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Sample records for gaussian schell-model beam

  1. Ghost imaging and its visibility with partially coherent elliptical Gaussian Schell-model beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Meilan; Zhu, Weiting; Zhao, Daomu

    2015-01-01

    The performances of the ghost image and the visibility with partially coherent elliptical Gaussian Schell-model beams have been studied. In that case we have derived the condition under which the goal ghost image is achievable. Furthermore, the visibility is assessed in terms of the parameters related to the source to find that the visibility reduces with the increase of the beam size, while it is a monotonic increasing function of the transverse coherence length. More specifically, it is found that the inequalities of the source sizes in x and y directions, as well as the transverse coherence lengths, play an important role in the ghost image and the visibility. - Highlights: • We studied the ghost image and visibility with partially coherent EGSM beams. • We derived the condition under which the goal ghost image is achievable. • The visibility is assessed in terms of the parameters related to the source. • The source sizes and coherence lengths play role in the ghost image and visibility.

  2. Fiber-coupling efficiency of Gaussian-Schell model beams through an ocean to fiber optical communication link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beibei; Shi, Haifeng; Zhang, Yixin

    2018-06-01

    We theoretically study the fiber-coupling efficiency of Gaussian-Schell model beams propagating through oceanic turbulence. The expression of the fiber-coupling efficiency is derived based on the spatial power spectrum of oceanic turbulence and the cross-spectral density function. Our work shows that the salinity fluctuation has a greater impact on the fiber-coupling efficiency than temperature fluctuation does. We can select longer λ in the "ocean window" and higher spatial coherence of light source to improve the fiber-coupling efficiency of the communication link. We also can achieve the maximum fiber-coupling efficiency by choosing design parameter according specific oceanic turbulence condition. Our results are able to help the design of optical communication link for oceanic turbulence to fiber sensor.

  3. Second-order moments of Schell-model beams with various correlation functions in atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guo; Wang, Jue; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Muchun; Xin, Yu; Song, Minmin

    2017-11-15

    The general formulae for second-order moments of Schell-model beams with various correlation functions in atmospheric turbulence are derived and validated by the Bessel-Gaussian Schell-model beams and cosine-Gaussian-correlated Schell-model beams. Our finding shows that the second-order moments of partially coherent Schell-model beams are related to the second-order partial derivatives of source spectral degree of coherence at the origin. The formulae we provide are much more convenient to analyze and research propagation problems in turbulence.

  4. Twist phase-induced characteristics changes of a radially polarized Gaussian Schell-Model beam in a uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengfei; Fu, Wenyu

    2017-10-01

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral formula and unified theory of coherence and polarization, we obtained the cross-spectral density matrix elements for a radially polarized partially coherent twist (RPPCT) beam in a uniaxial crystal. Moreover, compared with free space, we explore numerically the evolution properties of a RPPCT beam in a uniaxial crystal. The calculation results show that the evolution properties of a RPPCT beam in crystals are substantially different from its properties in free space. These properties in crystals are mainly determined by the twist factor and the ratio of extraordinary index to ordinary refractive index. In a uniaxial crystal, the distribution of the intensity of a RPPCT beam all exhibits non-circular symmetry, and these distributions change with twist factor and the ratio of extraordinary index to ordinary refractive index. The twist factor affects their rotation orientation angles, and the ratio of extraordinary index to ordinary refractive index impacts their twisted levels. This novel characteristics can be used for free-space optical communications, particle manipulation and nonlinear optics, where partially coherent beam with controlled profile and twist factor are required.

  5. Vortices in Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , t0)} = P(du, dv) {FR{g(u, v, t0)}} Replacement: u→ du = t− t0 i2 ∂ ∂u′ v → dv = t− t0 i2 ∂ ∂v′ CSIR National Laser Centre – p.13/30 Differentiation i.s.o integration Evaluate the integral over the Gaussian beam (once and for all). Then, instead... . Gaussian beams with vortex dipoles CSIR National Laser Centre – p.2/30 Gaussian beam notation Gaussian beam in normalised coordinates: g(u, v, t) = exp ( −u 2 + v2 1− it ) u = xω0 v = yω0 t = zρ ρ = piω20 λ ω0 — 1/e2 beam waist radius; ρ— Rayleigh range ω ω...

  6. Average intensity and spreading of partially coherent model beams propagating in a turbulent biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuqian; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Qiu; Hu, Zhengda

    2016-01-01

    For Gaussian beams with three different partially coherent models, including Gaussian-Schell model (GSM), Laguerre-Gaussian Schell-model (LGSM) and Bessel-Gaussian Schell-model (BGSM) beams propagating through a biological turbulent tissue, the expression of the spatial coherence radius of a spherical wave propagating in a turbulent biological tissue, and the average intensity and beam spreading for GSM, LGSM and BGSM beams are derived based on the fractal model of power spectrum of refractive-index variations in biological tissue. Effects of partially coherent model and parameters of biological turbulence on such beams are studied in numerical simulations. Our results reveal that the spreading of GSM beams is smaller than LGSM and BGSM beams on the same conditions, and the beam with larger source coherence width has smaller beam spreading than that with smaller coherence width. The results are useful for any applications involved light beam propagation through tissues, especially the cases where the average intensity and spreading properties of the light should be taken into account to evaluate the system performance and investigations in the structures of biological tissue. - Highlights: • Spatial coherence radius of a spherical wave propagating in a turbulent biological tissue is developed. • Expressions of average intensity and beam spreading for GSM, LGSM and BGSM beams in a turbulent biological tissue are derived. • The contrast for the three partially coherent model beams is shown in numerical simulations. • The results are useful for any applications involved light beam propagation through tissues.

  7. Beam-width spreading of vortex beams in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Li, Jinhong; Duan, Meiling

    2018-01-01

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the definition of second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function, the analytical expression for the beam-width spreading of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beams in free space are derived, and used to study the influence of beam parameters on the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams. With the increment of the propagation distance, the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams will increase; the bigger the topological charge, spatial correlation length, wavelength and waist width are, the smaller the beam-width spreading is.

  8. Spatial superpositions of Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available . At the plane of the lens we obtain a multi-ringed beam with a central intensity maximum which develops into a multi-ringed beam with a central null at the focal plane of the lens. The interesting feature of this beam is that it possesses two focal spots...

  9. Optical vortex scanning inside the Gaussian beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masajada, J; Leniec, M; Augustyniak, I

    2011-01-01

    We discussed a new scanning method for optical vortex-based scanning microscopy. The optical vortex is introduced into the incident Gaussian beam by a vortex lens. Then the beam with the optical vortex is focused by an objective and illuminates the sample. By changing the position of the vortex lens we can shift the optical vortex position at the sample plane. By adjusting system parameters we can get 30 times smaller shift at the sample plane compared to the vortex lens shift. Moreover, if the range of vortex shifts is smaller than 3% of the beam radius in the sample plane the amplitude and phase distribution around the phase dislocation remains practically unchanged. Thus we can scan the sample topography precisely with an optical vortex

  10. A comparison on the propagation characteristics of focused Gaussian beam and fundamental Gaussian beam in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shixiong; Guo Hong; Liu Mingwei; Wu Guohua

    2004-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of focused Gaussian beam (FoGB) and fundamental Gaussian beam (FuGB) propagating in vacuum are investigated. Based on the Fourier transform and the angular spectral analysis, the transverse component and the second-order approximate longitudinal component of the electric field are obtained in the paraxial approximation. The electric field components, the phase velocity and the group velocity of FoGB are compared with those of FuGB. The spot size of FoGB is also discussed

  11. Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info McLaren1_2013.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2236 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name McLaren1_2013.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 JT2A.34.pdf Optics in the Life... Sciences Congress Technical Digest © 2013 The Optical Society (OSA) Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams Melanie McLaren, Thulile Khanyile, Patience Mthunzi and Andrew Forbes* National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  12. Adaptive Laguerre-Gaussian variant of the Gaussian beam expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagniot, Emmanuel; Fromager, Michael; Ait-Ameur, Kamel

    2009-11-01

    A variant of the Gaussian beam expansion method consists in expanding the Bessel function J0 appearing in the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions to derive an analytical expression for a Laguerre-Gaussian beam diffracted through a hard-edge aperture. However, the validity range of the approximation depends on the number of expansion coefficients that are obtained by optimization-computation directly. We propose another solution consisting in expanding J0 onto a set of collimated Laguerre-Gaussian functions whose waist depends on their number and then, depending on its argument, predicting the suitable number of expansion functions to calculate the integral recursively.

  13. Laguerre Gaussian beam multiplexing through turbulence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A

    2014-08-17

    Full Text Available We analyze the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of multiplexed Laguerre Gaussian modes. We present a method to multiplex Laguerre Gaussian modes using digital holograms and decompose the resulting field after encountering a...

  14. Coincidence Imaging and interference with coherent Gaussian beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yang-jian; ZHU Shi-yao

    2006-01-01

    we present a theoretical study of coincidence imaging and interference with coherent Gaussian beams The equations for the coincidence image formation and interference fringes are derived,from which it is clear that the imaging is due to the corresponding focusing in the two paths .The quality and visibility of the images and fringes can be high simultaneously.The nature of the coincidence imaging and interference between quantum entangled photon pairs and coherent Gaussian beams are different .The coincidence image with coherent Gaussian beams is due to intensity-intensity correspondence,a classical nature,while that with entangled photon pairs is due to the amplitude correlation a quantum nature.

  15. Characterization of stochastic spatially and spectrally partially coherent electromagnetic pulsed beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chaoliang; Lue Baida; Pan Liuzhan

    2009-01-01

    The unified theory of coherence and polarization proposed by Wolf is extended from stochastic stationary electromagnetic beams to stochastic spatially and spectrally partially coherent electromagnetic pulsed beams. Taking the stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beam as a typical example of stochastic spatially and spectrally partially coherent electromagnetic pulsed beams, the expressions for the spectral density, spectral degree of polarization and spectral degree of coherence of stochastic electromagnetic GSMP beams propagating in free space are derived. Some special cases are analyzed. The illustrative examples are given and the results are interpreted physically.

  16. An optical tweezer in asymmetrical vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotlyar, V. V.; Kovalev, A. A., E-mail: alexeysmr@mail.ru; Porfirev, A. P. [Image Processing Systems Institute, 151 Molodogvardeiskaya St., 443001 Samara (Russian Federation); Department of Technical cybernetics, Samara State Aerospace University, Samara 443086 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-14

    We study an optical micromanipulation that comprises trapping, rotating, and transporting 5-μm polystyrene microbeads in asymmetric Bessel-Gaussian (BG) laser beams. The beams that carry orbital angular momentum are generated by means of a liquid crystal microdisplay and focused by a microobjective with a numerical aperture of NA = 0.85. We experimentally show that given a constant topological charge, the rate of microparticle motion increases near linearly with increasing asymmetry of the BG beam. Asymmetric BG beams can be used instead of conventional Gaussian beam for trapping and transferring live cells without thermal damage.

  17. Beam shape coefficients of the most general focused Gaussian laser beam for light scattering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The vector wave equation for electromagnetic waves, when subject to a number of constraints corresponding to propagation of a monochromatic beam, reduces to a pair of inhomogeneous differential equations describing the transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized beam components. These differential equations are solved analytically to obtain the most general focused Gaussian beam to order s 4 , where s is the beam confinement parameter, and various properties of the most general Gaussian beam are then discussed. The radial fields of the most general Gaussian beam are integrated to obtain the on-axis beam shape coefficients of the generalized Lorenz–Mie theory formalism of light scattering. The beam shape coefficients are then compared with those of the localized Gaussian beam model and the Davis–Barton fifth-order symmetrized beam. -- Highlights: ► Derive the differential equation for the most general Gaussian beam. ► Solve the differential equation for the most general Gaussian beam. ► Determine the properties of the most general Gaussian beam. ► Determine the beam shape coefficients of the most general Gaussian beam

  18. Selective advantage of tolerant cultural traits in the Axelrod-Schelling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, C.; Floría, L. M.; Moreno, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The Axelrod-Schelling model incorporates into the original Axelrod’s model of cultural dissemination the possibility that cultural agents placed in culturally dissimilar environments move to other places, the strength of this mobility being controlled by an intolerance parameter. By allowing heterogeneity in the intolerance of cultural agents, and considering it as a cultural feature, i.e., susceptible of cultural transmission (thus breaking the original symmetry of Axelrod-Schelling dynamics), we address here the question of whether tolerant or intolerant traits are more likely to become dominant in the long-term cultural dynamics. Our results show that tolerant traits possess a clear selective advantage in the framework of the Axelrod-Schelling model. We show that the reason for this selective advantage is the development, as time evolves, of a positive correlation between the number of neighbors that an agent has in its environment and its tolerant character.

  19. Polarization coupling of vector Bessel–Gaussian beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Ryushi; Kozawa, Yuichi; Sato, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    We report polarization coupling of radial and azimuthal electric field components of a vector light beam as predicted by the fact that the vector Helmholtz equation is expressed as coupled differential equations in cylindrical coordinates. To clearly observe the polarization variation of a beam as it propagates, higher order transverse modes of a vector Bessel–Gaussian beam were generated by a gain distribution modulation technique, which created a narrow ring-shaped gain region in a Nd:YVO 4 crystal. The polarization coupling was confirmed by the observation that the major polarization component of a vector Bessel–Gaussian beam alternates between radial and azimuthal components along with the propagation. (paper)

  20. Generation of singular optical beams from fundamental Gaussian beam using Sagnac interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a simple free-space optics recipe for the controlled generation of optical vortex beams with a vortex dipole or a single charge vortex, using an inherently stable Sagnac interferometer. We investigate the role played by the amplitude and phase differences in generating higher-order Gaussian beams from the fundamental Gaussian mode. Our simulation results reveal how important the control of both the amplitude and the phase difference between superposing beams is to achieving optical vortex beams. The creation of a vortex dipole from null interference is unveiled through the introduction of a lateral shear and a radial phase difference between two out-of-phase Gaussian beams. A stable and high quality optical vortex beam, equivalent to the first-order Laguerre-Gaussian beam, is synthesized by coupling lateral shear with linear phase difference, introduced orthogonal to the shear between two out-of-phase Gaussian beams.

  1. Propagation of Gaussian Beams through Active GRIN Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Varela, A I; Flores-Arias, M T; Bao-Varela, C; Gomez-Reino, C; De la Fuente, X

    2011-01-01

    We discussed light propagation through an active GRIN material that exhibits loss or gain. Effects of gain or loss in GRIN materials can be phenomenologically taken into account by using a complex refractive index in the wave equation. This work examines the implication of using a complex refractive index on light propagation in an active GRIN material illuminated by a non-uniform monochromatic wave described by a Gaussian beam. We analyze how a Gaussian beam is propagated through the active material in order to characterize it by the beam parameters and the transverse irradiance distribution.

  2. Modulation depth of Michelson interferometer with Gaussian beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välikylä, Tuomas; Kauppinen, Jyrki

    2011-12-20

    Mirror misalignment or the tilt angle of the Michelson interferometer can be estimated from the modulation depth measured with collimated monochromatic light. The intensity of the light beam is usually assumed to be uniform, but, for example, with gas lasers it generally has a Gaussian distribution, which makes the modulation depth less sensitive to the tilt angle. With this assumption, the tilt angle may be underestimated by about 50%. We have derived a mathematical model for modulation depth with a circular aperture and Gaussian beam. The model reduces the error of the tilt angle estimate to below 1%. The results of the model have been verified experimentally.

  3. Paint stripping with high power flattened Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researchers present results on improved paint stripping performance with an intra-cavity generated Flattened Gaussian Beam (FGB). A resonator with suitable diffractive optical elements was designed in order to produce a single mode...

  4. Vortex beam characterization in terms of Hypergeometric- Gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available in Optics: The 100th OSA Annual Meeting and Exhibit/Laser Science XXXII , 17-21 October 2016, Rochester Riverside Convention Center, Rochester, New York United States Vortex beam characterization in terms of Hypergeometric- Gaussian modes Sephton...

  5. Quality factor of aberrated gaussian laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 15 20 25 30 35 M 4 © CSIR 2010 www.csir.co.za Conclusion • Laser beam quality depends on - y-Astigmatism - y-Coma - x-Coma - y-Triangular astigmatism - x-Triangular astigmatism - Spherical aberration...

  6. Propagation of hypergeometric Gaussian beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Bian, Lirong; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Optical vortex beams have attracted lots of interest due to its potential application in image processing, optical trapping and optical communications, etc. In this work, we theoretically and numerically investigated the propagation properties of hypergeometric Gaussian (HyGG) beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. Based on the Snyder-Mitchell model, analytical expressions for propagation of the HyGG beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media were obtained. The influence of input power and optical parameters on the evolutions of the beam width and radius of curvature is illustrated, respectively. The results show that the beam width and radius of curvature of the HyGG beams remain invariant, like a soliton when the input power is equal to the critical power. Otherwise, it varies periodically like a breather, which is the result of competition between the beam diffraction and nonlinearity of the medium.

  7. Spectral changes in stochastic anisotropic electromagnetic beams propagating through turbulent ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Miaomiao; Zhao, Daomu

    2014-02-01

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the unified theory of coherence and polarization of light, the spectral changes of stochastic anisotropic electromagnetic beams propagating through oceanic turbulence are revealed. As an example, some numerical calculations are illustrated for an anisotropic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic turbulent ocean. It is shown that, under the influence of oceanic turbulence, the on-axis spectrum is always blue-shifted along with the propagation distance, however, for the off-axis positions, red-blue spectral switch can be found.

  8. Propagation of truncated modified Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, D.; Li, J.; Guo, Q.

    2010-01-01

    By expanding the circ function into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions and applying the Collins formula, the propagation of hard-edge diffracted modified Laguerre-Gaussian beams (MLGBs) through a paraxial ABCD system is studied, and the approximate closed-form propagation expression of hard-edge diffracted MLGBs is obtained. The transverse intensity distribution of the MLGB carrying finite power can be characterized by a single bright and symmetric ring during propagation when the aperture radius is very large. Starting from the definition of the generalized truncated second-order moments, the beam quality factor of MLGBs through a hard-edged circular aperture is investigated in a cylindrical coordinate system, which turns out to be dependent on the truncated radius and the beam orders.

  9. Gyrator transform of Gaussian beams with phase difference and generation of hollow beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyu; Xia, Hui; Yu, Tao; Xie, Ding; Xie, Wenke

    2018-03-01

    The optical expression of Gaussian beams with phase difference, which is caused by gyrator transform (GT), has been obtained. The intensity and phase distribution of transform Gaussian beams are analyzed. It is found that the circular hollow vortex beam can be obtained by overlapping two GT Gaussian beams with π phase difference. The effect of parameters on the intensity and phase distributions of the hollow vortex beam are discussed. The results show that the shape of intensity distribution is significantly influenced by GT angle α and propagation distance z. The size of the hollow vortex beam can be adjusted by waist width ω 0. Compared with previously reported results, the work shows that the hollow vortex beam can be obtained without any model conversion of the light source.

  10. Laser-driven acceleration with Bessel and Gaussian beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafizi, B.; Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of enhancing the energy gain in laser-driven accelerators by using Bessel laser beams is examined. Scaling laws are derived for the propagation length, acceleration gradient, and energy gain in various accelerators for both Gaussian and Bessel beam drivers. For equal beam powers, the energy gain can be increased by a factor of N 1/2 by utilizing a Bessel beam with N lobes, provided that the acceleration gradient is linearly proportional to the laser field. This is the case in the inverse free electron laser and the inverse Cherenkov accelerators. If the acceleration gradient is proportional to the square of the laser field (e.g., the laser wakefield, plasma beat wave, and vacuum beat wave accelerators), the energy gain is comparable with either beam profile. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Beam propagation factor and Kurtosis parameter of different types of flattened Gaussian beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghafi, S.; Forbes, G.W.; Sheppard, C.J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The beam propagation factor, M 2 and the Kurtosis parameter, K, are considered for three different models of flattened Gaussian beams. Plots of M 2 versus K reveal similarities between these flattened beams. In fact, for this type of beam, it is possible to predict K from the value of M 2 We also determine the values of the parameters that characterize those different types of flattened Gaussian beam modes for any given value of M 2 . Finally, once K and M 2 have been measured for any flattened beam, these equations can be used to determine the closeness of this real beam to members of the three well-known classes of flattened beams. This can facilitate the analyses of the beam and its propagation. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  12. ECE from MAST - Gaussian beams and antenna aiming problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub; Pavlo, Pavol; Shevchenko, V.; Valovic, M.; Vahala, L.; Vahala, G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, suppl.C (2004), C116-C122 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21./. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : ECEemission, Gaussian beams Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  13. Gaussian beam diffraction in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Yu.A., E-mail: kravtsov@am.szczecin.p [Institute of Physics, Maritime University of Szczecin, Szczecin 70-500 (Poland); Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117 997 (Russian Federation); Berczynski, P., E-mail: pawel.berczynski@ps.p [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin 70-310 (Poland); Bieg, B., E-mail: b.bieg@am.szczecin.p [Institute of Physics, Maritime University of Szczecin, Szczecin 70-500 (Poland)

    2009-08-10

    Combination of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of geometric optics with paraxial complex geometric optics (PCGO) is suggested, which allows describing both diffraction and polarization evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic beams in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media. Combination QIA/PCGO reduces Maxwell equations to the system of the ordinary differential equations of the first order and radically simplifies solution of various problems, related to microwave plasma diagnostics, including plasma polarimetry, interferometry and refractometry in thermonuclear reactors. Efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of electromagnetic beam diffraction in a linear layer of magnetized plasma with parameters, modeling tokamak plasma in the project ITER.

  14. Gaussian beam diffraction in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, Yu.A.; Berczynski, P.; Bieg, B.

    2009-01-01

    Combination of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of geometric optics with paraxial complex geometric optics (PCGO) is suggested, which allows describing both diffraction and polarization evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic beams in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media. Combination QIA/PCGO reduces Maxwell equations to the system of the ordinary differential equations of the first order and radically simplifies solution of various problems, related to microwave plasma diagnostics, including plasma polarimetry, interferometry and refractometry in thermonuclear reactors. Efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of electromagnetic beam diffraction in a linear layer of magnetized plasma with parameters, modeling tokamak plasma in the project ITER.

  15. Partially coherent isodiffracting pulsed beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivurova, Matias; Ding, Chaoliang; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan

    2018-02-01

    We investigate a class of isodiffracting pulsed beams, which are superpositions of transverse modes supported by spherical-mirror laser resonators. By employing modal weights that, for stationary light, produce a Gaussian Schell-model beam, we extend this standard model to pulsed beams. We first construct the two-frequency cross-spectral density function that characterizes the spatial coherence in the space-frequency domain. By assuming a power-exponential spectral profile, we then employ the generalized Wiener-Khintchine theorem for nonstationary light to derive the two-time mutual coherence function that describes the space-time coherence of the ensuing beams. The isodiffracting nature of the laser resonator modes permits all (paraxial-domain) calculations at any propagation distance to be performed analytically. Significant spatiotemporal coupling is revealed in subcycle, single-cycle, and few-cycle domains, where the partial spatial coherence also leads to reduced temporal coherence even though full spectral coherence is assumed.

  16. Generalized beam quality factor of aberrated truncated Gaussian laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available with a quadratic refractive index profile, a change in the beam quality factor can be used to infer the pre- sence of aberrations and thereby study the media of interest. For these reasons, among others, research into the beam qual- ity factor... very much like a normal lens (without the rotational symmetry associated with defocus) since the beam quality factor is calculated in the principal axes. With y-astigmatism, the lenslike behavior does not take place in the principal axes where...

  17. Ultrasonic Beam Propagation in Highly Anisotropic Materials Simulated by Multi-Gaussian Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo; Schmerr, Lester W.

    2007-01-01

    The necessity of nondestructively inspecting fiber-reinforced composites, austenitic steels, and other inherently anisotropic materials has stimulated considerable interest in developing beam models for anisotropic media. The properties of slowness surface play key role in the beam models based on the paraxial approximation. In this paper, we apply a modular multi-Gaussian beam (MMGB) model to study the effects of material anisotropy on ultrasonic beam profile. It is shown that the anisotropic effects of beam skew and excess beam divergence enter into the MMGB model through parameters defining the slope and curvature of the slowness surface. The overall beam profile is found when the quasi longitudinal (qL) beam propagates in the symmetry plane of a transversely isotropic gr/ep composite. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effects of these parameters on ultrasonic beam diffraction and beam skew. The MMGB calculations are also checked by comparing the anisotropy factor and beam skew angle with other analytical solutions

  18. Gaussian beam profile shaping apparatus, method therefore and evaluation thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus maps a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile by exploiting the Fourier transform properties of lenses. A phase element imparts a design phase onto an input beam and the output optical field from a lens is then the Fourier transform of the input beam and the phase function from the phase element. The phase element is selected in accordance with a dimensionless parameter which is dependent upon the radius of the incoming beam, the desired spot shape, the focal length of the lens and the wavelength of the input beam. This dimensionless parameter can also be used to evaluate the quality of a system. In order to control the radius of the incoming beam, optics such as a telescope can be employed. The size of the target spot and the focal length can be altered by exchanging the transform lens, but the dimensionless parameter will remain the same. The quality of the system, and hence the value of the dimensionless parameter, can be altered by exchanging the phase element. The dimensionless parameter provides design guidance, system evaluation, and indication as to how to improve a given system. 27 figs

  19. Ultrasound beam transmission using a discretely orthogonal Gaussian aperture basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    Work is reported on development of a computational model for ultrasound beam transmission at an arbitrary geometry transmission interface for generally anisotropic materials. The work addresses problems encountered when the fundamental assumptions of ray theory do not hold, thereby introducing errors into ray-theory-based transmission models. Specifically, problems occur when the asymptotic integral analysis underlying ray theory encounters multiple stationary phase points in close proximity, due to focusing caused by concavity on either the entry surface or a material slowness surface. The approach presented here projects integrands over both the transducer aperture and the entry surface beam footprint onto a Gaussian-derived basis set, thereby distributing the integral over a summation of second-order phase integrals which are amenable to single stationary phase point analysis. Significantly, convergence is assured provided a sufficiently fine distribution of basis functions is used.

  20. Coherence of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Igor P.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper the theoretical research of coherent properties of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere are developed. The approach to the analysis of this problem is based on the analytical solution of the equation for the transverse second-order mutual coherence function of a field of optical radiation. The behavior of integral scale of coherence degree of vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beams depending on parameters of an optical beam and characteristics of turbulent atmosphere is particularly considered. It is shown that the integral scale of coherence degree of a vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beam essentially depends on value of a topological charge of a vortex optical beam. With increase in a topological charge of a vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beam the value of integral scale of coherence degree of a vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beam are decreased.

  1. Coherence degree of the fundamental Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Igor P.

    2017-11-01

    In this article the coherence of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam in turbulent atmosphere is analyzed. The problem analysis is based on the solution of the equation for the transverse second-order mutual coherence function of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam of optical radiation. The behavior of a coherence degree of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam depending on parameters of an optical beam and characteristics of turbulent atmosphere is examined. It was revealed that at low levels of fluctuations in turbulent atmosphere the coherence degree of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam has the characteristic oscillating appearance. At high levels of fluctuations in turbulent atmosphere the coherence degree of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam is described by an one-scale decreasing curve which in process of increase of level of fluctuations on a line of formation of a laser beam becomes closer to the same characteristic of a spherical optical wave.

  2. The backward phase flow and FBI-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beams for the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung Shingyu; Qian Jianliang

    2010-01-01

    We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schroedinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in . In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.

  3. Evolution of a Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional magnetoplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, M. J.; Jafari Milani, M. R., E-mail: mrj.milani@gmail.com [Plasma Physics Research School, NSTRI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    In this paper, the spatial evolution of an intense circularly polarized Gaussian laser beam propagated through a warm plasma is investigated, taking into account the ponderomotive force, Ohmic heating, external magnetic field, and collisional effects. Using the momentum transfer and energy equations, both modified electron temperature and electron density in plasma are obtained. By introducing the complex dielectric permittivity of warm magnetized plasma and using the complex eikonal function, coupled differential equations for beam width parameter are established and solved numerically. The effects of polarization state of laser and magnetic field on the laser spot size evolution are studied. It is observed that in case of the right-handed polarization, an increase in the value of external magnetic field causes an increase in the strength of the self-focusing, especially in the higher values, and consequently, the self-focusing occurs in shorter distance of propagation. Moreover, the results demonstrate the existence of laser intensity and electron temperature ranges where self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of these regions; meanwhile, in these intervals, there exists a turning point for each of intensity and temperature in which the self-focusing process has its strongest strength. Finally, it is found that the self-focusing effect can be enhanced by increasing the plasma frequency (plasma density).

  4. Gaussian representation of high-intensity focused ultrasound beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneson, Joshua E; Myers, Matthew R

    2007-11-01

    A method for fast numerical simulation of high-intensity focused ultrasound beams is derived. The method is based on the frequency-domain representation of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, and assumes for each harmonic a Gaussian transverse pressure distribution at all distances from the transducer face. The beamwidths of the harmonics are constrained to vary inversely with the square root of the harmonic number, and as such this method may be viewed as an extension of a quasilinear approximation. The technique is capable of determining pressure or intensity fields of moderately nonlinear high-intensity focused ultrasound beams in water or biological tissue, usually requiring less than a minute of computer time on a modern workstation. Moreover, this method is particularly well suited to high-gain simulations since, unlike traditional finite-difference methods, it is not subject to resolution limitations in the transverse direction. Results are shown to be in reasonable agreement with numerical solutions of the full KZK equation in both tissue and water for moderately nonlinear beams.

  5. On the exploration of effect of critical beam power on the propagation of Gaussian laser beam in collisionless magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urunkar, T. U.; Valkunde, A. T.; Vhanmore, B. D.; Gavade, K. M.; Patil, S. D.; Takale, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    It is quite known that critical power of the laser plays vital role in the propagation of Gaussian laser beam in collisionless plasma. The nonlinearity in dielectric constant considered herein is due to the ponderomotive force. In the present analysis, the interval of critical beam power has been explored to sustain the competition between diffraction and self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam during propagation in collisionless magnetized plasma. Differential equation for beam-width parameter has been established by using WKB and paraxial approximations under parabolic equation approach. The effect of critical power on the propagation of Gaussian laser beam has been presented graphically and discussed.

  6. Intra-cavity metamorphosis of a Gaussian beam to flat-top distribution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We explore an intra-cavity beam shaping approach to generate a Gaussian distribution by the metamorphosis of a Gaussian beam into a flat-top distribution on opposing mirrors. The concept is tested external to the cavity through the use of two...

  7. Effects of dispersion and longitudinal chromatic aberration on the focusing of isodiffracting pulsed Gaussian light beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Dongmei; Guo Hong; Han Dingan; Liu Mingwei; Li Changfu

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the dispersion and the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the material of the lens, focusing of isodiffracting pulsed Gaussian light beam through single lens is analyzed. The smaller the cycle number of the isodiffracting pulsed Gaussian light beam is, the higher the order of the material dispersion should be considered

  8. Experimental Results and Numerical Simulation of the Target RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanmi Helmi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Radar Cross Section (RCS of radar targets using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS method. The purpose GBS method has several advantages over ray method, mainly on the caustic problem. To evaluate the performance of the chosen method, we started the analysis of the RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS and Gaussian Beam Launching (GBL, the asymptotic models Physical Optic (PO, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD and the rigorous Method of Moment (MoM. Then, we showed the experimental validation of the numerical results using experimental measurements which have been executed in the anechoic chamber of Lab-STICC at ENSTA Bretagne. The numerical and experimental results of the RCS are studied and given as a function of various parameters: polarization type, target size, Gaussian beams number and Gaussian beams width.

  9. Mean intensity of the fundamental Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Igor P.

    2017-11-01

    In the given article mean intensity of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam in turbulent atmosphere is studied. The problem analysis is based on the solution of the equation for the transverse second-order mutual coherence function of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian beam of optical radiation. Distributions of mean intensity of a fundamental Bessel- Gaussian beam optical beam in longitudinal and transverse to a direction of propagation of optical radiation are investigated in detail. Influence of atmospheric turbulence on change of radius of the central part of a Bessel optical beam is estimated. Values of parameters at which it is possible to generate in turbulent atmosphere a nondiffracting pseudo-Bessel optical beam by means of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam are established.

  10. Random source generating far field with elliptical flat-topped beam profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yongtao; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-01-01

    Circular and rectangular multi-Gaussian Schell-model (MGSM) sources which generate far fields with circular and rectangular flat-topped beam profiles were introduced just recently (Sahin and Korotkova 2012 Opt. Lett. 37 2970; Korotkova 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 64). In this paper, a random source named an elliptical MGSM source is introduced. An analytical expression for the propagation factor of an elliptical MGSM beam is derived. Furthermore, an analytical propagation formula for an elliptical MGSM beam passing through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived, and its propagation properties in free space are studied. It is interesting to find that an elliptical MGSM source generates a far field with an elliptical flat-topped beam profile, being qualitatively different from that of circular and rectangular MGSM sources. The ellipticity and the flatness of the elliptical flat-topped beam profile in the far field are determined by the initial coherence widths and the beam index, respectively. (paper)

  11. Extension of filament propagation in water with Bessel-Gaussian beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, G.; Sayrac, M.; Boran, Y.; Kolomenskii, A. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Kaya, N.; Schuessler, H. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Science and Petroleum, Texas A& M University at Qatar, Doha 23874 (Qatar); Strohaber, J. [Department of Physics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Physics, Florida A& M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307 (United States); Amani, M. [Science and Petroleum, Texas A& M University at Qatar, Doha 23874 (Qatar)

    2016-03-15

    We experimentally studied intense femtosecond pulse filamentation and propagation in water for Bessel-Gaussian beams with different numbers of radial modal lobes. The transverse modes of the incident Bessel-Gaussian beam were created from a Gaussian beam of a Ti:sapphire laser system by using computer generated hologram techniques. We found that filament propagation length increased with increasing number of lobes under the conditions of the same peak intensity, pulse duration, and the size of the central peak of the incident beam, suggesting that the radial modal lobes may serve as an energy reservoir for the filaments formed by the central intensity peak.

  12. Extension of filament propagation in water with Bessel-Gaussian beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally studied intense femtosecond pulse filamentation and propagation in water for Bessel-Gaussian beams with different numbers of radial modal lobes. The transverse modes of the incident Bessel-Gaussian beam were created from a Gaussian beam of a Ti:sapphire laser system by using computer generated hologram techniques. We found that filament propagation length increased with increasing number of lobes under the conditions of the same peak intensity, pulse duration, and the size of the central peak of the incident beam, suggesting that the radial modal lobes may serve as an energy reservoir for the filaments formed by the central intensity peak.

  13. Integral momenta of vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams in turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Igor P

    2016-04-20

    The orbital angular momentum of vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere is studied theoretically. The field of an optical beam is determined through the solution of the paraxial wave equation for a randomly inhomogeneous medium with fluctuations of the refraction index of the turbulent atmosphere. Peculiarities in the behavior of the total power of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam at the receiver (or transmitter) are examined. The dependence of the total power of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam on optical beam parameters, namely, the transverse wave number of optical radiation, amplitude factor radius, and, especially, topological charge of the optical beam, is analyzed in detail. It turns out that the mean value of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam remains constant during propagation in the turbulent atmosphere. It is shown that the variance of fluctuations of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam propagating in turbulent atmosphere calculated with the "mean-intensity" approximation is equal to zero identically. Thus, it is possible to declare confidently that the variance of fluctuations of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere is not very large.

  14. Propagation of partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam through oceanic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dajun; Yin, Hongming; Wang, Guiqiu; Wang, Yaochuan

    2017-11-01

    The partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam generated by a Schell-model source has been introduced. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the cross-spectral density function of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in oceanic turbulence is derived. The influences of coherence length, topological charge M, and oceanic turbulence on the spreading properties and position of the coherence vortex for a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam are analyzed in detail. The results show that a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in stronger oceanic turbulence will evolve into a Gaussian-like beam more rapidly as the propagation distance increases, and the number of coherent vortices will change.

  15. Simulation of ultrasonic surface waves with multi-Gaussian and point source beam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Schmerr, Lester W. Jr.; Li, Xiongbing; Sedov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, multi-Gaussian beam models have been developed to solve many complicated bulk wave propagation problems. However, to date those models have not been extended to simulate the generation of Rayleigh waves. Here we will combine Gaussian beams with an explicit high frequency expression for the Rayleigh wave Green function to produce a three-dimensional multi-Gaussian beam model for the fields radiated from an angle beam transducer mounted on a solid wedge. Simulation results obtained with this model are compared to those of a point source model. It is shown that the multi-Gaussian surface wave beam model agrees well with the point source model while being computationally much more efficient

  16. Modulation Transfer Function of a Gaussian Beam Based on the Generalized Modified Atmospheric Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the modulation transfer function of a Gaussian beam propagating through a horizontal path in weak-fluctuation non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Mathematical expressions are obtained based on the generalized modified atmospheric spectrum, which includes the spectral power law value of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, the finite inner and outer scales of turbulence, and other optical parameters of the Gaussian beam. The numerical results indicate that the atmospheric turbulence would produce less negative effects on the wireless optical communication system with an increase in the inner scale of turbulence. Additionally, the increased outer scale of turbulence makes a Gaussian beam influenced more seriously by the atmospheric turbulence.

  17. Tuneable Gaussian to flat-top resonator by amplitude beam shaping using a digital laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a simple laser cavity that produces spatial tuneable laser modes from a Gaussian beam to a Flat-top beam and a Donut-beam. The laser cavity contains an opaque ring and an adjustable circular aperture...

  18. Off-Axis Gaussian Beams with Random Displacement in Atmospheric Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Baykal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent work in which we study the propagation of the general Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian laser beams in wireless broadband access telecommunication systems is elaborated in this paper to cover the special case of an off-axis Gaussian beam. We mainly investigate the propagation characteristics in atmospheric turbulence of an off-axis Gaussian beam possessing Gaussian distributed random displacement parameters. Our interest is to search for different types of laser beams that will improve the performance of a wireless broadband access system when atmospheric turbulence is considered. Our formulation is based on the basic solution of the second order mutual coherence function evaluated at the receiver plane. For fixed turbulence strength, the coherence length calculated at the receiver plane is found to decrease as the variance of the random displacement is increased. It is shown that as the turbulence becomes stronger, coherence lengths due to off-axis Gaussian beams tend to approach the same value, irrespective of the variance of the random displacement. As expected, the beam spreading is found to be pronounced for larger variance of displacement parameter. Average intensity profiles when atmospheric turbulence is present are plotted for different values of the variance of the random displacement parameter of the off-axis Gaussian beam.

  19. Fast pencil beam dose calculation for proton therapy using a double-Gaussian beam model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eda Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly conformal dose distributions produced by scanned proton pencil beams are more sensitive to motion and anatomical changes than those produced by conventional radiotherapy. The ability to calculate the dose in real time as it is being delivered would enable, for example, online dose monitoring, and is therefore highly desirable. We have previously described an implementation of a pencil beam algorithm running on graphics processing units (GPUs intended specifically for online dose calculation. Here we present an extension to the dose calculation engine employing a double-Gaussian beam model to better account for the low-dose halo. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first such pencil beam algorithm for proton therapy running on a GPU. We employ two different parametrizations for the halo dose, one describing the distribution of secondary particles from nuclear interactions found in the literature and one relying on directly fitting the model to Monte Carlo simulations of pencil beams in water. Despite the large width of the halo contribution, we show how in either case the second Gaussian can be included whilst prolonging the calculation of the investigated plans by no more than 16%, or the calculation of the most time-consuming energy layers by about 25%. Further, the calculation time is relatively unaffected by the parametrization used, which suggests that these results should hold also for different systems. Finally, since the implementation is based on an algorithm employed by a commercial treatment planning system, it is expected that with adequate tuning, it should be able to reproduce the halo dose from a general beam line with sufficient accuracy.

  20. Integral superposition of paraxial Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures in Cartesian coordinates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2015), s. 109-155 ISSN 2336-3827 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : integral superposition of paraxial Gaussian beams * inhomogeneous anisotropic media * S waves in weakly anisotropic media Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  1. Application of the fractional Fourier transformation to digital holography recorded by an elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, F; Coëtmellec, S; Brunel, M; Allano, D; Lebrun, D; Janssen, A J E M

    2005-11-01

    The authors have studied the diffraction pattern produced by a particle field illuminated by an elliptic and astigmatic Gaussian beam. They demonstrate that the bidimensional fractional Fourier transformation is a mathematically suitable tool to analyse the diffraction pattern generated not only by a collimated plane wave [J. Opt. Soc. Am A 19, 1537 (2002)], but also by an elliptic and astigmatic Gaussian beam when two different fractional orders are considered. Simulations and experimental results are presented.

  2. Hermite-cosine-Gaussian laser beam and its propagation characteristics in turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil Tanyer

    2005-08-01

    Hermite-cosine-Gaussian (HcosG) laser beams are studied. The source plane intensity of the HcosG beam is introduced and its dependence on the source parameters is examined. By application of the Fresnel diffraction integral, the average receiver intensity of HcosG beam is formulated for the case of propagation in turbulent atmosphere. The average receiver intensity is seen to reduce appropriately to various special cases. When traveling in turbulence, the HcosG beam initially experiences the merging of neighboring beam lobes, and then a TEM-type cosh-Gaussian beam is formed, temporarily leading to a plain cosh-Gaussian beam. Eventually a pure Gaussian beam results. The numerical evaluation of the normalized beam size along the propagation axis at selected mode indices indicates that relative spreading of higher-order HcosG beam modes is less than that of the lower-order counterparts. Consequently, it is possible at some propagation distances to capture more power by using higher-mode-indexed HcosG beams.

  3. Average spreading and beam quality evolution of Gaussian array beams propagating through oceanic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Dong; Chen, Yizhu; Tao, Rumao; Ma, Yanxing; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The propagation properties of a radial Gaussian beam array through oceanic turbulence are studied analytically. The analytical expressions for the average intensity and the beam quality (power-in-the-bucket (PIB) and M 2 -factor) of a radial beam array in a turbulent ocean are derived based on an account of statistical optics methods, the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, and the second order moments of the Wigner distribution function. The influences of w, ε, and χ T on the average intensity are investigated. The array divergence increases and the laser beam spreads as the salinity-induced dominant, ε decreased, and χ T increased. Further, the analytical expression of PIB and the M 2 -factor in the target plane is obtained. The changes of PIB and the M 2 -factor with three oceanic turbulence parameters indicate that the stronger turbulence with a larger w, smaller ε, and larger χ T results in the value of PIB decreasing, the value of the M 2 -factor increasing, and the beam quality degrading. (letter)

  4. Using harmonic oscillators to determine the spot size of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steely, Sidney L.

    1993-01-01

    The similarity of the functional forms of quantum mechanical harmonic oscillators and the modes of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams is illustrated. This functional similarity provides a direct correlation to investigate the spot size of large-order mode Hermite-Gaussian laser beams. The classical limits of a corresponding two-dimensional harmonic oscillator provide a definition of the spot size of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams. The classical limits of the harmonic oscillator provide integration limits for the photon probability densities of the laser beam modes to determine the fraction of photons detected therein. Mathematica is used to integrate the probability densities for large-order beam modes and to illustrate the functional similarities. The probabilities of detecting photons within the classical limits of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams asymptotically approach unity in the limit of large-order modes, in agreement with the Correspondence Principle. The classical limits for large-order modes include all of the nodes for Hermite Gaussian laser beams; Sturm's theorem provides a direct proof.

  5. The Experimental Verification of Gaussian Beam Coupling for ECH Transmission Line at 400 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choe Mun Seok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We design a quasi-optical transmission line system for a 400 GHz gyrotron beam. The 400GHz Gaussian beam is injected to a corrugated waveguide bounced from a quasi-optical mirror. From detailed 2D field patterns of the output beam emitted from the corrugated waveguide, we analyze the mode contents and the source of non-ideal beam expansion

  6. Propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian beams in fractional Schrödinger equation: from linear to nonlinear regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifu; Li, Chuxin; Zhong, Haizhe; Xu, Changwen; Lei, Dajun; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan

    2016-06-27

    We have investigated the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian optical beams in fractional Schrödinger equation. We have identified the difference between the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian beams and that of Gaussian beams. We show that, the linear propagation dynamics of the super-Gaussian beams with order m > 1 undergo an initial compression phase before they split into two sub-beams. The sub-beams with saddle shape separate each other and their interval increases linearly with propagation distance. In the nonlinear regime, the super-Gaussian beams evolve to become a single soliton, breathing soliton or soliton pair depending on the order of super-Gaussian beams, nonlinearity, as well as the Lévy index. In two dimensions, the linear evolution of super-Gaussian beams is similar to that for one dimension case, but the initial compression of the input super-Gaussian beams and the diffraction of the splitting beams are much stronger than that for one dimension case. While the nonlinear propagation of the super-Gaussian beams becomes much more unstable compared with that for the case of one dimension. Our results show the nonlinear effects can be tuned by varying the Lévy index in the fractional Schrödinger equation for a fixed input power.

  7. Tuneable Gaussian to flat-top resonator by amplitude beam shaping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We outline a simple laser cavity comprising an opaque ring and a circular aperture that is capable of producing spatially tuneable laser modes, from a Gaussian beam to a Flat-top beam. The tuneability is achieved by varying the diameter...

  8. Spot size characterization of focused non-Gaussian X-ray laser beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalupsky, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Juha, L.; Hajkova, V.; Cihelka, J.; Burian, T.; Vysin, L.; Gaudin, J.; Gleeson, A.; Jurek, M.; Khorsand, A. R.; Klinger, D.; Wabnitz, H.; Sobierajski, R.; Stormer, M.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new technique for the characterization of non-Gaussian laser beams which cannot be described by an analytical formula. As a generalization of the beam spot area we apply and refine the definition of so called effective area (A(eff)) [1] in order to avoid using the full-width at half

  9. Influence of Turbulent Atmosphere on Polarization Properties of Stochastic Electromagnetic Pulsed Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chao-Liang; Zhao Zhi-Guo; Li Xiao-Feng; Pan Liu-Zhan; Yuan Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Using the coherence theory of non-stationary fields and the characterization of stochastic electromagnetic pulsed beams, the analytical expression for the spectral degree of polarization of stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beams in turbulent atmosphere is derived and is used to study the polarization properties of stochastic electromagnetic GSMP beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere. The results of numerical calculation are given to illustrate the dependence of spectral degree of polarization on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length. It is shown that, compared with free-space case, in turbulent atmosphere propagation there are two positions at which the on-axis spectral degree of polarization P is equal to zero. The position change depends on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  10. Effects of relativistic and channel focusing on q-Gaussian laser beam propagating in a preformed parabolic plasma channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li; Hong, Xue-Ren, E-mail: hxr_nwnu@163.com; Sun, Jian-An, E-mail: sunja@nwnu.edu.cn; Tang, Rong-An; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Tian, Jian-Min; Duan, Wen-Shan

    2017-07-12

    The propagation of q-Gaussian laser beam in a preformed plasma channel is investigated by means of the variational method. A differential equation for the spot size has been obtained by including the effects of relativistic self-focusing, ponderomotive self-channeling and preformed channel focusing. The propagation behaviors and their corresponding physical conditions are identified. The comparison of the propagation between q-Gaussian and Gaussian laser beams is done by theoretical and numerical analysis. It is shown that, in the same channel, the focusing power of q-Gaussian laser beam is lower than that of Gaussian laser beam, i.e., the q-Gaussian laser beam is easier to focus than Gaussian laser beam. - Highlights: • Some behaviors for Gaussian laser are also found for q-Gaussian one. • The parameter regions corresponding to different laser behaviors are given. • Influence of q on the laser propagation behavior is obvious. • The q-Gaussian laser beam is easier to focus than the Gaussian one.

  11. Effects of relativistic and channel focusing on q-Gaussian laser beam propagating in a preformed parabolic plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Hong, Xue-Ren; Sun, Jian-An; Tang, Rong-An; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Tian, Jian-Min; Duan, Wen-Shan

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of q-Gaussian laser beam in a preformed plasma channel is investigated by means of the variational method. A differential equation for the spot size has been obtained by including the effects of relativistic self-focusing, ponderomotive self-channeling and preformed channel focusing. The propagation behaviors and their corresponding physical conditions are identified. The comparison of the propagation between q-Gaussian and Gaussian laser beams is done by theoretical and numerical analysis. It is shown that, in the same channel, the focusing power of q-Gaussian laser beam is lower than that of Gaussian laser beam, i.e., the q-Gaussian laser beam is easier to focus than Gaussian laser beam. - Highlights: • Some behaviors for Gaussian laser are also found for q-Gaussian one. • The parameter regions corresponding to different laser behaviors are given. • Influence of q on the laser propagation behavior is obvious. • The q-Gaussian laser beam is easier to focus than the Gaussian one.

  12. Effects of a modulated vortex structure on the diffraction dynamics of ring Airy Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianwei; Shi, Xiaohui; Deng, Zhixiang; Bai, Yanfeng; Fu, Xiquan

    2017-09-01

    The evolution of the ring Airy Gaussian beams with a modulated vortex in free space is numerically investigated. Compared with the unmodulated vortex, the unique property is that the beam spots first break up, and then gather. The evolution of the beams is influenced by the parameters of the vortex modulation, and the splitting phenomenon gets enhanced with multiple rings becoming light spots if the modulation depth increases. The symmetric branch pattern of the beam spots gets changed when the number of phase folds increases, and the initial modulation phase only impacts the angle of the beam spots. Moreover, a large distribution factor correlates to a hollow Gaussian vortex shape and weakens the splitting and gathering trend. By changing the initial parameters of the vortex modulation and the distribution factor, the peak intensity is greatly affected. In addition, the energy flow and the angular momentum are elucidated with the beam evolution features being confirmed.

  13. Wigner distribution function of Hermite-cosine-Gaussian beams through an apertured optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Zhao, Daomu

    2005-08-01

    By introducing the hard-aperture function into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions, the approximate analytical expressions of the Wigner distribution function for Hermite-cosine-Gaussian beams passing through an apertured paraxial ABCD optical system are obtained. The analytical results are compared with the numerically integrated ones, and the absolute errors are also given. It is shown that the analytical results are proper and that the calculation speed for them is much faster than for the numerical results.

  14. Interaction of Airy-Gaussian beams in saturable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiling; Peng, Yulian; Chen, Chidao; Chen, Bo; Peng, Xi; Deng, Dongmei

    2016-08-01

    Based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the interactions of the two Airy-Gaussian components in the incidence are analyzed in saturable media, under the circumstances of the same amplitude and different amplitudes, respectively. It is found that the interaction can be both attractive and repulsive depending on the relative phase. The smaller the interval between two Airy-Gaussian components in the incidence is, the stronger the intensity of the interaction. However, with the equal amplitude, the symmetry is shown and the change of quasi-breathers is opposite in the in-phase case and out-of-phase case. As the distribution factor is increased, the phenomena of the quasi-breather and the self-accelerating of the two Airy-Gaussian components are weakened. When the amplitude is not equal, the image does not have symmetry. The obvious phenomenon of the interaction always arises on the side of larger input power in the incidence. The maximum intensity image is also simulated. Many of the characteristics which are contained within other images can also be concluded in this figure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108 and 10904041), the Foundation for the Author of Guangdong Province Excellent Doctoral Dissertation (Grant No. SYBZZXM201227), and the Foundation of Cultivating Outstanding Young Scholars (“Thousand, Hundred, Ten” Program) of Guangdong Province, China. CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China.

  15. Interaction of Airy–Gaussian beams in saturable media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Meiling; Peng Yulian; Chen Chidao; Chen Bo; Peng Xi; Deng Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the interactions of the two Airy–Gaussian components in the incidence are analyzed in saturable media, under the circumstances of the same amplitude and different amplitudes, respectively. It is found that the interaction can be both attractive and repulsive depending on the relative phase. The smaller the interval between two Airy–Gaussian components in the incidence is, the stronger the intensity of the interaction. However, with the equal amplitude, the symmetry is shown and the change of quasi-breathers is opposite in the in-phase case and out-of-phase case. As the distribution factor is increased, the phenomena of the quasi-breather and the self-accelerating of the two Airy–Gaussian components are weakened. When the amplitude is not equal, the image does not have symmetry. The obvious phenomenon of the interaction always arises on the side of larger input power in the incidence. The maximum intensity image is also simulated. Many of the characteristics which are contained within other images can also be concluded in this figure. (paper)

  16. Optical propagation of the HE11 mode and Gaussian beams in hollow circular waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenn, J.P.

    1993-05-01

    The propagation of the HE 11 mode and Gaussian beams in hollow oversized circular waveguides is analyzed using optical theories. Different types of waveguides are considered: hollow dielectric or conducting waveguides, dielectric-lined waveguides, corrugated waveguides. General formulas are derived which give the power transmission through these different guides. The best wall materials and structures are determined from a comparison of the waveguide transmissions, at the infrared and millimeter wavelengths. The question of the coupling between the HE 11 mode and Gaussian beams is discussed and from a review of coupling coefficients derived before, an optimum value is pointed out. The problem of matching a Gaussian beam into circular waveguides in order to achieve the maximum power transmission is analyzed

  17. Self-repeating properties of four-petal Gaussian vortex beams in quadratic index medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Defeng; Li, Xiaohui; Chai, Tong; Zheng, Hairong

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the propagation properties of four-petal Gaussian vortex (FPGV) beams propagating through the quadratic index medium, obtaining the analytical expression of FPGV beams. The effects of beam order n, topological charge m and beam waist ω0 are investigated. Results show that quadratic index medium support periodic distributions of FPGV beams. A hollow optical wall or an optical central principal maximum surrounded by symmetrical sidelobes will occur at the center of a period. At length, they will evolve into four petals structure, exactly same as the intensity distributions at source plane.

  18. Spot size characterization of focused non-Gaussian X-ray laser beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupský, J; Krzywinski, J; Juha, L; Hájková, V; Cihelka, J; Burian, T; Vysín, L; Gaudin, J; Gleeson, A; Jurek, M; Khorsand, A R; Klinger, D; Wabnitz, H; Sobierajski, R; Störmer, M; Tiedtke, K; Toleikis, S

    2010-12-20

    We present a new technique for the characterization of non-Gaussian laser beams which cannot be described by an analytical formula. As a generalization of the beam spot area we apply and refine the definition of so called effective area (A(eff)) [1] in order to avoid using the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) parameter which is inappropriate for non-Gaussian beams. Furthermore, we demonstrate a practical utilization of our technique for a femtosecond soft X-ray free-electron laser. The ablative imprints in poly(methyl methacrylate) - PMMA and amorphous carbon (a-C) are used to characterize the spatial beam profile and to determine the effective area. Two procedures of the effective area determination are presented in this work. An F-scan method, newly developed in this paper, appears to be a good candidate for the spatial beam diagnostics applicable to lasers of various kinds.

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of Gaussian beam and mode propagation in over-dimensioned circular guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenn, J.P.

    1984-06-01

    A theoretical study of modes in circular hollow over-dimensioned waveguides is developed; it shows the interest of dielectric or weakly conducting wall guide use. An optical model computing the transmitted power of gaussian beams through these guides, for different types of walls, is established. The formulas obtained allow to optimize the guide and to adapt the beam. Applied to the EH 11 mode this optical model leads to new results. Systematical measurements of gaussian beam propagation in over-dimensioned guides are realised; they are concerned with beam power transmission, polarization, its structure and its radiation at the guide exit in function of the different characteristics of the beam and the guide [fr

  20. The robustness of truncated Airy beam in PT Gaussian potentials media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianni; Fu, Xiquan; Huang, Xianwei; Yang, Yijun; Bai, Yanfeng

    2018-03-01

    The robustness of truncated Airy beam in parity-time (PT) symmetric Gaussian potentials media is numerically investigated. A high-peak power beam sheds from the Airy beam due to the media modulation while the Airy wavefront still retain its self-bending and non-diffraction characteristics under the influence of modulation parameters. Increasing the modulation factor results in the smaller value of maximum power of the center beam, and the opposite trend occurs with the increment of the modulation depth. However, the parabolic trajectory of the Airy wavefront does not be influenced. By utilizing the unique features, the Airy beam can be used as a long distance transmission source under the PT symmetric Gaussian potentials medium.

  1. Theoretical study of the attenuation of a gaussian beam penetrating into a dielectric circular wave guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenn, J.P.

    1981-07-01

    It is proposed to draw up an approximate formula directly giving the attenuation of a gaussian beam penetrating into a superdimensioned dielectric circular wave guide. This formula is derived from optical laws, i.e. Fresnel's formulae of the reflexion of a wave on a dielectric to which a correcting term due to diffraction has been added. The results given by this formula are compared with the existing results, based on the breakdown of a gaussian beam into propagation modes, thereby enabling their validity and the field of use to be checked. An application is then made to the wave guides that will be employed in the infrared interferometer fitted in JET [fr

  2. Scattering of aerosol particles by a Hermite-Gaussian beam in marine atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingqing; Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Li, Jiangting; Yan, Xu; Liu, Songhua

    2017-07-01

    Based on the complex-source-point method and the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory, the scattering properties and polarization of aerosol particles by a Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam in marine atmosphere is investigated. The influences of beam mode, beam width, and humidity on the scattered field are analyzed numerically. Results indicate that when the number of HG beam modes u (v) increase, the radar cross section of aerosol particles alternating appears at maximum and minimum values in the forward and backward scattering, respectively, because of the special petal-shaped distribution of the HG beam. The forward and backward scattering of aerosol particles decreases with the increase in beam waist. When beam waist is less than the radius of the aerosol particle, a minimum value is observed in the forward direction. The scattering properties of aerosol particles by the HG beam are more sensitive to the change in relative humidity compared with those by the plane wave and the Gaussian beam (GB). The HG beam shows superiority over the plane wave and the GB in detecting changes in the relative humidity of marine atmosphere aerosol. The effects of relative humidity on the polarization of the HG beam have been numerically analyzed in detail.

  3. Unstable propagation of a Gaussian laser beam in a plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Maiden, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Laser heating of long magnetically confined plasma columns to fusion temperatures requires propagation of a trapped laser beam over considerable distances. The present paper employs the parabolic approximation to the wave equation to analyze the propagation of a Gaussian beam through a plasma with a parabolic transverse density profile. Although propagation is stable in the axially uniform case, exhibiting alternate focusing and defocusing of the beam, it is unstable to small axial perturbations of certain wavelengths. In particular, an exponentially growing beam radius results from perturbations at wavelengths near that associated with the alternate focusing and defocusing mentioned above

  4. Analyzing the Propagation Behavior of a Gaussian Laser Beam through Seawater and Comparing with Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Dabbagh Kashani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of the beam propagation behavior through oceanic media is a challenging subject. In this paper, based on generalized Collins integral, the mean irradiance profile of Gaussian laser beam propagation through ocean is investigated. Power In Special Bucket (PIB is calculated. Using analytical expressions and calculating seawater transmission, the effects of absorption and scattering on beam propagation are studied. Based on these formulae, propagation in ocean and atmosphere are compared. The effects of some optical and environmental specifications, such as divergence angle and chlorophyll concentration in seawater on beam propagation by using mean irradiance, PIB and analytical formula of oceanic transmission are studied. The calculated results are shown graphically.

  5. Spatial properties of coaxial superposition of two coherent Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boubaha, B

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available that of the first focal point owing to its larger diameter, and subsequently decreases as K increases. 3. Interferometric Beam Shaping An interesting feature of the CGB is when the param- eter K is reduced, one observes that the number of rings shown in Fig. 1... for K . It is remarkable to notice that the beam shaping properties displayed in Fig. 5 are obtained from the interference of two coherent GBs, which are coaxially superposed by resorting to a two-wave interferom- eter or by generating the modulating...

  6. Uniform versus Gaussian Beams: A Comparison of the Effects of Diffraction, Obscuration, and Aberations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-16

    balancing is discussed for the two types of beams. Zernike polynomials representing balanced primary aberration for uniform and Gaussian annular beams...plotted on a logarithmic scale (Figs. 3c and 3d ). The positions of maxima and minima and the correspond- ing irradiance and encircled-power values are...aberration 2 4 (representing a term in the expansion of the aberration in terms of a set of " Zernike " polynomials which are orthonormal over the amplitude

  7. Scattering of Gaussian beam by a spherical particle with a spheroidal inclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huayong; Liao Tongqing

    2011-01-01

    A generalized Lorenz-Mie theory framework (GLMT) is applied to the study of Gaussian beam scattering by a spherical particle with an embedded spheroid at the center. By virtue of a transformation between the spherical and spheroidal vector wave functions, a theoretical procedure is developed to deal with the boundary conditions. Numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are presented.

  8. Structured Laguerre-Gaussian beams for mitigation of spherical aberration in tightly focused regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, S.; Bouzid, O.; Fromager, M.; Hasnaoui, A.; Harfouche, A.; Cagniot, E.; Forbes, A.; Aït-Ameur, K.

    2018-04-01

    Many laser applications utilise a focused laser beam having a single-lobed intensity profile in the focal plane, ideally with the highest possible on-axis intensity. Conventionally, this is achieved with the lowest-order Laguerre-Gaussian mode (LG00), the Gaussian beam, in a tight focusing configuration. However, tight focusing often involves significant spherical aberration due to the high numerical aperture of the systems involved, thus degrading the focal quality. Here, we demonstrate that a high-order radial LG p0 mode can be tailored to meet and in some instances exceed the performance of the Gaussian. We achieve this by phase rectification of the mode using a simple binary diffractive optic. By way of example, we show that the focusing of a rectified LG50 beam is almost insensitive to a spherical aberration coefficient of over three wavelengths, in contrast with the usual Gaussian beam for which the intensity of the focal spot is reduced by a factor of two. This work paves the way towards enhanced focal spots using structured light.

  9. Time-domain least-squares migration using the Gaussian beam summation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jidong; Zhu, Hejun; McMechan, George; Yue, Yubo

    2018-04-01

    With a finite recording aperture, a limited source spectrum and unbalanced illumination, traditional imaging methods are insufficient to generate satisfactory depth profiles with high resolution and high amplitude fidelity. This is because traditional migration uses the adjoint operator of the forward modeling rather than the inverse operator. We propose a least-squares migration approach based on the time-domain Gaussian beam summation, which helps to balance subsurface illumination and improve image resolution. Based on the Born approximation for the isotropic acoustic wave equation, we derive a linear time-domain Gaussian beam modeling operator, which significantly reduces computational costs in comparison with the spectral method. Then, we formulate the corresponding adjoint Gaussian beam migration, as the gradient of an L2-norm waveform misfit function. An L1-norm regularization is introduced to the inversion to enhance the robustness of least-squares migration, and an approximated diagonal Hessian is used as a preconditioner to speed convergence. Synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that the proposed approach improves imaging resolution and amplitude fidelity in comparison with traditional Gaussian beam migration.

  10. A Gaussian beam method for ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, O.; Leymarie, N.; Cassereau, D.

    2018-05-01

    The propagation of high-frequency ultrasonic body waves can be efficiently estimated with a semi-analytic Dynamic Ray Tracing approach using paraxial approximation. Although this asymptotic field estimation avoids the computational cost of numerical methods, it may encounter several limitations in reproducing identified highly interferential features. Nevertheless, some can be managed by allowing paraxial quantities to be complex-valued. This gives rise to localized solutions, known as paraxial Gaussian beams. Whereas their propagation and transmission/reflection laws are well-defined, the fact remains that the adopted complexification introduces additional initial conditions. While their choice is usually performed according to strategies specifically tailored to limited applications, a Gabor frame method has been implemented to indiscriminately initialize a reasonable number of paraxial Gaussian beams. Since this method can be applied for an usefully wide range of ultrasonic transducers, the typical case of the time-harmonic piston radiator is investigated. Compared to the commonly used Multi-Gaussian Beam model [1], a better agreement is obtained throughout the radiated field between the results of numerical integration (or analytical on-axis solution) and the resulting Gaussian beam superposition. Sparsity of the proposed solution is also discussed.

  11. Application of the fractional Fourier transformation to digital holography recorded by an elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolas, F.; Coëtmellec, S.; Brunel, M.; Allano, D.; Lebrun, D.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors have studied the diffraction pattern produced by a particle field illuminated by an elliptic and astigmatic Gaussian beam. They demonstrate that the bidimensional fractional Fourier transformation is a mathematically suitable tool to analyse the diffraction pattern generated not only by

  12. Orbital angular momentum correlations with a phase-flipped Gaussian mode pump beam

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Romero, J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Optics August 2012/ Vol. 14. No 8 Orbital angular momentum correlations with a phase- flipped Gaussian mode pump beam J Romero1,2, D Giovannini1, M G McLaren3,4, E J Galvez5, A Forbes3,4 and M J Padgett1 1 School of Physics...

  13. High power infrared super-Gaussian beams: generation, propagation and application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, NC

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper researchers present the design of a CO2 laser resonator that produces as the stable transverse mode a super–Gaussian laser beam. The resonator makes use of an intra–cavity diffractive mirror and a flat output coupler, generating...

  14. Hermite-Gaussian beams with self-forming spiral phase distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchik, Alexander A.; Muzychenko, Yana B.

    2014-05-01

    Spiral laser beams is a family of laser beams that preserve the structural stability up to scale and rotate with the propagation. Properties of spiral beams are of practical interest for laser technology, medicine and biotechnology. Researchers use a spiral beams for movement and manipulation of microparticles. Spiral beams have a complicated phase distribution in cross section. This paper describes the results of analytical and computer simulation of Hermite-Gaussian beams with self-forming spiral phase distribution. In the simulation used a laser beam consisting of the sum of the two modes HG TEMnm and TEMn1m1. The coefficients n1, n, m1, m were varied. Additional phase depending from the coefficients n, m, m1, n1 imposed on the resulting beam. As a result, formed the Hermite Gaussian beam phase distribution which takes the form of a spiral in the process of distribution. For modeling was used VirtualLab 5.0 (manufacturer LightTrans GmbH).

  15. Amplitude calculations for 3D Gaussian beam migration using complex-valued traveltimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleistein, Norman; Gray, Samuel H

    2010-01-01

    Gaussian beams are often used to represent Green's functions in three-dimensional Kirchhoff-type true-amplitude migrations because such migrations made using Gaussian beams yield superior images to similar migrations using classical ray-theoretic Green's functions. Typically, the integrand of a migration formula consists of two Green's functions—each describing propagation to the image point—one from the source and the other from the receiver position. The use of Gaussian beams to represent each of these Green's functions in 3D introduces two additional double integrals when compared to a Kirchhoff migration using ray-theoretic Green's functions, thereby adding a significant computational burden. Hill (2001 Geophysics 66 1240–50) proposed a method for reducing those four integrals to two, compromising slightly on the full potential quality of the Gaussian beam representations for the sake of more efficient computation. That approach requires a two-dimensional steepest descent analysis for the asymptotic evaluation of a double integral. The method requires evaluation of the complex traveltimes of the Gaussian beams as well as the amplitudes of the integrands at the determined saddle points. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate the determinant of a certain (Hessian) matrix of second derivatives. Hill (2001 Geophysics 66 1240–50) did not report on this last part; thus, his proposed migration formula is kinematically correct but lacks correct amplitude behavior. In this paper, we derive a formula for that Hessian matrix in terms of dynamic ray tracing quantities. We also show in a simple example how the integral that we analyze here arises in a true amplitude migration formula

  16. Propagation of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beams in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Ma, Haotong; Dong, Li; Ren, Ge; Qi, Bo; Tan, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Limited by the size and weight of prism and optical assembling, Rotational Risley-prism-array system is a simple but effective way to realize high power and superior beam quality of deflecting laser output. In this paper, the propagation of the rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array in atmospheric turbulence is studied in detail. An analytical expression for the average intensity distribution at the receiving plane is derived based on nonparaxial ray tracing method and extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Power in the diffraction-limited bucket is chosen to evaluate beam quality. The effect of deviation angle, propagation distance and intensity of turbulence on beam quality is studied in detail by quantitative simulation. It reveals that with the propagation distance increasing, the intensity distribution gradually evolves from multiple-petal-like shape into the pattern that contains one main-lobe in the center with multiple side-lobes in weak turbulence. The beam quality of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array with lower deviation angle is better than its counterpart with higher deviation angle when propagating in weak and medium turbulent (i.e. Cn2 beam quality of higher deviation angle arrays degrades faster as the intensity of turbulence gets stronger. In the case of propagating in strong turbulence, the long propagation distance (i.e. z > 10km ) and deviation angle have no influence on beam quality.

  17. Determination of Cross-Sectional Area of Focused Picosecond Gaussian Laser Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rodolfo; Fitz-Gerald, James; Palmieri, Frank; Connell, John

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of the waist diameter of a focused Gaussian-beam at the 1/e(sup 2) intensity, also referred to as spot size, is key to determining the fluence in laser processing experiments. Spot size measurements are also helpful to calculate the threshold energy and threshold fluence of a given material. This work reports an application of a conventional method, by analyzing single laser ablated spots for different laser pulse energies, to determine the cross-sectional area of a focused Gaussian-beam, which has a nominal pulse width of approx. 10 ps. Polished tungsten was used as the target material, due to its low surface roughness and low ablation threshold, to measure the beam waist diameter. From the ablative spot measurements, the ablation threshold fluence of the tungsten substrate was also calculated.

  18. Composite optical vortices in noncollinear Laguerre–Gaussian beams and their propagation in free space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ke; Liu Pusheng; Lü Baida

    2008-01-01

    Taking two Laguerre—Gaussian beams with topological charge l = ± 1 as an example, this paper studies the composite optical vortices formed by two noncollinear Laguerre—Gaussian beams with different phases, amplitudes, waist widths, off-axis distances, and their propagation in free space. It is shown by detailed numerical illustrative examples that the number and location of composite vortices at the waist plane are variable by varying the relative phase β, amplitude ratio η, waist width ratio ζ, or off-axis distance ratio μ. The net topological charge l net is not always equal to the sum l sum of charges of the two component beams. The motion, creation and annihilation of composite vortices take place in the free-space propagation, and the net charge during the propagation remains unchanged and equals to the net charge at the waist plane

  19. Propagation of Bessel-Gaussian beams through a double-apertured fractional Fourier transform optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Jiang, Chun; Zhu, Haibin

    2012-08-01

    Based on the scalar diffraction theory and the fact that a hard-edged aperture function can be expanded into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions, an approximate analytical solution for Bessel-Gaussian (BG) beams propagating through a double-apertured fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) system is derived in the cylindrical coordinate. By using the approximate analytical formulas, the propagation properties of BG beams passing through a double-apertured FrFT optical system have been studied in detail by some typical numerical examples. The results indicate that the double-apertured FrFT optical system provides a convenient way for controlling the properties of the BG beams by properly choosing the optical parameters.

  20. Propagation of Gaussian laser beam in cold plasma of Drude model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Yuan Chengxun; Zhou Zhongxiang; Li Lei; Du Yanwei

    2011-01-01

    The propagation characters of Gaussian laser beam in plasmas of Drude model have been investigated by complex eikonal function assumption. The dielectric constant of Drude model is representative and applicable in describing the cold unmagnetized plasmas. The dynamics of ponderomotive nonlinearity, spatial diffraction, and collision attenuation is considered. The derived coupling equations determine the variations of laser beam and irradiation attenuation. The modified laser beam-width parameter F, the dimensionless axis irradiation intensity I, and the spatial electron density distribution n/n 0 have been studied in connection with collision frequency, initial laser intensity and beam-width, and electron temperature of plasma. The variations of laser beam and plasma density due to different selections of parameters are reasonably explained, and results indicate the feasible modification of the propagating characters of laser beam in plasmas, which possesses significance to fast ignition, extended propagation, and other applications.

  1. Electron acceleration by longitudinal electric field of a gaussian laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Satoshi; Sugihara, Ryo; Shimoda, Koichi.

    1991-11-01

    It is shown that the longitudinal electric field of a transverse magnetic mode of a Gaussian laser beam accelerates an electron to an ultra-relativistic energy. The electron is captured and accelerated in a length of the order of the Rayleigh range. The ultimate energy increment of the electron with a single laser beam is given by the product of transverse field intensity and the beam waist, and can be of the order of 100MeV. This fact implies that a multi-stage acceleration enables TeV-order-acceleration in a length of a few kilometers with the present state of the art. (author)

  2. Three-dimensional propagation and absorption of high frequency Gaussian beams in magnetoactive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.; Orefice, A.

    1994-01-01

    In today's high frequency systems employed for plasma diagnostics, power heating, and current drive the behavior of the wave beams is appreciably affected by the self-diffraction phenomena due to their narrow collimation. In the present article the three-dimensional propagation of Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous and anisotropic media is analyzed, starting from a properly formulated dispersion relation. Particular attention is paid, in the case of electromagnetic electron cyclotron (EC) waves, to the toroidal geometry characterizing tokamak plasmas, to the power density evolution on the advancing wave fronts, and to the absorption features occurring when a beam crosses an EC resonant layer

  3. Influence of atmospheric turbulence on the energy focusability of Gaussian beams with spherical aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Jinping; Ji, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    By using the four-dimensional (4D) computer code of the time-dependent propagation of laser beams through atmospheric turbulence, the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the energy focusability of Gaussian beams with spherical aberration is studied in detail, where the mean-squared beam width, the power in the bucket (PIB), the β parameter and the energy Strehl ratio are taken as the characteristic parameters. It is shown that turbulence results in beam spreading, and the effect of spherical aberration on the beam spreading decreases due to turbulence. Gaussian beams with negative spherical aberration are more affected by turbulence than those with positive spherical aberration. For the negative spherical aberration case, the focus position moves to the source plane due to turbulence. It is mentioned that the influence of turbulence on the energy focusability defined by a certain energy (i.e. PIB = 63%) is very heavy when the negative spherical aberration is very heavy. On the other hand, the influence of turbulence on the energy focusability defined by the energy within a given bucket radius (i.e. mean-squared beam width) is heaviest when a certain negative spherical aberration coefficient is adopted. (papers)

  4. Ghost reflections of Gaussian beams in anamorphic optical systems with an application to Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to model and analyze the effect of undesired (ghost) reflections of Gaussian beams that are produced by anamorphic optical systems. The superposition of these beams with the nominal beam modulates the nominal power distribution at the recording plane. This modulation may cause contrast reduction, veiling parts of the nominal image, and/or the formation of spurious interference fringes. The developed methodology is based on synthesizing the beam optical paths into nominal and ghost optical beam paths. Similar to the nominal beam, we present the concept that each ghost beam is characterized by a beam size, wavefront radius of curvature, and Gouy phase in the paraxial regime. The nominal and ghost beams are sequentially traced through the system and formulas for estimating the electric field magnitude and phase of each ghost beam at the recording plane are presented. The effective electric field is the addition of the individual nominal and ghost electric fields. Formulas for estimating Gouy phase, the shape of the interference fringes, and the central interference order are introduced. As an application, the theory of the formation of the interference fringes by Michelson interferometer is presented. This theory takes into consideration the ghost reflections that are formed by the beam splitter. To illustrate the theory and to show its wide applicability, simulation examples that include a Mangin mirror, a Michelson interferometer, and a black box optical system are provided.

  5. Orbital angular momentum mode of Gaussian beam induced by atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Li, Jiangting; Yan, Xu; Dong, Kangjun

    2018-02-01

    Superposition theory of the spiral harmonics is employed to numerical study the transmission property of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode of Gaussian beam induced by atmospheric turbulence. Results show that Gauss beam does not carry OAM at the source, but various OAM modes appear after affected by atmospheric turbulence. With the increase of atmospheric turbulence strength, the smaller order OAM modes appear firstly, followed by larger order OAM modes. The beam spreading of Gauss beams in the atmosphere enhance with the increasing topological charge of the OAM modes caused by atmospheric turbulence. The mode probability density of the OAM generated by atmospheric turbulence decreases, and peak position gradually deviate from the Gauss beam spot center with the increase of the topological charge. Our results may be useful for improving the performance of long distance laser digital spiral imaging system.

  6. Self-focusing and self-defocusing of elliptically shaped Gaussian laser beams in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayyar, V P; Soni, V S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1979-02-14

    This paper presents a study of the self-focusing and self-defocusing of elliptically shaped Gaussian laser beams in collisional and collisionless plasmas. The non-linear dependence of the dielectric constant inside a collisional plasma is due to inhomogeneous heating of energy carriers and in a collisionless plasma it is due to the ponderomotive force. It is found that the beam gets focused at different points in different planes, exhibiting the effect of astigmatism. In certain power regions considered, the beam either converges or defocuses in both the directions, while in some other regions of the power spectrum one dimension of the beam focuses while the other defocuses. The beam also propagates in an oscillatory waveguide.

  7. Launching and controlling Gaussian beams from point sources via planar transformation media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Hayrettin; Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L.

    2018-02-01

    Based on operations prescribed under the paradigm of complex transformation optics (CTO) [F. Teixeira and W. Chew, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 13, 665 (1999), 10.1163/156939399X01104; F. L. Teixeira and W. C. Chew, Int. J. Numer. Model. 13, 441 (2000), 10.1002/1099-1204(200009/10)13:5%3C441::AID-JNM376%3E3.0.CO;2-J; H. Odabasi, F. L. Teixeira, and W. C. Chew, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1317 (2011), 10.1364/JOSAB.28.001317; B.-I. Popa and S. A. Cummer, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063837 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.063837], it was recently shown in [G. Castaldi, S. Savoia, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 173901 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.173901] that a complex source point (CSP) can be mimicked by parity-time (PT ) transformation media. Such coordinate transformation has a mirror symmetry for the imaginary part, and results in a balanced loss/gain metamaterial slab. A CSP produces a Gaussian beam and, consequently, a point source placed at the center of such a metamaterial slab produces a Gaussian beam propagating away from the slab. Here, we extend the CTO analysis to nonsymmetric complex coordinate transformations as put forth in [S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, and V. Galdi, J. Opt. 18, 044027 (2016), 10.1088/2040-8978/18/4/044027] and verify that, by using simply a (homogeneous) doubly anisotropic gain-media metamaterial slab, one can still mimic a CSP and produce Gaussian beam. In addition, we show that a Gaussian-like beams can be produced by point sources placed outside the slab as well. By making use of the extra degrees of freedom (the real and imaginary parts of the coordinate transformation) provided by CTO, the near-zero requirement on the real part of the resulting constitutive parameters can be relaxed to facilitate potential realization of Gaussian-like beams. We illustrate how beam properties such as peak amplitude and waist location can be controlled by a proper choice of (complex-valued) CTO Jacobian elements. In particular, the beam waist

  8. Numerical simulation of Gaussian beam scattering by complex particles of arbitrary shape and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.P.; Cui, Z.W.; Gouesbet, G.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient numerical method based on the surface integral equations is introduced to simulate the scattering of Gaussian beam by complex particles that consist of an arbitrarily shaped host particle and multiple internal inclusions of arbitrary shape. In particular, the incident focused Gaussian beam is described by the Davis fifth-order approximate expressions in combination with rotation defined by Euler angles. The established surface integral equations are discretized with the method of moments, where the unknown equivalent electric and magnetic currents induced on the surfaces of the host particle and the internal inclusions are expanded using the Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) basis functions. The resultant matrix equations are solved by using the parallel conjugate gradient method. The proposed numerical method is validated and its capability illustrated in several characteristic examples.

  9. Type I parametric down conversion of highly focused Gaussian beams in finite length crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Jáuregui, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the correlations in wave vector space of photon pairs generated by type I spontaneous parametric down conversion using a Gaussian pump beam. The analysis covers both moderate focused and highly focused regimes, paying special attention to the angular spectrum and the conditional angular spectrum. Simple analytic expressions are derived that allow a detailed study of the dependence of these spectra on the waist of the source and the length of the nonlinear crystal. These expressions are in good agreement with numerical expectations and reported experimental results. They are used to make a systematic search of optimization parameters that improve the feasibility of using highly focused Gaussian beams to generate idler and signal photons with predetermined mean values and spread of their transverse wave vectors. (papers)

  10. Extended wavelet transformation to digital holographic reconstruction: application to the elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacha, Clément; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Brunel, Marc; Lebrun, Denis

    2013-02-01

    Wavelet analysis provides an efficient tool in numerous signal processing problems and has been implemented in optical processing techniques, such as in-line holography. This paper proposes an improvement of this tool for the case of an elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian (AEG) beam. We show that this mathematical operator allows reconstructing an image of a spherical particle without compression of the reconstructed image, which increases the accuracy of the 3D location of particles and of their size measurement. To validate the performance of this operator we have studied the diffraction pattern produced by a particle illuminated by an AEG beam. This study used mutual intensity propagation, and the particle is defined as a chirped Gaussian sum. The proposed technique was applied and the experimental results are presented.

  11. Stationary self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in relativistic thermal quantum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S. D.; Takale, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we have employed the quantum dielectric response in thermal quantum plasma to model relativistic self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in a plasma. We have presented an extensive parametric investigation of the dependence of beam-width parameter on distance of propagation in relativistic thermal quantum plasma. We have studied the role of Fermi temperature in the phenomenon of self-focusing. It is found that the quantum effects cause much higher oscillations of beam-width parameter and better relativistic focusing of laser beam in thermal quantum plasma in comparison with that in the relativistic cold quantum plasma and classical relativistic plasma. Our computations show more reliable results in comparison to the previous works

  12. Analytical calculations of intense Gaussian laser beam propagating in plasmas with relativistic collision correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Yuan Chengxun; Gao Ruilin; Zhou Zhongxiang

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of a Gaussian laser beam propagating in relativistic plasmas have been performed with the WKB method and complex eikonal function. We consider the relativistic nonlinearity induced by intense laser beam, and present the relativistically generalized forms of the plasma frequency and electron collision frequency in plasmas. The coupled differential equations describing the propagation variations of laser beam are derived and numerically solved. The obtained simulation results present the similar variation tendency with experiments. By changing the plasma density, we theoretically analyze the feasibility of using a plasmas slab of a fixed thickness to compress the laser beam-width and acquire the focused laser intensity. The present work complements the relativistic correction of the electron collision frequency with reasonable derivations, promotes the theoretical approaching to experiments and provides effective instructions to the practical laser-plasma interactions.

  13. Propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam in plasma with modulated collision frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Yuan Chengxun; Zhou Zhongxiang; Gao Ruilin; Li Lei; Du Yanwei

    2012-01-01

    The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam in cold plasma with the electron collision frequency modulated by laser intensity are presented. The nonlinear dynamics of the ponderomotive force, which induce nonlinear self-focusing as opposed to spatial diffraction, are considered. The effective dielectric function of the Drude model and complex eikonal function are adopted in deriving coupled differential equations of the varying laser beam parameters. In the framework of ponderomotive nonlinearity, the frequency of electron collision in plasmas, which is proportional to the spatial electron density, is strongly interrelated with the laser beam propagation characteristics. Hence, the propagation properties of the laser beam and the modulated electron collision frequency distribution in plasma were studied and explained in depth. Employing this self-consistent method, the obtained simulation results approach practical conditions, which is of significance to the study of laser–plasma interactions.

  14. Generation of phase singularity through diffracting a plane or Gaussian beam by a spiral phase plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Victor V; Almazov, Anton A; Khonina, Svetlana N; Soifer, Victor A; Elfstrom, Henna; Turunen, Jari

    2005-05-01

    We deduce and study an analytical expression for Fresnel diffraction of a plane wave by a spiral phase plate (SPP) that imparts an arbitrary-order phase singularity on the light field. Estimates for the optical vortex radius that depends on the singularity's integer order n (also termed topological charge, or order of the dislocation) have been derived. The near-zero vortex intensity is shown to be proportional to rho2n, where p is the radial coordinate. Also, an analytical expression for Fresnel diffraction of the Gaussian beam by a SPP with nth-order singularity is analyzed. The far-field intensity distribution is derived. The radius of maximal intensity is shown to depend on the singularity number. The behavior of the Gaussian beam intensity after a SPP with second-order singularity (n = 2) is studied in more detail. The parameters of the light beams generated numerically with the Fresnel transform and via analytical formulas are in good agreement. In addition, the light fields with first- and second-order singularities were generated by a 32-level SPP fabricated on the resist by use of the electron-beam lithography technique.

  15. Aperture correction with an asymmetrically trimmed gaussian weight in SPECT with a fan-beam collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Ryo; Ogawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to improve the spatial resolution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images acquired with a fan-beam collimator. The aperture angle of a hole in the fan-beam collimator depends on the position of the collimator. To correct the aperture effect in an iterative image reconstruction, an asymmetrically trimmed Gaussian weight was used for a model. To confirm the validity of our method, point source phantoms and brain phantom were used in the simulation, and we applied the method to the clinical data. The results of the simulation showed that the spatial resolution of point sources improved from about 6 to 2 pixels full width at half maximum, and the corrected point sources were isotropic. The results of the simulation with the brain phantom showed that our proposed method could improve the spatial resolution of the phantom, and our method was effective for different fan-beam collimators with different focal lengths. The results of clinical data showed that the quality of the reconstructed image was improved with our proposed method. Our proposed aperture correction method with the asymmetrically trimmed Gaussian weighting function was effective in improving the spatial resolution of SPECT images acquired with the fan-beam collimator. (author)

  16. Generation of tunable chain of three-dimensional optical bottle beams via focused multi-ring hollow Gaussian beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Geo M; Viswanathan, Nirmal K

    2010-11-01

    We report here the generation of a chain of three-dimensional (3-D) optical bottle beams by focusing a π-phase shifted multi-ring hollow Gaussian beam (HGB) using a lens with spherical aberration. The rings of the HGB of suitable radial (k(r)) and axial (k(z)) wave vectors are generated using a double-negative axicon chemically etched in the optical fiber tips. Moving the lens position with respect to the fiber tip results in variation of the semi-angle of the cones of wave vectors of the HGBs and their diameter, using which we demonstrate tunability in the size and the periodicity of the 3-D optical bottle beams over a wide range, from micrometers to millimeters. The propagation characteristics of the beams resulting from focusing of single- and multi-ring HGBs and resulting in a quasi-non-diffracting beam and a chain of 3-D optical bottle beams, respectively, are simulated using only the input beam parameters and are found to agree well with experimental results.

  17. Propagation Characteristics of High-Power Vortex Laguerre-Gaussian Laser Beams in Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The propagation characteristics of high-power laser beams in plasma is an important research topic and has many potential applications in fields such as laser machining, laser-driven accelerators and laser-driven inertial confined fusion. The dynamic evolution of high-power Laguerre-Gaussian (LG beams in plasma is numerically investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method based on the nonlinear Drude model, with both plasma frequency and collision frequency modulated by the light intensity of laser beam. The numerical algorithms and implementation techniques of FDTD method are presented for numerically simulating the nonlinear permittivity model of plasma and generating the LG beams with predefined parameters. The simulation results show that the plasma has different field modulation effects on the two exemplified LG beams with different cross-sectional patterns. The self-focusing and stochastic absorption phenomena of high-power laser beam in plasma are also demonstrated. This research also provides a new means for the field modulation of laser beams by plasma.

  18. Aperture averaging and BER for Gaussian beam in underwater oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-03-01

    In an underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) link, power fluctuations over finite-sized collecting lens are investigated for a horizontally propagating Gaussian beam wave. The power scintillation index, also known as the irradiance flux variance, for the received irradiance is evaluated in weak oceanic turbulence by using the Rytov method. This lets us further quantify the associated performance indicators, namely, the aperture averaging factor and the average bit-error rate (). The effects on the UWOC link performance of the oceanic turbulence parameters, i.e., the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, the rate of dissipation of mean-squared temperature, Kolmogorov microscale, the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum as well as system parameters, i.e., the receiver aperture diameter, Gaussian source size, laser wavelength and the link distance are investigated.

  19. Effect of exponential density transition on self-focusing of q-Gaussian laser beam in collisionless plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkunde, Amol T.; Vhanmore, Bandopant D.; Urunkar, Trupti U.; Gavade, Kusum M.; Patil, Sandip D.; Takale, Mansing V.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, nonlinear aspects of a high intensity q-Gaussian laser beam propagating in collisionless plasma having upward density ramp of exponential profiles is studied. We have employed the nonlinearity in dielectric function of plasma by considering ponderomotive nonlinearity. The differential equation governing the dimensionless beam width parameter is achieved by using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) and paraxial approximations and solved it numerically by using Runge-Kutta fourth order method. Effect of exponential density ramp profile on self-focusing of q-Gaussian laser beam for various values of q is systematically carried out and compared with results Gaussian laser beam propagating in collisionless plasma having uniform density. It is found that exponential plasma density ramp causes the laser beam to become more focused and gives reasonably interesting results.

  20. Measurements of refractive index and size of a spherical drop from Gaussian beam scattering in the primary rainbow region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haitao; Sun, Hui; Shen, Jianqi; Tropea, Cameron

    2018-03-01

    The primary rainbow observed when light is scattered by a spherical drop has been exploited in the past to measure drop size and relative refractive index. However, if higher spatial resolution is required in denser drop ensembles/sprays, and to avoid then multiple drops simultaneously appearing in the measurement volume, a highly focused beam is desirable, inevitably with a Gaussian intensity profile. The present study examines the primary rainbow pattern resulting when a Gaussian beam is scattered by a spherical drop and estimates the attainable accuracy when extracting size and refractive index. The scattering is computed using generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT) and Debye series decomposition of the Gaussian beam scattering. The results of these simulations show that the measurement accuracy is dependent on both the beam waist radius and the position of the drop in the beam waist.

  1. Beam shape coefficients calculation for an elliptical Gaussian beam with 1-dimensional quadrature and localized approximation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Jianqi

    2018-06-01

    The use of a shaped beam for applications relying on light scattering depends much on the ability to evaluate the beam shape coefficients (BSC) effectively. Numerical techniques for evaluating the BSCs of a shaped beam, such as the quadrature, the localized approximation (LA), the integral localized approximation (ILA) methods, have been developed within the framework of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT). The quadrature methods usually employ the 2-/3-dimensional integrations. In this work, the expressions of the BSCs for an elliptical Gaussian beam (EGB) are simplified into the 1-dimensional integral so as to speed up the numerical computation. Numerical results of BSCs are used to reconstruct the beam field and the fidelity of the reconstructed field to the given beam field is estimated. It is demonstrated that the proposed method is much faster than the 2-dimensional integrations and it can acquire more accurate results than the LA method. Limitations of the quadrature method and also the LA method in the numerical calculation are analyzed in detail.

  2. Inspection of commercial optical devices for data storage using a three Gaussian beam microscope interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, J. Mauricio; Cywiak, Moises; Servin, Manuel; Juarez P, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an interferometric profilometer based on the heterodyning of three Gaussian beams has been reported. This microscope interferometer, called a three Gaussian beam interferometer, has been used to profile high quality optical surfaces that exhibit constant reflectivity with high vertical resolution and lateral resolution near λ. We report the use of this interferometer to measure the profiles of two commercially available optical surfaces for data storage, namely, the compact disk (CD-R) and the digital versatile disk (DVD-R). We include experimental results from a one-dimensional radial scan of these devices without data marks. The measurements are taken by placing the devices with the polycarbonate surface facing the probe beam of the interferometer. This microscope interferometer is unique when compared with other optical measuring instruments because it uses narrowband detection, filters out undesirable noisy signals, and because the amplitude of the output voltage signal is basically proportional to the local vertical height of the surface under test, thus detecting with high sensitivity. We show that the resulting profiles, measured with this interferometer across the polycarbonate layer, provide valuable information about the track profiles, making this interferometer a suitable tool for quality control of surface storage devices

  3. Acoustical tweezers using single spherically focused piston, X-cut, and Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Farid G

    2015-10-01

    Partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) satisfying the Helmholtz equation in spherical coordinates are derived for circular spherically focused piston (i.e., apodized by a uniform velocity amplitude normal to its surface), X-cut (i.e., apodized by a velocity amplitude parallel to the axis of wave propagation), and Gaussian (i.e., apodized by a Gaussian distribution of the velocity amplitude) beams. The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral and the addition theorems for the Legendre and spherical wave functions are used to obtain the PWSEs assuming weakly focused beams (with focusing angle α ⩽ 20°) in the Fresnel-Kirchhoff (parabolic) approximation. In contrast with previous analytical models, the derived expressions allow computing the scattering and acoustic radiation force from a sphere of radius a without restriction to either the Rayleigh (a ≪ λ, where λ is the wavelength of the incident radiation) or the ray acoustics (a ≫λ) regimes. The analytical formulations are valid for wavelengths largely exceeding the radius of the focused acoustic radiator, when the viscosity of the surrounding fluid can be neglected, and when the sphere is translated along the axis of wave propagation. Computational results illustrate the analysis with particular emphasis on the sphere's elastic properties and the axial distance to the center of the concave surface, with close connection of the emergence of negative trapping forces. Potential applications are in single-beam acoustical tweezers, acoustic levitation, and particle manipulation.

  4. Gaussian beam-to-slab waveguide coupler by graded index photonic crystal lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahari, B; Abrishamian, M S

    2013-01-01

    In this numerical study, a Gaussian beam-to-slab waveguide coupler for both modes of TM and TE has been studied. For this purpose, a concrete structure is suggested, in which the graded index photonic crystal lens and the slab waveguide are in the same structure composed of Si material, and can be fabricated with a single-step lithography process. For maximum power coupling, half-holes have been used as an input matching layer. Power coupling of 80% over a 450 nm bandwidth for the TM mode, and 60% over a 180 nm bandwidth for the TE mode is achieved. (paper)

  5. Measurement of Gaussian laser beam radius using the knife-edge technique: improvement on data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Marcos A. de; Silva, Rubens; Lima, Emerson de; Pereira, Daniel P.; Oliveira, Paulo C. de

    2009-01-01

    We revisited the well known Khosrofian and Garetz inversion algorithm [Appl. Opt.22, 3406-3410 (1983)APOPAI0003-6935] that was developed to analyze data obtained by the application of the traveling knife-edge technique. We have analyzed the approximated fitting function that was used for adjusting their experimental data and have found that it is not optimized to work with a full range of the experimentally-measured data. We have numerically calculated a new set of coefficients, which makes the approximated function suitable for a full experimental range, considerably improving the accuracy of the measurement of a radius of a focused Gaussian laser beam

  6. Coherent mode decomposition using mixed Wigner functions of Hermite-Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2017-04-15

    A new method of coherent mode decomposition (CMD) is proposed that is based on a Wigner-function representation of Hermite-Gaussian beams. In contrast to the well-known method using the cross spectral density (CSD), it directly determines the mode functions and their weights without solving the eigenvalue problem. This facilitates the CMD of partially coherent light whose Wigner functions (and thus CSDs) are not separable, in which case the conventional CMD requires solving an eigenvalue problem with a large matrix and thus is numerically formidable. An example is shown regarding the CMD of synchrotron radiation, one of the most important applications of the proposed method.

  7. Mathematic model analysis of Gaussian beam propagation through an arbitrary thickness random phase screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuzhen; Guo, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Tingfeng

    2011-09-12

    In order to research the statistical properties of Gaussian beam propagation through an arbitrary thickness random phase screen for adaptive optics and laser communication application in the laboratory, we establish mathematic models of statistical quantities, which are based on the Rytov method and the thin phase screen model, involved in the propagation process. And the analytic results are developed for an arbitrary thickness phase screen based on the Kolmogorov power spectrum. The comparison between the arbitrary thickness phase screen and the thin phase screen shows that it is more suitable for our results to describe the generalized case, especially the scintillation index.

  8. Designing Fresnel microlenses for focusing astigmatic multi-Gaussian beams by using fractional order Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino, A; Durand, P-E; Fogret, E; Pellat-Finet, P

    2011-01-01

    According to a scalar theory of diffraction, light propagation can be expressed by two-dimensional fractional order Fourier transforms. Since the fractional Fourier transform of a chirp function is a Dirac distribution, focusing a light beam is optically achieved by using a diffractive screen whose transmission function is a two-dimensional chirp function. This property is applied to designing Fresnel microlenses, and the orders of the involved Fourier fractional transforms depend on diffraction distances as well as on emitter and receiver radii of curvature. If the emitter is astigmatic (with two principal radii of curvature), the diffraction phenomenon involves two one-dimensional fractional Fourier transforms whose orders are different. This degree of freedom allows us to design microlenses that can focus astigmatic Gaussian beams, as produced by a line-shaped laser diode source.

  9. Measurement of the broadening and depolarization of a Gaussian beam to transmit in fog water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, G.; Reynoso, E; Davila, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a controlled experimental environment in the laboratory, a waterproof camera where it will introduce artificial fog and become a beam of linearly polarized Gaussian laser light, creating sprawl, broadening and depolarization is studied with a system capable of measuring such phenomena. Most studies on dispersion have focused on the lobes of backscattering, however the correct conditions with the incident light beam a substantial fraction of light is scattered in the forward direction forming a widened light lobe. With this light lobe formed could be studied with extreme precision many factors such as the existence of single or multiple scattering and the amount by which this is carried out. This is of great importance in the estimation of lidar returns because these foundations can learn important information such as extinction and backscatter coefficients, particulate pollutants in the atmosphere and thus understand the operation model of nature. (Author)

  10. Tight focusing properties of linearly polarized Gaussian beam with a pair of vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ziyang [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Information Science and Engineering, Institute of Optics and Photonics, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China); Pu, Jixiong [College of Information Science and Engineering, Institute of Optics and Photonics, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China); Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-07-25

    The properties of a pair of vortices embedded in a Gaussian beam focused by a high numerical-aperture are studied on the basis of vector Debye integral. The vortices move and rotate in the vicinity of the focal plane for a pair of vortices with equal topological charges. For incident beam with a pair of vortices with opposite topological charges, the vortices move toward each other, annihilate and revive in the vicinity of focal plane. -- Highlights: → The properties of a pair of vortices focused by a high numerical-aperture are studied. → It is shown that the focusing vortices with equal topological charges move toward and rotate. → It is shown that the focusing vortices with opposite topological charges move toward each other, annihilate and revive.

  11. Effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in atmospheric turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xiaoling; Deng, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in weak, moderate and strong turbulence is studied using numerical simulation method. It is found that the effect of the negative spherical aberration on the on-axis scintillation index is quite different from that of the positive spherical aberration. In weak turbulence, the positive spherical aberration results in a decrease of the on-axis scintillation index on propagation, but the negative spherical aberration results in an increase of the on-axis scintillation index when the propagation distance is not large. In particular, in weak turbulence the negative spherical aberration may cause peaks of the on-axis scintillation index, and the peaks disappear in moderate and strong turbulence, which is explained in physics. The strong turbulence leads to less discrepancy among scintillations of Gaussian beams with and without spherical aberration. - Highlights: • In weak turbulence scintillations can be suppressed using positive spherical aberration. • In weak turbulence scintillations may be very large due to negative spherical aberration. • The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations is less with increasing of turbulence

  12. Effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Xiaoling, E-mail: jiXL100@163.com; Deng, Jinping

    2014-07-18

    The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in weak, moderate and strong turbulence is studied using numerical simulation method. It is found that the effect of the negative spherical aberration on the on-axis scintillation index is quite different from that of the positive spherical aberration. In weak turbulence, the positive spherical aberration results in a decrease of the on-axis scintillation index on propagation, but the negative spherical aberration results in an increase of the on-axis scintillation index when the propagation distance is not large. In particular, in weak turbulence the negative spherical aberration may cause peaks of the on-axis scintillation index, and the peaks disappear in moderate and strong turbulence, which is explained in physics. The strong turbulence leads to less discrepancy among scintillations of Gaussian beams with and without spherical aberration. - Highlights: • In weak turbulence scintillations can be suppressed using positive spherical aberration. • In weak turbulence scintillations may be very large due to negative spherical aberration. • The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations is less with increasing of turbulence.

  13. The Gaussian beam mode analysis of classical phase aberrations in diffraction-limited optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Neil; Murphy, J. Anthony; Withington, Stafford

    2003-07-01

    Gaussian beam mode analysis (GBMA) offers a more intuitive physical insight into how light beams evolve as they propagate than the conventional Fresnel diffraction integral approach. In this paper we illustrate that GBMA is a computationally efficient, alternative technique for tracing the evolution of a diffracting coherent beam. In previous papers we demonstrated the straightforward application of GBMA to the computation of the classical diffraction patterns associated with a range of standard apertures. In this paper we show how the GBMA technique can be expanded to investigate the effects of aberrations in the presence of diffraction by introducing the appropriate phase error term into the propagating quasi-optical beam. We compare our technique to the standard diffraction integral calculation for coma, astigmatism and spherical aberration, taking—for comparison—examples from the classic text 'Principles of Optics' by Born and Wolf. We show the advantages of GBMA for allowing the defocusing of an aberrated image to be evaluated quickly, which is particularly important and useful for probing the consequences of astigmatism and spherical aberration.

  14. The Gaussian beam mode analysis of classical phase aberrations in diffraction-limited optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trappe, Neil; Murphy, J Anthony; Withington, Stafford

    2003-01-01

    Gaussian beam mode analysis (GBMA) offers a more intuitive physical insight into how light beams evolve as they propagate than the conventional Fresnel diffraction integral approach. In this paper we illustrate that GBMA is a computationally efficient, alternative technique for tracing the evolution of a diffracting coherent beam. In previous papers we demonstrated the straightforward application of GBMA to the computation of the classical diffraction patterns associated with a range of standard apertures. In this paper we show how the GBMA technique can be expanded to investigate the effects of aberrations in the presence of diffraction by introducing the appropriate phase error term into the propagating quasi-optical beam. We compare our technique to the standard diffraction integral calculation for coma, astigmatism and spherical aberration, taking - for comparison - examples from the classic text 'Principles of Optics' by Born and Wolf. We show the advantages of GBMA for allowing the defocusing of an aberrated image to be evaluated quickly, which is particularly important and useful for probing the consequences of astigmatism and spherical aberration

  15. Bayesian electron density inference from JET lithium beam emission spectra using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, J.; Brix, M.; Ghim, Y.-C.; Contributors, JET

    2017-03-01

    A Bayesian model to infer edge electron density profiles is developed for the JET lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system, measuring Li I (2p-2s) line radiation using 26 channels with  ∼1 cm spatial resolution and 10∼ 20 ms temporal resolution. The density profile is modelled using a Gaussian process prior, and the uncertainty of the density profile is calculated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme. From the spectra measured by the transmission grating spectrometer, the Li I line intensities are extracted, and modelled as a function of the plasma density by a multi-state model which describes the relevant processes between neutral lithium beam atoms and plasma particles. The spectral model fully takes into account interference filter and instrument effects, that are separately estimated, again using Gaussian processes. The line intensities are inferred based on a spectral model consistent with the measured spectra within their uncertainties, which includes photon statistics and electronic noise. Our newly developed method to infer JET edge electron density profiles has the following advantages in comparison to the conventional method: (i) providing full posterior distributions of edge density profiles, including their associated uncertainties, (ii) the available radial range for density profiles is increased to the full observation range (∼26 cm), (iii) an assumption of monotonic electron density profile is not necessary, (iv) the absolute calibration factor of the diagnostic system is automatically estimated overcoming the limitation of the conventional technique and allowing us to infer the electron density profiles for all pulses without preprocessing the data or an additional boundary condition, and (v) since the full spectrum is modelled, the procedure of modulating the beam to measure the background signal is only necessary for the case of overlapping of the Li I line with impurity lines.

  16. Attenuation of laser power of a focused Gaussian beam during interaction between a laser and powder in coaxial laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jichang; Li Lijun; Zhang Yuanzhong; Xie Xiaozhu

    2005-01-01

    The power of a focused laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile attenuated by powder in coaxial laser cladding is investigated experimentally and theoretically, and its resolution model is developed. With some assumptions, it is concluded that the attenuation of laser power is an exponential function and is determined by the powder feed rate, particle moving speed, spraying angles and waist positions and diameters of the laser beam and powder flow, grain diameter and run of the laser beam through the powder flow. The attenuation of laser power increases with powder feed rate or run of laser beam through the powder flow. In the experiment presented, 300 W laser power from a focused Gaussian beam is attenuated by a coaxial powder flow. The experimental results agree well with the values calculated with the developed model

  17. Propagation of flat-topped multi-Gaussian beams through a double-lens system with apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanqi; Zhu, Baoqiang; Liu, Daizhong; Lin, Zunqi

    2009-07-20

    A general model for different apertures and flat-topped laser beams based on the multi-Gaussian function is developed. The general analytical expression for the propagation of a flat-topped beam through a general double-lens system with apertures is derived using the above model. Then, the propagation characteristics of the flat-topped beam through a spatial filter are investigated by using a simplified analytical expression. Based on the Fluence beam contrast and the Fill factor, the influences of a pinhole size on the propagation of the flat-topped multi-Gaussian beam (FMGB) through the spatial filter are illustrated. An analytical expression for the propagation of the FMGB through the spatial filter with a misaligned pinhole is presented, and the influences of the pinhole offset are evaluated.

  18. Strong self-focusing of a cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisionless magneto-plasma under plasma density ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti

    2014-01-01

    The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect

  19. Strong self-focusing of a cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisionless magneto-plasma under plasma density ramp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti, E-mail: nitikant@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, G. T. Road, Phagwara, Punjab 144411 (India)

    2014-07-15

    The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect.

  20. Excitation of a plasma wave by a right-handed Gaussian EM beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Patheja, B.L.; Sharma, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the excitation of an electron plasma wave in a hot collisionless magnetoplasma by a right-handed Gaussian EM beam (pump wave) when the plasma wave and the pump wave are propagating along the static magnetic field. On account of the Gaussian intensity distribution of the pump wave, pondermotive force becomes finite and the electrons are redistributed. This redistribution is highly dependent on whether ω/sub c/>2ω 0 or ω/sub c/ 0 , where ω/sub c/ is the electron cyclotron frequency and ω 0 is the pump-wave frequency. The modified background electron density leads to coupling between the plasma wave and the pump wave. When the initial power of the pump wave is greater than the critical power for self-focusing, oscillatory self-focusing of the pump wave occurs and the coupling of the two waves are modified. Moreover, the effect of changing the intensity of the magnetic field affects the self-focusing of the pump wave, and the plasma-wave excitation is accordingly affected

  1. Analytic methods to find beating transitions of asymmetric Gaussian beams in GNLS equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianetz, David; Schiff, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    In a simple model of propagation of asymmetric Gaussian beams in nonlinear waveguides, described by a reduction to ordinary differential equations of generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations with cubic-quintic (CQ) and saturable (SAT) nonlinearities and a graded-index profile, the beam widths exhibit two different types of beating behavior, with transitions between them. We present an analytic model to explain these phenomena, which originate in a 1:1 resonance in a 2 degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian system. We show how small oscillations near a fixed point close to 1:1 resonance in such a system can be approximated using an integrable Hamiltonian and, ultimately, a single first order differential equation. In particular, the beating transitions can be located from coincidences of roots of a pair of quadratic equations, with coefficients determined (in a highly complex manner) by the internal parameters and initial conditions of the original system. The results of the analytic model agree with the numerics of the original system over large parameter ranges, and allow new predictions that can be verified directly. In the CQ case, we identify a band of beam energies for which there is only a single beating transition (as opposed to 0 or 2) as the eccentricity is increased. In the SAT case, we explain the sudden (dis)appearance of beating transitions for certain values of the other parameters as the grade-index is changed.

  2. Cylindrical particle manipulation and negative spinning using a nonparaxial Hermite-Gaussian light-sheet beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2016-10-01

    Based on the angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM), a nonparaxial solution for the Hermite-Gaussian (HG m ) light-sheet beam of any order m is derived. The beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) are expressed in a compact form and computed using the standard Simpson’s rule for numerical integration. Subsequently, the analysis is extended to evaluate the longitudinal and transverse radiation forces as well as the spin torque on an absorptive dielectric cylindrical particle in 2D without any restriction to a specific range of frequencies. The dynamics of the cylindrical particle are also examined based on Newton’s second law of motion. The numerical results show that a Rayleigh or Mie cylindrical particle can be trapped, pulled or propelled in the optical field depending on its initial position in the cross-sectional plane of the HG m light-sheet. Moreover, negative or positive axial spin torques can arise depending on the choice of the non-dimensional size parameter ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the radius of the cylinder) and the location of the absorptive cylinder in the beam. This means that the HG m light-sheet beam can induce clockwise or anti-clockwise rotations depending on its shift from the center of the cylinder. In addition, individual vortex behavior can arise in the cross-sectional plane of wave propagation. The present analysis presents an analytical model to predict the optical radiation forces and torque induced by a HG m light-sheet beam on an absorptive cylinder for applications in optical light-sheet tweezers, optical micro-machines, particle manipulation and opto-fluidics to name a few areas of research.

  3. Acoustic radiation force on a double-layer microsphere by a Gaussian focused beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Rongrong; Cheng, Kaixuan; Liu, Jiehui; Mao, Yiwei; Gong, Xiufen; Liu, Xiaozhou

    2014-01-01

    A new model for calculating the radiation force on double-layer microsphere is proposed based on the ray acoustics approach. The axial acoustic radiation force resulting from a focused Gaussian beam incident on spherical shells immersed in water is examined theoretically in relation to its thickness and the contents of its double-layer. The attenuation both in the water and inside the sphere is considered in this method, which cannot be ignored while the high frequency ultrasonic is used. Results of numerical calculations are presented for fat and low density polyethylene materials, with the hollow region filled with animal oil, water, or air. These results show how the acoustic impedance and the sound velocity of both layers, together with the thickness of the shell, affect the acoustic radiation force.

  4. Spiral phase plates for the generation of high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams with non-zero radial index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffato, G.; Carli, M.; Massari, M.; Romanato, F.

    2015-03-01

    The work of design, fabrication and characterization of spiral phase plates for the generation of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with non-null radial index is presented. Samples were fabricated by electron beam lithography on polymethylmethacrylate layers over glass substrates. The optical response of these phase optical elements was measured and the purity of the experimental beams was investigated in terms of Laguerre-Gaussian modes contributions. The farfield intensity pattern was compared with theoretical models and numerical simulations, while the expected phase features were confirmed by interferometric analyses. The high quality of the output beams confirms the applicability of these phase plates for the generation of high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams. A novel application consisting in the design of computer-generated holograms encoding information for light beams carrying phase singularities is shown. A numerical code based on iterative Fourier transform algorithm has been developed for the computation of the phase pattern of phase-only diffractive optical element for illumination under LG beams. Numerical analysis and preliminary experimental results confirm the applicability of these devices as high-security optical elements.

  5. Density Transition Based Self-Focusing of cosh-Gaussian Laser Beam in Plasma with Linear Absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Niti; Wani, Manzoor Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Density transition based self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam in plasma with linear absorption has been studied. The field distribution in the plasma is expressed in terms of beam width parameter, decentered parameter, and linear absorption coefficient. The differential equation for the beam width parameter is solved by following Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) and paraxial approximation through parabolic wave equation approach. The behaviour of beam width parameter with dimensionless distance of propagation is studied at optimum values of plasma density, decentered parameter and with different absorption levels in the medium. The results reveal that these parameters can affect the self-focusing significantly. (paper)

  6. Green function as an integral superposition of Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures in Cartesian coordinates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26 (2016), s. 131-153 ISSN 2336-3827 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05237S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : elastodynamic Green function * inhomogeneous anisotropic media * integral superposition of Gaussian beams Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  7. Numerical modeling of Gaussian beam propagation and diffraction in inhomogeneous media based on the complex eikonal equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xingguo; Sun, Hui

    2018-05-01

    Gaussian beam is an important complex geometrical optical technology for modeling seismic wave propagation and diffraction in the subsurface with complex geological structure. Current methods for Gaussian beam modeling rely on the dynamic ray tracing and the evanescent wave tracking. However, the dynamic ray tracing method is based on the paraxial ray approximation and the evanescent wave tracking method cannot describe strongly evanescent fields. This leads to inaccuracy of the computed wave fields in the region with a strong inhomogeneous medium. To address this problem, we compute Gaussian beam wave fields using the complex phase by directly solving the complex eikonal equation. In this method, the fast marching method, which is widely used for phase calculation, is combined with Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm to obtain the complex phase at the regular grid points. The main theoretical challenge in combination of this method with Gaussian beam modeling is to address the irregular boundary near the curved central ray. To cope with this challenge, we present the non-uniform finite difference operator and a modified fast marching method. The numerical results confirm the proposed approach.

  8. Measurement of the orbital angular momentum density of Bessel beams by projection into a Laguerre–Gaussian basis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the measurement of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) density of Bessel beams and superpositions thereof by projection into a Laguerre–Gaussian basis. This projection is performed by an all-optical inner product measurement performed...

  9. Modeling of a VMJ PV array under Gaussian high intensity laser power beam condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeongsook; Kim, Gunzung; Park, Yongwan

    2018-02-01

    The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system is one of the most promising systems in the long-rang wireless power transfer field. The vertical multi-junction photovoltaic (VMJ PV) array converts the HILPB into electricity to power the load or charges a battery. The output power of a VMJ PV array depends mainly on irradiance values of each VMJ PV cells. For simulating an entire VMJ PV array, the irradiance profile of the Gaussian HILPB and the irradiance level of the VMJ PV cell are mathematically modeled first. The VMJ PV array is modeled as a network with dimension m*n, where m represents the number of VMJ PV cells in a column, and n represents the number of VMJ PV cells in a row. In order to validate the results obtained in modeling and simulation, a laboratory setup was developed using 55 VMJ PV array. By using the output power model of VMJ PV array, we can establish an optimal power transmission path by the receiver based on the received signal strength. When the laser beam from multiple transmitters aimed at a VMJ PV array at the same time, the received power is the sum of all energy at a VMJ PV array. The transmitter sends its power characteristics as optically coded laser pulses and powers as HILPB. Using the attenuated power model and output power model of VMJ PV array, the receiver can estimate the maximum receivable powers from the transmitters and select optimal transmitters.

  10. Dipole saturated absorption modeling in gas phase: Dealing with a Gaussian beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    With the advent of new accurate and sensitive spectrometers, cf. combining optical cavities (for absorption enhancement), the requirement for reliable molecular transition modeling is becoming more pressing. Unfortunately, there is no trivial approach which can provide a definitive formalism allowing us to solve the coupled systems of equations associated with nonlinear absorption. Here, we propose a general approach to deal with any spectral shape of the electromagnetic field interacting with a molecular species under saturation conditions. The development is specifically applied to Gaussian-shaped beams. To make the analytical expressions tractable, approximations are proposed. Finally, two or three numerical integrations are required for describing the Lamb-dip profile. The implemented model allows us to describe the saturated absorption under low pressure conditions where the broadening by the transit-time may dominate the collision rates. The model is applied to two specific overtone transitions of the molecular acetylene. The simulated line shapes are discussed versus the collision and the transit-time rates. The specific collisional and collision-free regimes are illustrated, while the Rabi frequency controls the intermediate regime. We illustrate how to recover the input parameters by fitting the simulated profiles.

  11. Probabilistic behavior analysis of a sandwiched buckled beam under Gaussian white noise with energy harvesting perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokem Fokou, I.S.; Nono Dueyou Buckjohn, C.; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a sandwiched buckled beam with axial compressive force under Gaussian white noise is considered as a piezoelectric energy harvester. A stochastic averaging method is proposed to analytically predict the system’s response, the stability and the estimation of system’s reliability. By using the generalized harmonic transformation, the Itô differential equations with respect to the mechanical and electrical amplitude are derived through this technique. From these differential equations, we construct the Fokker–Plank–Kolmogorov equation for the electrical and mechanical subsystem where the solution of each equation in the stationary state is a probability density. The mean first passage time (MFPT) is numerically provided in order to study the attractor stability(stable equilibrium point observed in the effective potential) which give rise to the noise-enhanced stability(NES) phenomenon. The mean square response and voltage are obtained for different white noise intensities and others system parameters. The effects of linear damping and noise intensity on the mean square voltage are investigated. We notice that harvested energy can be enhanced by suitable choice of noise intensity and others system parameters. In additional, by combining the random signal with harmonic excitation, the stochastic resonance(SR) phenomenon is observed via the mean residence time(TMR) which give rise to the large amplitude of vibrations and consequently, an optimization of harvested energy. The agreements between the analytical method and those obtained numerically validate the effectiveness of analytical investigations.

  12. Diffraction of a Gaussian beam in a three-dimensional smoothly inhomogeneous medium: an eikonal-based complex geometrical-optics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczynski, Pawel; Bliokh, Konstantin Yu; Kravtsov, Yuri A; Stateczny, Andrzej

    2006-06-01

    We present an ab initio account of the paraxial complex geometrical optics (CGO) in application to scalar Gaussian beam propagation and diffraction in a 3D smoothly inhomogeneous medium. The paraxial CGO deals with quadratic expansion of the complex eikonal and reduces the wave problem to the solution of ordinary differential equations of the Riccati type. This substantially simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction as compared with full-wave or parabolic (quasi-optics) equations. For a Gaussian beam propagating in a homogeneous medium or along the symmetry axis in a lenslike medium, the CGO equations possess analytical solutions; otherwise, they can be readily solved numerically. As a nontrivial example we consider Gaussian beam propagation and diffraction along a helical ray in an axially symmetric waveguide medium. It is shown that the major axis of the beam's elliptical cross section grows unboundedly; it is oriented predominantly in the azimuthal (binormal) direction and does not obey the parallel-transport law.

  13. Numerical investigations of non-collinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification for Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Yu, Lianghong; Liang, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    We present for the first time a scheme to amplify a Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beam based on non-collinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). In addition, a three-dimensional numerical model of non-collinear optical parametric amplification was deduced in the frequency domain, in which the effects of non-collinear configuration, temporal and spatial walk-off, group-velocity dispersion and diffraction were also taken into account, to trace the dynamics of the Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beam and investigate its critical parameters in the non-collinear OPCPA process. Based on the numerical simulation results, the scheme shows promise for implementation in a relativistic twisted laser pulse system, which will diversify the light-matter interaction field.

  14. Extension of geometrical-optics approximation to on-axis Gaussian beam scattering. I. By a spherical particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Ren, Kuan Fang; Cai, Xiaoshu

    2006-07-10

    The geometrical-optics approximation of light scattering by a transparent or absorbing spherical particle is extended from plane wave to Gaussian beam incidence. The formulas for the calculation of the phase of each ray and the divergence factor are revised, and the interference of all the emerging rays is taken into account. The extended geometrical-optics approximation (EGOA) permits one to calculate the scattering diagram in all directions from 0 degrees to 180 degrees. The intensities of the scattered field calculated by the EGOA are compared with those calculated by the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory, and good agreement is found. The surface wave effect in Gaussian beam scattering is also qualitatively analyzed by introducing a flux ratio factor. The approach proposed is particularly important to the further extension of the geometrical-optics approximation to the scattering of large spheroidal particles.

  15. Generation of Laguerre-Gaussian Beams Using a Diode Pumped Solid-State Digital Laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The solid state digital laser was used in generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes, LGpl, of different orders. This work demonstrates that we can generate high-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes with high purity using a digital laser....

  16. Selective excitation of higher-radial-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams using a solid-state digital laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Filter (LF) was introduced to only transmit 1064 nm and block the 808 nm pump. The laser beam was transmitted out of the cavity through an output coupler mirror (M3 on Figure 1) and was 1:1 relay imaged using two 125 mm lenses (L3 and L4) to a Photon...; Published December 30, 2016 Citation: Bell T, Ngcobo S (2016) Selective Excitation of Higher-radial-order Laguerre-Gaussian Beams Using a Solid-state Digital Laser. J Laser Opt Photonics 3: 144. doi: 10.4172/2469-410X.1000144 Copyright: © 2016 Bell T, et...

  17. Influence of light absorption on relativistic self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in cold quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. D.; Valkunde, A. T.; Vhanmore, B. D.; Urunkar, T. U.; Gavade, K. M.; Takale, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    When inter particle distance is comparable to the de Broglies wavelength of charged particles, quantum effects in plasmas are unavoidable. We have exploited an influence of light absorption on self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in cold quantum plasma by considering relativistic nonlinearity. Nonlinear differential equation governing beam-width parameter has been established by using parabolic equation approach under paraxial and WKB approximations. The effect of light absorption on variation of beam-width parameter with dimensionless distance of propagation is presented graphically and discussed. It is found that light absorption plays vital role in weakening the relativistic self-focusing of laser beam during propagation in cold quantum plasma and gives reasonably interesting results.

  18. Frequency Characteristics of Surface Wave Generated by Single-Line Pulsed Laser Beam with Two Kinds of Spatial Energy Profile Models: Gaussian and Square-Like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ho Geon; Kim, Myung Hwan; Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Using a single-line pulsed laser beam is well known as a useful noncontact method to generate a directional surface acoustic wave. In this method, different laser beam energy profiles produce different waveforms and frequency characteristics. In this paper, we considered two typical kinds of laser beam energy profiles, Gaussian and square-like, to find out a difference in the frequency characteristics. To achieve this, mathematical models were proposed first for Gaussian laser beam profile and square-like respectively, both of which depended on the laser beam width. To verify the theoretical models, experimental setups with a cylindrical lens and a line-slit mask were respectively designed to produce a line laser beam with Gaussian spatial energy profile and square-like. The frequency responses of the theoretical models showed good agreement with experimental results in terms of the existence of harmonic frequency components and the shift of the first peak frequencies to low.

  19. Acceleration of on-axis and ring-shaped electron beams in wakefields driven by Laguerre-Gaussian pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guo-Bo [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Min, E-mail: minchen@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: yanyunma@126.com; Luo, Ji; Zeng, Ming; Yuan, Tao; Yu, Ji-Ye; Yu, Lu-Le; Weng, Su-Ming [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ma, Yan-Yun, E-mail: minchen@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: yanyunma@126.com [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Tong-Pu [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Sheng, Zheng-Ming [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-14

    The acceleration of electron beams with multiple transverse structures in wakefields driven by Laguerre-Gaussian pulses has been studied through three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulations. Under different laser-plasma conditions, the wakefield shows different transverse structures. In general cases, the wakefield shows a donut-like structure and it accelerates the ring-shaped hollow electron beam. When a lower plasma density or a smaller laser spot size is used, besides the donut-like wakefield, a central bell-like wakefield can also be excited. The wake sets in the center of the donut-like wake. In this case, both a central on-axis electron beam and a ring-shaped electron beam are simultaneously accelerated. Further, reducing the plasma density or laser spot size leads to an on-axis electron beam acceleration only. The research is beneficial for some potential applications requiring special pulse beam structures, such as positron acceleration and collimation.

  20. Enhanced relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in plasma under density transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced and early relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beam in the plasmas under density transition has been investigated theoretically using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial ray approximation for mode indices m=0, 1, and 2. The variation of beam width parameter with normalized propagation distance for m=0, 1, and 2 is reported, and it is observed that strong self-focusing occurs as the HChG beam propagates deeper inside the nonlinear medium as spot size shrinks due to highly dense plasmas and the results are presented graphically. A comparative study between self-focusing of HChG beam in the presence and absence of plasmas density transition is reported. The dependency of beam width parameter on the normalized propagation distance for different values of decentered parameter “b” has also been presented graphically. For m=0 and 1, strong self-focusing is reported for b=1.8, and for m=2 and b=1.8, beam gets diffracted. The results obtained indicate the dependency of the self-focusing of the HChG beam on the selected values of decentered parameter. Moreover, proper selection of decentered parameter results strong self-focusing of HChG beam. Stronger self-focusing of laser beam is observed due to the presence of plasma density transition which might be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, etc

  1. Enhanced relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in plasma under density transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti, E-mail: nitikant@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411, Punjab (India)

    2014-04-15

    Enhanced and early relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beam in the plasmas under density transition has been investigated theoretically using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial ray approximation for mode indices m=0, 1, and 2. The variation of beam width parameter with normalized propagation distance for m=0, 1, and 2 is reported, and it is observed that strong self-focusing occurs as the HChG beam propagates deeper inside the nonlinear medium as spot size shrinks due to highly dense plasmas and the results are presented graphically. A comparative study between self-focusing of HChG beam in the presence and absence of plasmas density transition is reported. The dependency of beam width parameter on the normalized propagation distance for different values of decentered parameter “b” has also been presented graphically. For m=0 and 1, strong self-focusing is reported for b=1.8, and for m=2 and b=1.8, beam gets diffracted. The results obtained indicate the dependency of the self-focusing of the HChG beam on the selected values of decentered parameter. Moreover, proper selection of decentered parameter results strong self-focusing of HChG beam. Stronger self-focusing of laser beam is observed due to the presence of plasma density transition which might be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, etc.

  2. Fundamentals of negative refractive index optical trapping: forces and radiation pressures exerted by focused Gaussian beams using the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Leonardo A; Hernández-Figueroa, Hugo E

    2010-11-04

    Based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT), this paper reveals, for the first time in the literature, the principal characteristics of the optical forces and radiation pressure cross-sections exerted on homogeneous, linear, isotropic and spherical hypothetical negative refractive index (NRI) particles under the influence of focused Gaussian beams in the Mie regime. Starting with ray optics considerations, the analysis is then extended through calculating the Mie coefficients and the beam-shape coefficients for incident focused Gaussian beams. Results reveal new and interesting trapping properties which are not observed for commonly positive refractive index particles and, in this way, new potential applications in biomedical optics can be devised.

  3. Intra-cavity generation of superpositions of Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate experimentally the intra-cavity generation of a coherent superposition of Laguerre–Gaussian modes of zero radial order but opposite azimuthal order. The superposition is created with a simple intra-cavity stop...

  4. Vectorial analysis of the collimated beam of a small Gaussian source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changqing; Wang, Ting; Zeng, Xiaodong; Feng, Zhejun; Zhang, Wenrui; Zhang, Xiaobing; Chen, Kun

    2018-03-01

    A vectorial analysis method to describe the collimated beam is proposed, the formulas of the intensity distribution and divergence angles represented in terms of Bessel functions are derived, and the propagation properties such as the vectorial structure of the collimated field and the shape of the beam spot are discussed in detail. Omitting the vectorial nature of the collimated beam can cause an error of 7.6% in determining the intensity distribution on the optical axis of the collimated beam.

  5. Self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh Gaussian laser beam in a magnetoplasma with ramp density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti; Wani, Manzoor Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The early and strong self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in magnetoplasma in the presence of density ramp has been observed. Focusing and de-focusing nature of the Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter and magnetic field has been studied, and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter 'b' plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam and is very sensitive as in case of extraordinary mode. For mode indices, m = 0, 1, 2, and b = 4.00, 3.14, and 2.05, strong self-focusing is observed. Similarly in case of ordinary mode, for m = 0, 1, 2 and b = 4.00, 3.14, 2.049, respectively, strong self-focusing is reported. Further, it is seen that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For mode indices m = 0, 1, and 2, diffraction term becomes more dominant over nonlinear term for decentered parameter b=0. For selective higher values of decentered parameter in case of mode indices m=0, 1, and 2, self-focusing effect becomes strong for extraordinary mode. Also increase in the value of magnetic field enhances the self-focusing ability of the laser beam, which is very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers

  6. Self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh Gaussian laser beam in a magnetoplasma with ramp density profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti; Wani, Manzoor Ahmad [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411, Punjab (India)

    2013-11-15

    The early and strong self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in magnetoplasma in the presence of density ramp has been observed. Focusing and de-focusing nature of the Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter and magnetic field has been studied, and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter 'b' plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam and is very sensitive as in case of extraordinary mode. For mode indices, m = 0, 1, 2, and b = 4.00, 3.14, and 2.05, strong self-focusing is observed. Similarly in case of ordinary mode, for m = 0, 1, 2 and b = 4.00, 3.14, 2.049, respectively, strong self-focusing is reported. Further, it is seen that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For mode indices m = 0, 1, and 2, diffraction term becomes more dominant over nonlinear term for decentered parameter b=0. For selective higher values of decentered parameter in case of mode indices m=0, 1, and 2, self-focusing effect becomes strong for extraordinary mode. Also increase in the value of magnetic field enhances the self-focusing ability of the laser beam, which is very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers.

  7. Tight focusing of a radially polarized Laguerre–Bessel–Gaussian beam and its application to manipulation of two types of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Zhongquan; Shi, Guang; Li, Dongyu; Zhang, Xueru; Wang, Yuxiao; Song, Yinglin

    2015-01-01

    The intensity distributions near the focus for radially polarized Laguerre–Bessel–Gaussian beams by a high numerical aperture objective in the immersion liquid are computed based on the vector diffraction theory. We compare the focusing properties of the radially polarized Laguerre–Bessel–Gaussian beams with those of Laguerre–Gaussian and Bessel–Gaussian modes. Furthermore, the effects of the optimally designed concentric three-zone phase filters on the intensity profiles in the focal region are examined. We further analyze the radiation forces on Rayleigh particles produced by the highly focused radially polarized Laguerre–Bessel–Gaussian beams using the specially engineered three-zone phase filters. - Highlights: • The tightly focusing of radially polarized LBG beams is examined. • The focusing performances of LBG beams are preferable over that of LG and BG modes. • A bright spot and an optical cage can be formed by special phase modulation. • These special focusing patterns can stably manipulate two types of particles

  8. Self-Focusing of Quadruple Gaussian Laser Beam in an Inhomogenous Magnetized Plasma with Ponderomotive Non-Linearity: Effect of Linear Absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Munish; Vij, Shivani; Kant, Niti

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of quadruple Gaussian laser beam in a plasma characterized by axial inhomogeneity and nonlinearity due to ponderomotive force in the paraxial ray approximation is investigated. An appropriate expression for the nonlinear dielectric constant has been developed in the presence of external magnetic field, with linear absorption and due to saturation effects for arbitrary large intensity. The effects of different types of plasma axial inhomogeneities on self-focusing of laser beam have been studied with the typical laser and plasma parameters. Self-focusing of quadruple Gaussian laser beam in the presence of externally applied magnetic field and saturating parameter is found significantly improved in the case of extraordinary mode. Our results reveal that initially converging beam shows oscillatory convergence whereas initially diverging beam shows oscillatory divergence. The beam is more focussed at lower intensity in both cases viz. extraordinary and ordinary mode. (paper)

  9. Nonlinear propagation of an elliptically shaped Gaussian laser beam in an overdense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayyar, V P; Soni, V S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1979-04-01

    The self-focusing and self defocusing of an elliptically shaped high power laser beam in an extradense plasma is discussed. On account of the ponderomotive force induced by the spatial variation of irradiance in the transverse plane, an electron density gradient is created in the overdense plasma where the beam can penetrate. Self-focusing of the beam in the x and y directions for different critical powers has been extensively studied.

  10. Circular motion of particles suspended in a Gaussian beam with circular polarization validates the spin part of the internal energy flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    switching to the right (left) circular polarization, the particles performed spinning motion in agreement with the angular momentum imparted by the field, but they were involved in an orbital rotation around the beam axis as well, which in previous works [Y. Zhao et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007......Non-spherical dielectric microparticles were suspended in a water-filled cell and exposed to a coherent Gaussian light beam with controlled state of polarization. When the beam polarization is linear, the particles were trapped at certain off-axial position within the beam cross section. After...... of inhomogeneously polarized paraxial beams [A. Bekshaev et al, J. Opt. 13, 053001 (2011)]....

  11. Transmission characteristics of Bessel-Gaussian vortex beams propagating along both longitudinal and transverse directions in a subway tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Song, Yingxiong

    2018-02-01

    By exploiting the non-Kolmogorov model and Rytov approximation theory, a propagation model of Bessel-Gaussian vortex beams (BGVB) propagating in a subway tunnel is derived. Based on the propagation model, a model of orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode probability distribution is established to evaluate the propagation performance when the beam propagates along both longitudinal and transverse directions in the subway tunnel. By numerical simulations and experimental verifications, the influences of the various parameters of BGVB and turbulence on the OAM mode probability distribution are evaluated, and the results of simulations are consistent with the experimental statistics. The results verify that the middle area of turbulence is more beneficial for the vortex beam propagation than the edge; when the BGVB propagates along the longitudinal direction in the subway tunnel, the effects of turbulence on the OAM mode probability distribution can be decreased by selecting a larger anisotropy parameter, smaller coherence length, larger non-Kolmogorov power spectrum coefficient, smaller topological charge number, deeper subway tunnel, lower train speed, and longer wavelength. When the BGVB propagates along the transverse direction, the influences can be also mitigated by adopting a larger topological charge number, less non-Kolmogorov power spectrum coefficient, smaller refractive structure index, shorter wavelength, and shorter propagation distance.

  12. Generation of ultra-long pure magnetization needle and multiple spots by phase modulated doughnut Gaussian beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhayakumar, M.; Prabakaran, K.; Rajesh, K. B.; Jaroszewicz, Z.; Belafhal, Abdelmajid; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2018-06-01

    Based on vector diffraction theory and inverse Faraday effect (IFE), the light induced magnetization distribution of a tightly focused azimuthally polarized doughnut Gaussian beam superimposed with a helical phase and modulated by an optimized multi belt complex phase filter (MBCPF) is analysed numerically. It is noted that by adjusting the radii of different rings of the complex phase filter, one can achieve many novel magnetization focal distribution such as sub wavelength scale (0.29λ) and super long (52.2λ) longitudinal magnetic probe suitable for all optical magnetic recording and the formation of multiple magnetization chain with four, six and eight sub-wavelength spherical magnetization spots suitable for multiple trapping of magnetic particles are achieved.

  13. Diffraction study of duty-cycle error in ferroelectric quasi-phase-matching gratings with Gaussian beam illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Prashant Povel; Kumar, Challa Sesha Sai Pavan; Choi, Hee Joo; Cha, Myoungsik

    2016-02-01

    Random duty-cycle error (RDE) is inherent in the fabrication of ferroelectric quasi-phase-matching (QPM) gratings. Although a small RDE may not affect the nonlinearity of QPM devices, it enhances non-phase-matched parasitic harmonic generations, limiting the device performance in some applications. Recently, we demonstrated a simple method for measuring the RDE in QPM gratings by analyzing the far-field diffraction pattern obtained by uniform illumination (Dwivedi et al. in Opt Express 21:30221-30226, 2013). In the present study, we used a Gaussian beam illumination for the diffraction experiment to measure noise spectra that are less affected by the pedestals of the strong diffraction orders. Our results were compared with our calculations based on a random grating model, demonstrating improved resolution in the RDE estimation.

  14. Influence of moderate-to-strong anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence on intensity fluctuations of a Gaussian–Schell model beam in marine atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Li, Jiangting

    2018-05-01

    Not Available Project supported by the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology (Grant No. SKL2016KF05), the Key Industrial Innovation Chain Project in Industrial Domain, China (Grant No. 2017ZDCXL-GY-06-02), the Huawei Innovation Research Program, China (Grant No. HO2017050001AG), and the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61621005).

  15. Third-harmonic generation by a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Umesh, G.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of nonlinear third-harmonic generation in a weakly collisional magnetoplasma due to simultaneous propagation of both the right and left circularly polarized modes, having a Gaussian intensity distribution; self-focusing has been taken into account. At moderate powers, the self-focusing is seen to enhance the harmonic output by two orders of magnitude; at high powers, propagation occurs in an almost uniform waveguide devoid of plasma, and the harmonic output is, consequently, decreased. In the vicinity (ω/sub c//ω=0.7) of the electron cyclotron resonance, the harmonic output of the extraordinary mode is enhanced by an order of magnitude; the present theory is not applicable at resonance

  16. Theory of the forces exerted by Laguerre-Gaussian light beams on dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudon, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    The classical theory of the electromagnetic field associated with paraxial Laguerre-Gaussian light is generalized to apply to propagation in a bulk dielectric, and the theory is quantized to obtain expressions for the electric and magnetic field operators. The forms of the Poynting vector and angular momentum density operators are derived and their expectation values for a single-photon wave packet are obtained. The Lorentz force operator in the dielectric is resolved into longitudinal, radial, and azimuthal components. The theory is extended to apply to an interface between two semi-infinite dielectric media, one of which is transparent with an incident single-photon pulse, and the other of which is weakly attenuating. For a pulse that is much shorter than the attenuation length, the theory can separately identify the surface and bulk contributions to the Lorentz force on the attenuating dielectric. Particular attention is given to the transfer of longitudinal and angular momentum to the dielectric from light incident from free space. The resulting expressions for the shift and rotation of a transparent dielectric slab are shown to agree with those obtained from Einstein box theories

  17. Application of the Gaussian beam summation method to the study of the ultrasonic wave propagation in a turbulent medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorina, D.

    1998-01-01

    Some systems for the control and the surveillance of fast reactors are based on the characteristics of the ultrasonic wave propagation. We present here the results of a numerical and experimental study of ultrasonic propagation in a thermal turbulent medium. A numerical model, based on the technique of superposition of discrete Fourier modes for representing isotropic and homogeneous turbulence and on the Gaussian beam summation method for calculating the acoustic field, has been implemented in order to study the propagation of a point source wave in a bidimensional turbulent medium. Our model is based on the following principle: the medium is represented by a great number of independent realizations of a turbulent field and for each of them we calculate the acoustic field in a deterministic way. Statistics over a great number of realizations enable us to access to the different quantities of the distorted acoustic field: variance of the time of flight fluctuations, scintillation index and intensity probability density function. In the case of small fluctuations, the results for these three quantities are in a good agreement with analytical solutions. When the level of the fluctuations grows, the model predicts correct evolutions. However, a great sensitivity to the location of a receiver in the vicinity of a caustic has been proved. Calculations in the temporal domain have also been performed. They give an illustration of the possible effects of the turbulence on an impulsion signal. An experimental device, fitted with thermocouples and acoustic transducers, has been used to study the ultrasonic propagation in turbulent water. The different measures permitted to characterize the turbulent field and to get aware of the effect of the turbulence on the acoustic propagation. The acoustical measures agree well with the analytical solution of Chernov and Rytov. They are show the importance of the knowledge of the real spectrum of the fluctuations and the limitations of

  18. Spot size characterization of focused non-Gaussian X-ray laser beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chalupský, Jaromír; Krzywinski, J.; Juha, Libor; Hájková, Věra; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Burian, Tomáš; Vyšín, Luděk; Gaudin, J.; Gleeson, A.; Jurek, M.; Khorsand, A.R.; Klinger, D.; Wabnitz, H.; Sobierajski, R.; Störmer, M.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 26 (2010), s. 27836-27845 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA ČR GAP208/10/2302; GA MŠk LA08024; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : X-ray laser * free-electron laser * beam characterization * ablation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.749, year: 2010

  19. Mechanism of the quasi-zero axial acoustic radiation force experienced by elastic and viscoelastic spheres in the field of a quasi-Gaussian beam and particle tweezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G; Fellah, Z E A

    2014-01-01

    The present analysis investigates the (axial) acoustic radiation force induced by a quasi-Gaussian beam centered on an elastic and a viscoelastic (polymer-type) sphere in a nonviscous fluid. The quasi-Gaussian beam is an exact solution of the source free Helmholtz wave equation and is characterized by an arbitrary waist w₀ and a diffraction convergence length known as the Rayleigh range z(R). Examples are found where the radiation force unexpectedly approaches closely to zero at some of the elastic sphere's resonance frequencies for kw₀≤1 (where this range is of particular interest in describing strongly focused or divergent beams), which may produce particle immobilization along the axial direction. Moreover, the (quasi)vanishing behavior of the radiation force is found to be correlated with conditions giving extinction of the backscattering by the quasi-Gaussian beam. Furthermore, the mechanism for the quasi-zero force is studied theoretically by analyzing the contributions of the kinetic, potential and momentum flux energy densities and their density functions. It is found that all the components vanish simultaneously at the selected ka values for the nulls. However, for a viscoelastic sphere, acoustic absorption degrades the quasi-zero radiation force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. X-ray beam-shaping via deformable mirrors: surface profile and point spread function computation for Gaussian beams using physical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D

    2018-01-01

    X-ray mirrors with high focusing performances are commonly used in different sectors of science, such as X-ray astronomy, medical imaging and synchrotron/free-electron laser beamlines. While deformations of the mirror profile may cause degradation of the focus sharpness, a deliberate deformation of the mirror can be made to endow the focus with a desired size and distribution, via piezo actuators. The resulting profile can be characterized with suitable metrology tools and correlated with the expected optical quality via a wavefront propagation code or, sometimes, predicted using geometric optics. In the latter case and for the special class of profile deformations with monotonically increasing derivative, i.e. concave upwards, the point spread function (PSF) can even be predicted analytically. Moreover, under these assumptions, the relation can also be reversed: from the desired PSF the required profile deformation can be computed analytically, avoiding the use of trial-and-error search codes. However, the computation has been so far limited to geometric optics, which entailed some limitations: for example, mirror diffraction effects and the size of the coherent X-ray source were not considered. In this paper, the beam-shaping formalism in the framework of physical optics is reviewed, in the limit of small light wavelengths and in the case of Gaussian intensity wavefronts. Some examples of shaped profiles are also shown, aiming at turning a Gaussian intensity distribution into a top-hat one, and checks of the shaping performances computing the at-wavelength PSF by means of the WISE code are made.

  1. Influence of wind speed on free space optical communication performance for Gaussian beam propagation through non Kolmogorov strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Peng; Yuan Xiuhua; Zeng Yanan; Zhao Ming; Luo Hanjun

    2011-01-01

    In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received signal, affecting link performance. Most theoretical treatments have been described by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model through weak turbulence with constant wind speed. However, several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly, especially through the strong turbulence with variable wind speed, which is known to contribute significantly to the turbulence in the atmosphere. We present an optical turbulence model that incorporates into variable wind speed instead of constant value, a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. The free space optical communication performance for a Gaussian beam wave of scintillation index, mean signal-to-noise ratio , and mean bit error rate , have been derived by extended Rytov theory in non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. And then the influence of wind speed variations on free space optical communication performance has been analyzed under different atmospheric turbulence intensities. The results suggest that the effects of wind speed variation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence on communication performance are more severe in many situations and need to be taken into account in free space optical communication. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of free space optical communication performance considering wind speed under severe weather condition in the strong atmospheric turbulence.

  2. Direction-dependent waist-shift-difference of Gaussian beam in a multiple-pass zigzag slab amplifier and geometrical optics compensation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoyang; Kurita, Takashi; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2017-10-20

    Zigzag and non-zigzag beam waist shifts in a multiple-pass zigzag slab amplifier are investigated based on the propagation of a Gaussian beam. Different incident angles in the zigzag and non-zigzag planes would introduce a direction-dependent waist-shift-difference, which distorts the beam quality in both the near- and far-fields. The theoretical model and analytical expressions of this phenomenon are presented, and intensity distributions in the two orthogonal planes are simulated and compared. A geometrical optics compensation method by a beam with 90° rotation is proposed, which not only could correct the direction-dependent waist-shift-difference but also possibly average the traditional thermally induced wavefront-distortion-difference between the horizontal and vertical beam directions.

  3. Analytical investigation on domain of decentered parameter for self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisional plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkunde, Amol T.; Patil, Sandip D.; Vhanmore, Bandopant D.; Urunkar, Trupti U.; Gavade, Kusum M.; Takale, Mansing V.; Fulari, Vijay J.

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, an analytically investigated domain of decentered parameter and its effect on the self-focusing of Hermit-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) laser beams in a collisional plasma have been studied theoretically. The nonlinearity in the dielectric constant of plasma arising due to the nonuniform heating of carriers along the wavefront of the laser beam has been employed in the present investigation. The nonlinear differential equation of beam width parameter for various laser modes of HChG beam is obtained by following the standard Akhamanov's parabolic equation approach under Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial approximations. The analytical treatment has enabled us to define three distinct regions: self-focusing, self-trapping and defocusing, which are presented graphically.

  4. A technique for simultaneous detection of individual vortex states of Laguerre-Gaussian beams transmitted through an aqueous suspension of microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonina, S. N.; Karpeev, S. V.; Paranin, V. D.

    2018-06-01

    A technique for simultaneous detection of individual vortex states of the beams propagating in a randomly inhomogeneous medium is proposed. The developed optical system relies on the correlation method that is invariant to the beam wandering. The intensity distribution formed at the optical system output does not require digital processing. The proposed technique based on a multi-order phase diffractive optical element (DOE) is studied numerically and experimentally. The developed detection technique is used for the analysis of Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beams propagating under conditions of intense absorption, reflection, and scattering in transparent and opaque microparticles in aqueous suspensions. The performed experimental studies confirm the relevance of the vortex phase dependence of a laser beam under conditions of significant absorption, reflection, and scattering of the light.

  5. Multiple Reflections and Fresnel Absorption of Gaussian Laser Beam in an Actual 3D Keyhole during Deep-Penetration Laser Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzhong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In deep penetration laser welding, a keyhole is formed in the material. Based on an experimentally obtained bending keyhole from low- and medium-speed laser penetration welding of glass, the keyhole profiles in both the symmetric plane are determined by polynomial fitting. Then, a 3D bending keyhole is reconstructed under the assumption of circular cross-section of the keyhole at each keyhole depth. In this paper, the behavior of focused Gaussian laser beam in the keyhole is analyzed by tracing a ray of light using Gaussian optics theory, the Fresnel absorption and multiple reflections in the keyhole are systematically studied, and the laser intensities absorbed on the keyhole walls are calculated. Finally, the formation mechanism of the keyhole is deduced.

  6. Comment on “Stationary self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in relativistic thermal quantum plasma” [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2014-01-01

    Patil and Takale in their recent article [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)], by evaluating the quantum dielectric response in thermal quantum plasma, have modeled the relativistic self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in a plasma. We have found that there are some important shortcomings and fundamental mistakes in Patil and Takale [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)] that we give a brief description about them and refer readers to important misconception about the use of the Fermi temperature in quantum plasmas, appearing in Patil and Takale [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)

  7. Generation of sub-Poissonian non-Gaussian states from multimode twin beams by photon-number-resolving detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lamperti, M.; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.; Machulka, R.; Michálek, Václav; Haderka, O.; Peřina Jr., J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2014), "1461017-1"-"1461017-7" ISSN 0219-7499 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum state engineering and measurements * parametric down-conversion * photodetectors * sub-Poissonian statistics * non-Gaussianity Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.877, year: 2014

  8. Application of Gaussian beam ray-equivalent model and back-propagation artificial neural network in laser diode fast axis collimator assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Rossi, Giammarco; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido

    2016-08-10

    The paper presents the development of a tool based on a back-propagation artificial neural network to assist in the accurate positioning of the lenses used to collimate the beam from semiconductor laser diodes along the so-called fast axis. After training using a Gaussian beam ray-equivalent model, the network is capable of indicating the tilt, decenter, and defocus of such lenses from the measured field distribution, so the operator can determine the errors with respect to the actual lens position and optimize the diode assembly procedure. An experimental validation using a typical configuration exploited in multi-emitter diode module assembly and fast axis collimating lenses with different focal lengths and numerical apertures is reported.

  9. Ponderomotive and weakly relativistic self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in plasma: Effect of light absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, S. D., E-mail: sdpatilphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Devchand College, Arjunnagar, Dist.: Kolhapur 591 237 (India); Takale, M. V. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This paper presents an influence of light absorption on self-focusing of laser beam propagation in plasma. The differential equation for beam-width parameter is obtained using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial approximations through parabolic equation approach. The nonlinearity in dielectric function is assumed to be aroused due to the combined effect of weakly relativistic and ponderomotive regime. To highlight the nature of propagation, behavior of beam-width parameter with dimensionless distance of propagation is presented graphically and discussed. The present work is helpful to understand issues related to the beam propagation in laser plasma interaction experiments where light absorption plays a vital role.

  10. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of a Gaussian beam (GB) into a symmetrical higher order TEMp0 Laguerre Gaussian beam (LGB) intensity distribution of which is further rectified and transformed into a Gaussian intensity distribution in the plane of a converging...

  11. Effect of gaussian beam on microstructural and mechanical properties of dissimilarlaser welding ofAA5083 and AA6061 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, B.; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Sivaprasad, K.; Muthupandi, V.

    2018-03-01

    The present study focuses on a sheet thickness of 4 mm using different laser power and welding rate by the laser beam welding (LBW) at a beam size180 μm. The observations on the weldments are showing that thermal conductivity of the materials plays a major role on microstructural changes. The as-welded mechanical properties were studied by correlation with its microstructures. Due to the steeper temperature gradient during the laser beam welding AA6061 was showing the greater variation compares with AA5083 side in the micro hardness studies.Also, the tensile strength of 241 MPa has been reported as highest with the welds made of laser powerat 3.5 kW and welding rate at 3.5 mmin-1.

  12. Diffraction of a Gaussian laser beam by a straight edge leading to the formation of optical vortices and elliptical diffraction fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeylikovich, Iosif; Nikitin, Aleksandr

    2018-04-01

    The diffraction of a Gaussian laser beam by a straight edge has been studied theoretically and experimentally for many years. In this paper, we have experimentally observed for the first time the formation of the cusped caustic (for the Fresnel number F ≈ 100) in the shadow region of the straight edge, with the cusp placed near the center of the circular laser beam(λ = 0 . 65 μm) overlapped with the elliptical diffraction fringes. These fringes are originated at the region near the cusp of the caustic where light intensity is zero and the wave phase is singular (the optical vortex). We interpret observed diffraction fringes as a result of interference between the helical wave created by the optical vortex and cylindrical wave diffracted at the straight edge. We have theoretically revealed that the number of high contrast diffraction fringes observable in a shadow region is determined by the square of the diffracted angles in the range of spatial frequencies of the scattered light field in excellent agreement with experiments. The extra phase singularities with opposite charges are also observed along the shadow boundary as the fork-like diffraction fringes.

  13. Extension of geometrical-optics approximation to on-axis Gaussian beam scattering. II. By a spheroidal particle with end-on incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Ren, Kuan Fang; Cai, Xiaoshu; Shen, Jianqi

    2006-07-10

    On the basis of our previous work on the extension of the geometrical-optics approximation to Gaussian beam scattering by a spherical particle, we present a further extension of the method to the scattering of a transparent or absorbing spheroidal particle with the same symmetric axis as the incident beam. As was done for the spherical particle, the phase shifts of the emerging rays due to focal lines, optical path, and total reflection are carefully considered. The angular position of the geometric rainbow of primary order is theoretically predicted. Compared with our results, the Möbius prediction of the rainbow angle has a discrepancy of less than 0.5 degrees for a spheroidal droplet of aspect radio kappa within 0.95 and 1.05 and less than 2 degrees for kappa within 0.89 and 1.11. The flux ratio index F, which qualitatively indicates the effect of a surface wave, is also studied and found to be dependent on the size, refractive index, and surface curvature of the particle.

  14. Change in spatial coherence of light on refraction and on reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Mayukh; Wolf, Emil

    2013-06-01

    A theory of refraction and reflection of partially coherent electromagnetic beams has been recently developed. In this paper, we apply it to study the change in spatial coherence caused by refraction and by reflection more fully. By considering a Gaussian Schell-model beam, we show that the change is, in general, dependent on the angle of incidence.

  15. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  16. Entangled Bessel-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available by performing a Bell-type experiment and showing a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition, we use quantum state tomography to indicate higher-dimensional entanglement in terms of BG modes....

  17. Gaussian entanglement distribution via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat; Malaney, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In this work we analyze three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme, the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the tradeoff between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation.

  18. Non-gaussian turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J [NEG Micon Project Development A/S, Randers (Denmark); Hansen, K S [Denmarks Technical Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, B J [VESTAS Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark); Nielsen, M [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The pdf`s of atmospheric turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour is being investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity. Models for non-Gaussian turbulence have been developed, by which artificial turbulence can be generated with specified distributions, spectra and cross-correlations. The artificial time series will then be used in load models and the resulting loads in the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian cases will be compared. (au)

  19. Thermally induced diffraction losses for a Gaussian pump beam and optimization of the mode-to-pump ratio in an end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y T; Li, W J; Pan, L L; Yu, J T; Zhang, R H

    2013-01-01

    The analytical model of thermally induced diffraction losses for a Gaussian pump beam are derived as functions of the mode-to-pump ratio and pump power in end-pumped Nd-doped lasers considering the energy transfer upconversion effects. The mode-to-pump ratio is optimized based on it. The results show that the optimum mode-to-pump ratio with the thermally induced diffraction losses is less than 0.65, and it is less than the results in which the thermally induced diffraction losses are neglected. The theoretical model is applied to a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 laser operating at 1342 nm, and the theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results. (paper)

  20. Application of the Gaussian beam summation method to the study of the ultrasonic wave propagation in a turbulent medium; Application de la methode de sommation de faisceaux gaussiens a l`etude de la propagation ultrasonore en milieu turbulent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorina, D

    1998-01-29

    Some systems for the control and the surveillance of fast reactors are based on the characteristics of the ultrasonic wave propagation. We present here the results of a numerical and experimental study of ultrasonic propagation in a thermal turbulent medium. A numerical model, based on the technique of superposition of discrete Fourier modes for representing isotropic and homogeneous turbulence and on the Gaussian beam summation method for calculating the acoustic field, has been implemented in order to study the propagation of a point source wave in a bidimensional turbulent medium. Our model is based on the following principle: the medium is represented by a great number of independent realizations of a turbulent field and for each of them we calculate the acoustic field in a deterministic way. Statistics over a great number of realizations enable us to access to the different quantities of the distorted acoustic field: variance of the time of flight fluctuations, scintillation index and intensity probability density function. In the case of small fluctuations, the results for these three quantities are in a good agreement with analytical solutions. When the level of the fluctuations grows, the model predicts correct evolutions. However, a great sensitivity to the location of a receiver in the vicinity of a caustic has been proved. Calculations in the temporal domain have also been performed. They give an illustration of the possible effects of the turbulence on an impulsion signal. An experimental device, fitted with thermocouples and acoustic transducers, has been used to study the ultrasonic propagation in turbulent water. The different measures permitted to characterize the turbulent field and to get aware of the effect of the turbulence on the acoustic propagation. The acoustical measures agree well with the analytical solution of Chernov and Rytov. They are show the importance of the knowledge of the real spectrum of the fluctuations and the limitations of

  1. Two-photon optics of Bessel-Gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider geometrical two-photon optics of Bessel-Gaussian modes generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion of a Gaussian pump beam. We provide a general theoretical expression for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum...

  2. Gaussian entanglement revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lami, Ludovico; Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2018-02-01

    We present a novel approach to the separability problem for Gaussian quantum states of bosonic continuous variable systems. We derive a simplified necessary and sufficient separability criterion for arbitrary Gaussian states of m versus n modes, which relies on convex optimisation over marginal covariance matrices on one subsystem only. We further revisit the currently known results stating the equivalence between separability and positive partial transposition (PPT) for specific classes of Gaussian states. Using techniques based on matrix analysis, such as Schur complements and matrix means, we then provide a unified treatment and compact proofs of all these results. In particular, we recover the PPT-separability equivalence for: (i) Gaussian states of 1 versus n modes; and (ii) isotropic Gaussian states. In passing, we also retrieve (iii) the recently established equivalence between separability of a Gaussian state and and its complete Gaussian extendability. Our techniques are then applied to progress beyond the state of the art. We prove that: (iv) Gaussian states that are invariant under partial transposition are necessarily separable; (v) the PPT criterion is necessary and sufficient for separability for Gaussian states of m versus n modes that are symmetric under the exchange of any two modes belonging to one of the parties; and (vi) Gaussian states which remain PPT under passive optical operations can not be entangled by them either. This is not a foregone conclusion per se (since Gaussian bound entangled states do exist) and settles a question that had been left unanswered in the existing literature on the subject. This paper, enjoyable by both the quantum optics and the matrix analysis communities, overall delivers technical and conceptual advances which are likely to be useful for further applications in continuous variable quantum information theory, beyond the separability problem.

  3. Calculating emittance for Gaussian and Non-Gaussian distributions by the method of correlations for slits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    One common way for measuring the emittance of an electron beam is with the slits method. The usual approach for analyzing the data is to calculate an emittance that is a subset of the parent emittance. This paper shows an alternative way by using the method of correlations which ties the parameters derived from the beamlets to the actual parameters of the parent emittance. For parent distributions that are Gaussian, this method yields exact results. For non-Gaussian beam distributions, this method yields an effective emittance that can serve as a yardstick for emittance comparisons

  4. Gaussian cloning of coherent states with known phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2006-01-01

    The fidelity for cloning coherent states is improved over that provided by optimal Gaussian and non-Gaussian cloners for the subset of coherent states that are prepared with known phases. Gaussian quantum cloning duplicates all coherent states with an optimal fidelity of 2/3. Non-Gaussian cloners give optimal single-clone fidelity for a symmetric 1-to-2 cloner of 0.6826. Coherent states that have known phases can be cloned with a fidelity of 4/5. The latter is realized by a combination of two beam splitters and a four-wave mixer operated in the nonlinear regime, all of which are realized by interaction Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the photon operators. Therefore, the known Gaussian devices for cloning coherent states are extended when cloning coherent states with known phases by considering a nonbalanced beam splitter at the input side of the amplifier

  5. Residential segregation and cultural dissemination: An Axelrod-Schelling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, C.; Lafuerza, L. F.; Floría, L. M.; Moreno, Y.

    2009-10-01

    In the Axelrod’s model of cultural dissemination, we consider the mobility of cultural agents through the introduction of a density of empty sites and the possibility that agents in a dissimilar neighborhood can move to them if their mean cultural similarity with the neighborhood is below some threshold. While for low values of the density of empty sites, the mobility enhances the convergence to a global culture, for high enough values of it, the dynamics can lead to the coexistence of disconnected domains of different cultures. In this regime, the increase in initial cultural diversity paradoxically increases the convergence to a dominant culture. Further increase in diversity leads to the fragmentation of the dominant culture into domains, forever changing in shape and number, as an effect of the never ending eroding activity of cultural minorities.

  6. Gaussian operations and privacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navascues, Miguel; Acin, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    We consider the possibilities offered by Gaussian states and operations for two honest parties, Alice and Bob, to obtain privacy against a third eavesdropping party, Eve. We first extend the security analysis of the protocol proposed in [Navascues et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 010502 (2005)]. Then, we prove that a generalized version of this protocol does not allow one to distill a secret key out of bound entangled Gaussian states

  7. Propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian

    2010-03-01

    Paraxial propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system is investigated. Analytical formulas for the electric field and effective beam width of a general-type beam in the FRT plane are derived based on the Collins formula. Our formulas can be used to study the propagation of a variety of laser beams--such as Gaussian, cos-Gaussian, cosh-Gaussian, sine-Gaussian, sinh-Gaussian, flat-topped, Hermite-cosh-Gaussian, Hermite-sine-Gaussian, higher-order annular Gaussian, Hermite-sinh-Gaussian and Hermite-cos-Gaussian beams--through a FRT optical system with or without truncation. The propagation properties of a Hermite-cos-Gaussian beam passing through a rectangularly truncated FRT optical system are studied as a numerical example. Our results clearly show that the truncated FRT optical system provides a convenient way for laser beam shaping.

  8. Nonclassicality by Local Gaussian Unitary Operations for Gaussian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A measure of nonclassicality N in terms of local Gaussian unitary operations for bipartite Gaussian states is introduced. N is a faithful quantum correlation measure for Gaussian states as product states have no such correlation and every non product Gaussian state contains it. For any bipartite Gaussian state ρ A B , we always have 0 ≤ N ( ρ A B < 1 , where the upper bound 1 is sharp. An explicit formula of N for ( 1 + 1 -mode Gaussian states and an estimate of N for ( n + m -mode Gaussian states are presented. A criterion of entanglement is established in terms of this correlation. The quantum correlation N is also compared with entanglement, Gaussian discord and Gaussian geometric discord.

  9. Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grabe, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in 200 years Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus addresses a rigorous, complete and self-consistent revision of the Gaussian error calculus. Since experimentalists realized that measurements in general are burdened by unknown systematic errors, the classical, widespread used evaluation procedures scrutinizing the consequences of random errors alone turned out to be obsolete. As a matter of course, the error calculus to-be, treating random and unknown systematic errors side by side, should ensure the consistency and traceability of physical units, physical constants and physical quantities at large. The generalized Gaussian error calculus considers unknown systematic errors to spawn biased estimators. Beyond, random errors are asked to conform to the idea of what the author calls well-defined measuring conditions. The approach features the properties of a building kit: any overall uncertainty turns out to be the sum of a contribution due to random errors, to be taken from a confidence inter...

  10. Learning conditional Gaussian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard

    This paper considers conditional Gaussian networks. The parameters in the network are learned by using conjugate Bayesian analysis. As conjugate local priors, we apply the Dirichlet distribution for discrete variables and the Gaussian-inverse gamma distribution for continuous variables, given...... a configuration of the discrete parents. We assume parameter independence and complete data. Further, to learn the structure of the network, the network score is deduced. We then develop a local master prior procedure, for deriving parameter priors in these networks. This procedure satisfies parameter...... independence, parameter modularity and likelihood equivalence. Bayes factors to be used in model search are introduced. Finally the methods derived are illustrated by a simple example....

  11. Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 2 (2010), s. 798-812 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0332 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/07/0032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : body waves * seismic anisotropy * theoretical seismology * wave propagation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.411, year: 2010

  12. Area of isodensity contours in Gaussian and non-Gaussian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    The area of isodensity contours in a smoothed density field can be measured by the contour-crossing statistic N1, the number of times per unit length that a line drawn through the density field pierces an isodensity contour. The contour-crossing statistic distinguishes between Gaussian and non-Gaussian fields and provides a measure of the effective slope of the power spectrum. The statistic is easy to apply and can be used on pencil beams and slices as well as on a three-dimensional field. 10 references

  13. Optimal multicopy asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiurášek, Jaromír; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states which produces M copies from N input replicas in such a way that the fidelity of each copy may be different. We show that the optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning can be performed with a single phase-insensitive amplifier and an array of beam splitters. We obtain a simple analytical expression characterizing the set of optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning machines and prove the optimality of these cloners using the formalism of Gaussian completely positive maps and semidefinite programming techniques. We also present an alternative implementation of the asymmetric cloning machine where the phase-insensitive amplifier is replaced with a beam splitter, heterodyne detector, and feedforward.

  14. Optimal multicopy asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states which produces M copies from N input replicas in such a way that the fidelity of each copy may be different. We show that the optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning can be performed with a single phase-insensitive amplifier and an array of beam splitters. We obtain a simple analytical expression characterizing the set of optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning machines and prove the optimality of these cloners using the formalism of Gaussian completely positive maps and semidefinite programming techniques. We also present an alternative implementation of the asymmetric cloning machine where the phase-insensitive amplifier is replaced with a beam splitter, heterodyne detector, and feedforward

  15. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: rlindner@astro.wisc.edu [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  16. Bounded Gaussian process regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...... with the proposed explicit noise-model extension....

  17. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes

  18. Quantum information with Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangbin; Hiroshima, Tohya; Tomita, Akihisa; Hayashi, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    Quantum optical Gaussian states are a type of important robust quantum states which are manipulatable by the existing technologies. So far, most of the important quantum information experiments are done with such states, including bright Gaussian light and weak Gaussian light. Extending the existing results of quantum information with discrete quantum states to the case of continuous variable quantum states is an interesting theoretical job. The quantum Gaussian states play a central role in such a case. We review the properties and applications of Gaussian states in quantum information with emphasis on the fundamental concepts, the calculation techniques and the effects of imperfections of the real-life experimental setups. Topics here include the elementary properties of Gaussian states and relevant quantum information device, entanglement-based quantum tasks such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography with weak and strong Gaussian states and the quantum channel capacity, mathematical theory of quantum entanglement and state estimation for Gaussian states

  19. Interconversion of pure Gaussian states requiring non-Gaussian operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the conditions under which local operations and classical communication enable entanglement transformations between bipartite pure Gaussian states. A set of necessary and sufficient conditions had been found [G. Giedke et al., Quant. Inf. Comput. 3, 211 (2003)] for the interconversion between such states that is restricted to Gaussian local operations and classical communication. Here, we exploit majorization theory in order to derive more general (sufficient) conditions for the interconversion between bipartite pure Gaussian states that goes beyond Gaussian local operations. While our technique is applicable to an arbitrary number of modes for each party, it allows us to exhibit surprisingly simple examples of 2 ×2 Gaussian states that necessarily require non-Gaussian local operations to be transformed into each other.

  20. Sums and Gaussian vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yurinsky, Vadim Vladimirovich

    1995-01-01

    Surveys the methods currently applied to study sums of infinite-dimensional independent random vectors in situations where their distributions resemble Gaussian laws. Covers probabilities of large deviations, Chebyshev-type inequalities for seminorms of sums, a method of constructing Edgeworth-type expansions, estimates of characteristic functions for random vectors obtained by smooth mappings of infinite-dimensional sums to Euclidean spaces. A self-contained exposition of the modern research apparatus around CLT, the book is accessible to new graduate students, and can be a useful reference for researchers and teachers of the subject.

  1. Rotating quantum Gaussian packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V V

    2015-01-01

    We study two-dimensional quantum Gaussian packets with a fixed value of mean angular momentum. This value is the sum of two independent parts: the ‘external’ momentum related to the motion of the packet center and the ‘internal’ momentum due to quantum fluctuations. The packets minimizing the mean energy of an isotropic oscillator with the fixed mean angular momentum are found. They exist for ‘co-rotating’ external and internal motions, and they have nonzero correlation coefficients between coordinates and momenta, together with some (moderate) amount of quadrature squeezing. Variances of angular momentum and energy are calculated, too. Differences in the behavior of ‘co-rotating’ and ‘anti-rotating’ packets are shown. The time evolution of rotating Gaussian packets is analyzed, including the cases of a charge in a homogeneous magnetic field and a free particle. In the latter case, the effect of initial shrinking of packets with big enough coordinate-momentum correlation coefficients (followed by the well known expansion) is discovered. This happens due to a competition of ‘focusing’ and ‘de-focusing’ in the orthogonal directions. (paper)

  2. Perturbative Gaussianizing transforms for cosmological fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Mead, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Constraints on cosmological parameters from large-scale structure have traditionally been obtained from two-point statistics. However, non-linear structure formation renders these statistics insufficient in capturing the full information content available, necessitating the measurement of higher order moments to recover information which would otherwise be lost. We construct quantities based on non-linear and non-local transformations of weakly non-Gaussian fields that Gaussianize the full multivariate distribution at a given order in perturbation theory. Our approach does not require a model of the fields themselves and takes as input only the first few polyspectra, which could be modelled or measured from simulations or data, making our method particularly suited to observables lacking a robust perturbative description such as the weak-lensing shear. We apply our method to simulated density fields, finding a significantly reduced bispectrum and an enhanced correlation with the initial field. We demonstrate that our method reconstructs a large proportion of the linear baryon acoustic oscillations, improving the information content over the raw field by 35 per cent. We apply the transform to toy 21 cm intensity maps, showing that our method still performs well in the presence of complications such as redshift-space distortions, beam smoothing, pixel noise and foreground subtraction. We discuss how this method might provide a route to constructing a perturbative model of the fully non-Gaussian multivariate likelihood function.

  3. Holographic non-Gaussianity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the non-Gaussianity of primordial cosmological perturbations within our recently proposed holographic description of inflationary universes. We derive a holographic formula that determines the bispectrum of cosmological curvature perturbations in terms of correlation functions of a holographically dual three-dimensional non-gravitational quantum field theory (QFT). This allows us to compute the primordial bispectrum for a universe which started in a non-geometric holographic phase, using perturbative QFT calculations. Strikingly, for a class of models specified by a three-dimensional super-renormalisable QFT, the primordial bispectrum is of exactly the factorisable equilateral form with f NL equil. = 5/36, irrespective of the details of the dual QFT. A by-product of this investigation is a holographic formula for the three-point function of the trace of the stress-energy tensor along general holographic RG flows, which should have applications outside the remit of this work

  4. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palm distributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palm distribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Cox process that only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox process in the intensity function. This new...... result is used to study functional summaries for log Gaussian Cox processes....

  5. IBS for non-gaussian distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.; Sidorin, A.O.; Smirnov, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    In many situations distribution can significantly deviate from Gaussian which requires accurate treatment of IBS. Our original interest in this problem was motivated by the need to have an accurate description of beam evolution due to IBS while distribution is strongly affected by the external electron cooling force. A variety of models with various degrees of approximation were developed and implemented in BETACOOL in the past to address this topic. A more complete treatment based on the friction coefficient and full 3-D diffusion tensor was introduced in BETACOOL at the end of 2007 under the name 'local IBS model'. Such a model allowed us calculation of IBS for an arbitrary beam distribution. The numerical benchmarking of this local IBS algorithm and its comparison with other models was reported before. In this paper, after briefly describing the model and its limitations, they present its comparison with available experimental data.

  6. Geometry of Gaussian quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, Valentin; Strunz, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    We study the Hilbert–Schmidt measure on the manifold of mixed Gaussian states in multi-mode continuous variable quantum systems. An analytical expression for the Hilbert–Schmidt volume element is derived. Its corresponding probability measure can be used to study typical properties of Gaussian states. It turns out that although the manifold of Gaussian states is unbounded, an ensemble of Gaussian states distributed according to this measure still has a normalizable distribution of symplectic eigenvalues, from which unitarily invariant properties can be obtained. By contrast, we find that for an ensemble of one-mode Gaussian states based on the Bures measure the corresponding distribution cannot be normalized. As important applications, we determine the distribution and the mean value of von Neumann entropy and purity for the Hilbert–Schmidt measure. (paper)

  7. Resource theory of non-Gaussian operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Shor, Peter W.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2018-05-01

    Non-Gaussian states and operations are crucial for various continuous-variable quantum information processing tasks. To quantitatively understand non-Gaussianity beyond states, we establish a resource theory for non-Gaussian operations. In our framework, we consider Gaussian operations as free operations, and non-Gaussian operations as resources. We define entanglement-assisted non-Gaussianity generating power and show that it is a monotone that is nonincreasing under the set of free superoperations, i.e., concatenation and tensoring with Gaussian channels. For conditional unitary maps, this monotone can be analytically calculated. As examples, we show that the non-Gaussianity of ideal photon-number subtraction and photon-number addition equal the non-Gaussianity of the single-photon Fock state. Based on our non-Gaussianity monotone, we divide non-Gaussian operations into two classes: (i) the finite non-Gaussianity class, e.g., photon-number subtraction, photon-number addition, and all Gaussian-dilatable non-Gaussian channels; and (ii) the diverging non-Gaussianity class, e.g., the binary phase-shift channel and the Kerr nonlinearity. This classification also implies that not all non-Gaussian channels are exactly Gaussian dilatable. Our resource theory enables a quantitative characterization and a first classification of non-Gaussian operations, paving the way towards the full understanding of non-Gaussianity.

  8. Handbook of Gaussian basis sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, R.; Kari, R.; Csizmadia, I.G.

    1985-01-01

    A collection of a large body of information is presented useful for chemists involved in molecular Gaussian computations. Every effort has been made by the authors to collect all available data for cartesian Gaussian as found in the literature up to July of 1984. The data in this text includes a large collection of polarization function exponents but in this case the collection is not complete. Exponents for Slater type orbitals (STO) were included for completeness. This text offers a collection of Gaussian exponents primarily without criticism. (Auth.)

  9. Gaussian density matrices: Quantum analogs of classical states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, A.; Revzen, M.

    1993-01-01

    We study quantum analogs of clasical situations, i.e. quantum states possessing some specific classical attribute(s). These states seem quite generally, to have the form of gaussian density matrices. Such states can always be parametrized as thermal squeezed states (TSS). We consider the following specific cases: (a) Two beams that are built from initial beams which passed through a beam splitter cannot, classically, be distinguished from (appropriately prepared) two independent beams that did not go through a splitter. The only quantum states possessing this classical attribute are TSS. (b) The classical Cramer's theorem was shown to have a quantum version (Hegerfeldt). Again, the states here are Gaussian density matrices. (c) The special case in the study of the quantum version of Cramer's theorem, viz. when the state obtained after partial tracing is a pure state, leads to the conclusion that all states involved are zero temperature limit TSS. The classical analog here are gaussians of zero width, i.e. all distributions are δ functions in phase space. (orig.)

  10. Revealing the radial modes in vortex beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Light beams that carry orbital angular momentum are often approximated by modulating an initial beam, usually Gaussian, with an azimuthal phase variation to create a vortex beam. Such vortex beams are well defined azimuthally, but the radial profile...

  11. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monras, Alex; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated by distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under generic constraints on the physically available resources. Our approach naturally includes the use of entangled Gaussian probe states. We prove that the metric enjoys some desirable properties like stability and covariance. As a by-product, we also obtain some general results in Gaussian channel estimation that are the continuous-variable analogs of previously known results in finite dimensions. We prove that optimal probe states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes, even in the presence of constraints on the reduced state input in the channel. This has experimental and computational implications. It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric: Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for its computation. We provide explicit formulas for computing the multiparametric quantum Fisher information for dissipative channels probed with arbitrary Gaussian states and provide the optimal observables for the estimation of the channel parameters (e.g., bath couplings, squeezing, and temperature).

  12. On the representation of the diffracted field of Hermite-Gaussian modes in an alien basis and the young diffraction principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.N.; Strokovskii, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical form of expansion coefficients of a diffracted field for an arbitrary Hermite-Gaussian beam in an alien Hermite-Gaussian basis is obtained. A possible physical interpretation of the well-known Young phenomenological diffraction principle and experiments on diffraction of Hermite-Gaussian beams of the lowest types (n = 0 - 5) from half-plane are discussed. The case of nearly homogenous expansion corresponding to misalignment and mismatch of optical systems is also analyzed. 7 refs., 2 figs

  13. Tachyon mediated non-Gaussianity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Leblond, Louis; Kumar, Jason

    2008-01-01

    We describe a general scenario where primordial non-Gaussian curvature perturbations are generated in models with extra scalar fields. The extra scalars communicate to the inflaton sector mainly through the tachyonic (waterfall) field condensing at the end of hybrid inflation. These models can yield significant non-Gaussianity of the local shape, and both signs of the bispectrum can be obtained. These models have cosmic strings and a nearly flat power spectrum, which together have been recently shown to be a good fit to WMAP data. We illustrate with a model of inflation inspired from intersecting brane models.

  14. Improvement of Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haotong; Liu, Zejin; Jiang, Pengzhi; Xu, Xiaojun; Du, Shaojun

    2011-07-04

    We propose and demonstrate the improvement of conventional Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size. Based on the detailed study of the refractive beam shaping system, we found that the conventional Galilean beam shaper can only work well for the magnifying beam shaping. Taking the transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with high order Fermi-Dirac flattop profile as an example, the shaper can only work well at the condition that the size of input and target beam meets R(0) ≥ 1.3 w(0). For the improvement, the shaper is regarded as the combination of magnifying and demagnifying beam shaping system. The surface and phase distributions of the improved Galilean beam shaping system are derived based on Geometric and Fourier Optics. By using the improved Galilean beam shaper, the accurate transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with flattop irradiance distribution is realized. The irradiance distribution of the output beam is coincident with that of the target beam and the corresponding phase distribution is maintained. The propagation performance of the output beam is greatly improved. Studies of the influences of beam size and beam order on the improved Galilean beam shaping system show that restriction of beam size has been greatly reduced. This improvement can also be used to redistribute the input beam with complicated irradiance distribution into output beam with complicated irradiance distribution.

  15. The Multivariate Gaussian Probability Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This technical report intends to gather information about the multivariate gaussian distribution, that was previously not (at least to my knowledge) to be found in one place and written as a reference manual. Additionally, some useful tips and tricks are collected that may be useful in practical ...

  16. On Gaussian conditional independence structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lněnička, Radim; Matúš, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2007), s. 327-342 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multivariate Gaussian distribution * positive definite matrices * determinants * gaussoids * covariance selection models * Markov perfectness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.552, year: 2007

  17. Gaussian processes for machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Matthias

    2004-04-01

    Gaussian processes (GPs) are natural generalisations of multivariate Gaussian random variables to infinite (countably or continuous) index sets. GPs have been applied in a large number of fields to a diverse range of ends, and very many deep theoretical analyses of various properties are available. This paper gives an introduction to Gaussian processes on a fairly elementary level with special emphasis on characteristics relevant in machine learning. It draws explicit connections to branches such as spline smoothing models and support vector machines in which similar ideas have been investigated. Gaussian process models are routinely used to solve hard machine learning problems. They are attractive because of their flexible non-parametric nature and computational simplicity. Treated within a Bayesian framework, very powerful statistical methods can be implemented which offer valid estimates of uncertainties in our predictions and generic model selection procedures cast as nonlinear optimization problems. Their main drawback of heavy computational scaling has recently been alleviated by the introduction of generic sparse approximations.13,78,31 The mathematical literature on GPs is large and often uses deep concepts which are not required to fully understand most machine learning applications. In this tutorial paper, we aim to present characteristics of GPs relevant to machine learning and to show up precise connections to other "kernel machines" popular in the community. Our focus is on a simple presentation, but references to more detailed sources are provided.

  18. Beam-beam limit in e+e- circular colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, K.; Tawada, M.; Kamada, S.; Oide, K.; Cai, Y.; Qiang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Beam-beam effects limit the luminosity of circular colliders. Once the bunch population exceeds a threshold, the luminosity increases at a slower rate. This phenomenon is called the beam-beam limit. Onset of the beam-beam limit has been analyzed with various simulation methods based on the weak-strong and strong-strong models. We have observed that an incoherent phenomenon is mainly concerned in the beam-beam limit. The simulation have shown that equilibrium distributions of the two colliding beams are distorted from Gaussians when the luminosity is limited. The beam-beam limit is estimated to be ξ∼0.1 for a B factory with damping time of several thousand turns

  19. Wigner functions for evanescent waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Jonathan C; Tian, Lei; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George

    2012-09-01

    We propose phase space distributions, based on an extension of the Wigner distribution function, to describe fields of any state of coherence that contain evanescent components emitted into a half-space. The evanescent components of the field are described in an optical phase space of spatial position and complex-valued angle. Behavior of these distributions upon propagation is also considered, where the rapid decay of the evanescent components is associated with the exponential decay of the associated phase space distributions. To demonstrate the structure and behavior of these distributions, we consider the fields generated from total internal reflection of a Gaussian Schell-model beam at a planar interface.

  20. Analytic matrix elements with shifted correlated Gaussians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics.......Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics....

  1. Gaussian process regression analysis for functional data

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Jian Qing

    2011-01-01

    Gaussian Process Regression Analysis for Functional Data presents nonparametric statistical methods for functional regression analysis, specifically the methods based on a Gaussian process prior in a functional space. The authors focus on problems involving functional response variables and mixed covariates of functional and scalar variables.Covering the basics of Gaussian process regression, the first several chapters discuss functional data analysis, theoretical aspects based on the asymptotic properties of Gaussian process regression models, and new methodological developments for high dime

  2. Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to

  3. Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Constable, C. G.

    2003-03-01

    With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimodal) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to

  4. Reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces of Gaussian priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaart, van der A.W.; Zanten, van J.H.; Clarke, B.; Ghosal, S.

    2008-01-01

    We review definitions and properties of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces attached to Gaussian variables and processes, with a view to applications in nonparametric Bayesian statistics using Gaussian priors. The rate of contraction of posterior distributions based on Gaussian priors can be described

  5. Inflation in random Gaussian landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoumi, Ali; Vilenkin, Alexander; Yamada, Masaki, E-mail: ali@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: Masaki.Yamada@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We develop analytic and numerical techniques for studying the statistics of slow-roll inflation in random Gaussian landscapes. As an illustration of these techniques, we analyze small-field inflation in a one-dimensional landscape. We calculate the probability distributions for the maximal number of e-folds and for the spectral index of density fluctuations n {sub s} and its running α {sub s} . These distributions have a universal form, insensitive to the correlation function of the Gaussian ensemble. We outline possible extensions of our methods to a large number of fields and to models of large-field inflation. These methods do not suffer from potential inconsistencies inherent in the Brownian motion technique, which has been used in most of the earlier treatments.

  6. General Galilei Covariant Gaussian Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarri, Giulio; Toroš, Marko; Bassi, Angelo

    2017-09-01

    We characterize general non-Markovian Gaussian maps which are covariant under Galilean transformations. In particular, we consider translational and Galilean covariant maps and show that they reduce to the known Holevo result in the Markovian limit. We apply the results to discuss measures of macroscopicity based on classicalization maps, specifically addressing dissipation, Galilean covariance and non-Markovianity. We further suggest a possible generalization of the macroscopicity measure defined by Nimmrichter and Hornberger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 16 (2013)].

  7. Gaussian Embeddings for Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos , Ludovic; Piwowarski , Benjamin; Gallinari , Patrick

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Most collaborative ltering systems, such as matrix factorization, use vector representations for items and users. Those representations are deterministic, and do not allow modeling the uncertainty of the learned representation, which can be useful when a user has a small number of rated items (cold start), or when there is connict-ing information about the behavior of a user or the ratings of an item. In this paper, we leverage recent works in learning Gaussian embeddi...

  8. Generation of shape-invariant flat-top laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ait-Ameur, K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A great number of laser applications need in place of the usual Gaussian beam a flat-top intensity profile in the focal plane of a focusing lens. In general the transformation of the laser beam from the Gaussian to the flat-top shape is made by a...

  9. Wavelength-independent laser beam shaping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Degama, MP

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a beam shaping device namely, a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE), which is used to change a beam having a Gaussian intensity profile into a beam with a uniform intensity profile. The DOE used in this work was fabricated from Zn...

  10. Beam-beam depolarization in SPEAR and PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    In this note some approximate estimates are made of depolarization due to beam-beam forces in SPEAR and PEP, using the results of a calculation by Kondratenko. The model assumes head-on collisions between bunches of Gaussian distribution in the transverse directions; the force on the weak-beam particle is taken to be a δ-function at the interaction point. 1 ref

  11. Random wandering of laser beams with orbital angular momentum during propagation through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Valerii P; Kolosov, Valeriy V; Pogutsa, Cheslav E

    2014-06-10

    The propagation of laser beams having orbital angular momenta (OAM) in the turbulent atmosphere is studied numerically. The variance of random wandering of these beams is investigated with the use of the Monte Carlo technique. It is found that, among various types of vortex laser beams, such as the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam, modified Bessel-Gaussian beam, and hypergeometric Gaussian beam, having identical initial effective radii and OAM, the LG beam occupying the largest effective volume in space is the most stable one.

  12. Beam-Beam Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities

  13. Doppler-shifted neutral beam line shape and beam transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kokatnur, N.; Lagin, L.J.; Newman, R.A.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.

    1994-04-01

    Analysis of Doppler-shifted Balmer-α line emission from the TFTR neutral beam injection systems has revealed that the line shape is well approximated by the sum of two Gaussians, or, alternatively, by a Lorentzian. For the sum of two Gaussians, the broad portion of the distribution contains 40% of the beam power and has a divergence five times that of the narrow part. Assuming a narrow 1/e- divergence of 1.3 degrees (based on fits to the beam shape on the calorimeter), the broad part has a divergence of 6.9 degrees. The entire line shape is also well approximated by a Lorentzian with a half-maximum divergence of 0.9 degrees. Up to now, fusion neutral beam modelers have assumed a single Gaussian velocity distribution, at the extraction plane, in each direction perpendicular to beam propagation. This predicts a beam transmission efficiency from the ion source to the calorimeter of 97%. Waterflow calorimetry data, however, yield a transmission efficiency of ∼75%, a value in rough agreement with predictions of the Gaussian or Lorentzian models presented here. The broad wing of the two Gaussian distribution also accurately predicts the loss in the neutralizer. An average angle of incidence for beam loss at the exit of the neutralizer is 2.2 degrees, rather than the 4.95 degrees subtended by the center of the ion source. This average angle of incidence, which is used in computing power densities on collimators, is shown to be a function of beam divergence

  14. Walk-off reduction, using an external optical plate and Bessel-Gaussian interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoume, Mansouri; Mohsen, Askarbioki; Saeed Ghavami, Sabouri; Alireza, Khorsandi

    2015-02-01

    To reduce the walk-off angle of the extraordinary third-harmonic ultraviolet wave at 355 nm generated by type II KTiOPO4 and type I β-BaB2O4 optical crystals, and the Gaussian output beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, a simple theoretical model was developed based on a rotatable BK7 plate of variable thickness. By rotating the plate up to 35° along the beam direction, we reduced the walk-off angle up to ˜ 13%. The same phenomenon is predicted by the model, confirming the performance of the model. It is found that, due to the walk-off effect, the intensity profile of the third-harmonic generation beam is slightly degraded. To compensate for the observed phenomena and further reduce the walk-off, we used a combination of a convex lens and an axicon to transform the beam profile of the interacting fundamental and second-harmonic generation waves to the zero-order Bessel-Gaussian form. As a result, the walk-off is decreased to ˜48.81 mrad, providing ˜30% relative reduction. By using the same BK7 plate rotated up to 35° along the third-harmonic beam direction, the walk-off angle is further reduced to 38.9 mrad. Moreover, it is observed that the beam profile of the emerged Bessel-Gaussian third-harmonic generation beam remains unchanged with no degradation.

  15. Transfer of non-Gaussian quantum states of mechanical oscillator to light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Radim; Rakhubovsky, Andrey A.

    2015-11-01

    Non-Gaussian quantum states are key resources for quantum optics with continuous-variable oscillators. The non-Gaussian states can be deterministically prepared by a continuous evolution of the mechanical oscillator isolated in a nonlinear potential. We propose feasible and deterministic transfer of non-Gaussian quantum states of mechanical oscillators to a traveling light beam, using purely all-optical methods. The method relies on only basic feasible and high-quality elements of quantum optics: squeezed states of light, linear optics, homodyne detection, and electro-optical feedforward control of light. By this method, a wide range of novel non-Gaussian states of light can be produced in the future from the mechanical states of levitating particles in optical tweezers, including states necessary for the implementation of an important cubic phase gate.

  16. Detecting periodicities with Gaussian processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durrande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of detecting and quantifying the periodic component of a function given noise-corrupted observations of a limited number of input/output tuples. Our approach is based on Gaussian process regression, which provides a flexible non-parametric framework for modelling periodic data. We introduce a novel decomposition of the covariance function as the sum of periodic and aperiodic kernels. This decomposition allows for the creation of sub-models which capture the periodic nature of the signal and its complement. To quantify the periodicity of the signal, we derive a periodicity ratio which reflects the uncertainty in the fitted sub-models. Although the method can be applied to many kernels, we give a special emphasis to the Matérn family, from the expression of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space inner product to the implementation of the associated periodic kernels in a Gaussian process toolkit. The proposed method is illustrated by considering the detection of periodically expressed genes in the arabidopsis genome.

  17. Monogamy inequality for distributed gaussian entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima, Tohya; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-02-02

    We show that for all n-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, the entanglement shared among n parties exhibits the fundamental monogamy property. The monogamy inequality is proven by introducing the Gaussian tangle, an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication, which is defined in terms of the squared negativity in complete analogy with the case of n-qubit systems. Our results elucidate the structure of quantum correlations in many-body harmonic lattice systems.

  18. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Kiukas, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.kiukas@aber.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Penglais, Aberystwyth, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols.

  19. The behavior of the instantaneous Poynting vector of symmetrical laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available the radiation energy contained within the divergence angle of a Gaussian beam and the be- havior of the beam width during propagation. We have shown a connection between the behavior of the IPV at the beam waist plane and a well-known property of Gaussian... beams, namely the decreasing of the divergence of a Gaussian beam with an increase in the beam width. We have investigated the behavior of the IPV of paraxial BBs in detail and have shown that in the region of the ?double shadow? [21, 22] the BB car...

  20. Two kinds of Airy-related beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yiqing; Zhou, Guoquan; Zhang, Lijun; Ru, Guoyun

    2015-01-01

    Two kinds of Airy-related beams are introduced in this manuscript. The normalized intensity distribution in the x-direction of the two kinds of Airy-related beams is close to that of the Gaussian beam. The normalized intensity distribution in the y-direction of the two kinds of Airy-related beams is close to that of the second-order and the third-order elegant Hermite–Gaussian beams, respectively. Analytical expressions of the two kinds of Airy-related beams passing through an ABCD paraxial optical system are derived. The beam propagation factors for the two kinds of Airy-related beams are 1.933 and 2.125, respectively. Analytical expressions of the beam half widths and the kurtosis parameters of the two kinds of Airy-related beams passing through an ABCD paraxial optical system are also presented. As a numerical example, the propagation properties of the two kinds of Airy-related beams are demonstrated in free space. Moreover, the comparison between the two kinds of Airy-related beams and their corresponding elegant Hermite–Gaussian beams along the two transverse directions are performed in detail. Upon propagation, the former kind of Airy-related beam will evolve from the central bright beam into the dark hollow beam. Contrarily, the latter kind of Airy-related beam will evolve from the dark hollow beam into the central bright beam. These two kinds of Airy-related beams can be used to describe specially distributed beams. (paper)

  1. When non-Gaussian states are Gaussian: Generalization of nonseparability criterion for continuous variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Derek; Buzek, Vladimir; Ziman, Mario

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of non-Gaussian two-mode continuous-variable states for which the separability criterion for Gaussian states can be employed to detect whether they are separable or not. These states reduce to the two-mode Gaussian states as a special case

  2. Quantum beamstrahlung from gaussian bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.

    1987-08-01

    The method of Baier and Katkov is applied to calculate the correction terms to the Sokolov-Ternov radiation formula due to the variation of the magnetic field strength along the trajectory of a radiating particle. We carry the calculation up to the second order in the power expansion of B tau/B, where tau is the formation time of radiation. The expression is then used to estimate the quantum beamstrahlung average energy loss from e + e - bunches with gaussian distribution in bunch currents. We show that the effect of the field variation is to reduce the average energy loss from previous calculations based on the Sokolov-Ternov formula or its equivalent. Due to the limitation of our method, only an upper bound of the reduction is obtained. 18 refs

  3. Generation and application of high power flattened Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 Radius (m) M i r r o r S u r f a c e ( µ µ µ µ m ) Fox–Li analysis 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Round Trip # L o s s 0 0.2 0.4 0...Repetition rate 5 JPulse energy 1.5 kWAverage power TEA CO2 laser movie Single mode or multimode? E~250 mJ, M2 ~ 1.1 E~6.3 J, M2 ~ 25 Design and fabrication of an intra-cavity DOE 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 Radius (m) M i...

  4. Limit theorems for functionals of Gaussian vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongshuai DAI; Guangjun SHEN; Lingtao KONG

    2017-01-01

    Operator self-similar processes,as an extension of self-similar processes,have been studied extensively.In this work,we study limit theorems for functionals of Gaussian vectors.Under some conditions,we determine that the limit of partial sums of functionals of a stationary Gaussian sequence of random vectors is an operator self-similar process.

  5. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  6. Gaussian limit of compact spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.; Angelis, G.F. de

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the Wilson and Wilson-Villain U(1) models reproduce, in the low coupling limit, the gaussian lattice approximation of the Euclidean electromagnetic field. By the same methods it is also possible to prove that the plane rotator and the Villain model share a common gaussian behaviour in the low temperature limit. (Auth.)

  7. On the dependence structure of Gaussian queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es-Saghouani, A.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we study Gaussian queues (that is, queues fed by Gaussian processes, such as fractional Brownian motion (fBm) and the integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (iOU) process), with a focus on the dependence structure of the workload process. The main question is to what extent does the workload

  8. Shedding new light on Gaussian harmonic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuwen, J.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists out of two rather disjoint parts. One part concerns some results on Gaussian harmonic analysis and the other on an optimization problem in optics. In the first part we study the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process with respect to the Gaussian measure. We focus on two areas. One is

  9. Bolt beam propagation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokair, I. R.

    BOLT (Beam on Laser Technology) is a rocket experiment to demonstrate electron beam propagation on a laser ionized plasma channel across the geomagnetic field in the ion focused regime (IFR). The beam parameters for BOLT are: beam current I(sub b) = 100 Amps, beam energy of 1--1.5 MeV (gamma =3-4), and a Gaussian beam and channel of radii r(sub b) = r(sub c) = 1.5 cm. The N+1 ionization scheme is used to ionize atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere. This scheme utilizes 130 nm light plus three IR lasers to excite and then ionize atomic oxygen. The limiting factor for the channel strength is the energy of the 130 nm laser, which is assumed to be 1.6 mJ for BOLT. At a fixed laser energy and altitude (fixing the density of atomic oxygen), the range can be varied by adjusting the laser tuning, resulting in a neutralization fraction axial profile of the form: f(z) = f(sub 0) e(exp minus z)/R, where R is the range. In this paper we consider the propagation of the BOLT beam and calculate the range of the electron beam taking into account the fact that the erosion rates (magnetic and inductive) vary with beam length as the beam and channel dynamically respond to sausage and hose instabilities.

  10. Entanglement in Gaussian matrix-product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Ericsson, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Gaussian matrix-product states are obtained as the outputs of projection operations from an ancillary space of M infinitely entangled bonds connecting neighboring sites, applied at each of N sites of a harmonic chain. Replacing the projections by associated Gaussian states, the building blocks, we show that the entanglement range in translationally invariant Gaussian matrix-product states depends on how entangled the building blocks are. In particular, infinite entanglement in the building blocks produces fully symmetric Gaussian states with maximum entanglement range. From their peculiar properties of entanglement sharing, a basic difference with spin chains is revealed: Gaussian matrix-product states can possess unlimited, long-range entanglement even with minimum number of ancillary bonds (M=1). Finally we discuss how these states can be experimentally engineered from N copies of a three-mode building block and N two-mode finitely squeezed states

  11. Gaussian vs non-Gaussian turbulence: impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Natarajan, Anand; Mann, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    taking into account the safety factor for extreme moments. Other extreme load moments as well as the fatigue loads are not affected because of the use of non-Gaussian turbulent inflow. It is suggested that the turbine thus acts like a low-pass filter that averages out the non-Gaussian behaviour, which......From large-eddy simulations of atmospheric turbulence, a representation of Gaussian turbulence is constructed by randomizing the phases of the individual modes of variability. Time series of Gaussian turbulence are constructed and compared with its non-Gaussian counterpart. Time series from the two...

  12. Beam profile effects on NPB [neutral particle beam] performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClaire, R.J. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    A comparison of neutral particle beam brightness for various neutral beam profiles indicates that the widely used assumption of a Gaussian profile may be misleading for collisional neutralizers. An analysis of available experimental evidence shows that lower peaks and higher tails, compared to a Gaussian beam profile, are observed out of collisional neutralizers, which implies that peak brightness is over estimated, and for a given NPB platform-to-target range, the beam current (power), dwell time or some combination of such engagement parameters would have to be altered to maintain a fixed dose on target. Based on the present analysis, this factor is nominally about 2.4 but may actually be as low as 1.8 or as high as 8. This is an important consideration in estimating NPB constellation performance in SDI engagement contexts. 2 refs., 6 figs

  13. Increasing Entanglement between Gaussian States by Coherent Photon Subtraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Tualle Brouri, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement between Gaussian entangled states can be increased by non-Gaussian operations. Coherent subtraction of single photons from Gaussian quadrature-entangled light pulses, created by a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, produces delocalized states...

  14. Representation of Gaussian semimartingales with applications to the covariance function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    stationary Gaussian semimartingales and their canonical decomposition. Thirdly, we give a new characterization of the covariance function of Gaussian semimartingales, which enable us to characterize the class of martingales and the processes of bounded variation among the Gaussian semimartingales. We...

  15. Stability diagram of colliding beams

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, X; Mounet, N; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the beam-beam interactions on the stability of impedance mode is discussed. The detuning is evaluated by the means of single particle tracking in arbitrarily complex collision configurations, including lattice non-linearities, and used to numerically evaluate the dispersion integral. This approach also allows the effect of non-Gaussian distributions to be considered. Distributions modified by the action of external noise are discussed.

  16. Interference of Multi-Mode Gaussian States and "non Appearance" of Quantum Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate bilinear, mode-mixing interactions involving two modes of uncorrelated multi-mode Gaussian states. In particular, we introduce the notion of "locally the same states" (LSS) and prove that two uncorrelated LSS modes are invariant under the mode mixing, i.e. the interaction does not lead to the birth of correlations between the outgoing modes. We also study the interference of orthogonally polarized Gaussian states by means of an interferometric scheme based on a beam splitter, rotators of polarization and polarization filters.

  17. Some continual integrals from gaussian forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazmanishvili, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The result summary of continual integration of gaussian functional type is given. The summary contains 124 continual integrals which are the mathematical expectation of the corresponding gaussian form by the continuum of random trajectories of four types: real-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, Wiener process, complex-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the stochastic harmonic one. The summary includes both the known continual integrals and the unpublished before integrals. Mathematical results of the continual integration carried in the work may be applied in the problem of the theory of stochastic process, approaching to the finding of mean from gaussian forms by measures generated by the pointed stochastic processes

  18. Loop corrections to primordial non-Gaussianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Sibel; Kahya, E. O.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss quantum gravitational loop effects to observable quantities such as curvature power spectrum and primordial non-Gaussianity of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. We first review the previously shown case where one gets a time dependence for zeta-zeta correlator due to loop corrections. Then we investigate the effect of loop corrections to primordial non-Gaussianity of CMB. We conclude that, even with a single scalar inflaton, one might get a huge value for non-Gaussianity which would exceed the observed value by at least 30 orders of magnitude. Finally we discuss the consequences of this result for scalar driven inflationary models.

  19. Gaussian Mixture Model of Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tommaso; Boccignone, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an important measure of sympathetic and parasympathetic functions of the autonomic nervous system and a key indicator of cardiovascular condition. This paper proposes a novel method to investigate HRV, namely by modelling it as a linear combination of Gaussians. Results show that three Gaussians are enough to describe the stationary statistics of heart variability and to provide a straightforward interpretation of the HRV power spectrum. Comparisons have been made also with synthetic data generated from different physiologically based models showing the plausibility of the Gaussian mixture parameters. PMID:22666386

  20. Non-Gaussianity from isocurvature perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Suyama, Teruaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: nakayama@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sekiguti@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: suyama@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: fuminobu.takahashi@ipmu.jp [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    We develop a formalism for studying non-Gaussianity in both curvature and isocurvature perturbations. It is shown that non-Gaussianity in the isocurvature perturbation between dark matter and photons leaves distinct signatures in the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations, which may be confirmed in future experiments, or possibly even in the currently available observational data. As an explicit example, we consider the quantum chromodynamics axion and show that it can actually induce sizable non-Gaussianity for the inflationary scale, H{sub inf} = O(10{sup 9}-10{sup 11}) GeV.

  1. Gaussian measures of entanglement versus negativities: Ordering of two-mode Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    We study the entanglement of general (pure or mixed) two-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems by comparing the two available classes of computable measures of entanglement: entropy-inspired Gaussian convex-roof measures and positive partial transposition-inspired measures (negativity and logarithmic negativity). We first review the formalism of Gaussian measures of entanglement, adopting the framework introduced in M. M. Wolf et al., Phys. Rev. A 69, 052320 (2004), where the Gaussian entanglement of formation was defined. We compute explicitly Gaussian measures of entanglement for two important families of nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian state: namely, the states of extremal (maximal and minimal) negativities at fixed global and local purities, introduced in G. Adesso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087901 (2004). This analysis allows us to compare the different orderings induced on the set of entangled two-mode Gaussian states by the negativities and by the Gaussian measures of entanglement. We find that in a certain range of values of the global and local purities (characterizing the covariance matrix of the corresponding extremal states), states of minimum negativity can have more Gaussian entanglement of formation than states of maximum negativity. Consequently, Gaussian measures and negativities are definitely inequivalent measures of entanglement on nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian states, even when restricted to a class of extremal states. On the other hand, the two families of entanglement measures are completely equivalent on symmetric states, for which the Gaussian entanglement of formation coincides with the true entanglement of formation. Finally, we show that the inequivalence between the two families of continuous-variable entanglement measures is somehow limited. Namely, we rigorously prove that, at fixed negativities, the Gaussian measures of entanglement are bounded from below. Moreover, we provide some strong evidence suggesting that they

  2. Operator-sum representation for bosonic Gaussian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, J. Solomon; Sabapathy, Krishna Kumar; Simon, R.

    2011-01-01

    Operator-sum or Kraus representations for single-mode bosonic Gaussian channels are developed, and several of their consequences explored. The fact that the two-mode metaplectic operators acting as unitary purification of these channels do not, in their canonical form, mix the position and momentum variables is exploited to present a procedure which applies uniformly to all families in the Holevo classification. In this procedure the Kraus operators of every quantum-limited Gaussian channel can be simply read off from the matrix elements of a corresponding metaplectic operator. Kraus operators are employed to bring out, in the Fock basis, the manner in which the antilinear, unphysical matrix transposition map when accompanied by injection of a threshold classical noise becomes a physical channel, denoted D(κ) in the Holevo classification. The matrix transposition channels D(κ), D(κ -1 ) turn out to be a dual pair in the sense that their Kraus operators are related by the adjoint operation. The amplifier channel with amplification factor κ and the beam-splitter channel with attenuation factor κ -1 turn out to be mutually dual in the same sense. The action of the quantum-limited attenuator and amplifier channels as simply scaling maps on suitable quasiprobabilities in phase space is examined in the Kraus picture. Consideration of cumulants is used to examine the issue of fixed points. The semigroup property of the amplifier and attenuator families leads in both cases to a Zeno-like effect arising as a consequence of interrupted evolution. In the cases of entanglement-breaking channels a description in terms of rank 1 Kraus operators is shown to emerge quite simply. In contradistinction, it is shown that there is not even one finite rank operator in the entire linear span of Kraus operators of the quantum-limited amplifier or attenuator families, an assertion far stronger than the statement that these are not entanglement breaking channels. A characterization of

  3. Optimal unitary dilation for bosonic Gaussian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Filippo; Eisert, Jens; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Holevo, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    A general quantum channel can be represented in terms of a unitary interaction between the information-carrying system and a noisy environment. In this paper the minimal number of quantum Gaussian environmental modes required to provide a unitary dilation of a multimode bosonic Gaussian channel is analyzed for both pure and mixed environments. We compute this quantity in the case of pure environment corresponding to the Stinespring representation and give an improved estimate in the case of mixed environment. The computations rely, on one hand, on the properties of the generalized Choi-Jamiolkowski state and, on the other hand, on an explicit construction of the minimal dilation for arbitrary bosonic Gaussian channel. These results introduce a new quantity reflecting ''noisiness'' of bosonic Gaussian channels and can be applied to address some issues concerning transmission of information in continuous variables systems.

  4. Phase statistics in non-Gaussian scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Stephen M; Jakeman, Eric; Ridley, Kevin D

    2006-01-01

    Amplitude weighting can improve the accuracy of frequency measurements in signals corrupted by multiplicative speckle noise. When the speckle field constitutes a circular complex Gaussian process, the optimal function of amplitude weighting is provided by the field intensity, corresponding to the intensity-weighted phase derivative statistic. In this paper, we investigate the phase derivative and intensity-weighted phase derivative returned from a two-dimensional random walk, which constitutes a generic scattering model capable of producing both Gaussian and non-Gaussian fluctuations. Analytical results are developed for the correlation properties of the intensity-weighted phase derivative, as well as limiting probability densities of the scattered field. Numerical simulation is used to generate further probability densities and determine optimal weighting criteria from non-Gaussian fields. The results are relevant to frequency retrieval in radiation scattered from random media

  5. Galaxy bias and primordial non-Gaussianity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel [DAMTP, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: assassi@ias.edu, E-mail: D.D.Baumann@uva.nl, E-mail: fabians@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    We present a systematic study of galaxy biasing in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. For a large class of non-Gaussian initial conditions, we define a general bias expansion and prove that it is closed under renormalization, thereby showing that the basis of operators in the expansion is complete. We then study the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity on the statistics of galaxies. We show that the equivalence principle enforces a relation between the scale-dependent bias in the galaxy power spectrum and that in the dipolar part of the bispectrum. This provides a powerful consistency check to confirm the primordial origin of any observed scale-dependent bias. Finally, we also discuss the imprints of anisotropic non-Gaussianity as motivated by recent studies of higher-spin fields during inflation.

  6. Optimal cloning of mixed Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guta, Madalin; Matsumoto, Keiji

    2006-01-01

    We construct the optimal one to two cloning transformation for the family of displaced thermal equilibrium states of a harmonic oscillator, with a fixed and known temperature. The transformation is Gaussian and it is optimal with respect to the figure of merit based on the joint output state and norm distance. The proof of the result is based on the equivalence between the optimal cloning problem and that of optimal amplification of Gaussian states which is then reduced to an optimization problem for diagonal states of a quantum oscillator. A key concept in finding the optimum is that of stochastic ordering which plays a similar role in the purely classical problem of Gaussian cloning. The result is then extended to the case of n to m cloning of mixed Gaussian states

  7. Encoding information using laguerre gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors experimentally demonstrate an information encoding protocol using the two degrees of freedom of Laguerre Gaussian modes having different radial and azimuthal components. A novel method, based on digital holography, for information...

  8. Interweave Cognitive Radio with Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Hedhly, Wafa; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) has proven its ability in improving the performance of underlay and overlay cognitive radio paradigms. In this paper, the interweave cognitive radio paradigm is studied when the cognitive user employs IGS

  9. Galaxy bias and primordial non-Gaussianity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic study of galaxy biasing in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. For a large class of non-Gaussian initial conditions, we define a general bias expansion and prove that it is closed under renormalization, thereby showing that the basis of operators in the expansion is complete. We then study the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity on the statistics of galaxies. We show that the equivalence principle enforces a relation between the scale-dependent bias in the galaxy power spectrum and that in the dipolar part of the bispectrum. This provides a powerful consistency check to confirm the primordial origin of any observed scale-dependent bias. Finally, we also discuss the imprints of anisotropic non-Gaussianity as motivated by recent studies of higher-spin fields during inflation

  10. Statistically tuned Gaussian background subtraction technique for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    temporal median method and mixture of Gaussian model and performance evaluation ... to process the videos captured by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). ..... The output is obtained by simulation using MATLAB 2010 in a standalone PC with ...

  11. A non-Gaussian multivariate distribution with all lower-dimensional Gaussians and related families

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Subhajit

    2014-07-28

    Several fascinating examples of non-Gaussian bivariate distributions which have marginal distribution functions to be Gaussian have been proposed in the literature. These examples often clarify several properties associated with the normal distribution. In this paper, we generalize this result in the sense that we construct a pp-dimensional distribution for which any proper subset of its components has the Gaussian distribution. However, the jointpp-dimensional distribution is inconsistent with the distribution of these subsets because it is not Gaussian. We study the probabilistic properties of this non-Gaussian multivariate distribution in detail. Interestingly, several popular tests of multivariate normality fail to identify this pp-dimensional distribution as non-Gaussian. We further extend our construction to a class of elliptically contoured distributions as well as skewed distributions arising from selections, for instance the multivariate skew-normal distribution.

  12. A non-Gaussian multivariate distribution with all lower-dimensional Gaussians and related families

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Subhajit; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Several fascinating examples of non-Gaussian bivariate distributions which have marginal distribution functions to be Gaussian have been proposed in the literature. These examples often clarify several properties associated with the normal distribution. In this paper, we generalize this result in the sense that we construct a pp-dimensional distribution for which any proper subset of its components has the Gaussian distribution. However, the jointpp-dimensional distribution is inconsistent with the distribution of these subsets because it is not Gaussian. We study the probabilistic properties of this non-Gaussian multivariate distribution in detail. Interestingly, several popular tests of multivariate normality fail to identify this pp-dimensional distribution as non-Gaussian. We further extend our construction to a class of elliptically contoured distributions as well as skewed distributions arising from selections, for instance the multivariate skew-normal distribution.

  13. Gaussian sum rules for optical functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimel, I.

    1981-12-01

    A new (Gaussian) type of sum rules (GSR) for several optical functions, is presented. The functions considered are: dielectric permeability, refractive index, energy loss function, rotatory power and ellipticity (circular dichroism). While reducing to the usual type of sum rules in a certain limit, the GSR contain in general, a Gaussian factor that serves to improve convergence. GSR might be useful in analysing experimental data. (Author) [pt

  14. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  15. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  16. Non-Gaussian halo assembly bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Beth A.; Verde, Licia; Dolag, Klaus; Matarrese, Sabino; Moscardini, Lauro

    2010-01-01

    The strong dependence of the large-scale dark matter halo bias on the (local) non-Gaussianity parameter, f NL , offers a promising avenue towards constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with large-scale structure surveys. In this paper, we present the first detection of the dependence of the non-Gaussian halo bias on halo formation history using N-body simulations. We also present an analytic derivation of the expected signal based on the extended Press-Schechter formalism. In excellent agreement with our analytic prediction, we find that the halo formation history-dependent contribution to the non-Gaussian halo bias (which we call non-Gaussian halo assembly bias) can be factorized in a form approximately independent of redshift and halo mass. The correction to the non-Gaussian halo bias due to the halo formation history can be as large as 100%, with a suppression of the signal for recently formed halos and enhancement for old halos. This could in principle be a problem for realistic galaxy surveys if observational selection effects were to pick galaxies occupying only recently formed halos. Current semi-analytic galaxy formation models, for example, imply an enhancement in the expected signal of ∼ 23% and ∼ 48% for galaxies at z = 1 selected by stellar mass and star formation rate, respectively

  17. New gaussian points for the solution of first order ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical experiments carried out using the new Gaussian points revealed there efficiency on stiff differential equations. The results also reveal that methods using the new Gaussian points are more accurate than those using the standard Gaussian points on non-stiff initial value problems. Keywords: Gaussian points ...

  18. Doughnut laser beam as an incoherent superposition of two petal beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laguerre–Gaussian beams with a nonzero azimuthal index are known to carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), and are routinely created external to laser cavities. The few reports of obtaining such beams from laser cavities suffer from inconclusive...

  19. Computer simulation of electron beams. II. Low-cost beam-current reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Wolf, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reconstruction of current density in electron beams is complicated by distortion of phase space which can require very fine discretization of the beam into trajectories. An efficient discretization of phase space is exploited, using conservation of charge and current in hypertriangle patches, to reconstruct the current density by fitting Gaussians through the distorted hypertriangles. Advantages and limitations are discussed

  20. Propagation of highly aberrated laser beams in nonquadratic plasma waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.; Morris, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The propagation of a laser beam in a plasma column several meters long with a realistic electron density distribution is examined. The electron density distribution is based on laser-beam heating at z=0, but is otherwise uncoupled to the laser beam. The aberrated nature of the resulting lenslike medium leads to essentially aperiodic beam properties, which contrast with the completely periodic properties of Gaussian beams propagating in quadratic lenslike media. The beam is nonetheless stably trapped. These aberrated-beam properties also help to stabilize the beam against axial variations in refractive index

  1. Walk-off reduction, using an external optical plate and Bessel–Gaussian interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, Masoume; Askarbioki, Mohsen; Ghavami Sabouri, Saeed; Khorsandi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the walk-off angle of the extraordinary third-harmonic ultraviolet wave at 355 nm generated by type II KTiOPO 4 and type I β-BaB 2 O 4 optical crystals, and the Gaussian output beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, a simple theoretical model was developed based on a rotatable BK7 plate of variable thickness. By rotating the plate up to 35° along the beam direction, we reduced the walk-off angle up to ∼ 13%. The same phenomenon is predicted by the model, confirming the performance of the model. It is found that, due to the walk-off effect, the intensity profile of the third-harmonic generation beam is slightly degraded. To compensate for the observed phenomena and further reduce the walk-off, we used a combination of a convex lens and an axicon to transform the beam profile of the interacting fundamental and second-harmonic generation waves to the zero-order Bessel–Gaussian form. As a result, the walk-off is decreased to ∼48.81 mrad, providing ∼30% relative reduction. By using the same BK7 plate rotated up to 35° along the third-harmonic beam direction, the walk-off angle is further reduced to 38.9 mrad. Moreover, it is observed that the beam profile of the emerged Bessel–Gaussian third-harmonic generation beam remains unchanged with no degradation. (paper)

  2. Intra-beam Scattering Theory and RHIC Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Malitsky, N.; Parzen, G.; Qiang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Intra-beam scattering is the leading mechanism limiting the luminosity in heavy-ion storage rings like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The multiple Coulomb scattering among the charged particles causes transverse emittance growth and longitudinal beam de-bunching and beam loss, compromising machine performance during collision. Theoretically, the original theories developed by Piwinski, Bjorken, and Mtingwa only describe the rms beam size growth of an unbounded Gaussian distribution. Equations based on the Fokker-Planck approach are developed to further describe the beam density profile evolution and beam loss. During the 2004 RHIC heavy-ion operation, dedicated IBS experiments were performed to bench-mark the rms beam size growth, beam loss, and profile evolution both for a Gaussian-like and a longitudinal hollow beam. This paper summarizes the IBS theory and discusses the experimental bench-marking results

  3. Frozen Gaussian approximation for 3D seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) wave-equation-based seismic tomography is computationally challenging in large scales and high-frequency regime. In this paper, we apply the frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) method to compute 3D sensitivity kernels and seismic tomography of high-frequency. Rather than standard ray theory used in seismic inversion (e.g. Kirchhoff migration and Gaussian beam migration), FGA is used to compute the 3D high-frequency sensitivity kernels for travel-time or full waveform inversions. Specifically, we reformulate the equations of the forward and adjoint wavefields for the purpose of convenience to apply FGA, and with this reformulation, one can efficiently compute the Green’s functions whose convolutions with source time function produce wavefields needed for the construction of 3D kernels. Moreover, a fast summation method is proposed based on local fast Fourier transform which greatly improves the speed of reconstruction as the last step of FGA algorithm. We apply FGA to both the travel-time adjoint tomography and full waveform inversion (FWI) on synthetic crosswell seismic data with dominant frequencies as high as those of real crosswell data, and confirm again that FWI requires a more sophisticated initial velocity model for the convergence than travel-time adjoint tomography. We also numerically test the accuracy of applying FGA to local earthquake tomography. This study paves the way to directly apply wave-equation-based seismic tomography methods into real data around their dominant frequencies.

  4. Semiparametric inference on the fractal index of Gaussian and conditionally Gaussian time series data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel

    Using theory on (conditionally) Gaussian processes with stationary increments developed in Barndorff-Nielsen et al. (2009, 2011), this paper presents a general semiparametric approach to conducting inference on the fractal index, α, of a time series. Our setup encompasses a large class of Gaussian...

  5. Graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Flammia, Steven T.; Loock, Peter van

    2011-01-01

    We provide a unified graphical calculus for all Gaussian pure states, including graph transformation rules for all local and semilocal Gaussian unitary operations, as well as local quadrature measurements. We then use this graphical calculus to analyze continuous-variable (CV) cluster states, the essential resource for one-way quantum computing with CV systems. Current graphical approaches to CV cluster states are only valid in the unphysical limit of infinite squeezing, and the associated graph transformation rules only apply when the initial and final states are of this form. Our formalism applies to all Gaussian pure states and subsumes these rules in a natural way. In addition, the term 'CV graph state' currently has several inequivalent definitions in use. Using this formalism we provide a single unifying definition that encompasses all of them. We provide many examples of how the formalism may be used in the context of CV cluster states: defining the 'closest' CV cluster state to a given Gaussian pure state and quantifying the error in the approximation due to finite squeezing; analyzing the optimality of certain methods of generating CV cluster states; drawing connections between this graphical formalism and bosonic Hamiltonians with Gaussian ground states, including those useful for CV one-way quantum computing; and deriving a graphical measure of bipartite entanglement for certain classes of CV cluster states. We mention other possible applications of this formalism and conclude with a brief note on fault tolerance in CV one-way quantum computing.

  6. Variational Gaussian approximation for Poisson data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridge, Simon R.; Ito, Kazufumi; Jin, Bangti; Zhang, Chen

    2018-02-01

    The Poisson model is frequently employed to describe count data, but in a Bayesian context it leads to an analytically intractable posterior probability distribution. In this work, we analyze a variational Gaussian approximation to the posterior distribution arising from the Poisson model with a Gaussian prior. This is achieved by seeking an optimal Gaussian distribution minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence from the posterior distribution to the approximation, or equivalently maximizing the lower bound for the model evidence. We derive an explicit expression for the lower bound, and show the existence and uniqueness of the optimal Gaussian approximation. The lower bound functional can be viewed as a variant of classical Tikhonov regularization that penalizes also the covariance. Then we develop an efficient alternating direction maximization algorithm for solving the optimization problem, and analyze its convergence. We discuss strategies for reducing the computational complexity via low rank structure of the forward operator and the sparsity of the covariance. Further, as an application of the lower bound, we discuss hierarchical Bayesian modeling for selecting the hyperparameter in the prior distribution, and propose a monotonically convergent algorithm for determining the hyperparameter. We present extensive numerical experiments to illustrate the Gaussian approximation and the algorithms.

  7. Mode entanglement of Gaussian fermionic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spee, C.; Schwaiger, K.; Giedke, G.; Kraus, B.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the entanglement of n -mode n -partite Gaussian fermionic states (GFS). First, we identify a reasonable definition of separability for GFS and derive a standard form for mixed states, to which any state can be mapped via Gaussian local unitaries (GLU). As the standard form is unique, two GFS are equivalent under GLU if and only if their standard forms coincide. Then, we investigate the important class of local operations assisted by classical communication (LOCC). These are central in entanglement theory as they allow one to partially order the entanglement contained in states. We show, however, that there are no nontrivial Gaussian LOCC (GLOCC) among pure n -partite (fully entangled) states. That is, any such GLOCC transformation can also be accomplished via GLU. To obtain further insight into the entanglement properties of such GFS, we investigate the richer class of Gaussian stochastic local operations assisted by classical communication (SLOCC). We characterize Gaussian SLOCC classes of pure n -mode n -partite states and derive them explicitly for few-mode states. Furthermore, we consider certain fermionic LOCC and show how to identify the maximally entangled set of pure n -mode n -partite GFS, i.e., the minimal set of states having the property that any other state can be obtained from one state inside this set via fermionic LOCC. We generalize these findings also to the pure m -mode n -partite (for m >n ) case.

  8. Entanglement concentration for two-mode Gaussian states in non-inertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Noia, Maurizio; Giraldi, Filippo; Petruccione, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Entanglement creation and concentration by means of a beam splitter (BS) is analysed for a generic two-mode bipartite Gaussian state in a relativistic framework. The total correlations, the purity and the entanglement in terms of logarithmic negativity are analytically studied for observers in an inertial state and in a non-inertial state of uniform acceleration. The dependence of entanglement on the BS transmissivity due to the Unruh effect is analysed in the case when one or both observers undergo uniform acceleration. Due to the Unruh effect, depending on the initial Gaussian state parameters and observed accelerations, the best condition for entanglement generation limited to the two modes of the observers in their regions is not always a balanced beam splitter, as it is for the inertial case. (paper)

  9. Propagation of a laser beam in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J. M.; Kevorkian, J.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Vagners, J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper shows that for a nonabsorbing medium with a prescribed index of refraction, the effects of beam stability, line focusing, and beam distortion can be predicted from simple ray optics. When the paraxial approximation is used, diffraction effects are examined for Gaussian, Lorentzian, and square beams. Most importantly, it is shown that for a Gaussian beam, diffraction effects can be included simply by adding imaginary solutions to the paraxial ray equations. Also presented are several procedures to extend the paraxial approximation so that the solution will have a domain of validity of greater extent.

  10. Non-Gaussianity in island cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we fully calculate the non-Gaussianity of primordial curvature perturbation of the island universe by using the second order perturbation equation. We find that for the spectral index n s ≅0.96, which is favored by current observations, the non-Gaussianity level f NL seen in an island will generally lie between 30 and 60, which may be tested by the coming observations. In the landscape, the island universe is one of anthropically acceptable cosmological histories. Thus the results obtained in some sense mean the coming observations, especially the measurement of non-Gaussianity, will be significant to clarify how our position in the landscape is populated.

  11. Entanglement negativity bounds for fermionic Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisert, Jens; Eisler, Viktor; Zimborás, Zoltán

    2018-04-01

    The entanglement negativity is a versatile measure of entanglement that has numerous applications in quantum information and in condensed matter theory. It can not only efficiently be computed in the Hilbert space dimension, but for noninteracting bosonic systems, one can compute the negativity efficiently in the number of modes. However, such an efficient computation does not carry over to the fermionic realm, the ultimate reason for this being that the partial transpose of a fermionic Gaussian state is no longer Gaussian. To provide a remedy for this state of affairs, in this work, we introduce efficiently computable and rigorous upper and lower bounds to the negativity, making use of techniques of semidefinite programming, building upon the Lagrangian formulation of fermionic linear optics, and exploiting suitable products of Gaussian operators. We discuss examples in quantum many-body theory and hint at applications in the study of topological properties at finite temperature.

  12. An example of enhancement of a non-classical feature of a light beam by mixing with another classical light beam using a beam splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Hari; Mishra, Devendra Kumar

    2005-01-01

    We present here an example where a non-classical feature of a light beam is enhanced simply by mixing with another classical coherent light beam using a beam splitter. This non-classical feature is amplitude-squared squeezing of a Gaussian light beam expressed by a negative value of Y e or a negative value of the normalized quantity W e which can become more negative on enhancement. Here, these values comprise the density, annihilation and creation operators, respectively

  13. Characterization and monitoring of transverse beam tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.; Decker, F.J.; Hsu, I.; Young, C.

    1991-05-01

    Low emittance electron beams accelerated to high energy in a linac experience transverse effects (wakefield, filamentation, optics) which produce non-Gaussian projected transverse beam distributions. Characterizations of the beam shapes are difficult because the shapes are asymmetric and change with betatron phase. In this note several methods to describe beam distributions are discussed including an accelerator physics model of these tails. The uses of these characterizations in monitoring the beam emittances in the SLC are described in this paper. First, two dimensional distributions from profile monitor screens are reviewed showing correlated tails. Second, a fitting technique for non-Gaussian one dimensional distributions is used to extract the core from the tail areas. Finally, a model for tail propagation in the linac is given. 3 refs., 6 figs

  14. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2012-12-01

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  15. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2012-01-01

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  16. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  17. Construction of Capacity Achieving Lattice Gaussian Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Wael

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new approach to proving results regarding channel coding schemes based on construction-A lattices for the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel that yields new characterizations of the code construction parameters, i.e., the primes and dimensions of the codes, as functions of the block-length. The approach we take introduces an averaging argument that explicitly involves the considered parameters. This averaging argument is applied to a generalized Loeliger ensemble [1] to provide a more practical proof of the existence of AWGN-good lattices, and to characterize suitable parameters for the lattice Gaussian coding scheme proposed by Ling and Belfiore [3].

  18. Gaussian processes and constructive scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benfatto, G.; Nicolo, F.

    1981-01-01

    The last years have seen a very deep progress of constructive euclidean field theory, with many implications in the area of the random fields theory. The authors discuss an approach to super-renormalizable scalar field theories, which puts in particular evidence the connections with the theory of the Gaussian processes associated to the elliptic operators. The paper consists of two parts. Part I treats some problems in the theory of Gaussian processes which arise in the approach to the PHI 3 4 theory. Part II is devoted to the discussion of the ultraviolet stability in the PHI 3 4 theory. (Auth.)

  19. Integration of non-Gaussian fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Mohr, Gunnar; Hoffmeyer, Pernille

    1996-01-01

    The limitations of the validity of the central limit theorem argument as applied to definite integrals of non-Gaussian random fields are empirically explored by way of examples. The purpose is to investigate in specific cases whether the asymptotic convergence to the Gaussian distribution is fast....... and Randrup-Thomsen, S. Reliability of silo ring under lognormal stochastic pressure using stochastic interpolation. Proc. IUTAM Symp., Probabilistic Structural Mechanics: Advances in Structural Reliability Methods, San Antonio, TX, USA, June 1993 (eds.: P. D. Spanos & Y.-T. Wu) pp. 134-162. Springer, Berlin...

  20. Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, O.

    2006-04-06

    This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)

  1. Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, O.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)

  2. Model selection for Gaussian kernel PCA denoising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We propose kernel Parallel Analysis (kPA) for automatic kernel scale and model order selection in Gaussian kernel PCA. Parallel Analysis [1] is based on a permutation test for covariance and has previously been applied for model order selection in linear PCA, we here augment the procedure to also...... tune the Gaussian kernel scale of radial basis function based kernel PCA.We evaluate kPA for denoising of simulated data and the US Postal data set of handwritten digits. We find that kPA outperforms other heuristics to choose the model order and kernel scale in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR...

  3. Quantum steering of multimode Gaussian states by Gaussian measurements: monogamy relations and the Peres conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul; Kim, M S

    2015-01-01

    It is a topic of fundamental and practical importance how a quantum correlated state can be reliably distributed through a noisy channel for quantum information processing. The concept of quantum steering recently defined in a rigorous manner is relevant to study it under certain circumstances and here we address quantum steerability of Gaussian states to this aim. In particular, we attempt to reformulate the criterion for Gaussian steering in terms of local and global purities and show that it is sufficient and necessary for the case of steering a 1-mode system by an N-mode system. It subsequently enables us to reinforce a strong monogamy relation under which only one party can steer a local system of 1-mode. Moreover, we show that only a negative partial-transpose state can manifest quantum steerability by Gaussian measurements in relation to the Peres conjecture. We also discuss our formulation for the case of distributing a two-mode squeezed state via one-way quantum channels making dissipation and amplification effects, respectively. Finally, we extend our approach to include non-Gaussian measurements, more precisely, all orders of higher-order squeezing measurements, and find that this broad set of non-Gaussian measurements is not useful to demonstrate steering for Gaussian states beyond Gaussian measurements. (paper)

  4. How Gaussian can our Universe be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabass, G.; Pajer, E.; Schmidt, F.

    2017-01-01

    Gravity is a non-linear theory, and hence, barring cancellations, the initial super-horizon perturbations produced by inflation must contain some minimum amount of mode coupling, or primordial non-Gaussianity. In single-field slow-roll models, where this lower bound is saturated, non-Gaussianity is controlled by two observables: the tensor-to-scalar ratio, which is uncertain by more than fifty orders of magnitude; and the scalar spectral index, or tilt, which is relatively well measured. It is well known that to leading and next-to-leading order in derivatives, the contributions proportional to the tilt disappear from any local observable, and suspicion has been raised that this might happen to all orders, allowing for an arbitrarily low amount of primordial non-Gaussianity. Employing Conformal Fermi Coordinates, we show explicitly that this is not the case. Instead, a contribution of order the tilt appears in local observables. In summary, the floor of physical primordial non-Gaussianity in our Universe has a squeezed-limit scaling of kl2/ks2, similar to equilateral and orthogonal shapes, and a dimensionless amplitude of order 0.1 × (ns-1).

  5. Gaussian vector fields on triangulated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, John H

    2016-01-01

    proven to be very useful to resolve the complex interplay between in-plane ordering of membranes and membrane conformations. In the present work we have developed a procedure for realistic representations of Gaussian models with in-plane vector degrees of freedoms on a triangulated surface. The method...

  6. The Wehrl entropy has Gaussian optimizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Palma, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    We determine the minimum Wehrl entropy among the quantum states with a given von Neumann entropy and prove that it is achieved by thermal Gaussian states. This result determines the relation between the von Neumann and the Wehrl entropies. The key idea is proving that the quantum-classical channel...

  7. How Gaussian can our Universe be?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabass, G. [Physics Department and INFN, Università di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Pajer, E. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Center for Extreme Matter and Emergent Phenomena, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Schmidt, F., E-mail: giovanni.cabass@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: e.pajer@uu.nl, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    Gravity is a non-linear theory, and hence, barring cancellations, the initial super-horizon perturbations produced by inflation must contain some minimum amount of mode coupling, or primordial non-Gaussianity. In single-field slow-roll models, where this lower bound is saturated, non-Gaussianity is controlled by two observables: the tensor-to-scalar ratio, which is uncertain by more than fifty orders of magnitude; and the scalar spectral index, or tilt, which is relatively well measured. It is well known that to leading and next-to-leading order in derivatives, the contributions proportional to the tilt disappear from any local observable, and suspicion has been raised that this might happen to all orders, allowing for an arbitrarily low amount of primordial non-Gaussianity. Employing Conformal Fermi Coordinates, we show explicitly that this is not the case. Instead, a contribution of order the tilt appears in local observables. In summary, the floor of physical primordial non-Gaussianity in our Universe has a squeezed-limit scaling of k {sub ℓ}{sup 2}/ k {sub s} {sup 2}, similar to equilateral and orthogonal shapes, and a dimensionless amplitude of order 0.1 × ( n {sub s}−1).

  8. Gaussian shaping filter for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, A.S.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A theorical study of a gaussian shaping filter, using Pade approximation, for using in gamma spectroscopy is presented. This approximation has proved superior to the classical cascade RC integrators approximation in therms of signal-to-noise ratio and pulse simmetry. An experimental filter was designed, simulated in computer, constructed, and tested in the laboratory. (author) [pt

  9. Asymptotic expansions for the Gaussian unitary ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Thorbjørnsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Let g : R ¿ C be a C8-function with all derivatives bounded and let trn denote the normalized trace on the n × n matrices. In Ref. 3 Ercolani and McLaughlin established asymptotic expansions of the mean value ¿{trn(g(Xn))} for a rather general class of random matrices Xn, including the Gaussian U...

  10. Chimera states in Gaussian coupled map lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wen; Bi, Ran; Sun, Yue-Xiang; Zhang, Shuo; Song, Qian-Qian

    2018-04-01

    We study chimera states in one-dimensional and two-dimensional Gaussian coupled map lattices through simulations and experiments. Similar to the case of global coupling oscillators, individual lattices can be regarded as being controlled by a common mean field. A space-dependent order parameter is derived from a self-consistency condition in order to represent the collective state.

  11. Gaussian curvature on hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 124, No. 2, May 2014, pp. 155–167. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Gaussian curvature on hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces. ABEL CASTORENA. Centro de Ciencias Matemáticas (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,. Campus Morelia) Apdo. Postal 61-3 Xangari, C.P. 58089 Morelia,.

  12. Additivity properties of a Gaussian channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth

    2004-01-01

    The Amosov-Holevo-Werner conjecture implies the additivity of the minimum Renyi entropies at the output of a channel. The conjecture is proven true for all Renyi entropies of integer order greater than two in a class of Gaussian bosonic channel where the input signal is randomly displaced or where it is coupled linearly to an external environment

  13. Modeling text with generalizable Gaussian mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Kolenda, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We apply and discuss generalizable Gaussian mixture (GGM) models for text mining. The model automatically adapts model complexity for a given text representation. We show that the generalizability of these models depends on the dimensionality of the representation and the sample size. We discuss...

  14. Improving the gaussian effective potential: quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eboli, O.J.P.; Thomaz, M.T.; Lemos, N.A.

    1990-08-01

    In order to gain intuition for variational problems in field theory, we analyze variationally the quantum-mechanical anharmonic oscillator [(V(x)sup(k) - sub(2) x sup(2) + sup(λ) - sub(4) λ sup(4)]. Special attention is paid to improvements to the Gaussian effective potential. (author)

  15. Open problems in Gaussian fluid queueing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dȩbicki, K.; Mandjes, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present three challenging open problems that originate from the analysis of the asymptotic behavior of Gaussian fluid queueing models. In particular, we address the problem of characterizing the correlation structure of the stationary buffer content process, the speed of convergence to

  16. Oracle Wiener filtering of a Gaussian signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenko, A.; Belitser, E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of filtering a Gaussian process whose trajectories, in some sense, have an unknown smoothness ß0 from the white noise of small intensity e. If we knew the parameter ß0, we would use the Wiener filter which has the meaning of oracle. Our goal is now to mimic the oracle, i.e.,

  17. Oracle Wiener filtering of a Gaussian signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenko, A.; Belitser, E.N.

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of filtering a Gaussian process whose trajectories, in some sense, have an unknown smoothness β0 from the white noise of small intensity . If we knew the parameter β0, we would use the Wiener filter which has the meaning of oracle. Our goal is now to mimic the oracle, i.e.,

  18. Perfusion Quantification Using Gaussian Process Deconvolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke; Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2002-01-01

    The quantification of perfusion using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) requires deconvolution to obtain the residual impulse response function (IRF). In this work, a method using the Gaussian process for deconvolution (GPD) is proposed. The fact that the IRF is smooth is incorporated...

  19. Estimators for local non-Gaussianities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creminelli, P.; Senatore, L.; Zaldarriaga, M.

    2006-05-01

    We study the Likelihood function of data given f NL for the so-called local type of non-Gaussianity. In this case the curvature perturbation is a non-linear function, local in real space, of a Gaussian random field. We compute the Cramer-Rao bound for f NL and show that for small values of f NL the 3- point function estimator saturates the bound and is equivalent to calculating the full Likelihood of the data. However, for sufficiently large f NL , the naive 3-point function estimator has a much larger variance than previously thought. In the limit in which the departure from Gaussianity is detected with high confidence, error bars on f NL only decrease as 1/ln N pix rather than N pix -1/2 as the size of the data set increases. We identify the physical origin of this behavior and explain why it only affects the local type of non- Gaussianity, where the contribution of the first multipoles is always relevant. We find a simple improvement to the 3-point function estimator that makes the square root of its variance decrease as N pix -1/2 even for large f NL , asymptotically approaching the Cramer-Rao bound. We show that using the modified estimator is practically equivalent to computing the full Likelihood of f NL given the data. Thus other statistics of the data, such as the 4-point function and Minkowski functionals, contain no additional information on f NL . In particular, we explicitly show that the recent claims about the relevance of the 4-point function are not correct. By direct inspection of the Likelihood, we show that the data do not contain enough information for any statistic to be able to constrain higher order terms in the relation between the Gaussian field and the curvature perturbation, unless these are orders of magnitude larger than the size suggested by the current limits on f NL . (author)

  20. Cosmological information in Gaussianized weak lensing signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimi, B.; Taylor, A. N.; Kiessling, A.

    2011-11-01

    Gaussianizing the one-point distribution of the weak gravitational lensing convergence has recently been shown to increase the signal-to-noise ratio contained in two-point statistics. We investigate the information on cosmology that can be extracted from the transformed convergence fields. Employing Box-Cox transformations to determine optimal transformations to Gaussianity, we develop analytical models for the transformed power spectrum, including effects of noise and smoothing. We find that optimized Box-Cox transformations perform substantially better than an offset logarithmic transformation in Gaussianizing the convergence, but both yield very similar results for the signal-to-noise ratio. None of the transformations is capable of eliminating correlations of the power spectra between different angular frequencies, which we demonstrate to have a significant impact on the errors in cosmology. Analytic models of the Gaussianized power spectrum yield good fits to the simulations and produce unbiased parameter estimates in the majority of cases, where the exceptions can be traced back to the limitations in modelling the higher order correlations of the original convergence. In the ideal case, without galaxy shape noise, we find an increase in the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.6 for angular frequencies up to ℓ= 1500, and a decrease in the area of the confidence region in the Ωm-σ8 plane, measured in terms of q-values, by a factor of 4.4 for the best performing transformation. When adding a realistic level of shape noise, all transformations perform poorly with little decorrelation of angular frequencies, a maximum increase in signal-to-noise ratio of 34 per cent, and even slightly degraded errors on cosmological parameters. We argue that to find Gaussianizing transformations of practical use, it will be necessary to go beyond transformations of the one-point distribution of the convergence, extend the analysis deeper into the non

  1. Learning non-Gaussian Time Series using the Box-Cox Gaussian Process

    OpenAIRE

    Rios, Gonzalo; Tobar, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Gaussian processes (GPs) are Bayesian nonparametric generative models that provide interpretability of hyperparameters, admit closed-form expressions for training and inference, and are able to accurately represent uncertainty. To model general non-Gaussian data with complex correlation structure, GPs can be paired with an expressive covariance kernel and then fed into a nonlinear transformation (or warping). However, overparametrising the kernel and the warping is known to, respectively, hin...

  2. MCEM algorithm for the log-Gaussian Cox process

    OpenAIRE

    Delmas, Celine; Dubois-Peyrard, Nathalie; Sabbadin, Regis

    2014-01-01

    Log-Gaussian Cox processes are an important class of models for aggregated point patterns. They have been largely used in spatial epidemiology (Diggle et al., 2005), in agronomy (Bourgeois et al., 2012), in forestry (Moller et al.), in ecology (sightings of wild animals) or in environmental sciences (radioactivity counts). A log-Gaussian Cox process is a Poisson process with a stochastic intensity depending on a Gaussian random eld. We consider the case where this Gaussian random eld is ...

  3. Large deviations for Gaussian processes in Hoelder norm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatalov, V R

    2003-01-01

    Some results are proved on the exact asymptotic representation of large deviation probabilities for Gaussian processes in the Hoeder norm. The following classes of processes are considered: the Wiener process, the Brownian bridge, fractional Brownian motion, and stationary Gaussian processes with power-law covariance function. The investigation uses the method of double sums for Gaussian fields

  4. Phase space structure of generalized Gaussian cat states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicacio, Fernando; Maia, Raphael N.P.; Toscano, Fabricio; Vallejos, Raul O.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze generalized Gaussian cat states obtained by superposing arbitrary Gaussian states. The structure of the interference term of the Wigner function is always hyperbolic, surviving the action of a thermal reservoir. We also consider certain superpositions of mixed Gaussian states. An application to semiclassical dynamics is discussed.

  5. Linking network usage patterns to traffic Gaussianity fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sadre, R.; Melnikov, Nikolay; Schönwälder, Jürgen; Pras, Aiko

    Gaussian traffic models are widely used in the domain of network traffic modeling. The central assumption is that traffic aggregates are Gaussian distributed. Due to its importance, the Gaussian character of network traffic has been extensively assessed by researchers in the past years. In 2001,

  6. Synchronous characterization of semiconductor microcavity laser beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Lippi, G L

    2015-06-01

    We report on a high-resolution double-channel imaging method used to synchronously map the intensity- and optical-frequency-distribution of a laser beam in the plane orthogonal to the propagation direction. The synchronous measurement allows us to show that the laser frequency is an inhomogeneous distribution below threshold, but that it becomes homogeneous across the fundamental Gaussian mode above threshold. The beam's tails deviations from the Gaussian shape, however, are accompanied by sizeable fluctuations in the laser wavelength, possibly deriving from manufacturing details and from the influence of spontaneous emission in the very low intensity wings. In addition to the synchronous spatial characterization, a temporal analysis at any given point in the beam cross section is carried out. Using this method, the beam homogeneity and spatial shape, energy density, energy center, and the defects-related spectrum can also be extracted from these high-resolution pictures.

  7. Beam-beam phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    In colliding beam storage rings the beam collision regions are generally so short that the beam-beam interaction can be considered as a series of evenly spaced non-linear kicks superimposed on otherwise stable linear oscillations. Most of the numerical studies on computers were carried out in just this manner. But for some reason this model has not been extensively employed in analytical studies. This is perhaps because all analytical work has so far been done by mathematicians pursuing general transcendental features of non-linear mechanics for whom this specific model of the specific system of colliding beams is too parochial and too repugnantly physical. Be that as it may, this model is of direct interest to accelerator physicists and is amenable to (1) further simplification, (2) physical approximation, and (3) solution by analogy to known phenomena

  8. Influence of beam divergence on form-factor in X-ray diffraction radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeeva, D.Yu.; Tishchenko, A.A.; Strikhanov, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Diffraction radiation from divergent beam is considered in terms of radiation in UV and X-ray range. Scedastic form of Gaussian distribution of the particle in the bunch, i.e. Gaussian distribution with changing dispersion has been used, which is more adequate for description of divergent beams than often used Gaussian distribution with constant dispersion. Both coherent and incoherent form-factors are taken into account. The conical diffraction effect in diffraction radiation is proved to make essential contribution in spectral-angular characteristics of radiation from a divergent beam

  9. On Alternate Relaying with Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2016-06-06

    In this letter, we investigate the potential benefits of adopting improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) in a two-hop alternate relaying (AR) system. Given the known benefits of using IGS in interference-limited networks, we propose to use IGS to relieve the inter-relay interference (IRI) impact on the AR system assuming no channel state information is available at the source. In this regard, we assume that the two relays use IGS and the source uses proper Gaussian signaling (PGS). Then, we optimize the degree of impropriety of the relays signal, measured by the circularity coefficient, to maximize the total achievable rate. Simulation results show that using IGS yields a significant performance improvement over PGS, especially when the first hop is a bottleneck due to weak source-relay channel gains and/or strong IRI.

  10. On Alternate Relaying with Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed; Amin, Osama; Ikhlef, Aissa; Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the potential benefits of adopting improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) in a two-hop alternate relaying (AR) system. Given the known benefits of using IGS in interference-limited networks, we propose to use IGS to relieve the inter-relay interference (IRI) impact on the AR system assuming no channel state information is available at the source. In this regard, we assume that the two relays use IGS and the source uses proper Gaussian signaling (PGS). Then, we optimize the degree of impropriety of the relays signal, measured by the circularity coefficient, to maximize the total achievable rate. Simulation results show that using IGS yields a significant performance improvement over PGS, especially when the first hop is a bottleneck due to weak source-relay channel gains and/or strong IRI.

  11. Direct Importance Estimation with Gaussian Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makoto; Sugiyama, Masashi

    The ratio of two probability densities is called the importance and its estimation has gathered a great deal of attention these days since the importance can be used for various data processing purposes. In this paper, we propose a new importance estimation method using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). Our method is an extention of the Kullback-Leibler importance estimation procedure (KLIEP), an importance estimation method using linear or kernel models. An advantage of GMMs is that covariance matrices can also be learned through an expectation-maximization procedure, so the proposed method — which we call the Gaussian mixture KLIEP (GM-KLIEP) — is expected to work well when the true importance function has high correlation. Through experiments, we show the validity of the proposed approach.

  12. Fractional Diffusion in Gaussian Noisy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guannan Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the fractional diffusion in a Gaussian noisy environment as described by the fractional order stochastic heat equations of the following form: \\(D_t^{(\\alpha} u(t, x=\\textit{B}u+u\\cdot \\dot W^H\\, where \\(D_t^{(\\alpha}\\ is the Caputo fractional derivative of order \\(\\alpha\\in (0,1\\ with respect to the time variable \\(t\\, \\(\\textit{B}\\ is a second order elliptic operator with respect to the space variable \\(x\\in\\mathbb{R}^d\\ and \\(\\dot W^H\\ a time homogeneous fractional Gaussian noise of Hurst parameter \\(H=(H_1, \\cdots, H_d\\. We obtain conditions satisfied by \\(\\alpha\\ and \\(H\\, so that the square integrable solution \\(u\\ exists uniquely.

  13. Extended Linear Models with Gaussian Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinonero, Joaquin

    2002-01-01

    In extended linear models the input space is projected onto a feature space by means of an arbitrary non-linear transformation. A linear model is then applied to the feature space to construct the model output. The dimension of the feature space can be very large, or even infinite, giving the model...... a very big flexibility. Support Vector Machines (SVM's) and Gaussian processes are two examples of such models. In this technical report I present a model in which the dimension of the feature space remains finite, and where a Bayesian approach is used to train the model with Gaussian priors...... on the parameters. The Relevance Vector Machine, introduced by Tipping, is a particular case of such a model. I give the detailed derivations of the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm used in the training. These derivations are not found in the literature, and might be helpful for newcomers....

  14. Interweave Cognitive Radio with Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Hedhly, Wafa

    2018-01-15

    Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) has proven its ability in improving the performance of underlay and overlay cognitive radio paradigms. In this paper, the interweave cognitive radio paradigm is studied when the cognitive user employs IGS. The instantaneous achievable rate performance of both the primary and secondary users are analyzed for specific secondary user sensing and detection capabilities. Next, the IGS scheme is optimized to maximize the achievable rate secondary user while satisfying a target minimum rate requirement for the primary user. Proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) scheme design is also derived to be used as benchmark of the IGS scheme design. Finally, different numerical results are introduced to show the gain reaped from adopting IGS over PGS under different system parameters. The main advantage of employing IGS is observed at low sensing and detection capabilities of the SU, lower PU direct link and higher SU interference on the PU side.

  15. Image reconstruction under non-Gaussian noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciacchitano, Federica

    During acquisition and transmission, images are often blurred and corrupted by noise. One of the fundamental tasks of image processing is to reconstruct the clean image from a degraded version. The process of recovering the original image from the data is an example of inverse problem. Due...... to the ill-posedness of the problem, the simple inversion of the degradation model does not give any good reconstructions. Therefore, to deal with the ill-posedness it is necessary to use some prior information on the solution or the model and the Bayesian approach. Additive Gaussian noise has been......D thesis intends to solve some of the many open questions for image restoration under non-Gaussian noise. The two main kinds of noise studied in this PhD project are the impulse noise and the Cauchy noise. Impulse noise is due to for instance the malfunctioning pixel elements in the camera sensors, errors...

  16. Non-Markovianity of Gaussian Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, G; Roga, W; Illuminati, F

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a necessary and sufficient criterion for the non-Markovianity of Gaussian quantum dynamical maps based on the violation of divisibility. The criterion is derived by defining a general vectorial representation of the covariance matrix which is then exploited to determine the condition for the complete positivity of partial maps associated with arbitrary time intervals. Such construction does not rely on the Choi-Jamiolkowski representation and does not require optimization over states.

  17. Log Gaussian Cox processes on the sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Francisco Andrés Cuevas; Møller, Jesper

    We define and study the existence of log Gaussian Cox processes (LGCPs) for the description of inhomogeneous and aggregated/clustered point patterns on the d-dimensional sphere, with d = 2 of primary interest. Useful theoretical properties of LGCPs are studied and applied for the description of sky...... positions of galaxies, in comparison with previous analysis using a Thomas process. We focus on simple estimation procedures and model checking based on functional summary statistics and the global envelope test....

  18. Recognition of Images Degraded by Gaussian Blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Farokhi, Sajad; Höschl, Cyril; Suk, Tomáš; Zitová, Barbara; Pedone, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2016), s. 790-806 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Blurred image * object recognition * blur invariant comparison * Gaussian blur * projection operators * image moments * moment invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.828, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0454335.pdf

  19. Adaptive multiple importance sampling for Gaussian processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xiong, X.; Šmídl, Václav; Filippone, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 8 (2017), s. 1644-1665 ISSN 0094-9655 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14287 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Gaussian Process * Bayesian estimation * Adaptive importance sampling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 0.757, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/AS/smidl-0469804.pdf

  20. Intracavity mode competition between classes of flat–top beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available beam as the oscillating mode. Single–mode oscillation would typically be Gaussian in profile, while multimode oscillation might deliver a beam with an averaged flat–like profile in the near field, but would diverge very quickly due to the higher order...

  1. Neutron inverse kinetics via Gaussian Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picca, Paolo; Furfaro, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel technique for the interpretation of experiments in ADS is presented. ► The technique is based on Bayesian regression, implemented via Gaussian Processes. ► GPs overcome the limits of classical methods, based on PK approximation. ► Results compares GPs and ANN performance, underlining similarities and differences. - Abstract: The paper introduces the application of Gaussian Processes (GPs) to determine the subcriticality level in accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) through the interpretation of pulsed experiment data. ADSs have peculiar kinetic properties due to their special core design. For this reason, classical – inversion techniques based on point kinetic (PK) generally fail to generate an accurate estimate of reactor subcriticality. Similarly to Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gaussian Processes can be successfully trained to learn the underlying inverse neutron kinetic model and, as such, they are not limited to the model choice. Importantly, GPs are strongly rooted into the Bayes’ theorem which makes them a powerful tool for statistical inference. Here, GPs have been designed and trained on a set of kinetics models (e.g. point kinetics and multi-point kinetics) for homogeneous and heterogeneous settings. The results presented in the paper show that GPs are very efficient and accurate in predicting the reactivity for ADS-like systems. The variance computed via GPs may provide an indication on how to generate additional data as function of the desired accuracy.

  2. Resonant non-Gaussianity with equilateral properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwyn, Rhiannon; Rummel, Markus

    2012-11-01

    We discuss the effect of superimposing multiple sources of resonant non-Gaussianity, which arise for instance in models of axion inflation. The resulting sum of oscillating shape contributions can be used to ''Fourier synthesize'' different non-oscillating shapes in the bispectrum. As an example we reproduce an approximately equilateral shape from the superposition of O(10) oscillatory contributions with resonant shape. This implies a possible degeneracy between the equilateral-type non-Gaussianity typical of models with non-canonical kinetic terms, such as DBI inflation, and an equilateral-type shape arising from a superposition of resonant-type contributions in theories with canonical kinetic terms. The absence of oscillations in the 2-point function together with the structure of the resonant N-point functions, imply that detection of equilateral non-Gaussianity at a level greater than the PLANCK sensitivity of f NL ∝O(5) will rule out a resonant origin. We comment on the questions arising from possible embeddings of this idea in a string theory setting.

  3. Unitarily localizable entanglement of Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    We consider generic (mxn)-mode bipartitions of continuous-variable systems, and study the associated bisymmetric multimode Gaussian states. They are defined as (m+n)-mode Gaussian states invariant under local mode permutations on the m-mode and n-mode subsystems. We prove that such states are equivalent, under local unitary transformations, to the tensor product of a two-mode state and of m+n-2 uncorrelated single-mode states. The entanglement between the m-mode and the n-mode blocks can then be completely concentrated on a single pair of modes by means of local unitary operations alone. This result allows us to prove that the PPT (positivity of the partial transpose) condition is necessary and sufficient for the separability of (m+n)-mode bisymmetric Gaussian states. We determine exactly their negativity and identify a subset of bisymmetric states whose multimode entanglement of formation can be computed analytically. We consider explicit examples of pure and mixed bisymmetric states and study their entanglement scaling with the number of modes

  4. Gaussian Hypothesis Testing and Quantum Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M; Tomamichel, Marco; Lloyd, Seth; Berta, Mario

    2017-09-22

    Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most basic tasks in quantum information theory and has fundamental links with quantum communication and estimation theory. In this paper, we establish a formula that characterizes the decay rate of the minimal type-II error probability in a quantum hypothesis test of two Gaussian states given a fixed constraint on the type-I error probability. This formula is a direct function of the mean vectors and covariance matrices of the quantum Gaussian states in question. We give an application to quantum illumination, which is the task of determining whether there is a low-reflectivity object embedded in a target region with a bright thermal-noise bath. For the asymmetric-error setting, we find that a quantum illumination transmitter can achieve an error probability exponent stronger than a coherent-state transmitter of the same mean photon number, and furthermore, that it requires far fewer trials to do so. This occurs when the background thermal noise is either low or bright, which means that a quantum advantage is even easier to witness than in the symmetric-error setting because it occurs for a larger range of parameters. Going forward from here, we expect our formula to have applications in settings well beyond those considered in this paper, especially to quantum communication tasks involving quantum Gaussian channels.

  5. Resonant non-Gaussianity with equilateral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwyn, Rhiannon [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Potsdam (Germany); Rummel, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    We discuss the effect of superimposing multiple sources of resonant non-Gaussianity, which arise for instance in models of axion inflation. The resulting sum of oscillating shape contributions can be used to ''Fourier synthesize'' different non-oscillating shapes in the bispectrum. As an example we reproduce an approximately equilateral shape from the superposition of O(10) oscillatory contributions with resonant shape. This implies a possible degeneracy between the equilateral-type non-Gaussianity typical of models with non-canonical kinetic terms, such as DBI inflation, and an equilateral-type shape arising from a superposition of resonant-type contributions in theories with canonical kinetic terms. The absence of oscillations in the 2-point function together with the structure of the resonant N-point functions, imply that detection of equilateral non-Gaussianity at a level greater than the PLANCK sensitivity of f{sub NL} {proportional_to}O(5) will rule out a resonant origin. We comment on the questions arising from possible embeddings of this idea in a string theory setting.

  6. Gaussian Process-Mixture Conditional Heteroscedasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platanios, Emmanouil A; Chatzis, Sotirios P

    2014-05-01

    Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) models have long been considered as one of the most successful families of approaches for volatility modeling in financial return series. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on methodologies widely used in the field of statistical machine learning. Specifically, we propose a novel nonparametric Bayesian mixture of Gaussian process regression models, each component of which models the noise variance process that contaminates the observed data as a separate latent Gaussian process driven by the observed data. This way, we essentially obtain a Gaussian process-mixture conditional heteroscedasticity (GPMCH) model for volatility modeling in financial return series. We impose a nonparametric prior with power-law nature over the distribution of the model mixture components, namely the Pitman-Yor process prior, to allow for better capturing modeled data distributions with heavy tails and skewness. Finally, we provide a copula-based approach for obtaining a predictive posterior for the covariances over the asset returns modeled by means of a postulated GPMCH model. We evaluate the efficacy of our approach in a number of benchmark scenarios, and compare its performance to state-of-the-art methodologies.

  7. Non-Gaussian conductivity fluctuations in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkonyan, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented on the statistical properties of conductivity fluctuations caused by concentration and mobility fluctuations of the current carriers. It is established that mobility fluctuations result from random deviations in the thermal equilibrium distribution of the carriers. It is shown that mobility fluctuations have generation-recombination and shot components which do not satisfy the requirements of the central limit theorem, in contrast to the current carrier's concentration fluctuation and intraband component of the mobility fluctuation. It is shown that in general the mobility fluctuation consist of thermal (or intraband) Gaussian and non-thermal (or generation-recombination, shot, etc.) non-Gaussian components. The analyses of theoretical results and experimental data from literature show that the statistical properties of mobility fluctuation and of 1/f-noise fully coincide. The deviation from Gaussian statistics of the mobility or 1/f fluctuations goes hand in hand with the magnitude of non-thermal noise (generation-recombination, shot, burst, pulse noises, etc.).

  8. Two-dimensional beam profiles and one-dimensional projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, D. J. S.; Jones, B.; Adams, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    One-dimensional projections of improved two-dimensional representations of transverse profiles of particle beams are proposed for fitting to data from harp-type monitors measuring beam profiles on particle accelerators. Composite distributions, with tails smoothly matched on to a central (inverted) parabola, are shown to give noticeably better fits than single gaussian and single parabolic distributions to data from harp-type beam profile monitors all along the proton beam transport lines to the two target stations on the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. Some implications for inferring beam current densities on the beam axis are noted.

  9. Searching for non-Gaussianity in the WMAP data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernui, A.; Reboucas, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Some analyses of recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) data have provided hints that there are deviations from Gaussianity in the WMAP CMB temperature fluctuations. Given the far-reaching consequences of such a non-Gaussianity for our understanding of the physics of the early universe, it is important to employ alternative indicators in order to determine whether the reported non-Gaussianity is of cosmological origin, and/or extract further information that may be helpful for identifying its causes. We propose two new non-Gaussianity indicators, based on skewness and kurtosis of large-angle patches of CMB maps, which provide a measure of departure from Gaussianity on large angular scales. A distinctive feature of these indicators is that they provide sky maps of non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature data, thus allowing a possible additional window into their origins. Using these indicators, we find no significant deviation from Gaussianity in the three and five-year WMAP Internal Linear Combination (ILC) map with KQ75 mask, while the ILC unmasked map exhibits deviation from Gaussianity, quantifying therefore the WMAP team recommendation to employ the new mask KQ75 for tests of Gaussianity. We also use our indicators to test for Gaussianity the single frequency foreground unremoved WMAP three and five-year maps, and show that the K and Ka maps exhibit a clear indication of deviation from Gaussianity even with the KQ75 mask. We show that our findings are robust with respect to the details of the method.

  10. Quantum key distribution using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, L. F. M.; Aguiar, L. S.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we present a quantum key distribution protocol using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states, homodyne detection and post-selection. The employed signal states are the photon added then subtracted coherent states (PASCS) in which one photon is added and subsequently one photon is subtracted from the field. We analyze the performance of our protocol, compared with a coherent state-based protocol, for two different attacks that could be carried out by the eavesdropper (Eve). We calculate the secret key rate transmission in a lossy line for a superior channel (beam-splitter) attack, and we show that we may increase the secret key generation rate by using the non-Gaussian PASCS rather than coherent states. We also consider the simultaneous quadrature measurement (intercept-resend) attack, and we show that the efficiency of Eve's attack is substantially reduced if PASCS are used as signal states.

  11. Self-reconstruction of diffraction-free and accelerating laser beams in scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersoy, T.; Yalizay, B.; Akturk, S.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally investigate propagation of laser beams with different intensity profiles in highly scattering media. We generate transverse laser amplitude profiles with Gaussian, Bessel and Airy function envelopes. We then propagate these beams through optical phantoms formed with variable density intralipid solutions. At the sample exit, we compare change in maximum intensities, as well as beam profile reconstruction. We show that self-reconstruction properties of Bessel and Airy beams bring about slower decrease in maximum intensity with increasing scatterer density. On the other hand, the beam profiles deteriorate faster, as compared to reference Gaussian beams. Slower decrease in the intensity can be attributed to the wavevector spectra providing a continuous flow of energy to the beam center, while beam deterioration is linked to total beam volume in the scattering medium. These results show that beam shaping methods can significantly enhance delivery of intense light deeper into turbid media, but this enhancement is compromised by stronger speckling of beam profiles. -- Highlights: ► We experimentally investigate propagation of shaped laser beams in turbid media. ► Peak intensity of Bessel and Airy beams decrease slower with increasing scatterer. ► Shaped beam profiles deteriorate faster, as compared to reference Gaussian beams. ► Shaped beam profiles can enhance applications of lasers inscattering media.

  12. Gaussian capacity of the quantum bosonic memory channel with additive correlated Gaussian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Joachim; Karpov, Evgueni; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm for calculation of the Gaussian classical capacity of a quantum bosonic memory channel with additive Gaussian noise. The algorithm, restricted to Gaussian input states, is applicable to all channels with noise correlations obeying certain conditions and works in the full input energy domain, beyond previous treatments of this problem. As an illustration, we study the optimal input states and capacity of a quantum memory channel with Gauss-Markov noise [J. Schaefer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 062313 (2009)]. We evaluate the enhancement of the transmission rate when using these optimal entangled input states by comparison with a product coherent-state encoding and find out that such a simple coherent-state encoding achieves not less than 90% of the capacity.

  13. High-Order Local Pooling and Encoding Gaussians Over a Dictionary of Gaussians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peihua; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Qilong; Shiu, Simon C K; Zhang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    Local pooling (LP) in configuration (feature) space proposed by Boureau et al. explicitly restricts similar features to be aggregated, which can preserve as much discriminative information as possible. At the time it appeared, this method combined with sparse coding achieved competitive classification results with only a small dictionary. However, its performance lags far behind the state-of-the-art results as only the zero-order information is exploited. Inspired by the success of high-order statistical information in existing advanced feature coding or pooling methods, we make an attempt to address the limitation of LP. To this end, we present a novel method called high-order LP (HO-LP) to leverage the information higher than the zero-order one. Our idea is intuitively simple: we compute the first- and second-order statistics per configuration bin and model them as a Gaussian. Accordingly, we employ a collection of Gaussians as visual words to represent the universal probability distribution of features from all classes. Our problem is naturally formulated as encoding Gaussians over a dictionary of Gaussians as visual words. This problem, however, is challenging since the space of Gaussians is not a Euclidean space but forms a Riemannian manifold. We address this challenge by mapping Gaussians into the Euclidean space, which enables us to perform coding with common Euclidean operations rather than complex and often expensive Riemannian operations. Our HO-LP preserves the advantages of the original LP: pooling only similar features and using a small dictionary. Meanwhile, it achieves very promising performance on standard benchmarks, with either conventional, hand-engineered features or deep learning-based features.

  14. Influence of laser beam profile on electromagnetically induced absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuk, S. M.; Radonjic, M.; Krmpot, A. J.; Nikolic, S. N.; Grujic, Z. D.; Jelenkovic, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    We compared, experimentally and theoretically, Hanle electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) obtained using Gaussian and Π-shaped laser beams 3 mm in diameter. The study was done by measuring the transmission of a laser locked to the F g =2→F e =3 transition at the D 2 line of 87 Rb in a vacuum cell. EIA linewidths obtained for the two laser profiles were significantly different in the range of laser intensities 1-4 mW/cm 2 . EIA with the Π-shaped laser beam has a broad intensity maximum and linewidths larger than those obtained with the Gaussian beam profile. We also studied Hanle EIA by measuring the transmission of selected segments of the entire laser beam by placing a small movable aperture in front of the detector. Waveforms so obtained in Hanle EIA resonances were strongly influenced both by the radial distance of the transmitted segment from the beam center and by the radial profile of the laser beam. We show that outer regions of Gaussian beam, and central regions of the Π-shaped beam generate the narrowest lines. The different behaviors of EIA owing to different beam profiles revealed by both theory and experiment indicate the importance of the radial profile of the laser beam for proper modeling of coherent effects in alkali metal vapors.

  15. Stochastic differential calculus for Gaussian and non-Gaussian noises: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsone, G.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper a review of the literature works devoted to the study of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) subjected to Gaussian and non-Gaussian white noises and to fractional Brownian noises is given. In these cases, particular attention must be paid in treating the SDEs because the classical rules of the differential calculus, as the Newton-Leibnitz one, cannot be applied or are applicable with many difficulties. Here all the principal approaches solving the SDEs are reported for any kind of noise, highlighting the negative and positive properties of each one and making the comparisons, where it is possible.

  16. Characteristics of Far Transported Laser Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Yoon; Kim, Ki Sik; Lee, Seung Gol [Inha University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A beam propagating in free space or in a medium generally experiences diffraction, and hence it suffers an energy loss and an wavefront distortion. It Is essential for a stable and precise communication to eliminate or to minimize the diffraction effect accompanying on propagation. The diffraction-free beam is introduced for that purpose. A typical diffraction-free beam is the Bessel beam. The Bessel beam has, however, an infinite energy in the cross-section perpendicular to the direction of propagation and, because of this fact, its realizability is sceptical. To remedy this problem, a new beam is introduced, which has a series from with a Gaussian envelope function and tested for diffraction on propagation by a computer simulation. Compared with the Bessel-Gauss beam, this new beam shows much less diffraction. While, by using a scraper mirror in an Nd:YAG laser with a ring resonator, an annular output beam is obtained. This annular beam is focused by a Fourier Transformation lens to produce a diffraction-free beam. This diffraction-free beam dose not show any noticible diffraction on propagation over the distance of 16 m, which is determined by the scraper mirror and the Fourier transformation lens. This achievement provides a profound basis for the generation of diffraction-free beams over much longer distances. The developed technique will provide a stable and precise communication method in remote controlling system, remote sensing through atmosphere, and information transfer using the optical fiber. 30 refs., 22 figs. (author)

  17. Non-Gaussianity from Broken Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, Edward W; Vallinotto, A; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio; Vallinotto, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Recently we studied inflation models in which the inflaton potential is characterized by an underlying approximate global symmetry. In the first work we pointed out that in such a model curvature perturbations are generated after the end of the slow-roll phase of inflation. In this work we develop further the observational implications of the model and compute the degree of non-Gaussianity predicted in the scenario. We find that the corresponding nonlinearity parameter, $f_{NL}$, can be as large as 10^2.

  18. First Passage Time Intervals of Gaussian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Hector; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Mimaki, Tadashi

    1987-08-01

    The first passage time problem of a stationary Guassian process is theretically and experimentally studied. Renewal functions are derived for a time-dependent boundary and numerically calculated for a Gaussian process having a seventh-order Butterworth spectrum. The results show a multipeak property not only for the constant boundary but also for a linearly increasing boundary. The first passage time distribution densities were experimentally determined for a constant boundary. The renewal functions were shown to be a fairly good approximation to the distribution density over a limited range.

  19. CMB constraints on running non-Gaussianity

    OpenAIRE

    Oppizzi, Filippo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Arroja, Frederico; Bartolo, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    We develop a complete set of tools for CMB forecasting, simulation and estimation of primordial running bispectra, arising from a variety of curvaton and single-field (DBI) models of Inflation. We validate our pipeline using mock CMB running non-Gaussianity realizations and test it on real data by obtaining experimental constraints on the $f_{\\rm NL}$ running spectral index, $n_{\\rm NG}$, using WMAP 9-year data. Our final bounds (68\\% C.L.) read $-0.3< n_{\\rm NG}

  20. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchón, Carles Navarro

    2016-01-01

    This letter deals with turbo equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator and decoder to the equalizer and computes messages...... returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to compute the latter messages from the beliefs obtained using a Kalman smoother/equalizer. Doing so leads to a significant complexity reduction compared to the initial PGA...

  1. Bregman Cost for Non-Gaussian Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Martin; Dong, Yiqiu; Sciacchitano, Federica

    estimator for the Bregman cost if the image is corrupted by Gaussian noise. In this work we extend this result to other noise models with log-concave likelihood density, by introducing two related Bregman cost functions for which the CM and the MAP estimates are proper Bayes estima-tors. Moreover, we also....... From a theoretical point of view it has been argued that the MAP estimate is only in an asymptotic sense a Bayes estimator for the uniform cost function, while the CM estimate is a Bayes estimator for the means squared cost function. Recently, it has been proven that the MAP estimate is a proper Bayes...

  2. Semi-analytical solution to arbitrarily shaped beam scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Huayong; Sun, Yufa

    2017-07-01

    Based on the field expansions in terms of appropriate spherical vector wave functions and the method of moments scheme, an exact semi-analytical solution to the scattering of an arbitrarily shaped beam is given. For incidence of a Gaussian beam, zero-order Bessel beam and Hertzian electric dipole radiation, numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are presented to a spheroid and a circular cylinder of finite length, and the scattering properties are analyzed concisely.

  3. Characterisation of random Gaussian and non-Gaussian stress processes in terms of extreme responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of military land vehicles, random vibration processes generated by all-terrain wheeled vehicles in motion are not classical stochastic processes with a stationary and Gaussian nature. Non-stationarity of processes induced by the variability of the vehicle speed does not form a major difficulty because the designer can have good control over the vehicle speed by characterising the histogram of instantaneous speed of the vehicle during an operational situation. Beyond this non-stationarity problem, the hard point clearly lies in the fact that the random processes are not Gaussian and are generated mainly by the non-linear behaviour of the undercarriage and the strong occurrence of shocks generated by roughness of the terrain. This non-Gaussian nature is expressed particularly by very high flattening levels that can affect the design of structures under extreme stresses conventionally acquired by spectral approaches, inherent to Gaussian processes and based essentially on spectral moments of stress processes. Due to these technical considerations, techniques for characterisation of random excitation processes generated by this type of carrier need to be changed, by proposing innovative characterisation methods based on time domain approaches as described in the body of the text rather than spectral domain approaches.

  4. Gaussian-log-Gaussian wavelet trees, frequentist and Bayesian inference, and statistical signal processing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Jacobsen, Robert Dahl

    We introduce a promising alternative to the usual hidden Markov tree model for Gaussian wavelet coefficients, where their variances are specified by the hidden states and take values in a finite set. In our new model, the hidden states have a similar dependence structure but they are jointly Gaus...

  5. Frequentist and Bayesian inference for Gaussian-log-Gaussian wavelet trees and statistical signal processing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Robert Dahl; Møller, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new estimation methods for a subclass of the Gaussian scale mixture models for wavelet trees by Wainwright, Simoncelli and Willsky that rely on modern results for composite likelihoods and approximate Bayesian inference. Our methodology is illustrated for denoising and edge detection...

  6. Approximation problems with the divergence criterion for Gaussian variablesand Gaussian processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Stoorvogel; J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractSystem identification for stationary Gaussian processes includes an approximation problem. Currently the subspace algorithm for this problem enjoys much attention. This algorithm is based on a transformation of a finite time series to canonical variable form followed by a truncation.

  7. Comparison of Gaussian and non-Gaussian Atmospheric Profile Retrievals from Satellite Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, A.; Forsythe, J. M.; Fletcher, S. J.; Jones, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University has recently developed two different versions of a mixed-distribution (lognormal combined with a Gaussian) based microwave temperature and mixing ratio retrieval system as well as the original Gaussian-based approach. These retrieval systems are based upon 1DVAR theory but have been adapted to use different descriptive statistics of the lognormal distribution to minimize the background errors. The input radiance data is from the AMSU-A and MHS instruments on the NOAA series of spacecraft. To help illustrate how the three retrievals are affected by the change in the distribution we are in the process of creating a new website to show the output from the different retrievals. Here we present initial results from different dynamical situations to show how the tool could be used by forecasters as well as for educators. However, as the new retrieved values are from a non-Gaussian based 1DVAR then they will display non-Gaussian behaviors that need to pass a quality control measure that is consistent with this distribution, and these new measures are presented here along with initial results for checking the retrievals.

  8. Generation and application of Bessel beam in alignment works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The divergence of a Gaussian laser beam is a limiting factor for optical alignment tasks at large distances. Bessel beams have almost zero divergence but are still not widely used. We discuss the construction of an alignment telescope based on Bessel beam generation using a commercial laser diode module. The Bessel beam is generated with conical or plano-convex lenses, and projected using a commercial CCD camera lens to extend the useful range of the beam. Our Bessel beams have diameters of between 0.5 - 1mm over beam lengths of 15m, representing a six-fold improvement compared to Gaussian beams, while the transverse beam structure (Bessel pattern) provides an excellent alignment aid for use with beam target. Another advantage of Bessel beams is their self-regeneration property, which allows the use of multiple beam targets with minimum beam degradation. We are using our crosshair targets with crosshair targets to align optical components in a large astronomical telescope, and can achieve precisions of tens of microns over distances of 20m using purely visual methods. (Author)

  9. Functional Dual Adaptive Control with Recursive Gaussian Process Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prüher, Jakub; Král, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with dual adaptive control problem, where the functional uncertainties in the system description are modelled by a non-parametric Gaussian process regression model. Current approaches to adaptive control based on Gaussian process models are severely limited in their practical applicability, because the model is re-adjusted using all the currently available data, which keeps growing with every time step. We propose the use of recursive Gaussian process regression algorithm for significant reduction in computational requirements, thus bringing the Gaussian process-based adaptive controllers closer to their practical applicability. In this work, we design a bi-criterial dual controller based on recursive Gaussian process model for discrete-time stochastic dynamic systems given in an affine-in-control form. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the proposed controller achieves comparable performance with the full Gaussian process-based controller in terms of control quality while keeping the computational demands bounded. (paper)

  10. A Gaussian Approximation Potential for Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Noam; Bartók, Albert; Kermode, James; Csányi, Gábor

    We present an interatomic potential for silicon using the Gaussian Approximation Potential (GAP) approach, which uses the Gaussian process regression method to approximate the reference potential energy surface as a sum of atomic energies. Each atomic energy is approximated as a function of the local environment around the atom, which is described with the smooth overlap of atomic environments (SOAP) descriptor. The potential is fit to a database of energies, forces, and stresses calculated using density functional theory (DFT) on a wide range of configurations from zero and finite temperature simulations. These include crystalline phases, liquid, amorphous, and low coordination structures, and diamond-structure point defects, dislocations, surfaces, and cracks. We compare the results of the potential to DFT calculations, as well as to previously published models including Stillinger-Weber, Tersoff, modified embedded atom method (MEAM), and ReaxFF. We show that it is very accurate as compared to the DFT reference results for a wide range of properties, including low energy bulk phases, liquid structure, as well as point, line, and plane defects in the diamond structure.

  11. Statistics of peaks of Gaussian random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Bond, J.R.; Kaiser, N.; Szalay, A.S.; Stanford Univ., CA; California Univ., Berkeley; Cambridge Univ., England; Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A set of new mathematical results on the theory of Gaussian random fields is presented, and the application of such calculations in cosmology to treat questions of structure formation from small-amplitude initial density fluctuations is addressed. The point process equation is discussed, giving the general formula for the average number density of peaks. The problem of the proper conditional probability constraints appropriate to maxima are examined using a one-dimensional illustration. The average density of maxima of a general three-dimensional Gaussian field is calculated as a function of heights of the maxima, and the average density of upcrossing points on density contour surfaces is computed. The number density of peaks subject to the constraint that the large-scale density field be fixed is determined and used to discuss the segregation of high peaks from the underlying mass distribution. The machinery to calculate n-point peak-peak correlation functions is determined, as are the shapes of the profiles about maxima. 67 references

  12. Overlay Spectrum Sharing using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama

    2016-11-30

    Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) scheme has been recently shown to provide performance improvements in interference limited networks as opposed to the conventional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) scheme. In this paper, we implement the IGS scheme in overlay cognitive radio system, where the secondary transmitter broadcasts a mixture of two different signals. The first signal is selected from the PGS scheme to match the primary message transmission. On the other hand, the second signal is chosen to be from the IGS scheme in order to reduce the interference effect on the primary receiver. We then optimally design the overlay cognitive radio to maximize the secondary link achievable rate while satisfying the primary network quality of service requirements. In particular, we consider full and partial channel knowledge scenarios and derive the feasibility conditions of operating the overlay cognitive radio systems. Moreover, we derive the superiority conditions of the IGS schemes over the PGS schemes supported with closed form expressions for the corresponding power distribution and the circularity coefficient and parameters. Simulation results are provided to support our theoretical derivations.

  13. Versatile Gaussian probes for squeezing estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, Luca; Farace, Alessandro; Souza, Leonardo A. M.; De Pasquale, Antonella; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2017-05-01

    We consider an instance of "black-box" quantum metrology in the Gaussian framework, where we aim to estimate the amount of squeezing applied on an input probe, without previous knowledge on the phase of the applied squeezing. By taking the quantum Fisher information (QFI) as the figure of merit, we evaluate its average and variance with respect to this phase in order to identify probe states that yield good precision for many different squeezing directions. We first consider the case of single-mode Gaussian probes with the same energy, and find that pure squeezed states maximize the average quantum Fisher information (AvQFI) at the cost of a performance that oscillates strongly as the squeezing direction is changed. Although the variance can be brought to zero by correlating the probing system with a reference mode, the maximum AvQFI cannot be increased in the same way. A different scenario opens if one takes into account the effects of photon losses: coherent states represent the optimal single-mode choice when losses exceed a certain threshold and, moreover, correlated probes can now yield larger AvQFI values than all single-mode states, on top of having zero variance.

  14. Finite Range Decomposition of Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Brydges, C D; Mitter, P K

    2003-01-01

    Let $D$ be the finite difference Laplacian associated to the lattice $bZ^{d}$. For dimension $dge 3$, $age 0$ and $L$ a sufficiently large positive dyadic integer, we prove that the integral kernel of the resolvent $G^{a}:=(a-D)^{-1}$ can be decomposed as an infinite sum of positive semi-definite functions $ V_{n} $ of finite range, $ V_{n} (x-y) = 0$ for $|x-y|ge O(L)^{n}$. Equivalently, the Gaussian process on the lattice with covariance $G^{a}$ admits a decomposition into independent Gaussian processes with finite range covariances. For $a=0$, $ V_{n} $ has a limiting scaling form $L^{-n(d-2)}Gamma_{ c,ast }{bigl (frac{x-y}{ L^{n}}bigr )}$ as $nrightarrow infty$. As a corollary, such decompositions also exist for fractional powers $(-D)^{-alpha/2}$, $0

  15. Diffusion weighted imaging in patients with rectal cancer: Comparison between Gaussian and non-Gaussian models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios C Manikis

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of four diffusion models, including mono and bi-exponential both Gaussian and non-Gaussian models, in diffusion weighted imaging of rectal cancer.Nineteen patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent MRI examination of the rectum before chemoradiation therapy including a 7 b-value diffusion sequence (0, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 s/mm2 at a 1.5T scanner. Four different diffusion models including mono- and bi-exponential Gaussian (MG and BG and non-Gaussian (MNG and BNG were applied on whole tumor volumes of interest. Two different statistical criteria were recruited to assess their fitting performance, including the adjusted-R2 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. To decide which model better characterizes rectal cancer, model selection was relied on Akaike Information Criteria (AIC and F-ratio.All candidate models achieved a good fitting performance with the two most complex models, the BG and the BNG, exhibiting the best fitting performance. However, both criteria for model selection indicated that the MG model performed better than any other model. In particular, using AIC Weights and F-ratio, the pixel-based analysis demonstrated that tumor areas better described by the simplest MG model in an average area of 53% and 33%, respectively. Non-Gaussian behavior was illustrated in an average area of 37% according to the F-ratio, and 7% using AIC Weights. However, the distributions of the pixels best fitted by each of the four models suggest that MG failed to perform better than any other model in all patients, and the overall tumor area.No single diffusion model evaluated herein could accurately describe rectal tumours. These findings probably can be explained on the basis of increased tumour heterogeneity, where areas with high vascularity could be fitted better with bi-exponential models, and areas with necrosis would mostly follow mono-exponential behavior.

  16. Relative entropy as a measure of entanglement for Gaussian states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Huai-Xin; Zhao Bo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we derive an explicit analytic expression of the relative entropy between two general Gaussian states. In the restriction of the set for Gaussian states and with the help of relative entropy formula and Peres-Simon separability criterion, one can conveniently obtain the relative entropy entanglement for Gaussian states. As an example,the relative entanglement for a two-mode squeezed thermal state has been obtained.

  17. Cylindrically polarized Bessel–Gauss beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhi, Daena; Aiello, Andrea; Ornigotti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of radially and azimuthally polarized Bessel–Gauss (BG) beams in both the paraxial and nonparaxial regime. We discuss the validity of the paraxial approximation and the form of the nonparaxial corrections for BG beams. We show that independently on the ratio between the Bessel aperture cone angle ϑ 0 and the Gaussian beam divergence θ 0 , the nonparaxial corrections are alway very small and therefore negligible. The explicit expressions for the nonparaxial vector electric field components are also reported. (paper)

  18. Constructing petal modes from the coherent superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew; Ait-Ameur, Kamel; Brunel, Marc

    2011-03-01

    An experimental approach in generating Petal-like transverse modes, which are similar to what is seen in porro-prism resonators, has been successfully demonstrated. We hypothesize that the petal-like structures are generated from a coherent superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes of zero radial order and opposite azimuthal order. To verify this hypothesis, visually based comparisons such as petal peak to peak diameter and the angle between adjacent petals are drawn between experimental data and simulated data. The beam quality factor of the Petal-like transverse modes and an inner product interaction is also experimentally compared to numerical results.

  19. Mode conversion efficiency to Laguerre-Gaussian OAM modes using spiral phase optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Andrew; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2017-07-24

    An analytical model for the conversion efficiency from a TEM 00 mode to an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode with null radial index spiral phase optics is presented. We extend this model to include the effects of stepped spiral phase optics, spiral phase optics of non-integer topological charge, and the reduction in conversion efficiency due to broad laser bandwidth. We find that through optimization, an optimal beam waist ratio of the input and output modes exists and is dependent upon the output azimuthal mode number.

  20. Non-Linear Beam Transport System for the LENS 7 MeV Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, William P; Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; Rinckel, Thomas; Solberg, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A beam transport system has been designed to carry a high-intensity low-emittance proton beam from the exit of the RFQ-DTL acceleration system of the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron System (LENS)* to the neutron production target. The goal of the design was to provide a beam of uniform density over a 3cm by 3cm area at the target. Two octupole magnets** are employed in the beam line to provide the necessary beam phase space manipulations to achieve this goal. First order calculations were done using TRANSPORT and second order calculations have been performed using TURTLE. Second order simulations have been done using both a Gaussian beam distribution and a particle set generated by calculations of beam transport through the RFQ-DTL using PARMILA. Comparison of the design characteristics with initial measurements from the LENS commissioning process will be made.

  1. Prediction and retrodiction with continuously monitored Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jinglei; Mølmer, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Gaussian states of quantum oscillators are fully characterized by the mean values and the covariance matrix of their quadrature observables. We consider the dynamics of a system of oscillators subject to interactions, damping, and continuous probing which maintain their Gaussian state property......(t)$ to Gaussian states implies that the matrix $E(t)$ is also fully characterized by a vector of mean values and a covariance matrix. We derive the dynamical equations for these quantities and we illustrate their use in the retrodiction of measurements on Gaussian systems....

  2. Geometry of perturbed Gaussian states and quantum estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genoni, Marco G; Giorda, Paolo; Paris, Matteo G A

    2011-01-01

    We address the non-Gaussianity (nG) of states obtained by weakly perturbing a Gaussian state and investigate the relationships with quantum estimation. For classical perturbations, i.e. perturbations to eigenvalues, we found that the nG of the perturbed state may be written as the quantum Fisher information (QFI) distance minus a term depending on the infinitesimal energy change, i.e. it provides a lower bound to statistical distinguishability. Upon moving on isoenergetic surfaces in a neighbourhood of a Gaussian state, nG thus coincides with a proper distance in the Hilbert space and exactly quantifies the statistical distinguishability of the perturbations. On the other hand, for perturbations leaving the covariance matrix unperturbed, we show that nG provides an upper bound to the QFI. Our results show that the geometry of non-Gaussian states in the neighbourhood of a Gaussian state is definitely not trivial and cannot be subsumed by a differential structure. Nevertheless, the analysis of perturbations to a Gaussian state reveals that nG may be a resource for quantum estimation. The nG of specific families of perturbed Gaussian states is analysed in some detail with the aim of finding the maximally non-Gaussian state obtainable from a given Gaussian one. (fast track communication)

  3. Gaussian polynomials and content ideal in trivial extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkari, C.; Mahdou, N.

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to exhibit a class of Gaussian non-coherent rings R (with zero-divisors) such that wdim(R) = ∞ and fPdim(R) is always at most one and also exhibits a new class of rings (with zerodivisors) which are neither locally Noetherian nor locally domain where Gaussian polynomials have a locally principal content. For this purpose, we study the possible transfer of the 'Gaussian' property and the property 'the content ideal of a Gaussian polynomial is locally principal' to various trivial extension contexts. This article includes a brief discussion of the scopes and limits of our result. (author)

  4. Coherent beam-beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    There are two physical pictures that describe the beam-beam interaction in a storage ring collider: The weak-strong and the strong-strong pictures. Both pictures play a role in determining the beam-beam behavior. This review addresses only the strong-strong picture. The corresponding beam dynamical effects are referred to as the coherent beam-beam effects. Some basic knowledge of the weak-strong picture is assumed. To be specific, two beams of opposite charges are considered. (orig.)

  5. Detecting the presence of a magnetic field under Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise by adaptive measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan-Mei; Li, Jun-Gang, E-mail: jungl@bit.edu.cn; Zou, Jian

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Adaptive measurement strategy is used to detect the presence of a magnetic field. • Gaussian Ornstein–Uhlenbeck noise and non-Gaussian noise have been considered. • Weaker magnetic fields may be more easily detected than some stronger ones. - Abstract: By using the adaptive measurement method we study how to detect whether a weak magnetic field is actually present or not under Gaussian noise and non-Gaussian noise. We find that the adaptive measurement method can effectively improve the detection accuracy. For the case of Gaussian noise, we find the stronger the magnetic field strength, the easier for us to detect the magnetic field. Counterintuitively, for non-Gaussian noise, some weaker magnetic fields are more likely to be detected rather than some stronger ones. Finally, we give a reasonable physical interpretation.

  6. Application of digital beam position processor Libera on tune measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunhui; Sun Baogen; Cao Yong; Lu Ping; Li Jihao

    2006-01-01

    Digital signal processing (DSP) is widely used in the field of beam diagnostics. Especially, DSP achieves very good performance in beam position signal analysis and betatron tune measurement. In Hefei light source, when beam was excited by narrow-band Gaussian white nose, Libera, a digital beam position processor, was used to process the signals from beam position monitor (BPM), which contained betatron oscillation. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) was applied to finding out betatron resonance frequency, from which the decimal part of betatron oscillation tune was calculated. By this means, the measure of horizontal tune was 3.5352 and the measure of vertical tune is 2.6299. (authors)

  7. Second-harmonic generation of practical Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin H.; Ding, Desheng; Hsu, Yin-Sung

    2009-11-01

    A fast Gaussian expansion approach is used to investigate fundamental and second-harmonic generation in practical Bessel beams of finite aperture. The analysis is based on the integral solutions of the KZK equation under the quasilinear approximation. The influence of the medium's attenuation on the beam profile is considered. Analysis results show that the absorption parameter has a significant effect on the far-field beam profile of the second harmonic. Under certain circumstances, the second harmonic of a practical Bessel beam still has the main properties of an ideal Bessel beam of infinite aperture when it propagates within its depth of field.

  8. Acoustic radiation force on a multilayered sphere in a Gaussian standing field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Liu, Xiaozhou; Gao, Sha; Cui, Jun; Liu, Jiehui; He, Aijun; Zhang, Gutian

    2018-03-01

    We develop a model for calculating the radiation force on spherically symmetric multilayered particles based on the acoustic scattering approach. An expression is derived for the radiation force on a multilayered sphere centered on the axis of a Gaussian standing wave propagating in an ideal fluid. The effects of the sound absorption of the materials and sound wave on acoustic radiation force of a multilayered sphere immersed in water are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the shell thickness of every layer, and the width of the Gaussian beam. The results reveal that the existence of particle trapping behavior depends on the choice of the non-dimensional frequency ka, as well as the shell thickness of each layer. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of acoustical tweezers in a Gaussian standing wave, which may benefit the improvement and development of acoustic control technology, such as trapping, sorting, and assembling a cell, and drug delivery applications. Project supported by National Key R&D Program (Grant No. 2016YFF0203000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11774167 and 61571222), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 020414380001), the Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Environment, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SSHJ-KFKT-1701), and the AQSIQ Technology R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2017QK125).

  9. Quasi-ideal dynamics of vortex solitons embedded in flattop nonlinear Bessel beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Miguel A; Ramos, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    The applications of vortex solitons are severely limited by the diffraction and self-defocusing spreading of the background beam where they are nested. Nonlinear Bessel beams in self-defocusing media are nondiffracting, flattop beams where the nested vortex solitons can survive for propagation distances that are one order of magnitude larger than in the Gaussian or super-Gaussian beams. The dynamics of the vortex solitons is studied numerically and found to approach that in the ideal, uniform background, preventing vortex spiraling and decay, which eases vortex steering for applications.

  10. Topological transformation of fractional optical vortex beams using computer generated holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Satyajit; Brundavanam, Maruthi M.

    2018-04-01

    Optical vortex beams with fractional topological charges (TCs) are generated by the diffraction of a Gaussian beam using computer generated holograms embedded with mixed screw-edge dislocations. When the input Gaussian beam has a finite wave-front curvature, the generated fractional vortex beams show distinct topological transformations in comparison to the integer charge optical vortices. The topological transformations at different fractional TCs are investigated through the birth and evolution of the points of phase singularity, the azimuthal momentum transformation, occurrence of critical points in the transverse momentum and the vorticity around the singular points. This study is helpful to achieve better control in optical micro-manipulation applications.

  11. Complex space source theory of partially coherent light wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, S R

    2010-07-01

    The complex space source theory is used to derive a general integral expression for the vector potential that generates the extended full Gaussian wave in terms of the input value of the vector potential of the corresponding paraxial beam. The vector potential and the fields are assumed to fluctuate on a time scale that is large compared to the wave period. The Poynting vector in the propagation direction averaged over a wave period is expressed in terms of the cross-spectral density of the fluctuating vector potential across the input plane. The Schell model is assumed for the cross-spectral density. The radiation intensity distribution and the power radiated are determined. The effect of spatial coherence on the radiation intensity distribution and the radiated power are investigated for different values of the physical parameters. Illustrative numerical results are provided to bring out the effect of spatial coherence on the propagation characteristics of the fluctuating light wave.

  12. Gaussian likelihood inference on data from trans-Gaussian random fields with Matérn covariance function

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Yuan

    2017-07-13

    Gaussian likelihood inference has been studied and used extensively in both statistical theory and applications due to its simplicity. However, in practice, the assumption of Gaussianity is rarely met in the analysis of spatial data. In this paper, we study the effect of non-Gaussianity on Gaussian likelihood inference for the parameters of the Matérn covariance model. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate spatial data from a Tukey g-and-h random field, a flexible trans-Gaussian random field, with the Matérn covariance function, where g controls skewness and h controls tail heaviness. We use maximum likelihood based on the multivariate Gaussian distribution to estimate the parameters of the Matérn covariance function. We illustrate the effects of non-Gaussianity of the data on the estimated covariance function by means of functional boxplots. Thanks to our tailored simulation design, a comparison of the maximum likelihood estimator under both the increasing and fixed domain asymptotics for spatial data is performed. We find that the maximum likelihood estimator based on Gaussian likelihood is overall satisfying and preferable than the non-distribution-based weighted least squares estimator for data from the Tukey g-and-h random field. We also present the result for Gaussian kriging based on Matérn covariance estimates with data from the Tukey g-and-h random field and observe an overall satisfactory performance.

  13. Gaussian likelihood inference on data from trans-Gaussian random fields with Matérn covariance function

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Yuan; Genton, Marc G.

    2017-01-01

    Gaussian likelihood inference has been studied and used extensively in both statistical theory and applications due to its simplicity. However, in practice, the assumption of Gaussianity is rarely met in the analysis of spatial data. In this paper, we study the effect of non-Gaussianity on Gaussian likelihood inference for the parameters of the Matérn covariance model. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate spatial data from a Tukey g-and-h random field, a flexible trans-Gaussian random field, with the Matérn covariance function, where g controls skewness and h controls tail heaviness. We use maximum likelihood based on the multivariate Gaussian distribution to estimate the parameters of the Matérn covariance function. We illustrate the effects of non-Gaussianity of the data on the estimated covariance function by means of functional boxplots. Thanks to our tailored simulation design, a comparison of the maximum likelihood estimator under both the increasing and fixed domain asymptotics for spatial data is performed. We find that the maximum likelihood estimator based on Gaussian likelihood is overall satisfying and preferable than the non-distribution-based weighted least squares estimator for data from the Tukey g-and-h random field. We also present the result for Gaussian kriging based on Matérn covariance estimates with data from the Tukey g-and-h random field and observe an overall satisfactory performance.

  14. Influence of laser beam profiles on received power fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordova, Lucie; Diblik, Jan

    2011-09-01

    Gaussian beam is very often used for the transmission of information in optical wireless links. The usage of this optical beam has its advantages and, of course, disadvantages. This work focuses on possibilities of using laser beams with different distribution of optical intensity - Top Hat beam. Creation of the optical beam with selected optical intensity profile will be briefly described. Optical beams will propagate through the "clear" and stationary atmosphere in the experimental part of this work. These results will be compared with the data obtained after a laser beam is passed through the turbulent and attenuated atmosphere. We will use an ultrasound fog generator for laser beam attenuation testing. To create the turbulence, infra radiators will be applied. Particular results obtained from different atmospheric conditions will be compared and using different types of optical beams will be assessed.

  15. A laser beam quality definition based on induced temperature rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harold C

    2012-12-17

    Laser beam quality metrics like M(2) can be used to describe the spot sizes and propagation behavior of a wide variety of non-ideal laser beams. However, for beams that have been diffracted by limiting apertures in the near-field, or those with unusual near-field profiles, the conventional metrics can lead to an inconsistent or incomplete description of far-field performance. This paper motivates an alternative laser beam quality definition that can be used with any beam. The approach uses a consideration of the intrinsic ability of a laser beam profile to heat a material. Comparisons are made with conventional beam quality metrics. An analysis on an asymmetric Gaussian beam is used to establish a connection with the invariant beam propagation ratio.

  16. White Gaussian Noise - Models for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jondral, Friedrich K.

    2018-04-01

    This paper assembles some information about white Gaussian noise (WGN) and its applications. It starts from a description of thermal noise, i. e. the irregular motion of free charge carriers in electronic devices. In a second step, mathematical models of WGN processes and their most important parameters, especially autocorrelation functions and power spectrum densities, are introduced. In order to proceed from mathematical models to simulations, we discuss the generation of normally distributed random numbers. The signal-to-noise ratio as the most important quality measure used in communications, control or measurement technology is accurately introduced. As a practical application of WGN, the transmission of quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signals over additive WGN channels together with the optimum maximum likelihood (ML) detector is considered in a demonstrative and intuitive way.

  17. Gaussian process regression for geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzel, Alexander; Kästner, Johannes

    2018-03-01

    We implemented a geometry optimizer based on Gaussian process regression (GPR) to find minimum structures on potential energy surfaces. We tested both a two times differentiable form of the Matérn kernel and the squared exponential kernel. The Matérn kernel performs much better. We give a detailed description of the optimization procedures. These include overshooting the step resulting from GPR in order to obtain a higher degree of interpolation vs. extrapolation. In a benchmark against the Limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno optimizer of the DL-FIND library on 26 test systems, we found the new optimizer to generally reduce the number of required optimization steps.

  18. Gaussian elimination is not optimal, revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We refactor the universal law for the tensor product to express matrix multiplication as the product . MN of two matrices . M and . N thus making possible to use such matrix product to encode and transform algorithms performing matrix multiplication using techniques from linear algebra. We explore...... the end results are equations involving matrix products, our exposition builds upon previous works on the category of matrices (and the related category of finite vector spaces) which we extend by showing: why the direct sum . (⊕,0) monoid is not closed, a biproduct encoding of Gaussian elimination...... such possibility and show two stepwise refinements transforming the composition . MN into the Naïve and Strassen's matrix multiplication algorithms. The inspection of the stepwise transformation of the composition of matrices . MN into the Naïve matrix multiplication algorithm evidences that the steps...

  19. Tunnelling through a Gaussian random barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    A thorough analysis of the tunnelling of electrons through a laterally inhomogeneous rectangular barrier is presented. The barrier height is defined as a statistically homogeneous Gaussian random function. In order to simplify calculations, we assume that the electron energy is low enough in comparison with the mean value of the barrier height. The randomness of the barrier height is defined vertically by a constant variance and horizontally by a finite correlation length. We present detailed calculations of the angular probability density for the tunnelled electrons (i.e. for the scattering forwards). The tunnelling manifests a remarkably diffusive character if the wavelength of the electrons is comparable with the correlation length of the barrier

  20. Gaussian process regression for tool wear prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dongdong; Chen, Yongjie; Li, Ning

    2018-05-01

    To realize and accelerate the pace of intelligent manufacturing, this paper presents a novel tool wear assessment technique based on the integrated radial basis function based kernel principal component analysis (KPCA_IRBF) and Gaussian process regression (GPR) for real-timely and accurately monitoring the in-process tool wear parameters (flank wear width). The KPCA_IRBF is a kind of new nonlinear dimension-increment technique and firstly proposed for feature fusion. The tool wear predictive value and the corresponding confidence interval are both provided by utilizing the GPR model. Besides, GPR performs better than artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machines (SVM) in prediction accuracy since the Gaussian noises can be modeled quantitatively in the GPR model. However, the existence of noises will affect the stability of the confidence interval seriously. In this work, the proposed KPCA_IRBF technique helps to remove the noises and weaken its negative effects so as to make the confidence interval compressed greatly and more smoothed, which is conducive for monitoring the tool wear accurately. Moreover, the selection of kernel parameter in KPCA_IRBF can be easily carried out in a much larger selectable region in comparison with the conventional KPCA_RBF technique, which helps to improve the efficiency of model construction. Ten sets of cutting tests are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the presented tool wear assessment technique. The experimental results show that the in-process flank wear width of tool inserts can be monitored accurately by utilizing the presented tool wear assessment technique which is robust under a variety of cutting conditions. This study lays the foundation for tool wear monitoring in real industrial settings.

  1. Self-focusing of a non-Gaussian laser mode in a dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayyar, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the self-focusing of a high-power non-Gaussian laser beam operating in TEM 01 mode in a strongly ionized plasma. The nonlinearity in the dielectric constant is caused by the nonuniform redistribution of carriers due to their inhomogeneous heating by the laser beam having transverse variation of intensity along its wave front. It is found that when the power of the beam exceeds the critical power, focusing effects are observed in the Y direction, whereas divergence of the beam takes place in the X direction. In the reverse case (when P 2 first increases in the Y direction, after penetrating a certain depth it reaches a broadened maxima and then starts decreasing with the distance of propagation inside the medium. The beam continues diverging in the X direction. It has also been found that absorption brings about a reduction in the extent of self-focusing. When the absorption length is less than the self-focusing length appreciable self-focusing does not take place

  2. Higher-Order Hybrid Gaussian Kernel in Meshsize Boosting Algorithm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we shall use higher-order hybrid Gaussian kernel in a meshsize boosting algorithm in kernel density estimation. Bias reduction is guaranteed in this scheme like other existing schemes but uses the higher-order hybrid Gaussian kernel instead of the regular fixed kernels. A numerical verification of this scheme ...

  3. Convergence of posteriors for discretized log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2004-01-01

    In Markov chain Monte Carlo posterior computation for log Gaussian Cox processes (LGCPs) a discretization of the continuously indexed Gaussian field is required. It is demonstrated that approximate posterior expectations computed from discretized LGCPs converge to the exact posterior expectations...... when the cell sizes of the discretization tends to zero. The effect of discretization is studied in a data example....

  4. Comparing Fixed and Variable-Width Gaussian Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůrková, Věra; Kainen, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 57, September (2014), s. 23-28 ISSN 0893-6080 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13002 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Gaussian radial and kernel networks * Functionally equivalent networks * Universal approximators * Stabilizers defined by Gaussian kernels * Argminima of error functionals Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2014

  5. Application Of Shared Gamma And Inverse-Gaussian Frailty Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shared Gamma and Inverse-Gaussian Frailty models are used to analyze the survival times of patients who are clustered according to cancer/tumor types under Parametric Proportional Hazard framework. The result of the ... However, no evidence is strong enough for preference of either Gamma or Inverse Gaussian Frailty.

  6. Optimality of Gaussian attacks in continuous-variable quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navascués, Miguel; Grosshans, Frédéric; Acín, Antonio

    2006-11-10

    We analyze the asymptotic security of the family of Gaussian modulated quantum key distribution protocols for continuous-variables systems. We prove that the Gaussian unitary attack is optimal for all the considered bounds on the key rate when the first and second momenta of the canonical variables involved are known by the honest parties.

  7. Degeneracy of energy levels of pseudo-Gaussian oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, Theodor-Felix; Iacob, Felix; Lute, Marina

    2015-01-01

    We study the main features of the isotropic radial pseudo-Gaussian oscillators spectral properties. This study is made upon the energy levels degeneracy with respect to orbital angular momentum quantum number. In a previous work [6] we have shown that the pseudo-Gaussian oscillators belong to the class of quasi-exactly solvable models and an exact solution has been found

  8. Spatial properties of a terahertz beam generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Wang, Tianwu; Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    2013-01-01

    We present a spatial characterization of terahertz (THz) beams generated from a two-color air plasma under different conditions by measuring full 3D beam profiles using a commercial THz camera. We compare two THz beam profiles emitted from plasmas generated by 35 fs and 100 fs laser pulses...... that this reduces the beam waist, and that the beam spot shape changes from Lorentzian to Gaussian. Finally, we observe a forward-propagating Gaussian THz beam by spatially filtering away the conical off-axis radiation with a 1 cm aperture......., and show that the spatial properties of the two THz beams do not change significantly. For the THz beam profile generated by the 35 fs pulse, the spatial effect of eliminating the lower frequencies is investigated by implementing two crossed polarizers working as a high-pass filter. We show...

  9. Ultrawide Bandwidth Receiver Based on a Multivariate Generalized Gaussian Distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2015-04-01

    Multivariate generalized Gaussian density (MGGD) is used to approximate the multiple access interference (MAI) and additive white Gaussian noise in pulse-based ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) system. The MGGD probability density function (pdf) is shown to be a better approximation of a UWB system as compared to multivariate Gaussian, multivariate Laplacian and multivariate Gaussian-Laplacian mixture (GLM). The similarity between the simulated and the approximated pdf is measured with the help of modified Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD). It is also shown that MGGD has the smallest KLD as compared to Gaussian, Laplacian and GLM densities. A receiver based on the principles of minimum bit error rate is designed for the MGGD pdf. As the requirement is stringent, the adaptive implementation of the receiver is also carried out in this paper. Training sequence of the desired user is the only requirement when implementing the detector adaptively. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  10. Generation of vector beams using a double-wedge depolarizer: Non-quantum entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of horizontally polarized Gaussian beam through a double-wedge depolarizer generates vector beams with spatially varying state of polarization. Jones calculus is used to show that such beams are maximally nonseparable on the basis of even (Gaussian)-odd (Hermite-Gaussian) mode parity and horizontal-vertical polarization state. The maximum nonseparability in the two degrees of freedom of the vector beam at the double wedge depolarizer output is verified experimentally using a modified Sagnac interferometer and linear analyser projected interferograms to measure the concurrence 0.94±0.002 and violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell-like inequality 2.704±0.024. The investigation is carried out in the context of the use of vector beams for metrological applications.

  11. Laser beam-forming by deformable mirror for laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Koshichi; Fujii, Takashi; Goto, Naohiko

    1995-01-01

    A rectangular laser beam of uniform intensity is very suitable for laser isotope separation. In this paper, we propose a beam-forming system which consists two deformable mirrors. One of the mirrors changes the beam intensity and the other compensates for phase distortion. We developed a deformable mirror for beam-forming. Its deformed surface is similar to the ideal mirror surface for beam-forming. We reshaped a Gaussian-like He-Ne laser beam into a beam with a more uniform intensity profile by a simple deformable mirror. (author)

  12. Propagation and spatiotemporal coupling characteristics of ultra-short Gaussian vortex pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jianye; Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Rongzhu

    2018-05-01

    Based on Collins diffraction integral formula, the propagation equation of ultra-short Gaussian vortex pulse beam has been derived. Using the equation, the intensity distribution variations of vortex pulse in the propagation process are calculated. Specially, the spatiotemporal coupling characteristics of ultra-short vortex beams are discussed in detail. The results show that some key parameters, such as transverse distance, transmission distance, pulse width and topological charge number will influence the spatiotemporal coupling characteristics significantly. With the increasing of transverse distance, the waveforms of the pulses distort obviously. And when transmission distance is far than 50 mm, the distribution curve of transverse intensity gradually changes into a Gaussian type. In addition, initial pulse width will affect the distribution of light field, however, when initial pulse width is larger than 3 fs, the spatiotemporal coupling effect will be insignificant. Topological charge number does not affect the time delay characteristics, since with the increasing of topological charge number, the waveform of the pulse distorts gradually but the time delay does not occur.

  13. The generation of flat-top beams by complex amplitude modulation with a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hendriks, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available amplitude modulation of the light, i.e., in amplitude and phase. We outline the theoretical concept, and then illustrate its use with the example of the laser beam shaping of Gaussian beams into flat-top beams. We quantify the performance of this approach...

  14. Laser-driven acceleration with Bessel beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, Kazuo; Li, Dazhi

    2005-01-01

    A new approach of laser-driven acceleration with Bessel beam is described. Bessel beam, in contrast to the Gaussian beam, shows diffraction-free'' characteristics in its propagation, which implies potential in laser-driven acceleration. But a normal laser, even if the Bessel beam, laser can not accelerate charged particle efficiently because the difference of velocity between the particle and photon makes cyclic acceleration and deceleration phase. We proposed a Bessel beam truncated by a set of annular slits those makes several special regions in its travelling path, where the laser field becomes very weak and the accelerated particles are possible to receive no deceleration as they undergo decelerating phase. Thus, multistage acceleration is realizable with high gradient. In a numerical computation, we have shown the potential of multistage acceleration based on a three-stage model. (author)

  15. Optical fiber designs for beam shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Kevin; Conroy, Michael; Wang, Chih-Hao; Abramczyk, Jaroslaw; Campbell, Stuart; Oulundsen, George; Tankala, Kanishka

    2014-03-01

    A large number of power delivery applications for optical fibers require beams with very specific output intensity profiles; in particular applications that require a focused high intensity beam typically image the near field (NF) intensity distribution at the exit surface of an optical fiber. In this work we discuss optical fiber designs that shape the output beam profile to more closely correspond to what is required in many real world industrial applications. Specifically we present results demonstrating the ability to transform Gaussian beams to shapes required for industrial applications and how that relates to system parameters such as beam product parameter (BPP) values. We report on the how different waveguide structures perform in the NF and show results on how to achieve flat-top with circular outputs.

  16. In situ measurement of laser beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Somayeh Sadat; Ghavami Sabouri, Saeed; Khorsandi, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    An innovative optical method is introduced for the beam quality measurement of any arbitrary transverse mode based on the reconstruction of the mode from a few-frame image of the beam cross-section. This is performed by the decomposition of a mode to its basic Hermite-Gaussian modal coefficients. The performance of the proposed method is examined through M 2-factor measurement of the beam of a Nd:YAG laser which was forced to oscillate in a certain mode using a crossed rectangular intracavity aperture. Obtained results have shown that this method can be alternatively replaced for the hologram- and ISO-based techniques recently exploiting for beam quality measurement regardless of the mode type and the position of utilized CCD camera along the beam direction.

  17. Obstacle evasion in free-space optical communications utilizing Airy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoxuan; Wen, Yuanhui; Wu, Xiong; Chen, Yujie; Liu, Jie; Yu, Siyuan

    2018-03-01

    A high speed free-space optical communication system capable of self-bending signal transmission around line-of-sight obstacles is proposed and demonstrated. Airy beams are generated and controlled to achieve different propagating trajectories, and the signal transmission characteristics of these beams around the obstacle are investigated. Our results confirm that, by optimising their ballistic trajectories, Airy beams are able to bypass obstacles with more signal energy and thus improve the communication performance compared with normal Gaussian beams.

  18. Equivalent non-Gaussian excitation method for response moment calculation of systems under non-Gaussian random excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Takahiro; Kimura, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Equivalent non-Gaussian excitation method is proposed to obtain the moments up to the fourth order of the response of systems under non-Gaussian random excitation. The excitation is prescribed by the probability density and power spectrum. Moment equations for the response can be derived from the stochastic differential equations for the excitation and the system. However, the moment equations are not closed due to the nonlinearity of the diffusion coefficient in the equation for the excitation. In the proposed method, the diffusion coefficient is replaced with the equivalent diffusion coefficient approximately to obtain a closed set of the moment equations. The square of the equivalent diffusion coefficient is expressed by the second-order polynomial. In order to demonstrate the validity of the method, a linear system to non-Gaussian excitation with generalized Gaussian distribution is analyzed. The results show the method is applicable to non-Gaussian excitation with the widely different kurtosis and bandwidth. (author)

  19. Initial alignment method for free space optics laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yuta; Tashiro, Yuki; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Koichi; Tsujimura, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    The authors have newly proposed and constructed an active free space optics transmission system. It is equipped with a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes, and it transmits a collimated thin laser beam and accurately steers the laser beam direction. It is necessary to introduce the laser beam within sensible range of the receiver in advance of laser beam tracking control. This paper studies an estimation method of laser reaching point for initial laser beam alignment. Distributed photodiodes detect laser luminescence at respective position, and the optical axis of laser beam is analytically presumed based on the Gaussian beam optics. Computer simulation evaluates the accuracy of the proposed estimation methods, and results disclose that the methods help us to guide the laser beam to a distant receiver.

  20. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  1. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelbury, J.M.; Smith, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies with directed collision-free beams of particles continue to play an important role in the development of modern physics and chemistry. The deflections suffered by such beams as they pass through electric and magnetic fields or laser radiation provide some of the most direct information about the individual constituents of the beam; the scattering observed when two beams intersect yields important data about the intermolecular forces responsible for the scattering. (author)

  2. Primordial non-Gaussianity from LAMOST surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yan; Wang Xin; Chen Xuelei; Zheng Zheng

    2010-01-01

    The primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) in the matter density perturbation is a very powerful probe of the physics of the very early Universe. The local PNG can induce a distinct scale-dependent bias on the large scale structure distribution of galaxies and quasars, which could be used for constraining it. We study the detection limits of PNG from the surveys of the LAMOST telescope. The cases of the main galaxy survey, the luminous red galaxy (LRG) survey, and the quasar survey of different magnitude limits are considered. We find that the Main1 sample (i.e. the main galaxy survey which is one magnitude deeper than the SDSS main galaxy survey, or r NL are |f NL | NL | NL | is between 50 and 103, depending on the magnitude limit of the survey. With Planck-like priors on cosmological parameters, the quasar survey with g NL | < 43 (2σ). We also discuss the possibility of further tightening the constraint by using the relative bias method proposed by Seljak.

  3. A Decentralized Receiver in Gaussian Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian D. Chapman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bounds are developed on the maximum communications rate between a transmitter and a fusion node aided by a cluster of distributed receivers with limited resources for cooperation, all in the presence of an additive Gaussian interferer. The receivers cannot communicate with one another and can only convey processed versions of their observations to the fusion center through a Local Array Network (LAN with limited total throughput. The effectiveness of each bound’s approach for mitigating a strong interferer is assessed over a wide range of channels. It is seen that, if resources are shared effectively, even a simple quantize-and-forward strategy can mitigate an interferer 20 dB stronger than the signal in a diverse range of spatially Ricean channels. Monte-Carlo experiments for the bounds reveal that, while achievable rates are stable when varying the receiver’s observed scattered-path to line-of-sight signal power, the receivers must adapt how they share resources in response to this change. The bounds analyzed are proven to be achievable and are seen to be tight with capacity when LAN resources are either ample or limited.

  4. Bayesian nonparametric adaptive control using Gaussian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Girish; Kingravi, Hassan A; How, Jonathan P; Vela, Patricio A

    2015-03-01

    Most current model reference adaptive control (MRAC) methods rely on parametric adaptive elements, in which the number of parameters of the adaptive element are fixed a priori, often through expert judgment. An example of such an adaptive element is radial basis function networks (RBFNs), with RBF centers preallocated based on the expected operating domain. If the system operates outside of the expected operating domain, this adaptive element can become noneffective in capturing and canceling the uncertainty, thus rendering the adaptive controller only semiglobal in nature. This paper investigates a Gaussian process-based Bayesian MRAC architecture (GP-MRAC), which leverages the power and flexibility of GP Bayesian nonparametric models of uncertainty. The GP-MRAC does not require the centers to be preallocated, can inherently handle measurement noise, and enables MRAC to handle a broader set of uncertainties, including those that are defined as distributions over functions. We use stochastic stability arguments to show that GP-MRAC guarantees good closed-loop performance with no prior domain knowledge of the uncertainty. Online implementable GP inference methods are compared in numerical simulations against RBFN-MRAC with preallocated centers and are shown to provide better tracking and improved long-term learning.

  5. Boltzmann-Gaussian transition under specific noise effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh, Chu Thuy; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2014-01-01

    It is observed that a short time data set of market returns presents almost symmetric Boltzmann distribution whereas a long time data set tends to show a Gaussian distribution. To understand this universal phenomenon, many hypotheses which are spreading in a wide range of interdisciplinary research were proposed. In current work, the effects of background fluctuations on symmetric Boltzmann distribution is investigated. The numerical calculation is performed to show that the Gaussian noise may cause the transition from initial Boltzmann distribution to Gaussian one. The obtained results would reflect non-dynamic nature of the transition under consideration.

  6. Legendre Duality of Spherical and Gaussian Spin Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, Giuseppe; Tantari, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The classical result of concentration of the Gaussian measure on the sphere in the limit of large dimension induces a natural duality between Gaussian and spherical models of spin glass. We analyse the Legendre variational structure linking the free energies of these two systems, in the spirit of the equivalence of ensembles of statistical mechanics. Our analysis, combined with the previous work (Barra et al., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47, 155002, 2014), shows that such models are replica symmetric. Lastly, we briefly discuss an application of our result to the study of the Gaussian Hopfield model

  7. Controllable gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Campbell, Steve; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paternostro, Mauro

    2010-06-18

    We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios.

  8. Legendre Duality of Spherical and Gaussian Spin Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genovese, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.genovese@math.uzh.ch [Universität Zürich, Institut für Mathematik (Switzerland); Tantari, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.tantari@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Centro Ennio de Giorgi (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The classical result of concentration of the Gaussian measure on the sphere in the limit of large dimension induces a natural duality between Gaussian and spherical models of spin glass. We analyse the Legendre variational structure linking the free energies of these two systems, in the spirit of the equivalence of ensembles of statistical mechanics. Our analysis, combined with the previous work (Barra et al., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47, 155002, 2014), shows that such models are replica symmetric. Lastly, we briefly discuss an application of our result to the study of the Gaussian Hopfield model.

  9. Methods to characterize non-Gaussian noise in TAMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki; Arai, K; Takahashi, R; Tatsumi, D; Beyersdorf, P; Kawamura, S; Miyoki, S; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Numata, K; Kanda, N; Aso, Y; Fujimoto, M-K; Tsubono, K; Kuroda, K

    2003-01-01

    We present a data characterization method for the main output signal of the interferometric gravitational-wave detector, in particular targeting at effective detection of burst gravitational waves from stellar core collapse. The time scale of non-Gaussian events is evaluated in this method, and events with longer time scale than real signals are rejected as non-Gaussian noises. As a result of data analysis using 1000 h of real data with the interferometric gravitational-wave detector TAMA300, the false-alarm rate was improved 10 3 times with this non-Gaussian noise evaluation and rejection method

  10. Quantum Teamwork for Unconditional Multiparty Communication with Gaussian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Adesso, Gerardo; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate the capability of continuous variable Gaussian states to communicate multipartite quantum information. A quantum teamwork protocol is presented according to which an arbitrary possibly entangled multimode state can be faithfully teleported between two teams each comprising many cooperative users. We prove that N-mode Gaussian weighted graph states exist for arbitrary N that enable unconditional quantum teamwork implementations for any arrangement of the teams. These perfect continuous variable maximally multipartite entangled resources are typical among pure Gaussian states and are unaffected by the entanglement frustration occurring in multiqubit states.

  11. A note on moving average models for Gaussian random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis L.

    The class of moving average models offers a flexible modeling framework for Gaussian random fields with many well known models such as the Matérn covariance family and the Gaussian covariance falling under this framework. Moving average models may also be viewed as a kernel smoothing of a Lévy...... basis, a general modeling framework which includes several types of non-Gaussian models. We propose a new one-parameter spatial correlation model which arises from a power kernel and show that the associated Hausdorff dimension of the sample paths can take any value between 2 and 3. As a result...

  12. Detection Performance of Signals in Dependent Noise From a Gaussian Mixture Uncertainty Class

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerlach, K

    1998-01-01

    ... (correlated) multivariate noise from a Gaussian mixture uncertainty class. This uncertainty class is defined using upper and lower bounding functions on the univariate Gaussian mixing distribution function...

  13. Beam conditioner for free electron lasers and synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Neil, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    A focused optical has been used to introduce an optical pulse, or electromagnetic wave, collinear with the electron beam in a free electron laser or synchrotron thereby adding an axial field component that accelerates the electrons on the radial outside of the distribution of electrons in the electron beam. This invention consists of using the axial electrical component of a TEM 10 mode Gaussian beam in vacuum to condition the electron beam and speed up the outer electrons in the beam. The conditioning beam should possess about the same diameter as the electron beam. The beam waist of the conditioning wave must be located around the entrance of the undulator longitudinally to have a net energy exchange between the electrons in the outer part of the distribution and the conditioning wave owing to the natural divergence of a Gaussian beam. By accelerating the outer electrons, the outer and core electrons are caused to stay in phase. This increases the fraction of the electron beam energy that is converted to light thereby improving the efficiency of conversion of energy to light and therefore boosting the power output of the free electron laser and synchrotron. 4 figs

  14. Noninterferometric phase imaging of a neutral atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, P.J.; Mackin, T.R.; Turner, L.D.; Colton, I.; Nugent, K.A.; Scholten, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate quantitative phase imaging of a neutral atomic beam by using a noninterferometric technique. A collimated thermal atomic beam is phase shifted by an off-resonant traveling laser beam with both a Gaussian and a TEM 01 profile and with both red and blue detuning of as much as 50 GHz. Phase variations of more than 1000 rad were recovered from velocity-selective measurements of the propagation of the atomic beam and were found to be in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions based on independently measured phase object intensity profiles and detunings

  15. Stability of a Light Sail Riding on a Laser Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchester, Zachary [John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, 60 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: zmanchester@seas.harvard.edu [Astronomy Department, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The stability of a light sail riding on a laser beam is analyzed both analytically and numerically. Conical sails on Gaussian beams, which have been studied in the past, are shown to be unstable without active control or additional mechanical modifications. A new architecture for a passively stable sail-and-beam configuration is proposed. The novel spherical shell design for the sail is capable of “beam riding” without the need for active feedback control. Full three-dimensional ray-tracing simulations are performed to verify our analytical results.

  16. Recovery of CTF beam signals from a strong wakefield background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Y [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Schulte, E [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Ekeloef, T [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    The beam monitor for the CERN Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF) has to work not only with very short pulses (350 ps FWHM) at a spacing of 330 ps, but also in a strong wakefield background. A cone-shaped button pickup electrode has been designed and constructed for use with CTF beams and tests have been made using a real time analogue Gaussian filter to recover the beam signals from the strong wakefield signals. As a comparison to the analogue filter, a study has been made to process the data off-line and extract the beam signals using digital filtering based on the wavelet concept. (author). 3 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Stability of a Light Sail Riding on a Laser Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchester, Zachary; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The stability of a light sail riding on a laser beam is analyzed both analytically and numerically. Conical sails on Gaussian beams, which have been studied in the past, are shown to be unstable without active control or additional mechanical modifications. A new architecture for a passively stable sail-and-beam configuration is proposed. The novel spherical shell design for the sail is capable of “beam riding” without the need for active feedback control. Full three-dimensional ray-tracing simulations are performed to verify our analytical results.

  18. Gaussian-windowed frame based method of moments formulation of surface-integral-equation for extended apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlivinski, A., E-mail: amirshli@ee.bgu.ac.il [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Lomakin, V., E-mail: vlomakin@eng.ucsd.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Scattering or coupling of electromagnetic beam-field at a surface discontinuity separating two homogeneous or inhomogeneous media with different propagation characteristics is formulated using surface integral equation, which are solved by the Method of Moments with the aid of the Gabor-based Gaussian window frame set of basis and testing functions. The application of the Gaussian window frame provides (i) a mathematically exact and robust tool for spatial-spectral phase-space formulation and analysis of the problem; (ii) a system of linear equations in a transmission-line like form relating mode-like wave objects of one medium with mode-like wave objects of the second medium; (iii) furthermore, an appropriate setting of the frame parameters yields mode-like wave objects that blend plane wave properties (as if solving in the spectral domain) with Green's function properties (as if solving in the spatial domain); and (iv) a representation of the scattered field with Gaussian-beam propagators that may be used in many large (in terms of wavelengths) systems.

  19. Response moments of dynamic systems under non-Gaussian random excitation by the equivalent non-Gaussian excitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Takahiro; Kimura, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Equivalent non-Gaussian excitation method is proposed to obtain the response moments up to the 4th order of dynamic systems under non-Gaussian random excitation. The non-Gaussian excitation is prescribed by the probability density and the power spectrum, and is described by an Ito stochastic differential equation. Generally, moment equations for the response, which are derived from the governing equations for the excitation and the system, are not closed due to the nonlinearity of the diffusion coefficient in the equation for the excitation even though the system is linear. In the equivalent non-Gaussian excitation method, the diffusion coefficient is replaced with the equivalent diffusion coefficient approximately to obtain a closed set of the moment equations. The square of the equivalent diffusion coefficient is expressed by a quadratic polynomial. In numerical examples, a linear system subjected to nonGaussian excitations with bimodal and Rayleigh distributions is analyzed by using the present method. The results show that the method yields the variance, skewness and kurtosis of the response with high accuracy for non-Gaussian excitation with the widely different probability densities and bandwidth. The statistical moments of the equivalent non-Gaussian excitation are also investigated to describe the feature of the method. (paper)

  20. Treatment of non-Gaussian tails of multiple Coulomb scattering in track fitting with a Gaussian-sum filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandlie, A.; Wroldsen, J.

    2006-01-01

    If any of the probability densities involved in track fitting deviate from the Gaussian assumption, it is plausible that a non-linear estimator which better takes the actual shape of the distribution into account can do better. One such non-linear estimator is the Gaussian-sum filter, which is adequate if the distributions under consideration can be approximated by Gaussian mixtures. The main purpose of this paper is to present a Gaussian-sum filter for track fitting, based on a two-component approximation of the distribution of angular deflections due to multiple scattering. In a simulation study within a linear track model the Gaussian-sum filter is shown to be a competitive alternative to the Kalman filter. Scenarios at various momenta and with various maximum number of components in the Gaussian-sum filter are considered. Particularly at low momenta the Gaussian-sum filter yields a better estimate of the uncertainties than the Kalman filter, and it is also slightly more precise than the latter

  1. A Gaussian mixture copula model based localized Gaussian process regression approach for long-term wind speed prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jie; Chen, Kuilin; Mori, Junichi; Rashid, Mudassir M.

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing wind power generation and controlling the operation of wind turbines to efficiently harness the renewable wind energy is a challenging task due to the intermittency and unpredictable nature of wind speed, which has significant influence on wind power production. A new approach for long-term wind speed forecasting is developed in this study by integrating GMCM (Gaussian mixture copula model) and localized GPR (Gaussian process regression). The time series of wind speed is first classified into multiple non-Gaussian components through the Gaussian mixture copula model and then Bayesian inference strategy is employed to incorporate the various non-Gaussian components using the posterior probabilities. Further, the localized Gaussian process regression models corresponding to different non-Gaussian components are built to characterize the stochastic uncertainty and non-stationary seasonality of the wind speed data. The various localized GPR models are integrated through the posterior probabilities as the weightings so that a global predictive model is developed for the prediction of wind speed. The proposed GMCM–GPR approach is demonstrated using wind speed data from various wind farm locations and compared against the GMCM-based ARIMA (auto-regressive integrated moving average) and SVR (support vector regression) methods. In contrast to GMCM–ARIMA and GMCM–SVR methods, the proposed GMCM–GPR model is able to well characterize the multi-seasonality and uncertainty of wind speed series for accurate long-term prediction. - Highlights: • A novel predictive modeling method is proposed for long-term wind speed forecasting. • Gaussian mixture copula model is estimated to characterize the multi-seasonality. • Localized Gaussian process regression models can deal with the random uncertainty. • Multiple GPR models are integrated through Bayesian inference strategy. • The proposed approach shows higher prediction accuracy and reliability

  2. Beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the open-quotes Boosterclose quotes and open-quotes ATLASclose quotes linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates

  3. Making tensor factorizations robust to non-gaussian noise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Eric C. (Rice University, Houston, TX); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2011-03-01

    Tensors are multi-way arrays, and the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization has found application in many different domains. The CP model is typically fit using a least squares objective function, which is a maximum likelihood estimate under the assumption of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian noise. We demonstrate that this loss function can be highly sensitive to non-Gaussian noise. Therefore, we propose a loss function based on the 1-norm because it can accommodate both Gaussian and grossly non-Gaussian perturbations. We also present an alternating majorization-minimization (MM) algorithm for fitting a CP model using our proposed loss function (CPAL1) and compare its performance to the workhorse algorithm for fitting CP models, CP alternating least squares (CPALS).

  4. Simple form for the Gaussian equations in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzitelli, F.D.; Paz, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the variational Gaussian equations for λphi 4 theory in an arbitrary background gravitational field admit a simple form, which allows the use of a Schwinger-DeWitt-type expansion in order to renormalize them

  5. Quantifying entanglement in two-mode Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserkis, Spyros; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2017-12-01

    Entangled two-mode Gaussian states are a key resource for quantum information technologies such as teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, so quantification of Gaussian entanglement is an important problem. Entanglement of formation is unanimously considered a proper measure of quantum correlations, but for arbitrary two-mode Gaussian states no analytical form is currently known. In contrast, logarithmic negativity is a measure that is straightforward to calculate and so has been adopted by most researchers, even though it is a less faithful quantifier. In this work, we derive an analytical lower bound for entanglement of formation of generic two-mode Gaussian states, which becomes tight for symmetric states and for states with balanced correlations. We define simple expressions for entanglement of formation in physically relevant situations and use these to illustrate the problematic behavior of logarithmic negativity, which can lead to spurious conclusions.

  6. Super-resolving random-Gaussian apodized photon sieve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatyan, Arash; Roshaninejad, Parisa

    2012-09-10

    A novel apodized photon sieve is presented in which random dense Gaussian distribution is implemented to modulate the pinhole density in each zone. The random distribution in dense Gaussian distribution causes intrazone discontinuities. Also, the dense Gaussian distribution generates a substantial number of pinholes in order to form a large degree of overlap between the holes in a few innermost zones of the photon sieve; thereby, clear zones are formed. The role of the discontinuities on the focusing properties of the photon sieve is examined as well. Analysis shows that secondary maxima have evidently been suppressed, transmission has increased enormously, and the central maxima width is approximately unchanged in comparison to the dense Gaussian distribution. Theoretical results have been completely verified by experiment.

  7. Mimicking an amplitude damping channel for Laguerre Gaussian Modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An amplitude damping channel for Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel on LG modes is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically....

  8. Scalable Gaussian Processes and the search for exoplanets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Gaussian Processes are a class of non-parametric models that are often used to model stochastic behavior in time series or spatial data. A major limitation for the application of these models to large datasets is the computational cost. The cost of a single evaluation of the model likelihood scales as the third power of the number of data points. In the search for transiting exoplanets, the datasets of interest have tens of thousands to millions of measurements with uneven sampling, rendering naive application of a Gaussian Process model impractical. To attack this problem, we have developed robust approximate methods for Gaussian Process regression that can be applied at this scale. I will describe the general problem of Gaussian Process regression and offer several applicable use cases. Finally, I will present our work on scaling this model to the exciting field of exoplanet discovery and introduce a well-tested open source implementation of these new methods.

  9. Crossover between the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble, the Gaussian unitary ensemble, and Poissonian statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiner, Frank; Laturner, Jeanine; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter

    2017-11-01

    Until now only for specific crossovers between Poissonian statistics (P), the statistics of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE), or the statistics of a Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) have analytical formulas for the level spacing distribution function been derived within random matrix theory. We investigate arbitrary crossovers in the triangle between all three statistics. To this aim we propose an according formula for the level spacing distribution function depending on two parameters. Comparing the behavior of our formula for the special cases of P→GUE, P→GOE, and GOE→GUE with the results from random matrix theory, we prove that these crossovers are described reasonably. Recent investigations by F. Schweiner et al. [Phys. Rev. E 95, 062205 (2017)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.95.062205] have shown that the Hamiltonian of magnetoexcitons in cubic semiconductors can exhibit all three statistics in dependence on the system parameters. Evaluating the numerical results for magnetoexcitons in dependence on the excitation energy and on a parameter connected with the cubic valence band structure and comparing the results with the formula proposed allows us to distinguish between regular and chaotic behavior as well as between existent or broken antiunitary symmetries. Increasing one of the two parameters, transitions between different crossovers, e.g., from the P→GOE to the P→GUE crossover, are observed and discussed.

  10. Decoherence and tripartite entanglement dynamics in the presence of Gaussian and non-Gaussian classical noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza, E-mail: kenfacklionel300@gmail.com [Mesoscopic and Multilayer Structure Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO Box: 67 Dschang (Cameroon); Tchoffo, Martin; Fai, Lukong Cornelius [Mesoscopic and Multilayer Structure Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO Box: 67 Dschang (Cameroon); Fouokeng, Georges Collince [Mesoscopic and Multilayer Structure Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO Box: 67 Dschang (Cameroon); Laboratoire de Génie des Matériaux, Pôle Recherche-Innovation-Entrepreneuriat (PRIE), Institut Universitaire de la Côte, BP 3001 Douala (Cameroon)

    2017-04-15

    We address the entanglement dynamics of a three-qubit system interacting with a classical fluctuating environment described either by a Gaussian or non-Gaussian noise in three different configurations namely: common, independent and mixed environments. Specifically, we focus on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) noise and the random telegraph noise (RTN). The qubits are prepared in a state composed of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and a W state. With the help of the tripartite negativity, we show that the entanglement evolution is not only affected by the type of system-environment coupling but also by the kind and the memory properties of the considered noise. We also compared the dynamics induced by the two kinds of noise and we find that even if both noises have a Lorentzian spectrum, the effects of the OU noise cannot be in a simple way deduced from those of the RTN and vice-versa. In addition, we show that the entanglement can be indefinitely preserved when the qubits are coupled to the environmental noise in a common environment (CE). Finally, the presence or absence of peculiar phenomena such as entanglement revivals (ER) and entanglement sudden death (ESD) is observed.

  11. Decoherence and tripartite entanglement dynamics in the presence of Gaussian and non-Gaussian classical noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza; Tchoffo, Martin; Fai, Lukong Cornelius; Fouokeng, Georges Collince

    2017-01-01

    We address the entanglement dynamics of a three-qubit system interacting with a classical fluctuating environment described either by a Gaussian or non-Gaussian noise in three different configurations namely: common, independent and mixed environments. Specifically, we focus on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) noise and the random telegraph noise (RTN). The qubits are prepared in a state composed of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and a W state. With the help of the tripartite negativity, we show that the entanglement evolution is not only affected by the type of system-environment coupling but also by the kind and the memory properties of the considered noise. We also compared the dynamics induced by the two kinds of noise and we find that even if both noises have a Lorentzian spectrum, the effects of the OU noise cannot be in a simple way deduced from those of the RTN and vice-versa. In addition, we show that the entanglement can be indefinitely preserved when the qubits are coupled to the environmental noise in a common environment (CE). Finally, the presence or absence of peculiar phenomena such as entanglement revivals (ER) and entanglement sudden death (ESD) is observed.

  12. On beam models and their paraxial approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, W. J.; King, B.

    2018-01-01

    We derive focused laser pulse solutions to the electromagnetic wave equation in vacuum. After reproducing beam and pulse expressions for the well-known paraxial Gaussian and axicon cases, we apply the method to analyse a laser beam with Lorentzian transverse momentum distribution. Whilst a paraxial approach has some success close to the focal axis and within a Rayleigh range of the focal spot, we find that it incorrectly predicts the transverse fall-off typical of a Lorentzian. Our vector-potential approach is particularly relevant to calculation of quantum electrodynamical processes in weak laser pulse backgrounds.

  13. Collective Thomson scattering of a high power electron cyclotron resonance heating beam in LHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubo, S.; Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system has been constructed at LHD making use of the high power ECRH system in LHD. The necessary features for CTS, high power probing beams and receiving beams, both with well defined Gaussian profile and with the fine controllability, are endowed in the ECRH ...

  14. Non-gaussianity versus nonlinearity of cosmological perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, L

    2001-06-01

    Following the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, the hot big-bang model has become the standard cosmological model. In this theory, small primordial fluctuations are subsequently amplified by gravity to form the large-scale structure seen today. Different theories for unified models of particle physics, lead to different predictions for the statistical properties of the primordial fluctuations, that can be divided in two classes: gaussian and non-gaussian. Convincing evidence against or for gaussian initial conditions would rule out many scenarios and point us toward a physical theory for the origin of structures. The statistical distribution of cosmological perturbations, as we observe them, can deviate from the gaussian distribution in several different ways. Even if perturbations start off gaussian, nonlinear gravitational evolution can introduce non-gaussian features. Additionally, our knowledge of the Universe comes principally from the study of luminous material such as galaxies, but galaxies might not be faithful tracers of the underlying mass distribution. The relationship between fluctuations in the mass and in the galaxies distribution (bias), is often assumed to be local, but could well be nonlinear. Moreover, galaxy catalogues use the redshift as third spatial coordinate: the resulting redshift-space map of the galaxy distribution is nonlinearly distorted by peculiar velocities. Nonlinear gravitational evolution, biasing, and redshift-space distortion introduce non-gaussianity, even in an initially gaussian fluctuation field. I investigate the statistical tools that allow us, in principle, to disentangle the above different effects, and the observational datasets we require to do so in practice.

  15. GAUSSIAN 76: an ab initio molecular orbital program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkley, J.S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P.C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W.J.; Lathan, W.A.; Newton, M.D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J.A.

    Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans

  16. Gaussian Process Regression for WDM System Performance Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wass, Jesper; Thrane, Jakob; Piels, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Gaussian process regression is numerically and experimentally investigated to predict the bit error rate of a 24 x 28 CiBd QPSK WDM system. The proposed method produces accurate predictions from multi-dimensional and sparse measurement data.......Gaussian process regression is numerically and experimentally investigated to predict the bit error rate of a 24 x 28 CiBd QPSK WDM system. The proposed method produces accurate predictions from multi-dimensional and sparse measurement data....

  17. Revisiting non-Gaussianity from non-attractor inflation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Sasaki, Misao; Wang, Dong-Gang; Wang, Ziwei

    2018-05-01

    Non-attractor inflation is known as the only single field inflationary scenario that can violate non-Gaussianity consistency relation with the Bunch-Davies vacuum state and generate large local non-Gaussianity. However, it is also known that the non-attractor inflation by itself is incomplete and should be followed by a phase of slow-roll attractor. Moreover, there is a transition process between these two phases. In the past literature, this transition was approximated as instant and the evolution of non-Gaussianity in this phase was not fully studied. In this paper, we follow the detailed evolution of the non-Gaussianity through the transition phase into the slow-roll attractor phase, considering different types of transition. We find that the transition process has important effect on the size of the local non-Gaussianity. We first compute the net contribution of the non-Gaussianities at the end of inflation in canonical non-attractor models. If the curvature perturbations keep evolving during the transition—such as in the case of smooth transition or some sharp transition scenarios—the Script O(1) local non-Gaussianity generated in the non-attractor phase can be completely erased by the subsequent evolution, although the consistency relation remains violated. In extremal cases of sharp transition where the super-horizon modes freeze immediately right after the end of the non-attractor phase, the original non-attractor result can be recovered. We also study models with non-canonical kinetic terms, and find that the transition can typically contribute a suppression factor in the squeezed bispectrum, but the final local non-Gaussianity can still be made parametrically large.

  18. Identification and estimation of non-Gaussian structural vector autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanne, Markku; Meitz, Mika; Saikkonen, Pentti

    -Gaussian components is, without any additional restrictions, identified and leads to (essentially) unique impulse responses. We also introduce an identification scheme under which the maximum likelihood estimator of the non-Gaussian SVAR model is consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. As a consequence......, additional economic identifying restrictions can be tested. In an empirical application, we find a negative impact of a contractionary monetary policy shock on financial markets, and clearly reject the commonly employed recursive identifying restrictions....

  19. Materials processing with superposed Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaoming [Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Trallero-Herrero, Carlos A. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Lei, Shuting, E-mail: lei@ksu.edu [Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Superpositions of Bessel beams can be generated with >50% efficiency using an SLM and an axicon. • These beams have orders-of-magnitude increase in depth-of-focus compared to Gaussian beams. • Multiple craters can be fabricated on glass with single-shot exposure. • The 1+(−1) superposition can reduce collateral damage caused by the rings in the zero-order Bessel beams. - Abstract: We report experimental results of femtosecond laser processing on the surface of glass and metal thin film using superposed Bessel beams. These beams are generated by a combination of a spatial light modulator (SLM) and an axicon with >50% efficiency, and they possess the long depth-of-focus (propagation-invariant) property as found in ordinary Bessel beams. Through micromachining experiments using femtosecond laser pulses, we show that multiple craters can be fabricated on glass with single-shot exposure, and the 1+(−1) superposed beam can reduce collateral damage caused by the rings in zero-order Bessel beams in the scribing of metal thin film.

  20. Reconstruction of laser beam wavefronts based on mode analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available . Experimental setup for measuring the far field of differ- ently aberrated Gaussian beams. He–Ne, helium–neon laser; L 1–3 , lenses; M, mirror; SLM 1 , spatial light modulator; CCD, camera. Fig. 8. Theoretical and measured far fields FFth and FFm of a...

  1. Current inversion induced by colored non-Gaussian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bag, Bidhan Chandra; Hu, Chin-Kung

    2009-01-01

    We study a stochastic process driven by colored non-Gaussian noises. For the flashing ratchet model we find that there is a current inversion in the variation of the current with the half-cycle period which accounts for the potential on–off operation. The current inversion almost disappears if one switches from non-Gaussian (NG) to Gaussian (G) noise. We also find that at low value of the asymmetry parameter of the potential the mobility controlled current is more negative for NG noise as compared to G noise. But at large magnitude of the parameter the diffusion controlled positive current is higher for the former than for the latter. On increasing the noise correlation time (τ), keeping the noise strength fixed, the mean velocity of a particle first increases and then decreases after passing through a maximum if the noise is non-Gaussian. For Gaussian noise, the current monotonically decreases. The current increases with the noise parameter p, 0< p<5/3, which is 1 for Gaussian noise

  2. Passivity and practical work extraction using Gaussian operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Eric G; Huber, Marcus; Friis, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    Quantum states that can yield work in a cyclical Hamiltonian process form one of the primary resources in the context of quantum thermodynamics. Conversely, states whose average energy cannot be lowered by unitary transformations are called passive. However, while work may be extracted from non-passive states using arbitrary unitaries, the latter may be hard to realize in practice. It is therefore pertinent to consider the passivity of states under restricted classes of operations that can be feasibly implemented. Here, we ask how restrictive the class of Gaussian unitaries is for the task of work extraction. We investigate the notion of Gaussian passivity, that is, we present necessary and sufficient criteria identifying all states whose energy cannot be lowered by Gaussian unitaries. For all other states we give a prescription for the Gaussian operations that extract the maximal amount of energy. Finally, we show that the gap between passivity and Gaussian passivity is maximal, i.e., Gaussian-passive states may still have a maximal amount of energy that is extractable by arbitrary unitaries, even under entropy constraints. (paper)

  3. Superstatistical generalised Langevin equation: non-Gaussian viscoelastic anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślęzak, Jakub; Metzler, Ralf; Magdziarz, Marcin

    2018-02-01

    Recent advances in single particle tracking and supercomputing techniques demonstrate the emergence of normal or anomalous, viscoelastic diffusion in conjunction with non-Gaussian distributions in soft, biological, and active matter systems. We here formulate a stochastic model based on a generalised Langevin equation in which non-Gaussian shapes of the probability density function and normal or anomalous diffusion have a common origin, namely a random parametrisation of the stochastic force. We perform a detailed analysis demonstrating how various types of parameter distributions for the memory kernel result in exponential, power law, or power-log law tails of the memory functions. The studied system is also shown to exhibit a further unusual property: the velocity has a Gaussian one point probability density but non-Gaussian joint distributions. This behaviour is reflected in the relaxation from a Gaussian to a non-Gaussian distribution observed for the position variable. We show that our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulations.

  4. Non-Gaussianity from inflation: theory and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, N.; Komatsu, E.; Matarrese, S.; Riotto, A.

    2004-11-01

    This is a review of models of inflation and of their predictions for the primordial non-Gaussianity in the density perturbations which are thought to be at the origin of structures in the Universe. Non-Gaussianity emerges as a key observable to discriminate among competing scenarios for the generation of cosmological perturbations and is one of the primary targets of present and future Cosmic Microwave Background satellite missions. We give a detailed presentation of the state-of-the-art of the subject of non-Gaussianity, both from the theoretical and the observational point of view, and provide all the tools necessary to compute at second order in perturbation theory the level of non-Gaussianity in any model of cosmological perturbations. We discuss the new wave of models of inflation, which are firmly rooted in modern particle physics theory and predict a significant amount of non-Gaussianity. The review is addressed to both astrophysicists and particle physicists and contains useful tables which summarize the theoretical and observational results regarding non-Gaussianity.

  5. Back to Normal! Gaussianizing posterior distributions for cosmological probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Robert L.; Joachimi, Benjamin; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to map multivariate non-Gaussian posterior probability densities into Gaussian ones via nonlinear Box-Cox transformations, and generalizations thereof. This is analogous to the search for normal parameters in the CMB, but can in principle be applied to any probability density that is continuous and unimodal. The search for the optimally Gaussianizing transformation amongst the Box-Cox family is performed via a maximum likelihood formalism. We can judge the quality of the found transformation a posteriori: qualitatively via statistical tests of Gaussianity, and more illustratively by how well it reproduces the credible regions. The method permits an analytical reconstruction of the posterior from a sample, e.g. a Markov chain, and simplifies the subsequent joint analysis with other experiments. Furthermore, it permits the characterization of a non-Gaussian posterior in a compact and efficient way. The expression for the non-Gaussian posterior can be employed to find analytic formulae for the Bayesian evidence, and consequently be used for model comparison.

  6. Automated translating beam profiler for in situ laser beam spot-size and focal position measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, James

    2018-03-01

    We present a simple and convenient, high-resolution solution for automated laser-beam profiling with axial translation. The device is based on a Raspberry Pi computer, Pi Noir CMOS camera, stepper motor, and commercial translation stage. We also provide software to run the device. The CMOS sensor is sensitive over a large wavelength range between 300 and 1100 nm and can be translated over 25 mm along the beam axis. The sensor head can be reversed without changing its axial position, allowing for a quantitative estimate of beam overlap with counter-propagating laser beams. Although not limited to this application, the intended use for this device is the automated measurement of the focal position and spot-size of a Gaussian laser beam. We present example data of one such measurement to illustrate device performance.

  7. Longitudinal impedance of a step-in for a round beam at arbitrary beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khateeb, A.M., E-mail: a.alkhateeb@gsi.d [FAIR-Accelerator Theory Group, GSI Darmstadt, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Plotnikov, A. [FAIR-Accelerator Theory Group, GSI Darmstadt, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Shim, S.Y. [FAIR Division, Magnettechnik/Kryotechnik, GSI Darmstadt, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Haenichen, L. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie elektromagnetischer Felder, TEMF, Schlossgartenstr. 8, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    Contribution of step-in geometric discontinuity to the longitudinal coupling impedance has been obtained analytically using exact field matching. We assumed a perfectly conducting beam-pipe wall of two different radii connected coaxially at z=0 so that the contribution to the longitudinal coupling impedance is purely due to the beam-pipe geometric discontinuity. We also obtained the longitudinal loss factor for a Gaussian beam as a function of beam energy and bunch length. Results have been analyzed numerically for some representative parameters close to real machine parameters. Analytical results have also been compared with numerical simulation from CST at relativistic beam energies. We found a very good agreement between theory and simulation.

  8. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  9. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  10. Scaled unscented transform Gaussian sum filter: Theory and application

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2010-05-01

    In this work we consider the state estimation problem in nonlinear/non-Gaussian systems. We introduce a framework, called the scaled unscented transform Gaussian sum filter (SUT-GSF), which combines two ideas: the scaled unscented Kalman filter (SUKF) based on the concept of scaled unscented transform (SUT) (Julier and Uhlmann (2004) [16]), and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The SUT is used to approximate the mean and covariance of a Gaussian random variable which is transformed by a nonlinear function, while the GMM is adopted to approximate the probability density function (pdf) of a random variable through a set of Gaussian distributions. With these two tools, a framework can be set up to assimilate nonlinear systems in a recursive way. Within this framework, one can treat a nonlinear stochastic system as a mixture model of a set of sub-systems, each of which takes the form of a nonlinear system driven by a known Gaussian random process. Then, for each sub-system, one applies the SUKF to estimate the mean and covariance of the underlying Gaussian random variable transformed by the nonlinear governing equations of the sub-system. Incorporating the estimations of the sub-systems into the GMM gives an explicit (approximate) form of the pdf, which can be regarded as a "complete" solution to the state estimation problem, as all of the statistical information of interest can be obtained from the explicit form of the pdf (Arulampalam et al. (2002) [7]). In applications, a potential problem of a Gaussian sum filter is that the number of Gaussian distributions may increase very rapidly. To this end, we also propose an auxiliary algorithm to conduct pdf re-approximation so that the number of Gaussian distributions can be reduced. With the auxiliary algorithm, in principle the SUT-GSF can achieve almost the same computational speed as the SUKF if the SUT-GSF is implemented in parallel. As an example, we will use the SUT-GSF to assimilate a 40-dimensional system due to

  11. A Symplectic Beam-Beam Interaction with Energy Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    The performance of many colliding storage rings is limited by the beam-beam interaction. A particle feels a nonlinear force produced by the encountering bunch at the collision. This beam-beam force acts mainly in the transverse directions so that the longitudinal effects have scarcely been studied, except for the cases of a collision with a crossing angle. Recently, however, high luminosity machines are being considered where the beams are focused extensively at the interaction point (IP) so that the beam sizes can vary significantly within the bunch length. Krishnagopal and Siemann have shown that they should not neglect the bunch length effect in this case. The transverse kick depends on the longitudinal position as well as on the transverse position. If they include this effect, however, from the action-reaction principle, they should expect, at the same time, an energy change which depends on the transverse coordinates. Such an effect is reasonably understood from the fact that the beam-beam force is partly due to the electric field, which can change the energy. The action-reaction principle comes from the symplecticity of the reaction: the electromagnetic influence on a particle is described by a Hamiltonian. The symplecticity is one of the most fundamental requirements when studying the beam dynamics. A nonsymplectic approximation can easily lead to unphysical results. In this paper, they propose a simple, approximately but symplectic mapping for the beam-beam interaction which includes the energy change as well as the bunch-length effect. In the next section, they propose the mapping in a Hamiltonian form, which directly assures its symplecticity. Then in section 3, they study the nature of the mapping by interpreting its consequences. The mapping itself is quite general and can be applied to any distribution function. They show in Section 4 how it appears when the distribution function is a Gaussian in transverse directions. The mapping is applied to the

  12. Beam shaping to provide round and square-shaped beams in optical systems of high-power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2016-05-01

    Optical systems of modern high-power lasers require control of irradiance distribution: round or square-shaped flat-top or super-Gaussian irradiance profiles are optimum for amplification in MOPA lasers and for thermal load management while pumping of crystals of solid-state ultra-short pulse lasers to control heat and minimize its impact on the laser power and beam quality while maximizing overall laser efficiency, variable profiles are also important in irradiating of photocathode of Free Electron lasers (FEL). It is suggested to solve the task of irradiance re-distribution using field mapping refractive beam shapers like piShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flat-top one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with ultra-short pulse lasers having broad spectrum. Using the same piShaper device it is possible to realize beams with flat-top, inverse Gauss or super Gauss irradiance distribution by simple variation of input beam diameter, and the beam shape can be round or square with soft edges. This paper will describe some design basics of refractive beam shapers of the field mapping type and optical layouts of their applying in optical systems of high-power lasers. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  13. Experimental verification of dose calculation using the simplified Monte Carlo method with an improved initial beam model for a beam-wobbling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tansho, Ryohei; Takada, Yoshihisa; Mizutani, Shohei; Kohno, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kenji; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Hara, Yousuke

    2013-01-01

    A beam delivery system using a single-radius-beam-wobbling method has been used to form a conformal irradiation field for proton radiotherapy in Japan. A proton beam broadened by the beam-wobbling system provides a non-Gaussian distribution of projection angle different in two mutually orthogonal planes with a common beam central axis, at a certain position. However, the conventional initial beam model for dose calculations has been using an approximation of symmetric Gaussian angular distribution with the same variance in both planes (called here a Gaussian model with symmetric variance (GMSV)), instead of the accurate one. We have developed a more accurate initial beam model defined as a non-Gaussian model with asymmetric variance (NonGMAV), and applied it to dose calculations using the simplified Monte Carlo (SMC) method. The initial beam model takes into account the different distances of two beam-wobbling magnets from the iso-center and also the different amplitudes of kick angle given by each magnet. We have confirmed that the calculation using the SMC with NonGMAV reproduced the measured dose distribution formed in air by a mono-energetic proton beam passing through a square aperture collimator better than with the GMSV and with a Gaussian model with asymmetric variance (GMAV) in which different variances of angular distributions are used in the two mutually orthogonal planes. Measured dose distributions in a homogeneous phantom formed by a modulated proton beam passing through a range shifter and an L-shaped range compensator, were consistent with calculations using the SMC with GMAV and NonGMAV, but in disagreement with calculations using the SMC with GMSV. Measured lateral penumbrae in a lateral direction were reproduced better by calculations using the SMC with NonGMAV than by those with GMAV, when an aperture collimator with a smaller opening was used. We found that such a difference can be attributed to the non-Gaussian angular distribution of the

  14. Numerical modeling of macrodispersion in heterogeneous media: a comparison of multi-Gaussian and non-multi-Gaussian models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Huan; Gómez-Hernández, J. Jaime

    1998-03-01

    The macrodispersion of an inert solute in a 2-D heterogeneous porous media is estimated numerically in a series of fields of varying heterogeneity. Four different random function (RF) models are used to model log-transmissivity (ln T) spatial variability, and for each of these models, ln T variance is varied from 0.1 to 2.0. The four RF models share the same univariate Gaussian histogram and the same isotropic covariance, but differ from one another in terms of the spatial connectivity patterns at extreme transmissivity values. More specifically, model A is a multivariate Gaussian model for which, by definition, extreme values (both high and low) are spatially uncorrelated. The other three models are non-multi-Gaussian: model B with high connectivity of high extreme values, model C with high connectivity of low extreme values, and model D with high connectivities of both high and low extreme values. Residence time distributions (RTDs) and macrodispersivities (longitudinal and transverse) are computed on ln T fields corresponding to the different RF models, for two different flow directions and at several scales. They are compared with each other, as well as with predicted values based on first-order analytical results. Numerically derived RTDs and macrodispersivities for the multi-Gaussian model are in good agreement with analytically derived values using first-order theories for log-transmissivity variance up to 2.0. The results from the non-multi-Gaussian models differ from each other and deviate largely from the multi-Gaussian results even when ln T variance is small. RTDs in non-multi-Gaussian realizations with high connectivity at high extreme values display earlier breakthrough than in multi-Gaussian realizations, whereas later breakthrough and longer tails are observed for RTDs from non-multi-Gaussian realizations with high connectivity at low extreme values. Longitudinal macrodispersivities in the non-multi-Gaussian realizations are, in general, larger than

  15. Ion beam profiling from the interaction with a freestanding 2D layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Shorubalko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a great potential of the focused ion beam (FIB technology for the nanometer-scale patterning of a freestanding two-dimensional (2D layer. Experimentally determined sputtering yields of the perforation process can be quantitatively explained using the binary collision theory. The main peculiarity of the interaction between the ion beams and the suspended 2D material lies in the absence of collision cascades, featured by no interaction volume. Thus, the patterning resolution is directly set by the beam diameters. Here, we demonstrate pattern resolution beyond the beam size and precise profiling of the focused ion beams. We find out that FIB exposure time of individual pixels can influence the resultant pore diameter. In return, the pore dimension as a function of the exposure dose brings out the ion beam profiles. Using this method of determining an ion-beam point spread function, we verify a Gaussian profile of focused gallium ion beams. Graphene sputtering yield is extracted from the normalization of the measured Gaussian profiles, given a total beam current. Interestingly, profiling of unbeknown helium ion beams in this way results in asymmetry of the profile. Even triangular beam shapes are observed at certain helium FIB conditions, possibly attributable to the trimer nature of the beam source. Our method of profiling ion beams with 2D-layer perforation provides more information on ion beam profiles than the conventional sharp-edge scan method does.

  16. Temporal self-splitting of optical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chaoliang; Koivurova, Matias; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan

    2018-05-01

    We present mathematical models for temporally and spectrally partially coherent pulse trains with Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian Schell-model statistics as extensions of the standard Gaussian Schell model for pulse trains. We derive propagation formulas of both classes of pulsed fields in linearly dispersive media and in temporal optical systems. It is found that, in general, both types of fields exhibit time-domain self-splitting upon propagation. The Laguerre-Gaussian model leads to multiply peaked pulses, while the Hermite-Gaussian model leads to doubly peaked pulses, in the temporal far field (in dispersive media) or at the Fourier plane of a temporal system. In both model fields the character of the self-splitting phenomenon depends both on the degree of temporal and spectral coherence and on the power spectrum of the field.

  17. Entanglement of Gaussian states and the applicability to quantum key distribution over fading channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenko, Vladyslav C; Filip, Radim; Heim, Bettina; Peuntinger, Christian; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement properties of Gaussian states of light as well as the security of continuous variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian states in free-space fading channels are studied. These qualities are shown to be sensitive to the statistical properties of the transmittance distribution in the cases when entanglement is strong or when channel excess noise is present. Fading, i.e. transmission fluctuations, caused by beam wandering due to atmospheric turbulence, is a frequent challenge in free-space communication. We introduce a method of fading discrimination and subsequent post-selection of the corresponding sub-states and show that it can improve the entanglement resource and restore the security of the key distribution over a realistic fading link. Furthermore, the optimal post-selection strategy in combination with an optimized entangled resource is shown to drastically increase the protocol's robustness to excess noise, which is confirmed for experimentally measured fading channel characteristics. The stability of the result against finite data ensemble size and imperfect channel estimation is also addressed. (paper)

  18. Capacity and optimal collusion attack channels for Gaussian fingerprinting games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Moulin, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    In content fingerprinting, the same media covertext - image, video, audio, or text - is distributed to many users. A fingerprint, a mark unique to each user, is embedded into each copy of the distributed covertext. In a collusion attack, two or more users may combine their copies in an attempt to "remove" their fingerprints and forge a pirated copy. To trace the forgery back to members of the coalition, we need fingerprinting codes that can reliably identify the fingerprints of those members. Researchers have been focusing on designing or testing fingerprints for Gaussian host signals and the mean square error (MSE) distortion under some classes of collusion attacks, in terms of the detector's error probability in detecting collusion members. For example, under the assumptions of Gaussian fingerprints and Gaussian attacks (the fingerprinted signals are averaged and then the result is passed through a Gaussian test channel), Moulin and Briassouli1 derived optimal strategies in a game-theoretic framework that uses the detector's error probability as the performance measure for a binary decision problem (whether a user participates in the collusion attack or not); Stone2 and Zhao et al. 3 studied average and other non-linear collusion attacks for Gaussian-like fingerprints; Wang et al. 4 stated that the average collusion attack is the most efficient one for orthogonal fingerprints; Kiyavash and Moulin 5 derived a mathematical proof of the optimality of the average collusion attack under some assumptions. In this paper, we also consider Gaussian cover signals, the MSE distortion, and memoryless collusion attacks. We do not make any assumption about the fingerprinting codes used other than an embedding distortion constraint. Also, our only assumptions about the attack channel are an expected distortion constraint, a memoryless constraint, and a fairness constraint. That is, the colluders are allowed to use any arbitrary nonlinear strategy subject to the above

  19. Analysis of piezoelectric energy harvester under modulated and filtered white Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Giuseppe; Trentadue, Francesco; Maruccio, Claudio; Marano, Giuseppe C.

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive method for the electromechanical probabilistic analysis of piezoelectric energy harvesters subjected to modulated and filtered white Gaussian noise (WGN) at the base. Specifically, the dynamic excitation is simulated by means of an amplitude-modulated WGN, which is filtered through the Clough-Penzien filter. The considered piezoelectric harvester is a cantilever bimorph modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beam with a concentrated mass at the free-end, and its global behavior is approximated by the fundamental vibration mode (which is tuned with the dominant frequency of the dynamic input). A resistive electrical load is considered in the circuit. Once the Lyapunov equation of the coupled electromechanical problem has been formulated, an original and efficient semi-analytical procedure is proposed to estimate mean and standard deviation of the electrical energy extracted from the piezoelectric layers.

  20. Gaussian vs. Bessel light-sheets: performance analysis in live large sample imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidt, Sascha L.; Correia, Ricardo B. C.; Donnachie, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis J.; MacDonald, Michael P.

    2017-08-01

    Lightsheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) has rapidly progressed in the past decade from an emerging technology into an established methodology. This progress has largely been driven by its suitability to developmental biology, where it is able to give excellent spatial-temporal resolution over relatively large fields of view with good contrast and low phototoxicity. In many respects it is superseding confocal microscopy. However, it is no magic bullet and still struggles to image deeply in more highly scattering samples. Many solutions to this challenge have been presented, including, Airy and Bessel illumination, 2-photon operation and deconvolution techniques. In this work, we show a comparison between a simple but effective Gaussian beam illumination and Bessel illumination for imaging in chicken embryos. Whilst Bessel illumination is shown to be of benefit when a greater depth of field is required, it is not possible to see any benefits for imaging into the highly scattering tissue of the chick embryo.