletados de amostras de fala de 24 info...
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.
The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men’s motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in pa...
Pors, Anja Svejgaard
Paul du Gay er sociolog og globaliseringsprofessor ved Institut for Organisation på Copenhagen Business School. I hans forskning interesserer han sig blandt andet for bureaukratiet som styreform. Gennem årtier har bureaukratiet været genstand for omfattende kritik for dets langsommelighed......, inhumanitet og manglende fleksibilitet. Paul du Gay har taget til genmæle og forsvarer bureaukratiet som en styreform, der understøtter demokrati. I arbejdet med administration som praksis og faglighed har vi interviewet Paul du Gay om nogle af de centrale pointer i denne forskning. Samtalen kredser om...
Kirby, Brenda J; Michaelson, Christina
The purpose of this study was to compare morality judgments of American Catholics and the general public about lesbians and gay men adopting and teaching children. The general sample endorsed higher agreement that lesbians and gay men should be allowed to adopt and to teach children compared to the Catholic only sample. Older participants were less accepting than all other age groups, and there was an interaction effect between education and political ideology such that those with less education and with more politically conservative beliefs were generally less accepting of lesbians and gay men adopting and teaching children.
Full Text Available Neste estudo, procuro explorar determinada perspectiva crítica relacionada à articulação entre raça, sexualidade e gênero, entendendo que a pornografia gay se prestaria exemplarmente a flagrar a produção de um sistema ordenado de classificações e categorias, estereótipos e representações, instituídos como um discurso capaz de ser lido como o inventário da fetichização socialmente produzida para o desejo sexual racializado. Para desenvolver essa perspectiva apresento uma breve discussão teórica sobre a pornografia, interrogada pela articulação prazer/poder e a leitura de três conjuntos êmicos de representação racial associados ao desejo homossexual: a negritude, a branquidade e a brasilidade.In this study the author seeks to explore a specific critical perspective related to the race, sexuality and gender articulation, understanding that gay pornography will be exemplary to show the production of a coordinated system of classifications and categories, stereotypes and representations built as a discourse that may be read as a socially produced inventory of fetichization for racialized sexual desire. In order to develop this view the author presents a short theoretical discussion on pornography, interrogated by the power/pleasure articulation and the reading of three hemic corpora of racial representation related to homosexual desire: blackness, whiteness and brazilianness.
Mattingly, Doreen J; Boyd, Ashley
In March 1977, President Carter's Assistant Margaret "Midge" Costanza made history by meeting with representatives from the National Gay Task Force (NGTF) to hear their grievances about discriminatory federal policies. The effects of the meeting were many, including changes in policies of the Bureau of Prisons and the Public Health Service. It also initiated policy discussions that would continue for decades and contributed to the incorporation of gay rights within the Democratic Party. Midge Costanza was fundamental to the process. It was her decision to hold the meeting and to advocate on behalf of the NGTF, and she bore many of the meeting's political costs. In this article we make use of Costanza's own papers and multiple interviews with her to closely analyze Costanza's role in the historic meeting. In addition to adding detail to its politics and policy impacts of the meeting, we also look at her complex motivations for holding such a controversial meeting. Costanza maintained until her death in 2010 that she was motivated by her feminism and overall commitment to social justice, rather than her own identity or experiences.
Okutan, Nur; Buyuksahin Sunal, Ayda; Sakalli Ugurlu, Nuray
The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effects of sexual orientation (heterosexuals and gay men/lesbians) and gender difference on responses to romantic relationship problems (Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect [EVLN] responses) and of perceived partner's EVLN responses in Turkey, and (2) to examine whether internalized homophobia was associated with EVLN responses and perceived partner's EVLN responses for gay men and lesbians. Responses to Dissatisfaction Scale-Accommodation Instrument, Internalized Homophobia, and Demographics Information were administered to 187 participants (44 lesbians, 44 gay men, 53 heterosexual women, 46 heterosexual men).The MANCOVA results showed that men reported higher loyalty than women, whereas women presented more exit responses than men. Further, the interactions between gender and sexual orientation on the participants' EVLN responses and on the perceived partner's EVLN responses were significant. With respect to heterosexual women, heterosexual men displayed more loyalty responses. Lesbians had higher scores on loyalty than did heterosexual women. Lesbians also had higher scores on perceived partner's exit response than did heterosexual women and gay men. On the contrary, heterosexual women reported more perceived partner's voice response than lesbians. In addition, lesbians reported higher perceived partner's neglect responses than heterosexual women. Compared to heterosexual women, heterosexual men reported higher perceived partner's exit response. Finally, internalized homophobia was associated with destructive responses for both lesbians and gay men.
Anderson, Eric; McCormack, Mark
This article examines the influence of the racial categories of White and Black and the sexual categories of gay and straight on sporting American men. The effect of the intersection of these cultural categories is discussed by investigating the exclusion of athletes who are both Black and gay, as well as highlighting the culturally perceived differences of (straight) Black and (White) gay men. However, the analysis accounts for more than just difference, examining the commonalities of oppression between these discrete identity groups. We use the research on Black athletes to call for further empirical study on gay athletes. It is argued that critical race theory and intersectionality offer complex and nuanced understandings of these oppressions, which, when theorizing is left solely to the realm of poststructuralism, can otherwise be missed.
Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... The reality of gay life and activities is not in doubt. ... God and practiced by human race and invariably in traditional African and Christian marriages. Continuity with their lineage seems compromised.
Han, Chong-Suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay P; Choi, Kyung-Hee
Rather than a defined endpoint that is waiting to be discovered or developed, racial and sexual identities can be considered social identities which are fluid, malleable, and socially created through a social process that defines what it means to be a member of a social group. This paper expands the work on how social identities are constructed by examining personal anecdotes used by gay men of color to discuss how they come to see themselves as "gay men of color." In doing so, we find that gay men of color use a number of cultural tropes that provide them the framework necessary to structure their experiences within a larger social context of a largely white, heterosexual society. Drawing on these cultural tropes, gay men of color create a social identity that is simultaneously raced and sexed through the use of shared cultural tropes that define what it means to be a member of this group.
Rodriguez, Eric M; Etengoff, Chana; Vaughan, Michelle D
Much of the religious/spiritual development of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals (GLBs) has focused on experiences of conflict and distress, providing little insight into how these identities can be integrated. The present study explored the religious and spiritual lives of GLBs with a specific focus on the integration of these identities. We conducted a retrospective secondary data analysis of 750 GLB individuals from the Northern California Health Study to quantitatively assess sexual orientation and religion/spirituality integration using hierarchical cluster analysis. Resulting MANCOVA analyses of the five revealed groupings (integrated, gay identity struggle, anti-religious/spiritual, secular, and low gay salience) present numerous statistically significant differences between these integration clusters and a variety of dependent variables including measures of demographics, religiosity/spirituality, gay identity, and multiple mental health outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings while also making suggestions for future research.
Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L
Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.
Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Issues and Research Gaps and Opportunities; Board on the Health of Select Populations; Institute of Medicine
At a time when lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals--often referred to under the umbrella acronym LGBT--are becoming more visible in society and more socially acknowledged, clinicians...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND – Literature has studied the relation between youth alcohol consumption and sexual orientation, showing that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB young people are at increased risk to develop alcohol-related problems compared to heterosexuals.
Anderson, Mary Z.; Croteau, James M.; DiStefano, Teresa M.; Chung, Y. Barry
Psychometric properties of the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure were tested with 172 professionals. Results suggest it successfully assesses a continuum of lesbian and gay identity management strategies (passing, covering, implicitly out, explicitly out). (Contains 27 references.) (SK)
Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; Træen, Bente; Iantaffi, Alex
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between perception of own appearance, Internet pornography consumption, preferences for pornographic actors' appearance, and sexual self-esteem in gay and bisexual men in Norway. An online survey of 477 gay and bisexual men showed that, despite the prevailing muscular and lean gay body ideal, many men with less ideal bodies also preferred to watch pornographic actors with body types similar to their own. Self-perceived attractiveness, having an ideal body type, and viewing Internet pornography in longer sessions each made a unique contribution to higher self-esteem as a sexual partner. Preferring to watch pornographic actors with ideal bodies was not related to sexual self-esteem. The findings underscore the importance for gay or bisexual men of both self-perceived attractiveness and being athletic or young and fit, for a positive self-evaluation of sexual performance and competence.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the significance of the prison scenario and its various permutations in the texts of American commercial pornographic video. The paper will identify the prison as a highly eroticised all male environment, an arena where the active/passive dichotomy of gay pornography is staged and re-staged. The significances of the prison are multiple. The prison draws on a gay mythology of homosexual desire that has its origins in sources as diverse as the literature of the Marquis de Sade and Jean Genet and the erotic illustrations of Tom of Finland and Etienne. Prison scenarios take many shapes in gay pornography such as the American penitentiary, the military brig, and the fantasised dungeon of the leatherman. I see these scenarios as performing an important function within gay porn by offering idealised spaces for the acts of pornography: voyeurism, narcissistic display and active/ passive role-play.
Full Text Available The paper considers the link between gay people and the fashion world, their role and and relationship to clothing in different fashion registries, as pointed out by Jennifer Craik, in high and in everyday fashion. Based on secondary literature the paper will outline current problematizations of the relationship between gays and high fashion, as well as their importance for the history of high, elite, designer fashion. In the second part of the paper, based on empirical research on the behavior of gay people in Belgrade fashion-wise, the discourses and practices of everyday fashion within the gay population of the capital of Serbia are presented, with a focus on three aspects of dressing practices: consumption of fashionable clothing and accessories with a focus on shopping, evaluation and hierarchization of branded clothing and the skill of combining them which respondents believe represents the key to their unique styles.
Lanzieri, Nicholas; Cook, Brian J
Previous content analyses of magazine images have typically examined within genres but failed to include comparisons between publications intended for various populations. The purpose of this study was to examine depictions of muscularity and thinness of male images in several widely distributed magazines that target male audiences from a variety of genres. Twenty-three magazine titles with the highest circulation rates that targeted heterosexual men, gay men, and general audiences were selected for image analyses. We found that magazines that target gay male audiences depicted images of men who were thinner in comparison to magazines targeting heterosexual men. Both gay and heterosexual magazines depicted male images with greater muscularity than magazines intended for general audiences. Differences in male image depictions in magazines may contribute to the promotion of an unattainable body ideal in some subgroups of gay culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo
Two hundred and twenty-six heterosexual participants (115 women and 111 men) were asked to indicate their attitude toward gender-roles, their perceived similarities with gay men, and their attitude toward gay men (i.e., sexual prejudice). As expected, male participants showed more sexual prejudice than female participants, and perceived dissimilarities were related to a greater sexual prejudice. Support for gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants, but not for female participants. More interestingly, the three-way interaction suggested that perceived similarities moderated the link between gender-roles and sexual prejudice among heterosexual men, but not among heterosexual women. Attitude in favor of traditional gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants who perceived gay men as different, but not for those who perceived gay men as similar. These findings are discussed in terms of the defensive function of men's attitude toward homosexuality as a result of threat to masculinity.
Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel
This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.
Protect Yourself Against Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B... a guide for gay and bisexual men Men who have sex with men are at increased What are the symptoms of hepatitis A and hepatitis B? risk of becoming infected with ...
Innala, S M; Ernulf, K E
Photographs of physically attractive men and women were presented as depicting homosexuals and heterosexuals to subjects on the University of California at Berkeley campus who were generally judged to be nonhomophobic opposite-sexed students. Analysis showed that the 62 women rated 3 men as significantly more physically attractive when they believed the men were homosexual than when they believed the men were heterosexual. The 65 men did not rate photographs of 3 women as more physically attractive when they believed the women were lesbian compared to when they believed the women were heterosexual. The results illustrate an effect of the "gay-pretty-boy stereotype," namely, that women judged to be nonhomophobic perceived homosexual men as more physically attractive than comparable heterosexual men.
Full Text Available This article is based on a research project studying political discussions in the Swedish LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bi-, Transsexual community Qruiser. These discussions were very antagonistic and rude. The aim is therefore to understand what motivated participation in these heated discussions. The focus is on Qruiser political forum threads. The research is nethnographic through online interviews, participant observations in, and content analyses of, political discussions threads during the month of November 2012. By using framing theory as an analytical tool, the paper seeks to answer which frames attracted and mobilized participation and how this was done. In the article I find that polarizing frames of the left vs the right, the xenophobic vs the political correct, together with a truth and a game frame was used to motivated participation in the Qruiser forum threads.
Cense, Marianne; Ganzevoort, R Ruard
Young people who discover their sexual attraction to people of the same sex often go through a period of ambivalence or distress, especially when they grow up in an environment that condemns homosexuality. The Dutch sociopolitical context makes the expression of same-sex desires among those with non-Dutch roots even more complicated and risky, as prevailing schemes of interpretation render the two identities incompatible. This study explores the expressions of same-sex desires and identities as well as the different forms of agency of bicultural gay youth. In-depth interviews with 14 young adults reveal how young people negotiate bicultural identities in Dutch society that brings to the fore complexities in managing diverse sexual identities and strong religious and cultural affiliations in tandem. Their strategies have the effect of questioning dominant discourses and transcend the oppositional dichotomy between sexual and ethnic forms of sociocultural otherness.
Russell, Stephen T.; Fish, Jessica N.
Today’s lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified. PMID:26772206
The Gay-Berne (GB) potential model is an interesting and useful model to study the real systems. Using the potential model, we intend to examine the thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases, liquid and gas. For this purpose, we apply the integral equation method and solve numerically the Percus-Yevick (PY) integral equation. Then, we obtain the expansion coefficients of correlation functions to calculate the thermodynamical properties. Finally, we compare our results with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + ethanol, benzene + ethanol, carbon tetrachloride + ethyl acetate, and methanol + ethanol]. The results show that the GB potential model is capable for predicting the thermodynamical properties of binary mixtures with acceptable accuracy.
Erosheva, Elena A.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.
Purpose This study examines global social networks—including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks—of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Design and Methods Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Results Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. Implications According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. PMID:25882129
Erosheva, Elena A; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I
This study examines global social networks-including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks-of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.
Russell, Stephen T; Fish, Jessica N
Today's lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified.
Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L
Perceivers achieve above chance accuracy judging others' sexual orientations, but they also exhibit a notable response bias by categorizing most targets as straight rather than gay. Although a straight categorization bias is evident in many published reports, it has never been the focus of systematic inquiry. The current studies therefore document this bias and test the mechanisms that produce it. Studies 1-3 revealed the straight categorization bias cannot be explained entirely by perceivers' attempts to match categorizations to the number of gay targets in a stimulus set. Although perceivers were somewhat sensitive to base rate information, their tendency to categorize targets as straight persisted when they believed each target had a 50% chance of being gay (Study 1), received explicit information about the base rate of gay targets in a stimulus set (Study 2), and encountered stimulus sets with varying base rates of gay targets (Study 3). The remaining studies tested an alternate mechanism for the bias based upon perceivers' use of gender heuristics when judging sexual orientation. Specifically, Study 4 revealed the range of gendered cues compelling gay judgments is smaller than the range of gendered cues compelling straight judgments despite participants' acknowledgment of equal base rates for gay and straight targets. Study 5 highlighted perceptual experience as a cause of this imbalance: Exposing perceivers to hyper-gendered faces (e.g., masculine men) expanded the range of gendered cues compelling gay categorizations. Study 6 linked this observation to our initial studies by demonstrating that visual exposure to hyper-gendered faces reduced the magnitude of the straight categorization bias. Collectively, these studies provide systematic evidence of a response bias in sexual orientation categorization and offer new insights into the mechanisms that produce it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplac...
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families com...
Buser, Thomas; Geijtenbeek, Lydia; Plug, Erik
It is an established fact that gay men earn less than other men and lesbian women earn more than other women. In this paper we study whether differences in competitive preferences, which have emerged as a likely determinant of labour market differences between men and women, can provide a plausible explanation. We conduct an experiment on a Dutch online survey panel to measure the competitiveness of gay, lesbian and straight panel members. For differences in competitiveness to partially expla...
In his article "The Gay Artist as Tragic Hero in The Picture of Dorian Gray" Henry M. Alley discusses the central artistic figure in Oscar Wilde's novel, Basil Hallward. As the novel's tragic protagonist, he commands the most pity and fear and serves as the most dynamic member of the dramatis personae. Alley contextualizes his discussion within Aristotle's Poetics, contemporary criticism, as well as Wilde's own comments. In addition, Alley looks at Hallward's attempt to hide or censor his gay...
The cultural expectation of an arranged heterosexual marriage poses social and psychological challenges for British Asian gay men. This article examines the diary accounts of twelve British Asian gay men concerning their perceptions and feelings concerning marriage in face of familial pressure to get married and the implications for identity processes and psychological wellbeing. Data were analyzed qualitatively using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Identity Process Theory. The f...
Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Bauermeister, Jose A
In this review, we document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013. Over that time, gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: sexual health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Gay and bisexual men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet—from logging into the World Wide Web via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social and sexual networking via a handheld device. In kind, researchers too have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men, though not at the same rapid pace at which technology (and its users) have advanced. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions with gay and bisexual men. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The urgent need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. Moving forward, a more holistic understanding of gay and bisexual men's sexual behavior might be warranted to address continued HIV and STI disparities. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide rapidly evolving outreach to gay and bisexual men. PMID:24754360
This book is about community activism around HIV/AIDS in Australia. It looks at the role that the gay community played in the social, medical and political response to the virus. Drawing conclusions about the cultural impact of social movements, the author argues that AIDS activism contributed to improving social attitudes towards gay men and lesbians in Australia, while also challenging some entrenched cultural patterns of the Australian medical system, allowing greater scope for non-medical...
Waugh, I M; Rienzi, B M
Photographic images (N = 2,700) from three 1997 Pacific-Bell Yellow Pages (n = 1,976) and from three 1996-97 gay, lesbian, and bisexual community telephone books (n = 724) were classified into three groups by visible features (definite male, definite female, and gender nonspecific). The latter were excluded. The proportion of male photographic images was larger in gay community books than in Pacific-Bell telephone books.
LaCour, Michael J; Green, Donald P
Can a single conversation change minds on divisive social issues, such as same-sex marriage? A randomized placebo-controlled trial assessed whether gay (n = 22) or straight (n = 19) messengers were effective at encouraging voters (n = 972) to support same-sex marriage and whether attitude change persisted and spread to others in voters' social networks. The results, measured by an unrelated panel survey, show that both gay and straight canvassers produced large effects initially, but only gay canvassers' effects persisted in 3-week, 6-week, and 9-month follow-ups. We also find strong evidence of within-household transmission of opinion change, but only in the wake of conversations with gay canvassers. Contact with gay canvassers further caused substantial change in the ratings of gay men and lesbians more generally. These large, persistent, and contagious effects were confirmed by a follow-up experiment. Contact with minorities coupled with discussion of issues pertinent to them is capable of producing a cascade of opinion change. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Full Text Available The article explores how the mobile app Tinder complements dating practices and the wider app ecosystem gay men use in London. Within the local gay community discourse, Tinder is said to be a site where the gay “nice guys” go, rendering the platform as a socially constructed environment where gay men behave in a diametrically opposed way to the normative hyper-sexualized behavior of widespread gay hook-up apps. The research question, therefore, is whether Tinder is in fact a place where these “nice guys” go and where one would find them. Through an ethnographic methodology conducted both online and offline, a case is built on how initial conceptions about the app cannot be fully studied or interpreted without understanding the place it holds among other social networks. Evidence is presented to support the case that gay users of Tinder do, in fact, curate the portrayal of their digital identity to present a considerably less sexualized persona with the hopes of finding dates or a relationship. This, however, does not mean that users refrain from using other platforms in parallel as a way of exploring different subject positions and motivations. Behavior and normativity on Tinder are largely explained both by context and also by the design of the platform, which imports and displays personal data from other social networks. Findings should be limited to the population and location proposed as the fieldsite.
Pachankis, John E.
Developing and deploying separate treatments for separate conditions seems ill-suited to intervening upon the co-occurring, and possibly functionally similar, psychosocial conditions facing gay and bisexual men. This article argues for the need to create transdiagnostic interventions that reduce multiple syndemic conditions facing gay and bisexual men at the level of their shared source in minority stress pathways. This article first reviews psychosocial syndemic conditions affecting gay and bisexual men, then suggests pathways that might link minority stress to psychosocial syndemics based on recent advancements in emotion science, psychiatric nosology, and cognitive-affective neuroscience, and finally suggests cross-cutting psychosocial treatment principles to reduce minority stress–syndemic pathways among gay and bisexual men. Because minority stress serves as a common basis of all psychosocial syndemic conditions reviewed here, locating the pathways through which minority stress generates psychosocial syndemics and employing overarching treatment principles capable of simultaneously alleviating these pathways will ultimately create a transdiagnostic approach to improving gay and bisexual men’s health. Clinical research and training approaches are suggested to further validate the pathways suggested here, establish the efficacy of treatment approaches tied to those pathways, and generate effective methods for disseminating a transdiagnostic minority stress treatment approach for gay and bisexual men’s psychosocial syndemic health. PMID:26123065
Horton, Paul; Rydstrøm, Helle; Tonini, Maria
Recent public debates about sexuality in India and Vietnam have brought the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people sharply into focus. Drawing on legal documents, secondary sources and ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the urban centres of Delhi and Hanoi, this article shows how the efforts of civil society organisations dedicated to the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights have had different consequences in these two Asian contexts. The paper considers how these organisations navigated government regulations about their formation and activities, as well as the funding priorities of national and international agencies. The HIV epidemic has had devastating consequences for gay men and other men who have sex with men, and has been highly stigmatising. As a sad irony, the epidemic has provided at the same time a strategic entry point for organisations to struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition. This paper examines how the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition has been doubly framed through health-based and rights-based approaches and how the struggle for recognition has positioned lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in India and Vietnam differently.
Kelley, Thomas M; Robertson, Richard A
This article presents two studies that are the first to examine relational aggression and relational victimization in gay male peer relationships. A qualitative pilot study provides a strong rationale for a subsequent empirical investigation of 100 young adult, self-identified gay males. Results of both studies demonstrate that relational aggression and relational victimization are common experiences in gay male relationships. They also reveal forms of relational aggression and victimization that appear to be unique to gay males (e.g., outing). Results of the empirical study found significant relations between engaging in relational aggression against gay males and experiencing relational victimization and between experiencing relational victimization and internalized homophobia. However, there was no significant correlation between internalized homophobia and engaging in relational aggression. A multiple regression analysis found that experiencing relational victimization was correlated more strongly with the combination of engaging in relational aggression and internalized homophobia together than with relational aggression alone. Results are discussed within the framework of Allport's "traits due to victimization" theory and Meyer's theory of "minority stress." Implications for the prevention of relational aggression/victimization in gay male relationships are offered. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Russell, Eric M; DelPriore, Danielle J; Butterfield, Max E; Hill, Sarah E
Although research has made progress in elucidating the benefits exchanged within same- and opposite-sex friendships formed between heterosexual men and women, it is less clear why straight women and gay men form close relationships with one another. The current experiments begin to address this question by exploring a potential benefit hypothesized to be uniquely available to straight women and gay men in the context of these friendships: trustworthy mating advice. Experiment 1 revealed that straight women perceive mating-relevant advice from a gay man to be more trustworthy than similar advice offered by a straight man or woman. Experiment 2 demonstrated that gay men perceive mating advice offered by a straight woman to be more trustworthy than advice offered by a lesbian woman or another gay man. Overall, the results provide initial experimental evidence that relationships between gay men and straight women may be characterized by a mutual exchange of mating-relevant benefits in the absence of sexual interest or competition.
Eric M. Russell
Full Text Available Although research has made progress in elucidating the benefits exchanged within same- and opposite-sex friendships formed between heterosexual men and women, it is less clear why straight women and gay men form close relationships with one another. The current experiments begin to address this question by exploring a potential benefit hypothesized to be uniquely available to straight women and gay men in the context of these friendships: trustworthy mating advice. Experiment 1 revealed that straight women perceive mating-relevant advice from a gay man to be more trustworthy than similar advice offered by a straight man or woman. Experiment 2 demonstrated that gay men perceive mating advice offered by a straight woman to be more trustworthy than advice offered by a lesbian woman or another gay man. Overall, the results provide initial experimental evidence that relationships between gay men and straight women may be characterized by a mutual exchange of mating-relevant benefits in the absence of sexual interest or competition.
Gilley, Brian Joseph; Co-Cké, John Hawk
Many gay American Indian (GAI) men feel alienated from their tribal, ceremonial and social communities because of homophobia and heterosexism. As a result, they often turn to their local gay community for social participation and sex opportunities. It is no secret that a significant aspect of some gay communities is socializing in local bars and clubs. The gay bar scene makes healthy living difficult for Native American gay men. This is especially the case for those who are in alcohol or drug recovery. In response, gay Native men's support groups are attempting to make available a cultural alternative to the double bind of alienation from one's Native community and exposure to substance abuse by providing alcohol and substance free opportunities for ceremonial and social involvement. The hope is that the men will go to bars less frequently and instead turn to Native cultural activities in men's groups for social, spiritual and emotional support. The logic of this approach assumes that individuals who are culturally invested in a community will gain a level of self and social acceptance, making them less likely to abuse substances and put themselves at risk for HIV infection. The information presented in this article comes from over six years of ethnographic research among GAI men concerning self and social acceptance, HIV/AIDS and American Indian GLBT identity.
Although reported cases of HIV/AIDS among gay Asian Pacific Islander (API) American men and API men who have sex with men (MSM) are still relatively low, current research findings indicate that incidences of unsafe sexual activity may be higher for this group than for any other group. Among the explanations offered to explain the levels of increasing unsafe sex among gay API men have been sexual norms found in Asian cultures, the lack of culturally relevant and/or linguistically appropriate intervention material, lack of integration into the mainstream gay community, and internalized homophobia. What are often ignored in these analyses are the contextual norms in which sexual behavior for gay API men occur. In this article, I develop the argument that racism within the gay community leads to socially and contextually prescribed sexual roles for gay API men that may also contribute to the practice of unsafe sex among this group.
Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A.; Pingel, Emily S.; Harper, Gary; Bauermeister, José A.
Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men and their fathers. Using a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in young gay and bisexual men’s coming out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers’ responses compared with sons’ expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers’ responses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men ...
Frank A Sattler
Full Text Available According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1 it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2 group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively.Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity, group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism, and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support. A moderated multiple regression was conducted.Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems.The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.
Sattler, Frank A; Wagner, Ulrich; Christiansen, Hanna
According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1) it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2) group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively. Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity), group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism), and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support). A moderated multiple regression was conducted. Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems. The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.
St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A
Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practi...
Farr, Rachel H.; Goldberg, Abbie E.
Despite growing visibility of lesbian- and gay-parent adoption, only one qualitative study has examined birth family contact among adoptive families with lesbian and gay parents (Goldberg, Kinkler, Richardson, & Downing, 2011). We studied adoptive parents’ (34 lesbian, 32 gay, and 37 heterosexual; N = 103 families) perspectives of birth family contact across the first year post-placement. Using questionnaire and interview data, we found few differences in openness dynamics by parental sexual ...
Rosqvist, Hanna Bertilsdotter
There has long been ambivalence in the LGBT movement and related research as to the meaning of gay identity in relation to marriage. The article explores changing homonormative discourses of marriage and married men within the Swedish gay press from the mid 1950s to the mid 1980s. Expressions of the changes are a shift in language and in views of extramarital relationships, openness, and gay male identity. As a result of the shift, “married men,” including both “married homosexuals” and “bisexuals,” came to be distinguished from “gays.”
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles. PMID:28234947
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
Full Text Available Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333 completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role. In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
Unlu, Hayriye; Beduk, Tülin; Duyan, Veli
This study was conducted to determine the attitudes of undergraduate nursing students towards lesbian women and gay men. Nursing education in Turkey is conducted holistically; in other words, it is an integration of the physical, spiritual, mental and social realms. Students are therefore expected to not express any discrimination due to factors such as religion, language, race and gender. However, some serious problems still exist in terms of the practical applications of that philosophy. This study was descriptive. This study included 964 students. The Attitudes towards Lesbian Women and Gay Men scale and a questionnaire were used to learn about the attitudes of undergraduate nursing students regarding gay men and lesbian women. Results of this study have indicated that the attitudes of religiously educated and/or conservative students towards lesbian women and gay men were negative. Female students from families with high incomes and highly educated families attended social activities and read more than other female students. The students with free life choice options expressed very positive attitudes towards gay men. The nursing education curriculum should cover information about patients with diverse sexual orientations and their absolute rights for equally optimal healthcare. Strategies to discourage traditional gender role stereotypes and educational and media experiences for better acceptance of sexual minorities need to be developed by educational policy makers. Antidiscrimination policies protecting lesbian women and gay men should be developed by the legislative authorities and then taught to students during their nursing education. Getting familiar with diverse sexual orientations might create awareness among nursing students and reduce their attitudinal and behavioural prejudices and biases. To provide equal healthcare services for all patients, nurses must have accurate information about lesbian women, gay men and modify their attitude and behaviour
Oginni, Olakunle A; Mosaku, Kolawole S; Mapayi, Boladale M; Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Afolabi, Temitope O
Homosexuality is a recognized risk factor for depression in high-income countries; however, there is little research investigating the relationship between depression and sexual orientation in developing countries, especially in Africa. In this first study to investigate psychopathology in sexual minority men in Nigeria, the prevalence rates of depression in Nigerian gay and heterosexual individuals were compared as well as the explanatory power of risk and resilience factors in both groups. Eighty-one gay and 81 heterosexual male university students were, respectively, recruited from the Obafemi Awolowo University. Both groups were assessed for depression and other clinical factors, including alcohol and other substance use, suicidal ideation, and resilience. Gay students were further assessed for sexuality-related variables, including minority stress factors such as internalized homophobia and perceived stigma. The prevalence rates of depression among gay and heterosexual students were, respectively, 16 and 4.9% (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.15-11.82), and this increased likelihood for depression was significantly attenuated by resilience. Clinical factors correlated significantly with depression in both groups, explaining 31% of the variance in depression in gay and heterosexual students, respectively. Sexuality-related variables including internalized homophobia and perceived stigma were further associated with depression in gay students-accounting for a further 14% of the variance of depression in gay students. The findings highlight the importance of minority stress factors in understanding depression among non-heterosexual individuals in a developing country, and the need for further research to investigate the mechanisms of these relationships in such settings.
Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan
Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children. To evaluate that concern, William Meezan and Jonathan Rauch review the growing body of research on how same-sex parenting affects children. After considering the methodological problems inherent in studying small, hard-to-locate populations--problems that have bedeviled this literature-the authors find that the children who have been studied are doing about as well as children normally do. What the research does not yet show is whether the children studied are typical of the general population of children raised by gay and lesbian couples. A second important question is how same-sex marriage might affect children who are already being raised by same-sex couples. Meezan and Rauch observe that marriage confers on children three types of benefits that seem likely to carry over to children in same-sex families. First, marriage may increase children's material well-being through such benefits as family leave from work and spousal health insurance eligibility. It may also help ensure financial continuity, should a spouse die or be disabled. Second, same-sex marriage may benefit children by increasing the durability and stability of their parents' relationship. Finally, marriage may bring increased social acceptance of and support for same-sex families, although those benefits might not materialize in communities that meet same-sex marriage with rejection or hostility. The authors note that the best way to ascertain the costs and benefits of the effects of same-sex marriage on children is to compare it with the alternatives. Massachusetts is marrying same-sex couples, Vermont and Connecticut are offering civil unions, and several
Yu, Yong; Xiao, Shuiyuan
To understand Chinese gay men's health and life satisfaction in Guanzhou, and to analyze the main factors for life satisfaction. Methods: Male gay participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling and face-to-face investigations with self-administered questionnaires, including a general demographic questionnaire, a suicide questionnaire, the Depression-Anxiety Stress Scale, the Self-Stigma Scale, the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results: Surveys were successfully conducted for 420 gay men. High levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were observed among the respondents. A total of 29.3% had suicidal tendency in the past year, 36.5% experienced dating violence, 39.2% had homosexual sex without protection in the past 6 months, and 14.0% were infected with at least one type of infection of sexually transmitted diseases. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that gay men who felt highly satisfied with life exhibited low levels of self-stigma, high self-esteem, and low levels of depression. Moreover, they did not suffer dating violence and playing passive sex roles. Conclusion: The survey confirmed that gay men in Guangzhou, China, have poor health and lower life satisfaction levels. Self-stigma, self-esteem, sex roles, depression, and dating violence are the main factors that influence the life satisfaction of them.
Freeland, Ryan; Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob
The prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in same-sex male relationships has been reported to be at least as prevalent as is observed in female-male relationships. Though research has focused on understanding the prevalence and antecedents of IPV in male-male relationships, there is a paucity of data describing perceptions of coping strategies adopted by gay and bisexual men who may experience IPV. Ten focus group discussions were conducted with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, Georgia, between September 2013 and November 2013. Focus groups examined perceptions of how gay and bisexual men would respond to IPV and the IPV-coping services they would utilize. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes that describe how gay and bisexual men perceive existing IPV services and how they would use these services, if gay and bisexual men were to experience IPV. The results indicate that men experiencing IPV in male-male relationships do not have adequate access to IPV services that are tailored to their unique needs. As a result, there is a strong reliance on informal sources of support. Services are urgently needed to meet the unique needs of men experiencing IPV in same-sex relationships.
Full Text Available Depuis l’époque où l’homosexualité était synonyme de perversion, voire de délit, jusqu’aux actuelles gay prides, la communauté gay, lesbienne, bisexuelle et transgenre n’a cessé de développer un langage distinctif, le gayspeak. Transgressant les normes sociales, ce parler, davantage glossaire qu’idiome, permet aujourd’hui à la communauté LGBT de reconstruire sa propre réalité tout en ouvrant vers de nouvelles perceptions identitaires. Militant tout autant que ludique, ce langage se veut également le défenseur d’un certain style de vie, cherchant à exprimer, de manière la plus visible, politiquement correcte et efficace qui soit, la richesse des comportements et des cultures du monde gay.This paper examines the extraordinary complexity of sexual orientations and subcultures as expressed by “gay speech,” an idiom the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community has developed for itself. Since the times when homosexuality was a perversion to today’s vibrant Prides, gayspeak has been used to express the needs of a group which, feeling socially repressed, reinvented and subverted language. Whereas some activists are using it as a means to keep politics in the language, notably by reclaiming all discriminatory terminology, others rely upon this rich lexicon to assert the diversity of their specific lifestyles and subcultures.
Huebner, David M.; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Mackaronis, Julia E.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.
Parenthood changes couples' relationships across multiple domains, generally decreasing relationship quality, sexual satisfaction, and sexual frequency. Emerging research suggests that gay couples who are parenting might experience similar challenges. However, such changes might have even more profound implications for gay couples' health, and in particular their HIV risk, given the somewhat different ways in which they negotiate and tolerate sexual behaviors with outside partners. We aimed to examine these issues in a qualitative analysis of interviews from 48 gay male couples who were actively parenting children. Findings suggest that parenthood increases men's commitment to their primary relationship while simultaneously decreasing time and energy for relationship maintenance, and generally decreasing sexual satisfaction. These challenges alone did not generally result in greater infidelity or HIV risk, as most men reported successfully coping with such changes through a combination of acceptance and revaluing what is important in their relationships. Additionally, couples reported negotiating agreements regarding sex with outside partners that closely resemble those documented in studies of gay couples who are not parents. Men reported that parenthood typically decreased their opportunities to engage in sex with outside partners, but also posed barriers to talking about these behaviors with their partners and healthcare providers. HIV-related sexual risk behavior was relatively rare, but nevertheless present in some men. Providers should assess sexual function as a regular part of their work with gay couples who parent, and facilitate opportunities for men to discuss their sexual agreements both with their primary partners and with relevant healthcare providers. PMID:25674355
Through a thick description of a gay squatting community in south London in the 1970s, this piece explores the ways in which local histories complicate broader accounts of gay life, politics, and culture. Such a focus alerts us to the impact of personal encounters, of local politics, and material circumstances, of coincident local communities, of jobs (or the lack of them), and of major local events (like the Brixton riots of 1981). The local focus and the oral history sources also illuminate the complex ways in which unspoken and often unconscious imperatives associated with ethnicity, class, and the familial, social, and cultural contexts of our upbringings are played out under new and changing circumstances. Taking this approach fractures homogenizing assumptions about gay identity and community--even of a self-identified gay community like this squatting collective. It can also decentre sexuality as a primary category of identity and analysis as other factors come into sharper focus and shed light on the ebb and flow of identification and on the ways in which broader histories are woven into everyday lives. The piece thus considers different scales of analysis, the limits of identification, the inclusions and exclusions enacted when communities come together and identities coalesce, the continuities and discontinuities between broader and counter cultures (especially in relation to ideas and lived experiences of home), and the way memories of the squats and of the 1970s are modulated by subsequent national and gay politics, by AIDS, and by a profound sense of loss.
This paper analyses the use of the concept of 'barebacking' as a risk category in the discourses of French gay men. It discusses how the rise and spread of the term barebacking contributes to reframing gay men's personal experiences of HIV prevention and their sense of belonging (or a lack thereof) to a gay community. The study is based on 30 qualitative interviews with French gay men conducted between 2005 and 2008. An import from the USA, the term barebacking emerged publicly in France in the late-1990s and was first used to describe intentionally unprotected sexual practices. Debates surrounding this risk category were marked by violent controversy over its use and its definition among HIV prevention actors. There remains a general lack of consensus on the definition of the term, despite its use by activists, in porn culture and in the daily discourses of gay men. By focusing on the relational roots of risk perception, I consider how uses of the term barebacking invoke a moral framework around risk taking.
Keene, Danya E; Eldahan, Adam I; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pachankis, John E
Recent research has examined how gay and bisexual men experience and navigate the variations in sexual minority stigma that exist across geographic contexts, with implications for their health. We extend this literature on stigma, mobility, and health by considering the unique and understudied setting of the small city. Drawing on semi-structured interviews (n = 29) conducted in two small US cities (New Haven and Hartford), we find that these small cities serve as both destinations and points of departure for gay and bisexual men in the context of stigma. New Haven and Hartford attracted gay and bisexual men from surrounding suburbs where sexual minority stigma was more prevalent and where there were fewer spaces and opportunities for gay life. Conversely, participants noted that these small cities did not contain the same identity affirming communities as urban gay enclaves, thus motivating movement from small cities to larger ones. Our data suggest these forms of mobility may mitigate stigma, but may also produce sexual health risks, thus drawing attention to small cities as uniquely important sites for HIV prevention. Furthermore, our analysis contributes to an understanding of how place, stigma and mobility can intersect to generate spatially distinct experiences of stigmatised identities and related health consequences.
Bariola, Emily; Lyons, Anthony; Leonard, William
Lesbians and gay men are exposed to unique minority stressors. We examined the health implications of one type of distal minority stressor (victimisation) and one type of proximal minority stressor (sexual identity concealment due to anticipated stigma) among lesbians and gay men. Gender-specific health implications were assessed. Data were collected via an online survey involving an Australian sample of 1,470 gay men and 1,264 lesbians. Survey questions assessed demographics, experiences of different forms of sexual identity-related victimisation and sexual identity concealment in a variety of contexts. Health outcomes included self-reported general health, illicit drug use, frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking status, and weight status. Gay men reported higher rates of victimisation and identity concealment than lesbians. Controlling for demographic differences, experiences of victimisation were associated with poorer self-rated health, illicit drug use, and smoking among both gay men and lesbians. In contrast, identity concealment was linked with poorer health outcomes among lesbians only. Our findings offer new insights into the potential antecedents of the health inequalities that have previously been reported for these populations. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.
Rich, Ashleigh; Scott, Kai; Johnston, Caitlin; Blackwell, Everett; Lachowsky, Nathan; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert; Roth, Eric
Gay, bisexual, queer and other men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by HIV in Canada. While up to 63% of transgender men identify as gay, bisexual or queer and report a variety of HIV sexual risk behaviours, transgender men are often overlooked within epidemiological HIV surveillance and research. While a growing body of research has begun to examine sexual risk for transgender gay, bisexual and queer men, most studies have been conducted in the USA. This study explored sexual HIV risk for this population in the Canadian context, specifically in British Columbia, in an environment of publically funded universal access to healthcare, including HIV testing and treatment. We conducted interviews with 11 gay, bisexual and queer transgender men. Participants' narratives suggest that HIV risk for these transgender men is shaped by a diversity of sexual behaviours, including inconsistent condom use, seeking partners online for greater safety and accessing HIV/STI testing and other healthcare services despite facing transition-related barriers. Public health prevention and health education must recognise the presence of transgender men and ensure health services and broader population health promotion meet the unique sexual health needs of this sub-population of gay, bisexual and queer men.
Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S; Newcomb, Michael E; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose A
We document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013-including shifting technology as well as research methods to study gay and bisexual men online. Gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: for health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet-from logging on via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social-sexual networking via handheld devices. In kind, researchers have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide outreach.
Full Text Available This paper examines how stereotypes and media presentations related to gender norms influence public presentations of gay men and lesbian women. Using online profiles from the online dating website Match.com, this paper examines the body types daters use to describe themselves, their ideal date, and if the poster has a photograph of themselves on their profile. These profiles are used as a method of observing public presentations that are in a unique situation to be tailored towards notions of publically displayed social desirability. Findings indicate that gay men present their online bodies as stereotypically masculine and athletic, while lesbian women are willing to display a slightly broader range of body types. In addition, regardless of gender, both gay men and lesbian women present their ideal dates as stereotypically attractive, with gay men having a particular affinity for dating athletic men. Regression analysis suggests that intersectional variables such as race and age influence a person’s willingness to display a profile picture in the public arena. Overall, this study concludes that heteronormative standards of masculinity combined with structural influences from both the media and peer groups likely have an impact on gay men’s ideal gendered body, while the comparative exclusion of lesbian women from these media influences allow other experiences of gender norms slightly more freedom.
Full Text Available The article reports on an investigation of the provision of gay and lesbian literature and of information services to gays and lesbians in Cape Town’s public libraries. Although by definition public libraries serve all members of a community, the international literature suggests that they neglect the reading and information needs and interests of gays and lesbians. The progressive South African Constitution views the rights of gays and lesbians as human rights; yet homophobia is prevalent. Using a questionnaire, the study explored attitudes and practices of 69 senior librarians, responsible for collection development, across all six of Cape Town’s library districts. The situation was found to be “spotty” with only 26 respondents believing that their library service is meeting the needs of gays and lesbians. The survey found contradictions between stated beliefs and behaviours. Thus, although most agree that LGBT rights to information and equal services are human rights, only 55% consider LGBT people in their selection procedures and very little material is acquired. Information services are thin with, for example, only 10% of the libraries in the survey providing LGBT related information in their community information files.
Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray; Paterson, Andrew D; Bogaert, Anthony F
In men, sexual orientation correlates with the number of older brothers, each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexuality by approximately 33%. However, this phenomenon, the fraternal birth order effect, accounts for the sexual orientation of only a proportion of gay men. To estimate the size of this proportion, we derived generalized forms of two epidemiological statistics, the attributable fraction and the population attributable fraction, which quantify the relationship between a condition and prior exposure to an agent that can cause it. In their common forms, these statistics are calculable only for 2 levels of exposure: exposed versus not-exposed. We developed a method applicable to agents with multiple levels of exposure--in this case, number of older brothers. This noniterative method, which requires the odds ratio from a prior logistic regression analysis, was then applied to a large contemporary sample of gay men. The results showed that roughly 1 gay man in 7 owes his sexual orientation to the fraternal birth order effect. They also showed that the effect of fraternal birth order would exceed all other causes of homosexuality in groups of gay men with 3 or more older brothers and would precisely equal all other causes in a theoretical group with 2.5 older brothers. Implications are suggested for the gay sib-pair linkage method of identifying genetic loci for homosexuality.
Higgins, Daryl J
Despite a large body of literature on the development of sexual orientation, little is known about why some gay men have been (or remain) married to a woman. In the current study, a self-selected sample of 43 never married gay men ('never married') and 26 gay men who were married to a woman ('previously married') completed a self-report questionnaire. Hypotheses were based on five possible explanations for gay men's marriages: (a) differences in sexual orientation (i.e., bisexuality); (b) internalized homophobia; (c) religious intolerance; (d) confusion created because of childhood/adolescent sexual experiences; and/or (e) poor psychological adjustment. Previously married described their families' religious beliefs as more fundamentalist than never married. No differences were found between married' and never married' ratings of their sexual orientation and identity, and levels of homophobia and self-depreciation. Family adaptability and family cohesion and the degree to which respondents reported having experienced child maltreatment did not distinguish between previously married and never married. The results highlight how little is understood of the reasons why gay men marry, and the need to develop an adequate theoretical model.
Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn
In the field of positive youth development programs, “empowerment” is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Through focus group interviews, fifteen youth leaders of GSAs from different regions of California explain what they think empowerment means and how they became empowered through their involvement with the GSA. Youth describe three inter-related dimensions of empowerment: personal empowerment, relational empowerment, and strategic empowerment through having and using knowledge. When these three dimensions are experienced in combination, GSA leaders have the potential for individual and collective empowerment as agents of social change at school. By understanding these youth's perspectives on the meanings of empowerment, this article clarifies the conceptual arena for future studies of socially marginalized youth and of positive youth development. PMID:19636734
Russell, Stephen T; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn
In the field of positive youth development programs, "empowerment" is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Through focus group interviews, fifteen youth leaders of GSAs from different regions of California explain what they think empowerment means and how they became empowered through their involvement with the GSA. Youth describe three inter-related dimensions of empowerment: personal empowerment, relational empowerment, and strategic empowerment through having and using knowledge. When these three dimensions are experienced in combination, GSA leaders have the potential for individual and collective empowerment as agents of social change at school. By understanding these youth's perspectives on the meanings of empowerment, this article clarifies the conceptual arena for future studies of socially marginalized youth and of positive youth development.
Brennan, Ann Marie Walsh; Barnsteiner, Jane; Siantz, Mary Lou de Leon; Cotter, Valeri T; Everett, Janine
There has been limited identification of core lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, or intersexed (LGBTI) experience concepts that should be included in the nursing curricula. This article addresses the gap in the literature. To move nursing toward the goals of health equity and cultural humility in practice, education, and research, nursing curricula must integrate core LGBTI concepts, experiences, and needs related to health and illness. This article reviews LGBTI health care literature to address the attitudes, knowledge, and skills needed to address curricular gaps and provide content suggestions for inclusion in nursing curricula. Also considered is the need to expand nursing students' definition of diversity before discussing the interplay between nurses' attitudes and culturally competent care provided to persons who are LGBTI. Knowledge needed includes a life span perspective that addresses developmental needs and their impact on health concerns throughout the life course; health promotion and disease prevention with an articulation of unique health issues for this population; mental health concerns; specific health needs of transgender and intersex individuals; barriers to health care; interventions and resources including Internet sites; and legal and policy issues. Particular assessment and communication skills for LGBTI patients are identified. Finally, there is a discussion of didactic, simulation, and clinical strategies for incorporating this content into nursing curricula at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fassinger, Ruth E; Shullman, Sandra L; Stevenson, Michael R
This article presents an affirmative paradigm for understanding the leadership of sexual minorities-that is, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. Although research on LGBT issues in leadership to date is almost nonexistent, there are several bodies of literature that can contribute to an understanding of the unique leadership challenges faced by sexual minority people. These include the literatures on stigma and marginalization, leadership in particular status groups (e.g., college students, women), and LGBT vocational issues (especially workplace climate and identity disclosure). We propose a new, multidimensional model of LGBT leadership enactment that incorporates sexual orientation (particularly regarding identity disclosure), gender orientation (including leader gender), and the situation (conceptualized here as group composition); the model also is embedded in context, the most relevant factors that affect the enactment of leadership being stigma and marginalization. We explicate this model with findings and concepts from relevant literatures, and we conclude the article with recommendations for building a scholarly literature in LGBT leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Alessi, Edward J; Dillon, Frank R; Kim, Hillary Mi-Sung
The current study tested a conceptual model based on social-cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), highlighting the influence of attitudes toward sexual minority individuals, training hours, affirmative counseling self-efficacy, and beliefs about affirmative practice on therapist engagement in lesbian and gay affirmative practice. We recruited via the Internet 443 heterosexual psychologists (n = 270), clinical social workers (n = 110), and marriage and family therapists (n = 63) residing in various parts of the United States. The majority of participants identified as female (70%) and White (88%). A path analysis indicated that beliefs and affirmative counseling self-efficacy mediated associations between attitudes and therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Furthermore, self-efficacy mediated the relation between training hours and engagement in affirmative practice. Results suggest that more affirmative attitudes are linked with higher levels of affirmative counseling self-efficacy and more positive beliefs, which in turn positively influences therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Additionally, more hours of training influence affirmative counseling self-efficacy, which in turn correlates with higher levels of therapist engagement in affirmative practice. The discussion includes implications for affirmative practice training. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Fassin, Eric; Salcedo, Manuela
Our article is about the new relevance of the category of "the homosexual" in immigration policies. This novelty is paradoxical: while homosexuality had previously been defined exclusively in negative terms, from the point of view of the State, it has now assumed a positive value in the West--since it can be invoked to justify asylum seeking. The argument has two prongs. On the one hand, taking homosexuality into account for immigration control implies a definition of gay identity. On the other, the objects of these policies are also subjects: their own identity is caught up in this transnational process of identification. Fieldwork for this article was conducted in France on bi-national same-sex couples. However, the new categorization of homosexuality extends far beyond--in Europe and throughout the world. We argue that the politics of identity are not just, and not primarily about identity politics; they have to do both with politics in general and policies in particular.
Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C
Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective-that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships-with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts.
Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C.
Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective—that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships—with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts. PMID:25814771
Stoové, Mark; Asselin, Jason; Pedrana, Alisa; Lea, Toby; Hellard, Margaret; Wilson, David B; Prestage, Garrett; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin
OBJECTIVE: To measure changes in undiagnosed HIV among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Melbourne. METHODS: Undiagnosed HIV was compared between GBM recruited anonymously in 2008 in gay venues only and GBM anonymously or confidentially (results delivery) recruited in 2014 at gay venues and a community
Gorman-Murray, Andrew; Waitt, Gordon; Gibson, Chris
This paper advances scholarship on "lesbian and gay rural idylls". A growing literature examines how "lesbian and gay rural idylls" are not only produced in opposition to the urban, but are themselves urban constructs. We extend these contentions by exploring the processes of idyllisation suffusing lesbian and gay festival…
Anderson, Austin Robert
This study investigated attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among collegiate varsity athletes and recreational sport club participants, including an investigation of differences in attitudes across competitive levels, team and individual sport divisions, sport by sport comparisons, gender, grade level, race, contact with gay men and lesbians and…
Herek, Gregory M.; Capitanio, John P.
In a 2-wave national telephone survey, a probability sample of English-speaking adults indicated their attitudes toward gay men at Wave 1 (n=538) and toward both gay men and lesbians approximately 1 year later (n=382). Discusses findings of the study and theoretical and policy implications of the results. (KW)
Ravenhill, James P; de Visser, Richard O
In anal intercourse between gay men, men who are typically insertive ("tops") are often perceived as, and may identify as, more masculine than those who are typically receptive ("bottoms"). "Versatile" men, who may adopt either position, may be perceived as more gender balanced and may transcend the gender-role stereotypes associated with self-labeling as top or bottom. The aim of this study was to explore how gay men's beliefs about masculinity were associated with their beliefs about the gendered nature of sexual self-labels and their behavior in anal intercourse. Individual semistructured interviews were undertaken with 17 UK-based gay men. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) identified that perceptions of tops and bottoms as gendered social identities varied depending on the extent to which gay men subscribed to the mandates of hegemonic masculinity, the dominant masculinity in Western society. The findings also suggested that some gay men differentiated between top and bottom as social identities and topping and bottoming as gendered behaviors. This had implications for gay men's behaviors in anal intercourse. It is suggested that future efforts to engage with gay men about their sexual behavior should account for their beliefs regarding the gender-role stereotypes associated with gay sexual self-labels.
St. John, Alex; Travers, Robb; Munro, Lauren; Liboro, Renato; Schneider, Margaret; Greig, Carrie L.
This article outlines how gay-straight alliances (GSAs) work to connect youth with community resources, and outlines the political and social context of GSAs in Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada. Fifteen individuals (youth, teachers, and a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer [LGBTQ] youth service provider) participated in interviews…
Porta, Carolyn M.; Singer, Erin; Mehus, Christopher J.; Gower, Amy L.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Fredkove, Windy; Eisenberg, Marla E.
Background: Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based clubs that can contribute to a healthy school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. While positive associations between health behaviors and GSAs have been documented, less is known about how youth perceive GSAs. Methods: A total of 58 LGBTQ youth…
Holt, Martin; Bryant, Joanne; Newman, Christy E.; Paquette, Dana M.; Mao, Limin; Kidd, Michael R.; Saltman, Deborah C.; Kippax, Susan C.
Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social,…
Friedman, Mark S; Koeske, Gary F; Silvestre, Anthony J; Korr, Wynne S; Sites, Edward W
This study hypothesized that gender-role nonconformity is associated with suicidality, and bullying mediates this relationship. Gay males retrospectively answered questions pertaining to elementary, middle, and high school. Support for the hypotheses was found. Results can help screen gay youth for suicidality and support the need for policies prohibiting harassment based on sexual orientation.
Mantell, Joanne E; Tocco, Jack Ume; Osmand, Thomas; Sandfort, Theo; Lane, Tim
There is considerable diversity, fluidity and complexity in the expressions of sexuality and gender among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some non-gay identified MSM are known colloquially by gay-identified men in Mpumalanga, Province, South Africa, as 'After-Nines' because they do not identify as gay and present as straight during the day but also have sex with other men at night. Based on, key informant interviews and focus group discussions in two districts in Mpumalanga, we explored Black gay-identified men's perceptions of and relationships with After-Nine men, focusing on sexual and gender identities and their social consequences. Gay-identified men expressed ambivalence about their After-Nine partners, desiring them for their masculinity, yet often feeling dissatisfied and exploited in their relationships with them. The exchange of sex for commodities, especially alcohol, was common. Gay men's characterisation of After-Nines as men who ignore them during the day but have sex with them at night highlights the diversity of how same-sex practicing men perceive themselves and their sexual partners. Sexual health promotion programmes targeting 'MSM' must understand this diversity to effectively support the community in developing strategies for reaching and engaging different groups of gay and non-gay identified men.
Lineback, Sally; Allender, Molly; Gaines, Rachel; McCarthy, Christopher J.; Butler, Andrea
Qualitative methodologies were used to identify the demands and resources lesbian and gay (LG) teachers face in their schools. Data sources included 2 interviews each with 11 teachers who each identified as lesbian or gay. Analyses of interview data indicated 3 main findings. First, although all teachers experienced demands because of their sexual…
Taylor, Catherine G.
"Gallup's Guide to Modern Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Lifestyle" is a set of 15 volumes addressing lesbian, gay, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGTQ) topics of concern to young LGTQ readers. Each volume is attractively produced, is well presented, and answers questions systematically avoided in most school curricula. It would be a valuable…
Adams, Melvin D., III
This doctoral thesis studied the religious and spiritual experiences of undergraduate gay males at a Protestant affiliated higher education institution and how undergraduate gay males made sense of their personal journeys. Data was collected from four participants and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five themes emerged…
The history of civil rights in Canada illustrates a growing trend by the government to support the physical, emotional, mental, legal, and financial needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered citizens. However, the education system presents a slightly different climate. Despite numerous policies and initiatives, gay and lesbian students…
Rosenfeld, Dana; Bartlam, Bernadette; Smith, Ruth D.
Regardless of HIV status, all gay male Baby Boomers are aging in a context strongly shaped by HIV/AIDS. For this subcohort within the Baby Boom generation, the disproportionately high volume of AIDS deaths among gay men aged 25-44 years at the epidemic's peak (1987-1996) created a cohort effect, decimating their social networks and shaping their…
The purpose of this chapter is to explore the development of the framing of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and sexual orientation and gender identity in terms of a human rights paradigm. This decades-long process involved many actors, from within academia, gay
Zakalik, Robyn A.; Wei, Meifen
This study examined perceived discrimination as both a mediator and moderator between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and levels of depression in a gay male sample. Survey data were collected from 234 self-identified gay males through the Internet and in person through community resources across several states. Results from structural…
Satterly, Brent A.
Little research exists on how self-disclosure is taught in social work education (Pianko, 2001). Few social work education programs include precontemplative components of exploring identity for gay male students. In this study, the data from 4 focus groups of gay male therapists, who discussed their self-disclosure, decision-making processes, were…
The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force documented anecdotal evidence of homophobia in child care and school age communities, including: (1) refusal to accept children from lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families into child care; (2) biased attitudes expressed to children when they speak about their families; and (3) demonstrated…
Poteat, V. Paul; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.; Gray, Mary L.; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Lipkin, Arthur; Mundy-Shephard, Adrienne; Perrotti, Jeff; Scheer, Jillian R.; Shaw, Matthew P.
Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) may promote resilience. Yet, what GSA components predict well-being? Among 146 youth and advisors in 13 GSAs (58% lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; 64% White; 38% received free/reduced-cost lunch), student (demographics, victimization, attendance frequency, leadership, support, control), advisor (years served,…
Halkitis, Perry N.; Wolitski, Richard J.; Millett, Gregorio A.
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have been disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic in the United States and in many other parts of the world. The HIV epidemic is inextricably tied to other health problems that disproportionately affect gay, bisexual, and other MSM including…
Hooker, Steven D.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender school educators are practically invisible within the nature of heterosexist and homophobic education (Blount, 2005). "Openly gay and lesbian teachers were once thought of as immoral, and in some states coming out is still a risk to one's job" (McCarthy, 2003, p. 182). One's sexual orientation has nothing to…
The purpose of this chapter is to explore the development of the framing of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and sexual orientation and gender identity in terms of a human rights paradigm. This decades-long process involved many actors, from within academia, gay
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.
In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.
For 20 years, GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network) has worked to ensure safe schools for all students, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. For 10 of those years, GLSEN has been documenting the school experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth: the prevalence of anti-LGBT…
Parrott, Dominic J.
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440
Zhao, Ye; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Li, Feng; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi
The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between non-disclosure of sexual orientation to parents and sexual risk behaviors among gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A total of 295 eligible participants (gay n = 179, bisexual n = 116) were recruited from MSM venues and MSM organizations in Anhui Province, China. Overall, 16.6 % of participants chose to disclose their sexual orientation to parents. Fewer bisexual participants chose to disclose their sexual orientation than gay participants (9.5 vs. 21.2 %, p sexual orientation to parents was positively associated with the number of female sex partners (AOR = 3.40) and with engagement in unprotected anal intercourse with men (AOR = 2.49) among gay MSM, in the past 6 months. Our findings indicated that HIV/AIDS intervention programs should promote the disclosure of sexual orientation and should design interventions specific to gay and bisexual MSM separately.
Bradbury, Stacey L; Davis, Alan K; Leith, Jaclyn; Hinman, Nova; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Burmeister, Jacob M; Dworsky, Dryw
We evaluated the acceptability and justness of anti-lesbian and gay victimization among 473 undergraduates. Participants were assigned to one of four vignette conditions that described an individual being verbally victimized in a typical college setting. Each vignette varied by victim gender (male; female) and sexual orientation (lesbian/gay; heterosexual). Participants completed background questionnaires and a measure that assessed the acceptability of the actions described in the vignettes. Overall, victimization was rated as unacceptable regardless of the sexual orientation and gender of the victim. However, participants rated the victimization of lesbian and gay students as more harmful and unjust than victimization of heterosexual students. Although the acceptability of anti-lesbian and gay victimization was low, 3%-12% of participants rated anti-lesbian and gay victimization as slightly or completely acceptable and just. Given that victimization is associated with long-term negative outcomes, college administrators should consider interventions aimed at decreasing the acceptability of victimization among students.
Grossman, A H
Older gay men over the age of 50 have been and continue to be an invisible part of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The reasons for this phenomenon are many, but among them are societal beliefs, myths, and stereotypes emanating from ageism and homophobia. In addition, HIV/AIDS is sometimes misdiagnosed in older adults because many of its symptoms mimic other illness that affect older people. Among the HIV risk factors of older gay men are internalized homophobia, denial of risk, alcohol and other substance use, and anonymous sexual encounters. The challenge for nurses and other providers is to reach, educate, and assist older gay men effectively in changing and maintaining safe behaviors when they are engaging in sexual and drug-using behaviors that can transmit HIV.
Klassen, Benjamin J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Lin, Sally Yue; Edward, Joshua B; Chown, Sarah A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M; Roth, Eric A
Effective rollout of HIV treatment-based prevention such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention has been hampered by poor education, limited acceptability, and stigma among gay men. We undertook a thematic analysis regarding the education sources and acceptability of these New Prevention Technologies (NPTs) using 15 semistructured interviews with gay men in Vancouver, Canada, who were early adopters of NPTs. NPT education was derived from a variety of sources, including the Internet, health care providers, community organizations, sexual partners, and peers; participants also emphasized their own capacities as learners and educators. Acceptable forms of NPT education featured high-quality factual information, personal testimony, and easy access. Stigma was highlighted as a major barrier. For public health, policy makers, and gay communities to optimize the personal and population benefits of NPTs, there is a need for increased community support and dialogue, antistigma efforts, early NPT adopter testimony, and personalized implementation strategies.
Full Text Available Several studies have shown that internalized homophobia is a risk factor for mental health illness in homosexual individuals, whereas the perception of social support is a protective factor for their psychological well-being. In line with those studies, the present research has investigated the levels of internalized homophobia, anxiety, depression and social support, among two groups of gay men and lesbian individuals living in two European countries (N = 194: 86 Italian and 108 Belgian, where legislations grant different civil rights to lesbian and gay individuals (LG. The main goal of this research has been to verify the possible differences between the two groups. Results showed some significant differences in terms of observed levels of internalized homophobia, which was higher in the Belgian gay men’s group compared to the Italian one. Furthermore, path analysis emphasized the role of social support as a potential factor of mediation between internalized homophobia and mental health.
Warriner, Katrina; Nagoshi, Craig T; Nagoshi, Julie L
This research assessed the correlates of homophobia and transphobia in heterosexual and homosexual individuals, based on a theory of different sources of perceived symbolic threat to social status. Compared to 310 heterosexual college students, a sample of 30 gay male and 30 lesbian college students scored lower on homophobia, transphobia, and religious fundamentalism. Mean gender differences were smaller for gay men and lesbians for homophobia, aggressiveness, benevolent sexism, masculinity, and femininity. Fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostile and benevolent sexism were correlated only with homophobia in lesbians, whereas fundamentalism and authoritarianism were correlated only with transphobia in gay men. Correlates of internalized homophobia were different than those found for homophobia and transphobia, which was discussed in terms of gender differences in threats to status based on sexual orientation versus gender identity.
Full Text Available Density functional approach was used to study the isotropic- nematic (I-N transition and calculate the values of freezing parameters of the Gay- Berne liquid crystal model. New direct and pair correlation functions of a molecular fluid with Gay- Berne pair potential were used. These new functions were used in density functional theory as input to calculate the isotropic- nematic transition densities for elongation at various reduced temperatures. It was observed that the isotropic- nematic transition densities increase as the temperature increases. It was found that the new direct correlation function is suitable to study the isotropic- nematic transition of Gay- Berne liquids. Comparison to other works showed qualitative agreement
Kwon, Jae-Yung; Phillips, Craig; Currie, Leanne M
Eliciting user requirements from HIV-positive gay men who smoke can be challenging. This is because of the complex relationship between social stigma and gender identities (e.g., gay, masculine, HIV+, and smoking status). Inspired to engage HIV-positive gay men in the development of a web-assisted tobacco intervention, we used personas as a main communication tool in our participatory design sessions. Personas are characters created by users that embody part of their own behaviours, thoughts, and motivations. In an apparent paradox, this article is a description of how the use of personas to ensure less realistic self-representation provided an impetus for more self-disclosure. Findings and feedbacks from this study reveal that personas are an effective design tool to engage users in sensitive topics. Implications for future work are also discussed.
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Nierula, Carina
Previous research has shown that acute alcohol consumption is associated with negative responses toward outgroup members such as sexual minorities. However, simple alcohol cue exposure without actually consuming alcohol also influences social behavior. Hence, it was reasoned that priming participants with words related to alcohol (relative to neutral words) would promote prejudiced attitudes toward sexual minorities. In fact, an experiment showed that alcohol cue exposure causally led to more negative implicit attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In contrast, participants' explicit attitudes were relatively unaffected by the priming manipulation. Moreover, participants' typical alcohol use was not related to their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In sum, it appears that not only acute alcohol consumption but also the simple exposure of alcohol cues may promote negative views toward lesbians and gay men.
Mazick, A; Howitz, Michael Frantz; Rex, S
.2-26.9). Eleven of 18 cases and 14/62 controls had sex in gay saunas (ORMH 4.2, 95% CI 1.5-11.5). Sex at private homes appeared to be protective (ORMH 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Casual sex including sex in gay saunas was an important risk factor for the spread of HAV among MSM in Copenhagen. The results...... are in accordance with findings in other European outbreaks. As the general immunity to hepatitis A decreases and the outbreak potential increases, we recommend health education and hepatitis A vaccination to all MSM not living in monogamous relationships, especially if they visit gay saunas or other places...
Erin C Westgate
Full Text Available Legal rights and cultural attitudes towards lesbian women and gay men have shifted rapidly in the early 21st century. Using 683,976 visitors to Project Implicit from February 2006 to August 2013, we investigated whether shifts were also observable in implicit evaluations that occur outside of conscious awareness or control. Similar to public opinion polling, the estimated explicit preference for straight people over lesbian women and gay men was 26% weaker on the last day compared to the first. The estimated implicit preference for straight people declined by 13.4% over the same period. The largest shifts in implicit evaluations occurred among Hispanic, White, female, liberal, and young adult participants; the smallest shifts occurred among Black, Asian, male, conservative, and older adult participants. Societal change in evaluation of lesbian and gay people is not limited to what people are willing and able to report. However, change in implicit evaluation appears to be slower.
Raley, Amber B; Lucas, Jennifer L
The current content analysis of prime-time network television during the fall of 2001 seeks to identify the representation of Gay male, Lesbian, and Bisexual characters in shows known to have one reoccurring homosexual character based on the theories of Clark and Berry. Clark (1969) established four stages of media representation for minority groups: non-representation, ridicule, regulation, and respect. The findings of the study support the premise that Gay males and Lesbians have passed Clark's stage of non-representation and have progressed into the stage of ridicule and some are moving into the stages of regulation and respect. Berry (1980) devised three periods based on the television portrayal of Blacks: The Stereotypic Age, The New Awareness, and Stabilization. Results were mixed, with only a partial support of the hypothesis that Gay males and Lesbians had advanced beyond The Stereotypic Age.
Friedman, M Reuel; Bukowski, Leigh; Eaton, Lisa A; Matthews, Derrick D; Dyer, Typhanye V; Siconolfi, Dan; Stall, Ron
Compared with Black gay men, Black bisexual men experience psychosocial health disparities, including depression, polydrug use, physical assault, and intimate partner violence (IPV). Black bisexual men are also less likely to disclose their sexuality, which may result in them receiving less sexual minority community support, exacerbating psychosocial health disparities. We assessed relationships between bisexual behavior, bisexual identity, sexuality nondisclosure, gay community support, and psychosocial morbidities among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Between 2014 and 2017, survey data were collected from Black MSM ≥ 18 years old (n = 4430) at Black Pride events in six U.S. cities. We differentiated between bisexual-identified men reporting past-year sex with men and women (bisexual MSMW, 8.4%); gay-identified men reporting sex with men only (gay MSMO, 73.1%); gay MSMW (8.0%); and bisexual MSMO (8.4%). Multivariable regressions contrasted these groups by psychosocial morbidities, sexuality nondisclosure, and gay community support. Structural equation models assessed total, direct, and indirect effects. Compared with gay MSMO, bisexual MSMW and gay MSMW were significantly more likely to report polydrug use, depression symptoms, IPV, physical assault, sexuality nondisclosure, and lack of gay community support. Lack of gay community support had significant indirect effects on the relationships between bisexual behavior and psychosocial morbidity (p psychosocial morbidity (p Psychosocial health disparities experienced by Black bisexual men are associated with both bisexual behavior and bisexual identity. Interventions decreasing biphobia will facilitate opportunities for protective sexuality disclosure and access to sexual minority community support.
Rich, Timothy S
Public support for gay and lesbian rights has increased in Western democracies, yet less is known regarding views in South Korea, or East Asia more broadly. Rather than broad cultural claims, this analysis asks to what extent religious identification explains perceptions of gays and lesbians. Public opinion survey data from South Korea finds that Protestants were consistently less supportive of homosexual issues compared to Catholics, Buddhists, and those without a religious identification. Furthermore, after controlling for religion, identification with the largest conservative party associated with less support.
Stephenson, Rob; Hall, Casey D.; Williams, Whitney; Sato, Kimi; Finneran, Catherine
Introduction: Recent research suggests that gay and bisexual men experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at rates comparable to heterosexual women. However, current screening tools used to identify persons experiencing IPV were largely created for use with heterosexual women. Given the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men in the United States, the lack of IPV screening tools that reflect the lived realities of gay and bisexual men is problematic.This paper describes the development of a short-form IPV screening tool intended to be used with gay and bisexual men. Methods: A novel definition of IPV, informed by formative Focus Group Discussions, was derived from a quantitative survey of approximately 1,100 venue-recruited gay and bisexual men. From this new definition, a draft IPV screening tool was created. After expert review (n=13) and cognitive interviews with gay and bisexual men (n=47), a screening tool of six questions was finalized.A national, online-recruited sample (n=822) was used to compare rates of IPV identified by the novel tool and current standard tools. Results: The six-item, short-form tool created through the six-stage research process captured a significantly higher prevalence of recent experience of IPV compared to a current and commonly used screening tool (30.7% versus 7.5%, ptool described additional domains of IPV not currently found in screening tools, including monitoring behaviors, controlling behaviors, and HIV-related IPV. The screener takes less than five minutes to complete and is 6th grade reading level. Conclusion: Gay and bisexual men experiencing IPV must first be identified before services can reach them. Given emergent literature that demonstrates the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men and the known adverse health sequela of experiencing IPV, this novel screening tool may allow for the quick identification of men experiencing IPV and the opportunity for referrals for the synergistic management of
Liddle, Becky J; Stowe, Angela M
SUMMARY Advantages of a lesbian/heterosexual team approach to education on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender issues are examined and a case study is analyzed. A lesbian guest lecturer provided a contact experience, personal anecdotes, passion, and expertise. Facilitation of later class discussion by the heterosexual instructor allowed for frank discussion among students, processing of presentation content, and modeling of gay-affirmative attitudes by the instructor and other students. Summaries of the guest lecture (fantasy exercise and informational lecture) and later discussion are provided. Student comments during discussion demonstrated evidence of deep challenge, attitude change, and heightened understanding.
Social stigma increasingly embedded on gay in Indonesia that in fact its construction through the mass media both online and offline. Enforceability moral stigma that could be used in the society then caused the deal to deny the existence of gays in the social environment and social community. The power of media that sustain public opinion to the attitudes of the public in assessing the pseudo created normalisme. This article would like to explain that the “normal” and “abnormal” that is supe...
This paper draws on a piece of wide-scale mixed-methods research that examines the motivations behind women who watch gay male pornography. To date there has been very little interdisciplinary research investigating this phenomenon, despite a recent survey by PornHub (one of the largest online porn sites in the world) showing that gay male porn is the second most popular choice for women porn users out of 25+ possible genre choices. While both academic literature and popular culture have look...
White, Yohann; Sandfort, Theo; Morgan, Kai; Carpenter, Karen; Pierre, Russell
Gay and bisexual men in Jamaica encounter stigma and discrimination due to criminalization of and negative attitudes towards same-sex sexuality. Disclosure of sexual orientation may be self-affirming, but could increase exposure to negative responses and stressors. Outcomes of an online survey among 110 gay and bisexual Jamaican men ages 18 to 56 years suggest that disclosure to family is affected by level of economic independence. Furthermore, negative familial responses to sexual identity significantly predicted depression. Social and structural interventions, and efforts to strengthen positive family relationships, are needed to foster an environment that enables well-being among sexual minorities in Jamaica. PMID:28243342
Angie L. Dahl
Full Text Available The rural context at times is characterized by heteronormativity and conservatism. For individuals who identify as a sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and/or queer, the rural context may pose particular challenges to the development of a healthy, coherent sense of self. Seven young adults (18–24 who identified as gay or lesbian participated in in-depth interviews regarding their experiences coming out in a rural Appalachian context. Findings suggest sexual minority individuals experience both trials and triumphs coming out in the rural context. Two overarching themes and six subthemes are discussed with implications for supporting sexual minority youth in the rural context.
Donovan, J M
The lack of both specificity and consensus about definitions for homosexual, homosexuality, gay, and lesbian are first shown to confound comparative research and cumulative understanding because criteria for inclusion within the subject populations are often not consistent. The Description section examines sociolinguistic variables which determine patterns of preferred choice of terminology, and considers how these might impact gay and lesbian studies. Attitudes and style are found to influence word choice. These results are used in the second section to devise recommended definitional limits which would satisfy both communication needs and methodological purposes, especially those of sampling.
This article examines state legislators' public position on gay and lesbian rights by using responses to survey data on their positions toward civil unions and inclusion of sexual orientation in anti-job discrimination laws. The research finds that although state legislators are mixed on their positions, they are less supportive of gay and lesbian rights than is the general public. It also finds that their public positions are a product of both their personal beliefs and values as well as their political calculations. The implications of these findings are explored.
Haderbache Bernárdez, Ahmed
Gay porn is one of the gay masculine foundation. Gays take on their porn consumption as specialists or as simple spectators. Actors like Aiden Shaw, Francois Sagat, Martín Mazza or more recently Colby Keller -the sex worker and anthropologist- have become authentic myths. A part of the gay magazines (e.g. Advocate, Têtu or Shangay) are dedicated to that kind of innovation. However, talking about gay porn leads us to think of how the society has evolved and of the changes the LGBTQ have gone t...
Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie J.; King, Brian A.
Background Menthol can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making menthol cigarettes easier to use and increasing their appeal among vulnerable populations. The tobacco industry has targeted youth, women, and racial minorities with menthol cigarettes, and these groups smoke menthol cigarettes at higher rates. The tobacco industry has also targeted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities with tobacco product marketing. Purpose To assess current menthol cigarette smoking by sexual orientation among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, to compare current menthol cigarette smoking between LGBT (n=2,431) and heterosexual/straight (n=110,841) adults. Data were analyzed during January–April 2014 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race, and educational attainment. Results Among all current cigarette smokers, 29.6% reported usually smoking menthol cigarettes in the past 30 days. Menthol use was significantly higher among LGBT smokers, with 36.3% reporting that the cigarettes they usually smoked were menthol compared to 29.3% of heterosexual/straight smokers (p<0.05); this difference was particularly prominent among LGBT females (42.9%) compared to heterosexual/straight women (32.4%) (p<0.05). Following adjustment, LGBT smokers had greater odds of usually smoking menthol cigarettes than heterosexual/straight smokers (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). Conclusions These findings suggest that efforts to reduce menthol cigarette use may have the potential to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among LGBT adults. PMID:25245795
Existing research indicates the rate of smoking among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths exceeds the general population's, possibly due to stress, habitual substance abuse, socializing in smoky venues, and tobacco marketing. The study's overall aim was to conduct qualitative research regarding tobacco use and avoidance by LGBT youths. This report focuses on identifying priority subpopulations and corresponding risk and resiliency factors. Purposive and maximum variation sampling were used to select 30 LGBT youths and 30 interactors for face-to-face interviews. Almost a third of participants said that all LGBT youths are at risk for smoking. Other respondents specified a range of high-risk groups, encompassing many subpopulations. Contributing factors for smoking included personal characteristics, interpersonal issues, environmental conditions, and structural issues. More than a third of young smokers were not acquainted with LGBT nonsmokers and could not imagine how they avoid using tobacco. Half of the interactors and four youths ascribed favorable qualities to nonsmokers--such as self-esteem, will power, and concern for personal health, appearance, and well-being. In conclusion, smoking is a pervasive problem among LGBT youths. The findings corroborate prior explanations and implicate new ones. Some risks (e.g., limited opportunities to socialize with LGBT peers outside of smoking venues, the desire to appear more masculine, and sexuality-related stress) and resiliency factors (e.g., positive sexual identity) are unique to LGBT populations, reinforcing the need for culturally specific approaches to prevention and cessation. Highlighting the positive attributes of nonsmokers and nonsmoking might prove useful in prevention campaigns.
Full Text Available The experimental material involved 7 Carex ligerica Gay populations which were cultured in standardised conditions in a greenhouse before their spikes were collected for morphological studies. Four characters reflecting size of male and female glumes, selected from particular spikes were examined. Mahalanobis distances for each pair of populations were calculated and their significance was estimated using Hotellings T2 statistics. Dendrite was constructed on the basis of shortest Mahalanobis distances while Euclidean distances provided grounds for hierarchy grouping. The result obtained from a multivariate analysis indicated a definite interpopulation variability within the species. All of the examined populations were found to differ significantly on the grounds of Mahalanobis distances. The dendrograms manifested the distinct character of the populations originating from regions around the lower course of the Vistula river - 5 (Toruń-Wrzosy, 3 (Tychnowy, 2 (Piaski and 6 (Kadyny, not noted before. Moreover, similarity of two geographically distant populations, the population 1 (Złotoria from the Central Poland and the population 4 (Szumiłowo from the western part of the country, attracted attention, as well as the individual character of the population 7 (Kopanica originating from the southernmost location. From the point of view of historical geography of plants, the obtained differentiation pattern may represent sequele of migration in the postglacial period, which crossed the area of Poland along multiple distinct pathways. The obtained results point to importance of culturing plants in uniform conditions of a greenhouse, which permits to describe genetic variability unbiased by modifying effects of the environment.
Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie
The present study seeks to ascertain the attitudes of Portuguese psychology students (future psychologists) toward the development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Each participant (N = 182) read a vignette describing an adoption of a child by lesbian and gay persons. After reading the vignette, participants rated four different aspects of the future development of the adopted child (psychosocial adjustment, victimization, psychological disturbance, and normative sexuality). Furthermore, participants were asked about their gender, interpersonal contact with lesbians and gay men, gender role attitudes, and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Future psychologists' attitudes toward the developmental outcomes of children adopted by lesbians and gay men were associated with negative attitudes toward non-heterosexuals, which in turn correlated to interpersonal contact with lesbians and gay men and adherence to gender conservative values. These results clearly highlight the central role of social attitudes and the need for cultural competence training of future psychologists that encourages interpersonal contact with non-heterosexuals and discourages traditional gender roles and negative attitudes toward lesbian and gay men.
St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A
Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practices and AIDS risk knowledge. Men in high AIDS-prevalence areas were found to have had a greater number of sexual partners, were more knowledgeable about AIDS, were much more likely to engage in low-risk practices (such as mutual masturbation or body rubbing), and had unprotected anal intercourse less frequently than gay men in smaller cities. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the larger city was mutual masturbation, a low-risk practice. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the smaller cities was unprotected anal intercourse. Increased efforts are needed to educate gay men and to promote risk behavior changes among those living in smaller cities and in communities outside the prominent AIDS epicenters.
Mao, Limin; Van de Ven, Paul; McCormick, John
A theoretical framework, which included perspectives of individualism-collectivism and self-efficacy, was used to investigate factors associated with sexual risk practice among gay Asian and Caucasian men. "Risk" was defined as unprotected anal intercourse with any casual partner or with a regular partner whose HIV status was not concordant with the participant's. Altogether, 201 Caucasian and 199 Asian gay men, largely recruited from gay social venues in inner Sydney, completed an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants were gay self-identified and gay community attached, and more than half of the Asian men had been living in Sydney for at least 3 years. Overall, the Asian men were more collectivist oriented and the Caucasian men more individualist oriented. Data analyses revealed that higher self-efficacy in avoiding casual risk encounters and smaller proportion of gay friends were associated with less risk. The inclusion of individualism-collectivism and social cognitive variables in the examination of sexual risk practices among gay men from different cultural backgrounds holds promise.
Lauren Danger Mongie
Full Text Available This article reports on the quantitative findings of a study that straddles the applied linguistic field of critical discourse analysis and a sociolinguistic field recently referred to as “queer linguistics”. Drawing on a quantitative method of analysis, the study investigates the linguistic framing of LGBT mobilisation in two South African newspapers, City Press and the Mail & Guardian, across a period of almost 30 years. It aims to identify the characteristics of the discourses that topicalise the gay liberation movement in order to investigate the ways in which linguistic means have been used in articulating the need and the right to liberation and how arguments against the gay liberation movement have been framed, reframed and counterframed in South African media. The study’s findings revealed that a number of frames, including ‘liberation’, ‘rights’ and ‘victimisation’, reoccurred in the framing of arguments for the gay liberation movement throughout the data collection period in both corpora, and while City Press primarily used these frames to express anti-gay sentiments, the Mail & Guardian primarily used these frames to express pro-gay sentiments. The findings also revealed that a number of frames, including ‘religion’, ‘morality’ and ‘nature’, reoccurred in the framing of arguments against the gay liberation movement, and again while City Press primarily used these frames to express anti-gay sentiments, the Mail & Guardian primarily used these frames to express pro-gay sentiments. Finally, the findings revealed that a single frame such as “religion” was typically used to express both pro- and anti-gay sentiments, bringing to light the important role that counterframing plays in bringing about social transformation. The word “gay” is used as a hypernym in this article as this is a reflection of the way in which the liberation movement was typically topicalised in the data.
Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.
This study examines how United States (US) teachers' experiences and beliefs may be predictive of their intervention in anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) bullying and harassment using a US national sample of teachers (N?=?726) who completed an online survey. Results from regression analysis indicated that knowing LGBT people,…
Zubernis, Lynn; Snyder, Matthew
At some point every college freshman asks "Am I okay?" or "Am I normal?" Helping students answer this question is a familiar part of college counseling. However, this task becomes more complicated when students who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender (GLBT), or questioning their sexuality seek counseling. The universal issues which all college…
The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic significantly influences attitudes about life and lifestyles. Homosexuals have to give increased consideration to coupling, the nature of coupled relationships, sex and intimacy, and death long before the normal time. Discusses impact of AIDS on the early stages of gay coupling and on the…
Kahn, Ellen; Sullivan, Tom
Many medical practices are looking at options to reach out to the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender community as a means of expanding business and improving quality of care. This article sets out steps that any practice can take to market to this community and improve its cultural competence.
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth with a history of homelessness (running away or being evicted from their homes by parents) report more psychological symptoms than homeless heterosexual peers, it is unclear whether symptoms are due to homelessness, given the absence of a non-homeless comparison group. This study longitudinally…
Cox, Nele; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Dewaele, Alexis; Vincke, John
In this article, we examine the impact of acculturation strategies on minority stress and mental health in lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) youth in Flanders, Belgium. Building on previous identity minority studies and on the social stress model, we investigate how LGB youth acculturate within both the LGB subculture and mainstream society and how…
Schwickrath, Heather M.
After an extensive literature review, results indicated research has been conducted examining the links between traditional bullying and suicide, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning (LGBTQ) identification and cyberbullying, as well as LGBTQ identification and suicide. However, it appears as though there is a dearth of studies…
Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.
The authors examined the associations between internalized homophobia, outness, community connectedness, depressive symptoms, and relationship quality among a diverse community sample of 396 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Structural equation models showed that internalized homophobia was associated with greater relationship problems…
Brown, Jac; Trevethan, Robert
This study reports on a survey of 166 gay men in Sydney, Australia, that explores the links between internalized shame, internalized homophobia, and attachment style. These variables were linked to the age of coming out, family and peer acceptance of their sexuality, relationship status, and previous marriage. Findings suggest a strong relationship between shame, internalized homophobia, and anxious and avoidant attachment style. Shame was predicted by internalized homophobia and anxious and avoidant attachment style. A significant proportion of gay men reported that they were not easily accepted when they first came out. There was a significant relationship between coming out and internalized homophobia but not with shame and attachment style. Furthermore, men who had never come out to family and friends reported higher levels of internalized homophobia but not higher levels of shame and attachment style. Of particular significance was the connection between previous marriage and higher levels of shame and internalized homophobia. Finally, gay men who were not currently in a relationship reported higher levels of shame anxious and avoidant attachment style. These findings are related to therapeutic work with gay men who have previously been married and those who are concerned with their current single status.
Stachowski, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob
Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the US and estimates suggest that one to two-thirds of new infections occur among main partners. Previous research has focused on individual MSM and their risk for HIV, yet couples' ability to manage risk has been largely understudied. In particular, the role that homophobia plays in shaping the ability of gay male couples to cope with HIV risk is currently understudied. A sample of 447 gay/bisexual men with main partners was taken from a 2011 survey of gay and bisexual men in Atlanta. Linear regression models were fitted for three couples' coping outcome scales (outcome efficacy, couple efficacy, communal coping) and included indicators of homophobia (internalized homophobia and homophobic discrimination). Findings indicate that reporting of increased levels of internalized homophobia were consistently associated with decreased outcome measures of couples' coping ability regarding risk management. The results highlight the role that homophobia plays in gay male couples' relationships and HIV risk, extending the existing literature in the field of same-sex relationships as influenced by homophobia.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood. PMID:21171740
Kachgal, Tara M.
This article scrutinizes the efforts of a media advocacy group to redress the stigma of youth homosexuality among United States youth: a report published in 2003 by the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation called, "How Youth Media Can Help Combat Homophobia Among American Teenagers." The report, authored by Rodger Streitmatter, concluded…
Saskia Keuzenkamp; Lisette Kuyper
Original title: Acceptatie van homoseksuelen, biseksuelen en transgenders in Nederland 2013 The Dutch government is committed to equal rights for and social acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals, and also to securing their acceptance in Dutch society. Since
Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…
The prominence of Romans 1:18-32 in the gay-debate is the subject of various and wide-ranging opinions as far as the most adequate interpretation of this passage. This contribution puts the debate about the text into perspective by surveying some recent alternative opinions on its meaning. It is established that two ...
Fallon, Kathleen M.; Dobmeier, Robert A.; Reiner, Summer M.; Casquarelli, Elaine J.; Giglia, Lauren A.; Goodwin, Eric
Counselors and lesbian and gay clients experience parallel values conflicts between religious beliefs/spirituality and sexual orientation. This article uses critical thinking to assist counselors to integrate religious/spiritual beliefs with professional ethical codes. Clients are assisted to integrate religious/spiritual beliefs with sexual…
This interview-based, narrative study examines the effects of schooling in a Deep South urban community on the identity construction of gay African American boys and young men. Specifically, it exposes the ways in which the dominant culture of White racism creates and imposes a hegemonic masculinity on Black youth culture that forces these young…
Wolowic, Jennifer M; Heston, Laura V; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Porta, Carolyn; Eisenberg, Marla E
While the pride rainbow has been part of political and social intervention for decades, few have researched how lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer young people perceive and use the symbol. How do lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth who experience greater feelings of isolation and discrimination than heterosexual youth recognise and deploy the symbol? As part of a larger study on supportive lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth environments, we conducted 66 go-along interviews with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth people from Massachusetts, Minnesota and British Columbia. During interviews, young people identified visible symbols of support, including recognition and the use of the pride rainbow. A semiotic analysis reveals that young people use the rainbow to construct meanings related to affiliation and positive feelings about themselves, different communities and their futures. Constructed and shared meanings help make the symbol a useful tool for navigating social and physical surroundings. As part of this process, however, young people also recognize that there are limits to the symbolism; it is useful for navigation but its display does not always guarantee supportive places and people. Thus, the pride rainbow connotes safety and support, but using it as a tool for navigation is a learned activity that requires caution.
Anderson-Martinez, Richard; Vianden, Jörg
This article presents the results of a qualitative exploration of the performance of masculine gender identities in six gay male students enrolled at a master's comprehensive public institution in the Midwest. This article builds on the work of Laker and Davis (2011) and Rankin (2005). The findings indicate participants adapted their gender…
Donaldson, Steven M.
Comments on R. Barret and R. Barzan (1996), who do well in exploring the spiritual experiences of gay men and lesbians but in the process set up a precedent of reverse discrimination against clients whose religious beliefs proscribe homosexual behavior. Suggestions are offered to sensitize counseling professionals to such bias. (Author/MKA)
Lassiter, Pamela S.; Sifford, Amy McCarthy
This phenomenological inquiry explored the experiences and reactions of five school counselors who worked in a school that banned a Gay-Straight Alliance club. Specifically, the authors examined how counselors' perceptions of the ban influenced their advocacy for LGBTQQ students. The results of semi-structured interviews revealed one overarching…
Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine
Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) have become widespread in Ontario schools and, starting in 2012, all schools are required to permit students to form GSAs. While American research suggests that GSAs have a positive impact on school safety and inclusion, there is little research on the impact of GSAs in Canadian schools. This study, based on a survey…
Ripley, Matthew; Anderson, Eric; McCormack, Mark; Rockett, Ben
This article explores the complex relationship between an openly gay instructor, homophobia, and heteronormativity in a university classroom. The authors first tabulated the frequency with which the instructor used the lives of heterosexuals and homosexuals as examples of content or as content itself, and then they interviewed 32 students about…
There is growing media interest in how lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) Muslims negotiate their seemingly incompatible religious and sexual identities. Thus, there is a need to investigate how some LGBT Muslims utilise Islam as a resource for alternative pedagogical strategies to reconcile their personal beliefs and values. Their…
Cullinan, Robert G.
Subjects were ten male volunteers from Wayne State University's Gay Liberation Front who were interviewed and given the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. The results reinforce the view that the homosexual's self concept in general falls within expectations according to national norms. These ten men, at least, tended to view their homosexuality as a…
Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie
Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…
Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolenski, Derek J.; Morgan, Richard; Rosser, B. R. Simon
HIV prevention educators frequently encourage gay and bisexual men (GBM) to negotiate condom use prior to sexual engagement. Identifying groups of GBM based on their presexual agreements can aid efforts to tailor interventions. Using cross-sectional data from 1,188 GBM who reported having sex with a nonprimary sex partner in the 90 days prior to…
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…
Hays, Robert B.; And Others
Examined impact of social support and HIV-related conditions on depression among 508 gay men. Number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related symptoms experienced significantly predicted depression cross-sectionally and one year later. Satisfaction with each of three types of social support (emotional, practical, informational) was inversely…
This dissertation studied sexual risk-taking behavior among gay men in steady relationships. The main targets of this study were to establish: (a) whether steady relationships form a risk environment for HIV-infection; (b) some of the determinants of risky and protective behavior between steady
Bos, H.M.W.; Picavet, C.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
The aim of the present study was to assess whether children’s attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women differ in relation to their ethnic backgrounds and whether ethnic differences are a result of perceived differential gender socialization practices. Data were collected from children in eight
Lee, Evelyn; Murphy, Dean; Mao, Limin; de Wit, John; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; Holt, Martin
In this study we sought to identify the social and behavioural characteristics of Australian gay and bisexual men who had and had not tested for HIV during their current relationship. The results were based on 2012 and 2013 data collected from ongoing cross-sectional and community-based surveys held
Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Arciniega, G. Miguel; Tracey, Terence J. G.
Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of…
Lange, Alex C.; Moore, Candace M.
In this critical narrative inquiry study, we explored the experience of gay cisgender men in college at the borderlands of social constructionism, critical race theory, and queer theory. Findings included 3 major themes: (a) the salience, tokenization, and centrality of being an "other" in a given space, (b) how performativity varied in…
Grossman, Arnold H.; Foss, Alexander H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.
This study examined pubertal maturation, pubertal timing and outcomes, and the relationship of puberty and sexual identity developmental milestones among 507 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. The onset of menarche and spermarche occurred at the mean ages of 12.05 and 12.46, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in…
Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…
Mcneal, J L
Despite all of the education and public awareness about AIDS in the US, some gay men have not adopted risk-reduction behaviors. Findings are reported from a study exploring the extent to which a gay man idealizes his partner is linked to reported condom use among gay male couples. The study also explored how the following intimacy factors are linked to condom use: relationship satisfaction, relationship excitement, and interpersonal closeness. Questionnaires were distributed to 125 gay male couples; both members of 45 of these couples completed and returned the questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the New York City area, were age 21-52 years (mean age, 33.06 years), and the couples had been together for an average period of 29.5 months (range, 1-163 months). The degree of idealization was found to have a significant negative correlation with condom use, suggesting that the more the men idealized each other, the less likely they were to use condoms during sex. Relationship satisfaction and excitement were also significantly negatively associated with condom use. No significant association was found between closeness and condom use.
Willette, James M.
The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological study was to understand how male undergraduate students who identify as openly gay experience marginality and mattering at a Jesuit Catholic university. There were 28 Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States as of this writing, each with its own varying approach towards the treatment…
Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Ross, Michael W; Costa, Daniel S J; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan
The present study examined essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and their implications for sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in a sample of gay men. A combination of targeted sampling and snowball strategies were used to recruit 639 gay identifying men for a cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sexual orientation beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and psychological wellbeing outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether essentialist beliefs were associated with psychological wellbeing indirectly via their effect on sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity. A unique pattern of direct and indirect effects was observed in which facets of essentialism predicted sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing. Of note, viewing sexual orientation as immutable/biologically based and as existing in discrete categories, were associated with less sexual identity uncertainty. On the other hand, these beliefs had divergent relationships with internalized homonegativity, with immutability/biological beliefs associated with lower, and discreteness beliefs associated with greater internalized homonegativity. Of interest, although sexual identity uncertainty was associated with poorer psychological wellbeing via its contribution to internalized homophobia, there was no direct relationship between identity uncertainty and psychological wellbeing. Findings indicate that essentializing sexual orientation has mixed implications for sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity and wellbeing in gay men. Those undertaking educational and clinical interventions with gay men should be aware of the benefits and of caveats of essentialist theories of homosexuality for this population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Shelton, Kimber; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
Psychological research has shown the detrimental effects that overt heterosexism have on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) clients and on the psychotherapeutic relationship. However, the effects of subtle forms of discrimination, specifically sexual orientation microaggressions, have on LGBQ clients and the therapeutic relationship have not…
Hughes, Bryce E.
From a social constructivist paradigm I explored the experiences of 7 openly gay engineering students to understand how, if at all, they made sense of the intersections between their engineering and sexual orientation identities. By eliciting stories through individual and focus group interviews, a narrative approach allowed me to capture the…
Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.
Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual…
Fric, K. (Karel)
textabstractThis article reviews findings of scientific studies looking into the bias that gay men and lesbians face when accessing the labor market. Studies in this topic were scarce before year 2000, but a considerable body of literature appeared in the Western countries in the recent years. When
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental…
Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood.
Croteau, James M.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Phillips, Julia C.; Lark, Julianne S.
States that the literature to date has broken the silence on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues and has affirmed the field of psychology as being affirmative toward these issues. Proposes that research should move toward a greater understanding of LGB affirmative professional training by focusing on training from theoretical and empirical…
Lick, David J.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Patterson, Charlotte J.
According to two decades of research, parental sexual orientation does not affect overall child development. Researchers have not found significant differences between offspring of heterosexual parents and those of lesbian and gay parents in terms of their cognitive, psychological, or emotional adjustment. Still, there are gaps in the literature…
Liddle, Becky J.; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony; Hauenstein, Anita L.; Schuck, Kelly
Workplace climate refers to formal and informal organizational characteristics contributing to employee welfare. Workplace climates for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) employees range from actively supportive to openly hostile. An instrument measuring LGBT workplace climate will enable research on vocational adjustment of LGBT…
Ploderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold
This is the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation (28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%),…
Grace, André P.
This article investigates the political, cultural, and educational work of two pioneering Canadian gay teachers during the 1990s: James Chamberlain and Murray Corren. These advocate-practitioners took up roles as social activists, cultural workers, and engaged teachers whose transgressive acts focused on the social and cultural transformation of…
Sinclair, James; Reece, Brian J.
This is a brief essay on the oppressive natures of school and the rights of students to arm themselves with the creation of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Students who identify as LGBTQ are at higher risk for victimization, among other negative outcomes. For those who identify as LGBTQ, GSAs are often a safe-haven from the heteronormative…
Collins, Joshua C.
A relatively small amount of HRD research has focused on issues for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. The majority that does exist tends to focus on issues assumed to cut across the entire LGBT community. However, a need exists for research that identifies and articulates the varied experiences of each of these identity…
Reddick, Rinardo Lamon
There have been many studies that focus on understanding various aspects of human sexuality and how it relates to college students. However, the current research focuses on heterosexual students, leaving a void in the research that focuses on gay male college students. Even more crucially, there is a void in research that focuses on the sexual…
The US Supreme Court has often and rightly been described as the most powerful court in the world. This is because its rulings have such breadth that they can reshape US society and politics. The cout's June 2013 rulings provided further reminders of this. Two related rulings extended gay rights....
Aggarwal, S.; Gerrets, R.
Despite the Netherlands' reputation as a world leader with respect to gay rights, homosexual Dutch men have much higher rates of mood disorders, anxiety disorders and suicide attempts than heterosexual Dutch men. Epidemiologists report similar disparities elsewhere in Western Europe and North
Breshears, Diana; Lubbe-De Beer, Carien
Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gay-parented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children's education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and…
Slovin, L. J.
In this paper, I draw on observations from sexual health workshops in an elementary school classroom in Vancouver, Canada and friendship pair interviews with four boys who attended the workshops. I examine how the educators organising the workshops constructed sexual health, highlighting their reliance on both a "gay is okay" and a…
Averett, Paige; Hegde, Archana; Smith, Justin
This article presents the first systematic review of all the existing peer-reviewed literature (n = 20) on gay and lesbian parents and their children in early childhood education settings. The review includes articles that were empirical or pedagogical practice oriented, focused exclusively on early childhood education (Birth to 5 years), and…
Johnson, Danielle Marie
Within higher education today, the student population in American colleges and universities is becoming increasingly diverse, relative to students' racial/ethnic, sexual, religion, and gender identities. Specifically, students who identify as Lesbian and gay are more often seeking personal authenticity and opportunities to make meaning of their…
Squire, Dian D.; Mobley, Steve D., Jr.
This study explores the college choice process for Black gay males and what factors played significant roles in why they chose to attend either HBCUs or PWIs. Findings revealed that these students considered race and sexual orientation in different ways when deciding to attend either an HBCU or PWI. Implications for high school counselors and…
Saha, J.; Bose, T.R.; Ghosh, D.; Saha, M.
We perform molecular dynamics simulation for a system of Gay-Berne molecules having two terminal dipole moments to generate tilted smectic-C liquid crystal phase. We investigate the effect of dipolar orientation with respect to the long molecular axis on phase behaviour. The study indicates that larger dipolar angle can give rise to greater tilt in molecular organization within a layer
Sedillo, Paul James
Gifted children are often empathetic, morally sensitive, and feel a responsibility toward others. As they become aware of the injustices in their surrounding communities, they may embark on a quest for justice for individuals who are oppressed, marginalized, or misunderstood. With Gay Pride Month in June bringing increased visibility and awareness…
Farr, Rachel H.; Patterson, Charlotte J.
Coparenting is associated with child behavior in families with heterosexual parents, but less is known about coparenting among lesbian- and gay-parent families. Associations were studied among self-reported divisions of labor, coparenting observations, and child adjustment ("M[subscript age]" = 3 years) among 104 adoptive families headed…
Hall, William J.; McDougald, Amanda M.; Kresica, Aimee M.
This study examined high school counselors' education and training, counseling competency, and supportive behavior regarding gay, lesbian, and bisexual students. Sexual minority students often face a range of school and mental health problems. Results show that participants' counseling competency skills, knowledge, and attitudes predict…
Olive, James L.
This qualitative study explores the past experiences of six post-secondary students who self-identified as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and/or Queer (LGBQ) and held leadership roles in student organizations at one large public institution. The purpose of this exploration was to better understand the impact of friendship on the development of a…
Buser, T.; Geijtenbeek, L.; Plug, E.
It is an established fact that gay men earn less than other men and lesbian women earn more than other women. In this paper we study whether differences in competitive preferences, which have emerged as a likely determinant of labour market differences between men and women, can provide a plausible
Jaspal, Rusi; Williamson, Iain
This study set out to explore the social-psychological aspects of living with HIV among a group of HIV-positive Colombian gay men in London, and the strategies that they deployed to manage ensuing threats to their identities. Focus group and individual interview data were collected from 14 Colombian gay men living with HIV, and were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and identity process theory. The following themes are discussed: (1) identity struggles and conflicts in Colombia, (2), managing multiple layers of social stigma in England, and (3) changing interpersonal and intergroup dynamics, which highlight the inter-connections between sexual prejudice, sexual risk-taking and HIV stigma. Identity may be chronically threatened due to the multiple layers of stigma, which can limit the coping strategies available to individuals. Findings strongly support the need for action and programmes to highlight and tackle both racism and HIV stigma on the gay scene and to fund more specific resources for sub-communities of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, which employ appropriately trained and culturally competent staff.