WorldWideScience

Sample records for gave volume transmission

  1. Optical vortex discrimination with a transmission volume hologram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruneisen, Mark T [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Dymale, Raymond C; Stoltenberg, Kurt E [Boeing Company, PO Box 5670, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Steinhoff, Nicholas [Optical Sciences Company, 1341 S Sunkist St., Anaheim, CA 92806 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Transmissive volume holograms are considered as mode-selective optical elements for the de-multiplexing and detecting of optical vortex modes according to the topological charge or mode number. Diffraction of vortex modes by a fundamental mode hologram is modeled using a physical optics model that treats the volume hologram as an angle-dependent transfer function. Diffracted irradiance profiles and diffraction efficiencies are calculated numerically as a function of the incident mode number. The results of the model are compared with experimental results obtained with volume holograms of fundamental and higher-order vortex modes. When considered as a function of detuning between the incident and recorded mode numbers, the measured diffraction efficiencies are found to be invariant with respect to the recorded mode number, provided that the order difference remains unchanged, and in close agreement with the predictions of the model. Measurements are made with a 1.3 mm thick permanent photo-thermo-refractive glass hologram and a 9 mm thick re-writable photorefractive lithium niobate hologram. A liquid-crystal spatial light modulator generates the vortex modes used to record and read the holograms. The results indicate that a simple volume hologram can discriminate between vortex modes; however, adjacent mode discrimination with low crosstalk would require a very thick hologram. Furthermore, broadening of the vortex angular spectrum, due to diffraction at a finite aperture, can adversely affect diffraction efficiencies.

  2. Optical vortex discrimination with a transmission volume hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruneisen, Mark T; Dymale, Raymond C; Stoltenberg, Kurt E; Steinhoff, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Transmissive volume holograms are considered as mode-selective optical elements for the de-multiplexing and detecting of optical vortex modes according to the topological charge or mode number. Diffraction of vortex modes by a fundamental mode hologram is modeled using a physical optics model that treats the volume hologram as an angle-dependent transfer function. Diffracted irradiance profiles and diffraction efficiencies are calculated numerically as a function of the incident mode number. The results of the model are compared with experimental results obtained with volume holograms of fundamental and higher-order vortex modes. When considered as a function of detuning between the incident and recorded mode numbers, the measured diffraction efficiencies are found to be invariant with respect to the recorded mode number, provided that the order difference remains unchanged, and in close agreement with the predictions of the model. Measurements are made with a 1.3 mm thick permanent photo-thermo-refractive glass hologram and a 9 mm thick re-writable photorefractive lithium niobate hologram. A liquid-crystal spatial light modulator generates the vortex modes used to record and read the holograms. The results indicate that a simple volume hologram can discriminate between vortex modes; however, adjacent mode discrimination with low crosstalk would require a very thick hologram. Furthermore, broadening of the vortex angular spectrum, due to diffraction at a finite aperture, can adversely affect diffraction efficiencies.

  3. Volume transmission-mediated encephalopathies: a possible new concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Hans-Peter; Dihné, Marcel

    2012-03-01

    There is strong evidence that the composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) influences brain development, neurogenesis, and behavior. The bidirectional exchange of CSF and interstitial fluid (ISF) across the ependymal and pia-glial membranes is required for these phenomena to occur. Because ISF surrounds the parenchymal compartment, neuroactive substances in the CSF and ISF can influence neuronal activity. Functionally important neuroactive substances are distributed to distant sites of the central nervous system by the convection and diffusion of CSF and ISF, a process known as volume transmission. It has recently been shown that pathologically altered CSF from patients with acute traumatic brain injury suppresses in vitro neuronal network activity (ivNNA) recorded by multielectrode arrays measuring synchronously bursting neural populations. Functionally relevant substances in pathologically altered CSF have been biochemically identified, and ivNNA has been partially recovered by pharmacologic intervention. It remains unclear whether the in vivo parenchymal compartment remains unaffected by pathologically altered CSF that significantly impairs ivNNA. We hypothesize that pathologic CSF alterations are not just passive indicators of brain diseases but that they actively and directly evoke functional disturbances in global brain activity through the distribution of neuroactive substances, for instance, secondary to focal neurologic disease. For this mechanism, we propose the new term volume transmission-mediated encephalopathies (VTE). Recording ivNNA in the presence of pure human CSF could help to identify and monitor functionally relevant CSF alterations that directly result in VTEs, and the collected data might point to therapeutic ways to antagonize these alterations.

  4. How oxygen gave rise to eukaryotic sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörandl, Elvira; Speijer, Dave

    2018-01-01

    9years ago. The large amount of ROS coming from a bacterial endosymbiont gave rise to DNA damage and vast increases in host genome mutation rates. Eukaryogenesis and chromosome evolution represent adaptations to oxidative stress. The host, an archaeon, most probably already had repair mechanisms

  5. Efficient transmission of compressed data for remote volume visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Karthik; Marcellin, Michael W; Bilgin, Ali; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2006-09-01

    One of the goals of telemedicine is to enable remote visualization and browsing of medical volumes. There is a need to employ scalable compression schemes and efficient client-server models to obtain interactivity and an enhanced viewing experience. First, we present a scheme that uses JPEG2000 and JPIP (JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol) to transmit data in a multi-resolution and progressive fashion. The server exploits the spatial locality offered by the wavelet transform and packet indexing information to transmit, in so far as possible, compressed volume data relevant to the clients query. Once the client identifies its volume of interest (VOI), the volume is refined progressively within the VOI from an initial lossy to a final lossless representation. Contextual background information can also be made available having quality fading away from the VOI. Second, we present a prioritization that enables the client to progressively visualize scene content from a compressed file. In our specific example, the client is able to make requests to progressively receive data corresponding to any tissue type. The server is now capable of reordering the same compressed data file on the fly to serve data packets prioritized as per the client's request. Lastly, we describe the effect of compression parameters on compression ratio, decoding times and interactivity. We also present suggestions for optimizing JPEG2000 for remote volume visualization and volume browsing applications. The resulting system is ideally suited for client-server applications with the server maintaining the compressed volume data, to be browsed by a client with a low bandwidth constraint.

  6. Volume transmission in health and disease: communication via the brain extracellular space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2003), s. 2 ISSN 0022-3042. [Meeting of the European Society for Neurochemistry /14./. Varšava, 01.06.2003-04.06.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : volume transmission * extracellular space Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.825, year: 2003

  7. Volume versus wiring transmission in the brain: a new theoretical frame for neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnati, L F; Bjelke, B; Fuxe, K

    1995-01-01

    A volume transmission mode of communication in brain was implicit already in the early work of Golgi, who postulated the existence of electrical signals in the extracellular fluid (ECF) based on Volta's "wet conductor" made by solutions. The term volume transmission is taken from the term volume conduction describing the flow of ionic currents in the ECF as a basis for the electrocorticogram. The slow VT mode includes also chemical signals and is opposed to the fast synaptic (wiring) transmission. Every neuron may function in a dual mode, the synaptic and the volume transmission mode, when considering the autocrine and synaptic classes of communication. The paracrine- and neuroendocrine-like classes only involve the VT mode in the latter case including the CSF as a route. The chemical signals for VT are the neuropeptides, but also the classical transmitters, the monoamines, acetylcholine, GABA, and glutamate can participate, when they operate via slow, high affinity G protein coupled receptors. Ions such as K+, Ca++, and H+ also function as VT signals. The hypothesis is also introduced that CO2 can act as a multifacit long-distance VT and WT regulator besides being part of the CO2/HCO3 buffer. CO2 via regulating NMDA receptor sensitivity can also regulate NO formation, which represents a paracrine and fast VT signal. The therapy of CNS disorders is also discussed in the frame of the wiring and VT concept. Two therapeutical approaches can therefore be developed, one based on increasing WT and one based on increasing VT. In contrast to the WT therapy, which must preserve the electrotemporal code, the VT therapy can operate also with postsynaptic agonists. Therefore, a therapeutic effect with such a drug indicates that the deficiency in the communication process operates via VT. In view of the lack of very effective negative feedbacks in VT vs. WT, VT therapy may produce less tolerance and drug dependency.

  8. Is There Volume Transmission Along Extracellular Fluid Pathways Corresponding to the Acupuncture Meridians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Volume transmission is a new major communication signaling via extracellular fluid (interstitial fluid pathways. It was proposed by the current authors that such pathways can explain the meridian phenomena and acupuncture effects. To investigate whether meridian-like structures exist in fish body and operate via volume transmission in extracellular fluid pathways, we injected alcian blue (AB under anesthesia into Gephyrocharax melanocheir, which has a translucent body. The migration of AB could be seen directly and was recorded by a digital camera. The fish was then embedded and cut transversely to observe the position of tracks in three dimensions. Eight longitudinal threadlike blue tracks were recognized on the fish. The positions of these threadlike tracks were similar to meridians on the human body. Transverse sections showed that these tracks distributed to different layers of distinct subcutaneous loose connective tissues and intermuscular septa. Lymphatic vessels were sometimes associated with the extracellular blue tracks where the migration of AB occurred. Extracellular fluid pathways were found on fish through their transport of AB. These pathways operating via volume transmission appeared to be similar in positions and functions to the acupuncture meridians in Chinese medicine.

  9. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues

  10. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.

  11. Volume Transmission in Central Dopamine and Noradrenaline Neurons and Its Astroglial Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi F; Marcoli, Manuela; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

    2015-12-01

    Already in the 1960s the architecture and pharmacology of the brainstem dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) neurons with formation of vast numbers of DA and NA terminal plexa of the central nervous system (CNS) indicated that they may not only communicate via synaptic transmission. In the 1980s the theory of volume transmission (VT) was introduced as a major communication together with synaptic transmission in the CNS. VT is an extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid transmission of chemical signals like transmitters, modulators etc. moving along energy gradients making diffusion and flow of VT signals possible. VT interacts with synaptic transmission mainly through direct receptor-receptor interactions in synaptic and extrasynaptic heteroreceptor complexes and their signaling cascades. The DA and NA neurons are specialized for extrasynaptic VT at the soma-dendrtitic and terminal level. The catecholamines released target multiple DA and adrenergic subtypes on nerve cells, astroglia and microglia which are the major cell components of the trophic units building up the neural-glial networks of the CNS. DA and NA VT can modulate not only the strength of synaptic transmission but also the VT signaling of the astroglia and microglia of high relevance for neuron-glia interactions. The catecholamine VT targeting astroglia can modulate the fundamental functions of astroglia observed in neuroenergetics, in the Glymphatic system, in the central renin-angiotensin system and in the production of long-distance calcium waves. Also the astrocytic and microglial DA and adrenergic receptor subtypes mediating DA and NA VT can be significant drug targets in neurological and psychiatric disease.

  12. Provision of financial transmission rights including assessment of maximum volumes of obligations and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the risks faced by the providers of financial transmission rights (FTRs). The introduction of FTRs in different systems in the USA must be viewed in relationship to the organization of the market. Often, private players own the central grid, while an independent system operator (ISO) operates the grid. The revenues from transmission congestion collected in the day-ahead and balancing markets should give the ISO sufficient revenues to cover the costs associated with providing FTRs. This can be ensured if the issued FTRs fulfill the simultaneous feasibility test described by Hogan. This test on a three-node network is studied under different assumptions to find the maximum volumes, which can be sold, including contingency constraints. Next the feasibility test is analyzed when taking into account the proceeds from the FTR auction, and demonstrates that a higher volume might be issued. We introduce uncertainty under different scenarios for locational prices and calculate the maximum provided volumes. As a tool for risk management, the provider of the FTRs can use the Value at Risk approach. Finally, the provision of FTRs by private parties is discussed. (author)

  13. Imaging of Volume Phase Gratings in a Photosensitive Polymer, Recorded in Transmission and Reflection Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Volume phase gratings, recorded in a photosensitive polymer by two-beam interference exposure, are studied by means of optical microscopy. Transmission gratings and reflection gratings, with periods in the order of 10 μm down to 130 nm, were investigated. Mapping of holograms by means of imaging in sectional view is introduced to study reflection-type gratings, evading the resolution limit of classical optical microscopy. In addition, this technique is applied to examine so-called parasitic gratings, arising from interference from the incident reference beam and the reflected signal beam. The appearance and possible avoidance of such unintentionally recorded secondary structures is discussed.

  14. Volume transmission of beta-endorphin via the cerebrospinal fluid; a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veening Jan G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing evidence that non-synaptic communication by volume transmission in the flowing CSF plays an important role in neural mechanisms, especially for extending the duration of behavioral effects. In the present review, we explore the mechanisms involved in the behavioral and physiological effects of β-endorphin (β-END, especially those involving the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, as a message transport system to reach distant brain areas. The major source of β-END are the pro-opio-melano-cortin (POMC neurons, located in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (ARH, bordering the 3rd ventricle. In addition, numerous varicose β-END-immunoreactive fibers are situated close to the ventricular surfaces. In the present paper we surveyed the evidence that volume transmission via the CSF can be considered as an option for messages to reach remote brain areas. Some of the points discussed in the present review are: release mechanisms of β-END, independence of peripheral versus central levels, central β-END migration over considerable distances, behavioral effects of β-END depend on location of ventricular administration, and abundance of mu and delta opioid receptors in the periventricular regions of the brain.

  15. Survey and selection of assessment methodologies for GAVE options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, R.

    1999-05-01

    The Dutch government is interested in the possibilities for a market introduction of new gaseous and liquid energy carriers. To this purpose the GAVE-programme was recently set up. This study is carried out within the framework of the GAVE-programme and aims at the selection of methodologies for assessing the technological, economic, ecological and social perspectives of these new energy options (so-called GAVE-options). Based on the results of these assessments the Dutch ministries of Housing, Planning and Environment (VROM) and Economic Affairs (EZ) will decide at the end of 1999 about starting demonstration projects of promising energy carriers

  16. Model documentation: Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-24

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).

  17. Survey and selection of assessment methodologies for GAVE options; Inventarisatie en selectie van beoordelingsmethodieken voor GAVE-opties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, R. [ed.] [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1999-05-01

    The Dutch government is interested in the possibilities for a market introduction of new gaseous and liquid energy carriers. To this purpose the GAVE-programme was recently set up. This study is carried out within the framework of the GAVE-programme and aims at the selection of methodologies for assessing the technological, economic, ecological and social perspectives of these new energy options (so-called GAVE-options). Based on the results of these assessments the Dutch ministries of Housing, Planning and Environment (VROM) and Economic Affairs (EZ) will decide at the end of 1999 about starting demonstration projects of promising energy carriers.

  18. Reporting on a Talk I Gave Some Months Ago, the Headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' Premier Spanish Language Newspaper, Declared the City's School System "en crisis permanente." No One Wrote in to Disagree. The Claremont Letter. Volume 3, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, Charles T.

    2008-01-01

    Reporting on a talk the author gave some months ago, the headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' premier Spanish language newspaper, declared the city's school system "en crisis permanente." No one wrote in to disagree. Indeed, at the end of "Learning from L.A.: Institutional Change in American Public Education" (Harvard Education Press) the author…

  19. Volume changes upon heating of aerosol particles from biomass burning using transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Kouji [Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan). Atmospheric Environment and Applied Meteorology Research Dept.; Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Climate Sciences; Kleinman, Lawrence [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Climate Sciences; Chand, Duli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division; Hubbe, John M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division; Buseck, Peter R. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration and School of Molecular Sciences

    2017-09-26

    The responses of aerosol particles to heating are important for measurements of their chemical, physical, and optical properties, classification, and determination of origin. However, the thermal behavior of organic aerosol particles is largely unknown. We provide a method to analyze such thermal behavior through heating from room temperature to >600°C by using a heating holder within a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Here we describe in-situ shape and size changes and variations in the compositions of individual particles before and after heating. We use ambient samples from wildland and agricultural biomass fires in North America collected during the 2013 Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP). The results indicate that individual tar balls (TB; spherical organic material) from biomass burning retained, on average, up to 30% of their volume when heated to 600°C. Chemical analysis reveals that K and Na remain in the residues, whereas S and O were lost. In contrast to bulk sample measurements of carbonaceous particles using thermal/optical carbon analyzers, our single-particle results imply that many individual organic particles consist of multiple types of organic matter having different thermal stabilities. Beyond TBs, our results suggest that because of their thermal stability some organic particles may not be detectable by using aerosol mass spectrometry or thermal/optical carbon analyzers. This result can lead to an underestimate of the abundance of TBs and other organic particles, and therefore biomass burning may have more influence than currently recognized in regional and global climate models.

  20. Volume transmission and receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes: understanding the role of new concepts for brain communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Fuxe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the central monoamine neurons not only demonstrated novel types of brain stem neurons forming global terminal networks all over the brain and the spinal cord, but also to a novel type of communication called volume transmission. It is a major mode of communication in the central nervous system that takes places in the extracellular fluid and the cerebral spinal fluid through diffusion and flow of molecules, like neurotransmitters and extracellular vesicles. The integration of synaptic and volume transmission takes place through allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes. These heterocomplexes represent major integrator centres in the plasma membrane and their protomers act as moonlighting proteins undergoing dynamic changes and their structure and function. In fact, we propose that the molecular bases of learning and memory can be based on the reorganization of multiples homo and heteroreceptor complexes into novel assembles in the post-junctional membranes of synapses.

  1. Neuroglial Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Vidar; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    as a signaling substance recently shown to act on specific lactate receptors in the brain. Complementing neurotransmission at a synapse, neuroglial transmission often implies diffusion of the transmitter over a longer distance and concurs with the concept of volume transmission. Transmission from glia modulates...... synaptic neurotransmission based on energetic and other local conditions in a volume of tissue surrounding the individual synapse. Neuroglial transmission appears to contribute significantly to brain functions such as memory, as well as to prevalent neuropathologies....

  2. Triassic marine reptiles gave birth to live young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yen-Nien; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Ji, Qiang

    2004-11-18

    Sauropterygians form the largest and most diverse group of ancient marine reptiles that lived throughout nearly the entire Mesozoic era (from 250 to 65 million years ago). Although thousands of specimens of this group have been collected around the world since the description of the first plesiosaur in 1821 (ref. 3), no direct evidence has been found to determine whether any sauropterygians came on shore to lay eggs (oviparity) like sea turtles, or gave birth in the water to live young (viviparity) as ichthyosaurs and mosasauroids (marine lizards) did. Viviparity has been proposed for plesiosaur, pachypleurosaur and nothosaur sauropterygians, but until now no concrete evidence has been advanced. Here we report two gravid specimens of Keichousaurus hui Young from the Middle Triassic of China. These exquisitely preserved specimens not only provide the first unequivocal evidence of reproductive mode and sexual dimorphism in sauropterygians, but also indicate that viviparity could have been expedited by the evolution of a movable pelvis in pachypleurosaurs. By extension, this has implications for the reproductive pattern of other sauropterygians and Mesozoic marine reptiles that possessed a movable pelvis.

  3. Design, simulation, and optimization of an RGB polarization independent transmission volume hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Adoum Hassan

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings have been designed for use in many areas of science and technology such as optical communication, medical imaging, spectroscopy and astronomy. The goal of this dissertation is to design a volume phase holographic grating that provides diffraction efficiencies of at least 70% for the entire visible wavelengths and higher than 90% for red, green, and blue light when the incident light is unpolarized. First, the complete design, simulation and optimization of the volume hologram are presented. The optimization is done using a Monte Carlo analysis to solve for the index modulation needed to provide higher diffraction efficiencies. The solutions are determined by solving the diffraction efficiency equations determined by Kogelnik's two wave coupled-wave theory. The hologram is further optimized using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis to correct for effects of absorption omitted by Kogelnik's method. Second, the fabrication or recording process of the volume hologram is described in detail. The active region of the volume hologram is created by interference of two coherent beams within the thin film. Third, the experimental set up and measurement of some properties including the diffraction efficiencies of the volume hologram, and the thickness of the active region are conducted. Fourth, the polarimetric response of the volume hologram is investigated. The polarization study is developed to provide insight into the effect of the refractive index modulation onto the polarization state and diffraction efficiency of incident light.

  4. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  5. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A

  6. Design of a borehole data-acquisition/transmission system. Final report, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.L.; Bowden, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    Objective of the BDATS program was to design, construct, and demonstrate a borehole probe and associated uphole modules that would allow downhole collection of data from any of several borehole probes and would allow digital transmission of that data uphole to a computer. Specifically, the system was electrically and mechanically configured to interface to six separate borehole probes and a computer in a R and D logging vehicle. However, the system can be used with other types of probes

  7. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  8. Determination of the volume-specific surface area by using transmission electron tomography for characterization and definition of nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Michel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission electron microscopy (TEM remains an important technique to investigate the size, shape and surface characteristics of particles at the nanometer scale. Resulting micrographs are two dimensional projections of objects and their interpretation can be difficult. Recently, electron tomography (ET is increasingly used to reveal the morphology of nanomaterials (NM in 3D. In this study, we examined the feasibility to visualize and measure silica and gold NM in suspension using conventional bright field electron tomography. Results The general morphology of gold and silica NM was visualized in 3D by conventional TEM in bright field mode. In orthoslices of the examined NM the surface features of a NM could be seen and measured without interference of higher or lower lying structures inherent to conventional TEM. Segmentation by isosurface rendering allowed visualizing the 3D information of an electron tomographic reconstruction in greater detail than digital slicing. From the 3D reconstructions, the surface area and the volume of the examined NM could be estimated directly and the volume-specific surface area (VSSA was calculated. The mean VSSA of all examined NM was significantly larger than the threshold of 60 m2/cm3. The high correlation between the measured values of area and volume gold nanoparticles with a known spherical morphology and the areas and volumes calculated from the equivalent circle diameter (ECD of projected nanoparticles (NP indicates that the values measured from electron tomographic reconstructions are valid for these gold particles. Conclusion The characterization and definition of the examined gold and silica NM can benefit from application of conventional bright field electron tomography: the NM can be visualized in 3D, while surface features and the VSSA can be measured.

  9. Automated transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM for large volume analysis at nanoscale resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kuwajima

    Full Text Available Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm(2 (65.54 µm per side at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM system, which were only 66.59 µm(2 (8.160 µm per side at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm(2 and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm. Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems.

  10. Development of a Novel Spectrophotometer for Biochemical Analyzer Based on Volume Holography Transmissive Grating and Linear CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhong; Liu Guodong; Huang Zhen; Zeng Lvming; Dai Longmin

    2011-01-01

    The classical surface-embossed plane and concave grating are usually used as the diffraction grating in some spectrophotometers. But the minute cracks are produced on the surface of the gratings' grooves, which leads to generate the stray-light and decrease the efficiency of instrument. Therefore, a novel custom-built spectrophotometer for BCA is developed in this paper. Meanwhile, the volume holography transmissive (VHT) grating is used as the diffraction grating in this spectrophotometer. Additionally, a high resolution CCD and data acquisition (DAQ) card with combined the virtual software platform based on LabVIEW are used to design the spectral acquisition and analysis system. Experimental results show that the spectral range and the diffraction efficiency of the spectrophotometer for BCA are greatly increased. The spectral range of the spectrophotometer for BCA can reach 300-1000 nm, its wavelength resolution can reach 1nm. And, it uses the back-splitting-light technology and multi-channel parallel analysis. Compared with other same types, this spectrophotometer has many advantages, such as, higher efficiency, simpler algorithm, higher accuracy, cheaper cost and fewer stray-light and higher imaging quality, etc. Therefore, this spectrophotometer for BCA based on VHT grating will has the greatly potential values in the fields of the biochemical or medical research.

  11. Analysis and evaluation of GAVE chains. Part 2 of 3. Final report (sheets presentation); Analyse en evaluatie van GAVE-ketens. Deel 2 van 3. Final report (sheetpresentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosma, W.J.P. [Arthur D. Little International, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-12-01

    This report contains the detailed findings of the analysis, evaluation, and integration of Novem GAVE options. This main report is meant for the reader who is interested in the detailed findings, as well as an overview of the results. For readers who are mainly interested in the high-level results, and are comfortable with Dutch, there is a short text summary of our results, entitled 'Analyse en evaluatie van GAVE-ketens, management summary' (part 1). Readers who are interested in the underlying data and detailed assumptions are encouraged to consult the appendix to this report, entitled 'Analyse en evaluatie van GAVE-ketens, appendices' (part 3)

  12. Analysis and evaluation of GAVE chains. Part 3 of 3. Appendices; Analyse en evaluatie van GAVE-ketens. Deel 3 van 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosma, W.J.P. [Arthur D. Little International, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-12-01

    The final report (part 2) contains the detailed findings of the analysis, evaluation, and integration of Novem GAVE options and aims at the reader who is interested in the detailed findings, as well as an overview of the results. For readers who are mainly interested in the high-level results, and are comfortable with Dutch, there is a short text summary of our results, entitled 'Analyse en evaluatie van GAVE-ketens, management summary' (part 1). These appendices is for readers who are interested in the underlying data and detailed assumptions. 70 refs.

  13. Analysis and evaluation of GAVE chains. Part 1 of 3. Management summary; Analyse en evaluatie van GAVE-ketens. Deel 1 van 3. Management summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E.J.M.T.

    1999-12-01

    This main report contains a summary of the detailed findings of the analysis, evaluation, and integration of Novem GAVE options. The details are presented in the final report (part 2) in the form of copies of overhead sheets. That report aims at the reader who is interested in the detailed findings, as well as an overview of the results. For readers who are mainly interested in the high-level results, and are comfortable with Dutch, there is this short text summary of our results. Readers who are interested in the underlying data and detailed assumptions are encouraged to consult the appendix to this report, entitled 'Analyse en evaluatie van GAVE-ketens, appendices' (part 3)

  14. GAVE multi-actor process. A exemplified study with recommendations for a follow-up traject; GAVE multi-actor proces. Een voorbeeldstudie met aanbevelingen voor het vervolgtraject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diepenmaat, H.B. [Actors Procesmanagement, Zeist (Netherlands)

    2000-02-01

    The focus is on GAVE as an integral multi-actor process, as a collaboration process in which the parties have to find each other. The reason for this multi-actor approach is that the parties themselves have to realise the importance of sustainable energy. A multi-actor approach uses this crucial fact as the starting point. By means of the use of specific multi-actor methods and insights, it is possible during the collaboration process to develop a clear idea of the content of the joint path and the intended collaborative future, while paying specific attention to the individual roles of the players. Based on this, a well- considered and promising realisation path can be followed. The objective of this study is to illustrate - on the basis of two GAVE options - how the multi-actor approach can support the GAVE programme. In doing this, emphasis is placed on examples, the demonstration of added value of such an approach, and making recommendations for the future. Two experiments have been carried out on the basis of the Trinity approach. The Trinity approach is a set of methods specifically developed for supporting change processes which involve many parties (i.e. multi-actor processes). Trinity helps those involved to obtain a clear picture of both the route to be followed and the future situation to be aimed at. The term 'picture' must be understood literally: an important aspect of Trinity is the collaboration and communication with multi-actor models (also referred to as actorprints). By means of a diagram technique (figures and arrows) these models demonstrate the cohesion between the roles and activities of the various parties involved. The modelling process is instrumental in this; the actual result is that the image that is developed is formed and backed up by the participants in the process. Within these experiments, we have, so far, worked mainly in the shadow of the current GAVE process. A forceful participative use of the actor approach is

  15. Communications and Information: Strategic Automated Command Control System-Data Transmission Subsystem (SACCS-DTS) Network Security Program. Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) Systems, and 33-2, Information Protection. This instruction prescribes the requirements, responsibilities and procedures for the security program for the Strategic Automated Command Control System-Data Transmission Subsystem (SACCS-DTS...

  16. Glia and extracellular matrix changes affect extracellular diffusion and volume transmission in the brain in health and disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, S1 (2011), S38 ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glia l Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-17.09.2011, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : diffusion * extracellular matrix * extrasynaptic transmission Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  17. Sierra Pacific Power Company Alturas Transmission Line Project, Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company has proposed the construction and operation of a 345,000 volt overhead electric power transmission line from Alturas, California to Reno, Nevada. This Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement will assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project and alternatives. This report contains Appendices A--I which contain the following: glossary/abbreviations; scoping report; structure coordinate summary; air quality; biological resources; geology; noise; visual contrast rating forms; and cultural resources

  18. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 2: Propulsion transmission system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of lift/cruise fan technology aircraft were conceptually designed. One aircraft used turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators, and the other aircraft used variable pitch fans mechanically interconnected to three turboshaft engines. The components of each propulsion transmission system were analyzed and designed to the depth necessary to determine areas of risk, development methods, performance, weights and costs. The types of materials and manufacturing processes were identified to show that the designs followed a low cost approach. The lift/cruise fan thrust vectoring hoods, which are applicable to either aircraft configuration, were also evaluated to assure a low cost/low risk approach.

  19. A Case of Resistant SUNCT that Gave Response to Steroid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Levent Gül

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival injection and tearing with unilateral short lasting neuralgiform headache syndrome is called as SUNCT. Even though these headaches are reported seldomly, the prevalence is possibly higher than known. It is of importance to recognize these uncommon disorder, since its management differs from common primary headaches. Until today, it was reported to be treated with different types of drugs. We here reported a 30 years old male patient with normal neurological examination, blood examination and neuroimaging. Our patient gave no response to indomethacin, gabapentine and carbamazepine treatments. This case is an example of SUNCT case treated with steroid

  20. Automation of 3D reconstruction of neural tissue from large volume of conventional serial section transmission electron micrographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2009-01-30

    We describe an approach for automation of the process of reconstruction of neural tissue from serial section transmission electron micrographs. Such reconstructions require 3D segmentation of individual neuronal processes (axons and dendrites) performed in densely packed neuropil. We first detect neuronal cell profiles in each image in a stack of serial micrographs with multi-scale ridge detector. Short breaks in detected boundaries are interpolated using anisotropic contour completion formulated in fuzzy-logic framework. Detected profiles from adjacent sections are linked together based on cues such as shape similarity and image texture. Thus obtained 3D segmentation is validated by human operators in computer-guided proofreading process. Our approach makes possible reconstructions of neural tissue at final rate of about 5 microm3/manh, as determined primarily by the speed of proofreading. To date we have applied this approach to reconstruct few blocks of neural tissue from different regions of rat brain totaling over 1000microm3, and used these to evaluate reconstruction speed, quality, error rates, and presence of ambiguous locations in neuropil ssTEM imaging data.

  1. Influence of Co-57 and CT Transmission Measurements on the Quantification Accuracy and Partial Volume Effect of a Small Animal PET Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Julia G; Schmid, Andreas M; Pichler, Bernd J

    2017-12-01

    Non-invasive in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) provides high detection sensitivity in the nano- to picomolar range and in addition to other advantages, the possibility to absolutely quantify the acquired data. The present study focuses on the comparison of transmission data acquired with an X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner or a Co-57 source for the Inveon small animal PET scanner (Siemens Healthcare, Knoxville, TN, USA), as well as determines their influences on the quantification accuracy and partial volume effect (PVE). A special focus included the impact of the performed calibration on the quantification accuracy. Phantom measurements were carried out to determine the quantification accuracy, the influence of the object size on the quantification, and the PVE for different sphere sizes, along the field of view and for different contrast ratios. An influence of the emission activity on the Co-57 transmission measurements was discovered (deviations up to 24.06 % measured to true activity), whereas no influence of the emission activity on the CT attenuation correction was identified (deviations influenced by the applied calibration factor and by the object size. The PVE demonstrated a dependency on the sphere size, the position within the field of view, the reconstruction and correction algorithms and the count statistics. Depending on the reconstruction algorithm, only ∼30-40 % of the true activity within a small sphere could be resolved. The iterative 3D reconstruction algorithms uncovered substantially increased recovery values compared to the analytical and 2D iterative reconstruction algorithms (up to 70.46 % and 80.82 % recovery for the smallest and largest sphere using iterative 3D reconstruction algorithms). The transmission measurement (CT or Co-57 source) to correct for attenuation did not severely influence the PVE. The analysis of the quantification accuracy and the PVE revealed an influence of the object size, the reconstruction

  2. Postpartum Care Services and Birth Features of The Women Who Gave Birth in Burdur in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15

  3. One of the many visiting theoreticians, R P Feynman, who gave lectures at CERN during the year

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Visiting CERN in January was R P Feynman, who has recently been working on strong interaction theory. On 8 January, he packed the lecture theatre, as usual, when he gave a talk on inelastic hadron collisions and is here caught in a typically graphic pose.

  4. Childbirth care: the oral history of women who gave birth from the 1940s to 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Leister,Nathalie; Riesco,Maria Luiza Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    This study's objective was to gain a greater understanding of the changes that took place in the childbirth care model from the experience of women who gave birth in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil from the 1940s to the 1980s. This is a descriptive study conducted with 20 women using the Thematic Oral History method. Data were collected through unstructured interviews. The theme extracted from the interviews was "The experience of childbirth". The results indicate a time and generational demar...

  5. Sierra Pacific Power Company Alturas Transmission Line Project, Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Comments and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company has proposed the construction and operation of a 345,000 volt overhead electric power transmission line from Alturas, California to Reno, Nevada. This Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement will assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project and alternatives. This report contains public comments which were received on the Draft EIR/S. Significant issues may be identified through public and agency comments

  6. Comparison between dispersed nuclear power plants and a nuclear energy center at a hypothetical site on Kentucky Lake, Tennessee. Volume II. Transmission of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reister, D.B.; Zelby, L.W.

    1976-05-01

    A comparison is made among power transmission systems required to serve a single set of load center demands from four modes of siting the generating facilities: a single generation site with an ultimate generation capacity of 48,000 MW; four generation sites each with a generation capacity of 12,000 MW; 10 generation sites each with a generation capacity of 4,800 MW; and a system that resulted when the existing utility plan for future generation was logically expanded. The time period for the study is from the year 1985 to the year 2020, when the full 48,000 MW of new capacity from the single large nuclear energy center is on-line. The load centers served are Huntsville, Alabama; Evansville, Indiana; Paducah, Kentucky; and Chattanooga, Nashville, and Memphis, Tennessee. Generation sites are real locations but are hypothetical in terms of miles of transmission lines, the product of the amount of power transmitted and the distance transmitted (GW-miles), and cost

  7. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  8. Transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  9. Topics in lightwave transmission systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tingye

    1991-01-01

    Topics in Lightwave Transmission Systems is a second volume of a treatise on optical fiber communications that is devoted to the science, engineering, and application of information transmission via optical fibers. The first volume, published in 1985, dealt exclusively with fiber fabrication. The present volume contains topics that pertain to subsystems and systems. The book contains five chapters and begins with discussions of transmitters and receivers, which are basic to systems now operating in the field. Subsequent chapters cover topics relating to coherent systems: frequency and phase m

  10. Quantifying Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  11. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  12. Data transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tugal, Dogan A; Tugal, Osman

    1989-01-01

    This updated second edition provides working answers to today's critical questions about designing and managing all types of data transmission systems and features a new chapter on local area networks (LANs...

  13. Removal of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion from large volumes of cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum by using hollow fiber anion-exchange membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming Li; Bailey, Andy; Avory, Tiffany; Tanimoto, Junji; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people who had consumed contaminated meat products from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy emphasize the need for measures aimed at preventing the transmission of the pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc) from materials derived from cattle. Highly stringent scrutiny is required for fetal bovine serum (FBS), a growth-medium supplement used in the production of parenteral vaccines and therapeutic recombinant proteins and in the ex vivo expansion of stem cells for transplantation. One such approach is the implementation of manufacturing steps dedicated to removing PrPSc from materials containing FBS. We evaluated the use of the QyuSpeed D (QSD) adsorbent hollow-fiber anion-exchange chromatographic column (Asahi Kasei Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for the removal of PrPSc from cell culture media supplemented with FBS. We first established that QSD filtration had no adverse effect on the chemical composition of various types of culture media supplemented with 10% FBS or the growth and viability characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1) cells propagated in the various culture-medium filtrates. We used a 0.6-mL QSD column for removing PrPSc from up to 1000 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FBS previously spiked with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie. The Western blot analysis, validated alongside an infectivity assay, revealed that the level of PrPSc in the initial 200mL flow-through was reduced by 2.5 to > 3 log10, compared with that of the starting material. These results indicate that QSD filtration removes PrPSc from cell culture media containing 10% FBS, and demonstrate the ease with which QSD filtration can be implemented in at industrial-scale to improve the safety of vaccines, therapeutic recombinant proteins, and ex vivo expanded stem cells produced using growth

  14. Electrical transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, D P

    1960-05-01

    After briefly tracing the history of electricity transmission, trends in high voltage transmission and experiments being conducted on 650 kV are discussed. 5000 miles of the U.K. grid are operated at 132 kV and 1000 at 275 kV, ultimately to provide a super grid at 380 kV. Problems are insulation, radio interference and the cost of underground lines (16 times that of overhead lines). Also considered are the economics of the grid as a means of transporting energy and as a means of spreading the peak load over the power stations in the most efficient manner. Finally, the question of amenities is discussed.

  15. Radio and line transmission 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roddy, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  16. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.

  17. Transcending Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Trittin, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication...... in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores the implications of switching from an instrumental...... to a constitutive notion of communication. Findings – The study brings forth four main findings: from the CCO view, organizations are constituted by several, partly dissonant, and potentially contradictory communicative practices. From that viewpoint, the potential impact of CSR communication becomes a matter...

  18. Malaria PCR Detection in Cambodian Low-Transmission Settings: Dried Blood Spots versus Venous Blood Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canier, Lydie; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Eam, Rotha; Khean, Chanra; Loch, Kaknika; Ken, Malen; Pannus, Pieter; Bosman, Philippe; Stassijns, Jorgen; Nackers, Fabienne; Alipon, SweetC; Char, Meng Chuor; Chea, Nguon; Etienne, William; De Smet, Martin; Kindermans, Jean-Marie; Ménard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In the context of malaria elimination, novel strategies for detecting very low malaria parasite densities in asymptomatic individuals are needed. One of the major limitations of the malaria parasite detection methods is the volume of blood samples being analyzed. The objective of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a malaria polymerase chain reaction assay, from dried blood spots (DBS, 5 μL) and different volumes of venous blood (50 μL, 200 μL, and 1 mL). The limit of detection of the polymerase chain reaction assay, using calibrated Plasmodium falciparum blood dilutions, showed that venous blood samples (50 μL, 200 μL, 1 mL) combined with Qiagen extraction methods gave a similar threshold of 100 parasites/mL, ∼100-fold lower than 5 μL DBS/Instagene method. On a set of 521 field samples, collected in two different transmission areas in northern Cambodia, no significant difference in the proportion of parasite carriers, regardless of the methods used was found. The 5 μL DBS method missed 27% of the samples detected by the 1 mL venous blood method, but most of the missed parasites carriers were infected by Plasmodium vivax (84%). The remaining missed P. falciparum parasite carriers (N = 3) were only detected in high-transmission areas. PMID:25561570

  19. En gave til skolernes litteraturundervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Stein

    2015-01-01

    Mens Caspar Erics debutdigtsamling, " 7/ 11", fra sidste år var præget af en stil, hvor der i en hæsblæsende strøm blev refereret til Facebook, You-Tube, iPhone, mp3, Macbook, Twitter og Netflix, frem for at man fik noget at vide om, hvad der rørte sig i ... ......Mens Caspar Erics debutdigtsamling, " 7/ 11", fra sidste år var præget af en stil, hvor der i en hæsblæsende strøm blev refereret til Facebook, You-Tube, iPhone, mp3, Macbook, Twitter og Netflix, frem for at man fik noget at vide om, hvad der rørte sig i ... ...

  20. Geomagnetism gave me my bearings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    days at the University of Delhi, but also had the opportunity to attend summer ... versity in the United States, I worked on a problem in condensed- matter physics. ... diately after my Ph.D. made me open to the idea of taking up research in an ...

  1. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  2. Space power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuribayashi, Shizuma [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1989-10-05

    There being a conception to utilize solar energy by use of a space power station (SPS), a method to bring that universal grace to mankind is wireless energy transmission. The wireless energy transmission is regarded to be microwave transmission or laser beam transmission. The microwave transmission is to transmit 2.45GHz band microwave from the SPS to a receiving station on the ground to meet power demand on earth. The microwave, as small in attenuation in atmosphere and resistant against rain and cloud, is made candidate and, however, problematic in influence on organism, necessary large area of receiving antenna and many other points to be studied. While the laser transmission, as more convergent of beam than the microwave transmission, is advantageous with enabling the receiving area to be small and, however, disadvantageous with being not resistant against dust, rain and cloud, if used for the energy transmission between the space and earth. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Transmission on Balance 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    Every year he Dutch Transmission System Operator (TSO) TenneT issues the title publication 'Transmission on Balance'. This report provides information about the main technical operating results in the past year.

  4. Pre- and intraoperative volume determination of craniopharyngioma cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, P.; Strauss, L.; Sturm, V.; Ostertag, H.; Sinn, H.; Rommel, T.

    1980-08-01

    Exact cystic volume measurement is a prerequisite to proper /sup 90/Y dosage in the therapy of intracavitary monocystic craniopharyngiomas. The method of intraoperative volume measurement by a radionuclide dilution technique is compared to results abtained by preoperative using computer tomography. Both methods gave congruous results. It is pointed out that gamma camera scintigrams are essential for the early detection of complications.

  5. Experimental airborne transmission of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.S.; Bøtner, Anette; Takai, H.

    2004-01-01

    A series of three experiments, differing primarily in airflow volume, were performed to evaluate the likelihood of airborne transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) from infected to non-infected pigs. Pigs were housed in two units (unit A and unit B) located 1 m...

  6. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  7. Pellicle transmission uniformity requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas L.; Ito, Kunihiro

    1998-12-01

    Controlling critical dimensions of devices is a constant battle for the photolithography engineer. Current DUV lithographic process exposure latitude is typically 12 to 15% of the total dose. A third of this exposure latitude budget may be used up by a variable related to masking that has not previously received much attention. The emphasis on pellicle transmission has been focused on increasing the average transmission. Much less, attention has been paid to transmission uniformity. This paper explores the total demand on the photospeed latitude budget, the causes of pellicle transmission nonuniformity and examines reasonable expectations for pellicle performance. Modeling is used to examine how the two primary errors in pellicle manufacturing contribute to nonuniformity in transmission. World-class pellicle transmission uniformity standards are discussed and a comparison made between specifications of other components in the photolithographic process. Specifications for other materials or parameters are used as benchmarks to develop a proposed industry standard for pellicle transmission uniformity.

  8. METHODS OF POLYMODAL INFORMATION TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Basov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research results upon the application of the existing information transmission methods in polymodal info communication systems are presented herein. The analysis of the existing commutation ways and multiplexing schemes has revealed that modern means of telecommunication are capable of providing polymodal information delivery with the required quality to the customer correspondent terminal. Under these conditions substantial capacity resource consumption in the data transmission networks with a simultaneous static time multiplexing is required, however, it is easier to achieve the modality synchronization within that kind of an infrastructure. The data networks with a static time multiplexing demand employing more sophisticated supporting algorithms of the guaranteed data blocks delivery quality. However, due to the stochastic data blocks delays modality synchronizing during the off-line processing is more difficult to provide. Nowadays there are objective preconditions for a data networking realization which is invariable to the applied transmission technology. This capability is defined by a wide (person-to-person application of the optical technologies in the transport infrastructure of the polymodal info communication systems. In case of the availability of the customer terminal and networking functioning matching mode it becomes possible to organize channels in the latter which can adaptively select the most effective networking technology according to the current volume allocation and modality types in the messages.

  9. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  10. Transmission Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission Integration Transmission Integration The goal of NREL's transmission integration integration issues and provide data, analysis, and models to enable the electric power system to more and finding solutions to address them to enable transmission grid integration. Capabilities Power

  11. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  12. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J; Wood, Robin

    2017-11-03

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed. Data used to estimate the probable burden of recent transmission include tuberculosis case notifications in young children and trends in tuberculin skin test and interferon γ-release assays. More recently, M. tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing has been used to estimate population levels of recent transmission, identify the distribution of specific strains within communities, and decipher chains of transmission among culture-positive tuberculosis cases. The factors that drive the transmission of tuberculosis in communities depend on the burden of prevalent tuberculosis; the ways in which individuals live, work, and interact (eg, congregate settings); and the capacity of healthcare and public health systems to identify and effectively treat individuals with infectious forms of tuberculosis. Here we provide an overview of these factors, describe tools for measurement of ongoing transmission, and highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Platelet Function Analyzed by Light Transmission Aggregometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2017-01-01

    function can also be assessed for hyper-aggregability, but this is less often evaluated. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) was introduced in the early 1960s and has since been considered the gold standard. This optical detection system is based on changes in turbidity measured as a change in light...... transmission, which is proportional to the extent of platelet aggregation induced by addition of an agonist. LTA is a flexible method, as different agonists can be used in varying concentrations, but performance of the test requires large blood volumes and experienced laboratory technicians as well...

  14. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...

  15. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...

  16. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  17. Transmission market support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinschmidt, K.F.; Coles, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    An interactive, computer-based market support system has been developed for transmission access that is efficient, equitable, and fair to all parties concerned with electrical transmission: utilities, electric generators, owners of transmission networks, and wholesale purchasers of electrical power. Each participant transmits electronically to the computer system his proposed price schedule for buying, selling, or transmitting power for each future time period. The price for transmission on a single line in one direction can differ from the price in the other direction. The total quantity offered in the transmission bid represents the capacity of the line, and the flow on the line cannot exceed this value. The system automatically computes the prices that clear the market; that is, the price that each generator receives at each bus, the price that each transmission operator receives on each line, and the price that each customer pays at each bus. The computer system maximizes the benefits to all three classes while satisfying the electrical characteristics of the transmission system by means of load flow calculations. Customers never pay more than their bid prices (but may pay less), and generators and transmission operators never receive less than their bid prices (but may receive more). The price at each bus applies to all buyers and sellers at that bus: all buyers at the same bus pay the same price and all generators at a bus receive the same price

  18. Pricing transmission services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaden, E.

    1995-01-01

    The price structure for transmission of electric power through the main lines in Sweden is analyzed. After deregulation of the electricity market, the main transmission lines are owned by a separate national company, with no interests from the power producers. Comparisons are made to ideal marginal price structures. 6 refs

  19. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.

  20. Electric transmission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    Electric transmission technology has matured and can transmit bulk power more reliably and economically than the technology 10 years ago.In 1882, Marcel Depres transmitted 15 kW electric power at 2 kV, using a constant direct current; present transmission voltages have risen to ± 600 kV direct current (DC) and 765 kV alternating current (AC), and it is now possible to transmit bulk electric power at voltages as high as ± 1000 kV DC and 1500 kV AC. Affordable computer systems are now available to optimize transmission reliably. New materials have reduced the bulk of insulation for lines and equipment. New conducting materials and configurations have reduced losses in transmission. Advances in line structures and conductor motion, understanding of flashover characteristics of insulators and air-gaps and electrical performance of lines have resulted in more compact urban transmission lines. (author). 15 refs., 7 tabs., 11 figs

  1. Microwave energy transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1989-03-05

    Laying stress on the technological problems and effect on the environment of microwave energy transmission, recent scientific and engineering problems and related subjects are described. Because no fuel is required for the solar power generation, the power generation system can not be considered as an expensive one when the unit cost of energy is taken into consideration. Some of the important technological problems in the microwave energy transmission are accurate microwave beam control technology to receiving stations and improvement in the efficiency of transmission system. Microwave energy beam has effects on living bodies, communication, and plasma atmosphere of the earth. Microwave energy transmission using a space flyer unit is scheduled. Its objective is the development of microwave wireless transmission technology and the study of the correlation between high power microwave and ionosphere plasma. Experiments on such a small scale application as a microwave driven space ship to bring results seem also important. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Direct observations of the MOF (UiO-66) structure by transmission electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Liangkui

    2013-01-01

    As a demonstration of ab initio structure characterizations of nano metal organic framework (MOF) crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction tomography methods, a Zr-MOF (UiO-66) structure was determined and further confirmed by Rietveld refinements of powder X-ray diffraction. HRTEM gave direct imaging of the channels. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Alves, Joel M; Palmer, William J; Day, Jonathan P; Sylla, Massamba; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N; Black, William C; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M

    2017-02-28

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. This major disease vector is thought to have arisen when the African subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus evolved from being zoophilic and living in forest habitats into a form that specialises on humans and resides near human population centres. The resulting domestic subspecies, Ae. aegypti aegypti, is found throughout the tropics and largely blood-feeds on humans. To understand this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri Lanka than they were to a nearby forest population. We estimate that the populations in Senegal and Mexico split just a few hundred years ago, and we found no evidence of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes migrating back to Africa from elsewhere in the tropics. The out-of-Africa migration was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in effective population size, resulting in a loss of genetic diversity and rare genetic variants. We conclude that a domestic population of Ae. aegypti in Senegal and domestic populations on other continents are more closely related to each other than to other African populations. This suggests that an ancestral population of Ae. aegypti evolved to become a human specialist in Africa, giving rise to the subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti. The descendants of this population are still found in West Africa today, and the rest of the world was colonised when mosquitoes from this population migrated out of Africa. This is the first report of an African population of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes that is closely related to Asian and American populations. As the two subspecies differ in their ability to vector disease, their existence side by side in West Africa may have important implications for disease transmission.

  4. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector

    KAUST Repository

    Crawford, Jacob E.

    2017-02-20

    disease transmission.

  5. Electricity transmission pricing and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einhorn, M.; Siddiqi, R.

    1996-01-01

    The electric utility industry and its stake holders in the United States appear to be at a critical juncture in time. Powerful forces of global proportions are propelling the industry instinctively and in a secular fashion towards restructuring. That the industry will change is a fait accomplii. The nature and timing of the change is still a matter of intense debate, however. Because of the evolution of the industry into its present-day form, i.e. regulated local monopolies in their designated franchise service territories, the relative roles and expectations of various institutions would have to change to conform to the new state in the future. In either encouraging, or allowing this change to happen, society is essentially saying that future societal welfare would be better served by the changed structure contemplated. What that assumption translates into in more direct terms is that creation of future wealth would be better accomplished through redistribution of wealth today. Thoughtful individuals recognize the enormous responsibility placed upon the various entities empowered with jurisdiction over the timing and nature of the structural change. They are trying hard to bring analytical rigor to bear on the debate. One very critical element of this debate on restructuring is the issue of the treatment of transmission. The issue has been variously labeled transmission access, or pricing. Volumes have been written and spoken on this topic. We felt that there was a pressing need to assemble a volume which would serve as a one-stop source for varied viewpoints and comprehensive coverage of the subject, both technical and economic. 58 figs., 23 tabs., 103 refs

  6. Cost characteristics of transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    FERC regulation of transmission is predicated, at least in part, on a belief that, in the absence of regulation, some utilities would be able to exercise monopoly power and the ability to extract monopoly profits. This monopoly power follows from the view that transmission facilities inevitably are a natural monopoly for both economic and social/regulatory reasons. In the first part of this section the authors present the argument that transmission is a natural monopoly. They then consider the impact of this on regulation and the problems that that view creates

  7. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  8. [The control of vectorial transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Antônio Carlos; Dias, João Carlos Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1951, the first Prophylactic campaign against Chagas Diseases was carried on in Brazil by the so existing Serviço Nacional de Malária. The actions involving chemical vector control comprehended 74 municipalities along the Rio Grande Valley, between the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Ever since, until 1975, the activities were performed according the availability of resources, being executed with more or less regularity and coverage. At that time, Chagas disease did no represent priority, in comparison with other endemic diseases prevalent in the Country. Even so, taking into account the accumulated data along those 25 years, the volume of work realized cannot be considered despicable. Nevertheless, it was few consistent, in terms of its impact on disease transmission. In 1975, with an additional injection of resources surpassed from the malaria program, plus the methodological systematization of the activities, and with the results of two extensive national inquiries (entomologic and serologic), the activities for vector control could be performed regularly, following two basic principles: interventions in always contiguous areas, progressively enlarged, and sustainability (continuity) of the activities, until being attained determined requirements and purpose previously established. Such actions and strategies lead into the exhaustion of the populations of the principal vector species, Triatoma infestans, no autochthonous and exclusively domiciliary, as well as the control of the domiciliary colonization of autochthonous species important to disease transmission. Vector transmission today is being considered residual, by means of some few native and peridomestic species, such as Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata. There is, also, the risk of progressive domiciliation of some species before considered sylvatic, such as Panstrongylus lutzi and Triatoma rubrovaria. Finally, there is the possibility of the occurrence of cases

  9. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  10. Transmission issues in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levson, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlined the major issues and concerns facing users of the transmission system in Alberta. They include congestion management issues that make investors uncertain about power generation. It is necessary to know the difference between which transmission price signals will be faced by low cost cogeneration at Fort McMurray and Cold Lake coal-fired generation near Edmonton compared to combined cycle gas generation near Calgary. Import and export policy tariffs are another concern. Most new generation opportunities in Alberta require access to export markets, but transmission facilities for export need policy support and appropriate tariffs. It was noted that the past actions of Alberta's Transmission Administrator and balancing pool may be distorting market signals for ancillary service markets, and that loss studies and calculations need upgrading

  11. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  12. ECRH transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancredi, J.

    1983-01-01

    Hughes, Electron Dynamics Division is developing gyrotrons for ECRH requirements. In the development program, techniques have been evolved for transmission system components. These techniques include over-moded waveguide tapers, high average power windows, and rf water loads for testing

  13. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  14. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  15. Offshore Transmission Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this document is to give an overview of offshore electricity transmission technologies. In particular this document is concerned with the use of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems and more specifically with the development of Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology. This report outlines the current state of the main technology groups required for offshore HVDC transmission as well as giving examples of offshore projects (both current and future). Finally some indications of likely unit costs for HV assets are given.

  16. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  17. Optical analog transmission device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Shinji.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device such as electro-optical conversion elements, optoelectric-electric elements and optical transmission channel, not undergoing deleterious effects on the efficiency of conversion and transmission due to temperature, and aging change. That is, a sine wave superposing means superposes, on a detector signal to be transmitted, a sine-wave signal having a predetermined amplitude and at a frequency lower than that of the detector signal. An optoelectric conversion means converts the electric signal as the signal of the sine-wave signal superposing means into an optical signal and outputs the same to an optical transmitting channel. The optoelectric conversion means converts the transmitted signal to an electric signal. A discriminating means discriminates the electric signal into a detector signal and a sine-wave signal. A calculating means calculates an optical transmitting efficiency of the transmitting channel based on the amplitude of the discriminated sine-wave signal. A processing means compensates an amplitude value of the detector signals discriminated by the discriminating means based on the optical transmission efficiency. As a result, an optical analog transmission device can be attained, which conducts optical transmission at a high accuracy without undergoing the defective effects of the optical transmission efficiency. (I.S.)

  18. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  19. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  20. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  1. Fusion Engineering Device. Volume 1. Mission and program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This volume presents, in summary form, a recommended approach to implementing the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980. These recommendations constitute the findings of the FED Technical Management Board (TMB). The TMB and the affiliated technical managers gave particular scrutiny to elucidating the role of FED in fusion development and to defining the device mission

  2. Transmission positron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Kogure, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Miyoshi; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshiie, Toshimasa; Oshima, Ryuichiro; Matsuya, Miyuki

    2006-01-01

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons

  3. ETR transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, D.

    1983-01-01

    The presentation concentrates on factors associated with transmission systems for reactors and/or reactor relevant devices. For present day mirrors and their upgrades where power levels are in the few hundred kW range, waveguide systems with mode control are preferred. Beyond the early 1990's time frame are the ETR DEMO and reactor devices. These require injected power levels of about 75 MW. If only power oscillators are available at that time, then a MARS like transmission system may be appropriate or possibly a guided wave waveguide

  4. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  5. Absorption-Edge-Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--16-9675 Absorption- Edge -Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Absorption- Edge -Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant Monitoring...contaminants, within a volume of sampled solution, requires sufficient sensitivity. The present study examines the sensitivity of absorption- edge

  6. Compressed Data Transmission Among Nodes in BigData

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukarasu B; Sudhahar V M; VasanthaKumar U; Dr Kalaikumaran T; Dr Karthik S

    2014-01-01

    Many organizations are now dealing with large amount of data. Traditionally they used relational data. But nowadays they are supposed to use structured and semi structured data. To work effectively these organizations uses virtualization, parallel processing in compression etc., out of which the compression is most effective one. The data transmission of high volume usually causes high transmission time. This compression of unstructured data is immediately done when the data is being trans...

  7. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  8. Risk management in electricity markets emphasizing transmission congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2004-01-01

    of inefficiencies associated with ignoring losses when utilizing area (zonal) pricing, and an application of an integrated risk management model on the power system of Norway's second largest hydropower producer. The most important research findings include the following issues. First, Contracts for Differences in the Nordic market appear to be over-priced. Second, a merchant long-term financial transmission rights model is possible to realize in mathematical and economic terms. Third, by including the proceeds from a financial transmission right auction the independent system operator can issue a higher volume of rights because there is a relationship between the congestion rent, the proceeds from the auction and the payments to the financial transmission rights holders. Next, an integrated risk management model is applicable on large-scale power systems. Then, an overview is presented of different contractual arrangements that can be used to hedge transmission congestion risks. Finally, empirical data from existing financial transmission rights markets demonstrate how these markets work. (author)

  9. Towards an optimal transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calviou, M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation provided background on National Grid USA and discussed transmission investment in the United States (US) and United Kingdom. It also discussed barriers to transmission investments and improvements, thoughts on solutions and a long-term vision. The presentation identified that transmission investment should follow from clear reliability rules designed to promote better operation and management; investment does not necessarily mean new rights-of-way; and transmission investment should target benefits to customers. It was stated that US transmission investment levels have decreased. A comparison between US and UK transmission investment was presented along with a chart of increasing US congestion costs. Barriers to investment in US transmission include vertical integration; misperception of transmission as a market product; federal and state jurisdiction issues; fragmentation in transmission ownership and operation; rate cap based plans that impact transmission; lack of clarity in cost allocation; and the site selection process. Possible solutions include policy and incentives, promoting independence and resolving structural issues. tabs., figs

  10. Long distance signalling in volume transmission. Focus on clearance mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansson, A.; Lippoldt, A.; Mazel, Tomáš; Bartfai, T.; Orgen, S. O.; Syková, Eva; Agnati, L. F.; Fuxe, K.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 125, - (2000), s. 399-413 ISSN 0079-6123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV307/96/K226; GA ČR GA305/99/0655; GA ČR GA309/99/0657; GA MŠk VS96130; GA ČR GV309/97/K048; GA AV ČR KSK2039602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.520, year: 2000

  11. Role of glia in volume transmission in the CNS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 658 (2007), s. 16-16 ISSN 1748-1708. [The Physiological Society and The Federation of European Physiological Societies. 11.09.07-14.09.07, Bratislava] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : extracellular space Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  12. Glia and volume transmission during physiological and pathological states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 112, - (2005), s. 137-147 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065; GA ČR GA309/00/1430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : anisotropy * apparent diffusion coefficient Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.544, year: 2005

  13. Extrasynaptic volume transmission and diffusion parameters of the extracellular space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 129, - (2004), s. 861-876 ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : anisotropy * apparent diffusion coefficient Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.456, year: 2004

  14. Glial cells and volume transmission in the CNS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva; Chvátal, Alexandr

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2000), s. 397-409 ISSN 0197-0186 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV307/96/K226; GA ČR GV309/97/K048; GA ČR GA309/99/0657; GA ČR GA305/99/0655; GA MŠk VS96130 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : ion homeostasis * glia * tortuossity Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.662, year: 2000

  15. Astrocytes and extracellular matrix in extrasynaptic volume transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 369, č. 1654 (2014) ISSN 0962-8436 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11867S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : extracellular space * diffusion * astrocytes Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 7.055, year: 2014

  16. Watching Handball Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    and competent when mastering the game and in relation to others. The study shows that entertainment concerns both affective involvement and identity formation, as social and cultural meaning seem to be at the root of involvement. Even though both men and women find great joy in the transmissions, their viewing...

  17. Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in

  18. Open access to transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    For the past 12 to 15 years, the US electric power and energy industry and its federal regulators have been going through a prolonged exercise leading to opening up the national interconnected transmission grid for all qualified wholesale users to have open and equal access. The debates have been painful in a sense that not all parties - especially some of the transmission system owning utilities - believe that the concept of Open Access is achievable, due to technical constraints on the systems. The present Open Access activity is limited to wholesales transaction under the federal jurisdiction, but several states are either experimenting with or considering retail wheeling. In fact, the FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission - has already expanded its view to embrace retail transmission, if the retail transaction involves the use of the interstate transmission systems which are under FERC's jurisdiction. This paper delves into some of the results of the technical cost and pricing analysis for open access. The statutes and resulting regulations are not addressed herein. (author). 1 fig

  19. Intergenerational transmission of volunteerism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in

  20. Plants Africa gave to the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kunkel

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the flora of Africa is rather poor in plant species when compared to the floras of Tropical America or South-east Asia, this vast continent is the home of a wide range of plants useful to Man. Many of these have become famous in cultivation around the world. Coffee now provides an important source of income for certain countries, and the Yams yield one of the world’s staple foods. The Oil Palm and Cola trees are widely cultivated in Africa itself and elsewhere. African Mahoganies and Ironwoods are much sought after timber trees of excellent quality. Numerous grasses and pulses are well-known for their food value, and some of the native Cucurbitaceae are appreciated additions to our vegetable diet. African plants have also made their contribution to horticulture, ranging from world-famous trees such as the African or Gabon Tulip tree and many of the South African species of Proteaceae to the multitude of East and South African succulents. The present paper provides a survey of the most important of these useful plants and will emphasize the need of further research for forestry and agricultural as well as horticultural purposes, especially as far as some still little-known but potentially important plants species are concerned.

  1. Foods The Indians Gave Us. Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hail, Raven

    This children's coloring book devotes a page to each of twenty of the most familiar American Indian plant foods: avocado, green beans, black walnuts, cocoa, corn, peanuts, pecans, chile peppers, pineapples, popcorn, potatoes, pumpkins, squash, strawberries, sugar maple, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, tapioca, tomatoes, and vanilla. Illustrating each…

  2. They gave their names to science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halacy, D. S

    1967-01-01

    ...: Ernst Mach and his number, Gergor Mendel and his laws, Christian Johann Doppler and his effect, Hans Geiger and his radiation counter, Nicholas Sadi Carnot and thermodynamics, Gustave, Gaspard de...

  3. Circuit QED with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruloff, Stefan; Taketani, Bruno; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We're working on the theory of metamaterials providing some interesting results. The negative refraction index causes an opposite orientation of the wave vector k and the Poynting vector S of the travelling waves. Hence the metamaterial has a falling dispersion relation ∂ω(k)/∂k < 0 implying that low frequencies correspond to short wavelengths. Metamaterials are simulated by left-handed transmission lines consisting of discrete arrays of series capacitors and parallel inductors to ground. Unusual physics arises when right-and left-handed transmission lines are coupled forming a hybrid metamaterial transmission line. E.g. if a qubit is placed in front of a hybrid metamaterial transmission line terminated in an open circuit, the spontaneous emission rate is weakened or unaffected depending on the transition frequency of the qubit. Some other research interests are the general analysis of metamaterial cavities and the mode structure of hybrid metamaterial cavities for QND readout of multi-qubit operators. Especially the precise answer to the question about the definition of the mode volume of a metamaterial cavity is one of our primary goals.

  4. Wireless transmission of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it has been proven by researchers that electrical energy can be propagated around the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at extremely low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity. Experiments to data have shown that electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range of 8 Hz, the fundamental Schumann Resonance frequency, propagate with litter attenuation around the planet within the Schumann Cavity. It is the intent of this research to determine if the Schumann Cavity can be resonated, if the power that is delivered to the cavity propagated with very low losses, and if power can be extracted at other locations within the cavity. Experimental data collected and calculations made in recent years support the hypothesis that wireless power transmission is a viable and practical alternative to the present systems of power transmission

  5. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  7. Dynamic Strategic Information Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Golosov; Vasiliki Skreta; Aleh Tsyvinski; Andrea Wilson

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies strategic information transmission in a dynamic environment where, each period, a privately informed expert sends a message and a decision maker takes an action. Our main result is that, in contrast to a static environment, full information revelation is possible. The gradual revelation of information and the eventual full revelation is supported by the dynamic rewards and punishments. The construction of a fully revealing equilibrium relies on two key features. The first f...

  8. Operational electricity transmission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    1997-01-01

    In a liberalized electricity market both the consumers and the producers of electricity must pay for the use of the power transmission network. Thus, the net manager has unlimited options to realize efficiency improvements. A neutral and transparent management of the power grid is necessary to avoid disturbance of the market. KEMA Consulting translated abstract ideas and strategic advices to operational concepts in its report 'A framework for the determination of tariffs of the transport in the Dutch electricity sector'

  9. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  10. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  11. Benefits of transmission interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, D.

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of new power transmission interconnections from Alberta were discussed with reference to the challenges and measures needed to move forward. Alberta's electricity system has had a long period of sustained growth in generation and demand and this trend is expected to continue. However, no new interconnections have been built since 1985 because the transmission network has not expanded in consequence with the growth in demand. As such, Alberta remains weakly interconnected with the rest of the western region. The benefits of stronger transmission interconnections include improved reliability, long-term generation capability, hydrothermal synergies, a more competitive market, system efficiencies and fuel diversity. It was noted that the more difficult challenges are not technical. Rather, the difficult challenges lie in finding an appropriate business model that recognizes different market structures. It was emphasized that additional interconnections are worthwhile and will require significant collaboration among market participants and governments. It was concluded that interties enable resource optimization between systems and their benefits far exceed their costs. tabs., figs

  12. Flow rate measurement in a volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, Cristhian

    2018-04-17

    A system for measuring flow rate within a volume includes one or more transmission devices that transmit one or more signals through fluid contained within the volume. The volume may be bounded, at least in part, by an outer structure and by an object at least partially contained within the outer structure. A transmission device located at a first location of the outer structure transmits a first signal to a second location of the outer structure. A second signal is transmitted through the fluid from the second location to a third location of the outer structure. The flow rate of the fluid within the volume may be determined based, at least in part, on the time of flight of both the first signal and the second signal.

  13. Microwave power engineering generation, transmission, rectification

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    1968-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 1: Generation, Transmission, Rectification considers the components, systems, and applications and the prevailing limitations of the microwave power technology. This book contains four chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic concept and developments of microwave power technology. The second chapter deals with the development of the main classes of high-power microwave and optical frequency power generators, such as magnetrons, crossed-field amplifiers, klystrons, beam plasma amplifiers, crossed-field noise sources, triodes, lasers. The third

  14. Alternative approaches to transmission investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, J.L. [International Transmission Co., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The International Transmission Company (ITC) is an independent power transmission company that owns, operates and maintains the high voltage transmission system in southeastern Michigan. The company's current focus is on investing in the transmission infrastructure to improve reliability, relieve congestion, improve access to generation and reduce energy costs for consumers. There is a need for investment in power transmission. Trends indicate that power transactions are on the rise while transmission investment is lagging because pricing protocols are inadequate and there is no regional tariff mechanism to allocate the benefits of new investment. The presentation reviewed the applicability of FTRs to transmission owners and the pitfalls of participant funding pricing. It also outlined the regional benefit allocation mechanism (RBAM) with an illustrative example. It was concluded that existing pricing policies must be improved to address the growing need for transmission investment. RBAM is needed to help investors recover costs from project beneficiaries. figs.

  15. Our views on transmission policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellford, W.H.; Sutley, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss the need for predictable and fair access to transmission facilities in order to ensure competitive generation of power. They propose that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission should regulate transmission to prevent a utility from gaining a competitive advantage in electricity generation markets, the incorporation of transmission access into every bidding program under state jurisdiction, and requirement of transmission rates, terms and conditions for all in-state utilities be included in the request for proposal

  16. Parallel plate transmission line transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, S.J.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A Transmission Line Transformer (TLT) can be used to transform high-voltage nanosecond pulses. These transformers rely on the fact that the length of the pulse is shorter than the transmission lines used. This allows connecting the transmission lines in parallel at the input and in series at the

  17. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  18. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  19. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  20. Research and Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present situation provides a challenge for us to reconsider the necessary link between science and pedagogy, between research and the transmission of knowledge. The Ministry of National education has just inaugurated a broad consultation of teachers on every level with a view to modernising and giving coherence to the programs of secondary education. Armand Frémont will head the group of experts responsible for history and geography. Is this a coincidence? The changeover in the jury for t...

  1. Economy of electric power transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoni, G.; Delfanti, M.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the impact of H V and Ehv transmission costs on the final value of the kWh supplied, with reference both to transmission systems of the European type and to long distance point-to-point transmission links. The analysis is extended to A C transmission by underground cables and to Hvdc submarine and aerial links. In the European power system, the impact of transmission costs results to be usually modest, but it may become important in the case of network congestions [it

  2. The use of acoustically tuned resonators to improve the sound transmission loss of double panel partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. M.; Fahy, F. J.

    1986-10-01

    The effectiveness of tuned Helmholtz resonators connected to the partition cavity in double-leaf partitions utilized in situations requiring low weight structures with high transmission loss is investigated as a method of improving sound transmission loss. This is demonstrated by a simple theoretical model and then experimentally verified. Results show that substantial improvements may be obtained at and around the mass-air-mass frequency for a total resonator volume 15 percent of the cavity volume.

  3. Realistic modeling of radiation transmission inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    We have applied Monte Carlo particle transport methods to assess a proposed neutron transmission inspection system for checked luggage. The geometry of the system and the time, energy and angle dependence of the source have been modeled in detail. A pulsed deuteron beam incident on a thick Be target generates a neutron pulse with a very broad energy spectrum which is detected after passage through the luggage item by a plastic scintillator detector operating in current mode (as opposed to pulse counting mode). The neutron transmission as a function of time information is used to infer the densities of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen in the volume sampled. The measured elemental densities can be compared to signatures for explosives or other contraband. By using such computational modeling it is possible to optimize many aspects of the design of an inspection system without costly and time consuming prototyping experiments or to determine that a proposed scheme will not work. The methods applied here can be used to evaluate neutron or photon schemes based on transmission, scattering or reaction techniques

  4. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  5. Transmission rights and market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, J.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the concerns about physical transmission rights relate to the ability to implicitly or explicitly remove that transmission capacity from the market-place. Under a very strict form of physical right, owners could simply choose not to sell it if they don't want to use it. Modifications that require the release of spare capacity back into an open market could potentially alleviate this problem but there is concern that such releases would not occur far enough in advance to be of much use to schedulers. Similarly, the transmission capacity that is made available for use by non-rights holders can also be manipulated by the owners of transmission rights. The alternative form, financial transmission rights, provide to their owners congestion payments, but physical control of transmission paths. In electricity markets such as California's, even financial transmission rights could potentially be utilized to effectively withhold transmission capacity from the marketplace. However, methods for withholding transmission capacity are somewhat more convoluted, and probably more difficult, for owners of financial rights than for owners of physical rights. In this article, the author discusses some of the potential concerns over transmission rights and their use for the exercise of various forms of market power

  6. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...... the soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  7. Information transmission strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, A.

    1989-01-01

    The four propositions on which our radiation protection information transmission strategy is based are as follows: 1. Emotion exists. It rules our lives at work as well as at home, particularly when radiation safety is involved. Emotion is therefore the terrain for our strategy. 2. The basic emotion is that of fear. This must be recognized and accepted if we want to transmit objective information. The basis of our strategy is therefore listening. 3. A person cannot be divided into parts. The whole person is concerned about safety. We have to deal with that whole person. 4. To follow a strategy we need strategists. We must look at our own emotions and our own motivation before going into the field

  8. Underground transmission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geibka, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several underground tomographic transmission surveys have been carried out. Targets were cavities, ore veins and fault zones. Examples from measurements in a german heavy/fluor spar mine a lead/zinc mine and a rock laboratory of the Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive waste are presented. Measurements were carried out between boreholes and road ways. The recording equipment was the intrinsically safe SEAMEX85 system built and sold by WBK. Receivers were mounted in a chain of 6 two-component probes. Sources were an inhole hammer a sledge hammer a sparker and explosives from a single detonator to 180 g depending on the distance and absorption of the rock material. Cavities showed very distinct velocity reductions between 30 and 50%. Different vein material showed velocity reduction as well as velocity increase relative to the surrounding rock

  9. Image Transmission Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, G. James; Hill, Rexford L.; Rueter, Allen P.; Senol, Evren; Studt, James W.

    1988-06-01

    Radiological PACS image sizes and desired retrieval response times demand high-bandwidth communication networks. Local area network technology at speeds higher that 10 Megabits/second (IEEE 802.3) have not achieved standardization nor production volume. Our current PACS experiments are based on a three-level subnet approach using 10 Mb/s Ethernet channels. An Ethernet channel is shown to support image transfers at an average throughput of 3 Mb/s. Preliminary measurements and simulation results suggest that traffic from as many as two-to-three archives can be supported on the same channel.

  10. Image transmission studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaine, G.J.; Hill, R.L.; Rueter, A.P.; Senol, E.; Studt, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses radiological PACS image sizes and desired retrieval response time that demand high-bandwidth communication networks. Local area network technology at speeds higher that 10 Megabits/second (IEEE 802.3) have not achieved standardization nor production volume. The authors describe current PACS experiments based on a three-level subnet approach using 10 Mb/s Ethernet channels. An Ethernet channel is shown to support image transfers at an average throughput of 3 Mb/s. Preliminary measurements and simulation results suggest that traffic from as many as two-to-three archives can be supported on the same channel

  11. Self-Shielding Of Transmission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Christos [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The use of shielding to contend with noise or harmful EMI/EMR energy is not a new concept. An inevitable trade that must be made for shielding is physical space and weight. Space was often not as much of a painful design trade in older larger systems as they are in today’s smaller systems. Today we are packing in an exponentially growing number of functionality within the same or smaller volumes. As systems become smaller and space within systems become more restricted, the implementation of shielding becomes more problematic. Often, space that was used to design a more mechanically robust component must be used for shielding. As the system gets smaller and space is at more of a premium, the trades starts to result in defects, designs with inadequate margin in other performance areas, and designs that are sensitive to manufacturing variability. With these challenges in mind, it would be ideal to maximize attenuation of harmful fields as they inevitably couple onto transmission lines without the use of traditional shielding. Dr. Tom Van Doren proposed a design concept for transmission lines to a class of engineers while visiting New Mexico. This design concept works by maximizing Electric field (E) and Magnetic Field (H) field containment between operating transmission lines to achieve what he called “Self-Shielding”. By making the geometric centroid of the outgoing current coincident with the return current, maximum field containment is achieved. The reciprocal should be true as well, resulting in greater attenuation of incident fields. Figure’s 1(a)-1(b) are examples of designs where the current centroids are coincident. Coax cables are good examples of transmission lines with co-located centroids but they demonstrate excellent field attenuation for other reasons and can’t be used to test this design concept. Figure 1(b) is a flex circuit design that demonstrate the implementation of self-shielding vs a standard conductor layout.

  12. Transmission diamond imaging detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, John, E-mail: smedley@bnl.gov; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.

  13. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. de S. Dias

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level.

  14. Transmission acoustic microscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, Roman; Kolosov, Oleg; Levin, Vadim; Lobkis, Oleg

    The nature of acoustic contrast, i.e. the connection of the amplitude and phase of the output signal of the acoustic microscope with the local values of the acoustic parameters of the sample (density, elasticity, viscosity) is a central problem of acoustic microscopy. A considerable number of studies have been devoted to the formation of the output signal of the reflection scanning acoustic microscope. For the transmission acoustic microscope (TAM) this problem has remained almost unstudied. Experimental investigation of the confocal system of the TAM was carried out on an independently manufactured laboratory mockup of the TAM with the working frequency of the 420 MHz. Acoustic lenses with the radius of curvature of about 500 microns and aperture angle of 45 deg were polished out in the end faces of two cylindrical sound conductors made from Al2O3 single crystals with an axis parallel to the axis C of the crystal (the length of the sound conductor is 20 mm; diameter, 6 mm). At the end faces of the sound conductor, opposite to the lenses, CdS transducers with a diameter of 2 mm were disposed. The electric channel of the TAM provided a possibility for registering the amplitude of the microscope output signal in the case of the dynamic range of the 50 dB.

  15. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  16. Endoscopic transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of endoscopes and biopsy forceps with Helicobacter pylori occurs readily after endoscopic examination of H. pylori-positive patients. Unequivocal proof of iatrogenic transmission of the organism has been provided. Estimates for transmission frequency approximate to 4 per 1000

  17. Transmission reliability faces future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaty, W.

    1993-01-01

    The recently published Washington International Energy Group's 1993 Electric Utility Outlook states that nearly one-third (31 percent) of U.S. utility executives expect reliability to decrease in the near future. Electric power system stability is crucial to reliability. Stability analysis determines whether a system will stay intact under normal operating conditions, during minor disturbances such as load fluctuations, and during major disturbances when one or more parts of the system fails. All system elements contribute to reliability or the lack of it. However, this report centers on the transmission segment of the electric system. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) says the transmission systems as planned will be adequate over the next 10 years. However, delays in building new lines and increasing demands for transmission services are serious concerns. Reliability concerns exist in the Mid-Continent Area Power Pool and the Mid-America Interconnected Network regions where transmission facilities have not been allowed to be constructed as planned. Portions of the transmission systems in other regions are loaded at or near their limits. NERC further states that utilities must be allowed to complete planned generation and transmission as scheduled. A reliable supply of electricity also depends on adhering to established operating criteria. Factors that could complicate operations include: More interchange schedules resulting from increased transmission services. Increased line loadings in portions of the transmission systems. Proliferation of non-utility generators

  18. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  19. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  20. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  1. The evolution of transmission mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Mark R.; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Kallio, Eva R.; Okamura, Beth; Sait, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews research on the evolutionary mechanisms leading to different transmission modes. Such modes are often under genetic control of the host or the pathogen, and often in conflict with each other via trade-offs. Transmission modes may vary among pathogen strains and among host populations. Evolutionary changes in transmission mode have been inferred through experimental and phylogenetic studies, including changes in transmission associated with host shifts and with evolution of the unusually complex life cycles of many parasites. Understanding the forces that determine the evolution of particular transmission modes presents a fascinating medley of problems for which there is a lack of good data and often a lack of conceptual understanding or appropriate methodologies. Our best information comes from studies that have been focused on the vertical versus horizontal transmission dichotomy. With other kinds of transitions, theoretical approaches combining epidemiology and population genetics are providing guidelines for determining when and how rapidly new transmission modes may evolve, but these are still in need of empirical investigation and application to particular cases. Obtaining such knowledge is a matter of urgency in relation to extant disease threats. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289251

  2. Alternative approaches to transmission investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thon, S. [AltaLink Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    AltaLink is Canada's first stand-alone power transmission company, serving all major centres in Alberta and 85 per cent of Alberta's population. It has more than $1 billion in assets, 11,500 km of transmission lines and 300 substations. It was noted that there has not been any significant investment in power transmission in Alberta for the past 20 years, partly because transmission assets have a very long lifespan. The new role of the power grid is to ensure reliability, safety, efficiency, market effectiveness and supply diversity. The benefits and costs of AltaLink's 500 kV North-South upgrade project were outlined. It was noted that a healthy transmission system is the basis for economic growth throughout the province and for the development of Alberta's resource base. The transmission policy in Alberta endorses that all consumers pay postage stamp tariffs. It also promotes a proactive plan for transmission projects, the time to maximum rate (TMR) in limited cases only, a congestion-free grid under normal conditions, the financial commitment of generators, specific time limits on permitting processes, and regional interconnections to benefit all customers. tabs., figs.

  3. Transmission Line Series Compensation for Wind Energy Transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Wong, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy has demonstrated to be a clean, copious and absolutely renewable source of energy, and the large penetration of it into the power grid indicates that wind energy is considered an effective means of power generation, Transmission of wind energy from remote locations to load centers necessitates long transmission lines. Series compensation is a proven and economical transmission solution to address system power transfer strength, grid stability, and voltage profile issues of long transmission lines. In this paper, a programmable approach to determine the capacitive reactance of series capacitor and optimum location for its placement to achieve maximum power transfer gas been presented. The respective program with sample solutions has been provided for real-time applications. (paper)

  4. Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Bryan

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

  5. Markets for financial transmission rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, T.

    2004-01-01

    Results of a survey of markets for financial transmission rights that facilitate competitive, open and non-discriminatory electricity market design are discussed. Specifically, the survey covered Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland (PJM), New York, California, New England, Texas and New Zealand. The main emphasis was on the PJM and the New York markets, since they are the most mature. Interwowen with the results is a thorough discussion of the properties, features and the design of financial transaction rights in the various jurisdictions, the advantages, disadvantages and market performance of financial transmission rights, market performance criteria, and the mechanism for acquiring financial transmission rights. 49 refs., 14 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Transmission eigenvalues and thermoacoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, David; Hickmann, Kyle S

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of the interior transmission problem is related to the unique determination of the acoustic properties of a body in thermoacoustic imaging. Under a non-trapping hypothesis, we show that sparsity of the interior transmission spectrum implies a range separation condition for the thermoacoustic operator. In odd dimensions greater than or equal to 3, we prove that the interior transmission spectrum for a pair of radially symmetric non-trapping sound speeds is countable, and conclude that the ranges of the associated thermoacoustic maps have only trivial intersection. (paper)

  7. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, north west of Ethiopia: a community-based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferra, Alemayehu Shimeka; Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret

    2012-07-31

    Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. The key to reducing maternal mortality ratio and improving maternal health is increasing attendance by skilled health personnel throughout pregnancy and delivery. However, delivery service is significantly lower in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess factors affecting institutional delivery service utilization among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers with birth in the last 12 months during August, 2010. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 371 participants. A pre tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 software. The study indicated that 12.1% of the mothers delivered in health facilities. Of 87.9% mothers who gave birth at home, 80.0% of them were assisted by family members and relatives. The common reasons for home delivery were closer attention from family members and relatives (60.9%), home delivery is usual practice (57.7%), unexpected labour (33.4%), not being sick or no problem at the time of delivery (21.6%) and family influence (14.4%). Being urban resident (AOR [95% CI] = 4.6 [1.91, 10.9]), ANC visit during last pregnancy (AOR [95% CI] = 4.26 [1.1, 16.4]), maternal education level (AOR [95%CI] =11.98 [3.36, 41.4]) and knowledge of mothers on pregnancy and delivery services (AOR [95% CI] = 2.97[1.1, 8.6]) had significant associations with institutional delivery service utilization. Very low institutional delivery service utilization was observed in the study area. Majority of the births at home were assisted by family members and relatives. ANC visit and lack of knowledge on pregnancy and delivery services were found to

  8. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, North West of Ethiopia: A community - based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teferra Alemayehu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. The key to reducing maternal mortality ratio and improving maternal health is increasing attendance by skilled health personnel throughout pregnancy and delivery. However, delivery service is significantly lower in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess factors affecting institutional delivery service utilization among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers with birth in the last 12 months during August, 2010. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 371 participants. A pre tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The study indicated that 12.1% of the mothers delivered in health facilities. Of 87.9% mothers who gave birth at home, 80.0% of them were assisted by family members and relatives. The common reasons for home delivery were closer attention from family members and relatives (60.9%, home delivery is usual practice (57.7%, unexpected labour (33.4%, not being sick or no problem at the time of delivery (21.6% and family influence (14.4%. Being urban resident (AOR [95% CI] = 4.6 [1.91, 10.9], ANC visit during last pregnancy (AOR [95% CI] = 4.26 [1.1, 16.4], maternal education level (AOR [95%CI] =11.98 [3.36, 41.4] and knowledge of mothers on pregnancy and delivery services (AOR [95% CI] = 2.97[1.1, 8.6] had significant associations with institutional delivery service utilization. Conclusions Very low institutional delivery service utilization was observed in the study area. Majority of the births at home were assisted by family members and relatives. ANC visit and lack of

  9. The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frédéric M. Hamelin; Linda J.S. Allen; Holly R. Prendeville; M. Reza Hajimorad; Michael J. Jeger

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways is studied through transmission via seed, pollen, oravector. We address the questions: under what circumstances does vector transmission make pollen transmission redundant? Can evolution lead to the coexistence of multiple virus transmission pathways? We restrict the analysis to an annual plant population in which...

  10. Echinococcosis : disease, detection and transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craig, P.S.; Rogan, M T; Campos-Ponce, M

    2003-01-01

    Echinococcosis is one of the world's most geographically widespread parasitic zoonoses, with transmission occurring in tropical, temperate and arctic biomes. Most human infections are due to Echinococcus granulosus transmitted between domestic dogs and livestock, but this cosmopolitan species also

  11. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  12. Accounting-related transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, M.; Bjorn, P.; Pate, G.

    1999-01-01

    Various initiatives have been undertaken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deregulate wholesale electric energy markets. These initiatives have focused on restructuring the transmission systems in the US and recently have culminated in a proposal requiring formation of and participation in regional transmission organizations. The overall form of regulation selected to determine rates for transmission entities as well as underlying regulatory decisions reached on key issues will have profound implications for transmission entities. For example, traditional cost-based regulation would require one set of accounting and reporting rules, while incentive-based regulation may not be subject to those same rules. An overview of some of the major accounting and financial reporting issues that will need to be considered is presented

  13. Transmission of Information: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, George R.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines the basic principles underlying the transmission of information, including analog and digital modulation, limitations to communications, configurations of communications networks, optical fiber cables, and earth satellites. Six references are cited. (FM)

  14. Evidence of localized wave transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    LLNL [Lawrence Livermore National Lab.] experiments to test the feasibility of launching an acoustic, directed-energy pulse train (ADEPT) in water have demonstrated localized transmission of wave energy far beyond the classical Rayleigh length that defines the boundary between near-field and far-field transmission for Gaussian (diffraction-limited) pulses. The results of the experiments are in excellent agreement with computer simulations

  15. Heartland Alliance for Regional Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Nancy [Climate and Energy Project, Inc., Hutchinson, KS (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The Heartland Alliance for Regional Transmission (HART) will foster a candid, productive conversation among stakeholders that identifies challenges to and benefits from a massive build out of wind generation and transmission across the Southwest Power Pool. Based on the outcomes of those deliberations, HART will develop and deliver an ambitious, coordinated, peer-to-peer outreach effort that spans the SPP to improve market acceptance for wind.

  16. Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenzhuo

    The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

  17. Evaluating the merchant transmission market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.; Bartholomew Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviewed the North American bulk electric transmission system, with particular reference to the following merchant power transmission projects that have applied to sell transmission at negotiated rates by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC): Cross Sound Cable; Neptune Phase 1; TransCanada's Northern Lights HVDC line; Montana Alberta Tie; Juan de Fuca Cable; Linden VFT; Connecticut-Long Island Cable; Lake Erie Link; Empire Connection; Harbor Cable; Chesapeake Transmission; and the Neptune/Green Line. The projects were sorted by status as either active, inactive and restructured. Each summary included the interconnection points, capacity, and sponsor. This paper also identified the major hurdles in their approvals. The relative success of the merchant transmission framework in attracting new investment was then reviewed. The successful projects shared 3 common attributes. They connected areas with large price differentials and they used advanced flow control technology such as HVDC, PARs, and VFTs. The successful projects also bridged some type of border, either geographic, electrical, economic, or a combination. Three of the active projects crossed the Canadian-US border, while the other 3 connected New York City to neighbouring regions. It was shown that merchant transmission fills a niche, enabling market responses to connect areas that may be overlooked by a regional planning process. 27 refs

  18. Design of data transmission for a portable DAQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenxiong; Nan Gangyang; Zhang Jianchuan; Wang Yanyu

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), combined with ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) is increasingly employed in the portable data acquisition (DAQ) system for nuclear experiments to reduce the system volume and achieve powerful and multifunctional capacity. High-speed data transmission between FPGA and ARM is one of the most challenging issues for system implementation. In this paper, we propose a method to realize the high-speed data transmission by using the FPGA to acquire massive data from FEE (Front-end electronics) and send it to the ARM whilst the ARM to transmit the data to the remote computer through the TCP/IP protocol for later process. This paper mainly introduces the interface design of the high-speed transmission method between the FPGA and the ARM, the transmission logic of the FPGA, and the program design of the ARM. The theoretical research shows that the maximal transmission speed between the FPGA and the ARM through this way can reach 50 MB/s. In a realistic nuclear physics experiment, this portable DAQ system achieved 2.2 MB/s data acquisition speed. (authors)

  19. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike; Mueller, Frank; Merk, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81±15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only LBM ). (orig.)

  20. Local Multi-Channel RF Surface Coil versus Body RF Coil Transmission for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance at 3 Tesla: Which Configuration Is Winning the Game?

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberger, Oliver; Winter, Lukas; Dieringer, Matthias A.; Els, Antje; Oezerdem, Celal; Rieger, Jan; Kuehne, Andre; Cassara, Antonino M.; Pfeiffer, Harald; Wetterling, Friedrich; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using local four-channel RF coil transmission and benchmark it against large volume body RF coil excitation. METHODS: Electromagnetic field simulations are conducted to detail RF power deposition, transmission field uniformity and efficiency for local and body RF coil transmission. For both excitation regimes transmission field maps are acquired in a human torso phantom. For each...

  1. Atlas transmission line breakdown analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, K E; Ballard, E O; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; McCuistian, B T; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility will use 24 radially converging, vertically oriented and tapered, oil insulated, triplate transmission lines between the Marx generators and the central load region. Among the requirements of the transmission lines are low inductance and high reliability. The inter-conductor gap is nominally 2 cm and the lines taper from a height of 1.75 m at the Marx end to 0.32 m at the output end. The aluminum conductors, held together by 20 insulating spacers, are assembled and inserted as a unit into radial oil-filled steel tanks. The negative, high-voltage, center conductor is 2.54-cm thick and the outer ground conductors are 1.59-cm thick. All 24 triplate transmission lines connect to a transition section at near 1 m radius that couples the transmission lines to a disk/conical solid- dielectric-insulated power flow channel transmission line terminating at the load. Peak operating voltage on the lines can be as high as 240 kV with an effective stress time of 0.8 mu s. Testing of small sections of the ...

  2. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alexander

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  3. Three-phase receiving coil of wireless power transmission system for gastrointestinal robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z. W.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Power shortage is the bottleneck for the wide application of gastrointestinal (GI) robot. Owing to the limited volume and free change of orientation of the receiving set in GI trace, the optimal of receiving set is the key point to promote the transmission efficiency of wireless power transmission system. A new type of receiving set, similar to the winding of three-phase asynchronous motor, is presented and compared with the original three-dimensional orthogonal coil. Considering the given volume and the space utilization ratio, the three-phase and the three-orthogonal ones are the parameters which are optimized and compared. Both the transmission efficiency and stability are analyzed and verified by in vitro experiments. Animal experiments show that the new one could provide at least 420 mW power in volume of Φ11 × 13mm with a uniformity of 78.3% for the GI robot.

  4. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  5. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. A transparency model and its applications for simulation of reflector arrays and sound transmission (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a new method for simulating the frequency-dependent reflection and transmission of reflector arrays, and the frequency-dependent airborne sound insulation between rooms by means of a room acoustic computer model. The method makes use of a transparency method in the ray...... of the partition, and this is useful for the auralization of sound transmission through different building constructions. The acoustic properties like volume, reverberation time, and the area of the transmitting surfaces are included in the simulation....

  7. Money and transmission of bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gedik, H.; Voss, T.A.; Voss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria

  8. Solution of the Transmission Problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 3 (2010), s. 1489-1500 ISSN 0167-8019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Laplace equation * transmission problem * single layer potential * double layer potential Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10440-009-9522-5

  9. Neutron Transmission through Sapphire Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of simulations, in order to reproduce the transmission of cold neutrons through sapphire crystals. Those simulations were part of the effort of validating and improving the newly developed interface between the Monte-Carlo neutron transport code MCNP and the Monte Carlo ray-tracing code McStas....

  10. Transmission electron microscopy of bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Vincent; Niehof, Anneke; Tigchelaar-Gutter, Wikky; Beertsen, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes procedures to process mineralized tissues obtained from different sources for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Methods for fixation, resin embedding, staining of semi-thin sections and ultrathin sections are presented. In addition, attention will be paid to processing

  11. Helium-induced blistering and volume swelling in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of helium-induced blistering are presented. The goal of the research was to examine the mechanisms involved in blistering by observing the microstructure of the implanted region using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In particular, the volume swelling was measured as a function of the implant depth, and compared to experimental skin thicknesses in order to determine if the skin separated at the maximum volume swelling, or at the end of the swelling profile

  12. Estimation of the rate of mother to child transmission of HIV in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audu, R A; Salu, O B; Musa, A Z; Onyewuche, J; Funso-Adebayo, E O; Iroha, E O; Ezeaka, V C; Adetifa, I M O; Okoeguale, B; Idigbe, E O

    2006-06-01

    Definitive diagnosis of HIV infection in infants mothers is still posing some difficulty in Nigeria and other developing countries. Within this age definitive diagnosis can only be carried out by antigen based techniques which are indeed not available in these developing countries. This has resulted in the absence of authoritative data on the rate of mother-to-child transmission in these countries. Nigeria inclusive. The present pilot study was therefore carried out to generate some information on the rate of mother to child transmission in Nigeria using the PCR technique. Plasma samples were obtained from 68 children of both sexes less than 18 months of age and who were born to HIV infected mothers. The samples were collected from two pediatric departments. in Lagos and in Benin. The presence of HIV 1 RNA in each of the samples. was determined using the Amplicor Monitor V 1.5 technique (Roche Diagnostics). Data showed that HIV-1 RNA was detected in 15 of the 68 samples tested. This gave an HIV-1 RNA detection rate of 22%. Among women who had some intervention, the rate of transmission of infection was 11% while the rate among those without intervention was 30%. The 22% transmission rate recorded in this study is close to the range of 25 to 35% that has been reported in several developed and a few developing countries. A multicenter nationwide study will still be needed to determine the national mother to child transmission rate in Nigeria.

  13. Transmission Characteristics of an OFDM signal for Power Line Communication System with High Bit Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira; Watanabe, Yosuke; Tokuda, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koji

    In this paper, we measured what influence the sinusoidal transmission characteristics of the electric power line with various forms gave to the transmission characteristic of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) signal through PLC (power line communication system) modem. We classified the electric power line transmission line with various forms in a real environment into two basic elements, which are an outlet type branch and a switch type branch. Next, PHY rate (Physical rate) is measured for each basic element connected with the PLC modem. At this time, the transmission characteristics of the electric power line are simulated from measured data. OFDM sending and receiving systems are composed on the computer, and the PHY rate is simulated. By comparing with measured and calculated values, it is revealed that PHY rate of PLC modem is most affected in the case of the power line transmission characteristics having broad band and high level attenuation and group delay variation, and is not affected in the case of that having narrow band attenuation and group delay variation.

  14. Numerical study of influence of different dispersed components of crystal cloud on transmission of radiant energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The calculated results of the transmission of visible and infrared radiation by an atmosphere layer involving ensembles of large preferentially oriented crystals and spherical particles are presented. To calculate extinction characteristics, the physical optics method and the Mie theory are applied. Among all atmospheric particles, both the small particles that are commensurable with the wavelength of the incident radiation and the large plates and the columns are distinguished by the most pronounced dependence of the transmission on spectra of radiant energy. The work illustrates features of influence of parameters of the particle size distribution, particle aspect ratios, orientation and particle refractive index, also polarization state of the incident radiation on the transmission. The predominant effect of the plates on the wavelength dependence of the transmission is shown. A separated and cooperative contributes of the large plates and the small volume shape particles to the common transmission by medium are considered.

  15. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  16. Blood volume studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.M.; Yin, J.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of dilution analysis with such radioisotopes as 51 Cr, 32 P, sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In for measuring red cell volume is reviewed briefly. The use of 125 I and 131 I for plasma volume studies is also considered and the subsequent determination of total blood volume discussed, together with the role of the splenic red cell volume. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  17. Simultaneous Volatility Transmissions and Spillover Effects: US and Hong Kong Stock and Futures Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Gannon

    2004-01-01

    Contemporaneous transmission effects across volatilities of the Hong Kong Stock and Index futures markets and futures volume of trade are tested by employing a structural systems approach. Competing measures of volatility spillover, constructed from the overnight U.S. S&P500 index futures, are tested and found to impact on the Hong Kong asset return volatility and volume of trade patterns. The examples utilize intra-day 15 minute sampled data from this medium sized Asia Pacific equity and der...

  18. High voltage transmission of electrical energy over long distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, S W

    1962-07-01

    Technical aspects of ac transmission lines, additional means of improving stability ac transmisson lines, insulation problems, ac transmission by cables, high voltage dc transmission, advantages of dc over ac transmission, disadvantages of dc transmission, use of underground cables for dc transmission, history of the development of conversion equipment; transmission schemes adopted on Gotland Island, Sweden; and economics of ac and dc transmission are discussed.

  19. Lung lesion doubling times: values and variability based on method of volume determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenbud Quint, Leslie; Cheng, Joan; Schipper, Matthew; Chang, Andrew C.; Kalemkerian, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine doubling times (DTs) of lung lesions based on volumetric measurements from thin-section CT imaging. Methods: Previously untreated patients with ≥ two thin-section CT scans showing a focal lung lesion were identified. Lesion volumes were derived using direct volume measurements and volume calculations based on lesion area and diameter. Growth rates (GRs) were compared by tissue diagnosis and measurement technique. Results: 54 lesions were evaluated including 8 benign lesions, 10 metastases, 3 lymphomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, 11 squamous carcinomas, and 7 miscellaneous lung cancers. Using direct volume measurements, median DTs were 453, 111, 15, 181, 139 and 137 days, respectively. Lung cancer DTs ranged from 23-2239 days. There were no significant differences in GRs among the different lesion types. There was considerable variability among GRs using different volume determination methods. Conclusions: Lung cancer doubling times showed a substantial range, and different volume determination methods gave considerably different DTs

  20. Occult hepatitis B infection and transfusion-transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candotti, D; Boizeau, L; Laperche, S

    2017-09-01

    Advances in serology and viral nucleic acid testing (NAT) over the last decades significantly reduced the risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus (HBV). The combination of HBsAg testing and NAT efficiently prevents the majority of HBV transmission. However, a specific residual risk remains associated with extremely low viral DNA levels in blood donors with occult HBV infection (OBI) that are intermittently or not detectable even by highly sensitive individual donation (ID) NAT. Studies have reported HBV transfusion-transmission with blood components from donors with OBI that contained low amount of viruses (transfusion-transmission seems to depend on a combination of several factors including the volume of plasma associated with the infected blood components transfused, the anti-HBV immune status of both recipient and donor, and possibly the viral fitness of the infecting HBV strain. Models based on clinical and experimental evidences estimate a residual transmission risk of 3-14% associated with OBI donations testing HBsAg and ID-NAT non-reactive. Anti-HBc testing has the potential to improve further blood safety but it may also compromise blood availability in settings with medium/high HBV prevalence. Pathogen reduction procedures might be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. 2nd Conference on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Charles; Lovasz, Erwin-Christian

    2014-01-01

    The Second Conference on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications - MeTrApp 2013 was organised by the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of the Basque Country (Spain) under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines and the Spanish Association of Mechanical Engineering.  The aim of the workshop was to bring together researchers, scientists, industry experts and students to provide, in a friendly and stimulating environment, the opportunity to exchange know-how and promote collaboration in the field of Mechanism and Machine Science.  The topics treated in this volume are mechanism and machine design, biomechanics, mechanical transmissions, mechatronics, computational and experimental methods, dynamics of mechanisms and micromechanisms and microactuators.

  2. 76 FR 49841 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Commission-approved RTOs and ISOs. The Commission stated that it expected all non-public utility transmission... transmission planning processes that public utility transmission providers in regions outside of RTOs and ISOs...

  3. Harmonics in transmission power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz

    . The comparison shows that results obtained used both types of the cores are the same, so it is concluded that both cores can be used for harmonic measurements. Low-inductance resistors are introduced in the secondary circuits, in series with the metering and protective relaying. On those resistors, the harmonic......Some time ago, Energinet.dk, the Transmission System Operator of the 150 kV and 400 kV transmission network in Denmark, had experienced operational malfunctions of some of the measuring and protection equipment. Also an overloading of a harmonic filter has been reported, and therefore, a need...... end only so the ground is not used as a return path. A way to reduce the capacitive coupling is to provide shielding. Harmonic currents are measured using the conventional inductive voltage transformers. Both protective and metering cores were compared if they could be used for harmonic measurements...

  4. Alternative approaches to transmission investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, P. [Ontario Energy Board, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The current regulatory framework at the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) was outlined with reference to the 10-year outlook of the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO). Power transmitters currently respond to the IMO's outlook, while the OEB approves applications and cost recovery in rates. The Working Group on Congestion has recommended that the IMO produce a 10-year resource plan, that transmitters produce a 10-year expansion plan, and that the OEB develop a framework for project assessment and rate relief. The Task Force has concluded that merchant transmission is not proven, that transmission is an essential public infrastructure, and that regulatory responsibilities and approval processes should be clarified and streamlined. It was noted that the OEB's approach to regulation should be consistent, clear, predictable, fair, timely and in the public interest.

  5. Transmission X-ray mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lairson, B.M.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission X-ray mirrors have been made from 400 A to 10 000 A thick soap films and have been shown to have novel properties. Using grazing angles of incidence, low energy X-rays were reflected from the front surface while more energetic X-rays were transmitted through the mirror largely unattenuated. A wide bandpass monochromator was made from a silicon carbide mirror followed by a soap film transmission mirror and operated in the white beam at the cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Bandpasses of ΔE/E=12% to 18% were achieved at 13 keV with peak efficiencies estimated to be between 55% and 75%, respectively. Several wide angle scattering photographs of stretched polyethylene and a phospholipid were obtained in 10 s using an 18% bandpass. (orig.)

  6. Downlink Transmission of Short Packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Cellular wireless systems rely on frame-based transmissions. The frame design is conventionally based on heuristics, consisting of a frame header and a data part. The frame header contains control information that provides pointers to the messages within the data part. In this paper, we revisit...... the principles of frame design and show the impact of the new design in scenarios that feature short data packets, which are central to various 5G and Internet of Things applications. We~treat framing for downlink transmission in an AWGN broadcast channel with $K$ users, where the sizes of the messages....... This requires changes in the way control information is sent, and it requires that the users need to spend power decoding other messages, thereby increasing the average power consumption. We~show that the common heuristic design is only one point on a curve that represents the tradeoff between latency and power...

  7. Probabilistic costing of transmission services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Costing of transmission services of electrical utilities is required for transactions involving the transport of energy over a power network. The calculation of these costs based on Short Run Marginal Costing (SRMC) is preferred over other methods proposed in the literature due to its economic efficiency. In the research work discussed here, the concept of probabilistic costing of use-of-system based on SRMC which emerges as a consequence of the uncertainties in a power system is introduced using two different approaches. The first approach, based on the Monte Carlo method, generates a large number of possible system states by simulating random variables in the system using pseudo random number generators. A second approach to probabilistic use-of-system costing is proposed based on numerical convolution and multi-area representation of the transmission network. (UK)

  8. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  9. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  10. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Ronald E.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics

  11. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  12. Unpacking the great transmission debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Kathryn

    2010-12-01

    The debate about the wisdom of sending interstellar transmissions is well-known to those involved in SETI, and frustrating for many. Its tendency towards intractability is a result of multiple factors, including: different models of the scientist's role as citizen and/or leader; disparate ideas about society's readiness to cope with frontier science; variable political substrates, particularly ideas concerning individual freedom and state control; competing ideologies of globalization; and the perceived relative risks and benefits of contact. (Variations in the latter, i.e. assessments of the risks and benefits of contact, derive partly from different thinking styles, including tolerance for risk, and partly from inferences based upon episodes of biological and cultural contact on Earth.) Unpacking the debate into its components may be of use to those debating policy about SETI transmissions, or at the very least, help keep in focus what, precisely, the perennial arguments are really about.

  13. Midwest Transmission Workshop II Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Bryan

    2002-12-05

    OAK-B135 After introductions of all participants, Abby Arnold, RESOLVE, reviewed the purpose of the meeting and the agenda. The purpose of the workshop was to share the results of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) scenario development for wind and other fuel sources and the corresponding implications for transmission throughout the MISO control area. The workshop agenda is included in Attachment A.

  14. Transmission and distribution electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, Colin

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice encountered in the installation and design of transmission and distribution systems for electrical power has been updated and revised to provide the project engineer with all the latest, relevant information to design and specify the correct system for a particular application.Thoroughly updated and revised to include latest developmentsLearn from and Author with extensive experience in managing international projectsFind out the reasoning and implicatons behind the different specifications and methods

  15. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, Forrest S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hauer, Matthew L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability.

  16. Wave transmission in nonlinear lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, D.; Tsironis, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    The interplay of nonlinearity with lattice discreteness leads to phenomena and propagation properties quite distinct from those appearing in continuous nonlinear systems. For a large variety of condensed matter and optics applications the continuous wave approximation is not appropriate. In the present review we discuss wave transmission properties in one dimensional nonlinear lattices. Our paradigmatic equations are discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equations and their study is done through a dynamical systems approach. We focus on stationary wave properties and utilize well known results from the theory of dynamical systems to investigate various aspects of wave transmission and wave localization. We analyze in detail the more general dynamical system corresponding to the equation that interpolates between the non-integrable discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the integrable Albowitz-Ladik equation. We utilize this analysis in a nonlinear Kronig-Penney model and investigate transmission and band modification properties. We discuss the modifications that are effected through an electric field and the nonlinear Wannier-Stark localization effects that are induced. Several applications are described, such as polarons in one dimensional lattices, semiconductor superlattices and one dimensional nonlinear photonic band gap systems. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Automatic Transmission Of Liquid Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedh Mhatre

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Nitrogen is one of the major substance used as a chiller in industry such as Ice cream factory Milk Diary Storage of blood sample Blood Bank etc. It helps to maintain the required product at a lower temperature for preservation purpose. We cannot fully utilise the LN2 so practically if we are using 3.75 litre LN2 for a single day then around 12 of LN2 450 ml is wasted due to vaporisation. A pressure relief valve is provided to create a pressure difference. If there is no pressure difference between the cylinder carrying LN2 and its surrounding it will results in damage of container as well as wastage of LN2.Transmission of LN2 from TA55 to BA3 is carried manually .So care must be taken for the transmission of LN2 in order to avoid its wastage. With the help of this project concept the transmission of LN2 will be carried automatically so as to reduce the wastage of LN2 in case of manual operation.

  18. Fungal transmission of plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R N

    1996-01-01

    Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study.

  19. 47 CFR 25.212 - Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.212 Section 25.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...

  20. Characterization of catalysts by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targos, W.M.; Bradley, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is an integral tool for characterizing catalysts because of its unique ability to image and analyze nanosized volumes. This information is valuable in optimizing catalyst formulations and determining causes for reduced catalyst performance. For many commercial catalysts direct correlations between structural features of metal crystallites and catalytic performance are not attainable. When these instances occur, determination of elemental distribution may be the only information available. In this paper the authors discuss some of the techniques employed and limitations associated with characterizing commercial catalysts

  1. Transmission and archiving of digitalised radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zscherpel, U.; Rose, P.; Kaestner, R.; Mayer, R.; Heinrich, W.; Petesch, M.

    1995-01-01

    The 'TRENDT' research project is concerned with the transmission and archiving of digitalised radiography and with the application of wide band transmission networks in nondestructive material testing. (orig./HP) [de

  2. European bat Lyssavirus transmission among cats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Mailles, Alexandra; Boisseleau, Didier; Delmas, Olivier; Biron, Charlotte; Bouchier, Christiane; Capek, Isabelle; Muller, Michel; Ilari, Frédéric; Lefranc, Tanguy; Raffi, François; Goudal, Maryvonne; Bourhy, Hervé

    2009-02-01

    We identified 2 cases of European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 transmission to domestic carnivores (cats) in France. Bat-to-cat transmission is suspected. Low amounts of virus antigen in cat brain made diagnosis difficult.

  3. Theory of transmission through disordered superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1999-01-01

    We derive a theory for transmission through disordered finite superlattices in which the interface roughness scattering is treated by disorder averaging. This procedure permits efficient calculation of the transmission through samples with large cross sections. These calculations can be performed...

  4. Evaluation of MEMS-Based Wireless Accelerometer Sensors in Detecting Gear Tooth Faults in Helicopter Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David George; Lambert, Nicholas A.; Wagoner, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostics capability of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based rotating accelerometer sensors in detecting gear tooth crack failures in helicopter main-rotor transmissions was evaluated. MEMS sensors were installed on a pre-notched OH-58C spiral-bevel pinion gear. Endurance tests were performed and the gear was run to tooth fracture failure. Results from the MEMS sensor were compared to conventional accelerometers mounted on the transmission housing. Most of the four stationary accelerometers mounted on the gear box housing and most of the CI's used gave indications of failure at the end of the test. The MEMS system performed well and lasted the entire test. All MEMS accelerometers gave an indication of failure at the end of the test. The MEMS systems performed as well, if not better, than the stationary accelerometers mounted on the gear box housing with regards to gear tooth fault detection. For both the MEMS sensors and stationary sensors, the fault detection time was not much sooner than the actual tooth fracture time. The MEMS sensor spectrum data showed large first order shaft frequency sidebands due to the measurement rotating frame of reference. The method of constructing a pseudo tach signal from periodic characteristics of the vibration data was successful in deriving a TSA signal without an actual tach and proved as an effective way to improve fault detection for the MEMS.

  5. Trends in coordination and transmission service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Investor-owned utilities increasingly are taking significant advantage of the benefits available from coordination transactions and transmission service. This chapter describes Edison Electric Institute (EEI's) estimate as to the growth in sales-for-resale (including coordination service) over the past two decades. With respect to transmission service, this chapter describes the significant growth in both the level of transmission service and the number of transmission agreements

  6. Orbiting transmission source for positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Cahoon, J.L.; Geyer, A.B.; Moses, W.W.; Uber, D.C.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental suppression and effective data rates have been measured for the orbiting transmission source as implemented in the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph. A mechanical description of the orbiting source and a description of the electronics used to discard scattered and accidental events is included. Since accidental coincidences were the rate-limiting factor in transmission data acquisition, the new method allows us to acquire sufficient transmission data in a shorter time with a more active transmission source

  7. HVDC transmission from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yukio; Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Haruto; Ueda, Kiyotaka

    1980-01-01

    HVDC transmission directly from a nuclear power plant is expected as one of the bulk power transmission systems from distant power generating area. Successively from the analysis of HVDC transmission from BWR-type nuclear power plant, this report discusses dynamic response characteristics of HVDC transmission (double poles, two circuits) from PWR type nuclear power plant due to dc-line faults (DC-1LG, 2LG) and ac-line faults (3LG) near inverter station. (author)

  8. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  9. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  10. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross

  11. HVDC transmission from isorated nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Takasaki, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Tatemi; Hayashi, Toshiyuki

    1985-01-01

    HVDC transmission directly from nuclear power plant is considered as one of the patterns of long distance and large capacity transmission system. This reports considers two route HVDC transmission from PWR type nuclear power plant, and analyzes dynamic response characteristics due to bus fault, main protection failure and etc. using the AC-DC Power System Simulator. (author)

  12. Voluntary transmission access: The PSI proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines a proposal from PSI Energy, Inc. (formerly Public Service Company of Indiana) to allow open access to its power transmission facilities and the response of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's response to that proposal. The topics discussed include transmission tariffs, competition, market share, expansion of transmission capacity and its funding, and reciprocal agreements to provide similar service

  13. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  14. [Heterosexual transmission of HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulaud, J P

    1993-02-01

    The AIDS epidemic has spread rapidly in Africa among the urban impoverished where multiple sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases are common. Over 80% of the 9 million Africans who will develop AIDS before the year 2000 will have been contaminated sexually. Poverty, multiple sexual partners in the framework of prostitution, and drug addiction are responsible for rapid spread of HIV infection in Southeast Asia, the West India, and Brazil. Drug addiction has played a major role in diffusion of HIV into the general population of Europe and the US. Prevalence rates are much higher in sexually transmitted disease centers in France and the US than among blood donors or pregnant women. Sexually transmitted diseases and heterosexual transmission have been studied in Africas since diagnostic tests became available. Several studies, the majority conducted among prostitutes in Nairobi or Kinshasa and their clients, allow establishment of a list of sexually transmitted diseases associated with increased risk of seroconversion. Genital ulcers within the past 6 months presented a relative risk of 2-4 depending on the series. Urethral or cervical gonorrhea has a lower relative risk of 1.2 in most studies. Absence of circumcision was also a risk factor. Studies were subsequently conducted in Europe on factors favoring sexual transmission. 513 heterosexual couples together for a minimum duration of 18 months and an average of 38 months were included in the Multicenter European Study conducted in 10 centers in 9 countries. The "index" subject was male in 400 cases and female in 113. At entry into the study, 73 of 400 males (18.2%) and 10 of 113 females (8.8%) had already infected their partners. Duration of union, frequency of intercourse, mode of transmission of the index subject, and oral contraceptive use had no effect on risk of transmission. Factors increasing risk of infection included the severity of immunosuppression of the index subject, whether judged by

  15. Transmission system planning in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrie, D; Macedo, F X; Mcconnach, J S [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, new and modified approaches to planning the large transmission system that serves the province of Ontario, Canada, have been necessary to accommodate the rapidly changing planning environment including slower uncertain growth, ageing of facilities, integration of demand side management and non utility generation options, increased competitiveness, increased financial stresses and affordable constraints. This paper describes some of the new and modified approaches and tools that have been adopted or are being developed by Ontario Hydro to cope with this changing environment. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Transmission analysis in WDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a computer-based simulator for transmission analysis in optical wavelength division multiplexing networks. A great part of the work concerns fundamental optical network simulator issues. Among these issues are identification of the versatility and user...... the different component models are invoked during the simulation of a system. A simple set of rules which makes it possible to simulate any network architectures is laid down. The modelling of the nonlinear fibre and the optical receiver is also treated. The work on the fibre concerns the numerical solution...

  17. Neutron transmission through crystalline Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Kilany, M.; El-Mesiry, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The neutron transmission through crystalline Fe has been calculated for neutron energies in the range 10 4 < E<10 eV using an additive formula. The formula permits calculation of the nuclear capture, thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering cross-section as a function of temperature and crystalline form. The obtained agreement between the calculated values and available experimental ones justifies the applicability of the used formula. A feasibility study on using poly-crystalline Fe as a cold neutron filter and a large Fe single crystal as a thermal one is given

  18. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Applications of Multiconductor Transmission Line Theory to the Prediction of Cable Coupling. Volume I. Multiconductor Transmission Line Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    analytically. This deficiency has led to the development of various computer-aided intra-systern (as :,pposed to inte.- system) cormpatibility...associated with the forms of the lumped iterative matrix chain parameters in (78). Therefore, substituting (D-9) into (D-8) and multiplying on the left by " tk2

  20. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Wistisen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111 plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  1. NJP VOLUME 42 NO 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-10-17

    Oct 17, 2014 ... responsibility of effective management of the pain their .... Multivariate logistic regres- ... their disposition towards alleviation of pain. .... high22. This gave insight the value; pain relief, that par- .... insertion in children: A random-.

  2. NJP VOLUME 41 NO 4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-05-03

    May 3, 2014 ... malnutrition among acutely ill children ... in children is associated with delayed mental develop- ment, poor ... trition as a common childhood illness that they ulti- ... weeks or less and those whose parents/care giver gave.

  3. Transplacental transmission of Leishmania infantum as a means for continued disease incidence in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiatto, Paola Mercedes; Gibson-Corley, Katherine Nicole; Metz, Kyle; Gallup, Jack Michael; Hostetter, Jesse Michael; Mullin, Kathleen; Petersen, Christine Anne

    2011-04-12

    Dogs are the predominant domestic reservoir for human L. infantum infection. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is an emerging problem in some U.S. dog breeds, with an annual quantitative PCR prevalence of greater than 20% within an at-risk Foxhound population. Although classically Leishmania is transmitted by infected sand flies and phlebotomine sand flies exist in the United States, means of ongoing L. infantum transmission in U.S. dogs is currently unknown. Possibilities include vertical (transplacental/transmammary) and horizontal/venereal transmission. Several reports have indicated that endemic ZVL may be transmitted vertically. Our aims for this present study were to establish whether vertical/transplacental transmission was occurring in this population of Leishmania-infected US dogs and determine the effect that this means of transmission has on immune recognition of Leishmania. A pregnant L. infantum-infected dam donated to Iowa State University gave birth in-house to 12 pups. Eight pups humanely euthanized at the time of birth and four pups and the dam humanely euthanized three months post-partum were studied via L. infantum-kinetoplast specific quantitative PCR (kqPCR), gross and histopathological assessment and CD4+ T cell proliferation assay. This novel report describes disseminated L. infantum parasites as identified by kqPCR in 8 day old pups born to a naturally-infected, seropositive U.S. dog with no travel history. This is the first report of vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally-infected dogs in North America, emphasizing that this novel means of transmission could possibly sustain infection within populations. Evidence that vertical transmission of ZVL may be a driving force for ongoing disease in an otherwise non-endemic region has significant implications on current control strategies for ZVL, as at present parasite elimination efforts in endemic areas are largely focused on vector-borne transmission between canines and people

  4. Transplacental transmission of Leishmania infantum as a means for continued disease incidence in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mercedes Boggiatto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the predominant domestic reservoir for human L. infantum infection. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL is an emerging problem in some U.S. dog breeds, with an annual quantitative PCR prevalence of greater than 20% within an at-risk Foxhound population. Although classically Leishmania is transmitted by infected sand flies and phlebotomine sand flies exist in the United States, means of ongoing L. infantum transmission in U.S. dogs is currently unknown. Possibilities include vertical (transplacental/transmammary and horizontal/venereal transmission. Several reports have indicated that endemic ZVL may be transmitted vertically.Our aims for this present study were to establish whether vertical/transplacental transmission was occurring in this population of Leishmania-infected US dogs and determine the effect that this means of transmission has on immune recognition of Leishmania.A pregnant L. infantum-infected dam donated to Iowa State University gave birth in-house to 12 pups. Eight pups humanely euthanized at the time of birth and four pups and the dam humanely euthanized three months post-partum were studied via L. infantum-kinetoplast specific quantitative PCR (kqPCR, gross and histopathological assessment and CD4+ T cell proliferation assay.This novel report describes disseminated L. infantum parasites as identified by kqPCR in 8 day old pups born to a naturally-infected, seropositive U.S. dog with no travel history. This is the first report of vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally-infected dogs in North America, emphasizing that this novel means of transmission could possibly sustain infection within populations.Evidence that vertical transmission of ZVL may be a driving force for ongoing disease in an otherwise non-endemic region has significant implications on current control strategies for ZVL, as at present parasite elimination efforts in endemic areas are largely focused on vector-borne transmission between canines

  5. Imaging dopamine transmission in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last ten years, several positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) studies of the dopamine (DA) system in patients with schizophrenia were performed to test the hypothesis that DA hyperactivity is associated with this illness. In this paper are reviewed the results of fifteen brain imaging studies comparing indices of DA function in drug naive or drug free patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: thirteen studies included measurements of Da D 2 receptor density, two studies compared amphetamine-induced DA release, and two studies measured DOPA decarboxylase activity, an enzyme involved in DA synthesis. It was conducted a meta-analysis of the studies measuring D 2 receptor density parameters, under the assumption that all tracers labeled the same population of D 2 receptors. This analysis revealed that, compared to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia present a significant but mild elevation of D 2 receptor density parameters and a significant larger variability of these indices. It was found no statistical evidence that studies performed with radiolabeled butyrophenones detected a larger increase in D 2 receptor density parameters than studies performed with other radioligands, such as benzamides. Studies of presynaptic activity revealed an increase in DA transmission response to amphetamine challenge, and an increase in DOPA decarboxylase activity. Together, these data are compatible with both pre- and post-synaptic alterations of DA transmission in schizophrenia. Future studies should aim at a better characterization of these alterations, and at defining their role in the pathophysiology of the illness

  6. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  7. neutron transmission through crystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mesiry, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the neutron transmission through crystalline materials. Therefore a study of pyrolytic graphite (PG) as a highly efficient selective thermal neutron filter and Iron single crystal as a whole one, as well as the applicability of using their polycrystalline powders as a selective cold neutron filters is given. Moreover, the use of PG and iron single crystal as an efficient neutron monochromator is also investigated. An additive formula is given which allows calculating the contribution of the total neutron cross-section including the Bragg scattering from different )(hkl planes to the neutron transmission through crystalline iron and graphite. The formula takes into account their crystalline form. A computer CFe program was developed in order to provide the required calculations for both poly- and single-crystalline iron. The validity of the CFe program was approved from the comparison of the calculated iron cross-section data with the available experimental ones. The CFe program was also adapted to calculate the reflectivity from iron single crystal when it used as a neutron monochromator The computer package GRAPHITE, developed in Neutron Physics laboratory, Nuclear Research Center, has been used in order to provide the required calculations for crystalline graphite in the neutron energy range from 0.1 meV to 10 eV. A Mono-PG code was added to the computer package GRAPHITE in order to calculate the reflectivity from PG crystal when it used as a neutron monochromator.

  8. [Human transmissible subacute spongiform encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, D

    1994-05-01

    Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are rare chronic subacute degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) which include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Kuru, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), and Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI). CJD can be either inherited or sporadic. All these diseases are always fatal. Neuropathological features are mainly constituted of neuronal vacuolisation, neuronal death, gliosis with hyperastrocytosis; plaques might be evidenced in kuru and GSS. Neither inflammatory syndrome nor demyelination is detectable. No virus like structure could be identified reproducibly. Human TSE are transmissible to non human primates and rodents. Iatrogenic CJD have been described after tissue grafting (cornea, dura mater), neurosurgery, electrophysiology investigation, and treatment with pituitary derived gonadotrophins and growth hormone. Molecular biochemistry of the CNS investigation revealed that a host encoded protein, the prion protein (PrP), accumulates proportionally to the infectious titer: this abnormality is the only detectable hallmark in TSE. Infectious fractions contain no detectable specific nucleic acid, and are mainly constituted of PrP under an isoform which resists to proteinase K digestion (PrP-res). The PrP gene (PRNP) is located on chromosome 20 in humans. Several mutations of this gene have been described in all inherited TSE (CJD, GSS, and IFF). No treatment is available today. Agents inducing TSE (TSA) are not known: several authors claim that TSA are only constituted of PrP-res; others support the hypothesis of a conventional agent with a specific genetic information.

  9. Money and transmission of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Habip; Voss, Timothy A; Voss, Andreas

    2013-08-28

    Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria to people who come in contact with the banknotes. The survival rate was highest for the Romanian Leu yielding all three microorganisms used after both three and six hours of drying. Furthermore, the Leu was the only banknote to yield VRE after one day of drying. Other currencies either enabled the survival of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and VRE (e.g. Euro), but not of MRSA, or the other way round (e.g. US Dollar). While a variety of factors such as community hygiene levels, people's behaviour, and antimicrobial resistance rates at community level obviously have influence on the transmission of resistant microorganisms, the type of banknote-paper may be an additional variable to consider.

  10. TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR - LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. B Berndt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT is a contagious disease among the family of canines. Has a high prevalence in temperate regions and mainly affects male and female dogs wandering. Transmissible venereal tumor's main characteristic is a sexually transmitted cancer, through intercourse, and also transmitted through cell transplantation, an animal that has the disease to another Sound, which has an abrasion or epithelial discontinuity through licking or contact direct to neoplasia. It has no known etiology, although some authors suggest that there may be some virus as an agent. Is macroscopically observed as a crumbly mass, ulcerated, hemorrhagic, with the appearance of cauliflower. Their cells, if observed microscopically, have very clear, round and giant nucleus stained cytoplasm, and the presence of vacuolated cells in mitosis. The diagnosis can be accomplished by fine needle aspiration cytology, "imprint", histopathology, imaging tests such as x-ray and ultrasound, which are used for observation of metastases in internal organs. The main treatment is chemotherapy with substances such as vincristine dose of 0.5 to 0.7 mg / m², intra venous (IV, or from 0.0125 to 0.025 mg / kg IV once a week, four to eight weeks, and for animals which have acquired resistance to vincristine sulfate, is associated with the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin at a dose of 30 mg / m² IV once a week for four to eight weeks. Some protocols include prednisolone associated with vincristine sulfate for the treatment of Extragenital TVT.

  11. The limits of HVDC transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy is abundant, but not necessarily near the urban centers where it will be used. Therefore, it must be transported; and this transport entails a systemic energy penalty. In this paper simple qualitative calculations are introduced to show (i) that high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) power lines for megameter and greater distances are unlikely to achieve power capacities much beyond 2 GW, although they can be paralleled; (ii) that most sources and sinks of electric power are rather less than 10,000 km apart; (iii) that such long lines can be constructed to have transmission losses -tilde 2%; and (iv) that lines of such low loss in fact meet minimal standards of intergenerational equity. - Highlights: • Renewable Energy is abundant, but not necessarily near population centers. • Its transportation requires energy and can be a major systemic inefficiency. • HVDC can be transmitted 10,000 km with 2% loss and near-optimal embodied energy. • Such transmission meets the requirements of intergenerational equity

  12. Information transmission on hybrid networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongbin; Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Li, Jie; Ji, Bo; Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos M.

    2018-01-01

    Many real-world communication networks often have hybrid nature with both fixed nodes and moving modes, such as the mobile phone networks mainly composed of fixed base stations and mobile phones. In this paper, we discuss the information transmission process on the hybrid networks with both fixed and mobile nodes. The fixed nodes (base stations) are connected as a spatial lattice on the plane forming the information-carrying backbone, while the mobile nodes (users), which are the sources and destinations of information packets, connect to their current nearest fixed nodes respectively to deliver and receive information packets. We observe the phase transition of traffic load in the hybrid network when the packet generation rate goes from below and then above a critical value, which measures the network capacity of packets delivery. We obtain the optimal speed of moving nodes leading to the maximum network capacity. We further improve the network capacity by rewiring the fixed nodes and by considering the current load of fixed nodes during packets transmission. Our purpose is to optimize the network capacity of hybrid networks from the perspective of network science, and provide some insights for the construction of future communication infrastructures.

  13. Transmission access issues: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl, P.K.; Gray, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the electric industry has undergone dramatic changes as the federal and state governments have encouraged bulk power production by Independent Power Producers (IPPS) and Qualified Facilities (QFs). With decentralization and the consequent competition in the field of bulk power production, there has emerged the problem of non-utility generators (NUGS) and of transmission dependent utilities accessing the existing transmission systems owned by electric utilities. This paper presents current and future issues related to transmission access by IPPS, QFs and transmission dependent utilities. These issues include: (a) impact on system reliability, (b) impact of pricing strategies, (c) changes in state and federal regulations, (d) transmission proposals by various entities, (e) present access arrangements, (f) formation of the Western Systems Power Pool (WSPP), and (g) siting difficulties. The transmission access problem warrants consideration of transmission services, coordination among electric utilities, joint planning on a regional basis, and accommodation of IPPs and NUGs

  14. APEnet+ 34 Gbps data transmission system and custom transmission logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R; Biagioni, A; Frezza, O; Lonardo, A; Cicero, F Lo; Paolucci, P S; Rossetti, D; Simula, F; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P

    2013-01-01

    APEnet+ is a point-to-point, low-latency, 3D-torus network controller integrated in a PCIe Gen2 board based on the Altera Stratix IV FPGA. We characterize the transmission system (embedded transceivers driving external QSFP+ modules) analyzing signal integrity, throughput, latency, BER and jitter at different data rates up to 34 Gbps. We estimate the efficiency of a custom logic able to sustain 2.6 GB/s per link with an FPGA on-chip memory footprint of 40 KB, providing deadlock-free routing and systemic awareness of faults. Finally, we show the preliminary results obtained with the embedded transceivers of a next-generation FPGA and outline some ideas to increase the performance with the same FPGA memory footprint

  15. APEnet+ 34 Gbps data transmission system and custom transmission logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R [INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1 - 00133 Roma Italy (Italy); Biagioni, A; Frezza, O; Lonardo, A; Cicero, F Lo; Paolucci, P S; Rossetti, D; Simula, F; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2 - 00185 Roma Italy (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    APEnet+ is a point-to-point, low-latency, 3D-torus network controller integrated in a PCIe Gen2 board based on the Altera Stratix IV FPGA. We characterize the transmission system (embedded transceivers driving external QSFP+ modules) analyzing signal integrity, throughput, latency, BER and jitter at different data rates up to 34 Gbps. We estimate the efficiency of a custom logic able to sustain 2.6 GB/s per link with an FPGA on-chip memory footprint of 40 KB, providing deadlock-free routing and systemic awareness of faults. Finally, we show the preliminary results obtained with the embedded transceivers of a next-generation FPGA and outline some ideas to increase the performance with the same FPGA memory footprint.

  16. AIMgSil Alloy Characterization Using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrukan; Elman, P.

    1996-01-01

    The aging alloy of AIMgSil containing Mg 2 Si of 1.29 % has been done with the following steps: e.q (a) part of the specimen was heated at 400 o C during 3 hours, and (b) the other part was done with solution treatment at 550 o C followed by quenching. After quenching a part of the specimen was aged at room temperature and other specimen was aged at 160 o C during 16 hours. After the specimen had been heated, then it was shaped into thin foil to be examined by Transmission Electron Microscope. The result showed that the heating at temperature of 400 o C during 3 hours created a second phase (i.e.Mg 2 Si) was like stick shape with the hexagonal structure at [0111] orientation and matrix [001], and the hardness was 31 HB. The aging of specimen at room temperature gave result a GP zone which was like the needles shape in the dislocation area of the face center cubic structure at [111] orientation and [111] matrix. The hardness obtained was 64 HB. In the other hand the aging process at temperature of 160 o C within 16 hours have resulted the precipitate which was greater than that of the former needle shaped as the face center cubic structure without dislocation at matrix with [111] orientation and [114] matrix. The hardness at this condition was 94 HB

  17. Local Multi-Channel RF Surface Coil versus Body RF Coil Transmission for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance at 3 Tesla: Which Configuration Is Winning the Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Oliver; Winter, Lukas; Dieringer, Matthias A; Els, Antje; Oezerdem, Celal; Rieger, Jan; Kuehne, Andre; Cassara, Antonino M; Pfeiffer, Harald; Wetterling, Friedrich; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using local four-channel RF coil transmission and benchmark it against large volume body RF coil excitation. Electromagnetic field simulations are conducted to detail RF power deposition, transmission field uniformity and efficiency for local and body RF coil transmission. For both excitation regimes transmission field maps are acquired in a human torso phantom. For each transmission regime flip angle distributions and blood-myocardium contrast are examined in a volunteer study of 12 subjects. The feasibility of the local transceiver RF coil array for cardiac chamber quantification at 3 Tesla is demonstrated. Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using four-channel surface RF coil transmission is competitive versus current clinical CMR practice of large volume body RF coil transmission. The efficiency advantage of the 4TX/4RX setup facilitates shorter repetition times governed by local SAR limits versus body RF coil transmission at whole-body SAR limit. No statistically significant difference was found for cardiac chamber quantification derived with body RF coil versus four-channel surface RF coil transmission. Our simulation also show that the body RF coil exceeds local SAR limits by a factor of ~2 when driven at maximum applicable input power to reach the whole-body SAR limit. Pursuing local surface RF coil arrays for transmission in cardiac MR is a conceptually appealing alternative to body RF coil transmission, especially for patients with implants.

  18. An asymmetric resonant coupling wireless power transmission link for Micro-Ball Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianjia; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Gu, Yingke; Deng, Yangdong; Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the design and optimization of a wireless power transmission link targeting Micro-Ball Endoscopy applications. A novel asymmetric resonant coupling structure is proposed to deliver power to an endoscopic Micro-Ball system for image read-out after it is excreted. Such a technology enables many key medical applications with stringent requirements for small system volume and high power delivery efficiency. A prototyping power transmission sub-system of the Micro-Ball system was implemented. It consists of primary coil, middle resonant coil, and cube-like full-direction secondary receiving coils. Our experimental results proved that 200mW of power can be successfully delivered. Such a wireless power transmission capability could satisfy the requirements of the Micro-Ball based endoscopy application. The transmission efficiency is in the range of 41% (worst working condition) to 53% (best working condition). Comparing to conventional structures, Asymmetric Resonant Coupling Structure improves power efficiency by 13%.

  19. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  20. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determin...

  1. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  2. Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-30

    The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

  3. Transmission policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of electric power transmission access, pricing and investment policies in the US over the last 15 years and evaluates the current state of those policies. Pre-liberalization transmission access and pricing policies are reviewed first since more recent policies have evolved from them. FERC's efforts to ensure that transmission owning utilities provide non-discriminatory access and pricing to wholesale transmission customers, culminating in Order 888 and 889 are discussed. These rules did not respond to problems created by a highly balkanized transmission system and only partially responded to problems caused by common ownership and operation of transmission networks with generating and marketing businesses in the same regions. These problems motivated FERC to seek to create Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO) meeting a long list of criteria related to governance, network operations, transmission pricing and investment as reflected in Order 2000. The slow pace of 'voluntary' reform following Order 2000 led FERC to issue a proposed Standard Market Design Rule (SMD) which provided more detailed prescriptions for wholesale market design, network operations, regional planning, resource adequacy, and transmission investment. The SMD rule confronted enormous resistance from groups of utilities and states that had not embraced an electricity sector liberalization agenda. However, many of the provisions of the SMD are being implemented by the RTOs and ISOs in the Northeast and Midwest. PJM's market rules and transmission pricing, planning and investment policies are reviewed as an articulation of FERC's RTO and SMD visions. (author)

  4. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  5. Multimedia signal coding and transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens-Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical background of one- and multidimensional signal processing, statistical analysis and modelling, coding and information theory with regard to the principles and design of image, video and audio compression systems. The theoretical concepts are augmented by practical examples of algorithms for multimedia signal coding technology, and related transmission aspects. On this basis, principles behind multimedia coding standards, including most recent developments like High Efficiency Video Coding, can be well understood. Furthermore, potential advances in future development are pointed out. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the concepts covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia compression systems in industry.

  6. Multi-carrier transmission for hybrid radio frequency with optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Nguyen, Tien M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency (RF) wireless communication is reaching its capacity to support large data rate transmissions due to hardware constraints (e.g., silicon processes), software strategies (e.g., information theory), and consumer desire for timely large file exchanges (e.g., big data and mobile cloud computing). A high transmission rate performance must keep pace with the generated huge volumes of data for real-time processing. Integrated RF and optical wireless communications (RF/OWC) could be the next generation transmission technology to satisfy both the increased data rate exchange and the communications constraints. However, with the promising benefits of RF/OWC, challenges remain to fully develop hybrid RF with wireless optical communications such as uniform waveform design for information transmission and detection. In this paper, an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme, which widely employed in RF communications, is developed for optical communications. The traditional high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM is reduced to improve system performance. The proposed multi-carrier waveform is evaluated with a frequency-selective fading channel. The results demonstrate that bit error rate (BER) performance of our proposed optical OFDM transmission technique outperforms the traditional OWC on-off keying (OOK) transmission scheme.

  7. Assessment of bone mineral content in the internal bone volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeiseth, A.; Alho, A.; Husby, T.; Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo

    1991-01-01

    A method for assessing values related to bone density and mass is described. Mean attenuation and pixel area are measured in pixels selected on the basis of CT units. The method is to a large extent computerized and not dependent on manual positioning or outlining of a region of interest. Because it is not dependent on a comparatively large volume of homogeneous bone it can be used to make assessments even in very heterogeneous bones including cortical bone. The method is adaptable for measurement in all parts of the skeleton and values related to both bone density (DRV) and bone mass (MRV) are derived. The measurements in the femoral condyles were shown to have a precision of approximately 0.25 to 0.30 Z-score units (standard deviation of the measurements expressed in Z-score units). The agreement between chemically analyzed calcium density (weight of calcium per volume) and DRV was little less than 0.50 Z-scores and 0.30 Z-scores for the chemically determined calcium mass and the MRV. The agreement with mechanical bone strength was 0.78 Z-scores for DRV and 0.64 for the MRV. Altering scan parameters or measuring approaches gave systematic differences in the measurements. There were, however, good linear correlations between the measurements which show that these different measuring approaches essentially gave identical measurements. (orig.)

  8. On the dynamic response of pressure transmission lines in the research of helium-charged free piston Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric L.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The signal distortion inherent to pressure transmission lines in free-piston Stirling engine research is discussed. Based on results from classical analysis, guidelines are formulated to describe the dynamic response properties of a volume-terminated transmission tube for applications involving the helium-charged free-piston Stirling engines. The underdamped flow regime is described, the primary resonance frequency is derived, and the pressure phase and amplitude distortion are discussed. The scope and limitation of the dynamic response analysis are considered.

  9. Transmission : key to the Alberta market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, D.

    2003-01-01

    AltaLink is Canada's first independent transmission company with 11,000 kilometres (km) of lines and 250 substations. It possesses a unique ownership structure with strong technical partners and financial capability. No major transmission system has been built in the last fifteen years in Alberta. The author examined the situation of power transmission in Alberta, indicating that developments should include capacity increase out of Fort McMurray, and better market integration with both British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. An efficient and effective market requires ample transmission capacity, which would allow for trade and competition, access for efficient generators, and access to regional markets. New transmission must be planned and achieved in a proactive manner. Generation developers must be assured that transmission will be available, and that tariffs and loss factors will be predictable and stable. figs

  10. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Kruger, Jens; Moller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined

  11. Defining the lung outline from a gamma camera transmission attenuation map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, John S; Pitcairn, Gary; Newman, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Segmentation of the lung outline from gamma camera transmission images of the thorax is useful in attenuation correction and quantitative image analysis. This paper describes and compares two threshold-based methods of segmentation. Simulated gamma camera transmission images of test objects were used to produce a knowledge base of the variation of threshold defining the lung outline with image resolution and chest wall thickness. Two segmentation techniques based on global (GT) and context-sensitive (CST) thresholds were developed and evaluated in simulated transmission images of realistic thoraces. The segmented lung volumes were compared to the true values used in the simulation. The mean distances between segmented and true lung surface were calculated. The techniques were also applied to three real human subject transmission images. The lung volumes were estimated and the segmentations were compared visually. The CST segmentation produced significantly superior segmentations than the GT technique in the simulated data. In human subjects, the GT technique underestimated volumes by 13% compared to the CST technique. It missed areas that clearly belonged to the lungs. In conclusion, both techniques segmented the lungs with reasonable accuracy and precision. The CST approach was superior, particularly in real human subject images

  12. Why transmission is still the critical link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, V. [ESBI Alberta Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the important role that transmission plays in the competitive electric power industry in North America and around the world. In the past several years the transmission sector has experienced a lack of investment, congestion on transmission networks, merchant transmission development, and the creation of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). The transmission grid is central to the reliability of the entire electricity system. It also plays a vital role in promoting efficient markets in electricity. The author discusses the consequences of inadequate investment to this critical link within the power industry. He also discusses how much investment is needed, and the challenges and solutions to building an infrastructure. The integrated electric system and the electricity industry in Alberta is very different from those in the United Sates, but the issues facing the industry are the same. The challenge is the sharp increase in the number of system access requests by new generators combined with the difficulties in siting new transmission lines. There are 17,000 km of transmission lines in Alberta, at voltages ranging from 69 kV to 500 kV. There are also connections between neighbouring provinces. The transmission lines have a value of C$1.5 billion. Since there have been no major additions to the transmission grid since the mid-1980s, significant investments in the coming years will have a disproportionate impact on the cost of transmission. Two merchant transmission projects have been proposed. The first will enhance transfer of electricity between Alberta and Saskatchewan by 150 MW, and the second is proposed to be a 1,500 MW, 500 kV DC line from the Fort McMurray area to the Pacific Northwest. 5 figs.

  13. Transmission and capacity pricing and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusco, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which discussed the following issues regarding the North American electric power industry: (1) capacity pricing transmission constraints, (2) nature of transmission constraints, (3) consequences of transmission constraints, and (4) prices as market evidence. Some solutions suggested for pricing constraints included the development of contingent contracts, back-up power in supply regions, and new line capacity construction. 8 tabs., 20 figs

  14. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy and Meat Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Hester J. T.; Knight, Richard S. G.

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) comprise a wide-ranging group of neurodegenerative diseases found in animals and humans. They have diverse causes and geographical distributions, but have similar pathological features, transmissibility and, are ultimately, fatal. Central to all TSEs is the presence of an abnormal form of a normal host protein, namely the prion protein. Because of their potential transmissibility, these diseases have wide public health ramifications.

  15. Macedonian transmission grid capability and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumoski, K.; Achkoska, E.; Paunoski, A.

    2015-01-01

    The main task of the transmission grid is to guarantee evacuation of electricity from production facilities and, at the same time, supply the electricity to all customers, in a secure, reliable and qualitative manner. During the last years, transmission grid goes through the period of fast and important development, as a result of implementation of renewable and new technologies and creation of internal European electricity market. Due to these reasons, capacity of the existing grid needs to be upgraded either with optimization of existing infrastructure or constructing the new transmission projects. Among the various solutions for strengthening the grid, the one with the minimal investment expenses for construction is selected. While planning the national transmission grid, MEPSO planners apply multi-scenarios analyses, in order to handle all uncertainties, particularly in the forecasts on loads, production and exchange of electricity, location and size of the new power plants, hydrological conditions, integration of renewable sources and the evolution of the electricity market. Visions for development of European transmission grid are also considered. Special attention in the development plan is paid to modelling of power systems in the region of South-Eastern Europe and covering a wider area of the regional transmission grid with simulations of various market transactions. Macedonian transmission grid is developed to satisfy all requirements for electricity production/supply and transits, irrespective which scenario will be realized on long-term basis. Transmission development plan gives the road map for grid evolution from short-term and mid-term period towards long-term horizons (15-20 years ahead). While creating long-term visions, a big challenge in front of transmission planners is implementation of NPP. The paper gives overview of the planning process of Macedonian transmission grid,comprising: definition of scenarios,planning methodology and assessment of

  16. Response analysis on nonuniform transmission line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Zlata

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Transients on a loss less exponential transmission line with a pure resistance load are presented in this paper. The approach is based on the two-port presentation of the transmission line. Using Picard-Carson's method the transmission line equations are solved. The relationship between source voltage and the load voltage in s-domain is derived. All the results are plotted using program package Mathematica 3.0.

  17. Power transmission pricing: issues and international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenhoefer, H.J.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    A key aspect of electricity industry reorganization is transmission pricing because it heavily influences the degree of effective competition in 'liberalized' electricity markets. this paper presents an overview transmission pricing models, of issues related to an effective design of a transmission pricing approach, and presents approaches implemented internationally. A conclusion is that, due to the great number of institutional designs of electricity market organizations, particularly in Europe, it will be difficult to design/implement a model of cross-border transmission pricing that is capable of inducing a high degree of non-discriminatory international competition in electricity markets. (author)

  18. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  19. Fundamental study of bulk power HVDC transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Study on the HVDC power transmission have been conducted since 1956. Shinshinano-Frequency Changer had been operated at first on 1977, as our home product, and Hokkaido-Honshu DC transmission also realized at 1979. Research and Development of the bulk power HVDC have been promoted by the UHV transmission special committee in our Institute from 1980. This paper is a comprehensive report published in the parts of operating control, insulation of DC line and countermeasure of fault current, and interferences in order to contribute for planning, design and operating of the UHV DC transmission in future. (author)

  20. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  1. The establishment of the method of three dimension volumetric fusion of emission and transmission images for PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; He Zuoxiang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method of three dimension volumetric fusion of emission and transmission images for PET imaging. Methods: The volume data of emission and transmission images acquired with Siemens ECAT HR + PET scanner were transferred to PC computer by local area network. The PET volume data were converted into 8 bit byte type, and scaled to the range of 0-255. The data coordinates of emission and transmission images were normalized by three-dimensional coordinate conversion in the same way. The images were fused with the mode of alpha-blending. The accuracy of image fusion was confirmed by its clinical application in 13 cases. Results: The three dimension volumetric fusion of emission and transmission images clearly displayed the silhouette and anatomic configuration in chest, including chest wall, lung, heart, mediastinum, et al. Forty-eight lesions in chest in 13 cases were accurately located by the image fusion. Conclusions: The volume data of emission and transmission images acquired with Siemens ECAT HR + PET scanner have the same data coordinate. The three dimension fusion software can conveniently used for the three dimension volumetric fusion of emission and transmission images, and also can correctly locate the lesions in chest

  2. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  3. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 9 Number 1 ... of persistent dumping of cheap subsidized food imports from developed ... independence of the inefficiency effects in the two estimation ...

  4. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  5. Electroanalytical chemistry. Volume 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is part of a series aimed at authoritative reviews of electroanalytical techniques and related areas of investigation. Volume 14 clearly maintains the high standards and proven usefulness of the series. Topics covered include conformation change and isomerization associated with electrode reactions, infrared vibrational spectroscopy of the electrode-solution interface, and precision in linear sweep and cyclic voltametry. A short history of electrochemical techniques which include the term square wave is provided

  6. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  7. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4-1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5-9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis......The measurement of ovarian volume has been shown to be a useful indirect indicator of the ovarian reserve in women of reproductive age, in the diagnosis and management of a number of disorders of puberty and adult reproductive function, and is under investigation as a screening tool for ovarian...

  8. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  9. Nuclear stopping in transmission experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, Lev G.; Sigmund, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Energy-loss spectra, mean and peak energy loss, and straggling due to elastic nuclear scattering have been studied theoretically as a function of target thickness and deflection angle of an initially monochromatic and well-collimated ion beam. The goal of this work has been to provide a generally valid scheme for nuclear-stopping corrections, allowing to determine electronic-stopping forces from energy-loss spectra measured in transmission geometry. Calculations have been based on the generalized Bothe-Landau theory of energy loss and multiple scattering. Our peak energy losses at zero emergence angle show close (∼10%) agreement with predictions of Fastrup et al. on the basis of the Bohr-Williams theory. However, predicted mean and peak energy losses are found to more sensitively depend on the underlying interatomic potential than unrestricted, i.e. angle-integrated mean or peak energy losses. Both elastic energy loss and multiple scattering are known to obey scaling laws involving only two combinations of the pertinent variables and atomic parameters. The dependence on deflection angle and foil thickness of mean and peak energy loss obeys a simple combination of these scaling laws. Comments are made on potential errors due to uncertainties in the nuclear-stopping correction applied in the literature with specific reference to central papers in low-velocity stopping

  10. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  11. Monochromated scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechberger, W.; Kothleitner, G.; Hofer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has developed into an established technique for chemical and structural analysis of thin specimens in the (scanning) transmission electron microscope (S)TEM. The energy resolution in EELS is largely limited by the stability of the high voltage supply, by the resolution of the spectrometer and by the energy spread of the source. To overcome this limitation a Wien filter monochromator was recently introduced with commercially available STEMs, offering the advantage to better resolve EELS fine structures, which contain valuable bonding information. The method of atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging within an STEM, utilizing a high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) detector can perfectly complement the excellent energy resolution, since EELS spectra can be collected simultaneously. In combination with a monochromator microscope not only high spatial resolution images can be recorded but also high energy resolution EELS spectra are attainable. In this work we investigated the STEM performance of a 200 kV monochromated Tecnai F20 with a high resolution Gatan Imaging Filter (HR-GIF). (author)

  12. Preserving information in neural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincich, Lawrence C; Horton, Jonathan C; Sharpee, Tatyana O

    2009-05-13

    Along most neural pathways, the spike trains transmitted from one neuron to the next are altered. In the process, neurons can either achieve a more efficient stimulus representation, or extract some biologically important stimulus parameter, or succeed at both. We recorded the inputs from single retinal ganglion cells and the outputs from connected lateral geniculate neurons in the macaque to examine how visual signals are relayed from retina to cortex. We found that geniculate neurons re-encoded multiple temporal stimulus features to yield output spikes that carried more information about stimuli than was available in each input spike. The coding transformation of some relay neurons occurred with no decrement in information rate, despite output spike rates that averaged half the input spike rates. This preservation of transmitted information was achieved by the short-term summation of inputs that geniculate neurons require to spike. A reduced model of the retinal and geniculate visual responses, based on two stimulus features and their associated nonlinearities, could account for >85% of the total information available in the spike trains and the preserved information transmission. These results apply to neurons operating on a single time-varying input, suggesting that synaptic temporal integration can alter the temporal receptive field properties to create a more efficient representation of visual signals in the thalamus than the retina.

  13. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Oderda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. It is accepted as the major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, carcinoma of the distal part of the stomach and gastric lymphoma. However, how and when the infection is acquired remain largely unknown. Identification of mode of transmission is vital for developing preventive measures to interrupt its spread, but studies focused on this issue are difficult to implement. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there are great differences in the prevalence of infection in different populations and in ethnic groups originating from high prevalence regions. This is likely related to inferior hygienic conditions and sanitation. In developing countries, infection occurs at a much earlier age. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is related to poor socioeconomic conditions, particularly density of living. Humans seem to be the only reservoir of H pylori, which spread from person to person by oral-oral, fecal-oral or gastro-oral routes. Most infections are acquired in childhood, possibly from parents or other children living as close contacts. Infection from the environment or from animals cannot be entirely excluded.

  14. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  15. A Monte Carlo study of the impact of the choice of rectum volume definition on estimates of equivalent uniform doses and the volume parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvinnsland, Yngve; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Dahl, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Calculations of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) values for the rectum are difficult because it is a hollow, non-rigid, organ. Finding the true cumulative dose distribution for a number of treatment fractions requires a CT scan before each treatment fraction. This is labour intensive, and several surrogate distributions have therefore been suggested, such as dose wall histograms, dose surface histograms and histograms for the solid rectum, with and without margins. In this study, a Monte Carlo method is used to investigate the relationships between the cumulative dose distributions based on all treatment fractions and the above-mentioned histograms that are based on one CT scan only, in terms of equivalent uniform dose. Furthermore, the effect of a specific choice of histogram on estimates of the volume parameter of the probit NTCP model was investigated. It was found that the solid rectum and the rectum wall histograms (without margins) gave equivalent uniform doses with an expected value close to the values calculated from the cumulative dose distributions in the rectum wall. With the number of patients available in this study the standard deviations of the estimates of the volume parameter were large, and it was not possible to decide which volume gave the best estimates of the volume parameter, but there were distinct differences in the mean values of the values obtained

  16. New approaches to the design and economics of EHV transmission plant

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Brian

    1972-01-01

    New Approaches to the Design and Economics of EHV Transmission Plant examines the limitations of EHV transmission plant. Analysis is also covered in the book to correct these limitations. The concept behind EHV is that allowable transfer of electricity is related to the square of the voltage. Factors such as the expense of supplying a certain volume of electricity over a given distance and creations of power stations are examined. The book provides economic studies of alternative design policies based on estimation of costs and benefits of the design parameters. The text also focuses on the pr

  17. MANAJEMEN KULTUR ROTIFER DENGAN TANGKI VOLUME KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2009-04-01

    applied differently among three trials. First trial without seawater addition, increasing volume of culture media was only from 15 L. of N. occulata within 5 days culture, second trial was done with addition of seawater of 40 L and 40 L of N. occulata every day; and the last trial with twice dosage of baker yeast from trial I and II. The result showed that the average total production from the first trial was 122.37 x 106 ind. rotifer and the second trial was decreased to 97.67 x 106 ind. rotifer. Highest average total production was achieved by the last trial with 187.17 x 106 ind. rotifer per culture tank 500 L. Culture management on the third trial gave the best result with the lowest deviation among replication tanks, and proved as the best management practice for small-scale culture container.

  18. 77 FR 64890 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... regional transmission organizations (RTOs) are required to follow regarding the availability of long-term.... P 649. \\51\\ Id. P 746. \\52\\ As Transmission Access Policy Study Group also recognizes, not all RTOs...

  19. Quantifying Transmission Investment in Malaria Parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Greischar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many microparasites infect new hosts with specialized life stages, requiring a subset of the parasite population to forgo proliferation and develop into transmission forms. Transmission stage production influences infectivity, host exploitation, and the impact of medical interventions like drug treatment. Predicting how parasites will respond to public health efforts on both epidemiological and evolutionary timescales requires understanding transmission strategies. These strategies can rarely be observed directly and must typically be inferred from infection dynamics. Using malaria as a case study, we test previously described methods for inferring transmission stage investment against simulated data generated with a model of within-host infection dynamics, where the true transmission investment is known. We show that existing methods are inadequate and potentially very misleading. The key difficulty lies in separating transmission stages produced by different generations of parasites. We develop a new approach that performs much better on simulated data. Applying this approach to real data from mice infected with a single Plasmodium chabaudi strain, we estimate that transmission investment varies from zero to 20%, with evidence for variable investment over time in some hosts, but not others. These patterns suggest that, even in experimental infections where host genetics and other environmental factors are controlled, parasites may exhibit remarkably different patterns of transmission investment.

  20. Wireless transmission: state of research, applications, trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.

    2016-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century Nikola Tesla started his work in the field of wireless energy transmission. More than 100 years after Tesla, the progress in modern semiconductor technology offer developers the possibility to realize highly efficient systems and have led to a revival of wireless energy transmission. The application ranges from the transmission of a few milliwatts in biomedical applications, over a few watts for the charging of mobile phones, to hundreds of kilowatts in the automotive sector. Depending on the used method, the possible transmission distances vary between a few centimeters up to thousands of kilometers. The physical basis of these technologies is the transmission of energy by electromagnetic waves. State-of-the-art systems use wavelengths ranging from radio waves to microwaves, to ultraviolet light. Current research focuses on optimizing transmission efficiency, increasing the possible transmission distance between transmitter and receiver, and improving spatial freedom of movement. This lecture gives an overview of the different approaches of wireless energy transmission and their physical background, the established industrial standards and the current state of research. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods are illustrated by selected commercial and scientific applications. (rössner) [de

  1. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission. Over 500 CHIK virus isolations were made. 4 from male Ae. Aegypti (?TOT). 6 from CSF (neurological involvement). 1 from a 4-day old child (transplacental transmission.

  2. Transmission tariffs - Principles, structure, aims and demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenli, Helle; Sand, Kjell

    1997-11-01

    The report deals with several optimization techniques for increasing the efficiency of electric grid operation in Norway. Methods and tools used for the determination of transmission costs are discussed such as partial transmission tariffs and Ramsey-pricing etc. 7 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Contract networks for competition in transmission grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    Increased reliance on competition in energy markets requires pricing, access, and investment reform for the essential transmission grids. Due to the complexity of the network interactions, the usual analogies to economic concepts from other settings have little or no meaning in transmission grids. A contract network framework builds from first principles to define the conditions of an efficient market. 8 refs

  4. The interior transmission spectrum in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickmann, Kyle S

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks conditions on acoustic profiles c(x) and b(x) which imply the existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues. The existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues has important implications in the question of unique recovery of the acoustic profile for inverse acoustic scattering theory using the linear sampling method and for the inverse source problem in thermoacoustic tomography. We examine the interior transmission spectrum relative to two acoustic profiles on the unit interval. This research includes the case when the difference of the two acoustic profiles changes sign and is, to the author's knowledge, the only work to date on the interior transmission spectrum allowing this behavior. It is shown that for a large class of acoustic profiles the transmission spectrum is asymptotically sparse. The spectrum exhibits three distinct types of behavior dependent on the relation of the two acoustic profiles. Numerical examples of each type of behavior are given which show how the transmission eigenvalues are distributed depending on the relation between c(x) and b(x). Our method of study is to reduce the interior transmission problem on [0, 1] to a problem of finding roots of a determinant of fundamental solutions to a Sturm–Liouville problem. The asymptotic expansion of solutions of the Sturm–Liouville problem then allows us to analyze properties of the transmission spectrum for large values of the wavenumber. (paper)

  5. Gear shift strategies for automotive transmissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    The development history of automotive engineering has shown the essential role of transmissions in road vehicles primarily powered by internal combustion engines. The engine with its physical constraints on the torque and speed requires a transmission to have its power converted to the drive power

  6. Transmission dynamics and resistance in staphylococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetem, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis will focus on nosocomial transmission and resistance of S. aureus and CoNS. After the general introduction on S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, part II focuses on the nosocomial transmission capacity of different MRSA clones in the hospital setting. In chapter 2 the

  7. Transmission : roadway to a competitive electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thon, S. [AltaLink L.P., AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Having a variety of suppliers, marketers and retailers is the key to developing a successful electricity market which is more competitive on pricing, with less price volatility, more innovative customer products and higher levels of customer services. Some areas of Alberta are developing their own power markets with limited capacity to interact. These include Pincher Creek, Empress, Calgary, Edmonton, and Fort McMurray. It was noted that increasing transmission capacity is the key to ensuring a bigger and more competitive electricity market. Transmission constraints only encourage a small number of suppliers to control the market. The current cost of transmission capacity accounts for less than 5 per cent of an average residential customer's bill, but it plays a major role in providing more choice to competitive electricity suppliers. Developing more transmission capacity will create an even more competitive market that benefits both consumers and suppliers. Prices in Alberta have been very volatile in the past couple of years because of supply and demand issues, and there is a need to increase market liquidity. Alberta's Transmission Administrator is looking to expand the transmission network to alleviate constraints and to lower the cost of power generation, regardless of location. These expansions are not expected to affect customers' bills by more than 2 to 3 per cent. Such transmission concerns are being felt all over North America. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in the United States also recognizes the link between transmission and creating a competitive electricity market.

  8. Elephant-to-Human Transmission of Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast reports on the transmission of TB from elephants to humans. Dr. Rendi Murphree, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Vanderbilt University Visiting Scholar, discusses the recent elephant-to-human transmission of tuberculosis at an elephant refuge in Tennessee.

  9. Current issues and strategies for transmission planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, A.L. [Electranix, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Rajapakse, A. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Following the widespread deregulation of the electric power industry in the early 1990s, significant changes occurred in the regulatory and planning environments of the industry. Several regions of North America remain fully or partially regulated in the traditional sense including most Canadian provinces, except for Alberta and Ontario. Although the Mexican system has separate generation and transmission companies and current restructuring efforts are underway, all companies are state-owned, and private investment in energy is heavily constrained by the Mexican constitution. In these regulated regions, traditional generation and transmission expansion planning methods remain in use. This paper presented an overview of current trends in transmission planning strategies that have evolved in response to the restructuring of the power industry, and a conceptual framework of a procedure that would guide planners faced with the challenges of incorporating large scale wind generation in deregulated environments. The paper provided background information on the effect of deregulation on transmission planning. Planning strategies that were discussed included quantifying risk to help identify best alternatives; use of reference systems to estimate generator costs and reduce uncertainty; project based transmission expansion; transmission construction ahead of generation; and generation ahead of transmission. The impact of wind on transmission planning as well as future work addressing challenges posed by wind were also addressed. Research is continuing in this area to illustrate the concepts proposed through a detailed case study. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer: bladder volume variation and its relation to margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muren, Ludvig; Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Lord, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    : The correlation between the relative bladder volume (RBV, defined as repeat scan volume/planning scan volume) and the margins required to account for internal motion was first studied using a series of 20 bladder cancer patients with weekly repeat CT scanning during treatment. Both conformal RT (CRT) and IGRT......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To control and account for bladder motion is a major challenge in radiotherapy (RT) of bladder cancer. This study investigates the relation between bladder volume variation and margins in conformal and image-guided RT (IGRT) for this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... these patients were given fluid intake restrictions on alternating weeks during treatment. RESULTS: IGRT gave the strongest correlation between the RBV and margin size (R(2)=0.75; p10mm were required in only 1% of the situations when the RBV1, whereas isotropic margins >10...

  11. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  12. ‘And God gave Solomon wisdom’: Proficiency in ornithomancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham O. Shemesh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The biblical text accords a great deal of attention to King Solomon’s personal abilities and governmental power. Solomon was described as a judge, poet, constructor and the wisest of all people in the Ancient Near East and Egypt. The current study discusses the interpretation of the midrashim that show how Solomon’s wisdom was manifested in his considerable knowledge of ornithomancy, that is, divination using birds, a practice that was considered as an important wisdom in the ancient world because of its practical applications, particularly in the military sphere. It seems that Solomon’s portrayal as a magician is intended and aimed at emphasising his abilities and his impressive character. Moreover, it may have had the purpose of disproving the conception of Solomon as inferior to his surroundings in this respect and the idea that he or his kingdom could be controlled by nations that command this type of wisdom.

  13. Cretaceous choristoderan reptiles gave birth to live young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Cheng, Yen-Nien

    2010-04-01

    Viviparity (giving birth to live young) in fossil reptiles has been known only in a few marine groups: ichthyosaurs, pachypleurosaurs, and mosasaurs. Here, we report a pregnant specimen of the Early Cretaceous Hyphalosaurus baitaigouensis, a species of Choristodera, a diapsid group known from unequivocal fossil remains from the Middle Jurassic to the early Miocene (about 165 to 20 million years ago). This specimen provides the first evidence of viviparity in choristoderan reptiles and is also the sole record of viviparity in fossil reptiles which lived in freshwater ecosystems. This exquisitely preserved specimen contains up to 18 embryos arranged in pairs. Size comparison with small free-living individuals and the straight posture of the posterior-most pair suggest that those embryos were at term and had probably reached parturition. The posterior-most embryo on the left side has the head positioned toward the rear, contrary to normal position, suggesting a complication that may have contributed to the mother’s death. Viviparity would certainly have freed species of Hyphalosaurus from the need to return to land to deposit eggs; taking this advantage, they would have avoided intense competition with contemporaneous terrestrial carnivores such as dinosaurs.

  14. AWElectric : that gave me goosebumps, did you feel it too?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neidlinger, K.; Truong, K.P.; Telfair, C.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Dertien, E.; Evers, V.

    2017-01-01

    Awe is a powerful, visceral sensation described as a sudden chill or shudder accompanied by goosebumps. People feel awe in the face of extraordinary experiences: The sublimity of nature, the beauty of art and music, the adrenaline rush of fear. Awe is healthy, both physically and mentally. It can be

  15. AWElectric : that gave me goosebumps, did you feel it too?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neidlinger, Kristin; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Telfair, Caty; Feijs, Loe; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Evers, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Awe is a powerful, visceral sensation described as a sudden chill or shudder accompanied by goosebumps. People feel awe in the face of extraordinary experiences: the sublimity of nature, the beauty of art and music, the adrenaline rush of fear. Awe is healthy, both physically and mentally. It can be

  16. Wireless Transmission of Big Data: A Transmission Time Analysis over Fading Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wen-Jing; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the transmission time of a large amount of data over fading wireless channel with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC). Unlike traditional transmission systems, where the transmission time of a fixed amount of data is typically regarded as a constant, the transmission time with AMC becomes a random variable, as the transmission rate varies with the fading channel condition. To facilitate the design and optimization of wireless transmission schemes for big data applications, we present an analytical framework to determine statistical characterizations for the transmission time of big data with AMC. In particular, we derive the exact statistics of transmission time over block fading channels. The probability mass function (PMF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of transmission time are obtained for both slow and fast fading scenarios. We further extend our analysis to Markov channel, where transmission time becomes the sum of a sequence of exponentially distributed time slots. Analytical expression for the probability density function (PDF) of transmission time is derived for both fast fading and slow fading scenarios. These analytical results are essential to the optimal design and performance analysis of future wireless transmission systems for big data applications.

  17. Wireless Transmission of Big Data: A Transmission Time Analysis over Fading Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wen-Jing

    2018-04-10

    In this paper, we investigate the transmission time of a large amount of data over fading wireless channel with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC). Unlike traditional transmission systems, where the transmission time of a fixed amount of data is typically regarded as a constant, the transmission time with AMC becomes a random variable, as the transmission rate varies with the fading channel condition. To facilitate the design and optimization of wireless transmission schemes for big data applications, we present an analytical framework to determine statistical characterizations for the transmission time of big data with AMC. In particular, we derive the exact statistics of transmission time over block fading channels. The probability mass function (PMF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of transmission time are obtained for both slow and fast fading scenarios. We further extend our analysis to Markov channel, where transmission time becomes the sum of a sequence of exponentially distributed time slots. Analytical expression for the probability density function (PDF) of transmission time is derived for both fast fading and slow fading scenarios. These analytical results are essential to the optimal design and performance analysis of future wireless transmission systems for big data applications.

  18. Peculiarities of Pattern Information Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. Yurkevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rates of modern technologies development is such that educational programs are constantly required to be enlarged with new material. However, the introduced supplements often do not take into account the limited possibilities of perceiving amounts of information offered in class. As a result, a significant number of graduates get diplomas of educational institutions with a number of pathologies. Despite heavy load during training, the knowledge of a graduate is often not enough to recognize him ready to participate in modern production. The problem of providing quality education by creating a technology making it possible to maximize students’ knowledge while reducing the number of messages transmitted in the classroom. Consideration of the educational process in the form of an information system with messages transmitted in the form of images is proposed as one of the ways of solving it. The work assumed that each message is reflected in the consciousness of the source and receiver of information in the form of mental images. Mental images of the teacher and student are considered as a convolution of information. The analysis of peculiarities of mental images formation and development is given, a model of the mechanism of pattern information transmission is proposed. The model of transmitting sign, pattern, and symbol information is described. The communication bandwidth between the participants  of the educational process is considered as depending on their goal setting, training, physiological and emotional features, as well as a number of other non-formalized factors. Graduates of educational institutions are considered as means of producing intellectual products, and the purpose of obtaining knowledge is proposed to be formed based on the definition of the attractor of developing the “teacher-student” system. A principle of organizing educational processes is proposed: the education technology should not violate the consistency

  19. ICP curve morphology and intracranial flow-volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unnerbäck, Mårten; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Reinstrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    proposed to shape the ICP curve. This study tested the hypothesis that the ICP curve correlates to intracranial volume changes. METHODS: Cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were performed in neuro-intensive care patients with simultaneous ICP monitoring. The MRI was set......BACKGROUND: The intracranial pressure (ICP) curve with its different peaks has been extensively studied, but the exact physiological mechanisms behind its morphology are still not fully understood. Both intracranial volume change (ΔICV) and transmission of the arterial blood pressure have been...

  20. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  1. Transmission policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Department of Economics

    2005-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of electric power transmission access, pricing and investment policies in the US over the last 15 years and evaluates the current state of those policies. Pre-liberalization transmission access and pricing policies are reviewed first since more recent policies have evolved from them. FERC's efforts to ensure that transmission owning utilities provide non-discriminatory access and pricing to wholesale transmission customers, culminating in Order 888 and 889 are discussed. These rules did not respond to problems created by a highly balkanized transmission system and only partially responded to problems caused by common ownership and operation of transmission networks with generating and marketing businesses in the same regions. These problems motivated FERC to seek to create Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO) meeting a long list of criteria related to governance, network operations, transmission pricing and investment as reflected in Order 2000. The slow pace of 'voluntary' reform following Order 2000 led FERC to issue a proposed Standard Market Design Rule (SMD) which provided more detailed prescriptions for wholesale market design, network operations, regional planning, resource adequacy, and transmission investment. The SMD rule confronted enormous resistance from groups of utilities and states that had not embraced an electricity sector liberalization agenda. However, many of the provisions of the SMD are being implemented by the RTOs and ISOs in the Northeast and Midwest. PJM's market rules and transmission pricing, planning and investment policies are reviewed as an articulation of FERC's RTO and SMD visions. (author)

  2. [Basic research on BSE transmission to people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodemer, W; Kaup, F J

    2002-08-01

    Prion diseases of animal and man belong to neurological diseases with amyloidal deposition of the respective proteins. As to prion disease, the cellular prionprotein is in its abnormal isoform(s) an essential component of prionprotein aggregates found in affected tissue. In contrast to all neurodegenerative diseases like Morbus Alzheimer or Huntington's disease, prion diseases are transmissible. Therefore, prion diseases were designated Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). The diseases are well known since decades. Scrapie was first described around 1750, a BSE case was reported in the 1850, most likely a misdiagnosis, and in 1920/1930 the human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) had been described. Transmission of CJD i.e. Kuru had been suspected in the early 1950s and erronously classified as slow virus disease. The CJD transmission posed a problem to humans when transplants from CJD cases were used for treatment. Fortunately, these iatrogenic transmissions remained limited. But with the advent of BSE and appearance of variant CJD cases in the UK and some places in Europe scientists suspected that transmission from cattle to man could have happened. From animal models we know of successful transmission via several routes. Species barriers do not completely prevent transmission. Rather transmission barriers might exist controlling individual susceptibility against prions. Modes of transmission, susceptibility for transmission, identification of receptor molecules as well as molecular mechanisms of the transmission process are intensely investigated. Current knowledge let us to assume that inapparent stages of prion infection pretend a (not existing) species barrier. This inapparent infection preceeds overt disease and, thus, most re-search focuses on the development of highly sensitive assay systems for detection of minute amounts of pathological prionprotein in suspected cases. Inapparence also should warn us to underestimate BSE or human vCJD cases; at

  3. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  4. Protein aggregation studied by forward light scattering and light transmission analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzkofer, A.; Shirdel, J.; Zirak, P.; Breitkreuz, H.; Wolf, E.

    2007-12-01

    The aggregation of the circadian blue-light photo-receptor cryptochrome from Drosophila melanogaster (dCry) is studied by transmission and forward light scattering measurement in the protein transparent wavelength region. The light scattering in forward direction is caused by Rayleigh scattering which is proportional to the degree of aggregation. The light transmission through the samples in the transparent region is reduced by Mie light scattering in all directions. It depends on the degree of aggregation and the monomer volume fill factor of the aggregates (less total scattering with decreasing monomer volume fill factor of protein globule) allowing a distinction between tightly packed protein aggregation (monomer volume fill factor 1) and loosely packed protein aggregation (monomer volume fill factor less than 1). An increase in aggregation with temperature, concentration, and blue-light exposure is observed. At a temperature of 4 °C and a protein concentration of less than 0.135 mM no dCry aggregation was observed, while at 24 °C and 0.327 mM gelation occurred (loosely packed aggregates occupying the whole solution volume).

  5. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T. E-mail: ttakeda@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T

    2001-07-21

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  6. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T.; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.

    2001-07-01

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  7. The volume of a soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Haberichter, M.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2016-01-01

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  8. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  9. Volume holographic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Denz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Volume holography represents a promising alternative to existing storage technologies. Its parallel data storage leads to high capacities combined with short access times and high transfer rates. The design and realization of a compact volume holographic storage demonstrator is presented. The technique of phase-coded multiplexing implemented to superimpose many data pages in a single location enables to store up to 480 holograms per storage location without any moving parts. Results of analog and digital data storage are shown and real time optical image processing is demonstrated.

  10. Improvement in transmission loss of aircraft double wall with resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jincai; Shi, Liming; Ye, Xining

    1991-08-01

    A little volume low frequency resonator applicable to double-wall configuration of propeller-driven aircraft was designed on the basis of the principle of Helmholtz resonator. The normal incidence absorption coefficient of the various single resonator has been measured. The agreement between theoretical and experimental results is encouraging. An array of resonators whose resonant frequency at 85 Hz and 160 Hz, respectively, are installed between aircraft double-panel, and it has been shown that transmission loss of the double wall structure with resonators improve 4 dB and 6.5 dB in 1/3rd octave bandwidth at 80 Hz and 160 Hz center frequency, respectively, and 5 dB and 7 dB at resonant frequencies, compared with that of the double wall configuration without resonators.

  11. Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions. Although Nipah viral RNA was detected in urogenital and rectal swabs, no infectious virus was recovered from these samples, suggesting no viable virus was shed via these routes. In addition, hamsters inoculated with high doses shed significantly higher amounts of viable Nipah virus particles in comparison with hamsters infected with lower inoculum doses. Using the highest inoculum dose, three potential routes of Nipah virus transmission were investigated in the hamster model: transmission via fomites, transmission via direct contact and transmission via aerosols. It was demonstrated that Nipah virus is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and inefficiently via fomites, but not via aerosols. These findings are in line with epidemiological data which suggest that direct contact with nasal and oropharyngeal secretions of Nipah virus infected individuals resulted in greater risk of Nipah virus infection. The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks.

  12. Investigation of hydraulic transmission noise sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Richard J.

    Advanced hydrostatic transmissions and hydraulic hybrids show potential in new market segments such as commercial vehicles and passenger cars. Such new applications regard low noise generation as a high priority, thus, demanding new quiet hydrostatic transmission designs. In this thesis, the aim is to investigate noise sources of hydrostatic transmissions to discover strategies for designing compact and quiet solutions. A model has been developed to capture the interaction of a pump and motor working in a hydrostatic transmission and to predict overall noise sources. This model allows a designer to compare noise sources for various configurations and to design compact and inherently quiet solutions. The model describes dynamics of the system by coupling lumped parameter pump and motor models with a one-dimensional unsteady compressible transmission line model. The model has been verified with dynamic pressure measurements in the line over a wide operating range for several system structures. Simulation studies were performed illustrating sensitivities of several design variables and the potential of the model to design transmissions with minimal noise sources. A semi-anechoic chamber has been designed and constructed suitable for sound intensity measurements that can be used to derive sound power. Measurements proved the potential to reduce audible noise by predicting and reducing both noise sources. Sound power measurements were conducted on a series hybrid transmission test bench to validate the model and compare predicted noise sources with sound power.

  13. Valuation anomalies for interconnector transmission rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInerney, Celine; Bunn, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Whilst the acquisition of physical transmission interconnector rights between two or more electricity markets can be structured as spread options on the spot prices of electricity between connected markets, empirical evidence suggests that actual prices may be quite different. This raises issues for the valuation of transmission rights, particularly in the European context of market harmonisation, and the use of transmission rights with increasing levels of wind penetration. We examine the price differentials between the Irish and British electricity markets, where explicit transmission capacity auctions have been persistently undersubscribed and transmission rights acquired but not fully utilised. We find significant empirical indications that auction prices for transmission rights are undervalued against both arbitrage and spread option valuations. We also find significant power flows against the efficient price spread direction. A survey of a group of experts with an interest in trading power between Ireland and Britain inform a number of possible explanations for the apparent inefficiencies. These include ex-post pricing in the Irish market, intermittent wind and strategic behaviour by dominant firms. - Highlights: ► Valuation anomalies for transmission rights highlight lack of market integration. ► Exports constrained from market with ex post pricing and no hedging mechanisms. ► High start-up costs for balancing plant may deter exports from high wind regions. ► Deadband created by capacity payments based on flows versus availability

  14. Hysteresis in simulations of malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, Teresa K.; Qiu, Xin; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2017-10-01

    Malaria transmission is a complex system and in many parts of the world is closely related to climate conditions. However, studies on environmental determinants of malaria generally consider only concurrent climate conditions and ignore the historical or initial conditions of the system. Here, we demonstrate the concept of hysteresis in malaria transmission, defined as non-uniqueness of the relationship between malaria prevalence and concurrent climate conditions. We show the dependence of simulated malaria transmission on initial prevalence and the initial level of human immunity in the population. Using realistic time series of environmental variables, we quantify the effect of hysteresis in a modeled population. In a set of numerical experiments using HYDREMATS, a field-tested mechanistic model of malaria transmission, the simulated maximum malaria prevalence depends on both the initial prevalence and the initial level of human immunity in the population. We found the effects of initial conditions to be of comparable magnitude to the effects of interannual variability in environmental conditions in determining malaria prevalence. The memory associated with this hysteresis effect is longer in high transmission settings than in low transmission settings. Our results show that efforts to simulate and forecast malaria transmission must consider the exposure history of a location as well as the concurrent environmental drivers.

  15. Modeling of Viral Aerosol Transmission and Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Khalid, Maryam; Amin, Osama; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the spread mechanism of diseases in the atmosphere as an engineering problem. Among the viral transmission mechanisms that do not include physical contact, aerosol transmission is the most significant mode of transmission where virus-laden droplets are carried over long distances by wind. In this work, we focus on aerosol transmission of virus and introduce the idea of viewing virus transmission through aerosols and their transport as a molecular communication problem, where one has no control over transmission source but a robust receiver can be designed using nano-biosensors. To investigate this idea, a complete system is presented and end-toend mathematical model for the aerosol transmission channel is derived under certain constraints and boundary conditions. In addition to transmitter and channel, a receiver architecture composed of air sampler and Silicon Nanowire field effect transistor is also discussed. Furthermore, a detection problem is formulated for which maximum likelihood decision rule and the corresponding missed detection probability is discussed. At the end, simulation results are presented to investigate the parameters that affect the performance and justify the feasibility of proposed setup in related applications.

  16. Considering FACTS in Optimal Transmission Expansion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Soleimani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power transmission systems is an important part of the expansion of power systems that requires enormous investment costs. Since the construction of new transmission lines is very expensive, it is necessary to choose the most efficient expansion plan that ensures system security with a minimal number of new lines. In this paper, the role of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS devices in the effective operation and expansion planning of transmission systems is examined. Effort was taken to implement a method based on sensitivity analysis to select the optimal number and location of FACTS devices, lines and other elements of the transmission system. Using this method, the transmission expansion plan for a 9 and a 39 bus power system was performed with and without the presence of FACTS with the use of DPL environment in Digsilent software 15.1. Results show that the use of these devices reduces the need for new transmission lines and minimizes the investment cost.

  17. Mathematical modeling of agricultural fires beneath high voltage transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zohri, Emad H.; Shafey, Hamdy M.; Abdel-Salam, M.; Ahmed, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for agricultural fires based on a multi-phase formulation. The model includes dehydration and pyrolysis of agricultural fuel and pyrolysis products. The model considers a homogeneous distribution of the agricultural solid fuel particles, interacting with the gas flow via source terms. These terms include: drag forces, production of water vapour and pyrolysis products, radiative and convective heat exchange. A multi-phase radiative transfer equation for absorbing-emitting medium is considered to account for the radiative heat exchange between the gas and solid phases of the fire. The main outputs of the present model are most important to study the influence of agricultural fire occurring beneath high voltage transmission lines. The agricultural fire causes a flashover due to the ambient temperature rise and soot accumulation on the insulator of these transmission lines. Numerical results of the present model are obtained for flat grassland fires to study the effects of wind velocity, solid fuel moisture content and ignition length on some selected fire outputs. These outputs include the temperature, velocity, soot volume fraction fields of the gas phase, together with fire propagation rate and flame geometry. The numerical results are compared to the available experimental work in the literature. -- Research highlights: → The model is sensitive to the initial condition of the ignition length affecting the fire propagation rate and width. → The model predicts the effects of both the wind velocity and the fuel moisture content on fire propagation rate, in agreement with the available experimental work in the literature. → The model shows that both the wind velocity and the fuel moisture content are important factors affecting the fire plume thickness, location, and inclination. → The model is able to visualize the flame geometry through tracing radiative heat rates exceeding a threshold value for flame visibility (60 k

  18. Transmission delays in hardware clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Ramanathan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Various methods, both with software and hardware, have been proposed to synchronize a set of physical clocks in a system. Software methods are very flexible and economical but suffer an excessive time overhead, whereas hardware methods require no time overhead but are unable to handle transmission delays in clock signals. The effects of nonzero transmission delays in synchronization have been studied extensively in the communication area in the absence of malicious or Byzantine faults. The authors show that it is easy to incorporate the ideas from the communication area into the existing hardware clock synchronization algorithms to take into account the presence of both malicious faults and nonzero transmission delays.

  19. Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-08

    A REZ is a geographical area that enables the development of profitable, cost-effective, grid-connected renewable energy (RE). The REZ Transmission Planning Process is a proactive approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure connecting REZs to the power system which helps to increase the share of solar, wind and other RE resources in the power system while maintaining reliability and economics, and focuses on large-scale wind and solar resources that can be developed in sufficient quantities to warrant transmission system expansion and upgrades.

  20. Transmission congestion management in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we mainly discuss how to optimize the arrangement to decrease the loss of each line when the power generation side of the system transmission congestion occurs in a safe and economical manner. We respectively set the adjust model if the transmission can be eliminated which can calculate the best scheme and safety margin model when transmission cannot be eliminated which is a multi-objective planning problem. We solve the two models on the condition of the load power demands are 982.4MW and 1052.8 MW by Lingo and get the optimal management scheme.

  1. Integrated approach to transmission services pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.W.; David, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents an intuitively logical split between: (a) embedded, (b) operating, and (c) expansion cost based pricing and methodologies for implementation, for transmission services. A conceptually straightforward mechanism for the equitable allocation of transmission network embedded cost recovery based on capacity-use and reliability benefit is proposed, expansion cost is charged on a long-run marginal cost basis and finally, operating cost recovery is based on short-run marginal pricing. This is followed by co-ordinating these alternatives and integrating the pricing mechanisms to achieve appropriate price signals for bulk power users of transmission systems. (author)

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...... increase the risk of contaminating hands, arms and the front of the uniform. Hand hygiene is therefore essential, but the use of protection gowns with long sleeves is also important in order to prevent transmission of MRSA. After culture of MRSA and implementation of specific precautions to prevent...

  3. Turbo coding, turbo equalisation and space-time coding for transmission over fading channels

    CERN Document Server

    Hanzo, L; Yeap, B

    2002-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the emerging 3G wireless personal communications standards and broadband access network standard proposals, this volume covers a range of coding and transmission aspects for transmission over fading wireless channels. It presents the most important classic channel coding issues and also the exciting advances of the last decade, such as turbo coding, turbo equalisation and space-time coding. It endeavours to be the first book with explicit emphasis on channel coding for transmission over wireless channels. Divided into 4 parts: Part 1 - explains the necessary background for novices. It aims to be both an easy reading text book and a deep research monograph. Part 2 - provides detailed coverage of turbo conventional and turbo block coding considering the known decoding algorithms and their performance over Gaussian as well as narrowband and wideband fading channels. Part 3 - comprehensively discusses both space-time block and space-time trellis coding for the first time in literature. Par...

  4. A wireless power transmission system for an active capsule endoscope for colon inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Shi, Yu; Zhu, Bingquan

    2012-07-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes (ACE) have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. In order to deliver stable and sufficient energy safely, a wireless power transmission system based on inductive coupling is presented. The system consists of a double-layer solenoid pair primary coil outside and a multiple secondary coils inside the body. At least 500 mW usable power can be transmitted under the worst geometrical conditions and the safety restraints in a volume of Φ13 × 13 mm. The wireless power transmission system is integrated to an ACE and applied in animal experiments. The designed wireless power transmission is proved to be feasible and potentially safe in a future application.

  5. Time-of-flight neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging of microstructures in bent steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuhua, E-mail: yuhua.su@j-parc.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Oikawa, Kenichi; Harjo, Stefanus; Shinohara, Takenao; Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Hiroi, Kosuke [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Zhang, Shuoyuan; Parker, Joseph Don [Neutron R& D Division, CROSS-Tokai, 162-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Sato, Hirotaka [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Shiota, Yoshinori; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Tomota, Yo [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging makes it possible to quantitatively visualize the two-dimensional distribution of microstructure within a sample. In order to examine its application to engineering products, time-of-flight Bragg-edge transmission imaging experiments using a pulsed neutron source were performed for plastically bent plates composed of a ferritic steel and a duplex stainless steel. The non-homogeneous microstructure distributions, such as texture, crystalline size, phase volume fraction and residual elastic strain, were evaluated for the cross sections of the bent plates. The obtained results were compared with those by neutron diffraction and electron back scatter diffraction, showing that the Bragg-edge transmission imaging is powerful for engineering use.

  6. Human mobility and the spatial transmission of influenza in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charu, Vivek; Zeger, Scott; Gog, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal influenza epidemics offer unique opportunities to study the invasion and re-invasion waves of a pathogen in a partially immune population. Detailed patterns of spread remain elusive, however, due to lack of granular disease data. Here we model high-volume city-level medical claims data...... and human mobility proxies to explore the drivers of influenza spread in the US during 2002–2010. Although the speed and pathways of spread varied across seasons, seven of eight epidemics likely originated in the Southern US. Each epidemic was associated with 1–5 early long-range transmission events, half...... of which sparked onward transmission. Gravity model estimates indicate a sharp decay in influenza transmission with the distance between infectious and susceptible cities, consistent with spread dominated by work commutes rather than air traffic. Two early-onset seasons associated with antigenic novelty...

  7. Estimating tree bole volume using artificial neural network models for four species in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, Ramazan; Diamantopoulou, Maria J; Brooks, John R; Wiant, Harry V

    2010-01-01

    Tree bole volumes of 89 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 96 Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.), 107 Cilicica fir (Abies cilicica Carr.) and 67 Cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) trees were estimated using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models. Neural networks offer a number of advantages including the ability to implicitly detect complex nonlinear relationships between input and output variables, which is very helpful in tree volume modeling. Two different neural network architectures were used and produced the Back propagation (BPANN) and the Cascade Correlation (CCANN) Artificial Neural Network models. In addition, tree bole volume estimates were compared to other established tree bole volume estimation techniques including the centroid method, taper equations, and existing standard volume tables. An overview of the features of ANNs and traditional methods is presented and the advantages and limitations of each one of them are discussed. For validation purposes, actual volumes were determined by aggregating the volumes of measured short sections (average 1 meter) of the tree bole using Smalian's formula. The results reported in this research suggest that the selected cascade correlation artificial neural network (CCANN) models are reliable for estimating the tree bole volume of the four examined tree species since they gave unbiased results and were superior to almost all methods in terms of error (%) expressed as the mean of the percentage errors. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT II, MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSIONS, (2) RATIO DIFFERENCE, (3) CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSIONS, (4) FOUR-SPEED TRUCK TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW, AND (5) TRANSMISSION TROUBLESHOOTING.…

  9. System of automatic control over data Acquisition and Transmission to IGR NNC RK Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, I.I.; Gordienko, D.D.; Kunakov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Automated system for seismic and acoustic data acquisition and transmission in real time was established in Data Center IGR NNC RK, which functions very successively. The system monitors quality and volume of acquired information and also controls the status of the system and communication channels. Statistical data on system operation are accumulated in created database. Information on system status is reflected on the Center Web page. (author)

  10. The electric power engineering handbook electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Grigsby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    Featuring contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, the carefully crafted Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) provides convenient access to detailed information on a diverse array of power engineering topics. Updates to nearly every chapter keep this book at the forefront of developments in modern power systems, reflecting international standards, practices, and technologies. Topics covered include: * Electric Power Generation: Nonconventional Methods * Electric Power Generation

  11. Gas Transport Services. West European Gas Transmission Tariff Comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Since 1999, the Dutch gas transmission company, Gastransport Services (GTS), has commissioned an independent consultant to prepare reports comparing gas transportation tariffs across Western Europe on an annual basis. This report describes the tariffs in force at 1 February 2006. The previous report was published in May 2005, and reported on the tariffs which were in force at 1 January 2005. Since then several companies have published revised carriage arrangements, or have adjusted their tariffs (e.g. to reflect inflation, or for other reasons). In this report we compare the GTS tariff with the transportation tariffs in eleven other countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. This means that all West European countries with Third Party Access to gas transmission systems (except Finland) are covered in this report. In this main part of the report, we concentrate on showing charts which illustrate the comparisons of tariffs, at various distances, volumes and load factors. This gives an overall picture of the tariffs offered by each company, rather than concentrating on particular cases. The detailed calculations for each of the 45 cases are shown in the Appendix to this report, and the conclusions from the cases are shown in a colour-coded chart in the Summary and Conclusions.

  12. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  13. Another year, another volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    This issue represents the final one in volume 76 of Journal of Wildlife Management. As this one is pretty much in the books, one cannot help but wonder what the future holds for the journal. Lenny Brennan is putting together a piece for Wildlife Society Bulletin to examine how The Wildlife Society publications have changed through time. He solicited input from past and...

  14. Rectal compliance as a routine measurement: extreme volumes have direct clinical impact and normal volumes exclude rectum as a problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt-Bersma, R J; Sloots, C E; Poen, A C; Cuesta, M A; Meuwissen, S G

    2000-12-01

    The clinical impact of rectal compliance and sensitivity measurement is not clear. The aim of this study was to measure the rectal compliance in different patient groups compared with controls and to establish the clinical effect of rectal compliance. Anorectal function tests were performed in 974 consecutive patients (284 men). Normal values were obtained from 24 controls. Rectal compliance measurement was performed by filling a latex rectal balloon with water at a rate of 60 ml per minute. Volume and intraballoon pressure were measured. Volume and pressure at three sensitivity thresholds were recorded for analysis: first sensation, urge, and maximal toleration. At maximal toleration, the rectal compliance (volume/pressure) was calculated. Proctoscopy, anal manometry, anal mucosal sensitivity, and anal endosonography were also performed as part of our anorectal function tests. No effect of age or gender was observed in either controls or patients. Patients with fecal incontinence had a higher volume at first sensation and a higher pressure at maximal toleration (P = 0.03), the presence of a sphincter defect or low or normal anal pressures made no difference. Patients with constipation had a larger volume at first sensation and urge (P 500 ml had complaints of constipation. No correlation between rectal and anal mucosal sensitivity was found. Rectal compliance measurement with a latex balloon is easily feasible. In this series of 974 patients, some patient groups showed an abnormal rectal visceral sensitivity and compliance, but there was an overlap with controls. Rectal compliance measurement gave a good clinical impression about the contribution of the rectum to the anorectal problem. Patients with proctitis and pouchitis had the smallest rectal compliance. A maximal toleration volume 500 ml was only seen in constipated patients, and therapy should be given to prevent further damage to the pelvic floor. Values close to or within the normal range rule out the

  15. Superconducting power transmission: the perils and promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, E B

    1976-06-01

    The development of bulk electricity transmission systems must be considered in the light of changing growth rates, increasing resistances to ehv overhead transmission and the tendency to concentrate generation in fewer sites. Helium-cooled or superconducting cables possess technical characteristics which will make them suitable as utility network components for power transmission over distances of ten to several hundred miles. These properties are illustrated by considering two applications in existing electrical networks. The first is a 43 mile system to transmit 4800 MVA and the second is a potential application under study in Pennsylvania to transmit 10,000 MVA over a distance of 350 miles or so. Helium-cooled versions of these transmission systems were designed to permit technical and economic evaluations. The major groups and institutions throughout the world engaged in the development of helium-cooled cables are listed and aspects of the technical approaches are briefly described.

  16. Depistage clinique des infections sexuellement transmissibles chez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depistage clinique des infections sexuellement transmissibles chez les personnes vivant avec le VIH suivies au Centre de Traitement Ambulatoire du Centre National Hospitalier Universitaire Hubert Koutoukou Maga de Cotonou.

  17. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sex, and social status with the subjects served as control. Voluntary counseling ... to HIV antibody. Conclusions: Blood transfusion is still a risk factor for HIV transmission .... 1.6% documented by Al-Mahroos and Ebrahim[15] in Bahrain. Island.

  18. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF LONG TRANSMISSION AND DIS SESSMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    cost (AIC) methodology and marginal incremental ... ing, distribution planning, power system economics, long run marginal costing .... and distribution); gas transmission, water supply and ..... future decision making on possible investments.

  20. High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young il

    The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

  1. Transmission planning in a deregulated environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The worldwide trend for the deregulation of the electricity generation and transmission industries has led to dramatic changes in system operation and planning procedures. The optimum approach to transmission-expansion planning in a deregulated environment is an open problem especially when the r...... electricity market grid are performed. In addition, the proposed method is compared with a traditional planning method to further verify its effectiveness....... the responsibilities of the organisations carrying out the planning work need to be addressed. To date there is a consensus that the system operator and network manager perform the expansion planning work in a centralised way. However, with an increasing input from the electricity market, the objectives, constraints...... and approaches toward transmission planning should be carefully designed to ensure system reliability as well as meeting the market requirements. A market-oriented approach for transmission planning in a deregulated environment is proposed. Case studies using the IEEE 14-bus system and the Australian national...

  2. Transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effective approach for prevention and control of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). Also, it has been documented that sub-standard test kits are mostly used in resource limited settings for transfusion related diagnosis. However, the role of ...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES HIV transmission during paediatric health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence in paediatric health care settings in Africa, risks for horizontal ... 29 West Governer Road, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA. David Gisselquist, PhD ..... tolerance policy for HIV transmission through health care. February 2004, Vol.

  4. 4th International Conference on Power Transmissions

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This books contains the Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Power Transmissions, that was held in Sinaia, Romania from June 20 -23, 2012. Power Transmissions is a very complex and multi-disciplinary scientific field of Mechanical Engineering that covers the different types of transmissions (mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic) as well as all the machine elements involved, such as gears, bearings, shafts, couplings and a lot more. It concerns not only their basic theory but also their design, analysis, testing, application and maintenance. The requirements set to modern power transmissions are really tough to meet: They need to be more efficient, stronger, smaller, noiseless, easier to produce and to cost less. There is a strong demand to become easier in operation and maintenance, or even automatic and in maintenance-free. Last but not least, they should be easily recycled and respect the environment. Joint efforts of specialists from both academia and industry can significantly contribute to fulf...

  5. The global transmission network of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Joel O; Leigh Brown, Andrew J; Hepler, N Lance; Mehta, Sanjay R; Richman, Douglas D; Smith, Davey M; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is pandemic, but its contemporary global transmission network has not been characterized. A better understanding of the properties and dynamics of this network is essential for surveillance, prevention, and eventual eradication of HIV. Here, we apply a simple and computationally efficient network-based approach to all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the global database, revealing a contemporary picture of the spread of HIV-1 within and between countries. This approach automatically recovered well-characterized transmission clusters and extended other clusters thought to be contained within a single country across international borders. In addition, previously undescribed transmission clusters were discovered. Together, these clusters represent all known modes of HIV transmission. The extent of international linkage revealed by our comprehensive approach demonstrates the need to consider the global diversity of HIV, even when describing local epidemics. Finally, the speed of this method allows for near-real-time surveillance of the pandemic's progression.

  6. Acoustic wave transmission through piezoelectric structured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, M; Le Clézio, E; Amorín, H; Algueró, M; Holc, Janez; Kosec, Marija; Hladky-Hennion, A C; Feuillard, G

    2009-05-01

    This paper deals with the transmission of acoustic waves through multilayered piezoelectric materials. It is modeled in an octet formalism via the hybrid matrix of the structure. The theoretical evolution with the angle and frequency of the transmission coefficients of ultrasonic plane waves propagating through a partially depoled PZT plate is compared to finite element calculations showing that both methods are in very good agreement. The model is then used to study a periodic stack of 0.65 PMN-0.35 PT/0.90 PMN-0.10 PT layers. The transmission spectra are interpreted in terms of a dispersive behavior of the critical angles of longitudinal and transverse waves, and band gap structures are analysed. Transmission measurements confirm the theoretical calculations and deliver an experimental validation of the model.

  7. Enhanced infrared transmission characteristics of microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-22

    Sep 22, 2017 ... ods result in grain growth, which adversely influences the transmission .... dispersing the powder in methanol and allowing a drop of this to become dry on a ... out in a resistive–microwave hybrid furnace with silicon car-.

  8. Biosignatures of Exposure/Transmission and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher L; Davies, D Huw; Felgner, Phil; Baum, Elizabeth; Jain, Aarti; Randall, Arlo; Tetteh, Kevin; Drakeley, Christopher J; Greenhouse, Bryan

    2015-09-01

    A blood test that captures cumulative exposure over time and assesses levels of naturally acquired immunity (NAI) would provide a critical tool to monitor the impact of interventions to reduce malaria transmission and broaden our understanding of how NAI develops around the world as a function of age and exposure. This article describes a collaborative effort in multiple International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMRs) to develop such tests using malaria-specific antibody responses as biosignatures of transmission and immunity. The focus is on the use of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax protein microarrays to identify a panel of the most informative antibody responses in diverse malaria-endemic settings representing an unparalleled spectrum of malaria transmission and malaria species mixes before and after interventions to reduce malaria transmission. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Tendon Force Transmission at the Nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René

    2013-01-01

    of connective tissue function that are poorly understood. One such aspect is the microscopic mechanisms of force transmission through tendons over macroscopic distances. Force transmission is at the heart of tendon function, but the large range of scales in the hierarchical structure of tendons has made...... it difficult to tackle. The tendon hierarchy ranges from molecules (2 nm) over fibrils (200 nm), fibers (2 μm) and fascicles (200 μm) to tendons (10 mm), and to derive the mechanisms of force transmission it is necessary to know the mechanical behavior at each hierarchical level. The aim of the present work...... was to elucidate the mechanisms of force transmission in tendons primarily by investigating the mechanical behavior at the hierarchical level of collagen fibrils. To do so we have developed an atomic force microscopy (AFM) method for tensile testing of native collagen fibrils. The thesis contains five papers...

  10. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  11. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - substation points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  12. Transmission character of general function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bo-Jun; Yang, Jing-Hai; Zhang, Si-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Jing; Ba, Nuo; Hua, Zhong; Yin, Xin-Guo

    2012-08-01

    In the paper, we present a new general function photonic crystals (GFPCs), whose refractive index of medium is a arbitrary function of space position. Unlike conventional photonic crystals (PCs), whose structure grows from two mediums A and B, with different constant refractive indexes na and nb. Based on the Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional GFPCs, and calculate its transfer matrix, which is different from the conventional PCs. We choose the linearity refractive index function for two mediums A and B, and find the transmissivity of one-dimensional GFPCs can be much larger or smaller than 1 for different slope linearity refractive index functions, which are different from the transmissivity of conventional PCs (its transmissivity is in the range of 0 and 1). Otherwise, we study the effect of different incident angles, the number of periods and optical thickness on the transmissivity, and obtain some new results different from the conventional PCs.

  13. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2006-01-01

    injection. Total volume of the utricle, as well as total number of hair and supporting cells, were estimated on light microscopic sections. Total volume and mean volume of hair cell types I and II and supporting cells were estimated on digital transmission electron micrographs. Total volume of the utricular...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  14. Housing and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin

    2007-01-01

    The housing market is of central concern to monetary policy makers. To achieve the dual goals of price stability and maximum sustainable employment, monetary policy makers must understand the role that housing plays in the monetary transmission mechanism if they are to set policy instruments appropriately. In this paper, I examine what we know about the role of housing in the monetary transmission mechanism and then explore the implications of this knowledge for the conduct of monetary policy...

  15. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie Ulrikka

    2017-01-01

    Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark......Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark...

  16. Electric power transmission pricing regulations and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    1999-01-01

    An efficient-price mechanism for electricity transmission is very hard to find, essentially because of the natural monopoly condition of the grid and its peculiar interactions with generation. The use of Optimal Power Flow Models is difficult to implement and could be easily distorted by strategical behaviour of generators. These models, however, could became a valuable efficiency-test for actual transmission charges and codes [it

  17. Spectrally efficient polymer optical fiber transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, Sebastian; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) is an attractive transmission medium for high speed communication links in automotive infotainment networks, in industrial automation, and in home networks. Growing demands for quality of service, e.g., for IPTV distribution in homes and for Ethernet based industrial control networks will necessitate Gigabit speeds in the near future. We present an overview on recent advances in the design of spectrally efficient and robust Gigabit-over-SI-POF transmission systems.

  18. The transgenerational transmission of refugee trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, Edith

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of family functioning in the transgenerational transmission of trauma in a sample of 30 refugee families with traumatized parents and children without a history of direct trauma exposure from the Middle East. Design/methodology/approach Based...... and lower scores on the SDQ. Originality/value These findings suggest that the transgenerational transmission of trauma may be associated with family functioning and have implications for interventions at several levels....

  19. Wireless data transmission from inside electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José Ignacio; Barraza, Roberto; Echeverry, Julian Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes analytical and experimental work developed to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic fields produced by high-voltage lines (400 kV) on wireless data transmission at the 900MHz band. In this work the source of the data transmission is located inside the electromagnetic field and the reception station is located at different distances from the power lines. Different atmospheric conditions are considered.

  20. A plan for transmission access and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldak, M.

    1990-01-01

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) believes that while access to the interconnected transmission system (grid) is necessary to provide the most efficient and economical development and use of the bulk power supply system, the grid cannot be unconditionally opened. Additionally, access should be provided only under reasonable terms, conditions, and cost-based compensation, within a framework of joint planning and coordinated operations. NRECA describes here its transmission policy, a coordinated planning and utilization model (CPU)

  1. Interior transmission eigenvalues of a rectangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeman, B D; Stocks, D C

    2016-01-01

    The problem of scattering of acoustic waves by an inhomogeneous medium is intimately connected with so called inside–outside duality, in which the interior transmission eigenvalue problem plays a fundamental role. Here a study of the interior transmission eigenvalues for rectangular domains of constant refractive index is made. By making a nonstandard use of the classical separation of variables technique both real and complex eigenvalues are determined. (paper)

  2. Maritime wideband communication networks video transmission scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief covers emerging maritime wideband communication networks and how they facilitate applications such as maritime distress, urgency, safety and general communications. It provides valuable insight on the data transmission scheduling and protocol design for the maritime wideband network. This brief begins with an introduction to maritime wideband communication networks including the architecture, framework, operations and a comprehensive survey on current developments. The second part of the brief presents the resource allocation and scheduling for video packet transmission wit

  3. Real-time controller for hydrostatic transmission

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M. Ing. (Electrical and Electronic Engineering) This dissertation describes the development of a modular real-time controller implemented on a personal computer for a hydrostatically driven vehicle. In such a vehicle the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced with a hydrostatic pump and two hydrostatic motors, making use of the secondary control principle. The infinitely variable transmission and wheel pair controller gives the vehicle superior traction and mobility over conventi...

  4. Multi-core fiber undersea transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Morioka, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Various potential architectures of branching units for multi-core fiber undersea transmission systems are presented. It is also investigated how different architectures of branching unit influence the number of fibers and those of inline components.......Various potential architectures of branching units for multi-core fiber undersea transmission systems are presented. It is also investigated how different architectures of branching unit influence the number of fibers and those of inline components....

  5. Money and the Transmission of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Carpenter; Selva Demiralp

    2009-01-01

    The transmission mechanism of monetary policy has received extensive treatment in the macroeconomic literature. Most models currently used for macroeconomic analysis exclude money or else model money demand as entirely endogenous. Nevertheless, academic research and many textbooks continue to use the money multiplier concept in discussions of money. We explore the institutional structure of the transmission mechanism beginning with open market operations through to money and loans to document...

  6. Elephant-to-Human Transmission of Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-23

    This podcast reports on the transmission of TB from elephants to humans. Dr. Rendi Murphree, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Vanderbilt University Visiting Scholar, discusses the recent elephant-to-human transmission of tuberculosis at an elephant refuge in Tennessee.  Created: 2/23/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/23/2011.

  7. Transmission Line Resonator Segmented with Series Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Boer, Vincent; Petersen, Esben Thade

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line resonators are often used as coils in high field MRI. Due to distributed nature of such resonators, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the resonator. The equations for optimal...... values of evenly distributed capacitors are presented. The performances of the segmented resonator and a regular transmission line resonator are compared....

  8. Parameters for the mathematical modelling of Clostridium difficile acquisition and transmission: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eroboghene H Otete

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mathematical modelling of Clostridium difficile infection dynamics could contribute to the optimisation of strategies for its prevention and control. The objective of this systematic review was to summarise the available literature specifically identifying the quantitative parameters required for a compartmental mathematical model of Clostridium difficile transmission. METHODS: Six electronic healthcare databases were searched and all screening, data extraction and study quality assessments were undertaken in duplicate. Results were synthesised using a narrative approach. RESULTS: Fifty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Reproduction numbers for hospital based epidemics were described in two studies with a range from 0.55 to 7. Two studies provided consistent data on incubation periods. For 62% of cases, symptoms occurred in less than 4 weeks (3-28 days after infection. Evidence on contact patterns was identified in four studies but with limited data reported for populating a mathematical model. Two studies, including one without clinically apparent donor-recipient pairs, provided information on serial intervals for household or ward contacts, showing transmission intervals of <1 week in ward based contacts compared to up to 2 months for household contacts. Eight studies reported recovery rates of between 75%-100% for patients who had been treated with either metronidazole or vancomycin. Forty-nine studies gave recurrence rates of between 3% and 49% but were limited by varying definitions of recurrence. No study was found which specifically reported force of infection or net reproduction numbers. CONCLUSIONS: There is currently scant literature overtly citing estimates of the parameters required to inform the quantitative modelling of Clostridium difficile transmission. Further high quality studies to investigate transmission parameters are required, including through review of published epidemiological studies where these

  9. Transmission access raises unresolved economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happ, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    The electric utility industry is in the process of gradual change from a fully regulated industry to one of partial deregulation. Instead of relying on regulation to achieve a fair and equitable price to the consumer for electric energy, the reliance is placed more and more on market forces, through competition, to provide wholesale energy at the best market price. Clearly, open transmission access is required to create a viable competitive wholesale market for new generation resources. This article describes four unresolved, or at least partially unresolved, issues associated with transmission access for wholesale wheeling. Wheeling has been defined as the use of a utility's transmission facilities to transmit power for other buyers and sellers. At least three parties are involved in a wheeling transaction: a seller, a buyer, and one or more wheeling utilities that transmit the power from the seller to the buyer. This article considers wholesale or bulk wheeling only, and does not consider retail wheeling. The four unresolved economic issues described in this article pertain to transmission access: Actual cost of providing transmission services, Methodology or methodologies used in evaluating the cost of wheeling, Contract path versus the actual power flows of the wheel, Issues associated with the formation of transmission regions

  10. The paradox of transmission system value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.Z.; Feldman, R.D.; Charnetzki, P.

    1995-01-01

    The central importance of utility strategic planning with respect to transmission systems has developed as a result of the passage of the Energy Policy Act and the rapid emergence of the era of open grid access. As a consequence, utilities have had to redefine transmission as being more than a cost center managed with reliability as the principal focus and regulated on a rate of return basis. Transmission must now be managed with a view to protection of customers, where possible, and to revenue maximization, both through pricing strategy and through operations. This shift has been compounded by the pressures being thrust upon utilities by regulators or being fomented by competitors to unbundle transmission and distribution from generation. This paper explores how the value of the transmission system can be viewed from the vantage points of different organizations (utilities, regulators, customers, independent generators, etc.). The paper addresses the uncertain and apparently paradoxical nature of transmission system value as it will be impacted by the possible alternative future structures of the electric power industry. Lastly, this paper suggests the strategic possibilities for utilities that this uncertainty presents

  11. Avian influenza virus transmission to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, S; Imai, M; Kawaoka, Y; Fouchier, R A M

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition, zoonotic influenza A viruses sporadically infect humans and may cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Fortunately, most of these viruses do not have the ability to be efficiently spread among humans via aerosols or respiratory droplets (airborne transmission) and to subsequently cause a pandemic. However, adaptation of these zoonotic viruses to humans by mutation or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in airborne transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Although our knowledge of factors that affect mammalian adaptation and transmissibility of influenza viruses is still limited, we are beginning to understand some of the biological traits that drive airborne transmission of influenza viruses among mammals. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of airborne transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by avian influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. This chapter summarizes recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for avian influenza viruses to become airborne transmissible between mammals.

  12. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lequime

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission (VT and horizontal transmission (HT of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  13. Increased risk of mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus by intrapartum infantile exposure to maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Christoph; Kundi, Michael; Jatzko, Gerlinde; Kiss, Herbert; Lischka, Andreas; Holzmann, Heidemarie

    2003-02-01

    Virological and clinical data from 73 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected pregnant women who gave birth to 75 children were merged retrospectively, by logistic regression analysis, to investigate risk factors for vertical transmission of HCV. Eighty-two percent of the HCV-infected mothers were HCV-RNA-positive during pregnancy, and 10% were coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nine children were HCV infected, 1 was HIV infected, but none was HIV-HCV coinfected. Among vaginal deliveries, the mean HCV load of mothers who transmitted HCV to their infants was higher than that of those who did not (8.1 x 10(5) vs. 1.4 x 10(4) copies/mL; P=.056). A reduction in umbilical cord-blood pH (relative risk, 3.9; P=.04) or the occurrence of perineal or vaginal laceration (relative risk, 6.4; P=.028) during vaginal delivery significantly increased the risk of vertical HCV transmission. In conclusion, high maternal viremia, infantile hypoxia, and intrapartum exposure to virus-contaminated maternal blood increased the risk of HCV transmission during vaginal deliveries. Consequently, cesarean section may reduce the risk of vertical HCV transmission in selected cases.

  14. Experimental toxoplasmosis in Balb/c mice. Prevention of vertical disease transmission by treatment and reproductive failure in chronic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Fux

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of congenital transmission during acute infection of Toxoplasma gondii, 23 pregnant Balb/c mice were inoculated orally with two cysts each of the P strain. Eight mice were inoculated 6-11 days after becoming pregnant (Group 1. Eight mice inoculated on the 10th-15th day of pregnancy (Group 2 were treated with 100 mg/kg/day of minocycline 48 h after inoculation. Seven mice inoculated on the 10th-15th day of pregnancy were not treated and served as a control (Group 3. Congenital transmission was evaluated through direct examination of the brains of the pups or by bioassay and serologic tests. Congenital transmission was observed in 20 (60.6% of the 33 pups of Group 1, in one (3.6% of the 28 pups of Group 2, and in 13 (54.2% of the 24 pups of Group 3. Forty-nine Balb/c mice were examined in the study of congenital transmission of T. gondii during chronic infection. The females showed reproductive problems during this phase of infection. It was observed accentuated hypertrophy of the endometrium and myometrium. Only two of the females gave birth. Our results demonstrate that Balb/c mice with acute toxoplasmosis can be used as a model for studies of congenital T. gondii infection. Our observations indicate the potential of this model for testing new chemotherapeutic agents against congenital toxoplasmosis.

  15. Reconstruction and visualization of nanoparticle composites by transmission electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.Y. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Canada T6H 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G7 (Canada); Lockwood, R. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Canada T6H 2M9 (Canada); Malac, M., E-mail: marek.malac@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Canada T6H 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G7 (Canada); Furukawa, H. [SYSTEM IN FRONTIER INC., 2-8-3, Shinsuzuharu bldg. 4F, Akebono-cho, Tachikawa-shi, Tokyo 190-0012 (Japan); Li, P.; Meldrum, A. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Canada T6H 2M9 (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    This paper examines the limits of transmission electron tomography reconstruction methods for a nanocomposite object composed of many closely packed nanoparticles. Two commonly used reconstruction methods in TEM tomography were examined and compared, and the sources of various artefacts were explored. Common visualization methods were investigated, and the resulting 'interpretation artefacts' ( i.e., deviations from 'actual' particle sizes and shapes arising from the visualization) were determined. Setting a known or estimated nanoparticle volume fraction as a criterion for thresholding does not in fact give a good visualization. Unexpected effects associated with common built-in image filtering methods were also found. Ultimately, this work set out to establish the common problems and pitfalls associated with electron beam tomographic reconstruction and visualization of samples consisting of closely spaced nanoparticles. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron tomography limits were explored by both experiment and simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reliable quantitative volumetry using electron tomography is not presently feasible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volume rendering appears to be better choice for visualization of composite samples.

  16. Possibilities for Advanced Encoding Techniques at Signal Transmission in the Optical Transmission Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Čertík

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a possible simulation of negative effects in the optical transmission medium and an analysis for the utilization of different signal processing techniques at the optical signal transmission. An attention is focused on the high data rate signal transmission in the optical fiber influenced by linear and nonlinear environmental effects presented by the prepared simulation model. The analysis includes possible utilization of OOK, BPSK, DBPSK, BFSK, QPSK, DQPSK, 8PSK, and 16QAM modulation techniques together with RS, BCH, and LDPC encoding techniques for the signal transmission in the optical fiber. Moreover, the prepared simulation model is compared with real optical transmission systems. In the final part, a comparison of the selected modulation techniques with different encoding techniques and their implementation in real transmission systems is shown.

  17. Planning Electric Transmission Lines: A Review of Recent Regional Transmission Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-13

    The first Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) recommends that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conduct a national review of transmission plans and assess the barriers and incentives to their implementation. DOE tasked Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to prepare two reports to support the agency’s response to this recommendation. This report reviews regional transmission plans and regional transmission planning processes that have been directed by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order Nos. 890 and 1000. We focus on the most recent regional transmission plans (those issued in 2015 and through approximately mid-year 2016) and current regional transmission planning processes. A companion report focuses on non-plan-related factors that affect transmission projects.

  18. Quantum volume hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, Denis V.; Sokolov, Ivan V.; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme for parallel spatially multimode quantum memory for light. The scheme is based on a counterpropagating quantum signal wave and a strong classical reference wave as in a classical volume hologram and therefore can be called a quantum volume hologram. The medium for the hologram consists of a spatially extended ensemble of atoms placed in a magnetic field. The write-in and readout of this quantum hologram is as simple as that of its classical counterpart and consists of a single-pass illumination. In addition, we show that the present scheme for a quantum hologram is less sensitive to diffraction and therefore is capable of achieving a higher density of storage of spatial modes as compared to previous proposals. We present a feasibility study and show that experimental implementation is possible with available cold atomic samples. A quantum hologram capable of storing entangled images can become an important ingredient in quantum information processing and quantum imaging.

  19. 3000-HP Roller Gear Transmission Development Program. Volume 3. Roller Gear Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    power is fed through the ramp roller clutch type free- wheel units to spur gears which mesh with the combining spur gear whose centerline is common...when the engine tends to turn faster than the main rotor shaft. It is in the free- wheel mode when the main rotor shaft tends to turn faster than the...gears are cut progrind at this time. Check face runout on each end of largo gears. Not to exceed .002" TIR 30 EBW one end 40 EBW opposite end

  20. Activity-dependent volume transmission by transgene NPY attenuates glutamate release and LTP in the subiculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Lin, En-Ju D

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene transduction of the brain using viral vectors in epileptogenic regions can effectively suppress seizures in animals, and is being considered as a promising alternative treatment strategy for epilepsy. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the detailed mechanisms...

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hein, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  3. Viability Assessment Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  4. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  5. 320 Gb/s Single polarization OTDM Transmission over 80 km Standard Transmission Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahlo, Andrei; Seoane, Jorge; Clausen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) is an attractive technique for increasing the capacity of optical transmission systems. 320 Gbit/s single-channel and single-polarization error-free transmission over continuous spans of either 80 km SMF or 77 km NZDSF are realized.......Optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) is an attractive technique for increasing the capacity of optical transmission systems. 320 Gbit/s single-channel and single-polarization error-free transmission over continuous spans of either 80 km SMF or 77 km NZDSF are realized....

  6. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  7. Regenerative energies - the environmentally friendly solution. Seminar volume. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Assmann, G.; Froese, B.; Jahn, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Information Environment organised its 16th journalists seminar on 9th March 1995 in Hamburg. In the second part of the seminar competent scientist gave an overview to the following questions: 1. Renewable energy as an solution from the dead end street? 2. What part of the energy demand could be covered by regenerative energy sources at all? 3. Ecology contra economy? 4. Inexhaustible energy source sun? 5. When do we start to import solar energy from the desert? 6. Move into the energy autarkic solar house in the year 2000? 7. Wind power plant park Germany? 8. Geothermal - component of the energy-mix 2005. The present volume contains the lectures which were given on these subjects. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Can the BestGrid Process Improve Stakeholder Involvement in Electricity Transmission Projects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Komendantova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has set ambitious targets for deployment of renewable energy sources to reach goals of climate change mitigation and energy security policies. However, the current state of electricity transmission infrastructure is a major bottleneck for further scaling up of renewable energy in the EU. Several thousands of kilometers of new lines have to be constructed and upgraded to accommodate growing volumes of intermittent renewable electricity. In many countries, construction of electricity transmission projects has been delayed for several years due to concerns of local stakeholders. The innovative BESTGRID approach, reported here, brings together transmission system operators (TSOs and non-governmental organizations (NGOs to discuss and understand the nature of stakeholder concerns. This paper has three objectives: (1 to understand stakeholder concerns about the deployment of electricity transmission grids in four pilot projects according to five guiding principles: need, transparency, engagement, environment, and impacts on human health as well as benefits; (2 to understand how these principles can be addressed to provide a basis for better decision-making outcomes; and (3 to evaluate the BESTGRID process based on feedback received from stakeholders and the level of participation achieved according to the ladder of Arnstein. This paper goes beyond a discussion of “measures to mitigate opposition” to understand how dialogue between TSOs and the public—represented mainly by NGOs and policy-makers—might lead to a better decision-making process and more sustainable electricity transmission infrastructure deployment.

  9. Network flow model of force transmission in unbonded and bonded granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Tobin, Steven T; Cil, Mehmet; Alshibli, Khalid; Behringer, Robert P

    2015-06-01

    An established aspect of force transmission in quasistatic deformation of granular media is the existence of a dual network of strongly versus weakly loaded particles. Despite significant interest, the regulation of strong and weak forces through the contact network remains poorly understood. We examine this aspect of force transmission using data on microstructural fabric from: (I) three-dimensional discrete element models of grain agglomerates of bonded subspheres constructed from in situ synchrotron microtomography images of silica sand grains under unconfined compression and (II) two-dimensional assemblies of unbonded photoelastic circular disks submitted to biaxial compression under constant volume. We model force transmission as a network flow and solve the maximum flow-minimum cost (MFMC) problem, the solution to which yields a percolating subnetwork of contacts that transmits the "maximum flow" (i.e., the highest units of force) at "least cost" (i.e., the dissipated energy from such transmission). We find the MFMC describes a two-tier hierarchical architecture. At the local level, it encapsulates intraconnections between particles in individual force chains and in their conjoined 3-cycles, with the most common configuration having at least one force chain contact experiencing frustrated rotation. At the global level, the MFMC encapsulates interconnections between force chains. The MFMC can be used to predict most of the force chain particles without need for any information on contact forces, thereby suggesting the network flow framework may have potential broad utility in the modeling of force transmission in unbonded and bonded granular media.

  10. Underwater sound transmission through arrays of disk cavities in a soft elastic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, David C; Thangawng, Abel L; Layman, Christopher N; Casalini, Riccardo; Othman, Shadi F

    2015-10-01

    Scattering from a cavity in a soft elastic medium, such as silicone rubber, resembles scattering from an underwater bubble in that low-frequency monopole resonance is obtainable in both cases. Arrays of cavities can therefore be used to reduce underwater sound transmission using thin layers and low void fractions. This article examines the role of cavity shape by microfabricating arrays of disk-shaped air cavities into single and multiple layers of polydimethylsiloxane. Comparison is made with the case of equivalent volume cylinders which approximate spheres. Measurements of ultrasonic underwater sound transmission are compared with finite element modeling predictions. The disks provide a deeper transmission minimum at a lower frequency owing to the drum-type breathing resonance. The resonance of a single disk cavity in an unbounded medium is also calculated and compared with a derived estimate of the natural frequency of the drum mode. Variation of transmission is determined as a function of disk tilt angle, lattice constant, and layer thickness. A modeled transmission loss of 18 dB can be obtained at a wavelength about 20 times the three-layer thickness, and thinner results (wavelength/thickness ∼ 240) are possible for the same loss with a single layer depending on allowable hydrostatic pressure.

  11. American power conference: Proceedings. Volume 56-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The first volume of this conference contains papers on the following topics: (1) Controls, monitoring, and expert systems (Harnessing microprocessor revolution for a more competitive power industry; Plant control--Upgrades; Neural network applications); (2) Diversification and globalization (Electric utility diversification/globalization--Panel; Private power in developing countries); (3) Environment and clean air (Clean Air compliance costs; Site selection for power stations and related facilities; Electric utility trace substance emissions; Solid waste disposal and commercial use; Precipitators/fabric filters; and Effect of flow modifications on fisheries and water quality); (4) Generation--Fuel options ampersand equipment (Alternate fuels; Advances in fuel cells for electric power applications; Secondary containment and seismic requirements for petrochemical facilities; Clean coal technology demonstration; Advanced energy systems; Hydropower); (5) Nuclear operations ampersand options (Radioactive waste management and disposal; Off normal conditions; Advanced light water reactors--15 years after TMI; Structural dynamic analyses for nuclear power plants); (6) Retrofit, betterment, repowering ampersand maintenance (Project management; Improving competitiveness through process re-engineering; Central stations; Water and wastewater treatment); (7) System planning, operation ampersand demand maintenance (Transmission system access; Stability; Systems planning); (8) Transmission and distribution (Transformers; Relaying for system protection; Managing EMF effects); and (9) Education (Power engineering). 155 papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  12. Impact of Considering 110 kV Grid Structures on the Congestion Management in the German Transmission Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffrichter, André; Barrios, Hans; Massmann, Janek; Venkataramanachar, Bhavasagar; Schnettler, Armin

    2018-02-01

    The structural changes in the European energy system lead to an increase of renewable energy sources that are primarily connected to the distribution grid. Hence the stationary analysis of the transmission grid and the regionalization of generation capacities are strongly influenced by subordinate grid structures. To quantify the impact on the congestion management in the German transmission grid, a 110 kV grid model is derived using publicly available data delivered by Open Street Map and integrated into an existing model of the European transmission grid. Power flow and redispatch simulations are performed for three different regionalization methods and grid configurations. The results show a significant impact of the 110 kV system and prove an overestimation of power flows in the transmission grid when neglecting subordinate grids. Thus, the redispatch volume in Germany to dissolve bottlenecks in case of N-1 contingencies decreases by 38 % when considering the 110 kV grid.

  13. Partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium in niobium and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herro, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    Lattice dilation studies and direct pressure experiments gave comparable values for the partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium in niobium and vanadium. Small isotope effects in the partial molar volume of hydrogen were measured in both metals by the differential isotope method. Hydrogen had a larger partial molar volume than deuterium in niobium, but the reverse was true in vanadium. The isotope effect measured in niobium can be represented as being due to the larger amplitude of vibration of the hydrogen atom than the deuterium atom in the metal lattice. Since hydrogen has a larger mean displacement from the equilibrium position than does deuterium, the average force hydrogen exerts on the metal atoms is greater than the force deuterium exerts. The isotope effect in vanadium is likely a result of anharmonic effects in the lattice and local vibrational modes

  14. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  15. The effect, identification and correction of misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans on brain PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; He Zuoxiang; Tang Anwu; Qiao Suixian

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans of brain on brain PET imaging, and the Methods to identify and correct it. Methods: 18F-FDG PET imaging was performed on 8 volunteers. The emission images were reconstructed with attenuation correction after some translations and rotations in the x-axis and transverse plane were given, 1 mm and 1 degree each step, respectively. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans was used to identify the suspected misalignment on 10 18F-FDG PET brain imaging. Three Methods were used to correct the misalignment. First, to quantitate the amount of the misalignment by 3-D volume registration of PET emission and transmission scans, the emission images were reconstructed with corrected translations and rotations in x-direction and transverse plane. Second, the emission images were reconstructed with mathematic calculation of brain attenuation. Third, 18F-FDG PET brain imaging was redone with careful application of laser alignment. Results: The translations greater than 3 mm in x-direction and the rotations greater than 8 degrees in transverse plane could lead to visible artifacts, which were presented with decreasing radioactivity uptake in the cortex of half cerebrum and in the frontal cortex at the side in the translating or rotating direction, respectively. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans could identify and quantitate the amount of misalignment between PET emission and transmission scans of brain. The PET emission images reconstructed with corrected misalignment and mathematic calculation of brain attenuation were consistent with redone PET brain imaging. Conclusions: The misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans of brain can lead to visible artifacts. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans can identify and quantitate the amount of the misalignment. The visible artifacts caused by the misalignment can be

  16. Experimental transmission of atypical scrapie to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiropoulos John

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in small ruminants has been an EU regulatory requirement since 2002. A number of European countries have subsequently reported cases of atypical scrapie, similar to previously published cases from Norway, which have pathological and molecular features distinct from classical scrapie. Most cases have occurred singly in flocks, associated with genotypes considered to be more resistant to classical disease. Experimental transmissibility of such isolates has been reported in certain ovinised transgenic mice, but has not previously been reported in the natural host. Information on the transmissibility of this agent is vital to ensuring that disease control measures are effective and proportionate. Results This report presents the successful experimental transmission, in 378 days, of atypical scrapie to a recipient sheep of homologous genotype with preservation of the pathological and molecular characteristics of the donor. This isolate also transmitted to ovinised transgenic mice (Tg338 with a murine phenotype indistinguishable from that of Nor 98. Conclusion This result strengthens the opinion that these cases result from a distinct strain of scrapie agent, which is potentially transmissible in the natural host under field conditions.

  17. Transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyu Wei

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for family-based tests of association and linkage called transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring (TDTU. This new approach, constructed based on transmission/disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDT, provides a natural extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT to utilize transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. TDTU can be used in various study designs and can accommodate all types of independent nuclear families with at least one affected offspring. When the study sample contains only case-parent trios, the TDTU is equivalent to TDT. Informative-transmission disequilibrium test (i-TDT and generalized disequilibrium test(GDT are another two methods that can use information of both unaffected offspring and affected offspring. In contract to i-TDT and GDT, the test statistic of TDTU is simpler and more explicit, and can be implemented more easily. Through computer simulations, we demonstrate that power of the TDTU is slightly higher compared to i-TDT and GDT. All the three methods are more powerful than method that uses affected offspring only, suggesting that unaffected siblings also provide information about linkage and association.

  18. Unraveling the Transmission Ecology of Polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Bakker, Micaela; King, Aaron A; Rohani, Pejman

    2015-06-01

    Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales. We analyzed an extensive epidemiological dataset, spanning the 1930s to the 1950s and spatially replicated across each state in the United States, to glean insight into the drivers of polio's historical expansion and the ecological mode of its persistence prior to vaccine introduction. We document a latitudinal gradient in polio's seasonality. Additionally, we fitted and validated mechanistic transmission models to data from each US state independently. The fitted models revealed that: (1) polio persistence was the product of a dynamic mosaic of source and sink populations; (2) geographic heterogeneity of seasonal transmission conditions account for the latitudinal structure of polio epidemics; (3) contrary to the prevailing "disease of development" hypothesis, our analyses demonstrate that polio's historical expansion was straightforwardly explained by demographic trends rather than improvements in sanitation and hygiene; and (4) the absence of clinical disease is not a reliable indicator of polio transmission, because widespread polio transmission was likely in the multiyear absence of clinical disease. As the world edges closer to global polio eradication and continues the strategic withdrawal of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), the regular identification of, and rapid response to, these silent chains of transmission is of the utmost importance.

  19. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2017-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  20. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, I.P. [Departamento de Ensino Superior, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao, Imperatriz-MA 65919-050 (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S. [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Bezerra, C.G., E-mail: cbezerra@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants J{sub A} and J{sub B} and spin quantum numbers S{sub A} and S{sub B}, respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant J{sub C} and spin quantum number S{sub C}. For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints. - Highlights: > We model quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers presenting mirror symmetry. > We investigated the allowed and forbidden bands of magnonic transmission. > Transmission return maps show the influence of mirror symmetry. > Mirror symmetry has no effect on the Fibonacci case. > Mirror symmetry does have effect on the Thue-Morse and double period cases.

  1. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, I.P.; Vasconcelos, M.S.; Bezerra, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants J A and J B and spin quantum numbers S A and S B , respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant J C and spin quantum number S C . For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints. - Highlights: → We model quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers presenting mirror symmetry. → We investigated the allowed and forbidden bands of magnonic transmission. → Transmission return maps show the influence of mirror symmetry. → Mirror symmetry has no effect on the Fibonacci case. → Mirror symmetry does have effect on the Thue-Morse and double period cases.

  2. Intergenerational Transmission in a Bidirectional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan De Mol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to the study of parent-child relationships view intergenerational transmission as a top-down phenomenon in which parents transfer their values, beliefs, and practices to their children. Furthermore, the focus of these unidirectional approaches regarding children's internalisation processes is on continuity or the transmission of similar values, beliefs, and practices from parents to children. Analogous unidirectional perspectives have also influenced the domain of family therapy. In this paper a cognitive-bidirectional and dialectical model of dynamics in parent-child relationships is discussed in which the focus is on continual creation of novel meanings and not just reproduction of old ones in the bidirectional transmission processes between parents and children. Parents and children are addressed as full and equally agents in their interdependent relationship, while these relational dynamics are embedded within culture. This cultural context complicates bidirectional transmission influences in the parent-child relationship as both parents and children are influenced by many other contexts. Further, current research in the domain of parent-child relationships and current concepts of intergenerational transmission in family therapy are reviewed from a bidirectional cognitive-dialectical perspective.

  3. Unpredictability and the transmission of numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi

    2016-03-01

    Curiously overlooked in physics is its dependence on the transmission of numbers. For example, the transmission of numerical clock readings is implicit in the concept of a coordinate system. The transmission of numbers and other logical distinctions is often achieved over a computer-mediated communications network in the face of an unpredictable environment. By unpredictable we mean something stronger than the spread of probabilities over given possible outcomes, namely an opening to unforeseeable possibilities. Unpredictability, until now overlooked in theoretical physics, makes the transmission of numbers interesting. Based on recent proofs within quantum theory that provide a theoretical foundation to unpredictability, here we show how regularities in physics rest on a background of channels over which numbers are transmitted. As is known to engineers of digital communications, numerical transmissions depend on coordination reminiscent of the cycle of throwing and catching by players tossing a ball back and forth. In digital communications, the players are computers, and the required coordination involves unpredictably adjusting "live clocks" that step these computers through phases of a cycle. We show how this phasing, which we call logical synchronization, constrains number-carrying networks, and, if a spacetime manifold in invoked, put "stripes" on spacetime. Via its logically synchronized channels, a network of live clocks serves as a reference against which to locate events. Such a network in any case underpins a coordinate frame, and in some cases the direct use of a network can be tailored to investigate an unpredictable environment. Examples include explorations of gravitational variations near Earth.

  4. Optimizing transmission from distant wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanariyankool, Sompop; Lave, Lester B.

    2010-01-01

    We explore the optimal size of the transmission line from distant wind farms, modeling the tradeoff between transmission cost and benefit from delivered wind power. We also examine the benefit of connecting a second wind farm, requiring additional transmission, in order to increase output smoothness. Since a wind farm has a low capacity factor, the transmission line would not be heavily loaded, on average; depending on the time profile of generation, for wind farms with capacity factor of 29-34%, profit is maximized for a line that is about 3/4 of the nameplate capacity of the wind farm. Although wind generation is inexpensive at a good site, transmitting wind power over 1600 km (about the distance from Wyoming to Los Angeles) doubles the delivered cost of power. As the price for power rises, the optimal capacity of transmission increases. Connecting wind farms lowers delivered cost when the wind farms are close, despite the high correlation of output over time. Imposing a penalty for failing to deliver minimum contracted supply leads to connecting more distant wind farms.

  5. Alberta's transmission development policy : review and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbings, R.V.

    2004-01-01

    Alberta's Department of Energy (ADOE) released a policy paper in November 2003 regarding power transmission development for the province. The transmission development policy (TDP) is intended to promote economic growth in Alberta while ensuring consumers with reliable, reasonably priced electricity. This presentation reviewed the main features of the policy and then focused on the allocation of costs to generation customers. The author argued that the proposed changes would result in a sub-optimal development of generation and higher total electricity bills for consumers. He argued that the policy will spare generation customers of any obligation to pay wire-related costs other than local interconnection costs. This would weaken a long-standing ADOE policy which requires generators to pay costs that depend on their location on the transmission system. With the new proposal, generators would not be responsible for ancillary service costs even when they provide direct benefits, and they would pay for system losses on a zonal basis. The author recommended that location charges should be large enough to influence the siting decisions of generators. He also recommended that generators should pay their fare share of transmission use-of-system charges, including ancillary services that provide benefits to generators in the form of a stable, reliable transmission system. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Transmission policy in Alberta and Bill 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, J.; Rosehart, W.; MacCormack, J.

    2009-01-01

    Plans developed by the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) have determined that Alberta's electrical transmission system needs to be expanded. However, there are complex issues that must be considered in order to assess the nature and extent of the needed expansion. Various new amendments to the system were proposed in the Alberta government's Bill 50, including the construction of new transmission lines; the installation of a double circuit 500 kV alternating current line between Edmonton and the Gibbons-Redwater region; the construction of a new 240 kV substation in southeast Calgary; and the installation of 2 single circuit 500 kV alternating current lines between Edmonton and Fort McMurray. This study provided a review of the institutional framework instituted by the government's transmission policy and compared the costs and benefits of 2 large capacity high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission lines proposed for the Edmonton-Calgary corridor relative to the various other transmission system amendment suggestions. An evaluation of Alberta's proposed regulatory process under Bill 50 was also conducted. Results of the study indicated that the addition of the HVDC lines is an inefficient response to concerns over adequate supply and reliability. 72 refs., 18 tabs.

  7. Signal transmissibility in marginal granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Matthew B.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the ‘transmissibility’ of a simulated two-dimensional pack of frictionless disks formed by confining dilute disks in a shrinking, periodic box to the point of mechanical stability. Two opposite boundaries are then removed, thus allowing a set of free motions. Small free displacements on one boundary then induce proportional displacements on the opposite boundary. Transmissibility is the ability to distinguish different perturbations by their distant responses. We assess transmissibility by successively identifying free orthonormal modes of motion that have the smallest distant responses. The last modes to be identified in this ‘pessimistic’ basis are the most transmissive. The transmitted amplitudes of these most transmissive modes fall off exponentially with mode number. Similar exponential falloff is seen in a simple elastic medium, though the responsible modes differ greatly in structure in the two systems. Thus the marginal pack’s transmissibility is qualitatively similar to that of a simple elastic medium. We compare our results with recent findings based on the projection of the space of free motion onto interior sites.

  8. Signal transmissibility in marginal granular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinson, Matthew B; Witten, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    We examine the ‘transmissibility’ of a simulated two-dimensional pack of frictionless disks formed by confining dilute disks in a shrinking, periodic box to the point of mechanical stability. Two opposite boundaries are then removed, thus allowing a set of free motions. Small free displacements on one boundary then induce proportional displacements on the opposite boundary. Transmissibility is the ability to distinguish different perturbations by their distant responses. We assess transmissibility by successively identifying free orthonormal modes of motion that have the smallest distant responses. The last modes to be identified in this ‘pessimistic’ basis are the most transmissive. The transmitted amplitudes of these most transmissive modes fall off exponentially with mode number. Similar exponential falloff is seen in a simple elastic medium, though the responsible modes differ greatly in structure in the two systems. Thus the marginal pack’s transmissibility is qualitatively similar to that of a simple elastic medium. We compare our results with recent findings based on the projection of the space of free motion onto interior sites. (paper)

  9. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  11. Natural ventilation reduces high TB transmission risk in traditional homes in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygizos, Melissa; Shenoi, Sheela V; Brooks, Ralph P; Bhushan, Ambika; Brust, James C M; Zelterman, Daniel; Deng, Yanhong; Northrup, Veronika; Moll, Anthony P; Friedland, Gerald H

    2013-07-01

    Transmission of drug susceptible and drug resistant TB occurs in health care facilities, and community and households settings, particularly in highly prevalent TB and HIV areas. There is a paucity of data regarding factors that may affect TB transmission risk in household settings. We evaluated air exchange and the impact of natural ventilation on estimated TB transmission risk in traditional Zulu homes in rural South Africa. We utilized a carbon dioxide decay technique to measure ventilation in air changes per hour (ACH). We evaluated predominant home types to determine factors affecting ACH and used the Wells-Riley equation to estimate TB transmission risk. Two hundred eighteen ventilation measurements were taken in 24 traditional homes. All had low ventilation at baseline when windows were closed (mean ACH = 3, SD = 3.0), with estimated TB transmission risk of 55.4% over a ten hour period of exposure to an infectious TB patient. There was significant improvement with opening windows and door, reaching a mean ACH of 20 (SD = 13.1, p ventilation conditions (windows/doors open) and window to volume ratio. Expanding ventilation increased the odds of achieving ≥12 ACH by 60-fold. There is high estimated risk of TB transmission in traditional homes of infectious TB patients in rural South Africa. Improving natural ventilation may decrease household TB transmission risk and, combined with other strategies, may enhance TB control efforts.

  12. 75 FR 37883 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... transmission providers, including Commission-approved regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and... granted extensions. 12. As a result of these compliance filings, RTOs and ISOs have enhanced their... outside of RTOs and ISOs have relied on to comply with certain requirements of Order No. 890 are the North...

  13. Value Transmissions between Parents and Children: Gender and Developmental Phase as Transmission Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied the gender role model of socialization theory, the developmental aging theory, and the topic salience perspective to the investigation of parent-child value transmissions. Specifically, we examined whether the bi-directionality and selectivity of value transmissions differed as a function of parents' and children's gender and…

  14. Value transmissions between parents and children: Gender and developmental phase as transmission belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, A.M.C.; Dubas, J.S.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied the gender role model of socialization theory. the developmental aging theory, and the topic salience perspective to the investigation of parent-child value transmissions Specifically, we examined whether the bi-directionality and selectivity of value transmissions differed as a

  15. Familial Transmission of Mood Disorders: Convergence and Divergence with Transmission of Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Melhem, Nadine; Ellis, Steven P.; Mann, J. John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Both mood disorder and suicidal behavior are familial. In this study, the authors examine the factors associated with the familial transmission of these two related conditions to learn which are shared or unique risk factors for familial transmission. Method: The 285 offspring of 141 probands with mood disorder were studied. Proband and…

  16. 75 FR 63826 - Transmission Infrastructure Program-TransWest Express Transmission Project Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing administration of the United States Department of Energy (DOE... operates an integrated 17,000 circuit mile, high-voltage transmission system across 15 western states... transmission lines and related facilities with at least one terminus in Western's marketing area, that deliver...

  17. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... position. S3.1.2Transmission braking effect. In vehicles having more than one forward transmission gear... driver has activated the vehicle's propulsion system: (a) The engine may stop and restart automatically... activated the vehicle's propulsion system if the vehicle can meet the requirements specified in paragraphs...

  18. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.L.; Burgueno, G.F.

    1986-10-01

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particulary susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  19. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.L.; Burgueno, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particularly susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  20. Transmission of Neurodegenerative Disorders Through Blood Transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aggregation of misfolded proteins in the brain occurs in several neurodegenerative disorders. Aberrant protein aggregation is inducible in rodents and primates by intracerebral inoculation. Possible transfusion transmission of neurodegenerative diseases has important public health...... implications. OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible transfusion transmission of neurodegenerative disorders. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide registers of transfusions in Sweden and Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 1 465 845 patients who received transfusions between 1968 and 2012. MEASUREMENTS.......9% received a transfusion from a donor diagnosed with one of the studied neurodegenerative diseases. No evidence of transmission of any of these diseases was found, regardless of approach. The hazard ratio for dementia in recipients of blood from donors with dementia versus recipients of blood from healthy...

  1. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R [Provo, UT; Pixton, David S [Lehi, UT; Johnson, Monte L [Orem, UT; Bartholomew, David B [Springville, UT; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Rawle, Michael [Springville, UT

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  2. Transmission Electron Microscopy Physics of Image Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohl, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation presents the theory of image and contrast formation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy. The principles of particle and wave optics of electrons are described. Electron-specimen interactions are discussed for evaluating the theory of scattering and phase contrast. Also discussed are the kinematical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their applications for crystal-structure analysis and imaging of lattices and their defects. X-ray microanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are treated as analytical methods. Specimen damage and contamination by electron irradiation limits the resolution for biological and some inorganic specimens. This fifth edition includes discussion of recent progress, especially in the area of aberration correction and energy filtering; moreover, the topics introduced in the fourth edition have been updated. Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation is written f...

  3. Storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.; Hagler, R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Current practices and future requirements for the storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen are reviewed in order to identify inadequacies to be corrected before hydrogen can achieve its full potential as a substitute for fossil fuels. Consideration is given to the storage of hydrogen in underground solution-mined salt caverns, portable high-pressure containers and dewars, pressure vessels and aquifers and as metal hydrides, hydrogen transmission in evacuated double-walled insulated containers and by pipeline, and distribution by truck and internal distribution networks. Areas for the improvement of these techniques are indicated, and these technological deficiencies, including materials development, low-cost storage and transmission methods, low-cost, long-life metal hydrides and novel methods for hydrogen storage, are presented as challenges for research and development.

  4. Transmission dynamic range in chest radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmers, H.E.A.S.J.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; van Elburg, H.J.; Boelens, F.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the large difference in transmission between the lung area and the mediastinum, the human chest is a challenging object for radiographic imaging. This study is performed in order to define the dynamic range needed for a chest imaging chain. Eight hundred seventy-five consecutive outpatients were imaged with a prototype AMBER (advanced multiple beam equalization radiography) unit at 141 kVp. The equalization facility was disabled, allowing for the simultaneous capture of a film image and a digital dataset representing the local patient transmission in fields of approximately 2x2 cm. The datasets were analyzed to obtain the relation between the average transmission distribution in a subset of the population and physical parameters characterizing this subset, such as body weight or length

  5. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  6. Development of a transmission positron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuya, M., E-mail: matsuya@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 1-2 Musashino, 3-Chome, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Jinno, S. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chiba University, Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, Chiba 263-8552 (Japan); Ootsuka, T.; Inoue, M. [JEOL Ltd., 1-2 Musashino, 3-Chome, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Kurihara, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Doyama, M.; Inoue, M. [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0913 (Japan); Fujinami, M. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chiba University, Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, Chiba 263-8552 (Japan)

    2011-07-21

    A practical transmission positron microscope (TPM) JEM-1011B has been developed to survey differences in the interaction of positron and electron beams with materials, and is installed in the Slow Positron Facility of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The TPM can share positron and electron beams, and can also be used as a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Positron transmission images up to magnification 10,000x (resolution: 50 nm) and positron diffraction patterns up to 044 family were successfully obtained by the TPM comparing them with those of electrons. The differences in material transmittances for both beams have been measured, and can be explained by the calculated results of the Monte Carlo simulation code PENELOPE-2008.

  7. Transmission of radioiodine through sampling lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unrein, P.J.; Pelletier, C.A.; Cline, J.E.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental program to measure radioiodine transmission through sampling lines is described. The transmission depends upon both deposition on and resuspension from the walls of the line. The deposition and resuspension processes are themselves controlled by the length, diameter, and material of the line and the conditions under which it is operated. The operating conditions under study are sampling flow rate, temperature and relative humidity. Measurement results have been interpreted in terms of a four-compartment model of radioiodine deposition and resuspension. The model is applied to each of twenty or more segments of the line. Experimental measurements of short-term transmission fractions and the deposition velocities derived from them are presented for six lines. Data on resuspension rates for the same lines were obtained and are also discussed

  8. Molecular Modeling of Prion Transmission to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Levavasseur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using different prion strains, such as the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent and the atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents, and using transgenic mice expressing human or bovine prion protein, we assessed the reliability of protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to model interspecies and genetic barriers to prion transmission. We compared our PMCA results with in vivo transmission data characterized by attack rates, i.e., the percentage of inoculated mice that developed the disease. Using 19 seed/substrate combinations, we observed that a significant PMCA amplification was only obtained when the mouse line used as substrate is susceptible to the corresponding strain. Our results suggest that PMCA provides a useful tool to study genetic barriers to transmission and to study the zoonotic potential of emerging prion strains.

  9. Strong volume, stable prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This article is the September-October 1993 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. Activity was brisk, with 15 deals concluded. Six were in the spot concentrates market, with four of the six deals involving U.S. utilities and approximately 1.8M pounds of U3O8 equivalent. There were five conversion deals announced, with four of the five deals involving U.S. utilities. Four deals were concluded in the enrichment market, and the deals involving U.S. utilities were approximately 327k SWUs. On the horizon, there are deals for approximately 4.1M SWU

  10. Volume of emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, P; Whimster, W F

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the volume of emphysema in excised lungs is presented, with its validation. This method is based on macroscopic point counting using a perforated grid but only the holes (points) overlying emphysema need be counted to produce results within a percentage standard error of 5%. Application of the method shows that an adequate assessment of emphysema cannot be made from one lung slice alone, and that the amount of emphysema found in one lung cannot be used to predict the a...

  11. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  12. [La Medicina del Lavoro: 100 volumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, C

    2009-01-01

    With these pages La Medicina del Lavoro starts its 100th volume, so we have yet another historical occasion to celebrate the oldest occupational health journal in the world that is still publishing. Over the last few years we have had many occasions to celebrate, for example several anniversaries of the Journal (the 80th volume in 1989, 90 years in 1992, 100 years in 2001); the centenary of the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto" of Milan in 2001; the celebration of the 300 years' anniversary of the publication of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba by Bernardino Ramazzini, and we obviously hope to continue for many years to come in this positive outlook. One hundred volumes makes for a very large collection, with the highs and lows ofthe Journal's history (here we mean the variations in number of pages and physical size of the Journal). It is thanks to the Editors-in-chief(there have been very few so we can cite them all: Luigi Devoto, 1901-1936; Luigi Preti, 1936-1941; Enrico Vigliani, 1943-1992; e Vito Foà, 1992 to the present); the contributors who in various ways and with varying degrees of commitment but always with an exceptional personal participation, that it has been possible to reach 100 volumes, starting with C. Moreschi who, along with Luigi Devoto, was the first and sole editor at the Journal's foundation; up to the present extended and impressive editorial board; the printers (from the first. Tipografia Cooperativa, Via dei Molini in Pavia, to the latest: Casa Editrice Mattioli in Fidenza); the sponsors, including the most evident who, via advertising (rather limited as a matter offact), directly gave information about themselves, but also those who have often been or are behind the scenes, ensuring fundamental support which is not visible; content. articles, news, events, reports, ideas, opinions, photographs, tables, numbers... etc, which are really impossible to sum up. But the true collection which, for obvious reasons, cannot be

  13. Sound transmission loss of composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran

    Light composite sandwich panels are increasingly used in automobiles, ships and aircraft, because of the advantages they offer of high strength-to-weight ratios. However, the acoustical properties of these light and stiff structures can be less desirable than those of equivalent metal panels. These undesirable properties can lead to high interior noise levels. A number of researchers have studied the acoustical properties of honeycomb and foam sandwich panels. Not much work, however, has been carried out on foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels. In this dissertation, governing equations for the forced vibration of asymmetric sandwich panels are developed. An analytical expression for modal densities of symmetric sandwich panels is derived from a sixth-order governing equation. A boundary element analysis model for the sound transmission loss of symmetric sandwich panels is proposed. Measurements of the modal density, total loss factor, radiation loss factor, and sound transmission loss of foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels with different configurations and thicknesses are presented. Comparisons between the predicted sound transmission loss values obtained from wave impedance analysis, statistical energy analysis, boundary element analysis, and experimental values are presented. The wave impedance analysis model provides accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thin foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels at frequencies above their first resonance frequencies. The predictions from the statistical energy analysis model are in better agreement with the experimental transmission loss values of the sandwich panels when the measured radiation loss factor values near coincidence are used instead of the theoretical values for single-layer panels. The proposed boundary element analysis model provides more accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thick foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels than either the wave impedance analysis model or the

  14. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  15. Local Multi-Channel RF Surface Coil versus Body RF Coil Transmission for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance at 3 Tesla: Which Configuration Is Winning the Game?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Weinberger

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using local four-channel RF coil transmission and benchmark it against large volume body RF coil excitation.Electromagnetic field simulations are conducted to detail RF power deposition, transmission field uniformity and efficiency for local and body RF coil transmission. For both excitation regimes transmission field maps are acquired in a human torso phantom. For each transmission regime flip angle distributions and blood-myocardium contrast are examined in a volunteer study of 12 subjects. The feasibility of the local transceiver RF coil array for cardiac chamber quantification at 3 Tesla is demonstrated.Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using four-channel surface RF coil transmission is competitive versus current clinical CMR practice of large volume body RF coil transmission. The efficiency advantage of the 4TX/4RX setup facilitates shorter repetition times governed by local SAR limits versus body RF coil transmission at whole-body SAR limit. No statistically significant difference was found for cardiac chamber quantification derived with body RF coil versus four-channel surface RF coil transmission. Our simulation also show that the body RF coil exceeds local SAR limits by a factor of ~2 when driven at maximum applicable input power to reach the whole-body SAR limit.Pursuing local surface RF coil arrays for transmission in cardiac MR is a conceptually appealing alternative to body RF coil transmission, especially for patients with implants.

  16. Local Multi-Channel RF Surface Coil versus Body RF Coil Transmission for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance at 3 Tesla: Which Configuration Is Winning the Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lukas; Dieringer, Matthias A.; Els, Antje; Oezerdem, Celal; Rieger, Jan; Kuehne, Andre; Cassara, Antonino M.; Pfeiffer, Harald; Wetterling, Friedrich; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using local four-channel RF coil transmission and benchmark it against large volume body RF coil excitation. Methods Electromagnetic field simulations are conducted to detail RF power deposition, transmission field uniformity and efficiency for local and body RF coil transmission. For both excitation regimes transmission field maps are acquired in a human torso phantom. For each transmission regime flip angle distributions and blood-myocardium contrast are examined in a volunteer study of 12 subjects. The feasibility of the local transceiver RF coil array for cardiac chamber quantification at 3 Tesla is demonstrated. Results Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using four-channel surface RF coil transmission is competitive versus current clinical CMR practice of large volume body RF coil transmission. The efficiency advantage of the 4TX/4RX setup facilitates shorter repetition times governed by local SAR limits versus body RF coil transmission at whole-body SAR limit. No statistically significant difference was found for cardiac chamber quantification derived with body RF coil versus four-channel surface RF coil transmission. Our simulation also show that the body RF coil exceeds local SAR limits by a factor of ~2 when driven at maximum applicable input power to reach the whole-body SAR limit. Conclusion Pursuing local surface RF coil arrays for transmission in cardiac MR is a conceptually appealing alternative to body RF coil transmission, especially for patients with implants. PMID:27598923

  17. Quantitative transmission electron microscopy at atomic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L J; D'Alfonso, A J; Forbes, B D; Findlay, S D; LeBeau, J M; Stemmer, S

    2012-01-01

    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) it is possible to operate the microscope in bright-field mode under conditions which, by the quantum mechanical principle of reciprocity, are equivalent to those in conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM). The results of such an experiment will be presented which are in excellent quantitative agreement with theory for specimens up to 25 nm thick. This is at variance with the large contrast mismatch (typically between two and five) noted in equivalent CTEM experiments. The implications of this will be discussed.

  18. 12 Mode, MIMO-Free OAM Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Kasper; Gregg, Patrick; Galili, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous MIMO-free transmission of a record number (12) of orbital angular momentum modes over 1.2 km is demonstrated. WDM compatibility of the system is shown by using 60 WDM channels with 25 GHz spacing and 10 GBaud QPSK.......Simultaneous MIMO-free transmission of a record number (12) of orbital angular momentum modes over 1.2 km is demonstrated. WDM compatibility of the system is shown by using 60 WDM channels with 25 GHz spacing and 10 GBaud QPSK....

  19. Double Harmonic Transmission (D.H.T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Ianici

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the construction and functioning of a new type of harmonic drive named double harmonic transmission (D.H.T.. In the second part of this paper is presented the dynamic analysis of the double harmonic transmission, which is based on the results of the experimental researches on the D.H.T. This study of the stress status and the forces distribution is necessary for to determine the durability on the portant elements of the D.H.T.

  20. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  1. High power RF transmission line component development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Bae, Y. D.; Yoon, J. S.; Wang, S. J.; Gu, S. H.; Yang, J. R.; Hahm, Y. S.; Oh, G. S.; Lee, J. R.; Lee, W. I.; Park, S. H.; Kang, M. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, W.I.

    1999-12-01

    We developed the liquid stub and phase shifter which are the key high RF power transmission line components. They show reliable operation characteristics and increased insulation capability, and reduced the size by using liquid (silicon oil, dielectric constant ε=2.72) instead of gas for insulating dielectric material. They do not have finger stock for the electric contact so the local temperature rise due to irregular contact and RF breakdown due to scratch in conductor are prevented. They can be utilized in broadcasting, radar facility which require high RF power transmission. Moreover, they are key components in RF heating system for fusion reactor. (author)

  2. Microwave transmission system for space power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, R M [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wave-length microwaves.

  3. Phasor Alternatives to Friis’ Transmission Equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej

    2018-01-01

    Two alternatives to Friis’ transmission equation in terms of phasor voltage waves are presented. In one formulation antennas are characterized by the complex effective length vectors. An additional form introducing field gain, that serves effectively as a phasor counterpart to the power gain......, is proposed. Both forms show the same degree of symmetry and modularity as the original Friis’ equation, but thanks to using phasors instead of power quantities they allow for superposition of fields or voltages. Although the new transmission equations are formulated in frequency domain, they also constitute...

  4. Wireless power transmission for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Chris; Li, Siqi; Nguyen, Trong-Duy; Wang, Junhua; Li, Jiangui; Li, Weihan; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-15

    A wireless power transmission system is provided for high power applications. The power transmission system is comprised generally of a charging unit configured to generate an alternating electromagnetic field and a receive unit configured to receive the alternating electromagnetic field from the charging unit. The charging unit includes a power source; an input rectifier; an inverter; and a transmit coil. The transmit coil has a spirangle arrangement segmented into n coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments. The receive unit includes a receive coil and an output rectifier. The receive coil also has a spirangle arrangement segmented into m coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments.

  5. Electromagnetic analysis using transmission line variables

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This book employs a relatively new method for solving electromagnetic problems, one which makes use of a transmission line matrix (TLM). The propagation space is imagined to be filled with this matrix. The propagating fields and physical properties are then mapped onto the matrix. Mathematically, the procedures are identical with the traditional numerical methods; however, the interpretation and physical appeal of the transmission line matrix are far superior. Any change in the matrix has an immediate physical significance. What is also very important is that the matrix becomes a launching pad

  6. An analysis of environmental data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-05-01

    To comprehensively construct environmental automatic monitoring has become the urgent need of environmental management, is a major measure to implement the scientific outlook on development and build a harmonious socialist society, and is an inevitable choice of “building a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society”, which is of great importance and profound significance to adjust the economic structure and transform growth pattern. This article first introduces the importance of environmental data transmission, then expounds the characteristics, key technologies, transmitting mode, and design ideas of environmental data transmission process, and finally, summarizes the full text.

  7. Transmission pipeline calculations and simulations manual

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, E Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual's three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified f

  8. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong-xiang, E-mail: jsdxshx@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yuan, Shou-qi, E-mail: Shouqiy@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Shu-yi [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  9. Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, D.R.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect

  10. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-01-01

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices

  11. 40 Gb/s optical transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Nielsen, Steen Krogh

    2003-01-01

    ; chromatic dispersion, Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD), Self Phase Modulation (SPM) and linear or non-linear crosstalk among others. Regarding chromatic dispersion, sufficient evidence is presented for the need in 40 Gb/s systems of either modulation formats that allow for higher tolerance than....... Using a 9 ps pulsed RZ Tx, transmission is achieved over a 400 km link consisting of 5 spans of 80 km standard-SMF with a Quality (Q) factor of 17.7 dB, while for NRZ it is reduced to 15 dB. In another experimental verification over 40 km spans of standard-SMF, we could achieve transmission over 6 spans...

  12. Transmission electron microscope studies of extraterrestrial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    1995-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selected-area electron diffraction patterns are shown. Transmission Electron Microscope specimens of lunar soil were prepared using two methods: ion-milling and ultramicrotomy. A combination of high resolution TEM imaging and electron diffraction is used to characterize the opaque assemblages. The opaque assemblages analyzed in this study are dominated by ilmenite with lesser rutile and spinel exsolutions, and traces of Fe metal.

  13. Image transmission through a stable paraxial cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigan, Sylvain; Lopez, Laurent; Treps, Nicolas; Maitre, Agnes; Fabre, Claude

    2005-01-01

    We study the transmission of a monochromatic 'image' through a paraxial cavity. Using the formalism of self-transform functions, we show that a transverse degenerate cavity transmits the self-transform part of the image, with respect to the field transformation over one round-trip of the cavity. This formalism gives insight into the understanding of the behavior of a transverse degenerate cavity, complementary to the transverse mode picture. An experiment of image transmission through a hemiconfocal cavity shows the interest of this approach

  14. Transmission Quality Measurements in DAB+ Broadcast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilski Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital media, delivering broadcast content to customers at an acceptable level of quality is one of the most challenging tasks. The most important factor is the efficient use of available resources, including bandwidth. An appropriate way of managing the digital multiplex is essential for both the economic and technical issues. In this paper we describe transmission quality measurements in the DAB+ broadcast system. We provide a methodology for analysing parameters and factors related with the efficiency and reliability of a digital radio link. We describe a laboratory stand that can be used for transmission quality assessment on a regional and national level.

  15. Reaction rate calculations via transmission coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Alder, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transmission coefficient of a wavepacket traversing a potential barrier can be determined by steady state calculations carried out in imaginary time instead of by real time dynamical calculations. The general argument is verified for the Eckart barrier potential by a comparison of transmission coefficients calculated from real and imaginary time solutions of the Schroedinger equation. The correspondence demonstrated here allows a formulation for the reaction rate that avoids difficulties due to both rare events and explicitly time dependent calculations. 5 refs., 2 figs

  16. High power RF transmission line component development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Bae, Y. D.; Yoon, J. S.; Wang, S. J.; Gu, S. H.; Yang, J. R.; Hahm, Y. S.; Oh, G. S.; Lee, J. R.; Lee, W. I.; Park, S. H.; Kang, M. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, W.I

    1999-12-01

    We developed the liquid stub and phase shifter which are the key high RF power transmission line components. They show reliable operation characteristics and increased insulation capability, and reduced the size by using liquid (silicon oil, dielectric constant {epsilon}=2.72) instead of gas for insulating dielectric material. They do not have finger stock for the electric contact so the local temperature rise due to irregular contact and RF breakdown due to scratch in conductor are prevented. They can be utilized in broadcasting, radar facility which require high RF power transmission. Moreover, they are key components in RF heating system for fusion reactor. (author)

  17. Smart Transmission Grids - Benefits and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco-Ramírez E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the Power Systems are working near their stability limits, for this reason it is necessary and essential a transition to new transmission systems that ensure efficient delivery of electrical energy, with the objective to prevent “blackouts” that causesignificant losses in the economy of any country in the world. This paper analyzes important elements to consider having a healthy and efficient transition from a power grid vertically integrated into a smart transmission grid. A comparative analysis in the model, development, benefits and risks of the implementation of these systems, between two of the main marc of references of smart grids, the EU and the USA is presented.

  18. EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

  19. Attenuation correction using simultaneous emission - transmission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.; Marinkovic, P.

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce degrading influence of attenuation on SPECT image quality, possibility for correction, based on simultaneous emission / transmission measurements, is discussed. Numerical photon transport simulations through the phantom and acquisition of of tomographic projections are performed by using Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. Amount of contamination in transmission data due to photon Compton scattering for emission energy window is specially analyzed and appropriate spatial depending 'noise / signal' factors for three different external sources, applied with Tc-99m, are determined (author)

  20. High lung volume increases stress failure in pulmonary capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z.; Costello, M. L.; Tsukimoto, K.; Prediletto, R.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We previously showed that when pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to test whether stress failure occurred more frequently at high than at low lung volumes for the same Ptm. Lungs of anesthetized rabbits were inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 20 cmH2O, perfused with autologous blood at 32.5 or 2.5 cmH2O Ptm, and fixed by intravascular perfusion. Samples were examined by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those of a previous study in which the lung was inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O. There was a large increase in the frequency of stress failure of the capillary walls at the higher lung volume. For example, at 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the number of endothelial breaks per millimeter cell lining was 7.1 +/- 2.2 at the high lung volume compared with 0.7 +/- 0.4 at the low lung volume. The corresponding values for epithelium were 8.5 +/- 1.6 and 0.9 +/- 0.6. Both differences were significant (P less than 0.05). At 52.5 cmH2O Ptm, the results for endothelium were 20.7 +/- 7.6 (high volume) and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (low volume), and the corresponding results for epithelium were 32.8 +/- 11.9 and 11.4 +/- 3.7. At 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the thickness of the blood-gas barrier was greater at the higher lung volume, consistent with the development of more interstitial edema. Ballooning of the epithelium caused by accumulation of edema fluid between the epithelial cell and its basement membrane was seen at 32.5 and 52.5 cmH2O Ptm. At high lung volume, the breaks tended to be narrower and fewer were oriented perpendicular to the axis of the pulmonary capillaries than at low lung volumes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements agreed well. Our findings provide a physiological

  1. 76 FR 59394 - Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project AGENCY... Eddy-Knight Transmission Project in Wasco County, Oregon and Klickitat County, Washington. Construction of the Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project will accommodate long-term firm transmission requests...

  2. New long-distance transmissions in Russia may use hvdc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-01

    Hvdc is considered for Kuibyshev-Moscow and other future Russian long-distance transmissions as a means to obtain higher transmission capacity and lower losses. A total saving of 46% is calculated as compared with ac transmission. An experimental transmission line will be built shortly.

  3. Radwaste '86: proceedings volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, L.C.

    1986-12-01

    The volume contains all the papers presented at the above Conference, which was held in Cape Town, South Africa from 7 to 12 September 1986. A total of 55 contributions cover the full spectrum of the theme of the Conference, which was subdivided into four sessions. Conditioning, treatment and management of radioactive waste: 12 papers reporting on experiences in various countries, as well as specialist topics such as the extraction of radioactive contaminants from reactor pool water. Containment, safe handling and long-term integrity of ILLW packages: 2 papers dealing with cask design. Transport and storage of radwaste and spent fuel: 7 papers ranging from broad overviews to specific operations in different parts of the world. Radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact: 32 papers covering topics from site selection, design and operation, to modelling and monitoring studies. South Africa's Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal facility is comprehensively described. The volume is a useful reference for anyone interested in the disposal of radioactive waste, especially in arid environments, as well as its treatment and management prior to disposal, and will appeal to a wide range of disciplines including engineers, geologists, geophysicists, life scientists and environmentalists. Of particular interest would be the intensive studies undertaken in South Africa prior to the establishment of a radioactive waste repository in that country

  4. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  5. Limiting volume with modern ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Thomas J; Haan, Lutana; Ashworth, Lonny J; Anderson, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) network low tidal-volume study comparing tidal volumes of 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg was published in 2000. The study was stopped early as data revealed a 22% relative reduction in mortality rate when using 6 ml/kg tidal volume. The current generation of critical care ventilators allows the tidal volume to be set during volume-targeted, assist/control (volume A/C); however, some ventilators include options that may prevent the tidal volume from being controlled. The purpose of this bench study was to evaluate the delivered tidal volume, when these options are active, in a spontaneously breathing lung model using an electronic breathing simulator. Four ventilators were evaluated: CareFusion AVEA (AVEA), Dräger Evita® XL (Evita XL), Covidien Puritan Bennett® 840(TM) (PB 840), and Maquet SERVO-i (SERVO-i). Each ventilator was connected to the Hans Rudolph Electronic Breathing Simulator at an amplitude of 0 cm H2O and then 10 cm H2O. All four ventilators were set to deliver volume A/C, tidal volume 400 ml, respiratory rate 20 bpm, positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cm H2O, peak flowrate 60 L/min. The displayed tidal volume was recorded for each ventilator at the above settings with additional options OFF and then ON. The AVEA has two options in volume A/C: demand breaths and V-sync. When activated, these options allow the patient to exceed the set tidal volume. When using the Evita XL, the option AutoFlow can be turned ON or OFF, and when this option is ON, the tidal volume may vary. The PB 840 does not have any additional options that affect volume delivery, and it maintains the set tidal volume regardless of patient effort. The SERVO-i's demand valve allows additional flow if the patient's inspiratory flowrate exceeds the set flowrate, increasing the delivered tidal volume; this option can be turned OFF with the latest software upgrade. Modern ventilators have an increasing number of optional settings. These settings may

  6. Reflexões e problemas da "transmissão" intergeracional no feminismo brasileiro Reflections and problems of intergenerational "transmission" in Brazilian feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo parte de uma observação situada do presente e de algumas indagações acerca das possibilidades e limites da transmissão de um ideário - princípios, valores, metodologias, saberes, etc. - através do tempo. O feminismo, enquanto um movimento político coletivo, cujas demandas por reconhecimento e legitimação pressupõem estratégias de formação contínuas, enfrenta, de tempos em tempos, impasses que estão relacionados à sua existência no presente e continuidade no futuro. O artigo pretende problematizar conceitos e questões em torno do "envelhecimento" das gerações que deram sustentação à política feminista a partir da redemocratização, no Brasil, ao final dos anos 1970, constituindo, no País, o legado da chamada "segunda onda". Nossa perspectiva busca interrogar sobre os processos de mudança social, contingentes e necessários a uma política de "transmissão" e formação de novas gerações.This article is based on an observation of the present and on some questions about the possibilities and limits of the transmission of a set of ideas - principles, values, methodologies, knowledge etc. - over time. Feminism, as a political and collective movement, which demands recognition and legitimacy, presumes strategies of permanent formation, and is confronted from time to time, with struggles that are related to its existence in the present and to its continuity in the future. The article aims at questioning concepts about the aging of the generations who gave support to feminist politics during the Brazilian re-democratization process in the late 1970s, which constituted itself the heritage of the so called "second wave". Our perspective aims to interrogate processes of social change, understood as contingent and also necessary, to a politics of intergenerational transmission.

  7. Measurement of regional extravascular lung density and of pulmonary blood volume with positron emitting isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larock, M.P.; Quaglia, L.; Lamotte, D.; De Landsheere, C.; Del Fiore, G.; Chevigne, M.; Peters, J.M.; Rigo, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgium))

    1982-01-01

    Studies of pulmonary blood volume changes with exercise can be performed after labelling of the blood pool by /sup 11/CO inhalation. Positron transaxial tomography permits the quantitative study of density distribution of the chest and of the pulmonary blood volume. This paper represents our preliminary experience with these techniques on models and control patients. We have first verified the linearity of transmission for density distribution below one. The tomographic examination first records a transmission image, then an emission image on the same section. We next normalize emission and transmission values on a region of unit density corresponding to blood: then we substract the emission from the transmission values to measure the extravascular pulmonary density. With crystal probes we record pulmonary blood volume variations before, during and after exercise. Peripheral hemodynamic variations explain the change recorded at the begining and at the end of exercise. Combination of these two techniques should help us to better study the importance of the acute changes in the ''formation'' of pulmonary oedema and its influence on regional pulmonary blood volume.

  8. Erratum: Erratum to Central European Journal of Engineering, Volume 4, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Ajay; Srikanth, N. V.

    2014-06-01

    Paper by M. Ajay Kumar, N. V. Srikanth, et al. "An adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system controlled space cector pulse width modulation based HVDC light transmission system under AC fault conditions" in Volume 4, Issue 1, 27-38/March 2014 doi: 10.2478/s13531-013-0143-4 contains an error in the title. The correct title is presented below

  9. Design of synchromesh mechanism to optimization manual transmission's electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuri, Fuad; Sumarsono, Danardono A.; Adhitya, Muhammad; Siregar, Rolan

    2017-03-01

    Significant research has been attempted on a vehicle that lead to the development of transmission that can reduce energy consumption and improve vehicle efficiency. Consumers also expect safety, convenience, and competitive prices. Automatic transmission (AT), continuously variable transmission (CVT), and dual clutch transmission (DCT) is the latest transmission developed for road vehicle. From literature reviews that have been done that this transmission is less effective on electric cars which use batteries as a power source compared to type manual transmission, this is due to the large power losses when making gear changes. Zeroshift system is the transmission can do shift gears with no time (zero time). It was developed for the automatic manual transmission, and this transmission has been used on racing vehicles to eliminate deceleration when gear shift. Zeroshift transmission still use the clutch to change gear in which electromechanical be used to replace the clutch pedal. Therefore, the transmission is too complex for the transmission of electric vehicles, but its mechanism is considered very suitable to increase the transmission efficiency. From this idea, a new innovation design transmission will be created to electric car. The combination synchromesh with zeroshift mechanism for the manual transmission is a transmission that is ideal for improving the transmission efficiency. Installation synchromesh on zeroshift mechanism is expected to replace the function of the clutch MT, and assisted with the motor torque setting when to change gear. Additionally to consider is the weight of the transmission, ease of manufacturing, ease of installation with an electric motor, as well as ease of use by drivers is a matter that must be done to obtain a new transmission system that is suitable for electric cars.

  10. Optoelectronic line transmission an introduction to fibre optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Raymond L

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronic Line Transmission: An Introduction to Fibre Optics presents a basic introduction as well as a background reference manual on fiber optic transmission. The book discusses the basic principles of optical line transmission; the advantages and disadvantages of optical fibers and optoelectronic signalling; the practical applications of optoelectronics; and the future of optoelectronics. The text also describes the theories of optical line transmission; fibers and cables for optical transmission; transmitters including light-emitting diodes and lasers; and receivers including photodi

  11. Electricity transmission pricing. How contracts must reflect costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuttleworth, G.

    1996-01-01

    Two basic structures of transmission systems are distinguished: transmission channels offered through an integrated electric utility and open access offered over an independent network. The first structure allows the application of 'top-down pricing', where transmission prices are derived from customer tariffs less avoidable generation costs. Transmission prices in the second structure must be derived from a 'bottom-up' analysis of transmission costs, including building capacity, marginal losses, and congestion. 5 refs

  12. Lossy transmission line model of hydrofractured well dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzek, T.W. [Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); De, A. [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The real-time detection of hydrofracture growth is crucial to the successful operation of water, CO{sub 2} or steam injection wells in low-permeability reservoirs and to the prevention of subsidence and well failure. In this paper, we describe propagation of very low frequency (1-10 to 100 Hz) Stoneley waves in a fluid-filled wellbore and their interactions with the fundamental wave mode in a vertical hydrofracture. We demonstrate that Stoneley-wave loses energy to the fracture and the energy transfer from the wellbore to the fracture opening is most efficient in soft rocks. We conclude that placing the wave source and receivers beneath the injection packer provides the most efficient means of hydrofracture monitoring. We then present the lossy transmission line model of wellbore and fracture for the detection and characterization of fracture state and volume. We show that this model captures the wellbore and fracture geometry, the physical properties of injected fluid and the wellbore-fracture system dynamics. The model is then compared with experimentally measured well responses. The simulated responses are in good agreement with published experimental data from several water injection wells with depths ranging from 1000 ft to 9000 ft. Hence, we conclude that the transmission line model of water injectors adequately captures wellbore and fracture dynamics. Using an extensive data set for the South Belridge Diatomite waterfloods, we demonstrate that even for very shallow wells the fracture size and state can be adequately recognized at wellhead. Finally, we simulate the effects of hydrofracture extension on the transient response to a pulse signal generated at wellhead. We show that hydrofracture extensions can indeed be detected by monitoring the wellhead pressure at sufficiently low frequencies.

  13. Hydraulic fluid used for power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, M.; Pikulinsky, K.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    In early October another 50-kilowatt wind turbine was provided with new power transmission technology at the Kopparnaes Energy Park in Inkoo, Finland, west of Helsinki. The new technology is thought to make this wind turbine located on the south coast of Finland more efficient, lighter, and cheaper. Certain aspects of this new technology can be applied to older wind turbines. (orig.)

  14. Transmission of tuberculosis within family-households.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustynowicz-Kopec, E.; Jagielski, T.; Kozinska, M.; Kremer, K.; Soolingen, D. van; Bielecki, J.; Zwolska, Z.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The introduction of molecular typing methods in the 1990s to study the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) has significantly improved the possibilities of quantifying transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in different human settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate

  15. Conceptual design for transmission line inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, M F Abdul; Sahari, K S Mohamed; Anuar, A; Arshad, A D Mohd; Idris, M S

    2013-01-01

    Power transmission line is used for power distribution purposes due to their cost effective measure compared to underlying cable. However, prolonged exposure to natural weather may cause fatigue stress to the lines as well as induce material failure. Therefore, periodical line inspection is considered uttermost important as a preventive measure to avoid power outage. However, transmission line inspection has always been a high risk and expensive work. Hazardous works that may harm operator as well as routine that requires precise handling can be performed by robots. Various types of robots have been designed and developed for line inspection but only perform well on a straight and continuous line. As these robots encounter an obstacle during the inspection, then the real problem in terms of robot stability and smooth operation arises. In this paper, conceptual design and evaluation for transmission line inspection robot is presented. The inspection robot mobile robot must be able to bypass or avoid obstacles as it travels along the power transmission line.

  16. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Koju

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  17. Nuclear data transmission based on zigbee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yan; Fang Fang; Chen Wei; Jiang Zancheng

    2007-01-01

    Zigbee, a new wireless communication protocol, which is an important technology supporting wireless sensor networks. We introduce a solution of nuclear data transmission based on zigbee, the cc2420 build up the core of the data acquisition module and the wireless transceive module, and realized remote monitor and nuclear data quickly analysis. (authors)

  18. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  19. Pneumonic Plague Transmission, Moramanga, Madagascar, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Rakotondramanga, Jean Marius; Birdsell, Dawn N; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2017-03-01

    During a pneumonic plague outbreak in Moramanga, Madagascar, we identified 4 confirmed, 1 presumptive, and 9 suspected plague case-patients. Human-to-human transmission among close contacts was high (reproductive number 1.44) and the case fatality rate was 71%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Yersinia pestis isolates belonged to group q3, different from the previous outbreak.

  20. Probable Unusual Transmission of Zika Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about the probable unusual transmission of Zika Virus Infection from a scientist to his wife, published in the May 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Brian Foy, Associate Professor at Colorado State University, shares details of this event.