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Sample records for gates dynamic topologies

  1. Protected gates for topological quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverland, Michael E.; Pastawski, Fernando; Preskill, John; Buerschaper, Oliver; Koenig, Robert; Sijher, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    We study restrictions on locality-preserving unitary logical gates for topological quantum codes in two spatial dimensions. A locality-preserving operation is one which maps local operators to local operators — for example, a constant-depth quantum circuit of geometrically local gates, or evolution for a constant time governed by a geometrically local bounded-strength Hamiltonian. Locality-preserving logical gates of topological codes are intrinsically fault tolerant because spatially localized errors remain localized, and hence sufficiently dilute errors remain correctable. By invoking general properties of two-dimensional topological field theories, we find that the locality-preserving logical gates are severely limited for codes which admit non-abelian anyons, in particular, there are no locality-preserving logical gates on the torus or the sphere with M punctures if the braiding of anyons is computationally universal. Furthermore, for Ising anyons on the M-punctured sphere, locality-preserving gates must be elements of the logical Pauli group. We derive these results by relating logical gates of a topological code to automorphisms of the Verlinde algebra of the corresponding anyon model, and by requiring the logical gates to be compatible with basis changes in the logical Hilbert space arising from local F-moves and the mapping class group

  2. Induced topological pressure for topological dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Zhitao; Chen, Ercai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the article [J. Jaerisch et al., Stochastics Dyn. 14, 1350016, pp. 1-30 (2014)], we introduce the induced topological pressure for a topological dynamical system. In particular, we prove a variational principle for the induced topological pressure

  3. Modeling Internet Topology Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddadi, H.; Uhlig, S.; Moore, A.; Mortier, R.; Rio, M.

    Despite the large number of papers on network topology modeling and inference, there still exists ambiguity about the real nature of the Internet AS and router level topology. While recent findings have illustrated the inaccuracies in maps inferred from BGP peering and traceroute measurements,

  4. Magnetic gating of a 2D topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, J. D.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2016-09-01

    Deterministic control of transport properties through manipulation of spin states is one of the paradigms of spintronics. Topological insulators offer a new playground for exploring interesting spin-dependent phenomena. Here, we consider a ferromagnetic ‘gate’ representing a magnetic adatom coupled to the topologically protected edge state of a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator to modulate the electron transmission of the edge state. Due to the locked spin and wave vector of the transport electrons the transmission across the magnetic gate depends on the mutual orientation of the adatom magnetic moment and the current. If the Fermi energy matches an exchange-split bound state of the adatom, the electron transmission can be blocked due to the full back scattering of the incident wave. This antiresonance behavior is controlled by the adatom magnetic moment orientation so that the transmission of the edge state can be changed from 1 to 0. Expanding this consideration to a ferromagnetic gate representing a 1D chain of atoms shows a possibility to control the spin-dependent current of a strip of a 2D topological insulator by magnetization orientation of the ferromagnetic gate.

  5. Relativity of topology and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.; Rodriguez, E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in quantum set theory are used to formulate a program for quantum topological physics. The world is represented in Hilbert space whose psi vectors represent abstract complexes generated from the null set by one bracket operator and the usual Grassmann (or Clifford) product. Such a theory may be more basic than field theory, in that it may generate its own natural topology, time, kinematics and dynamics, without benefit of an absolute time-space dimension, topology, or Hamiltonian. For example there is a natural expression for the quantum gravitational field in terms of quantum topological operators. In such a theory the usual spectrum of possible dimensions describes only one of an indefinite hierarchy of levels, each with a similar spectrum, describing nonspatial infrastructure. While c simplices have no continuous symmetry, the q simplex has an orthogonal group (O(m,n). Because quantum theory cannot take the universe as physical system, a ''third relativity'' is proposed. The division between observer and observed is arbitrary. Then it is wrong to ask for ''the'' topology and dynamics of a system, in the same sense that it is wrong to ask for the ''the'' psi vectors of a system; topology and dynamics, like psi vectors, are not absolute but relative to the observer. (author)

  6. Dynamical topological invariant after a quantum quench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Linhu; Chen, Shu

    2018-02-01

    We show how to define a dynamical topological invariant for one-dimensional two-band topological systems after a quantum quench. By analyzing general two-band models of topological insulators, we demonstrate that the reduced momentum-time manifold can be viewed as a series of submanifolds S2, and thus we are able to define a dynamical topological invariant on each of the spheres. We also unveil the intrinsic relation between the dynamical topological invariant and the difference in the topological invariant of the initial and final static Hamiltonian. By considering some concrete examples, we illustrate the calculation of the dynamical topological invariant and its geometrical meaning explicitly.

  7. Duo gating on a 3D topological insulator - independent tuning of both topological surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; de Ronde, Bob; Snelder, Marieke; Stehno, Martin; Huang, Yingkai; Golden, Mark; Brinkman, Alexander; ICE Team; IOP Collaboration

    ABSTRACT: Topological insulators are associated with a trove of exciting physics, such as the ability to host robust anyons, Majorana Bound States, which can be used for quantum computation. For future Majorana devices it is desirable to have the Fermi energy tuned as close as possible to the Dirac point of the topological surface state. Based on previous work on gating BSTS, we report the experimental progress towards gate-tuning of the top and bottom topological surface states of BiSbTeSe2 crystal flakes. When the Fermi level is moved across the Dirac point conduction is shown to change from electron dominated transport to hole dominated transport independently for either surface. In the high magnetic field, one can tune the system precisely between the different landau levels of both surfaces, thus a full gating map of the possible landau levels combination is established. In addition, we provide a simple capacitance model to explain the general hysteresis behaviors in topological insulator systems.

  8. Nonvolatile Solid-State Charged-Polymer Gating of Topological Insulators into the Topological Insulating Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, R. M.; Wu, Liang; Salehi, M.; Oh, S.; Armitage, N. P.; Katz, H. E.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the ability to reduce the carrier concentration of thin films of the topological insulator (TI) Bi2 Se3 by utilizing a nonvolatile electrostatic gating via corona charging of electret polymers. Sufficient electric field can be imparted to a polymer-TI bilayer to result in significant electron density depletion, even without the continuous connection of a gate electrode or the chemical modification of the TI. We show that the Fermi level of Bi2 Se3 is shifted toward the Dirac point with this method. Using terahertz spectroscopy, we find that the surface chemical potential is lowered into the bulk band gap (approximately 50 meV above the Dirac point and 170 meV below the conduction-band minimum), and it is stabilized in the intrinsic regime while enhancing electron mobility. The mobility of surface state electrons is enhanced to a value as high as approximately 1600 cm2/V s at 5 K.

  9. Topological dynamics in supramolecular rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Carlos-Andres; Björk, Jonas; Rao, Francesco; Kühne, Dirk; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V

    2014-08-13

    Artificial molecular switches, rotors, and machines are set to establish design rules and applications beyond their biological counterparts. Herein we exemplify the role of noncovalent interactions and transient rearrangements in the complex behavior of supramolecular rotors caged in a 2D metal-organic coordination network. Combined scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and molecular dynamics modeling of a supramolecular rotor with respective rotation rates matching with 0.2 kcal mol(-1) (9 meV) precision, identify key steps in collective rotation events and reconfigurations. We notably reveal that stereoisomerization of the chiral trimeric units entails topological isomerization whereas rotation occurs in a topology conserving, two-step asynchronous process. In supramolecular constructs, distinct displacements of subunits occur inducing a markedly lower rotation barrier as compared to synchronous mechanisms of rigid rotors. Moreover, the chemical environment can be instructed to control the system dynamics. Our observations allow for a definition of mechanical cooperativity based on a significant reduction of free energy barriers in supramolecules compared to rigid molecules.

  10. Topological dimension and dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coornaert, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Translated from the popular French edition, the goal of the book is to provide a self-contained introduction to mean topological dimension, an invariant of dynamical systems introduced in 1999 by Misha Gromov. The book examines how this invariant was successfully used by Elon Lindenstrauss and Benjamin Weiss to answer a long-standing open question about embeddings of minimal dynamical systems into shifts. A large number of revisions and additions have been made to the original text. Chapter 5 contains an entirely new section devoted to the Sorgenfrey line. Two chapters have also been added: Chapter 9 on amenable groups and Chapter 10 on mean topological dimension for continuous actions of countable amenable groups. These new chapters contain material that have never before appeared in textbook form. The chapter on amenable groups is based on Følner’s characterization of amenability and may be read independently from the rest of the book. Although the contents of this book lead directly to several active ar...

  11. Vortices and gate-tunable bound states in a topological insulator coupled to superconducting leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Aaron; Kurter, C.; Hor, Y. S.; van Harlingen, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    It has been predicted that zero energy Majorana bound states can be found in the core of vortices within topological superconductors. Here, we report on Andreev spectroscopy measurements of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a normal metal lead and one or more niobium leads. The niobium induces superconductivity in the Bi2Se3 through the proximity effect, leading to both signatures of Andreev reflection and a prominent re-entrant resistance effect. When a large magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the surface of the Bi2Se3, we observe multiple abrupt changes in the subgap conductance that are accompanied by sharp peaks in the dynamical resistance. These peaks are very sensitive to changes in magnetic field and disappear at temperatures associated with the critical temperature of the induced superconductivity. The appearance of the transitions and peaks can be tuned by a top gate. At high magnetic fields, we also find evidence of gate-tunable states, which can lead to stable zero-bias conductance peaks. We interpret our results in terms of a transition occurring within the proximity effect region of the topological insulator, likely due to the formation of vortices. We acknowledge support from Microsoft Project Q.

  12. Topological theory of dynamical systems recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, N

    1994-01-01

    This monograph aims to provide an advanced account of some aspects of dynamical systems in the framework of general topology, and is intended for use by interested graduate students and working mathematicians. Although some of the topics discussed are relatively new, others are not: this book is not a collection of research papers, but a textbook to present recent developments of the theory that could be the foundations for future developments. This book contains a new theory developed by the authors to deal with problems occurring in diffentiable dynamics that are within the scope of general topology. To follow it, the book provides an adequate foundation for topological theory of dynamical systems, and contains tools which are sufficiently powerful throughout the book. Graduate students (and some undergraduates) with sufficient knowledge of basic general topology, basic topological dynamics, and basic algebraic topology will find little difficulty in reading this book.

  13. An improved genetic algorithm with dynamic topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Kai-Quan; Tang Yan-Wu; Zhang Xue-Jun; Guan Xiang-Min

    2016-01-01

    The genetic algorithm (GA) is a nature-inspired evolutionary algorithm to find optima in search space via the interaction of individuals. Recently, researchers demonstrated that the interaction topology plays an important role in information exchange among individuals of evolutionary algorithm. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different network topologies adopted to represent the interaction structures. It is found that GA with a high-density topology ends up more likely with an unsatisfactory solution, contrarily, a low-density topology can impede convergence. Consequently, we propose an improved GA with dynamic topology, named DT-GA, in which the topology structure varies dynamically along with the fitness evolution. Several experiments executed with 15 well-known test functions have illustrated that DT-GA outperforms other test GAs for making a balance of convergence speed and optimum quality. Our work may have implications in the combination of complex networks and computational intelligence. (paper)

  14. Topologically protected gates for quantum computation with non-Abelian anyons in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Lachezar S.

    2006-12-01

    We extend the topological quantum computation scheme using the Pfaffian quantum Hall state, which has been recently proposed by Das Sarma , in a way that might potentially allow for the topologically protected construction of a universal set of quantum gates. We construct, for the first time, a topologically protected controlled-NOT gate, which is entirely based on quasihole braidings of Pfaffian qubits. All single-qubit gates, except for the π/8 gate, are also explicitly implemented by quasihole braidings. Instead of the π/8 gate we try to construct a topologically protected Toffoli gate, in terms of the controlled-phase gate and CNOT or by a braid-group-based controlled-controlled- Z precursor. We also give a topologically protected realization of the Bravyi-Kitaev two-qubit gate g3 .

  15. Optimal diabatic dynamics of Majorana-based quantum gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Armin; Seradjeh, Babak; Franz, Marcel

    2017-08-01

    In topological quantum computing, unitary operations on qubits are performed by adiabatic braiding of non-Abelian quasiparticles, such as Majorana zero modes, and are protected from local environmental perturbations. In the adiabatic regime, with timescales set by the inverse gap of the system, the errors can be made arbitrarily small by performing the process more slowly. To enhance the performance of quantum information processing with Majorana zero modes, we apply the theory of optimal control to the diabatic dynamics of Majorana-based qubits. While we sacrifice complete topological protection, we impose constraints on the optimal protocol to take advantage of the nonlocal nature of topological information and increase the robustness of our gates. By using the Pontryagin's maximum principle, we show that robust equivalent gates to perfect adiabatic braiding can be implemented in finite times through optimal pulses. In our implementation, modifications to the device Hamiltonian are avoided. Focusing on thermally isolated systems, we study the effects of calibration errors and external white and 1 /f (pink) noise on Majorana-based gates. While a noise-induced antiadiabatic behavior, where a slower process creates more diabatic excitations, prohibits indefinite enhancement of the robustness of the adiabatic scheme, our fast optimal protocols exhibit remarkable stability to noise and have the potential to significantly enhance the practical performance of Majorana-based information processing.

  16. Energy Management Dynamic Control Topology In MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudan, G.; Kumar, TNR

    2017-08-01

    Topology management via per-node transmission power adjustment has been shown effective in extending network lifetime. The existing algorithms constructs static topologies which fail to take the residual energy of network nodes, and cannot balance energy consumption efficiently. To address this problem, a Light Weighted Distributed Topology Control algorithm EMDCT(Energy Management Dynamic Control Topology ) is proposed in this paper. Based on the link metric of the network, both the energy consumption rate level and residual energy levels at the two end nodes are considered. EMDCT generates a Dynamic Topology that changes with the variation of node energy without the aid of location information, each node determines its transmission power according to local network information, which reduces the overhead complexity of EMDCT greatly. The experiment results show that EMDCT preserves network connectivity and manitains minimum-cost property of the network also it can extend network lifetime more remarkably.

  17. Persistent topological features of dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maletić, Slobodan, E-mail: slobodan@hitsz.edu.cn [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen (China); Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinča, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Zhao, Yi, E-mail: zhao.yi@hitsz.edu.cn [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen (China); Rajković, Milan, E-mail: milanr@vinca.rs [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinča, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-05-15

    Inspired by an early work of Muldoon et al., Physica D 65, 1–16 (1993), we present a general method for constructing simplicial complex from observed time series of dynamical systems based on the delay coordinate reconstruction procedure. The obtained simplicial complex preserves all pertinent topological features of the reconstructed phase space, and it may be analyzed from topological, combinatorial, and algebraic aspects. In focus of this study is the computation of homology of the invariant set of some well known dynamical systems that display chaotic behavior. Persistent homology of simplicial complex and its relationship with the embedding dimensions are examined by studying the lifetime of topological features and topological noise. The consistency of topological properties for different dynamic regimes and embedding dimensions is examined. The obtained results shed new light on the topological properties of the reconstructed phase space and open up new possibilities for application of advanced topological methods. The method presented here may be used as a generic method for constructing simplicial complex from a scalar time series that has a number of advantages compared to the mapping of the same time series to a complex network.

  18. Inferring network topology from complex dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Srinivas Gorur; Timme, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Inferring the network topology from dynamical observations is a fundamental problem pervading research on complex systems. Here, we present a simple, direct method for inferring the structural connection topology of a network, given an observation of one collective dynamical trajectory. The general theoretical framework is applicable to arbitrary network dynamical systems described by ordinary differential equations. No interference (external driving) is required and the type of dynamics is hardly restricted in any way. In particular, the observed dynamics may be arbitrarily complex; stationary, invariant or transient; synchronous or asynchronous and chaotic or periodic. Presupposing a knowledge of the functional form of the dynamical units and of the coupling functions between them, we present an analytical solution to the inverse problem of finding the network topology from observing a time series of state variables only. Robust reconstruction is achieved in any sufficiently long generic observation of the system. We extend our method to simultaneously reconstructing both the entire network topology and all parameters appearing linear in the system's equations of motion. Reconstruction of network topology and system parameters is viable even in the presence of external noise that distorts the original dynamics substantially. The method provides a conceptually new step towards reconstructing a variety of real-world networks, including gene and protein interaction networks and neuronal circuits.

  19. Dynamic gating window for compensation of baseline shift in respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepin, Eric W.; Wu Huanmei; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze and evaluate the necessity and use of dynamic gating techniques for compensation of baseline shift during respiratory-gated radiation therapy of lung tumors. Methods: Motion tracking data from 30 lung tumors over 592 treatment fractions were analyzed for baseline shift. The finite state model (FSM) was used to identify the end-of-exhale (EOE) breathing phase throughout each treatment fraction. Using duty cycle as an evaluation metric, several methods of end-of-exhale dynamic gating were compared: An a posteriori ideal gating window, a predictive trend-line-based gating window, and a predictive weighted point-based gating window. These methods were evaluated for each of several gating window types: Superior/inferior (SI) gating, anterior/posterior beam, lateral beam, and 3D gating. Results: In the absence of dynamic gating techniques, SI gating gave a 39.6% duty cycle. The ideal SI gating window yielded a 41.5% duty cycle. The weight-based method of dynamic SI gating yielded a duty cycle of 36.2%. The trend-line-based method yielded a duty cycle of 34.0%. Conclusions: Dynamic gating was not broadly beneficial due to a breakdown of the FSM's ability to identify the EOE phase. When the EOE phase was well defined, dynamic gating showed an improvement over static-window gating.

  20. Topological equivalence of nonlinear autonomous dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Huynh Phan; Tran Van Nhung

    1995-12-01

    We show in this paper that the autonomous nonlinear dynamical system Σ(A,B,F): x' = Ax+Bu+F(x) is topologically equivalent to the linear dynamical system Σ(A,B,O): x' = Ax+Bu if the projection of A on the complement in R n of the controllable vectorial subspace is hyperbolic and if lipschitz constant of F is sufficiently small ( * ) and F(x) = 0 when parallel x parallel is sufficiently large ( ** ). In particular, if Σ(A,B,O) is controllable, it is topologically equivalent to Σ(A,B,F) when it is only that F satisfy ( ** ). (author). 18 refs

  1. Dynamical networks with topological self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    2001-01-01

    Coupled evolution of state and topology of dynamical networks is introduced. Due to the well organized tensor structure, the governing equations are presented in a canonical form, and required attractors as well as their basins can be easily implanted and controlled.

  2. A dynamical topology for the space of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, J.

    1979-01-01

    A new topology is introduced for the space of states of a physical system. This topology is given by dynamics, every state has a neighbourhood consisting of states connected by the time evolution only. With respect to the new topology, all conservation laws can be treated as topological laws. (author)

  3. Foliations dynamics, geometry and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolau, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to several active research topics in Foliation Theory and its connections with other areas. It contains expository lectures showing the diversity of ideas and methods arising and used in the study of foliations. The lectures by A. El Kacimi Alaoui offer an introduction to Foliation Theory, with emphasis on examples and transverse structures. S. Hurder's lectures apply ideas from smooth dynamical systems to develop useful concepts in the study of foliations, like limit sets and cycles for leaves, leafwise geodesic flow, transverse exponents, stable manifolds, Pesin Theory, and hyperbolic, parabolic, and elliptic types of foliations, all of them illustrated with examples. The lectures by M. Asaoka are devoted to the computation of the leafwise cohomology of orbit foliations given by locally free actions of certain Lie groups, and its application to the description of the deformation of those actions. In the lectures by K. Richardson, he studies the geometric and analytic properties ...

  4. Gate-tunable current partition in graphene-based topological zero lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Ren, Yafei; Deng, Xinzhou; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Jung, Jeil; Qiao, Zhenhua

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate new mechanisms for gate-tunable current partition at topological zero-line intersections in a graphene-based current splitter. Based on numerical calculations of the nonequilibrium Green's functions and Landauer-Büttiker formula, we show that the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field on the order of a few Teslas allows for carrier sign dependent current routing. In the zero-field limit the control on current routing and partition can be achieved within a range of 10-90 % of the total incoming current by tuning the carrier density at tilted intersections or by modifying the relative magnitude of the bulk band gaps via gate voltage. We discuss the implications of our findings in the design of topological zero-line networks where finite orbital magnetic moments are expected when the current partition is asymmetric.

  5. Recent development of chaos theory in topological dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian; Ye, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We give a summary on the recent development of chaos theory in topological dynamics, focusing on Li-Yorke chaos, Devaney chaos, distributional chaos, positive topological entropy, weakly mixing sets and so on, and their relationships.

  6. Topological fluid dynamics of interfacial flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    1994-01-01

    The topological description of flows in the vicinity of a solid boundary, that is familiar from the aerodynamics literature, has recently been extended to the case of flow at a liquid–gas interface or a free surface by Lugt [Phys. Fluids 30, 3647 (1987)]. Lugt's work is revisited in a more general...... setting, including nonconstant curvature of the interface and gradients of surface tension, using tools of modern nonlinear dynamics. Bifurcations of the flow pattern occur at degenerate configurations. Using the theory of unfolding, this paper gives a complete description of the bifurcations that depend...... on terms up to the second order. The general theory of this paper is applied to the topology of streamlines during the breaking of a wave and to the flow below a stagnant surface film. Physics of Fluids is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  7. Quench dynamics of topological maximally entangled states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Chiang; Jhu, Yi-Hao; Chen, Pochung; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2013-07-17

    We investigate the quench dynamics of the one-particle entanglement spectra (OPES) for systems with topologically nontrivial phases. By using dimerized chains as an example, it is demonstrated that the evolution of OPES for the quenched bipartite systems is governed by an effective Hamiltonian which is characterized by a pseudospin in a time-dependent pseudomagnetic field S(k,t). The existence and evolution of the topological maximally entangled states (tMESs) are determined by the winding number of S(k,t) in the k-space. In particular, the tMESs survive only if nontrivial Berry phases are induced by the winding of S(k,t). In the infinite-time limit the equilibrium OPES can be determined by an effective time-independent pseudomagnetic field Seff(k). Furthermore, when tMESs are unstable, they are destroyed by quasiparticles within a characteristic timescale in proportion to the system size.

  8. Dynamic load effects on gate valve operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R. Jr.; MacDonald, P.E.; Arendts, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) participated in an internationally sponsored seismic research program conducted at the decommissioned Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) located in the Federal Republic of Germany. An existing piping system was modified by installation of an 8-in., naturally aged, motor-operated gate valve from a US nuclear power plant and a piping support system of US design. Six other piping support systems of varying flexibility from stiff to flexible were also installed at various times during the tests. Additional valve loadings included internal hydraulic loads and, during one block of tests, elevated temperature. The operability and integrity of the aged gate valve and the dynamic response of the various piping support system were measured during 25 representative seismic events

  9. Chemical Gating of a Weak Topological Insulator: Bi14Rh3I9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Madhav Prasad; Richter, Manuel

    2017-10-11

    The compound Bi 14 Rh 3 I 9 has recently been suggested as a weak three-dimensional topological insulator on the basis of angle-resolved photoemission and scanning-tunneling experiments in combination with density functional (DF) electronic structure calculations. These methods unanimously support the topological character of the headline compound, but a compelling confirmation could only be obtained by dedicated transport experiments. The latter, however, are biased by an intrinsic n-doping of the material's surface due to its polarity. Electronic reconstruction of the polar surface shifts the topological gap below the Fermi energy, which would also prevent any future device application. Here, we report the results of DF slab calculations for chemically gated and counter-doped surfaces of Bi 14 Rh 3 I 9 . We demonstrate that both methods can be used to compensate the surface polarity without closing the electronic gap.

  10. Integrable topological billiards and equivalent dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedyushkina, V. V.; Fomenko, A. T.

    2017-08-01

    We consider several topological integrable billiards and prove that they are Liouville equivalent to many systems of rigid body dynamics. The proof uses the Fomenko-Zieschang theory of invariants of integrable systems. We study billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics and their generalizations, generalized billiards, where the motion occurs on a locally planar surface obtained by gluing several planar domains isometrically along their boundaries, which are arcs of confocal quadrics. We describe two new classes of integrable billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics, namely, non-compact billiards and generalized billiards obtained by gluing planar billiards along non-convex parts of their boundaries. We completely classify non-compact billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics and study their topology using the Fomenko invariants that describe the bifurcations of singular leaves of the additional integral. We study the topology of isoenergy surfaces for some non-convex generalized billiards. It turns out that they possess exotic Liouville foliations: the integral trajectories of the billiard that lie on some singular leaves admit no continuous extension. Such billiards appear to be leafwise equivalent to billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics in the Minkowski metric.

  11. Universality of the topology of period doubling dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1983-10-01

    The evolution of the topology of the invariant manifolds of the attractors of 3-D autonomous dynamical systems during period doubling is shown to be universal. The overall topology of the nth attractor is shown to depend only on the topology of the first attractor at birth

  12. A new inverter topology using GTO commutation. [Gate Turn Off thyristor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    A new N-phase, forced commutated bridge inverter topology has been developed wherein a single Gate Turn Off Thyristor (GTO) is used to commutate each of 2N main Thyristors (SCRs). Since, for most applications, the primary loss mechanism is the SCR forward drop, very high efficiencies are possible. Compared with conventional pure SCR and pure GTO inverters, cost per kW is lower - in the former case due to the large cost differential between GTOs and SCRs. Other advantages of the new inverter include high power density, low switching losses and stresses, modulation flexibility and amenability to high voltage and high frequency operation.

  13. Insights into operation of planar tri-gate tunnel field effect transistor for dynamic memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navlakha, Nupur; Kranti, Abhinav

    2017-07-01

    Insights into device physics and operation through the control of energy barriers are presented for a planar tri-gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) based dynamic memory. The architecture consists of a double gate (G1) at the source side and a single gate (G2) at the drain end of the silicon film. Dual gates (G1) effectively enhance the tunneling based read mechanism through the enhanced coupling and improved electrostatic control over the channel. The single gate (G2) controls the holes in the potential barrier induced through the proper selection of bias and workfunction. The results indicate that the planar tri-gate achieves optimum performance evaluated in terms of two composite metrics (M1 and M2), namely, product of (i) Sense Margin (SM) and Retention Time (RT) i.e., M1 = SM × RT and (ii) Sense Margin and Current Ratio (CR) i.e., M2 = SM × CR. The regulation of barriers created by the gates (G1 and G2) through the optimal use of device parameters leads to better performance metrics, with significant improvement at scaled lengths as compared to other tunneling based dynamic memory architectures. The investigation shows that lengths of G1, G2 and lateral spacing can be scaled down to 25 nm, 50 nm, and 30 nm, respectively, while achieving reasonable values for (M1, M2). The work demonstrates a systematic approach to showcase the advancement in TFET based Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) through the use of planar tri-gate topology at a lower bias value. The concept, design, and operation of planar tri-gate architecture provide valuable viewpoints for TFET based DRAM.

  14. Crossed product algebras associated with topological dynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Pär Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study connections between topological dynamical systems and associated algebras of crossed product type. We derive equivalences between structural properties of a crossed product and dynamical properties of the associated system and furthermore derive qualitative results concerning the crossed

  15. Preimage entropy dimension of topological dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiaoyao

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new definition of preimage entropy dimension for continuous maps on compact metric spaces, investigate fundamental properties of the preimage entropy dimension, and compare the preimage entropy dimension with the topological entropy dimension. The defined preimage entropy dimension holds various basic properties of topological entropy dimension, for example, the preimage entropy dimension of a subsystem is bounded by that of the original system and topologically conjugated system...

  16. The dynamic interplay between DNA topoisomerases and DNA topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Yeonee; Neuman, Keir C

    2016-11-01

    Topological properties of DNA influence its structure and biochemical interactions. Within the cell, DNA topology is constantly in flux. Transcription and other essential processes, including DNA replication and repair, not only alter the topology of the genome but also introduce additional complications associated with DNA knotting and catenation. These topological perturbations are counteracted by the action of topoisomerases, a specialized class of highly conserved and essential enzymes that actively regulate the topological state of the genome. This dynamic interplay among DNA topology, DNA processing enzymes, and DNA topoisomerases is a pervasive factor that influences DNA metabolism in vivo. Building on the extensive structural and biochemical characterization over the past four decades that has established the fundamental mechanistic basis of topoisomerase activity, scientists have begun to explore the unique roles played by DNA topology in modulating and influencing the activity of topoisomerases. In this review we survey established and emerging DNA topology-dependent protein-DNA interactions with a focus on in vitro measurements of the dynamic interplay between DNA topology and topoisomerase activity.

  17. Topology Identification of General Dynamical Network with Distributed Time Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-Yan, Wu; Xin-Chu, Fu

    2009-01-01

    General dynamical networks with distributed time delays are studied. The topology of the networks are viewed as unknown parameters, which need to be identified. Some auxiliary systems (also called the network estimators) are designed to achieve this goal. Both linear feedback control and adaptive strategy are applied in designing these network estimators. Based on linear matrix inequalities and the Lyapunov function method, the sufficient condition for the achievement of topology identification is obtained. This method can also better monitor the switching topology of dynamical networks. Illustrative examples are provided to show the effectiveness of this method. (general)

  18. Modelling Dynamic Topologies via Extensions of VDM-RT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Ballegård

    Only a few formal methods include descriptions of the network topology that the modelled system is deployed onto. In VDM Real-Time (VDM-RT) this has been enabled for distributed systems that have a static structure. However, when modelling dynamic systems this fixed topology becomes an issue....... Systems with highly distributed and alternating relationships cannot be expressed correctly in a static model. This document describes how VDM-RT can be extended with new language constructs to enable the description of dynamic reconfiguration of the network topology during the runtime execution...... of a model. The extension is developed on the basis of a case study involving a dynamic system that has a constant changing system topology. With a basis in the case study a model is developed that uses the static version of VDM-RT in order to reveal the limitations of the language. The case study...

  19. Topological dynamics of vortex-line networks in hexagonal manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Wang, Nan; Wang, Xueyun; Ji, Yanzhou; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Chen, Long-Qing

    2018-01-01

    The two-dimensional X Y model is the first well-studied system with topological point defects. On the other hand, although topological line defects are common in three-dimensional systems, the evolution mechanism of line defects is not fully understood. The six domains in hexagonal manganites converge to vortex lines in three dimensions. Using phase-field simulations, we predicted that during the domain coarsening process, the vortex-line network undergoes three types of basic topological changes, i.e., vortex-line loop shrinking, coalescence, and splitting. It is shown that the vortex-antivortex annihilation controls the scaling dynamics.

  20. Dynamical mechanism of atrial fibrillation: A topological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O.

    2017-09-01

    While spiral wave breakup has been implicated in the emergence of atrial fibrillation, its role in maintaining this complex type of cardiac arrhythmia is less clear. We used the Karma model of cardiac excitation to investigate the dynamical mechanisms that sustain atrial fibrillation once it has been established. The results of our numerical study show that spatiotemporally chaotic dynamics in this regime can be described as a dynamical equilibrium between topologically distinct types of transitions that increase or decrease the number of wavelets, in general agreement with the multiple wavelets' hypothesis. Surprisingly, we found that the process of continuous excitation waves breaking up into discontinuous pieces plays no role whatsoever in maintaining spatiotemporal complexity. Instead, this complexity is maintained as a dynamical balance between wave coalescence—a unique, previously unidentified, topological process that increases the number of wavelets—and wave collapse—a different topological process that decreases their number.

  1. Combinatorial-topological framework for the analysis of global dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Justin; Gameiro, Marcio; Harker, Shaun; Kokubu, Hiroshi; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Obayashi, Ippei; Pilarczyk, Paweł

    2012-12-01

    We discuss an algorithmic framework based on efficient graph algorithms and algebraic-topological computational tools. The framework is aimed at automatic computation of a database of global dynamics of a given m-parameter semidynamical system with discrete time on a bounded subset of the n-dimensional phase space. We introduce the mathematical background, which is based upon Conley's topological approach to dynamics, describe the algorithms for the analysis of the dynamics using rectangular grids both in phase space and parameter space, and show two sample applications.

  2. Combinatorial-topological framework for the analysis of global dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Justin; Gameiro, Marcio; Harker, Shaun; Kokubu, Hiroshi; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Obayashi, Ippei; Pilarczyk, Paweł

    2012-12-01

    We discuss an algorithmic framework based on efficient graph algorithms and algebraic-topological computational tools. The framework is aimed at automatic computation of a database of global dynamics of a given m-parameter semidynamical system with discrete time on a bounded subset of the n-dimensional phase space. We introduce the mathematical background, which is based upon Conley's topological approach to dynamics, describe the algorithms for the analysis of the dynamics using rectangular grids both in phase space and parameter space, and show two sample applications.

  3. Time- and Site-Resolved Dynamics in a Topological Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ningyuan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From studies of exotic quantum many-body phenomena to applications in spintronics and quantum information processing, topological materials are poised to revolutionize the condensed-matter frontier and the landscape of modern materials science. Accordingly, there is a broad effort to realize topologically nontrivial electronic and photonic materials for fundamental science as well as practical applications. In this work, we demonstrate the first simultaneous site- and time-resolved measurements of a time-reversal-invariant topological band structure, which we realize in a radio-frequency photonic circuit. We control band-structure topology via local permutation of a traveling-wave capacitor-inductor network, increasing robustness by going beyond the tight-binding limit. We observe a gapped density of states consistent with a modified Hofstadter spectrum at a flux per plaquette of ϕ=π/2. In situ probes of the band gaps reveal spatially localized bulk states and delocalized edge states. Time-resolved measurements reveal dynamical separation of localized edge excitations into spin-polarized currents. The radio-frequency circuit paradigm is naturally compatible with nonlocal coupling schemes, allowing us to implement a Möbius strip topology inaccessible in conventional systems. This room-temperature experiment illuminates the origins of topology in band structure, and when combined with circuit quantum electrodynamics techniques, it provides a direct path to topologically ordered quantum matter.

  4. Dynamical topology and statistical properties of spatiotemporal chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Gao, Xun; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Hongli

    2012-12-01

    For spatiotemporal chaos described by partial differential equations, there are generally locations where the dynamical variable achieves its local extremum or where the time partial derivative of the variable vanishes instantaneously. To a large extent, the location and movement of these topologically special points determine the qualitative structure of the disordered states. We analyze numerically statistical properties of the topologically special points in one-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. The probability distribution functions for the number of point, the lifespan, and the distance covered during their lifetime are obtained from numerical simulations. Mathematically, we establish a probabilistic model to describe the dynamics of these topologically special points. In spite of the different definitions in different spatiotemporal chaos, the dynamics of these special points can be described in a uniform approach.

  5. Topology in dynamical lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Florian

    2012-08-20

    Lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory which describes the interaction between quarks and gluons, have reached a point were contact to experimental data can be made. The underlying mechanisms, like chiral symmetry breaking or the confinement of quarks, are however still not understood. This thesis focuses on topological structures in the QCD vacuum. Those are not only mathematically interesting but also closely related to chiral symmetry and confinement. We consider methods to identify these objects in lattice QCD simulations. Based on this, we explore the structures resulting from different discretizations and investigate the effect of a very strong electromagnetic field on the QCD vacuum.

  6. Topology in dynamical lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory which describes the interaction between quarks and gluons, have reached a point were contact to experimental data can be made. The underlying mechanisms, like chiral symmetry breaking or the confinement of quarks, are however still not understood. This thesis focuses on topological structures in the QCD vacuum. Those are not only mathematically interesting but also closely related to chiral symmetry and confinement. We consider methods to identify these objects in lattice QCD simulations. Based on this, we explore the structures resulting from different discretizations and investigate the effect of a very strong electromagnetic field on the QCD vacuum.

  7. Protected quantum computing: interleaving gate operations with dynamical decoupling sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingfu; Souza, Alexandre M; Brandao, Frederico Dias; Suter, Dieter

    2014-02-07

    Implementing precise operations on quantum systems is one of the biggest challenges for building quantum devices in a noisy environment. Dynamical decoupling attenuates the destructive effect of the environmental noise, but so far, it has been used primarily in the context of quantum memories. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a general scheme for combining dynamical decoupling with quantum logical gate operations using the example of an electron-spin qubit of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. We achieve process fidelities >98% for gate times that are 2 orders of magnitude longer than the unprotected dephasing time T2.

  8. Deciphering the imprint of topology on nonlinear dynamical network stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzbon, J; Schultz, P; Heitzig, J; Kurths, J; Hellmann, F

    2017-01-01

    Coupled oscillator networks show complex interrelations between topological characteristics of the network and the nonlinear stability of single nodes with respect to large but realistic perturbations. We extend previous results on these relations by incorporating sampling-based measures of the transient behaviour of the system, its survivability, as well as its asymptotic behaviour, its basin stability. By combining basin stability and survivability we uncover novel, previously unknown asymptotic states with solitary, desynchronized oscillators which are rotating with a frequency different from their natural one. They occur almost exclusively after perturbations at nodes with specific topological properties. More generally we confirm and significantly refine the results on the distinguished role tree-shaped appendices play for nonlinear stability. We find a topological classification scheme for nodes located in such appendices, that exactly separates them according to their stability properties, thus establishing a strong link between topology and dynamics. Hence, the results can be used for the identification of vulnerable nodes in power grids or other coupled oscillator networks. From this classification we can derive general design principles for resilient power grids. We find that striving for homogeneous network topologies facilitates a better performance in terms of nonlinear dynamical network stability. While the employed second-order Kuramoto-like model is parametrised to be representative for power grids, we expect these insights to transfer to other critical infrastructure systems or complex network dynamics appearing in various other fields. (paper)

  9. Clinical application of gated CT and dynamic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T; Oyama, Y; Ashida, H; Uji, T [Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-03-01

    Gated CT and dynamic CT were outlined. Experiences of portal hypertension accompanied by venous mass in posterior mediastinum and the usefulness of dynamic CT for this disease were described. Gated CT of the heart could visualize intracardiac structures and morphological abnormalities by improving technique of post-data-aquisition correlation. Changes with time in CT images of normal kidneys were discussed on patients whose unilateral or bilateral kidneys were thought to be normal and who had received dynamic scan. Dynamic scan could visualize well blood circulation and mechanism of urine excretion in the kidney, which suggests a possibility of CT to detect not only morphological abnormalities but also functional disturbance of the kidney. The effectiveness of conventional CT study might be promoted in dynamic CT of the head.

  10. Topological dynamics of gyroscopic and Floquet lattices from Newton's laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching Hua; Li, Guangjie; Jin, Guliuxin; Liu, Yuhan; Zhang, Xiao

    2018-02-01

    Despite intense interest in realizing topological phases across a variety of electronic, photonic, and mechanical platforms, the detailed microscopic origin of topological behavior often remains elusive. To bridge this conceptual gap, we show how hallmarks of topological modes—boundary localization and chirality—emerge from Newton's laws in mechanical topological systems. We first construct a gyroscopic lattice with analytically solvable edge modes, and show how the Lorentz and spring restoring forces conspire to support very robust "dangling bond" boundary modes. The chirality and locality of these modes intuitively emerges from microscopic balancing of restoring forces and cyclotron tendencies. Next, we introduce the highlight of this work, an experimentally realistic mechanical nonequilibrium (Floquet) Chern lattice driven by ac electromagnets. Through appropriate synchronization of the ac driving protocol, the Floquet lattice is "pushed around" by a rotating potential analogous to an object washed ashore by water waves. Besides hosting "dangling bond" chiral modes analogous to the gyroscopic boundary modes, our Floquet Chern lattice also supports peculiar half-period chiral modes with no static analog, i.e., analogs of anomalous Floquet Chern insulators edge modes. With key parameters controlled electronically, our setup has the advantage of being dynamically tunable for applications involving arbitrary Floquet modulations. The physical intuition gleaned from our two prototypical topological systems is applicable not just to arbitrarily complicated mechanical systems, but also photonic and electrical topological setups.

  11. Topological constraints and their breakdown in dynamical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E; Moffatt, H Keith; Pesci, Adriana I

    2012-01-01

    A variety of physical and biological systems exhibit dynamical behaviour that has some explicit or implicit topological features. Here, the term ‘topological’ is meant to convey the idea of structures, e.g. physical knots, links or braids, that have some measure of invariance under continuous deformation. Dynamical evolution is then subject to the topological constraints that express this invariance. The simplest problem arising in these systems is the determination of minimum-energy structures (and routes towards these structures) permitted by such constraints, and elucidation of mechanisms by which the constraints may be broken. In more complex nonequilibrium cases there can be recurring singularities associated with topological rearrangements driven by continuous injection of energy. In this brief overview, motivated by an upcoming program on ‘Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences’ at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, we present a summary of this class of dynamical systems and discuss examples of important open problems. (invited articles)

  12. Geometry and topology in hamiltonian dynamics and statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Pettini, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Explores the foundations of hamiltonian dynamical systems and statistical mechanics, in particular phase transitions, from the point of view of geometry and topology. This book provides an overview of the research in the area. Using geometrical thinking to solve fundamental problems in these areas could be highly productive

  13. Characterization of Static/Dynamic Topological Routing For Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Cuevas, Ruben; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2009-01-01

    Grid or 2D Mesh structures are becoming one of the most attractive network topologies to study. They can be used in many different fields raging from future broadband networks to multiprocessors structures. In addition, the high requirements of future services and applications demand more flexible...... and adaptive networks. Topological routing in grid networks is a simple and efficient alternative to traditional routing techniques, e.g. routing tables, and the paper extends this kind of routing providing a "Dynamic" attribute. This new property attempts to improve the overall network performance for future...

  14. Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Hocking, John G

    1988-01-01

    ""As textbook and reference work, this is a valuable addition to the topological literature."" - Mathematical ReviewsDesigned as a text for a one-year first course in topology, this authoritative volume offers an excellent general treatment of the main ideas of topology. It includes a large number and variety of topics from classical topology as well as newer areas of research activity.There are four set-theoretic chapters, followed by four primarily algebraic chapters. Chapter I covers the fundamentals of topological and metrical spaces, mappings, compactness, product spaces, the Tychonoff t

  15. The topology and dynamics of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezso, Zoltan

    We start with a brief introduction about the topological properties of real networks. Most real networks are scale-free, being characterized by a power-law degree distribution. The scale-free nature of real networks leads to unexpected properties such as the vanishing epidemic threshold. Traditional methods aiming to reduce the spreading rate of viruses cannot succeed on eradicating the epidemic on a scale-free network. We demonstrate that policies that discriminate between the nodes, curing mostly the highly connected nodes, can restore a finite epidemic threshold and potentially eradicate the virus. We find that the more biased a policy is towards the hubs, the more chance it has to bring the epidemic threshold above the virus' spreading rate. We continue by studying a large Web portal as a model system for a rapidly evolving network. We find that the visitation pattern of a news document decays as a power law, in contrast with the exponential prediction provided by simple models of site visitation. This is rooted in the inhomogeneous nature of the browsing pattern characterizing individual users: the time interval between consecutive visits by the same user to the site follows a power law distribution, in contrast with the exponential expected for Poisson processes. We show that the exponent characterizing the individual user's browsing patterns determines the power-law decay in a document's visitation. Finally, we turn our attention to biological networks and demonstrate quantitatively that protein complexes in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are comprised of a core in which subunits are highly coexpressed, display the same deletion phenotype (essential or non-essential) and share identical functional classification and cellular localization. The results allow us to define the deletion phenotype and cellular task of most known complexes, and to identify with high confidence the biochemical role of hundreds of proteins with yet unassigned functionality.

  16. A new logistic dynamic particle swarm optimization algorithm based on random topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qingjian; Deng, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    Population topology of particle swarm optimization (PSO) will directly affect the dissemination of optimal information during the evolutionary process and will have a significant impact on the performance of PSO. Classic static population topologies are usually used in PSO, such as fully connected topology, ring topology, star topology, and square topology. In this paper, the performance of PSO with the proposed random topologies is analyzed, and the relationship between population topology and the performance of PSO is also explored from the perspective of graph theory characteristics in population topologies. Further, in a relatively new PSO variant which named logistic dynamic particle optimization, an extensive simulation study is presented to discuss the effectiveness of the random topology and the design strategies of population topology. Finally, the experimental data are analyzed and discussed. And about the design and use of population topology on PSO, some useful conclusions are proposed which can provide a basis for further discussion and research.

  17. Extending topological surgery to natural processes and dynamical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathis Antoniou

    Full Text Available Topological surgery is a mathematical technique used for creating new manifolds out of known ones. We observe that it occurs in natural phenomena where a sphere of dimension 0 or 1 is selected, forces are applied and the manifold in which they occur changes type. For example, 1-dimensional surgery happens during chromosomal crossover, DNA recombination and when cosmic magnetic lines reconnect, while 2-dimensional surgery happens in the formation of tornadoes, in the phenomenon of Falaco solitons, in drop coalescence and in the cell mitosis. Inspired by such phenomena, we introduce new theoretical concepts which enhance topological surgery with the observed forces and dynamics. To do this, we first extend the formal definition to a continuous process caused by local forces. Next, for modeling phenomena which do not happen on arcs or surfaces but are 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional, we fill in the interior space by defining the notion of solid topological surgery. We further introduce the notion of embedded surgery in S3 for modeling phenomena which involve more intrinsically the ambient space, such as the appearance of knotting in DNA and phenomena where the causes and effect of the process lies beyond the initial manifold, such as the formation of black holes. Finally, we connect these new theoretical concepts with a dynamical system and we present it as a model for both 2-dimensional 0-surgery and natural phenomena exhibiting a 'hole drilling' behavior. We hope that through this study, topology and dynamics of many natural phenomena, as well as topological surgery itself, will be better understood.

  18. Microwave-gated dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornet, Aurélien; Pinon, Arthur; Jhajharia, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) has become a method of choice to enhance signals in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Recently, we have proposed to combine cross-polarization (CP) with D-DNP to provide high polarization P((13)C) in short build-up times. In this paper, we show...

  19. Kink dynamics in a topological φ4 lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, A. B.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2001-09-01

    Recently proposed was a discretization for nonlinear Klein-Gordon field theories in which the resulting lattice preserves the topological (Bogomol'nyi) lower bound on the kink energy and, as a consequence, has no Peierls-Nabarro barrier even for large spatial discretizations (h~1.0). It was then suggested that these ``topological discrete systems'' are a natural choice for the numerical study of continuum kink dynamics. Giving particular emphasis to the φ4 theory, we numerically investigate kink-antikink scattering and breather formation in these topological lattices. Our results indicate that, even though these systems are quite accurate for studying free kinks in coarse lattices, for legitimate dynamical kink problems the accuracy is rather restricted to fine lattices (h~0.1). We suggest that this fact is related to the breaking of the Bogomol'nyi bound during the kink-antikink interaction, where the field profile loses its static property as required by the Bogomol'nyi argument. We conclude, therefore, that these lattices are not suitable for the study of more general kink dynamics, since a standard discretization is simpler and has effectively the same accuracy for such resolutions.

  20. Dynamics of tissue topology during cancer invasion and metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, Lance L

    2013-01-01

    During tumor progression, cancer cells mix with other cell populations including epithelial and endothelial cells. Although potentially important clinically as well as for our understanding of basic tumor biology, the process of mixing is largely a mystery. Furthermore, there is no rigorous, analytical measure available for quantifying the mixing of compartments within a tumor. I present here a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of observed tumor behaviors with correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. The resulting dynamics are analyzed in light of the Euler characteristic number (χ), which describes key topological features such as fragmentation, looping and cavities. The analysis predicts a number of regimes in which the cancer cells can encapsulate normal tissue, form a co-interdigitating mass, or become fragmented and encapsulated by endothelial or epithelial structures. Key processes that affect the topological changes are the production of provisional matrix in the tumor, and the migration of endothelial or epithelial cells on this matrix. Furthermore, the simulations predict that topological changes during tumor invasion into blood vessels may contribute to metastasis. The topological analysis outlined here could be useful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring response to therapy and would only require high resolution, 3D image data to resolve and track the various cell compartments. (paper)

  1. Dynamics of tissue topology during cancer invasion and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance L.

    2013-12-01

    During tumor progression, cancer cells mix with other cell populations including epithelial and endothelial cells. Although potentially important clinically as well as for our understanding of basic tumor biology, the process of mixing is largely a mystery. Furthermore, there is no rigorous, analytical measure available for quantifying the mixing of compartments within a tumor. I present here a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of observed tumor behaviors with correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. The resulting dynamics are analyzed in light of the Euler characteristic number (χ), which describes key topological features such as fragmentation, looping and cavities. The analysis predicts a number of regimes in which the cancer cells can encapsulate normal tissue, form a co-interdigitating mass, or become fragmented and encapsulated by endothelial or epithelial structures. Key processes that affect the topological changes are the production of provisional matrix in the tumor, and the migration of endothelial or epithelial cells on this matrix. Furthermore, the simulations predict that topological changes during tumor invasion into blood vessels may contribute to metastasis. The topological analysis outlined here could be useful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring response to therapy and would only require high resolution, 3D image data to resolve and track the various cell compartments.

  2. Quantum and Classical Magnetoresistance in Ambipolar Topological Insulator Transistors with Gate-tunable Bulk and Surface Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jifa; Chang, Cuizu; Cao, Helin; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Yong P.

    2014-01-01

    Weak antilocalization (WAL) and linear magnetoresistance (LMR) are two most commonly observed magnetoresistance (MR) phenomena in topological insulators (TIs) and often attributed to the Dirac topological surface states (TSS). However, ambiguities exist because these phenomena could also come from bulk states (often carrying significant conduction in many TIs) and are observable even in non-TI materials. Here, we demonstrate back-gated ambipolar TI field-effect transistors in (Bi0.04Sb0.96)2Te3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3(111), exhibiting a large carrier density tunability (by nearly 2 orders of magnitude) and a metal-insulator transition in the bulk (allowing switching off the bulk conduction). Tuning the Fermi level from bulk band to TSS strongly enhances both the WAL (increasing the number of quantum coherent channels from one to peak around two) and LMR (increasing its slope by up to 10 times). The SS-enhanced LMR is accompanied by a strongly nonlinear Hall effect, suggesting important roles of charge inhomogeneity (and a related classical LMR), although existing models of LMR cannot capture all aspects of our data. Our systematic gate and temperature dependent magnetotransport studies provide deeper insights into the nature of both MR phenomena and reveal differences between bulk and TSS transport in TI related materials. PMID:24810663

  3. Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Manetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This is an introductory textbook on general and algebraic topology, aimed at anyone with a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. It provides full proofs and includes many examples and exercises. The covered topics include: set theory and cardinal arithmetic; axiom of choice and Zorn's lemma; topological spaces and continuous functions; connectedness and compactness; Alexandrov compactification; quotient topologies; countability and separation axioms; prebasis and Alexander's theorem; the Tychonoff theorem and paracompactness; complete metric spaces and function spaces; Baire spaces; homotopy of maps; the fundamental group; the van Kampen theorem; covering spaces; Brouwer and Borsuk's theorems; free groups and free product of groups; and basic category theory. While it is very concrete at the beginning, abstract concepts are gradually introduced. It is suitable for anyone needing a basic, comprehensive introduction to general and algebraic topology and its applications.

  4. Workshop on Singularities in Geometry, Topology, Foliations and Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lê, Dung; Oka, Mutsuo; Snoussi, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    This book features state-of-the-art research on singularities in geometry, topology, foliations and dynamics and provides an overview of the current state of singularity theory in these settings. Singularity theory is at the crossroad of various branches of mathematics and science in general. In recent years there have been remarkable developments, both in the theory itself and in its relations with other areas. The contributions in this volume originate from the “Workshop on Singularities in Geometry, Topology, Foliations and Dynamics”, held in Merida, Mexico, in December 2014, in celebration of José Seade’s 60th Birthday. It is intended for researchers and graduate students interested in singularity theory and its impact on other fields.

  5. Relativized problems with abelian phase group in topological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D

    1976-04-01

    Let (X, T) be the equicontinuous minimal transformation group with X = pi(infinity)Z(2), the Cantor group, and S = [unk](infinity)Z(2) endowed with the discrete topology acting on X by right multiplication. For any countable group T we construct a function F:X x S --> T such that if (Y, T) is a minimal transformation group, then (X x Y, S) is a minimal transformation group with the action defined by (x, y)s = [xs, yF(x, s)]. If (W, T) is a minimal transformation group and varphi:(Y, T) --> (W, T) is a homomorphism, then identity x varphi:(X x Y, S) --> (X x W, S) is a homomorphism and has many of the same properties that varphi has. For this reason, one may assume that the phase group is abelian (or S) without loss of generality for many relativized problems in topological dynamics.

  6. Navigation through unknown and dynamic open spaces using topological notions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Tomé, Sergio

    2018-04-01

    Until now, most algorithms used for navigation have had the purpose of directing system towards one point in space. However, humans communicate tasks by specifying spatial relations among elements or places. In addition, the environments in which humans develop their activities are extremely dynamic. The only option that allows for successful navigation in dynamic and unknown environments is making real-time decisions. Therefore, robots capable of collaborating closely with human beings must be able to make decisions based on the local information registered by the sensors and interpret and express spatial relations. Furthermore, when one person is asked to perform a task in an environment, this task is communicated given a category of goals so the person does not need to be supervised. Thus, two problems appear when one wants to create multifunctional robots: how to navigate in dynamic and unknown environments using spatial relations and how to accomplish this without supervision. In this article, a new architecture to address the two cited problems is presented, called the topological qualitative navigation architecture. In previous works, a qualitative heuristic called the heuristic of topological qualitative semantics (HTQS) has been developed to establish and identify spatial relations. However, that heuristic only allows for establishing one spatial relation with a specific object. In contrast, navigation requires a temporal sequence of goals with different objects. The new architecture attains continuous generation of goals and resolves them using HTQS. Thus, the new architecture achieves autonomous navigation in dynamic or unknown open environments.

  7. Coevolution of Glauber-like Ising dynamics and topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrà, Salvatore; Fortunato, Santo; Castellano, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    We study the coevolution of a generalized Glauber dynamics for Ising spins with tunable threshold and of the graph topology where the dynamics takes place. This simple coevolution dynamics generates a rich phase diagram in the space of the two parameters of the model, the threshold and the rewiring probability. The diagram displays phase transitions of different types: spin ordering, percolation, and connectedness. At variance with traditional coevolution models, in which all spins of each connected component of the graph have equal value in the stationary state, we find that, for suitable choices of the parameters, the system may converge to a state in which spins of opposite sign coexist in the same component organized in compact clusters of like-signed spins. Mean field calculations enable one to estimate some features of the phase diagram.

  8. Differential geometry and topology with a view to dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Keith

    2005-01-01

    MANIFOLDSIntroductionReview of topological conceptsSmooth manifoldsSmooth mapsTangent vectors and the tangent bundleTangent vectors as derivationsThe derivative of a smooth mapOrientationImmersions, embeddings and submersionsRegular and critical points and valuesManifolds with boundarySard's theoremTransversalityStabilityExercisesVECTOR FIELDS AND DYNAMICAL SYSTEMSIntroductionVector fieldsSmooth dynamical systemsLie derivative, Lie bracketDiscrete dynamical systemsHyperbolic fixed points and periodic orbitsExercisesRIEMANNIAN METRICSIntroductionRiemannian metricsStandard geometries on surfacesExercisesRIEMANNIAN CONNECTIONS AND GEODESICSIntroductionAffine connectionsRiemannian connectionsGeodesicsThe exponential mapMinimizing properties of geodesicsThe Riemannian distanceExercisesCURVATUREIntroductionThe curvature tensorThe second fundamental formSectional and Ricci curvaturesJacobi fieldsManifolds of constant curvatureConjugate pointsHorizontal and vertical sub-bundlesThe geodesic flowExercisesTENSORS AND DI...

  9. Nonlinear rotor dynamics of 2D molecular array: topology reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykah, V.A.; Syrkin, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular layers with rotational degrees of freedom and quadrupolar interaction between linear molecules are investigated theoretically. We found earlier that alternative orientation of the molecules along and perpendicular to an axis of the rectangular lattice is preferable. Here we find the integral of motion and give the topology analysis of the possible dynamical phases and special points in the long-wave limit. We find the strong anisotropy in the angle space: directions of easy excitation ('valleys') exist. We show the potential relief reconstruction in dependence on the adsorbed lattice anisotropy.

  10. Adaptive synchronization between two different order and topology dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowong, S.; Moukam Kakmeni, F.M.; Yamapi, R.

    2006-07-01

    This contribution studies adaptive synchronization between two dynamical systems of different order whose topological structure is also different. By order we mean the number of first order differential equations. The problem is closely related to the synchronization of strictly different systems. The master system is given by a sixth order equation with chaotic behavior whereas the slave system is a fourth-order nonautonomous with rational nonlinear terms. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, sufficient conditions for the synchronization have been analyzed theoretically and numerically. (author)

  11. Dynamic and gated PET. Quantitative imaging of the heart revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekolla, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    This short overview focuses on the basic implementation as well as applications of cardiac PET studies acquired in dynamic and ECG triggered modes. Both acquisition modes are well suited for quantitative analysis and the advantages of such an approach are discussed. An outlook on the measurement of respiratory triggered studies and the new challenges this data presents is provided. In the context of modern PET/CT tomographs with the combination of high sensitivity and morphologic resolution, the promise of list mode acquisition is investigated. The before mentioned acquisition modes are ideal candidates for this technology the utility of which in a clinical setting is briefly discussed. The retrospective generation of dynamic and gated image data (and any combinations) is greatly facilitated with this approach. Finally, a novel presentation mode for the wealth of quantitative information generated by these systems is presented. (orig.)

  12. Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, Dénes

    2014-01-01

    The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates

  13. Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasenzer, Thomas [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); McLerran, Larry [Physics Department, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Physics Department, China Central Normal University, Wuhan (China); Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, Dénes [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.

  14. ALTERNATIVE EQUATIONS FOR DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF IONIC CHANNEL ACTIVATION AND INACTIVATION GATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZER

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, alternative equations for dynamics of ionic channel activation and inactivation gates are proposed based on the path probability method. Dynamic behavior of a voltage-gated ionic channel is modeled by the conventional Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H mathematical formalism. In that model, conductance of the channel is defined in terms of activation and inactivation gates. Dynamics of the activation and inactivation gates is modeled by first-order differential equations dependent on the gate variable and the membrane potential. In the new approach proposed in this study, dynamic behavior of activation and inactivation gates is modeled by a firstorder differential equation dependent on internal energy and membrane potential by using the path probability method which is widely used in statistical physics. The new model doesn't require the time constant and steadystate values which are used explicitly in the H-H model. The numerical results show validity of the proposed method.

  15. Topological phase transition in the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional Fermi gas

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pei; Yi, Wei; Xianlong, Gao

    2014-01-01

    We study the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional ultracold Fermi gas in an optical lattice potential with synthetic spin-orbit coupling. At equilibrium, the ground state of the system can undergo a topological phase transition and become a topological superfluid with Majorana edge states. As the interaction is quenched near the topological phase boundary, we identify an interesting dynamical phase transition of the quenched state in the long-time limit, characterized by an abrupt change of t...

  16. Onset of dynamical chaos in topologically massive gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giansanti, A.; Simic, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    The onset of dynamical chaos is studied numerically in (2+1)-dimensional non-Abelian field theory with the Chern-Simons topological term. In the limit of strong fields, slowly varying in space (spatially homogeneous fields), this theory is an analog to a system of three charged particles moving in a plane in an orthogonal magnetic field and under the influence of a quartic potential. The ''phase transition'' (order chaos) is observed within a narrow energy range. The threshold of the transition depends on the sign of the angular momentum of the field reflecting parity violation in the underlying field theory. The transition region is investigated in some detail and the hyperfine structure of order-chaos-order-... transitions is observed suggesting the necessity of probabilistic description

  17. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  18. Surface dynamics of voltage-gated ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Martin; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna; Voigt, Andreas; Heck, Jennifer; Bikbaev, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neurons encode information in fast changes of the membrane potential, and thus electrical membrane properties are critically important for the integration and processing of synaptic inputs by a neuron. These electrical properties are largely determined by ion channels embedded in the membrane. The distribution of most ion channels in the membrane is not spatially uniform: they undergo activity-driven changes in the range of minutes to days. Even in the range of milliseconds, the composition and topology of ion channels are not static but engage in highly dynamic processes including stochastic or activity-dependent transient association of the pore-forming and auxiliary subunits, lateral diffusion, as well as clustering of different channels. In this review we briefly discuss the potential impact of mobile sodium, calcium and potassium ion channels and the functional significance of this for individual neurons and neuronal networks. PMID:26891382

  19. Topological mass of magnetic Skyrmions probed by ultrafast dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, Felix

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the GHz dynamics of skyrmionic spin structures by means of pump-probe dynamic imaging to determine the equation of motion that governs the behavior of these technologically relevant spin structures. To achieve this goal, we first designed and optimized a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy CoB/Pt multilayer material for low magnetic pinning, as required for ultrafast pump-probe imaging experiments. Second, we developed an integrated sample design for X-ray holography capable of tracking relative magnetic positional changes down to 3 nm spatial resolution. These advances enabled us to image the trajectory of a single magnetic Skyrmion. We find that the motion is comprised of two gyrotropic modes, one clockwise and one counterclockwise. The existence of two modes shows that Skyrmions are massive quasiparticles. From their derived frequencies we find an inertial mass for the Skyrmion which is a factor of five larger than expected based on existing models for inertia in magnetism. Our results demonstrate that the mass of Skyrmions is based on a novel mechanism emerging from their confined nature, which is a direct consequence of their topology.

  20. Dynamical Detection of Topological Phase Transitions in Short-Lived Atomic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, F.; Sengupta, K.; Spielman, I. B.; Sau, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that dynamical probes provide direct means of detecting the topological phase transition (TPT) between conventional and topological phases, which would otherwise be difficult to access because of loss or heating processes. We propose to avoid such heating by rapidly quenching in and out of the short-lived topological phase across the transition that supports gapless excitations. Following the quench, the distribution of excitations in the final conventional phase carries signat...

  1. Network dynamics and its relationships to topology and coupling structure in excitable complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li-Sheng; Mi Yuan-Yuan; Gu Wei-Feng; Hu Gang

    2014-01-01

    All dynamic complex networks have two important aspects, pattern dynamics and network topology. Discovering different types of pattern dynamics and exploring how these dynamics depend on network topologies are tasks of both great theoretical importance and broad practical significance. In this paper we study the oscillatory behaviors of excitable complex networks (ECNs) and find some interesting dynamic behaviors of ECNs in oscillatory probability, the multiplicity of oscillatory attractors, period distribution, and different types of oscillatory patterns (e.g., periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic). In these aspects, we further explore strikingly sharp differences among network dynamics induced by different topologies (random or scale-free topologies) and different interaction structures (symmetric or asymmetric couplings). The mechanisms behind these differences are explained physically. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. A detailed comparison of system topologies for dynamic voltage restorers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.G.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of energy storage, with energy taken from the grid during the voltage sag, and two topologies that take energy from stored energy devices during the voltage sag. Experimental tests using a 10-kVA DVR show that the no-energy storage concept is feasible, but an improved performance can be achieved for certain...... voltage sags using stored energy topologies. The results of this comparison rank the no-storage topology with a passive shunt converter on the load side first, followed by the stored energy topology with a constant dc-link voltage....

  3. Multifractal analysis for the historic set in topological dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyao; Chen, Ercai

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the historic set is divided into different level sets and we use topological pressure to describe the size of these level sets. We give an application of these results to dimension theory. Our primary focus is using topological pressure to describe the relative multifractal spectrum of ergodic averages and to give a positive answer to the conjecture posed by Olsen (2003 J. Math. Pures Appl. 82 1591–649). (paper)

  4. A Technique for Presenting a Deceptive Dynamic Network Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    more complicated network topologies in our experiments. We used a Watts- Strogatz [35] model to generate a synthetic topology for experimentation due...generated Watts- Strogatz model except for the intelligent router and the web server. The actual router used does not impact the results of our experiment...library for the Python [43] programming language. NetworkX provides two features useful for this experiment. It was used to generate a Watts- Strogatz model

  5. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  6. A 1T Dynamic Random Access Memory Cell Based on Gated Thyristor with Surrounding Gate Structure for High Scalability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Kim, Sihyun; Kim, Hyun-Min; Lee, Kitae; Kim, Sangwan; Pak, Byung-Gook

    2018-09-01

    In this study, we investigate a one-transistor (1T) dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell based on a gated-thyristor device utilizing voltage-driven bistability to enable high-speed operations. The structural feature of the surrounding gate using a sidewall provides high scalability with regard to constructing an array architecture of the proposed devices. In addition, the operation mechanism, I-V characteristics, DRAM operations, and bias dependence are analyzed using a commercial device simulator. Unlike conventional 1T DRAM cells utilizing the floating body effect, excess carriers which are required to be stored to make two different states are not generated but injected from the n+ cathode region, giving the device high-speed operation capabilities. The findings here indicate that the proposed DRAM cell offers distinct advantages in terms of scalability and high-speed operations.

  7. The Jones polynomial as a new invariant of topological fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Renzo L; Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A new method based on the use of the Jones polynomial, a well-known topological invariant of knot theory, is introduced to tackle and quantify topological aspects of structural complexity of vortex tangles in ideal fluids. By re-writing the Jones polynomial in terms of helicity, the resulting polynomial becomes then function of knot topology and vortex circulation, providing thus a new invariant of topological fluid dynamics. Explicit computations of the Jones polynomial for some standard configurations, including the Whitehead link and the Borromean rings (whose linking numbers are zero), are presented for illustration. In the case of a homogeneous, isotropic tangle of vortex filaments with same circulation, the new Jones polynomial reduces to some simple algebraic expression, that can be easily computed by numerical methods. This shows that this technique may offer a new setting and a powerful tool to detect and compute topological complexity and to investigate relations with energy, by tackling fundamental aspects of turbulence research. (paper)

  8. Circuit topology of self-interacting chains: implications for folding and unfolding dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugler, Andrew; Tans, Sander J; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2014-11-07

    Understanding the relationship between molecular structure and folding is a central problem in disciplines ranging from biology to polymer physics and DNA origami. Topology can be a powerful tool to address this question. For a folded linear chain, the arrangement of intra-chain contacts is a topological property because rearranging the contacts requires discontinuous deformations. Conversely, the topology is preserved when continuously stretching the chain while maintaining the contact arrangement. Here we investigate how the folding and unfolding of linear chains with binary contacts is guided by the topology of contact arrangements. We formalize the topology by describing the relations between any two contacts in the structure, which for a linear chain can either be in parallel, in series, or crossing each other. We show that even when other determinants of folding rate such as contact order and size are kept constant, this 'circuit' topology determines folding kinetics. In particular, we find that the folding rate increases with the fractions of parallel and crossed relations. Moreover, we show how circuit topology constrains the conformational phase space explored during folding and unfolding: the number of forbidden unfolding transitions is found to increase with the fraction of parallel relations and to decrease with the fraction of series relations. Finally, we find that circuit topology influences whether distinct intermediate states are present, with crossed contacts being the key factor. The approach presented here can be more generally applied to questions on molecular dynamics, evolutionary biology, molecular engineering, and single-molecule biophysics.

  9. A framework of induced hyperspace dynamical systems equipped with the hit-or-miss topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yangeng; Wei Guo; Campbell, William H.; Bourquin, Steven

    2009-01-01

    For any dynamical system (E,d,f), where E is Hausdorff locally compact second countable (HLCSC), let F (resp., 2 E ) denote the space of all closed subsets (resp., non-empty closed subsets) of E equipped with the hit-or-miss topology τ f . Both F and 2 E are again HLCSC (F actually compact), thus metrizable. Let ρ be such a metric (three metrics available). The main purpose is to determine the conditions on f that ensure the continuity of the induced hyperspace maps 2 f :F→F and 2 f :2 E →2 E defined by 2 f (F)=f(F). With this setting, the induced hyperspace systems (F,ρ,2 f ) and (2 E ,ρ,2 f ) are compact and locally compact dynamical systems, respectively. Consequently, dynamical properties, particularly metric related dynamical properties, of the given system (E,d,f) can be explored through these hyperspace systems. In contrast, when the Vietoris topology τ v is equipped on 2 E , the space of the induced hyperspace topological dynamical system (2 E ,τ v ,2 f ) is not metrizable if E is not compact metrizable, e.g., E=R n , implying that metric related dynamical concepts cannot be defined for (2 E ,τ v ,2 f ). Moreover, two examples are provided to illustrate the advantages of the hit-or-miss topology as compared to the Vietoris topology.

  10. Similar impact of topological and dynamic noise on complex patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, Carsten; Huett, Marc-Thorsten

    2006-01-01

    Shortcuts in a regular architecture affect the information transport through the system due to the severe decrease in average path length. A fundamental new perspective in terms of pattern formation is the destabilizing effect of topological perturbations by processing distant uncorrelated information, similarly to stochastic noise. We study the functional coincidence of rewiring and noisy communication on patterns of binary cellular automata

  11. Employing Deceptive Dynamic Network Topology Through Software-Defined Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    actions. From [64] . . . . . 37 xi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xii List of Acronyms and Abbreviations ACL Access Control List API Application...can be extremely useful in topology mapping through various latency-based geolocation methods [35], [36], [37]. PING 1 7 2 . 2 0 . 5 . 2 ( 1 7 2 . 2 0...defined northbound Applica- tion Programming Interfaces ( APIs ). Figure 3.1: Software-Defined Network Architecture. From [8] 29 3.3 SDN OpenFlow

  12. Gating based on internal/external signals with dynamic correlation updates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huanmei; Zhao Qingya; Berbeco, Ross I; Nishioka, Seiko; Shirato, Hiroki; Jiang, Steve B

    2008-01-01

    Precise localization of mobile tumor positions in real time is critical to the success of gated radiotherapy. Tumor positions are usually derived from either internal or external surrogates. Fluoroscopic gating based on internal surrogates, such as implanted fiducial markers, is accurate however requiring a large amount of imaging dose. Gating based on external surrogates, such as patient abdominal surface motion, is non-invasive however less accurate due to the uncertainty in the correlation between tumor location and external surrogates. To address these complications, we propose to investigate an approach based on hybrid gating with dynamic internal/external correlation updates. In this approach, the external signal is acquired at high frequency (such as 30 Hz) while the internal signal is sparsely acquired (such as 0.5 Hz or less). The internal signal is used to validate and update the internal/external correlation during treatment. Tumor positions are derived from the external signal based on the newly updated correlation. Two dynamic correlation updating algorithms are introduced. One is based on the motion amplitude and the other is based on the motion phase. Nine patients with synchronized internal/external motion signals are simulated retrospectively to evaluate the effectiveness of hybrid gating. The influences of different clinical conditions on hybrid gating, such as the size of gating windows, the optimal timing for internal signal acquisition and the acquisition frequency are investigated. The results demonstrate that dynamically updating the internal/external correlation in or around the gating window will reduce false positive with relatively diminished treatment efficiency. This improvement will benefit patients with mobile tumors, especially greater for early stage lung cancers, for which the tumors are less attached or freely floating in the lung.

  13. Gating based on internal/external signals with dynamic correlation updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huanmei [Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, Indiana University School of Informatics, IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Zhao Qingya [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Berbeco, Ross I [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Womens Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Nishioka, Seiko [NTT East-Japan Sapporo Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Jiang, Steve B [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States)], E-mail: hw9@iupui.edu, E-mail: sbjiang@ucsd.edu

    2008-12-21

    Precise localization of mobile tumor positions in real time is critical to the success of gated radiotherapy. Tumor positions are usually derived from either internal or external surrogates. Fluoroscopic gating based on internal surrogates, such as implanted fiducial markers, is accurate however requiring a large amount of imaging dose. Gating based on external surrogates, such as patient abdominal surface motion, is non-invasive however less accurate due to the uncertainty in the correlation between tumor location and external surrogates. To address these complications, we propose to investigate an approach based on hybrid gating with dynamic internal/external correlation updates. In this approach, the external signal is acquired at high frequency (such as 30 Hz) while the internal signal is sparsely acquired (such as 0.5 Hz or less). The internal signal is used to validate and update the internal/external correlation during treatment. Tumor positions are derived from the external signal based on the newly updated correlation. Two dynamic correlation updating algorithms are introduced. One is based on the motion amplitude and the other is based on the motion phase. Nine patients with synchronized internal/external motion signals are simulated retrospectively to evaluate the effectiveness of hybrid gating. The influences of different clinical conditions on hybrid gating, such as the size of gating windows, the optimal timing for internal signal acquisition and the acquisition frequency are investigated. The results demonstrate that dynamically updating the internal/external correlation in or around the gating window will reduce false positive with relatively diminished treatment efficiency. This improvement will benefit patients with mobile tumors, especially greater for early stage lung cancers, for which the tumors are less attached or freely floating in the lung.

  14. Quasiparticle dynamics in reshaped helical Dirac cone of topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lin; Wang, Z F; Ming, Wenmei; Yao, Meng-Yu; Wang, Meixiao; Yang, Fang; Song, Y R; Zhu, Fengfeng; Fedorov, Alexei V; Sun, Z; Gao, C L; Liu, Canhua; Xue, Qi-Kun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Liu, Feng; Qian, Dong; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2013-02-19

    Topological insulators and graphene present two unique classes of materials, which are characterized by spin-polarized (helical) and nonpolarized Dirac cone band structures, respectively. The importance of many-body interactions that renormalize the linear bands near Dirac point in graphene has been well recognized and attracted much recent attention. However, renormalization of the helical Dirac point has not been observed in topological insulators. Here, we report the experimental observation of the renormalized quasiparticle spectrum with a skewed Dirac cone in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Te(3) substrate from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. First-principles band calculations indicate that the quasiparticle spectra are likely associated with the hybridization between the extrinsic substrate-induced Dirac states of Bi bilayer and the intrinsic surface Dirac states of Bi(2)Te(3) film at close energy proximity. Without such hybridization, only single-particle Dirac spectra are observed in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Se(3), where the extrinsic Dirac states Bi bilayer and the intrinsic Dirac states of Bi(2)Se(3) are well separated in energy. The possible origins of many-body interactions are discussed. Our findings provide a means to manipulate topological surface states.

  15. A New Topology for Interline Dynamic Voltage Restorer Based on Direct Three-Phase Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Babaei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new topology for Interline Dynamic Voltage Restorer (IDVR is proposed. This topology contains two direct three-phase converters which have been connected together by a common fictitious dc-link. According to the kind of the disturbances, both of the converters can be employed as a rectifier or inverter. The converters receive the required compensation energy from the gird through the direct link which is provided by the dual-proposed switches. Due to the lack of the huge storage elements, the practical prototype of the proposed topology is more economical in comparison with the traditional structure. Moreover, compensating for long time duration is possible due to the unlimited eternal energy which is provided from the grids. The low volume, cost and weight are the additional features of the proposed topology in comparison with traditional types. This topology is capable to compensate both of the balanced and unbalanced disturbances. Furthermore, restoring the deep sags and power outages will be possible with the support from the other grid. Unlike the conventional topologies, the capability of compensation is independent from the power flow and the power factor of each grid. The performance of the proposed IDVR topology is validated by computer simulation with PSCAD/EMTDC software.

  16. Micro-mechanical resonators for dynamically reconfigurable reduced voltage logic gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappanda, K. N.; Ilyas, S.; Younis, M. I.

    2018-05-01

    Due to the limitations of transistor-based logic devices such as their poor performance at elevated temperature, alternative computing methods are being actively investigated. In this work, we present electromechanical logic gates using electrostatically coupled in-plane micro-cantilever resonators operated at modest vacuum conditions of 5 Torr. Operating in the first resonant mode, we demonstrate 2-bit XOR, 2- and 3-bit AND, 2- and 3-bit NOR, and 1-bit NOT gates; all condensed in the same device. Through the designed electrostatic coupling, the required voltage for the logic gates is reduced by 80%, along with the reduction in the number of electrical interconnects and devices per logic operation (contrary to transistors). The device is dynamically reconfigurable between any logic gates in real time without the need for any change in the electrical interconnects and the drive circuit. By operating in the first two resonant vibration modes, we demonstrate mechanical logic gates consisting of two 2-bit AND and two 2-bit XOR gates. The device is tested at elevated temperatures and is shown to be functional as a logic gate up to 150 °C. Also, the device has high reliability with demonstrated lifetime greater than 5  ×  1012 oscillations.

  17. Micro-mechanical resonators for dynamically reconfigurable reduced voltage logic gates

    KAUST Repository

    Chappanda , K. N.; Ilyas, Saad; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2018-01-01

    Due to the limitations of transistor-based logic devices such as their poor performance at elevated temperature, alternative computing methods are being actively investigated. In this work, we present electromechanical logic gates using electrostatically coupled in-plane micro-cantilever resonators operated at modest vacuum conditions of 5 Torr. Operating in the first resonant mode, we demonstrate 2-bit XOR, 2- and 3-bit AND, 2- and 3-bit NOR, and 1-bit NOT gates; all condensed in the same device. Through the designed electrostatic coupling, the required voltage for the logic gates is reduced by 80%, along with the reduction in the number of electrical interconnects and devices per logic operation (contrary to transistors). The device is dynamically reconfigurable between any logic gates in real time without the need for any change in the electrical interconnects and the drive circuit. By operating in the first two resonant vibration modes, we demonstrate mechanical logic gates consisting of two 2-bit AND and two 2-bit XOR gates. The device is tested at elevated temperatures and is shown to be functional as a logic gate up to 150 °C. Also, the device has high reliability with demonstrated lifetime greater than 5 × 10 oscillations.

  18. Micro-mechanical resonators for dynamically reconfigurable reduced voltage logic gates

    KAUST Repository

    Chappanda, K N

    2018-02-16

    Due to the limitations of transistor-based logic devices such as their poor performance at elevated temperature, alternative computing methods are being actively investigated. In this work, we present electromechanical logic gates using electrostatically coupled in-plane micro-cantilever resonators operated at modest vacuum conditions of 5 Torr. Operating in the first resonant mode, we demonstrate 2-bit XOR, 2- and 3-bit AND, 2- and 3-bit NOR, and 1-bit NOT gates; all condensed in the same device. Through the designed electrostatic coupling, the required voltage for the logic gates is reduced by 80%, along with the reduction in the number of electrical interconnects and devices per logic operation (contrary to transistors). The device is dynamically reconfigurable between any logic gates in real time without the need for any change in the electrical interconnects and the drive circuit. By operating in the first two resonant vibration modes, we demonstrate mechanical logic gates consisting of two 2-bit AND and two 2-bit XOR gates. The device is tested at elevated temperatures and is shown to be functional as a logic gate up to 150 °C. Also, the device has high reliability with demonstrated lifetime greater than 5 × 10 oscillations.

  19. Dynamical Detection of Topological Phase Transitions in Short-Lived Atomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, F.; Sengupta, K.; Spielman, I. B.; Sau, Jay D.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that dynamical probes provide direct means of detecting the topological phase transition (TPT) between conventional and topological phases, which would otherwise be difficult to access because of loss or heating processes. We propose to avoid such heating by rapidly quenching in and out of the short-lived topological phase across the transition that supports gapless excitations. Following the quench, the distribution of excitations in the final conventional phase carries signatures of the TPT. We apply this strategy to study the TPT into a Majorana-carrying topological phase predicted in one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gases with attractive interactions. The resulting spin-resolved momentum distribution, computed by self-consistently solving the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, exhibits Kibble-Zurek scaling and Stückelberg oscillations characteristic of the TPT. We discuss parameter regimes where the TPT is experimentally accessible.

  20. Dynamic Monte Carlo study of isolated-gate InAs/AlSb HEMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodilla, H; González, T; Mateos, J; Moschetti, G; Grahn, J

    2011-01-01

    In this work, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, the static and dynamic behavior of isolated-gate InAs/AlSb high electron mobility transistors (Sb-HEMTs) has been studied and compared with experimental results. The influence of the existence of a native oxide under the gate, the value of the surface charges in the gate recess and the possible variation of electron sheet carrier density, n s , have been studied. A decrease in the gate-source capacitance, transconductance and intrinsic cutoff frequency is observed because of the presence of the native oxide, while changes in the value of the surface charges in the recess only introduce a threshold voltage shift. The increase of n s shifts the maximum of the transconductance and intrinsic cutoff frequency to higher values of drain current and improves the agreement with the experimental results

  1. Artificial Epigenetic Networks: Automatic Decomposition of Dynamical Control Tasks Using Topological Self-Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alexander P; Caves, Leo S D; Stepney, Susan; Tyrrell, Andy M; Lones, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the artificial epigenetic network, a recurrent connectionist architecture that is able to dynamically modify its topology in order to automatically decompose and solve dynamical problems. The approach is motivated by the behavior of gene regulatory networks, particularly the epigenetic process of chromatin remodeling that leads to topological change and which underlies the differentiation of cells within complex biological organisms. We expected this approach to be useful in situations where there is a need to switch between different dynamical behaviors, and do so in a sensitive and robust manner in the absence of a priori information about problem structure. This hypothesis was tested using a series of dynamical control tasks, each requiring solutions that could express different dynamical behaviors at different stages within the task. In each case, the addition of topological self-modification was shown to improve the performance and robustness of controllers. We believe this is due to the ability of topological changes to stabilize attractors, promoting stability within a dynamical regime while allowing rapid switching between different regimes. Post hoc analysis of the controllers also demonstrated how the partitioning of the networks could provide new insights into problem structure.

  2. Monopole and topological electron dynamics in adiabatic spintronic and graphene systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Fujita, T.

    2010-01-01

    A unified theoretical treatment is presented to describe the physics of electron dynamics in semiconductor and graphene systems. Electron spin's fast alignment with the Zeeman magnetic field (physical or effective) is treated as a form of adiabatic spin evolution which necessarily generates a monopole in magnetic space. One could transform this monopole into the physical and intuitive topological magnetic fields in the useful momentum (K) or real spaces (R). The physics of electron dynamics related to spin Hall, torque, oscillations and other technologically useful spinor effects can be inferred from the topological magnetic fields in spintronic, graphene and other SU(2) systems.

  3. Instantons: Dynamical mass generation, chiral ward identities and the topological charge correlation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, N.A. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1983-01-10

    When dynamical mass generation resulting from the breakdown of chiral symmetry is taken into account, instanton dynamics treated within the dilute gas approximation may satisfy the constraints on the quark condensates and the topological charge correlation function derived by Crewther from an analysis of the chiral Ward identities assuming the absence of a physical axial U(1) Goldstone boson. From a consideration of the contribution of the eta' to the topological charge correlation function, a relationship is derived in which msub(eta')/sup 2/fsub(eta')/sup 2/ is proportional to the vacuum energy density.

  4. Instantons: Dynamical mass generation, chiral ward identities and the topological charge correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    When dynamical mass generation resulting from the breakdown of chiral symmetry is taken into account, instanton dynamics treated within the dilute gas approximation may satisfy the constraints on the quark condensates and the topological charge correlation function derived by Crewther from an analysis of the chiral Ward identities assuming the absence of a physical axial U(1) Goldstone boson. From a consideration of the contribution of the eta' to the topological charge correlation function, a relationship is derived in which msub(eta') 2 fsub(eta') 2 is proportional to the vacuum energy density. (orig.)

  5. Topological phase transition in the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional Fermi gas with spin–orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei; Yi, Wei; Xianlong, Gao

    2015-01-01

    We study the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional ultracold Fermi gas with synthetic spin-orbit coupling. At equilibrium, the ground state of the system can undergo a topological phase transition and become a topological superfluid with Majorana edge states. As the interaction is quenched near the topological phase boundary, we identify an interesting dynamical phase transition of the quenched state in the long-time limit, characterized by an abrupt change of the pairing gap at a critical quenched interaction strength. We further demonstrate the topological nature of this dynamical phase transition from edge-state analysis of the quenched states. Our findings provide interesting clues for the understanding of topological phase transitions in dynamical processes, and can be useful for the dynamical detection of Majorana edge states in corresponding systems. (paper)

  6. Topological phase transition in the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yi, Wei; Xianlong, Gao

    2015-01-01

    We study the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional ultracold Fermi gas with synthetic spin-orbit coupling. At equilibrium, the ground state of the system can undergo a topological phase transition and become a topological superfluid with Majorana edge states. As the interaction is quenched near the topological phase boundary, we identify an interesting dynamical phase transition of the quenched state in the long-time limit, characterized by an abrupt change of the pairing gap at a critical quenched interaction strength. We further demonstrate the topological nature of this dynamical phase transition from edge-state analysis of the quenched states. Our findings provide interesting clues for the understanding of topological phase transitions in dynamical processes, and can be useful for the dynamical detection of Majorana edge states in corresponding systems.

  7. Second-Order Consensus for Multiagent Systems With Directed Topologies and Nonlinear Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Wenwu; Chen, Guanrong; Cao, Ming; Kurths, Juergen; Kurths, Jürgen

    This paper considers a second-order consensus problem for multiagent systems with nonlinear dynamics and directed topologies where each agent is governed by both position and velocity consensus terms with a time-varying asymptotic velocity. To describe the system's ability for reaching consensus, a

  8. Optimal superadiabatic population transfer and gates by dynamical phase corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, A.; Danilin, S.; Paraoanu, G. S.

    2018-04-01

    In many quantum technologies adiabatic processes are used for coherent quantum state operations, offering inherent robustness to errors in the control parameters. The main limitation is the long operation time resulting from the requirement of adiabaticity. The superadiabatic method allows for faster operation, by applying counterdiabatic driving that corrects for excitations resulting from the violation of the adiabatic condition. In this article we show how to construct the counterdiabatic Hamiltonian in a system with forbidden transitions by using two-photon processes and how to correct for the resulting time-dependent ac-Stark shifts in order to enable population transfer with unit fidelity. We further demonstrate that superadiabatic stimulated Raman passage can realize a robust unitary NOT-gate between the ground state and the second excited state of a three-level system. The results can be readily applied to a three-level transmon with the ladder energy level structure.

  9. One-step implementation of the Toffoli gate via quantum Zeno dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Xiaoqiang; Wang Hongfu; Chen Li; Zhang Shou; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang

    2009-01-01

    Based on the quantum Zeno dynamics, we present a scheme for one-step implementation of a Toffoli gate via manipulating three rf superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits to resonantly interact with a superconducting cavity. The effects of decoherence such as spontaneous emission and the loss of cavity are also considered.

  10. Gravitational collapse and topology change in spherically symmetric dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csizmadia, Peter; Racz, Istvan, E-mail: cspeter@rmki.kfki.h, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.h [RMKI H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2010-01-07

    A new numerical framework, based on the use of a simple first-order strongly hyperbolic evolution equations, is introduced and tested in the case of four-dimensional spherically symmetric gravitating systems. The analytic setup is chosen such that our numerical method is capable of following the time evolution even after the appearance of trapped surfaces, more importantly, until the true physical singularities are reached. Using this framework, the gravitational collapse of various gravity-matter systems is investigated, with particular attention to the evolution in trapped regions. It is verified that, in advance of the formation of these curvature singularities, trapped regions develop in all cases, thereby supporting the validity of the weak cosmic censor hypothesis of Penrose. Various upper bounds on the rate of blow-up of the Ricci and Kretschmann scalars and the Misner-Sharp mass are provided. In spite of the unboundedness of the Ricci scalar, the Einstein-Hilbert action was found to remain finite in all the investigated cases. In addition, important conceptual issues related to the phenomenon of topology changes are discussed.

  11. Topology Detection for Output-Coupling Weighted Complex Dynamical Networks with Coupling and Transmission Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topology detection for output-coupling weighted complex dynamical networks with two types of time delays is investigated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, coupling delay and transmission delay are simultaneously taken into account in the output-coupling network. Based on the idea of the state observer, we build the drive-response system and apply LaSalle’s invariance principle to the error dynamical system of the drive-response system. Several convergent criteria are deduced in the form of algebraic inequalities. Some numerical simulations for the complex dynamical network, with node dynamics being chaotic, are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  12. Evolutionary Design of Both Topologies and Parameters of a Hybrid Dynamical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of open-ended plants for hybrid dynamical systems--i.e. both their topologies and parameters. Hybrid bond graphs are used to represent dynamical systems involving both continuous and discrete system dynamics. Genetic programming, with some...... of hybrid dynamical systems that fulfill predefined design specifications. A comprehensive investigation of a case study of DC-DC converter design demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the HBGGP approach. Important characteristics of the approach are also discussed, with some future research...

  13. CMOS integration of high-k/metal gate transistors in diffusion and gate replacement (D&GR) scheme for dynamic random access memory peripheral circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentoni Litta, Eugenio; Ritzenthaler, Romain; Schram, Tom; Spessot, Alessio; O’Sullivan, Barry; Machkaoutsan, Vladimir; Fazan, Pierre; Ji, Yunhyuck; Mannaert, Geert; Lorant, Christophe; Sebaai, Farid; Thiam, Arame; Ercken, Monique; Demuynck, Steven; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2018-04-01

    Integration of high-k/metal gate stacks in peripheral transistors is a major candidate to ensure continued scaling of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) technology. In this paper, the CMOS integration of diffusion and gate replacement (D&GR) high-k/metal gate stacks is investigated, evaluating four different approaches for the critical patterning step of removing the N-type field effect transistor (NFET) effective work function (eWF) shifter stack from the P-type field effect transistor (PFET) area. The effect of plasma exposure during the patterning step is investigated in detail and found to have a strong impact on threshold voltage tunability. A CMOS integration scheme based on an experimental wet-compatible photoresist is developed and the fulfillment of the main device metrics [equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), eWF, gate leakage current density, on/off currents, short channel control] is demonstrated.

  14. Structure and Topology Dynamics of Hyper-Frequency Networks during Rest and Auditory Oddball Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Viktor; Perdikis, Dionysios; von Oertzen, Timo; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Jirsa, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state and task-related recordings are characterized by oscillatory brain activity and widely distributed networks of synchronized oscillatory circuits. Electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) were used to assess network structure and network dynamics during resting state with eyes open and closed, and auditory oddball performance through phase synchronization between EEG channels. For this assessment, we constructed a hyper-frequency network (HFN) based on within- and cross-frequency coupling (WFC and CFC, respectively) at 10 oscillation frequencies ranging between 2 and 20 Hz. We found that CFC generally differentiates between task conditions better than WFC. CFC was the highest during resting state with eyes open. Using a graph-theoretical approach (GTA), we found that HFNs possess small-world network (SWN) topology with a slight tendency to random network characteristics. Moreover, analysis of the temporal fluctuations of HFNs revealed specific network topology dynamics (NTD), i.e., temporal changes of different graph-theoretical measures such as strength, clustering coefficient, characteristic path length (CPL), local, and global efficiency determined for HFNs at different time windows. The different topology metrics showed significant differences between conditions in the mean and standard deviation of these metrics both across time and nodes. In addition, using an artificial neural network approach, we found stimulus-related dynamics that varied across the different network topology metrics. We conclude that functional connectivity dynamics (FCD), or NTD, which was found using the HFN approach during rest and stimulus processing, reflects temporal and topological changes in the functional organization and reorganization of neuronal cell assemblies.

  15. Dynamical topology change, compactification and waves in a stringy early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, Elias

    1995-01-01

    Exact string solutions are presented, where moduli fields are varying with time. They provide examples where a dynamical change of the topology of space is occuring. Some other solutions give cosmological examples where some dimensions are compactified dynamically or simulate pre-big bag type scenarios. Some lessons are drawn concerning the region of validity of effective theories and how they can be glued together, using stringy information in the region where the geometry and topology are not well defined from the low energy point of view. Other time dependent solutions are presented where a hierarchy of scales is absent. Such solutions have dynamics which is qualitatively different and resemble plane gravitational waves. Talk presented by E. Kiritsis in the 2\\`eme Journ\\'ee Cosmologie, Observatoire de Paris, 2-4 June 1994.

  16. Investigating degradation behavior of hole-trapping effect under static and dynamic gate-bias stress in a dual gate a-InGaZnO thin film transistor with etch stop layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Po-Yung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chen, Bo-Wei; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Chou, Cheng-Hsu; Chang, Jung-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The degree of degradation between the amorphous-indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) using the top-gate only or bottom-gate only is compared. Under negative gate bias illumination stress (NBIS), the threshold voltage (V T ) after bottom-gate NBIS monotonically shifts in the negative direction, whereas top-gate NBIS operation exhibits on-state current increases without V T shift. Such anomalous degradation behavior of NBIS under top-gate operation is due to hole-trapping in the etch stop layer above the central portion of the channel. These phenomena can be ascribed to the screening of the electric field by redundant source/drain electrodes. In addition, the device degradation of dual gate a-IGZO TFT stressed with different top gate pulse waveforms is investigated. It is observed that the degradation is dependent on the frequency of the top gate pulses. The V T shift increases with decreasing frequency, indicating the hole mobility of IGZO is low. - Highlights: • Static and dynamic gate bias stresses are imposed on dual gate InGaZnO TFTs. • Top-gate NBIS operation exhibits on-state current increases without VT shift. • The degradation behavior of top-gate NBIS is due to hole-trapping in the ESL. • The degradation is dependent on the frequency of the top gate pulses. • The V T shift increases with decreasing frequency of the top gate pulses.

  17. Relating Topological Determinants of Complex Networks to Their Spectral Properties: Structural and Dynamical Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Claudio; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2017-10-01

    The largest eigenvalue of a network's adjacency matrix and its associated principal eigenvector are key elements for determining the topological structure and the properties of dynamical processes mediated by it. We present a physically grounded expression relating the value of the largest eigenvalue of a given network to the largest eigenvalue of two network subgraphs, considered as isolated: the hub with its immediate neighbors and the densely connected set of nodes with maximum K -core index. We validate this formula by showing that it predicts, with good accuracy, the largest eigenvalue of a large set of synthetic and real-world topologies. We also present evidence of the consequences of these findings for broad classes of dynamics taking place on the networks. As a by-product, we reveal that the spectral properties of heterogeneous networks built according to the linear preferential attachment model are qualitatively different from those of their static counterparts.

  18. Efficient network reconstruction from dynamical cascades identifies small-world topology of neuronal avalanches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Pajevic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cascading activity is commonly found in complex systems with directed interactions such as metabolic networks, neuronal networks, or disease spreading in social networks. Substantial insight into a system's organization can be obtained by reconstructing the underlying functional network architecture from the observed activity cascades. Here we focus on Bayesian approaches and reduce their computational demands by introducing the Iterative Bayesian (IB and Posterior Weighted Averaging (PWA methods. We introduce a special case of PWA, cast in nonparametric form, which we call the normalized count (NC algorithm. NC efficiently reconstructs random and small-world functional network topologies and architectures from subcritical, critical, and supercritical cascading dynamics and yields significant improvements over commonly used correlation methods. With experimental data, NC identified a functional and structural small-world topology and its corresponding traffic in cortical networks with neuronal avalanche dynamics.

  19. Slow, bursty dynamics as a consequence of quenched network topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ådor, Géza

    2014-04-01

    Bursty dynamics of agents is shown to appear at criticality or in extended Griffiths phases, even in case of Poisson processes. I provide numerical evidence for a power-law type of intercommunication time distributions by simulating the contact process and the susceptible-infected-susceptible model. This observation suggests that in the case of nonstationary bursty systems, the observed non-Poissonian behavior can emerge as a consequence of an underlying hidden Poissonian network process, which is either critical or exhibits strong rare-region effects. On the contrary, in time-varying networks, rare-region effects do not cause deviation from the mean-field behavior, and heterogeneity-induced burstyness is absent.

  20. Slow, bursty dynamics as a consequence of quenched network topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ódor, Géza

    2014-04-01

    Bursty dynamics of agents is shown to appear at criticality or in extended Griffiths phases, even in case of Poisson processes. I provide numerical evidence for a power-law type of intercommunication time distributions by simulating the contact process and the susceptible-infected-susceptible model. This observation suggests that in the case of nonstationary bursty systems, the observed non-Poissonian behavior can emerge as a consequence of an underlying hidden Poissonian network process, which is either critical or exhibits strong rare-region effects. On the contrary, in time-varying networks, rare-region effects do not cause deviation from the mean-field behavior, and heterogeneity-induced burstyness is absent.

  1. World-trade web: Topological properties, dynamics, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Reyes, Javier; Schiavo, Stefano

    2009-03-01

    This paper studies the statistical properties of the web of import-export relationships among world countries using a weighted-network approach. We analyze how the distributions of the most important network statistics measuring connectivity, assortativity, clustering, and centrality have coevolved over time. We show that all node-statistic distributions and their correlation structure have remained surprisingly stable in the last 20years —and are likely to do so in the future. Conversely, the distribution of (positive) link weights is slowly moving from a log-normal density towards a power law. We also characterize the autoregressive properties of network-statistics dynamics. We find that network-statistics growth rates are well-proxied by fat-tailed densities like the Laplace or the asymmetric exponential power. Finally, we find that all our results are reasonably robust to a few alternative, economically meaningful, weighting schemes.

  2. Generation of complete electronic nuclear medicine reports including static, dynamic and gated images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, M.; Pilon, R.; Mut, F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To develop a procedure for the creation of nuclear medicine reports containing static and dynamic images. The reason for implementing this technique is the lack of adequate solutions for an electronic format of nuclear medicine results allowing for rapid transmission via e-mail, specially in the case of dynamic and gated SPECT studies, since functional data is best presented in dynamic mode. Material and Methods: Clinical images were acquired in static, whole body, dynamic and gated mode, corresponding to bone studies, diuretic renogram, radionuclide cystography and gated perfusion SPECT, as well as respective time-activity curves. Image files were imported from a dedicated nuclear medicine computer system (Elscint XPert) to a Windows-based PC through a standard ethernet network with TCP-IP communications protocol, using a software developed by us which permits the conversion from the manufacturer's original format into a bitmap format (.bmp) compatible with commercially available PC software. For cardiac perfusion studies, background was subtracted prior to transferring to reduce the amount of information in the file; this was not done for other type of studies because useful data could be eliminated. Dynamic images were then processed using commercial software to create animated files and stored in .gif format. Static images were re-sized and stored in .jpg format. Original color or gray scale was always preserved. All the graphic material was then merged with a previously prepared report text using HTML format. The report also contained reference diagrams to facilitate interpretation. The whole report was then compressed into a self-extractable file, ready to be sent by electronic mail. Reception of the material was visually checked for data integrity including image quality by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Results: The report presented allows for simultaneous visualization of the text, diagrams and images either static, dynamic, gated or

  3. Synchronization propensity in networks of dynamical systems: A purely topological indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Fasani, S.; Rinaldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Synchronization in networks of identical dynamical systems is enhanced by the number of manifolds in which synchrony of groups of systems is conserved or reinforced. Since the number of these invariant manifolds depends only on the coupling architecture of the network, it can be proposed as a purely topological indicator of synchronization propensity. The proposal is empirically validated through the detailed study of an ecological application.

  4. Dynamical and topological considerations in low and high mass diffractive dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishari, M.

    1978-01-01

    The topological structure of a given process completely specifies the 1/N dependence. However dynamics seems to be crucial in characterizing strongly interacting reactions, as illustrated in the study of elastic scattering, low mass diffraction and the triple pomeron mechanism. The ''1/N dual unitarization'' scheme is a viable framework for Gribov's Reggeon field theory, since it clarifies and determines the bare parameters of Gribov's Lagrangian. (author)

  5. Devil's carpet of topological entropy and complexity of global dynamical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, K.-F.; Zhang, X.-S.; Zhou Zhong; Peng, S.-L.

    2003-01-01

    For bimodal maps the concept of an equal topological entropy class (ETEC) is established by the dual star products. All the infinitely many ETEC plateaus and single points are harmonically organized in the kneading parameter plane, they construct a multifractal devil's carpet, which possesses a perfect subregion similarity and a dual central symmetry. The entropy devil's carpet reveals the complexity of global dynamical behavior in the whole parameter plane of bimodal systems

  6. The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderies, J M; Carpenter, S R; Steffen, Will; Rockström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We present a minimal model of land use and carbon cycle dynamics and use it to explore the relationship between non-linear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover and terrestrial, atmospheric, and marine carbon stocks are considered in the model. Our goal is not to predict global carbon dynamics as it occurs in the actual Earth System. Rather, we construct a conceptually reasonable heuristic model of a feedback system between different carbon stocks that captures the qualitative features of the actual Earth System and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a ‘safe operating space’ for humans. The model analysis illustrates the existence of dynamic, non-linear tipping points in carbon cycle dynamics and the potential complexity of planetary boundaries. Finally, we use the model to illustrate some challenges associated with navigating planetary boundaries. (letter)

  7. The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderies, J. M.; Carpenter, S. R.; Steffen, Will; Rockström, Johan

    2013-12-01

    We present a minimal model of land use and carbon cycle dynamics and use it to explore the relationship between non-linear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover and terrestrial, atmospheric, and marine carbon stocks are considered in the model. Our goal is not to predict global carbon dynamics as it occurs in the actual Earth System. Rather, we construct a conceptually reasonable heuristic model of a feedback system between different carbon stocks that captures the qualitative features of the actual Earth System and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a ‘safe operating space’ for humans. The model analysis illustrates the existence of dynamic, non-linear tipping points in carbon cycle dynamics and the potential complexity of planetary boundaries. Finally, we use the model to illustrate some challenges associated with navigating planetary boundaries.

  8. Molecular dynamics and brownian dynamics investigation of ion permeation and anesthetic halothane effects on a proton-gated ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mary Hongying; Coalson, Rob D; Tang, Pei

    2010-11-24

    Bacterial Gloeobacter violaceus pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC) is activated to cation permeation upon lowering the solution pH. Its function can be modulated by anesthetic halothane. In the present work, we integrate molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to elucidate the ion conduction, charge selectivity, and halothane modulation mechanisms in GLIC, based on recently resolved X-ray crystal structures of the open-channel GLIC. MD calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF) for a Na(+) revealed two energy barriers in the extracellular domain (R109 and K38) and at the hydrophobic gate of transmembrane domain (I233), respectively. An energy well for Na(+) was near the intracellular entrance: the depth of this energy well was modulated strongly by the protonation state of E222. The energy barrier for Cl(-) was found to be 3-4 times higher than that for Na(+). Ion permeation characteristics were determined through BD simulations using a hybrid MD/continuum electrostatics approach to evaluate the energy profiles governing the ion movement. The resultant channel conductance and a near-zero permeability ratio (P(Cl)/P(Na)) were comparable to experimental data. On the basis of these calculations, we suggest that a ring of five E222 residues may act as an electrostatic gate. In addition, the hydrophobic gate region may play a role in charge selectivity due to a higher dehydration energy barrier for Cl(-) ions. The effect of halothane on the Na(+) PMF was also evaluated. Halothane was found to perturb salt bridges in GLIC that may be crucial for channel gating and open-channel stability, but had no significant impact on the single ion PMF profiles.

  9. A computational paradigm for dynamic logic-gates in neuronal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eGoldental

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1943 McCulloch and Pitts suggested that the brain is composed of reliable logic-gates similar to the logic at the core of today's computers. This framework had a limited impact on neuroscience, since neurons exhibit far richer dynamics. Here we propose a new experimentally corroborated paradigm in which the truth tables of the brain's logic-gates are time dependent, i.e. dynamic logic-gates (DLGs. The truth tables of the DLGs depend on the history of their activity and the stimulation frequencies of their input neurons. Our experimental results are based on a procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on circuits of neurons embedded within a large-scale network of cortical cells in-vitro. We demonstrate that the underlying biological mechanism is the unavoidable increase of neuronal response latencies to ongoing stimulations, which imposes a non-uniform gradual stretching of network delays. The limited experimental results are confirmed and extended by simulations and theoretical arguments based on identical neurons with a fixed increase of the neuronal response latency per evoked spike. We anticipate our results to lead to better understanding of the suitability of this computational paradigm to account for the brain's functionalities and will require the development of new systematic mathematical methods beyond the methods developed for traditional Boolean algebra.

  10. The effects of topology on the structural, dynamic and mechanical properties of network-forming materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The effects of network topology on the static structural, mechanical and dynamic properties of MX 2 network-forming liquids (with tetrahedral short-range order) are discussed. The network topology is controlled via a single model parameter (the anion polarizability) which effectively constrains the inter-tetrahedral linkages in a physically transparent manner. Critically, it is found to control the balance between the stability of corner- and edge-sharing tetrahedra. A potential rigidity transformation is investigated. The vibrational density of states is investigated, using an instantaneous normal model analysis, as a function of both anion polarizability and temperature. A low frequency peak is seen to appear and is shown to be correlated with the fraction of cations which are linked through solely edge-sharing structural motifs. A modified effective mean atom coordination number is proposed which allows the appearance of the low frequency feature to be understood in terms of a mean field rigidity percolation threshold. (paper)

  11. Correlation between topological structure and its properties in dynamic singular vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Vasyl; Soskin, Marat

    2016-04-20

    A new technique for establishment of topology measurements for static and dynamic singular vector fields is elaborated. It is based on precise measurement of the 3D landscape of ellipticity distribution for a checked singular optical field with C points on the tops of ellipticity hills. Vector fields possess three-component topology: areas with right-hand (RH) and left-hand (LH) ellipses, and delimiting those L lines as the singularities of handedness. The azimuth map of polarization ellipses is common for both RH and LH ellipses of vector fields and do not feel L lines. The strict rules were confirmed experimentally, which define the connection between the sign of underlying optical vortices and morphological parameters of upper-lying C points. Percolation phenomena explain their realization in-between singular vector fields and long duration of their chains of 103  s order.

  12. Identifying partial topology of complex dynamical networks via a pinning mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuaibing; Zhou, Jin; Lu, Jun-an

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of identifying the partial topology of complex dynamical networks via a pinning mechanism. By using the network synchronization theory and the adaptive feedback controlling method, we propose a method which can greatly reduce the number of nodes and observers in the response network. Particularly, this method can also identify the whole topology of complex networks. A theorem is established rigorously, from which some corollaries are also derived in order to make our method more cost-effective. Several numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. In the simulation, an approach is also given to avoid possible identification failure caused by inner synchronization of the drive network.

  13. Dynamics of topological solitons, knotted streamlines, and transport of cargo in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hayley R. O.; Ackerman, Paul J.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Sheetah, Ghadah H.; Fornberg, Bengt; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-05-01

    Active colloids and liquid crystals are capable of locally converting the macroscopically supplied energy into directional motion and promise a host of new applications, ranging from drug delivery to cargo transport at the mesoscale. Here we uncover how topological solitons in liquid crystals can locally transform electric energy to translational motion and allow for the transport of cargo along directions dependent on frequency of the applied electric field. By combining polarized optical video microscopy and numerical modeling that reproduces both the equilibrium structures of solitons and their temporal evolution in applied fields, we uncover the physical underpinnings behind this reconfigurable motion and study how it depends on the structure and topology of solitons. We show that, unexpectedly, the directional motion of solitons with and without the cargo arises mainly from the asymmetry in rotational dynamics of molecular ordering in liquid crystal rather than from the asymmetry of fluid flows, as in conventional active soft matter systems.

  14. Entraining the topology and the dynamics of a network of phase oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendiña-Nadal, I.; Leyva, I.; Buldú, J. M.; Almendral, J. A.; Boccaletti, S.

    2009-04-01

    We show that the topology and dynamics of a network of unsynchronized Kuramoto oscillators can be simultaneously controlled by means of a forcing mechanism which yields a phase locking of the oscillators to that of an external pacemaker in connection with the reshaping of the network’s degree distribution. The entrainment mechanism is based on the addition, at regular time intervals, of unidirectional links from oscillators that follow the dynamics of a pacemaker to oscillators in the pristine graph whose phases hold a prescribed phase relationship. Such a dynamically based rule in the attachment process leads to the emergence of a power-law shape in the final degree distribution of the graph whenever the network is entrained to the dynamics of the pacemaker. We show that the arousal of a scale-free distribution in connection with the success of the entrainment process is a robust feature, characterizing different networks’ initial configurations and parameters.

  15. Holographic control of information and dynamical topology change for composite open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Volovich, I. V.; Inozemcev, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze how the compositeness of a system affects the characteristic time of equilibration. We study the dynamics of open composite quantum systems strongly coupled to the environment after a quantum perturbation accompanied by nonequilibrium heating. We use a holographic description of the evolution of entanglement entropy. The nonsmooth character of the evolution with holographic entanglement is a general feature of composite systems, which demonstrate a dynamical change of topology in the bulk space and a jumplike velocity change of entanglement entropy propagation. Moreover, the number of jumps depends on the system configuration and especially on the number of composite parts. The evolution of the mutual information of two composite systems inherits these jumps. We present a detailed study of the mutual information for two subsystems with one of them being bipartite. We find five qualitatively different types of behavior of the mutual information dynamics and indicate the corresponding regions of the system parameters.

  16. Topological defect and quasi-particle dynamics in charge density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahiko; Ebisawa, Hiromichi

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of topological defects (dislocations) in charge density waves (CDW's) is largely affected by the quasi-particle dynamics in the cores of the dislocations. The dislocations mediate the conversion of the electron number between condensate and quasi-particle sub-systems. This is especially important in the sliding conduction of CDW. In this work we propose a simple model, which is obtained by extending the Ginzburg-Landau theory partially taking into account the quasi-particle dynamics in the sense of two-fluid model. We perform the numerical simulation of sliding conduction of CDW based on our model. Using this model we may clarify the detailed process of dislocation nucleation and annihilation near the contacts.

  17. Feedback topology and XOR-dynamics in Boolean networks with varying input structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciandrini, L.; Maffi, C.; Motta, A.; Bassetti, B.; Cosentino Lagomarsino, M.

    2009-08-01

    We analyze a model of fixed in-degree random Boolean networks in which the fraction of input-receiving nodes is controlled by the parameter γ . We investigate analytically and numerically the dynamics of graphs under a parallel XOR updating scheme. This scheme is interesting because it is accessible analytically and its phenomenology is at the same time under control and as rich as the one of general Boolean networks. We give analytical formulas for the dynamics on general graphs, showing that with a XOR-type evolution rule, dynamic features are direct consequences of the topological feedback structure, in analogy with the role of relevant components in Kauffman networks. Considering graphs with fixed in-degree, we characterize analytically and numerically the feedback regions using graph decimation algorithms (Leaf Removal). With varying γ , this graph ensemble shows a phase transition that separates a treelike graph region from one in which feedback components emerge. Networks near the transition point have feedback components made of disjoint loops, in which each node has exactly one incoming and one outgoing link. Using this fact, we provide analytical estimates of the maximum period starting from topological considerations.

  18. Feedback topology and XOR-dynamics in Boolean networks with varying input structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciandrini, L; Maffi, C; Motta, A; Bassetti, B; Cosentino Lagomarsino, M

    2009-08-01

    We analyze a model of fixed in-degree random Boolean networks in which the fraction of input-receiving nodes is controlled by the parameter gamma. We investigate analytically and numerically the dynamics of graphs under a parallel XOR updating scheme. This scheme is interesting because it is accessible analytically and its phenomenology is at the same time under control and as rich as the one of general Boolean networks. We give analytical formulas for the dynamics on general graphs, showing that with a XOR-type evolution rule, dynamic features are direct consequences of the topological feedback structure, in analogy with the role of relevant components in Kauffman networks. Considering graphs with fixed in-degree, we characterize analytically and numerically the feedback regions using graph decimation algorithms (Leaf Removal). With varying gamma , this graph ensemble shows a phase transition that separates a treelike graph region from one in which feedback components emerge. Networks near the transition point have feedback components made of disjoint loops, in which each node has exactly one incoming and one outgoing link. Using this fact, we provide analytical estimates of the maximum period starting from topological considerations.

  19. Modeling and dynamical topology properties of VANET based on complex networks theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Jie, E-mail: prof.li@foxmail.com [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special subset of multi-hop Mobile Ad hoc Networks in which vehicles can not only communicate with each other but also with the fixed equipments along the roads through wireless interfaces. Recently, it has been discovered that essential systems in real world share similar properties. When they are regarded as networks, among which the dynamic topology structure of VANET system is an important issue. Many real world networks are actually growing with preferential attachment like Internet, transportation system and telephone network. Those phenomena have brought great possibility in finding a strategy to calibrate and control the topology parameters which can help find VANET topology change regulation to relieve traffic jam, prevent traffic accident and improve traffic safety. VANET is a typical complex network which has its basic characteristics. In this paper, we focus on the macroscopic Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) inter-vehicle communication network with complex network theory. In particular, this paper is the first one to propose a method analyzing the topological structure and performance of VANET and present the communications in VANET from a new perspective. Accordingly, we propose degree distribution, clustering coefficient and the short path length of complex network to implement our strategy by numerical example and simulation. All the results demonstrate that VANET shows small world network features and is characterized by a truncated scale-free degree distribution with power-law degree distribution. The average path length of the network is simulated numerically, which indicates that the network shows small-world property and is rarely affected by the randomness. What’s more, we carry out extensive simulations of information propagation and mathematically prove the power law property when γ > 2. The results of this study provide useful information for VANET optimization from a

  20. Observation of the Dynamical Inversion of the Topological Charge of an Optical Vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Recolons, Jaume; Torres, Juan P.; Torner, Lluis; Wright, Ewan M.

    2001-01-01

    We report what is believed to be the first detailed experimental observation of the dynamic inversion of the topological charge of an optical vortex under free-space propagation. The vortex self-transformation occurs through continuous deformation of the noncanonical strength of the corresponding screw wave front dislocation, and is mediated by the occurrence of an extremely sharp turn in a Berry vortex trajectory, which observed at a Freund critical foliation appears as an edge-line dislocation orthogonal to the propagation direction, at a crucial point of the light evolution

  1. Dynamics, integrability and topology for some classes of Kolmogorov Hamiltonian systems in R+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre, Jaume; Xiao, Dongmei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we first give the sufficient and necessary conditions in order that two classes of polynomial Kolmogorov systems in R+4 are Hamiltonian systems. Then we study the integrability of these Hamiltonian systems in the Liouville sense. Finally, we investigate the global dynamics of the completely integrable Lotka-Volterra Hamiltonian systems in R+4. As an application of the invariant subsets of these systems, we obtain topological classifications of the 3-submanifolds in R+4 defined by the hypersurfaces axy + bzw + cx2 y + dxy2 + ez2 w + fzw2 = h, where a , b , c , d , e , f , w and h are real constants.

  2. The off-shell closed strings as the topological open membranes. Dynamical transmutation of world sheet dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogan, Y.I.

    1989-05-01

    Using the connection between (2+1) Chern-Simons gauge theory and 2d Conformal Field Theory the on-shell string condition is obtained as a condition of full independence of interior of (2+1) world. The new method for off-shell continuation is considered based on the introduction of the Maxwell term in (2+1) theory. This leads to dynamical transmutation of world-sheet dimensions - the off-shell string becomes topological membrane (topological means that (2+1) theory has topological mass term). The dependence of parameters of (2+1) theory under the external fields is discussed. (author). 17 refs

  3. Dynamic circular buffering: a technique for equilibrium gated blood pool imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, J J; Rahms, H; Green, M V; Del Pozo, F

    1996-03-01

    We have devised a software technique called "dynamic circular buffering" (DCB) with which we create a gated blood pool image sequence of the heart in real time using the best features of LIST and FRAME mode methods of acquisition/processing. The routine is based on the concept of independent "agents" acting on the timing and position data continuously written into the DCB. This approach allows efficient asynchronous operation on PC-type machines and enhanced capability on systems capable of true multiprocessing and multithreading.

  4. SPECT acquisition using dynamic projections: a novel approach for data-driven respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, B.F.; Hatton, R.L.; Yip, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Movement of the heart due to respiration has been previously demonstrated to produce potentially serious artefacts. On-line respiratory gating is difficult, as it requires a high level of patient cooperation. We demonstrate that use of dynamic acquisition of projections permits identification of the respiratory dynamics, allowing retrospective selection of data corresponding to a fixed point in the respiratory cycle. To demonstrate the feasibility of the technique a dynamic study was acquired just prior to myocardial per-fusion SPECT acquisition, using 5 frames/sec for 20 seconds (64*64 matrix) in anterior and lateral projections (using a dual-head right-angled configuration). The dynamic was processed a) by compressing frames in the transverse direction so as to illustrate time dependence, b) by plotting the centre of mass in the axial direction as a function of time. Respiratory motion was enhanced by use of temporal smoothing and intensity thresholding. In ten patients studied the cyclic pattern of motion due to respiratory dynamics was clearly visible in nine. Respiration typically resulted in around 1cm axial translation but in some individuals, movements as large as 3 cm were identified. The respiration rate ranged from 12-18 /min in agreement with independent observation of the patient's breathing pattern. These results suggest that retrospective respiratory gating is feasible without the need for any external respiratory monitoring device, provide that dynamic acquisition of SPECT projections is implemented. Correction for respiratory motion may also be feasible using this technique. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  5. Investigating degradation behavior of hole-trapping effect under static and dynamic gate-bias stress in a dual gate a-InGaZnO thin film transistor with etch stop layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Po-Yung [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chen, Bo-Wei; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Chou, Cheng-Hsu; Chang, Jung-Fang [Product Technology Center, Chimei Innolux Corp., Tainan 741, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-31

    The degree of degradation between the amorphous-indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) using the top-gate only or bottom-gate only is compared. Under negative gate bias illumination stress (NBIS), the threshold voltage (V{sub T}) after bottom-gate NBIS monotonically shifts in the negative direction, whereas top-gate NBIS operation exhibits on-state current increases without V{sub T} shift. Such anomalous degradation behavior of NBIS under top-gate operation is due to hole-trapping in the etch stop layer above the central portion of the channel. These phenomena can be ascribed to the screening of the electric field by redundant source/drain electrodes. In addition, the device degradation of dual gate a-IGZO TFT stressed with different top gate pulse waveforms is investigated. It is observed that the degradation is dependent on the frequency of the top gate pulses. The V{sub T} shift increases with decreasing frequency, indicating the hole mobility of IGZO is low. - Highlights: • Static and dynamic gate bias stresses are imposed on dual gate InGaZnO TFTs. • Top-gate NBIS operation exhibits on-state current increases without VT shift. • The degradation behavior of top-gate NBIS is due to hole-trapping in the ESL. • The degradation is dependent on the frequency of the top gate pulses. • The V{sub T} shift increases with decreasing frequency of the top gate pulses.

  6. Noise removal using factor analysis of dynamic structures: application to cardiac gated studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyant, P P; Sau, J; Mallet, J J

    1999-10-01

    Factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) facilitates the extraction of relevant data, usually with physiologic meaning, from a dynamic set of images. The result of this process is a set of factor images and curves plus some residual activity. The set of factor images and curves can be used to retrieve the original data with reduced noise using an inverse factor analysis process (iFADS). This improvement in image quality is expected because the inverse process does not use the residual activity, assumed to be made of noise. The goal of this work is to quantitate and assess the efficiency of this method on gated cardiac images. A computer simulation of a planar cardiac gated study was performed. The simulated images were added with noise and processed by the FADS-iFADS program. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were compared between original and processed data. Planar gated cardiac studies from 10 patients were tested. The data processed by FADS-iFADS were subtracted to the original data. The result of the substraction was studied to evaluate its noisy nature. The SNR is about five times greater after the FADS-iFADS process. The difference between original and processed data is noise only, i.e., processed data equals original data minus some white noise. The FADS-iFADS process is successful in the removal of an important part of the noise and therefore is a tool to improve the image quality of cardiac images. This tool does not decrease the spatial resolution (compared with smoothing filters) and does not lose details (compared with frequential filters). Once the number of factors is chosen, this method is not operator dependent.

  7. Surface State Dynamics of Topological Insulators Investigated by Femtosecond Time- and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamoon Hedayat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Topological insulators (TI are known for striking quantum phenomena associated with their spin-polarized topological surface state (TSS. The latter in particular forms a Dirac cone that bridges the energy gap between valence and conduction bands, providing a unique opportunity for prospective device applications. In TI of the BixSb2−xTeySe3−y (BSTS family, stoichiometry determines the morphology and position of the Dirac cone with respect to the Fermi level. In order to engineer specific transport properties, a careful tuning of the TSS is highly desired. Therefore, we have systematically explored BSTS samples with different stoichiometries by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TARPES. This technique provides snapshots of the electronic structure and discloses the carrier dynamics in surface and bulk states, providing crucial information for the design of electro-spin current devices. Our results reveal the central role of doping level on the Dirac cone structure and its femtosecond dynamics. In particular, an extraordinarily long TSS lifetime is observed when the the vertex of the Dirac cone lies at the Fermi level.

  8. Online Expansion Technology for Dynamic Topology Changing ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Emdadul Haque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In ZigBee, the router capable devices have restriction to accept a number of devices as children devices. A router capable device can not allow any new device to join as a child device if it reaches to the maximum capacity of children or depth limit. According to ZigBee specification each device has a permanent 64-bit MAC address. If a device joins a ZigBee network, it receives a short 16-bit MAC address from the parent device. If a device can not join a network, it isolates from the network and becomes an orphan node even though address spaces are available in the network. The orphan problem becomes worse when the topology of the network changes dynamically. In this paper we propose an online expansion technology to connect the maximum number of devices specially for dynamic topology changing ZigBee wireless sensor networks. The proposed technology shares available address spaces of the router devices to reduce the number of orphan nodes in the network.

  9. A clustering approach to examine the dynamics of the NASDAQ topology in times of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Lahmiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamics of the NASDAQ topology before, during, and after 2008 financial crisis. First, multiresolution analysis by virtue of wavelet transform is employed to denoise each NASDAQ sector return series. Second, the correlation matrix of sectors is built and analyzed in each time period to view comovements of sectors. Third, hierarchical clustering trees are constructed in each time period to find out how the structure of the NASDAQ market evolves through time. Our results suggest that interrelationships between sectors become stronger in times of crisis and especially in post-crisis period. In addition, some markets tend to form the same cluster in all time periods; for instance the Industrial and Bank sectors and the Telecommunication and Computer sectors. However, the general topology of the NASDAQ market has been considerably changed over periods. In sum, the complex structure of the NASDAQ market is dynamic and is more integrated after 2008 financial crisis. This result indicates that there are less diversification opportunities in the post-crisis period in comparison with pre-crisis period. These empirical findings are important for the development of subsequent portfolio strategies.

  10. Topological classification of the Goryachev integrable case in rigid body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaenko, S S

    2016-01-01

    A topological analysis of the Goryachev integrable case in rigid body dynamics is made on the basis of the Fomenko-Zieschang theory. The invariants (marked molecules) which are obtained give a complete description, from the standpoint of Liouville classification, of the systems of Goryachev type on various level sets of the energy. It turns out that on appropriate energy levels the Goryachev case is Liouville equivalent to many classical integrable systems and, in particular, the Joukowski, Clebsch, Sokolov and Kovalevskaya-Yehia cases in rigid body dynamics, as well as to some integrable billiards in plane domains bounded by confocal quadrics -- in other words, the foliations given by the closures of generic solutions of these systems have the same structure. Bibliography: 15 titles

  11. Using white noise to gate organic transistors for dynamic monitoring of cultured cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Leleux, Pierre; Hama, Adel; Ramuz, Marc; Huerta, Miriam; Malliaras, George G; Owens, Roisin M

    2015-06-26

    Impedance sensing of biological systems allows for monitoring of cell and tissue properties, including cell-substrate attachment, layer confluence, and the "tightness" of an epithelial tissue. These properties are critical for electrical detection of tissue health and viability in applications such as toxicological screening. Organic transistors based on conducting polymers offer a promising route to efficiently transduce ionic currents to attain high quality impedance spectra, but collection of complete impedance spectra can be time consuming (minutes). By applying uniform white noise at the gate of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), and measuring the resulting current noise, we are able to dynamically monitor the impedance and thus integrity of cultured epithelial monolayers. We show that noise sourcing can be used to track rapid monolayer disruption due to compounds which interfere with dynamic polymerization events crucial for maintaining cytoskeletal integrity, and to resolve sub-second alterations to the monolayer integrity.

  12. A comparative analysis between FinFET Semi-Dynamic Flip-Flop topologies under process variations

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Mohamed A.; Bahgat, Ahmed B G; Ramadan, Khaled S.; Shobak, Hosam; Nasr, Tarek Adel Hosny; Abdelhafez, Mohamed R.; Moustafa, Eslam M.; Anis, Mohab H.

    2011-01-01

    Semi-Dynamic Flip-Flops are widely used in state-of-art microprocessors. Moreover, scaling down traditional CMOS technology faces major challenges which rises the need for new devices for replacement. FinFET technology is a potential replacement due to similarity in both fabrication process and theory of operation to current CMOS technology. Hence, this paper presents the study of Semi Dynamic Flip Flops using both Independent gate and Tied gate FinFET devices in 32nm technology node. Furthermore, it studies the performance of these new circuits under process variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. A comparative analysis between FinFET Semi-Dynamic Flip-Flop topologies under process variations

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Mohamed A.

    2011-11-01

    Semi-Dynamic Flip-Flops are widely used in state-of-art microprocessors. Moreover, scaling down traditional CMOS technology faces major challenges which rises the need for new devices for replacement. FinFET technology is a potential replacement due to similarity in both fabrication process and theory of operation to current CMOS technology. Hence, this paper presents the study of Semi Dynamic Flip Flops using both Independent gate and Tied gate FinFET devices in 32nm technology node. Furthermore, it studies the performance of these new circuits under process variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Topological susceptibility and chiral condensate with Nf=2+1+1 dynamical flavors of maximally twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, K.

    2012-03-01

    We study the 'spectral projector' method for the computation of the chiral condensate and the topological susceptibility, using N f =2+1+1 dynamical flavors of maximally twisted mass Wilson fermions. In particular, we perform a study of the quark mass dependence of the chiral condensate Σ and topological susceptibility χ top in the range 270 MeV π top in the quenched approximation where we match the lattice spacing to the N f =2+1+1 dynamical simulations. Using the Kaon, η and η' meson masses computed on the N f =2+1+1 ensembles, we then perform a preliminary test of the Witten-Veneziano relation.

  15. Analyzing Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment Data through Topology-Based Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego Mandelli; Dan Maljovec; BeiWang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the use of a topology-based clustering technique on the data generated by dynamic event tree methodologies. The clustering technique we utilizes focuses on a domain-partitioning algorithm based on topological structures known as the Morse-Smale complex, which partitions the data points into clusters based on their uniform gradient flow behavior. We perform both end state analysis and transient analysis to classify the set of nuclear scenarios. We demonstrate our methodology on a dataset generated for a sodium-cooled fast reactor during an aircraft crash scenario. The simulation tracks the temperature of the reactor as well as the time for a recovery team to fix the passive cooling system. Combined with clustering results obtained previously through mean shift methodology, we present the user with complementary views of the data that help illuminate key features that may be otherwise hidden using a single methodology. By clustering the data, the number of relevant test cases to be selected for further analysis can be drastically reduced by selecting a representative from each cluster. Identifying the similarities of simulations within a cluster can also aid in the drawing of important conclusions with respect to safety analysis.

  16. Inference of neuronal network spike dynamics and topology from calcium imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry eLütcke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-photon calcium imaging enables functional analysis of neuronal circuits by inferring action potential (AP occurrence ('spike trains' from cellular fluorescence signals. It remains unclear how experimental parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and acquisition rate affect spike inference and whether additional information about network structure can be extracted. Here we present a simulation framework for quantitatively assessing how well spike dynamics and network topology can be inferred from noisy calcium imaging data. For simulated AP-evoked calcium transients in neocortical pyramidal cells, we analyzed the quality of spike inference as a function of SNR and data acquisition rate using a recently introduced peeling algorithm. Given experimentally attainable values of SNR and acquisition rate, neural spike trains could be reconstructed accurately and with up to millisecond precision. We then applied statistical neuronal network models to explore how remaining uncertainties in spike inference affect estimates of network connectivity and topological features of network organization. We define the experimental conditions suitable for inferring whether the network has a scale-free structure and determine how well hub neurons can be identified. Our findings provide a benchmark for future calcium imaging studies that aim to reliably infer neuronal network properties.

  17. Understanding Lithium Solvation and Diffusion through Topological Analysis of First-Principles Molecular Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, Harsh [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gyulassy, Attila [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ong, Mitchell [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lordi, Vincenzo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Draeger, Erik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pask, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bremer, Peer -Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-27

    The performance of lithium-ion batteries is strongly influenced by the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, which depends on the speed at which Li ions migrate across the cell and relates to their solvation structure. The choice of solvent can greatly impact, both, the solvation and diffusivity of Li ions. In this work, we present our application of the topological techniques to extract and predict such behavior in the data generated by the first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of Li ions in an important organic solvent -ethylene carbonate. More specifically, we use the scalar topology of the electron charge density field to analyze the evolution of the solvation structures. This allows us to derive a parameter-free bond definition for lithium-oxygen bonds, to provide a quantitative measure for bond strength, and to understand the regions of influence of each atom in the simulation. This has provided new insights into how and under what conditions certain bonds may form and break. As a result, we can identify and, more importantly, predict, unstable configurations in solvation structures. This can be very useful in understanding when small changes to the atoms' movements can cause significantly different bond structures to evolve. Ultimately, this promises to allow scientists to explore lithium ion solvation and diffusion more systematically, with the aim of new insights and potentially accelerating the calculations themselves.

  18. Electrostatic control of the dynamics of lipid bilayer self-spreading using a nanogap gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimura, Y; Sumitomo, K; Furukawa, K

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic control of lipid bilayer self-spreading was investigated using a device equipped with a nanogap gate. A series of mixtures containing negatively charged and uncharged lipids were employed to tune the charge of a membrane. We found that when a voltage is applied on a lipid bilayer passing through a nanogap, the effect of a voltage application on the dynamics depended largely on the charge of the membrane. For rich charged lipid compositions (>10 mol%), the self-spreading was electrostatically controlled applying an electric field to the nanogap. The origin of the behaviour is the electrostatic trapping of charged lipids. The trapped lipids close the nanogap gate, thus preventing any lipid molecules from passing through it. For poor charged lipid compositions (∼1 mol%), no electrostatic trapping occurred even when a lipid bilayer reached the nanogap. Instead, we observed the cessation of self-spreading after a sufficient post-passage time interval, indicating that the translational flow force of self-spreading overcomes the trapping force. For uncharged lipid compositions, there was no electrostatic trapping throughout the measurement. The results suggest that the lipid charge plays a vital role in the electrostatic control mechanism and allow us to control lipid bilayer formation both spatially and temporally. (paper)

  19. Liquid gating elastomeric porous system with dynamically controllable gas/liquid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhizhi; Wang, Honglong; Tang, Yongliang; Wang, Miao; Huang, Lizhi; Min, Lingli; Meng, Haiqiang; Chen, Songyue; Jiang, Lei; Hou, Xu

    2018-02-01

    The development of membrane technology is central to fields ranging from resource harvesting to medicine, but the existing designs are unable to handle the complex sorting of multiphase substances required for many systems. Especially, the dynamic multiphase transport and separation under a steady-state applied pressure have great benefits for membrane science, but have not been realized at present. Moreover, the incorporation of precisely dynamic control with avoidance of contamination of membranes remains elusive. We show a versatile strategy for creating elastomeric microporous membrane-based systems that can finely control and dynamically modulate the sorting of a wide range of gases and liquids under a steady-state applied pressure, nearly eliminate fouling, and can be easily applied over many size scales, pressures, and environments. Experiments and theoretical calculation demonstrate the stability of our system and the tunability of the critical pressure. Dynamic transport of gas and liquid can be achieved through our gating interfacial design and the controllable pores' deformation without changing the applied pressure. Therefore, we believe that this system will bring new opportunities for many applications, such as gas-involved chemical reactions, fuel cells, multiphase separation, multiphase flow, multiphase microreactors, colloidal particle synthesis, and sizing nano/microparticles.

  20. Coherent helix vacancy phonon and its ultrafast dynamics waning in topological Dirac semimetal C d3A s2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Wu, Q.; Wu, Y. L.; Zhao, H.; Yi, C. J.; Tian, Y. C.; Liu, H. W.; Shi, Y. G.; Ding, H.; Dai, X.; Richard, P.; Zhao, Jimin

    2017-06-01

    We report an ultrafast lattice dynamics investigation of the topological Dirac semimetal C d3A s2 . A coherent phonon beating among three evenly spaced A1 g optical phonon modes (of frequencies 1.80, 1.96, and 2.11 THz, respectively) is unambiguously observed. The two side modes originate from the counter helixes composing Cd vacancies. Significantly, such helix vacancy-induced phonon (HVP) modes experience prominent extra waning in their ultrafast dynamics as temperature increases, which is immune to the central mode. Above 200 K, the HVP becomes inactive, which may potentially affect the topological properties. Our results in the lattice degree of freedom suggest the indispensable role of temperature in considering topological properties of such quantum materials.

  1. Crosstalk error correction through dynamical decoupling of single-qubit gates in capacitively coupled singlet-triplet semiconductor spin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buterakos, Donovan; Throckmorton, Robert E.; Das Sarma, S.

    2018-01-01

    In addition to magnetic field and electric charge noise adversely affecting spin-qubit operations, performing single-qubit gates on one of multiple coupled singlet-triplet qubits presents a new challenge: crosstalk, which is inevitable (and must be minimized) in any multiqubit quantum computing architecture. We develop a set of dynamically corrected pulse sequences that are designed to cancel the effects of both types of noise (i.e., field and charge) as well as crosstalk to leading order, and provide parameters for these corrected sequences for all 24 of the single-qubit Clifford gates. We then provide an estimate of the error as a function of the noise and capacitive coupling to compare the fidelity of our corrected gates to their uncorrected versions. Dynamical error correction protocols presented in this work are important for the next generation of singlet-triplet qubit devices where coupling among many qubits will become relevant.

  2. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Topology Optimization with Frequency Constraints Using Composite Exponential Function and ICM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic topology optimization of three-dimensional continuum structures subject to frequency constraints is investigated using Independent Continuous Mapping (ICM design variable fields. The composite exponential function (CEF is selected to be a filter function which recognizes the design variables and to implement the changing process of design variables from “discrete” to “continuous” and back to “discrete.” Explicit formulations of frequency constraints are given based on filter functions, first-order Taylor series expansion. And an improved optimal model is formulated using CEF and the explicit frequency constraints. Dual sequential quadratic programming (DSQP algorithm is used to solve the optimal model. The program is developed on the platform of MSC Patran & Nastran. Finally, numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed method.

  3. Topology of sustainable management in dynamical Earth system models with desirable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, J.; Kittel, T.

    2015-03-01

    To keep the Earth system in a desirable region of its state space, such as the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this article, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization, the sustainable management of the Earth system may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmata, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and increasing flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmata with conceptual models from classical mechanics, climate science, ecology, economics, and coevolutionary Earth system modelling and discuss their potential relevance for the climate and sustainability debate.

  4. Topological and kinetic determinants of the modal matrices of dynamic models of metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Du

    Full Text Available Large-scale kinetic models of metabolism are becoming increasingly comprehensive and accurate. A key challenge is to understand the biochemical basis of the dynamic properties of these models. Linear analysis methods are well-established as useful tools for characterizing the dynamic response of metabolic networks. Central to linear analysis methods are two key matrices: the Jacobian matrix (J and the modal matrix (M-1 arising from its eigendecomposition. The modal matrix M-1 contains dynamically independent motions of the kinetic model near a reference state, and it is sparse in practice for metabolic networks. However, connecting the structure of M-1 to the kinetic properties of the underlying reactions is non-trivial. In this study, we analyze the relationship between J, M-1, and the kinetic properties of the underlying network for kinetic models of metabolism. Specifically, we describe the origin of mode sparsity structure based on features of the network stoichiometric matrix S and the reaction kinetic gradient matrix G. First, we show that due to the scaling of kinetic parameters in real networks, diagonal dominance occurs in a substantial fraction of the rows of J, resulting in simple modal structures with clear biological interpretations. Then, we show that more complicated modes originate from topologically-connected reactions that have similar reaction elasticities in G. These elasticities represent dynamic equilibrium balances within reactions and are key determinants of modal structure. The work presented should prove useful towards obtaining an understanding of the dynamics of kinetic models of metabolism, which are rooted in the network structure and the kinetic properties of reactions.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations on gate opening in ZIF-8: Identification of factors for ethane and propane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin

    2013-07-16

    Gate opening of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) is an important microscopic phenomenon in explaining the adsorption, diffusion, and separation processes for large guest molecules. We present a force field, with input from density functional theory (DFT) calculations, for the molecular dynamics simulation on the gate opening in ZIF-8. The computed self-diffusivities for sorbed C1 to C3 hydrocarbons were in good agreement with the experimental values. The observed sharp diffusion separation from C2H6 to C3H8 was elucidated by investigating the conformations of the guest molecules integrated with the flexibility of the host framework. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Dynamic surface electronic reconstruction as symmetry-protected topological orders in topological insulator Bi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, G. J.; Liou, S. C.; Karna, S. K.; Sankar, R.; Hayashi, M.; Chou, F. C.

    2018-04-01

    The layered narrow-band-gap semiconductor Bi2Se3 is composed of heavy elements with strong spin-orbital coupling, which has been identified both as a good candidate for a thermoelectric material with high thermoelectric figure of merit (Z T ) and as a topological insulator of the Z2 type with a gapless surface band in a Dirac-cone shape. The existence of a conjugated π -bond system on the surface of each Bi2Se3 quintuple layer is proposed based on an extended valence bond model with valence electrons distributed in the hybridized orbitals. Supporting experimental evidence of a two-dimensional (2D) conjugated π -bond system on each quintuple layer of Bi2Se3 is provided using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron density mapping through inverse Fourier transform of x-ray diffraction data. Quantum chemistry calculations support the π -bond existence between partially filled 4 pz orbitals of Se via side-to-side orbital overlap positively. The conjugated π -bond system on the surface of each quintuple Bi2Se3 layer is proposed to be similar to that found in graphite (graphene) and responsible for the unique 2D conduction mechanism. The van der Waals (vdW) attractive force between quintuple layers is interpreted to be coming from the antiferroelectrically ordered effective electric dipoles, which are constructed with π -bond trimer pairs on Se layers across the vdW gap of minimized Coulomb repulsion.

  7. Dynamic Mechanical and Nanofibrous Topological Combinatory Cues Designed for Periodontal Ligament Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kang, Min Sil; Eltohamy, Mohamed; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Complete reconstruction of damaged periodontal pockets, particularly regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) has been a significant challenge in dentistry. Tissue engineering approach utilizing PDL stem cells and scaffolding matrices offers great opportunity to this, and applying physical and mechanical cues mimicking native tissue conditions are of special importance. Here we approach to regenerate periodontal tissues by engineering PDL cells supported on a nanofibrous scaffold under a mechanical-stressed condition. PDL stem cells isolated from rats were seeded on an electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin directionally-oriented nanofiber membrane and dynamic mechanical stress was applied to the cell/nanofiber construct, providing nanotopological and mechanical combined cues. Cells recognized the nanofiber orientation, aligning in parallel, and the mechanical stress increased the cell alignment. Importantly, the cells cultured on the oriented nanofiber combined with the mechanical stress produced significantly stimulated PDL specific markers, including periostin and tenascin with simultaneous down-regulation of osteogenesis, demonstrating the roles of topological and mechanical cues in altering phenotypic change in PDL cells. Tissue compatibility of the tissue-engineered constructs was confirmed in rat subcutaneous sites. Furthermore, in vivo regeneration of PDL and alveolar bone tissues was examined under the rat premaxillary periodontal defect models. The cell/nanofiber constructs engineered under mechanical stress showed sound integration into tissue defects and the regenerated bone volume and area were significantly improved. This study provides an effective tissue engineering approach for periodontal regeneration-culturing PDL stem cells with combinatory cues of oriented nanotopology and dynamic mechanical stretch.

  8. Topology optimization of continuum structure with dynamic constraints using mode identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianhongyu; Chen, Shenyan; Huang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    For the problems such as mode exchange and localized modes in topology optimization of continuum structure with dynamic constraints, it is difficult to apply the traditional optimization model which considers fixed order mode frequencies as constraints in optimization calculation. A new optimization model is established, in which the dynamical constraints are changed as frequencies of structural principal vibrations. The order of the principal vibrations is recognized through modal identification in the optimization process, and the constraints are updated to make the optimization calculation execute smoothly. Localized mode elimination techniques are introduced to reduce the localized modes induced by the low density elements, which could improve the optimization efficiency. A new optimization process is designed, which achieves the purpose of overcoming mode exchange problem and localized mode problem at the cost of increasing several structural analyses. Optimization system is developed by using Nastran to perform structural analysis and sensitivity analysis and two-level multipoint approximation algorithm as optimizer. Numerical results verified that the presented method is effective and reasonable.

  9. Dynamic respiratory gated 18FDG-PET of lung tumors - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjei Knudtsen, Ingerid; Skretting, Arne; Roedal, Jan; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Helland, Aaslaug; Malinen, Eirik

    2011-01-01

    Background. 18 FDG-PET/CT imaging is well established for diagnosis and staging of lung tumors. However, more detailed information regarding the distribution of FDG within the tumor, also as a function of time after injection may be relevant. In this study we explore the feasibility of a combined dynamic and respiratory gated (DR) PET protocol. Material and methods. A DR FDG-PET protocol for a Siemens Biograph 16 PET/CT scanner was set up, allowing data acquisition from the time of FDG injection. Breath-hold (BH) respiratory gating was performed at four intervals over a total acquisition time of 50 minutes. Thus, the PET protocol provides both motion-free images and a spatiotemporal characterization of the glucose distribution in lung tumors. Software tools were developed in-house for tentative tumor segmentation and for extracting standard uptake values (SUVs) voxel by voxel, tumor volumes and SUV gradients in all directions. Results. Four pilot patients have been investigated with the DR PET protocol. The procedure was well tolerated by the patients. The BH images appeared sharper, and SUV max /SUV mean was higher, compared to free breathing (FB) images. Also, SUV gradients in the periphery of the tumor in the BH images were in general greater than or equal to the gradients in the FB PET images. Conclusion. The DR FDG-PET protocol is feasible and the BH images have a superior quality compared to the FB images. The protocol may also provide information of relevance for radiotherapy planning and follow-up. A patient trial is needed for assessing the clinical value of the imaging protocol

  10. Devaney chaos, Li-Yorke chaos, and multi-dimensional Li-Yorke chaos for topological dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiongping; Tang, Xinjia

    2017-11-01

    Let π : T × X → X, written T↷π X, be a topological semiflow/flow on a uniform space X with T a multiplicative topological semigroup/group not necessarily discrete. We then prove: If T↷π X is non-minimal topologically transitive with dense almost periodic points, then it is sensitive to initial conditions. As a result of this, Devaney chaos ⇒ Sensitivity to initial conditions, for this very general setting. Let R+↷π X be a C0-semiflow on a Polish space; then we show: If R+↷π X is topologically transitive with at least one periodic point p and there is a dense orbit with no nonempty interior, then it is multi-dimensional Li-Yorke chaotic; that is, there is a uncountable set Θ ⊆ X such that for any k ≥ 2 and any distinct points x1 , … ,xk ∈ Θ, one can find two time sequences sn → ∞ ,tn → ∞ with Moreover, let X be a non-singleton Polish space; then we prove: Any weakly-mixing C0-semiflow R+↷π X is densely multi-dimensional Li-Yorke chaotic. Any minimal weakly-mixing topological flow T↷π X with T abelian is densely multi-dimensional Li-Yorke chaotic. Any weakly-mixing topological flow T↷π X is densely Li-Yorke chaotic. We in addition construct a completely Li-Yorke chaotic minimal SL (2 , R)-acting flow on the compact metric space R ∪ { ∞ }. Our various chaotic dynamics are sensitive to the choices of the topology of the phase semigroup/group T.

  11. Scan direction induced charging dynamics and the application for detection of gate to S/D shorts in logic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Tian, Qing; Wu, Kevin; Zhao, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Gate to source/drain (S/D) short is the most common and detrimental failure mechanism for advanced process technology development in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) device manufacturing. Especially for sub-1Xnm nodes, MOSFET device is more vulnerable to gate-S/D shorts due to the aggressive scaling. The detection of this kind of electrical short defect is always challenging for in-line electron beam inspection (EBI), especially new shorting mechanisms on atomic scale due to new material/process flow implementation. The second challenge comes from the characterization of the shorts including identification of the exact shorting location. In this paper, we demonstrate unique scan direction induced charging dynamics (SDCD) phenomenon which stems from the transistor level response from EBI scan at post metal contact chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) layers. We found that SDCD effect is exceptionally useful for gate-S/D short induced voltage contrast (VC) defect detection, especially for identification of shorting locations. The unique SDCD effect signatures of gate-S/D shorts can be used as fingerprint for ground true shorting defect detection. Correlation with other characterization methods on the same defective location from EBI scan shows consistent results from various shorting mechanism. A practical work flow to implement the application of SDCD effect for in-line EBI monitor of critical gate-S/D short defects is also proposed, together with examples of successful application use cases which mostly focus on static random-access memory (SRAM) array regions. Although the capability of gate-S/D short detection as well as expected device response is limited to passing transistors and pull-down transistors due to the design restriction from standard 6-cell SRAM structure, SDCD effect is proven to be very effective for gate-S/D short induced VC defect detection as well as yield learning for advanced technology development.

  12. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Runbing [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Cold Atom Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhu, Chengjie [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm{sup 2}, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  13. Flocking dynamics and mean-field limit in the Cucker-Smale-type model with topological interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Haskovec, Jan

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a Cucker-Smale-type model for flocking, where the strength of interaction between two agents depends on their relative separation (called "topological distance" in previous works), which is the number of intermediate individuals separating them. This makes the model scale-free and is motivated by recent extensive observations of starling flocks, suggesting that the interaction ruling animal collective behavior depends on topological rather than the metric distance. We study the conditions leading to asymptotic flocking in the topological model, defined as the convergence of the agents\\' velocities to a common vector. The shift from metric to topological interactions requires development of new analytical methods, taking into account the graph-theoretical nature of the problem. Moreover, we provide a rigorous derivation of the mean-field limit of large populations, recovering kinetic and hydrodynamic descriptions. In particular, we introduce the novel concept of relative separation in continuum descriptions, which is applicable to a broad variety of models of collective behavior. As an example, we shortly discuss a topological modification of the attraction-repulsion model and illustrate with numerical simulations that the modified model produces interesting new pattern dynamics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The dynamic mechanism of presenilin-function: Sensitive gate dynamics and loop unplugging control protein access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somavarapu, Arun Kumar; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2016-01-01

    There is no molecular explanation for the many presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutations causing Alzheimer's disease, but both gain of function relating to amyloid production and loss of isolated PSEN1 function have been implied. We report here the first detailed dynamic all-atom model of mature PSEN1 from ...

  15. Combining Topological Hardware and Topological Software: Color-Code Quantum Computing with Topological Superconductor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litinski, Daniel; Kesselring, Markus S.; Eisert, Jens; von Oppen, Felix

    2017-07-01

    We present a scalable architecture for fault-tolerant topological quantum computation using networks of voltage-controlled Majorana Cooper pair boxes and topological color codes for error correction. Color codes have a set of transversal gates which coincides with the set of topologically protected gates in Majorana-based systems, namely, the Clifford gates. In this way, we establish color codes as providing a natural setting in which advantages offered by topological hardware can be combined with those arising from topological error-correcting software for full-fledged fault-tolerant quantum computing. We provide a complete description of our architecture, including the underlying physical ingredients. We start by showing that in topological superconductor networks, hexagonal cells can be employed to serve as physical qubits for universal quantum computation, and we present protocols for realizing topologically protected Clifford gates. These hexagonal-cell qubits allow for a direct implementation of open-boundary color codes with ancilla-free syndrome read-out and logical T gates via magic-state distillation. For concreteness, we describe how the necessary operations can be implemented using networks of Majorana Cooper pair boxes, and we give a feasibility estimate for error correction in this architecture. Our approach is motivated by nanowire-based networks of topological superconductors, but it could also be realized in alternative settings such as quantum-Hall-superconductor hybrids.

  16. Combining Topological Hardware and Topological Software: Color-Code Quantum Computing with Topological Superconductor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Litinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a scalable architecture for fault-tolerant topological quantum computation using networks of voltage-controlled Majorana Cooper pair boxes and topological color codes for error correction. Color codes have a set of transversal gates which coincides with the set of topologically protected gates in Majorana-based systems, namely, the Clifford gates. In this way, we establish color codes as providing a natural setting in which advantages offered by topological hardware can be combined with those arising from topological error-correcting software for full-fledged fault-tolerant quantum computing. We provide a complete description of our architecture, including the underlying physical ingredients. We start by showing that in topological superconductor networks, hexagonal cells can be employed to serve as physical qubits for universal quantum computation, and we present protocols for realizing topologically protected Clifford gates. These hexagonal-cell qubits allow for a direct implementation of open-boundary color codes with ancilla-free syndrome read-out and logical T gates via magic-state distillation. For concreteness, we describe how the necessary operations can be implemented using networks of Majorana Cooper pair boxes, and we give a feasibility estimate for error correction in this architecture. Our approach is motivated by nanowire-based networks of topological superconductors, but it could also be realized in alternative settings such as quantum-Hall–superconductor hybrids.

  17. Facile fabrication of highly controllable gating systems based on the combination of inverse opal structure and dynamic covalent chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yang, Haowei; Tian, Li; Wang, Shiqiang; Gao, Ning; Zhang, Wanlin; Wang, Peng; Yin, Xianpeng; Li, Guangtao

    2017-06-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) inverse opal with periodic and porous structures has shown great potential for applications not only in optics and optoelectronics, but also in functional membranes. In this work, the benzaldehyde group was initially introduced into a 3D nanoporous inverse opal, serving as a platform for fabricating functional membranes. By employing the dynamic covalent approach, a highly controllable gating system was facilely fabricated to achieve modulable and reversible transport features. It was found that the physical/chemical properties and pore size of the gating system could easily be regulated through post-modification with amines. As a demonstration, the gated nanopores were modified with three kinds of amines to control the wettability, surface charge and nanopore size which in turn was exploited to achieve selective mass transport, including hydrophobic molecules, cations and anions, and the transport with respect to the physical steric hindrance. In particular, the gating system showed extraordinary reversibility and could recover to its pristine state by simply changing pH values. Due to the unlimited variety provided by the Schiff base reaction, the inverse opal described here exhibits a significant extendibility and could be easily post-modified with stimuli-responsive molecules for special purposes. Furthermore, this work can be extended to employ other dynamic covalent routes, for example Diels-Alder, ester exchange and disulfide exchange-based routes.

  18. Pseudoperiodic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Vladimir; Zorich, Anton

    1999-01-01

    This volume offers an account of the present state of the art in pseudoperiodic topology-a young branch of mathematics, born at the boundary between the ergodic theory of dynamical systems, topology, and number theory. Related topics include the theory of algorithms, convex integer polyhedra, Morse inequalities, real algebraic geometry, statistical physics, and algebraic number theory. The book contains many new results. Most of the articles contain brief surveys on the topics, making the volume accessible to a broad audience. From the Preface by V.I. Arnold: "The authors … have done much to s

  19. Topological dynamics and current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. C.; Jalil, M. B. A.

    2016-03-01

    We study the Thiele equation for current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice through two soluble models of the pinning potential. Comprised by a Magnus term, a dissipative term and a pinning force, Thiele’s equation resembles Newton’s law but in virtue of the topological character to the first, it differs significantly from Newtonian mechanics and because the Magnus force is dominant, unlike its mechanical counterpart—the Coriolis force—skyrmion trajectories do not necessarily have mechanical counterparts. This is important if we are to understand skyrmion dynamics and tap into its potential for data-storage technology. We identify a pinning threshold velocity for the one-dimensional pinning potential and for a two-dimensional attractive potential we find a pinning point and the skyrmion trajectories toward that point are spirals whose frequency (compare Kepler’s second law) and amplitude-decay depend only on the Gilbert constant and potential at the pinning point. Other scenarios, e.g. other choices of initial spin velocity, a repulsive potential, etc are also investigated.

  20. Topological dynamics and current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J C; Jalil, M B A

    2016-01-01

    We study the Thiele equation for current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice through two soluble models of the pinning potential. Comprised by a Magnus term, a dissipative term and a pinning force, Thiele’s equation resembles Newton’s law but in virtue of the topological character to the first, it differs significantly from Newtonian mechanics and because the Magnus force is dominant, unlike its mechanical counterpart—the Coriolis force—skyrmion trajectories do not necessarily have mechanical counterparts. This is important if we are to understand skyrmion dynamics and tap into its potential for data-storage technology. We identify a pinning threshold velocity for the one-dimensional pinning potential and for a two-dimensional attractive potential we find a pinning point and the skyrmion trajectories toward that point are spirals whose frequency (compare Kepler’s second law) and amplitude-decay depend only on the Gilbert constant and potential at the pinning point. Other scenarios, e.g. other choices of initial spin velocity, a repulsive potential, etc are also investigated. (paper)

  1. Acoustic phonon dynamics in thin-films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David

    2015-01-01

    Transient reflectivity traces measured for nanometer-sized films (6–40 nm) of the topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 revealed GHz-range oscillations driven within the relaxation of hot carriers photoexcited with ultrashort (∼100 fs) laser pulses of 1.51 eV photon energy. These oscillations have been suggested to result from acoustic phonon dynamics, including coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in the form of standing acoustic waves. An increase of oscillation frequency from ∼35 to ∼70 GHz with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 15 nm was attributed to the interplay between two different regimes employing traveling-acoustic-waves for films thicker than 40 nm and the film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAWR) modes for films thinner than 40 nm. The amplitude of oscillations decays rapidly for films below 15 nm thick when the indirect intersurface coupling in Bi 2 Se 3 films switches the FBAWR regime to that of the Lamb wave excitation. The frequency range of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons is in good agreement with elastic properties of Bi 2 Se 3

  2. Ultrafast surface carrier dynamics in the topological insulator Bi₂Te₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajlaoui, M; Papalazarou, E; Mauchain, J; Lantz, G; Moisan, N; Boschetto, D; Jiang, Z; Miotkowski, I; Chen, Y P; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A; Perfetti, L; Marsi, M

    2012-07-11

    We discuss the ultrafast evolution of the surface electronic structure of the topological insulator Bi(2)Te(3) following a femtosecond laser excitation. Using time and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, we provide a direct real-time visualization of the transient carrier population of both the surface states and the bulk conduction band. We find that the thermalization of the surface states is initially determined by interband scattering from the bulk conduction band, lasting for about 0.5 ps; subsequently, few picoseconds are necessary for the Dirac cone nonequilibrium electrons to recover a Fermi-Dirac distribution, while their relaxation extends over more than 10 ps. The surface sensitivity of our measurements makes it possible to estimate the range of the bulk-surface interband scattering channel, indicating that the process is effective over a distance of 5 nm or less. This establishes a correlation between the nanoscale thickness of the bulk charge reservoir and the evolution of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in the surface Dirac cone.

  3. Cardiac-gated parametric images from 82 Rb PET from dynamic frames and direct 4D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Mary; Carson, Richard E

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac perfusion PET data can be reconstructed as a dynamic sequence and kinetic modeling performed to quantify myocardial blood flow, or reconstructed as static gated images to quantify function. Parametric images from dynamic PET are conventionally not gated, to allow use of all events with lower noise. An alternative method for dynamic PET is to incorporate the kinetic model into the reconstruction algorithm itself, bypassing the generation of a time series of emission images and directly producing parametric images. So-called "direct reconstruction" can produce parametric images with lower noise than the conventional method because the noise distribution is more easily modeled in projection space than in image space. In this work, we develop direct reconstruction of cardiac-gated parametric images for 82 Rb PET with an extension of the Parametric Motion compensation OSEM List mode Algorithm for Resolution-recovery reconstruction for the one tissue model (PMOLAR-1T). PMOLAR-1T was extended to accommodate model terms to account for spillover from the left and right ventricles into the myocardium. The algorithm was evaluated on a 4D simulated 82 Rb dataset, including a perfusion defect, as well as a human 82 Rb list mode acquisition. The simulated list mode was subsampled into replicates, each with counts comparable to one gate of a gated acquisition. Parametric images were produced by the indirect (separate reconstructions and modeling) and direct methods for each of eight low-count and eight normal-count replicates of the simulated data, and each of eight cardiac gates for the human data. For the direct method, two initialization schemes were tested: uniform initialization, and initialization with the filtered iteration 1 result of the indirect method. For the human dataset, event-by-event respiratory motion compensation was included. The indirect and direct methods were compared for the simulated dataset in terms of bias and coefficient of variation as a

  4. Investigation of Impact of the Gate Circuitry on IGBT Transistor Dynamic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Bleizgys

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor driver circuit parameters on the rise and fall time of the collector current and voltage collector-emitter was investigated. The influence of transistor driver circuit parameters on heating of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors was investigated as well.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Thermodynamic coupling between activation and inactivation gating in potassium channels revealed by free energy molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Albert C; Cuello, Luis G; Perozo, Eduardo; Roux, Benoît

    2011-12-01

    The amount of ionic current flowing through K(+) channels is determined by the interplay between two separate time-dependent processes: activation and inactivation gating. Activation is concerned with the stimulus-dependent opening of the main intracellular gate, whereas inactivation is a spontaneous conformational transition of the selectivity filter toward a nonconductive state occurring on a variety of timescales. A recent analysis of multiple x-ray structures of open and partially open KcsA channels revealed the mechanism by which movements of the inner activation gate, formed by the inner helices from the four subunits of the pore domain, bias the conformational changes at the selectivity filter toward a nonconductive inactivated state. This analysis highlighted the important role of Phe103, a residue located along the inner helix, near the hinge position associated with the opening of the intracellular gate. In the present study, we use free energy perturbation molecular dynamics simulations (FEP/MD) to quantitatively elucidate the thermodynamic basis for the coupling between the intracellular gate and the selectivity filter. The results of the FEP/MD calculations are in good agreement with experiments, and further analysis of the repulsive, van der Waals dispersive, and electrostatic free energy contributions reveals that the energetic basis underlying the absence of inactivation in the F103A mutation in KcsA is the absence of the unfavorable steric interaction occurring with the large Ile100 side chain in a neighboring subunit when the intracellular gate is open and the selectivity filter is in a conductive conformation. Macroscopic current analysis shows that the I100A mutant indeed relieves inactivation in KcsA, but to a lesser extent than the F103A mutant.

  6. Field programmable gate array reliability analysis using the dynamic flow graph methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNelles, Phillip; Lu, Lixuan [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), Ontario (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    Field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based systems are thought to be a practical option to replace certain obsolete instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. An FPGA is a type of integrated circuit, which is programmed after being manufactured. FPGAs have some advantages over other electronic technologies, such as analog circuits, microprocessors, and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), for nuclear instrumentation and control, and safety system applications. However, safety-related issues for FPGA-based systems remain to be verified. Owing to this, modeling FPGA-based systems for safety assessment has now become an important point of research. One potential methodology is the dynamic flowgraph methodology (DFM). It has been used for modeling software/hardware interactions in modern control systems. In this paper, FPGA logic was analyzed using DFM. Four aspects of FPGAs are investigated: the 'IEEE 1164 standard', registers (D flip-flops), configurable logic blocks, and an FPGA-based signal compensator. The ModelSim simulations confirmed that DFM was able to accurately model those four FPGA properties, proving that DFM has the potential to be used in the modeling of FPGA-based systems. Furthermore, advantages of DFM over traditional reliability analysis methods and FPGA simulators are presented, along with a discussion of potential issues with using DFM for FPGA-based system modeling.

  7. Dynamic arrythmia filtration for gated blood pool imaging: Validation against list - Mode technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juni, J.E.; Wallis, J.; Rocchini, A.; Wu-Connolly, L.

    1985-01-01

    Normal resting heart rate variation distort the diastolic portions of time-activity curves (TACs) generated from gated blood pool (GBP) images. This alters calculated measures of diastolic function e.g. peak filling rate (PFR). The authors compared diastolic filling parameters obtained by two methods of arrythmia removal, list-mode (LM) acquisition and a new approach, dynamic arrythima filtration (DAF). LM acquisition techniques reject beats of unusual cycle length, thus reducing the TAC distortions caused by heart rate variation but is time consuming and requires large amounts of disk storage. In DAF systems data is evaluated for cycle length in real-time and accepted or rejected immediately according to preset, operator determined cycle-length criteria, thus eliminating the need for post-processing of data and for large mass data storage. The authors prospectively determined EF, time to end-systole (TES), PFR, ad TPFR on 25 GBP patients. Camera and ECG data were sent simultaneously to 2 computers. One acquired data via LM and the other by DAF. Fluctuations in heart rate during GBP acquisition may cause errors in calculation of filling parameters. Both LM and DAF remove cycles of unusual length. DAF is less time consuming and technically demanding than LM and provides results which correlate closely with those obtained by LM

  8. An Adaptable Neuromorphic Model of Orientation Selectivity Based On Floating Gate Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti eGupta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge that the neuromorphic community faces today is to build systems that can be considered truly cognitive. Adaptation and self-organization are the two basic principles that underlie any cognitive function that the brain performs. If we can replicate this behavior in hardware, we move a step closer to our goal of having cognitive neuromorphic systems. Adaptive feature selectivity is a mechanism by which nature optimizes resources so as to have greater acuity for more abundant features. Developing neuromorphic feature maps can help design generic machines that can emulate this adaptive behavior. Most neuromorphic models that have attempted to build self-organizing systems, follow the approach of modeling abstract theoretical frameworks in hardware. While this is good from a modeling and analysis perspective, it may not lead to the most efficient hardware. On the other hand, exploiting hardware dynamics to build adaptive systems rather than forcing the hardware to behave like mathematical equations, seems to be a more robust methodology when it comes to developing actual hardware for real world applications. In this paper we use a novel time-staggered Winner Take All circuit, that exploits the adaptation dynamics of floating gate transistors, to model an adaptive cortical cell that demonstrates Orientation Selectivity, a well-known biological phenomenon observed in the visual cortex. The cell performs competitive learning, refining its weights in response to input patterns resembling different oriented bars, becoming selective to a particular oriented pattern. Different analysis performed on the cell such as orientation tuning, application of abnormal inputs, response to spatial frequency and periodic patterns reveal close similarity between our cell and its biological counterpart. Embedded in a RC grid, these cells interact diffusively exhibiting cluster formation, making way for adaptively building orientation selective maps

  9. Topological edge states and impurities: Manifestation in the local static and dynamical characteristics of dimerized quantum chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagin, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Based on the results of exact analytic calculations, we show that topological edge states and impurities in quantum dimerized chains manifest themselves in various local static and dynamical characteristics, which can be measured in experiments. In particular, topological edge states can be observed in the magnetic field behavior of the local magnetization or magnetic susceptibility of dimerized spin chains as jumps (for the magnetization) and features (for the static susceptibility) at zero field. In contrast, impurities reveal themselves in similar jumps and features, however, at nonzero values of the critical field. We also show that dynamical characteristics of dimerized quantum chains also manifest the features, related to the topological edge states and impurities. Those features, as a rule, can be seen more sharply than the manifestation of bulk extended states in, e.g., the dynamical local susceptibility. Such peculiarities can be observed in one-dimensional dimerized spin chains, e.g., in NMR experiments, or in various realizations of quantum dimerized chains in optical experiments.

  10. Regular and irregular dynamics of spin-polarized wavepackets in a mesoscopic quantum dot at the edge of topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomitsky, D. V., E-mail: khomitsky@phys.unn.ru; Chubanov, A. A.; Konakov, A. A. [Lobachevsky National Research State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Department of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The dynamics of Dirac–Weyl spin-polarized wavepackets driven by a periodic electric field is considered for the electrons in a mesoscopic quantum dot formed at the edge of the two-dimensional HgTe/CdTe topological insulator with Dirac–Weyl massless energy spectra, where the motion of carriers is less sensitive to disorder and impurity potentials. It is observed that the interplay of strongly coupled spin and charge degrees of freedom creates the regimes of irregular dynamics in both coordinate and spin channels. The border between the regular and irregular regimes determined by the strength and frequency of the driving field is found analytically within the quasiclassical approach by means of the Ince–Strutt diagram for the Mathieu equation, and is supported by full quantum-mechanical simulations of the driven dynamics. The investigation of quasienergy spectrum by Floquet approach reveals the presence of non-Poissonian level statistics, which indicates the possibility of chaotic quantum dynamics and corresponds to the areas of parameters for irregular regimes within the quasiclassical approach. We find that the influence of weak disorder leads to partial suppression of the dynamical chaos. Our findings are of interest both for progress in the fundamental field of quantum chaotic dynamics and for further experimental and technological applications of spindependent phenomena in nanostructures based on topological insulators.

  11. The Impact of a Sparse Migration Topology on the Runtime of Island Models in Dynamic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissovoi, Andrei; Witt, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    similar to (Formula presented.) islands optimizing the so-called Maze fitness function (Kötzing and Molter in Proceedings of parallel problem solving from nature (PPSN XII), Springer, Berlin, pp 113–122, 2012). Previous work has shown that when a complete migration topology is used, migration must...... of logarithmic diameter as the migration topology allows the model to track the oscillating optimum through nMaze-like phases with high probability, while using any graph of diameter less than (Formula presented.) for some sufficiently small constant (Formula presented.) results in the island model losing track......Island models denote a distributed system of evolutionary algorithms which operate independently, but occasionally share their solutions with each other along the so-called migration topology. We investigate the impact of the migration topology by introducing a simplified island model with behavior...

  12. Membrane topology and cellular dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3A protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica González-Magaldi

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A plays important roles in virus replication, virulence and host-range; nevertheless little is known on the interactions that this protein can establish with different cell components. In this work, we have performed in vivo dynamic studies from cells transiently expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP fused to the complete 3A (GFP3A and versions including different 3A mutations. The results revealed the presence of a mobile fraction of GFP3A, which was found increased in most of the mutants analyzed, and the location of 3A in a continuous compartment in the cytoplasm. A dual behavior was also observed for GFP3A upon cell fractionation, being the protein equally recovered from the cytosolic and membrane fractions, a ratio that was also observed when the insoluble fraction was further fractioned, even in the presence of detergent. Similar results were observed in the fractionation of GFP3ABBB, a 3A protein precursor required for initiating RNA replication. A nonintegral membrane protein topology of FMDV 3A was supported by the lack of glycosylation of versions of 3A in which each of the protein termini was fused to a glycosylation acceptor tag, as well as by their accessibility to degradation by proteases. According to this model 3A would interact with membranes through its central hydrophobic region exposing its N- and C- termini to the cytosol, where interactions between viral and cellular proteins required for virus replication are expected to occur.

  13. Instantons in Self-Organizing Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Sean R. B.; Manukian, Haik; Traversa, Fabio L.; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2018-03-01

    Self-organizing logic is a recently suggested framework that allows the solution of Boolean truth tables "in reverse"; i.e., it is able to satisfy the logical proposition of gates regardless to which terminal(s) the truth value is assigned ("terminal-agnostic logic"). It can be realized if time nonlocality (memory) is present. A practical realization of self-organizing logic gates (SOLGs) can be done by combining circuit elements with and without memory. By employing one such realization, we show, numerically, that SOLGs exploit elementary instantons to reach equilibrium points. Instantons are classical trajectories of the nonlinear equations of motion describing SOLGs and connect topologically distinct critical points in the phase space. By linear analysis at those points, we show that these instantons connect the initial critical point of the dynamics, with at least one unstable direction, directly to the final fixed point. We also show that the memory content of these gates affects only the relaxation time to reach the logically consistent solution. Finally, we demonstrate, by solving the corresponding stochastic differential equations, that, since instantons connect critical points, noise and perturbations may change the instanton trajectory in the phase space but not the initial and final critical points. Therefore, even for extremely large noise levels, the gates self-organize to the correct solution. Our work provides a physical understanding of, and can serve as an inspiration for, models of bidirectional logic gates that are emerging as important tools in physics-inspired, unconventional computing.

  14. Probing Dirac fermion dynamics in topological insulator Bi2Se3 films with a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Can-Li; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2015-05-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy have been used to investigate the femtosecond dynamics of Dirac fermions in the topological insulator Bi2Se3 ultrathin films. At the two-dimensional limit, bulk electrons become quantized and the quantization can be controlled by the film thickness at a single quintuple layer level. By studying the spatial decay of standing waves (quasiparticle interference patterns) off steps, we measure directly the energy and film thickness dependence of the phase relaxation length lϕ and inelastic scattering lifetime τ of topological surface-state electrons. We find that τ exhibits a remarkable (E - EF)(-2) energy dependence and increases with film thickness. We show that the features revealed are typical for electron-electron scattering between surface and bulk states.

  15. Nonsymmorphic symmetry-protected topological modes in plasmonic nanoribbon lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Wu, Raymond P. H.; Kumar, Anshuman; Si, Tieyan; Fung, Kin Hung

    2018-04-01

    Using a dynamic eigenresponse theory, we study the topological edge plasmon modes in dispersive plasmonic lattices constructed by unit cells of multiple nanoribbons. In dipole approximation, the bulk-edge correspondence in the lattices made of dimerized unit cell and one of its square-root daughter with nonsymmorphic symmetry are demonstrated. Calculations with consideration of dynamic long-range effects and retardation are compared to those given by nearest-neighbor approximations. It is shown that nonsymmorphic symmetry opens up two symmetric gaps where versatile topological edge plasmon modes are found. Unprecedented spectral shifts of the edge states with respect to the zero modes due to long-range coupling are found. The proposed ribbon structure is favorable to electrical gating and thus could serve as an on-chip platform for electrically controllable subwavelength edge states at optical wavelengths. Our eigenresponse approach provides a powerful tool for the radiative topological mode analysis in strongly coupled plasmonic lattices.

  16. Using Pareto optimality to explore the topology and dynamics of the human connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena-Koenigsberger, Andrea; Goñi, Joaquín; Betzel, Richard F; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Griffa, Alessandra; Hagmann, Patric; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Sporns, Olaf

    2014-10-05

    Graph theory has provided a key mathematical framework to analyse the architecture of human brain networks. This architecture embodies an inherently complex relationship between connection topology, the spatial arrangement of network elements, and the resulting network cost and functional performance. An exploration of these interacting factors and driving forces may reveal salient network features that are critically important for shaping and constraining the brain's topological organization and its evolvability. Several studies have pointed to an economic balance between network cost and network efficiency with networks organized in an 'economical' small-world favouring high communication efficiency at a low wiring cost. In this study, we define and explore a network morphospace in order to characterize different aspects of communication efficiency in human brain networks. Using a multi-objective evolutionary approach that approximates a Pareto-optimal set within the morphospace, we investigate the capacity of anatomical brain networks to evolve towards topologies that exhibit optimal information processing features while preserving network cost. This approach allows us to investigate network topologies that emerge under specific selection pressures, thus providing some insight into the selectional forces that may have shaped the network architecture of existing human brains.

  17. On local frame fields and fermion dynamics in space with nontrivial topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, P.I.; Zemlyakov, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    The covariant operators of total angular momentum of fermion in spaces which possess Killing vector fields are defined. The classification of local frame fields in a closed world with S 3 topology is carried out. The vortex-type solution to Dirac equation in Minkowskii space is obtained by means of cylindrical local frame field. 7 refs. (author)

  18. A topological classification of the Chaplygin systems in the dynamics of a rigid body in a fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaenko, S S

    2014-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the topological analysis of the Chaplygin integrable case in the dynamics of a rigid body in a fluid. A full list of the topological types of Chaplygin systems in their dependence on the energy level is compiled on the basis of the Fomenko-Zieschang theory. An effective description of the topology of the Liouville foliation in terms of natural coordinate variables is also presented, which opens a direct way to calculating topological invariants. It turns out that on all nonsingular energy levels Chaplygin systems are Liouville equivalent to the well-known Euler case in the dynamics of a rigid body with fixed point. Bibliography: 23 titles

  19. Heralded quantum controlled-phase gates with dissipative dynamics in macroscopically distant resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Zhong, Zhirong; Nori, Franco

    2017-07-01

    Heralded near-deterministic multiqubit controlled-phase gates with integrated error detection have recently been proposed by Borregaard et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 110502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.110502]. This protocol is based on a single four-level atom (a heralding quartit) and N three-level atoms (operational qutrits) coupled to a single-resonator mode acting as a cavity bus. Here we generalize this method for two distant resonators without the cavity bus between the heralding and operational atoms. Specifically, we analyze the two-qubit controlled-Z gate and its multiqubit-controlled generalization (i.e., a Toffoli-like gate) acting on the two-lowest levels of N qutrits inside one resonator, with their successful actions being heralded by an auxiliary microwave-driven quartit inside the other resonator. Moreover, we propose a circuit-quantum-electrodynamics realization of the protocol with flux and phase qudits in linearly coupled transmission-line resonators with dissipation. These methods offer a quadratic fidelity improvement compared to cavity-assisted deterministic gates.

  20. Towards topological quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, D.; Mironov, A.; Mironov, S.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, An.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum R-matrices, the entangling deformations of non-entangling (classical) permutations, provide a distinguished basis in the space of unitary evolutions and, consequently, a natural choice for a minimal set of basic operations (universal gates) for quantum computation. Yet they play a special role in group theory, integrable systems and modern theory of non-perturbative calculations in quantum field and string theory. Despite recent developments in those fields the idea of topological quantum computing and use of R-matrices, in particular, practically reduce to reinterpretation of standard sets of quantum gates, and subsequently algorithms, in terms of available topological ones. In this paper we summarize a modern view on quantum R-matrix calculus and propose to look at the R-matrices acting in the space of irreducible representations, which are unitary for the real-valued couplings in Chern-Simons theory, as the fundamental set of universal gates for topological quantum computer. Such an approach calls for a more thorough investigation of the relation between topological invariants of knots and quantum algorithms.

  1. Towards topological quantum computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Melnikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum R-matrices, the entangling deformations of non-entangling (classical permutations, provide a distinguished basis in the space of unitary evolutions and, consequently, a natural choice for a minimal set of basic operations (universal gates for quantum computation. Yet they play a special role in group theory, integrable systems and modern theory of non-perturbative calculations in quantum field and string theory. Despite recent developments in those fields the idea of topological quantum computing and use of R-matrices, in particular, practically reduce to reinterpretation of standard sets of quantum gates, and subsequently algorithms, in terms of available topological ones. In this paper we summarize a modern view on quantum R-matrix calculus and propose to look at the R-matrices acting in the space of irreducible representations, which are unitary for the real-valued couplings in Chern–Simons theory, as the fundamental set of universal gates for topological quantum computer. Such an approach calls for a more thorough investigation of the relation between topological invariants of knots and quantum algorithms.

  2. Improvement of Lambert-Beer law dynamic range by the use of temporal gates on transmitted light pulse through a scattering medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Hironori; Wada, Kenji; Horinaka, Hiromichi; Cho, Yoshio; Umeda, Tokuo; Osawa, Masahiko.

    1995-01-01

    The Lambert-Beer law holding for pulsed lights transmitted through a scattering medium was examined using a streak camera. The Lambert-Beer law dynamic range is found to be limited by floor levels that are caused by scattered photons and are controllable by the use of a temporal gate on the transmitted pulse. The dynamic range improvement obtained for a scattering medium of 2.8 cm -1 scattering coefficient of a thickness of 80 mm by a temporal gate of 60 ps was as much as 50 dB and the Lambert-Beer law dynamic rang reached to 140 dB. (author)

  3. Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Terrence W

    2008-01-01

    Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field

  4. Topological nearly entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulamsarwar, Syazwani; Salleh, Zabidin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to generalize the notions of Adler's topological entropy along with their several fundamental properties. A function f : X → Y is said to be R-map if f-1 (V) is regular open in X for every regular open set V in Y. Thus, we initiated a notion of topological nearly entropy for topological R-dynamical systems which is based on nearly compact relative to the space by using R-map.

  5. Decorrelating topology with HMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, Th.; Alles, B.; Bali, G.; D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.; Eicker, N.; Guesken, S.; Schilling, K.; Spitz, A.; Struckmann, T.; Ueberholz, P.; Viehoff, J.

    1999-01-01

    The investigation of the decorrelation efficiency of the HMC algorithm with respect to vacuum topology is a prerequisite for trustworthy full QCD simulations, in particular for the computation of topology sensitive quantities. We demonstrate that for ((m π )/(m ρ ))-ratios ≥ 0.69 sufficient tunneling between the topological sectors can be achieved, for two flavours of dynamical Wilson fermions close to the scaling region (β 5.6). Our results are based on time series of length 5000 trajectories

  6. Determination of single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with CT urography versus renal dynamic imaging Gates method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Shan [Hebei North University, Department of Graduate, Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province (China); Ma, XianWu; Zhang, ChangZhu; Li, Qiang [Qiqihar Chinese Medicine Hospital, Department of Radiology, Qigihar City, Heilongjiang Province (China); Shi, WenWei; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, XiaoDong [The 309th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China)

    2018-03-15

    To present a single-kidney CT-GFR measurement and compare it with the renal dynamic imaging Gates-GFR. Thirty-six patients with hydronephrosis referred for CT urography and 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging were prospectively included. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. The CT urography protocol included non-contrast, nephrographic, and excretory phase imaging. The total CT-GFR was calculated by dividing the CT number increments of the total urinary system between the nephrographic and excretory phase by the products of iodine concentration in the aorta and the elapsed time, then multiplied by (1- Haematocrit). The total CT-GFR was then split into single-kidney CT-GFR by a left and right kidney proportionality factor. The results were compared with single-kidney Gates-GFR by using paired t-test, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Paired difference between single-kidney CT-GFR (45.02 ± 13.91) and single-kidney Gates-GFR (51.21 ± 14.76) was 6.19 ± 5.63 ml/min, p<0.001, demonstrating 12.1% systematic underestimation with ±11.03 ml/min (±21.5%) measurement deviation. A good correlation was revealed between both measurements (r=0.87, p<0.001). The proposed single-kidney CT-GFR correlates and agrees well with the reference standard despite a systematic underestimation, therefore it could be a one-stop-shop for evaluating urinary tract morphology and split renal function. (orig.)

  7. Determination of single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with CT urography versus renal dynamic imaging Gates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Shan; Ma, XianWu; Zhang, ChangZhu; Li, Qiang; Shi, WenWei; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, XiaoDong

    2018-01-01

    To present a single-kidney CT-GFR measurement and compare it with the renal dynamic imaging Gates-GFR. Thirty-six patients with hydronephrosis referred for CT urography and 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging were prospectively included. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. The CT urography protocol included non-contrast, nephrographic, and excretory phase imaging. The total CT-GFR was calculated by dividing the CT number increments of the total urinary system between the nephrographic and excretory phase by the products of iodine concentration in the aorta and the elapsed time, then multiplied by (1- Haematocrit). The total CT-GFR was then split into single-kidney CT-GFR by a left and right kidney proportionality factor. The results were compared with single-kidney Gates-GFR by using paired t-test, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Paired difference between single-kidney CT-GFR (45.02 ± 13.91) and single-kidney Gates-GFR (51.21 ± 14.76) was 6.19 ± 5.63 ml/min, p<0.001, demonstrating 12.1% systematic underestimation with ±11.03 ml/min (±21.5%) measurement deviation. A good correlation was revealed between both measurements (r=0.87, p<0.001). The proposed single-kidney CT-GFR correlates and agrees well with the reference standard despite a systematic underestimation, therefore it could be a one-stop-shop for evaluating urinary tract morphology and split renal function. (orig.)

  8. Many-body strategies for multiqubit gates: Quantum control through Krawtchouk-chain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenland, Koen; Schoutens, Kareljan

    2018-04-01

    We propose a strategy for engineering multiqubit quantum gates. As a first step, it employs an eigengate to map states in the computational basis to eigenstates of a suitable many-body Hamiltonian. The second step employs resonant driving to enforce a transition between a single pair of eigenstates, leaving all others unchanged. The procedure is completed by mapping back to the computational basis. We demonstrate the strategy for the case of a linear array with an even number N of qubits, with specific X X +Y Y couplings between nearest neighbors. For this so-called Krawtchouk chain, a two-body driving term leads to the iSWAPN gate, which we numerically test for N =4 and 6.

  9. DIAGNOSING THE TYPE OF DYNAMICS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS USING TOPOLOGICAL TESTS (THE EU IS TAKEN AS AN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Golovanenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of practical realization of the simplest elements of topological tests that are used to identify the type of systems’ dynamics is considered in the article. The tests were fulfilled by the means of standard instruments of Microsoft Excel. The analysis of time series of industrial production indices of EU 17 countries as a whole and individual countries, such as Germany, France, Great Britain and Greece has shown that these series are characterized by existence of attractors. This can be interpreted as a sign of existence of deterministic chaos and evidence of the systems’ ability for self-organization and self-regulation. However, a separate area is identified for Greece, where the dynamics of the time series transforms into a random. The area can be interpreted as a sign of “overheating” economy of Greece, which took place before the global crisis and thus deprived the economy of adaptive properties.

  10. Topics in general topology

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, K

    1989-01-01

    Being an advanced account of certain aspects of general topology, the primary purpose of this volume is to provide the reader with an overview of recent developments.The papers cover basic fields such as metrization and extension of maps, as well as newly-developed fields like categorical topology and topological dynamics. Each chapter may be read independently of the others, with a few exceptions. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of set theory, algebra, analysis and basic general topology.

  11. Ordered groups and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the connections between topology and ordered groups. It begins with a self-contained introduction to orderable groups and from there explores the interactions between orderability and objects in low-dimensional topology, such as knot theory, braid groups, and 3-manifolds, as well as groups of homeomorphisms and other topological structures. The book also addresses recent applications of orderability in the studies of codimension-one foliations and Heegaard-Floer homology. The use of topological methods in proving algebraic results is another feature of the book. The book was written to serve both as a textbook for graduate students, containing many exercises, and as a reference for researchers in topology, algebra, and dynamical systems. A basic background in group theory and topology is the only prerequisite for the reader.

  12. Dynamics in small worlds of tree topologies of wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiao; Zhang, Baihai; Fan, Zhun

    2012-01-01

    Tree topologies, which construct spatial graphs with large characteristic path lengths and small clustering coefficients, are ubiquitous in deployments of wireless sensor networks. Small worlds are investigated in tree-based networks. Due to link additions, characteristic path lengths reduce...... rapidly and clustering coefficients increase greatly. A tree abstract, Cayley tree, is considered for the study of the navigation algorithm, which runs automatically in the small worlds of tree-based networks. In the further study, epidemics in the small worlds of tree-based wireless sensor networks...

  13. Contrast-enhanced dynamic MR nephrography using the TurboFLASH navigator-gating technique in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, Andreas; Schaefer, Juergen F.; Claussen, Claus D.; Kueper, Klaus; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Hacker, Hans-Walter; Darge, Kassa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to test the feasibility of an MR examination protocol for the comprehensive assessment of renal morphology, excretion and split renal function using a navigator-gated TurboFLASH sequence. A navigator-gated T1-weighted single-slice TurboFLASH sequence suitable for dynamic MR urography and nephrography was implemented. A protocol was developed allowing for assessment of urinary excretion and split renal function by recording the renal clearance of a gadolinium (Gd) diethylene-triamine-pentacetic-acid (DTPA) bolus. Ten patients aged between 14 months and 14 years (mean age 4.8±4.6 years) were evaluated with the following indications: pelvicalyceal dilatation (n=4), follow-up after pyeloplasty (n=1), duplex systems (n=3), large renal cyst (n=1), and renal insufficiency (n=1). Dynamic MR urography and MR split renal function were compared to MAG3 scintigraphy. Evaluation of morphology, excretion and function required 50-60 minutes examination time, plus 10 minutes for post-processing. The TurboFLASH sequence yielded image acquisition at nearly identical diaphragm positions allowing for accurate region-of-interest evaluation within the renal parenchyma and the urinary passage. Static and dynamic MR urography showed the morphology of the urinary tract and excretion with sufficient diagnostic imaging quality, and the results were in diagnostic compliance with scintigraphy. MRI and scintigraphy yielded similar results for split renal function with a correlation coefficient of R=0.968 determined by linear regression. Our conclusions were that the method is robust, easy to perform on a clinical 1.5 T MRI system, rapid to evaluate and post-process and, therefore, easy to incorporate into clinical routine. Compared to scintigraphy, the higher spatial resolution of the MR examination provides additional important information improving the management of the pediatric patients without the application of radioactive tracers. (orig.)

  14. Similarity measure and topology evolution of foreign exchange markets using dynamic time warping method: Evidence from minimal spanning tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Han, Feng; Sun, Bo

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we employ a dynamic time warping method to study the topology of similarity networks among 35 major currencies in international foreign exchange (FX) markets, measured by the minimal spanning tree (MST) approach, which is expected to overcome the synchronous restriction of the Pearson correlation coefficient. In the empirical process, firstly, we subdivide the analysis period from June 2005 to May 2011 into three sub-periods: before, during, and after the US sub-prime crisis. Secondly, we choose NZD (New Zealand dollar) as the numeraire and then, analyze the topology evolution of FX markets in terms of the structure changes of MSTs during the above periods. We also present the hierarchical tree associated with the MST to study the currency clusters in each sub-period. Our results confirm that USD and EUR are the predominant world currencies. But USD gradually loses the most central position while EUR acts as a stable center in the MST passing through the crisis. Furthermore, an interesting finding is that, after the crisis, SGD (Singapore dollar) becomes a new center currency for the network.

  15. A Novel Topology Control Approach to Maintain the Node Degree in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Topology control is an important technique to improve the connectivity and the reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs by means of adjusting the communication range of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a novel Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (FTC is proposed to achieve any desired average node degree by adaptively changing communication range, thus improving the network connectivity, which is the main target of FTC. FTC is a fully localized control algorithm, and does not rely on location information of neighbors. Instead of designing membership functions and if-then rules for fuzzy-logic controller, FTC is constructed from the training data set to facilitate the design process. FTC is proved to be accurate, stable and has short settling time. In order to compare it with other representative localized algorithms (NONE, FLSS, k-Neighbor and LTRT, FTC is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that: firstly, similar to k-Neighbor algorithm, FTC is the best to achieve the desired average node degree as node density varies; secondly, FTC is comparable to FLSS and k-Neighbor in terms of energy-efficiency, but is better than LTRT and NONE; thirdly, FTC has the lowest average maximum communication range than other algorithms, which indicates that the most energy-consuming node in the network consumes the lowest power.

  16. A novel topology control approach to maintain the node degree in dynamic wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanjiang; Martínez, José-Fernán; Díaz, Vicente Hernández; Sendra, Juana

    2014-03-07

    Topology control is an important technique to improve the connectivity and the reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) by means of adjusting the communication range of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a novel Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (FTC) is proposed to achieve any desired average node degree by adaptively changing communication range, thus improving the network connectivity, which is the main target of FTC. FTC is a fully localized control algorithm, and does not rely on location information of neighbors. Instead of designing membership functions and if-then rules for fuzzy-logic controller, FTC is constructed from the training data set to facilitate the design process. FTC is proved to be accurate, stable and has short settling time. In order to compare it with other representative localized algorithms (NONE, FLSS, k-Neighbor and LTRT), FTC is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that: firstly, similar to k-Neighbor algorithm, FTC is the best to achieve the desired average node degree as node density varies; secondly, FTC is comparable to FLSS and k-Neighbor in terms of energy-efficiency, but is better than LTRT and NONE; thirdly, FTC has the lowest average maximum communication range than other algorithms, which indicates that the most energy-consuming node in the network consumes the lowest power.

  17. Analytical Calculation of Mutual Information between Weakly Coupled Poisson-Spiking Neurons in Models of Dynamically Gated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Mutual information is a commonly used measure of communication between neurons, but little theory exists describing the relationship between mutual information and the parameters of the underlying neuronal interaction. Such a theory could help us understand how specific physiological changes affect the capacity of neurons to synaptically communicate, and, in particular, they could help us characterize the mechanisms by which neuronal dynamics gate the flow of information in the brain. Here we study a pair of linear-nonlinear-Poisson neurons coupled by a weak synapse. We derive an analytical expression describing the mutual information between their spike trains in terms of synapse strength, neuronal activation function, the time course of postsynaptic currents, and the time course of the background input received by the two neurons. This expression allows mutual information calculations that would otherwise be computationally intractable. We use this expression to analytically explore the interaction of excitation, information transmission, and the convexity of the activation function. Then, using this expression to quantify mutual information in simulations, we illustrate the information-gating effects of neural oscillations and oscillatory coherence, which may either increase or decrease the mutual information across the synapse depending on parameters. Finally, we show analytically that our results can quantitatively describe the selection of one information pathway over another when multiple sending neurons project weakly to a single receiving neuron.

  18. Dynamic monitoring of transmembrane potential changes: a study of ion channels using an electrical double layer-gated FET biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulikkathodi, Anil Kumar; Sarangadharan, Indu; Chen, Yi-Hong; Lee, Geng-Yen; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wang, Yu-Lin

    2018-03-27

    In this research, we have designed, fabricated and characterized an electrical double layer (EDL)-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) biosensor array to study the transmembrane potential changes of cells. The sensor array platform is designed to detect and count circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of colorectal cancer (CRC) and investigate cellular bioelectric signals. Using the EDL FET biosensor platform, cellular responses can be studied in physiological salt concentrations, thereby eliminating complex automation. Upon investigation, we discovered that our sensor response follows the transmembrane potential changes of captured cells. Our whole cell sensor platform can be used to monitor the dynamic changes in the membrane potential of cells. The effects of continuously changing electrolyte ion concentrations and ion channel blocking using cadmium are investigated. This methodology has the potential to be used as an electrophysiological probe for studying ion channel gating and the interaction of biomolecules in cells. The sensor can also be a point-of-care diagnostic tool for rapid screening of diseases.

  19. GATE Monte Carlo simulation in radiation therapy for complex and dynamic beams in IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhalouche, Saadia

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the three methods of cancer treatment along with surgery and chemotherapy. It has evolved with the development of treatment techniques such as IMRT and VMAT along with IGRT for patient positioning. The aim is to effectively treat tumors while limiting the dose to healthy organs. In our work, we use the GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform to model a LINAC for a 6 MV photon beam. The resulting model is then validated with a dosimetric study by calculating relevant parameters for the beam quality. The LINAC model is then used for simulating clinical IMRT treatment plans in the ORL domain. Simulation results are compared with experimental measurements. We also explored the possibility of modeling the LINAC portal imaging system. This technique referred to as MV-CBCT combine the LINAC source with a flat panel detector to acquire 3D images of the patient. This part was validated first by acquiring 2D projections on patient and anthropomorphic phantom, and by reconstructing 3D volumes. Here again, validation was performed by comparing simulated and actual images. As a second step, a dosimetric validation was done by evaluating the dose deposited by IMRT beams, by means of portal signal only. We show in the present work the ability of GATE to perform complex IMRT treatments and portal images as they are performed routinely for dosimetric quality control. (author) [fr

  20. General topology

    CERN Document Server

    Willard, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Among the best available reference introductions to general topology, this volume is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Its treatment encompasses two broad areas of topology: ""continuous topology,"" represented by sections on convergence, compactness, metrization and complete metric spaces, uniform spaces, and function spaces; and ""geometric topology,"" covered by nine sections on connectivity properties, topological characterization theorems, and homotopy theory. Many standard spaces are introduced in the related problems that accompany each section (340

  1. Electron and photon reconstruction and performance in ATLAS using a dynamical, topological cell clustering-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The electron and photon reconstruction in ATLAS has moved towards the use of a dynamical, topo- logical cell-based approach for cluster building, owing to advancements in the calibration procedure which allow for such a method to be applied. The move to this new technique allows for improved measurements of electron and photon energies, particularly in situations where an electron radiates a bremsstrahlung photon, or a photon converts to an electron-poistron pair. This note details the changes to the ATLAS electron and photon reconstruction software, and assesses its performance under current LHC luminosity conditions using simulated data. Changes to the converted photon reconstruction are also detailed, which improve the reconstruction efficiency of double-track converted photons, as well as reducing the reconstruction of spurious one-track converted photons. The performance of the new reconstruction algorithm is also presented in a number of important topologies relevant to precision Standard Model physics,...

  2. Topology of a dissipative spin: Dynamical Chern number, bath-induced nonadiabaticity, and a quantum dynamo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Loïc; Sclocchi, Antonio; Orth, Peter P.; Le Hur, Karyn

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the topological deformations of the ground state manifold of a quantum spin-1/2 in a magnetic field H =H (sinθ cosϕ ,sinθ sinϕ ,cosθ ) induced by a coupling to an ohmic quantum dissipative environment at zero temperature. From Bethe ansatz results and a variational approach, we confirm that the Chern number associated with the geometry of the reduced spin ground state manifold is preserved in the delocalized phase for α <1 . We report a divergence of the Berry curvature at αc=1 for magnetic fields aligned along the equator θ =π /2 . This divergence is caused by the complete quenching of the transverse magnetic field by the bath associated with a gap closing that occurs at the localization Kosterlitz-Thouless quantum phase transition in this model. Recent experiments in quantum circuits have engineered nonequilibrium protocols to access topological properties from a measurement of a dynamical Chern number defined via the out-of-equilibrium spin expectation values. Applying a numerically exact stochastic Schrödinger approach we find that, for a fixed field sweep velocity θ (t )=v t , the bath induces a crossover from (quasi)adiabatic to nonadiabatic dynamical behavior when the spin bath coupling α increases. We also investigate the particular regime H /ωc≪v /H ≪1 with large bath cutoff frequency ωc, where the dynamical Chern number vanishes already at α =1 /2 . In this regime, the mapping to an interacting resonance level model enables us to analytically describe the behavior of the dynamical Chern number in the vicinity of α =1 /2 . We further provide an intuitive physical explanation of the bath-induced breakdown of adiabaticity in analogy to the Faraday effect in electromagnetism. We demonstrate that the driving of the spin leads to the production of a large number of bosonic excitations in the bath, which strongly affect the spin dynamics. Finally, we quantify the spin-bath entanglement and formulate an analogy with an effective

  3. Topology optimization of periodic microstructures for enhanced dynamic properties of viscoelastic composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    We present a topology optimization method for the design of periodic composites with dissipative materials for maximizing the loss/attenuation of propagating waves. The computational model is based on a finite element discretization of the periodic unit cell and a complex eigenvalue problem...... with a prescribed wave frequency. The attenuation in the material is described by its complex wavenumber, and we demonstrate in several examples optimized distributions of a stiff low loss and a soft lossy material in order to maximize the attenuation. In the examples we cover different frequency ranges and relate...... the results to previous studies on composites with high damping and stiffness based on quasi-static conditions for low frequencies and the bandgap phenomenon for high frequencies. Additionally, we consider the issues of stiffness and connectivity constraints and finally present optimized composites...

  4. A full computation-relevant topological dynamics classification of elementary cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Martin; Stoop, Ruedi

    2012-12-01

    Cellular automata are both computational and dynamical systems. We give a complete classification of the dynamic behaviour of elementary cellular automata (ECA) in terms of fundamental dynamic system notions such as sensitivity and chaoticity. The "complex" ECA emerge to be sensitive, but not chaotic and not eventually weakly periodic. Based on this classification, we conjecture that elementary cellular automata capable of carrying out complex computations, such as needed for Turing-universality, are at the "edge of chaos."

  5. Reconfigurable topological photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaev, Mikhail I.; Desnavi, Sameerah; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2018-02-01

    Topological insulators are materials that conduct on the surface and insulate in their interior due to non-trivial topology of the band structure. The edge states on the interface between topological (non-trivial) and conventional (trivial) insulators are topologically protected from scattering due to structural defects and disorders. Recently, it was shown that photonic crystals (PCs) can serve as a platform for realizing a scatter-free propagation of light waves. In conventional PCs, imperfections, structural disorders, and surface roughness lead to significant losses. The breakthrough in overcoming these problems is likely to come from the synergy of the topological PCs and silicon-based photonics technology that enables high integration density, lossless propagation, and immunity to fabrication imperfections. For many applications, reconfigurability and capability to control the propagation of these non-trivial photonic edge states is essential. One way to facilitate such dynamic control is to use liquid crystals (LCs), which allow to modify the refractive index with external electric field. Here, we demonstrate dynamic control of topological edge states by modifying the refractive index of a LC background medium. Background index is changed depending on the orientation of a LC, while preserving the topology of the system. This results in a change of the spectral position of the photonic bandgap and the topological edge states. The proposed concept might be implemented using conventional semiconductor technology, and can be used for robust energy transport in integrated photonic devices, all-optical circuity, and optical communication systems.

  6. Effect of molecular topology on the transport properties of dendrimers in dilute solution at Θ temperature: A Brownian dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosko, Jaroslaw T.; Ravi Prakash, J.

    2008-01-01

    Structure and transport properties of dendrimers in dilute solution are studied with the aid of Brownian dynamics simulations. To investigate the effect of molecular topology on the properties, linear chain, star, and dendrimer molecules of comparable molecular weights are studied. A bead-spring chain model with finitely extensible springs and fluctuating hydrodynamic interactions is used to represent polymer molecules under Θ conditions. Structural properties as well as the diffusivity and zero-shear-rate intrinsic viscosity of polymers with varied degrees of branching are analyzed. Results for the free-draining case are compared to and found in very good agreement with the Rouse model predictions. Translational diffusivity is evaluated and the difference between the short-time and long-time behavior due to dynamic correlations is observed. Incorporation of hydrodynamic interactions is found to be sufficient to reproduce the maximum in the intrinsic viscosity versus molecular weight observed experimentally for dendrimers. Results of the nonequilibrium Brownian dynamics simulations of dendrimers and linear chain polymers subjected to a planar shear flow in a wide range of strain rates are also reported. The flow-induced molecular deformation of molecules is found to decrease hydrodynamic interactions and lead to the appearance of shear thickening. Further, branching is found to suppress flow-induced molecular alignment and deformation.

  7. Improvement of the reliability graph with general gates to analyze the reliability of dynamic systems that have various operation modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Ki [Div. of Research Reactor System Design, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The safety of nuclear power plants is analyzed by a probabilistic risk assessment, and the fault tree analysis is the most widely used method for a risk assessment with the event tree analysis. One of the well-known disadvantages of the fault tree is that drawing a fault tree for a complex system is a very cumbersome task. Thus, several graphical modeling methods have been proposed for the convenient and intuitive modeling of complex systems. In this paper, the reliability graph with general gates (RGGG) method, one of the intuitive graphical modeling methods based on Bayesian networks, is improved for the reliability analyses of dynamic systems that have various operation modes with time. A reliability matrix is proposed and it is explained how to utilize the reliability matrix in the RGGG for various cases of operation mode changes. The proposed RGGG with a reliability matrix provides a convenient and intuitive modeling of various operation modes of complex systems, and can also be utilized with dynamic nodes that analyze the failure sequences of subcomponents. The combinatorial use of a reliability matrix with dynamic nodes is illustrated through an application to a shutdown cooling system in a nuclear power plant.

  8. Improvement of the reliability graph with general gates to analyze the reliability of dynamic systems that have various operation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Ki; No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The safety of nuclear power plants is analyzed by a probabilistic risk assessment, and the fault tree analysis is the most widely used method for a risk assessment with the event tree analysis. One of the well-known disadvantages of the fault tree is that drawing a fault tree for a complex system is a very cumbersome task. Thus, several graphical modeling methods have been proposed for the convenient and intuitive modeling of complex systems. In this paper, the reliability graph with general gates (RGGG) method, one of the intuitive graphical modeling methods based on Bayesian networks, is improved for the reliability analyses of dynamic systems that have various operation modes with time. A reliability matrix is proposed and it is explained how to utilize the reliability matrix in the RGGG for various cases of operation mode changes. The proposed RGGG with a reliability matrix provides a convenient and intuitive modeling of various operation modes of complex systems, and can also be utilized with dynamic nodes that analyze the failure sequences of subcomponents. The combinatorial use of a reliability matrix with dynamic nodes is illustrated through an application to a shutdown cooling system in a nuclear power plant

  9. When quantum optics meets topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Routing photons at the micrometer scale remains one of the greatest challenges of integrated quantum optics. The main difficulty is the scattering losses at bends and splitters in the photonic circuit. Current approaches imply elaborate designs, quite sensitive to fabrication details (1). Inspired by the physics underlying the one-way transport of electrons in topological insulators, on page 666 of this issue, Barik et al. (2) report a topological photonic crystal in which single photons are emitted and routed through bends with negligible loss. The marriage between quantum optics and topology promises new opportunities for compact quantum optics gating and manipulation.

  10. Network topologies and dynamics leading to endotoxin tolerance and priming in innate immune cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fu

    Full Text Available The innate immune system, acting as the first line of host defense, senses and adapts to foreign challenges through complex intracellular and intercellular signaling networks. Endotoxin tolerance and priming elicited by macrophages are classic examples of the complex adaptation of innate immune cells. Upon repetitive exposures to different doses of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or other stimulants, macrophages show either suppressed or augmented inflammatory responses compared to a single exposure to the stimulant. Endotoxin tolerance and priming are critically involved in both immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By means of a computational search through the parameter space of a coarse-grained three-node network with a two-stage Metropolis sampling approach, we enumerated all the network topologies that can generate priming or tolerance. We discovered three major mechanisms for priming (pathway synergy, suppressor deactivation, activator induction and one for tolerance (inhibitor persistence. These results not only explain existing experimental observations, but also reveal intriguing test scenarios for future experimental studies to clarify mechanisms of endotoxin priming and tolerance.

  11. Evolutionary dynamics on networks of selectively neutral genotypes: effects of topology and sequence stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Jacobo; Buldú, Javier M; Manrubia, Susanna C

    2009-12-01

    Networks of selectively neutral genotypes underlie the evolution of populations of replicators in constant environments. Previous theoretical analysis predicted that such populations will evolve toward highly connected regions of the genome space. We first study the evolution of populations of replicators on simple networks and quantify how the transient time to equilibrium depends on the initial distribution of sequences on the neutral network, on the topological properties of the latter, and on the mutation rate. Second, network neutrality is broken through the introduction of an energy for each sequence. This allows to study the competition between two features (neutrality and energetic stability) relevant for survival and subjected to different selective pressures. In cases where the two features are negatively correlated, the population experiences sudden migrations in the genome space for values of the relevant parameters that we calculate. The numerical study of larger networks indicates that the qualitative behavior to be expected in more realistic cases is already seen in representative examples of small networks.

  12. Evolutionary dynamics on networks of selectively neutral genotypes: Effects of topology and sequence stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Jacobo; Buldú, Javier M.; Manrubia, Susanna C.

    2009-12-01

    Networks of selectively neutral genotypes underlie the evolution of populations of replicators in constant environments. Previous theoretical analysis predicted that such populations will evolve toward highly connected regions of the genome space. We first study the evolution of populations of replicators on simple networks and quantify how the transient time to equilibrium depends on the initial distribution of sequences on the neutral network, on the topological properties of the latter, and on the mutation rate. Second, network neutrality is broken through the introduction of an energy for each sequence. This allows to study the competition between two features (neutrality and energetic stability) relevant for survival and subjected to different selective pressures. In cases where the two features are negatively correlated, the population experiences sudden migrations in the genome space for values of the relevant parameters that we calculate. The numerical study of larger networks indicates that the qualitative behavior to be expected in more realistic cases is already seen in representative examples of small networks.

  13. Topological Properties and the Dynamical Crossover from Mixed-Valence to Kondo-Lattice Behavior in the Golden Phase of SmS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Jong; Choi, Hong Chul; Kim, Kyoo; Min, B I

    2015-04-24

    We have investigated temperature-dependent behaviors of electronic structure and resistivity in a mixed-valent golden phase of SmS, based on the dynamical mean-field-theory band-structure calculations. Upon cooling, the coherent Sm 4f bands are formed to produce the hybridization-induced pseudogap near the Fermi level, and accordingly the topology of the Fermi surface is changed to exhibit a Lifshitz-like transition. The surface states emerging in the bulk gap region are found to be not topologically protected states but just typical Rashba spin-polarized states, indicating that SmS is not a topological Kondo semimetal. From the analysis of anomalous resistivity behavior in SmS, we have identified universal energy scales, which characterize the Kondo-mixed-valent semimetallic systems.

  14. Cellular Automata on Graphs: Topological Properties of ER Graphs Evolved towards Low-Entropy Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Thorsten Hütt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular automata (CA are a remarkably  efficient tool for exploring general properties of complex systems and spatiotemporal patterns arising from local rules. Totalistic cellular automata,  where the update  rules depend  only on the density of neighboring states, are at the same time a versatile  tool for exploring  dynamical  processes on graphs. Here we briefly review our previous results on cellular automata on graphs, emphasizing some systematic relationships between network architecture and dynamics identified in this way. We then extend the investigation  towards graphs obtained in a simulated-evolution procedure, starting from Erdő s–Rényi (ER graphs and selecting for low entropies of the CA dynamics. Our key result is a strong association of low Shannon entropies with a broadening of the graph’s degree distribution.

  15. Small-world topology of functional connectivity in randomly connected dynamical systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jaroslav; Hartman, David; Paluš, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2012), art no 033107 ISSN 1054-1500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP103/11/J068 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : graph theory * nonlinear dynamical systems * small-world networks Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.188, year: 2012

  16. Predicting the topology of dynamic neural networks for the simulation of electronic circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilders, W.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the use of the state-space modelling MOESP algorithm to generate precise information about the number of neurons and hidden layers in dynamic neural networks developed for the behavioural modelling of electronic circuits. The Bartels–Stewart algorithm is used to transform

  17. Topologically massive supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deser

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The locally supersymmetric extension of three-dimensional topologically massive gravity is constructed. Its fermionic part is the sum of the (dynamically trivial Rarita-Schwinger action and a gauge-invariant topological term, of second derivative order, analogous to the gravitational one. It is ghost free and represents a single massive spin 3/2 excitation. The fermion-gravity coupling is minimal and the invariance is under the usual supergravity transformations. The system's energy, as well as that of the original topological gravity, is therefore positive.

  18. Calculation of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction from dynamic cardiac-gated 15O-water PET/CT: 5D-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Jonny; Kero, Tanja; Harms, Hendrik Johannes; Widström, Charles; Flachskampf, Frank A; Sörensen, Jens; Lubberink, Mark

    2017-11-14

    Quantitative measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF) is of increasing interest in the clinical assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET) is considered the gold standard for non-invasive MBF measurements. However, calculation of left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) is not possible from standard 15 O-water uptake images. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the possibility of calculating LV volumes and LVEF from cardiac-gated parametric blood volume (V B ) 15 O-water images and from first pass (FP) images. Sixteen patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation underwent an eight-gate dynamic cardiac-gated 15 O-water PET/CT scan and cardiac MRI. V B and FP images were generated for each gate. Calculations of end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), stroke volume (SV) and LVEF were performed with automatic segmentation of V B and FP images, using commercially available software. LV volumes and LVEF were calculated with surface-, count-, and volume-based methods, and the results were compared with gold standard MRI. Using V B images, high correlations between PET and MRI ESV (r = 0.89, p  0.86, p dynamic 15 O-water PET is feasible and shows good correlation with MRI. However, the analysis method is laborious, and future work is needed for more automation to make the method more easily applicable in a clinical setting.

  19. Diversity and Stability in Food Webs : Impacts of Non-Equilibrium Dynamics, Topology and Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Groll, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    With progressive climate change, the preservation of biodiversity is becoming increasingly important. Only if the gene pool is large enough and requirements of species are diverse, there will be species that can adapt to the changing circumstances. To maintain biodiversity, we must understand the consequences of the various strategies. Mathematical models of population dynamics could provide prognoses. However, a model that would reproduce and explain the mechanisms behind the diversity of sp...

  20. Complexities, Catastrophes and Cities: Emergency Dynamics in Varying Scenarios and Urban Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narzisi, Giuseppe; Mysore, Venkatesh; Byeon, Jeewoong; Mishra, Bud

    Complex Systems are often characterized by agents capable of interacting with each other dynamically, often in non-linear and non-intuitive ways. Trying to characterize their dynamics often results in partial differential equations that are difficult, if not impossible, to solve. A large city or a city-state is an example of such an evolving and self-organizing complex environment that efficiently adapts to different and numerous incremental changes to its social, cultural and technological infrastructure [1]. One powerful technique for analyzing such complex systems is Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) [9], which has seen an increasing number of applications in social science, economics and also biology. The agent-based paradigm facilitates easier transfer of domain specific knowledge into a model. ABM provides a natural way to describe systems in which the overall dynamics can be described as the result of the behavior of populations of autonomous components: agents, with a fixed set of rules based on local information and possible central control. As part of the NYU Center for Catastrophe Preparedness and Response (CCPR1), we have been exploring how ABM can serve as a powerful simulation technique for analyzing large-scale urban disasters. The central problem in Disaster Management is that it is not immediately apparent whether the current emergency plans are robust against such sudden, rare and punctuated catastrophic events.

  1. Modified meta-heuristics using random mutation for truss topology optimization with static and dynamic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal J. Savsani

    2017-04-01

    The static and dynamic responses to the TTO problems are challenging due to its search space, which is implicit, non-convex, non-linear, and often leading to divergence. Modified meta-heuristics are effective optimization methods to handle such problems in actual fact. In this paper, modified versions of Teaching–Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO, Heat Transfer Search (HTS, Water Wave Optimization (WWO, and Passing Vehicle Search (PVS are proposed by integrating the random mutation-based search technique with them. This paper compares the performance of four modified and four basic meta-heuristics to solve discrete TTO problems.

  2. Topological Classification of Limit Cycles of Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems and Its Associated Non-Standard Bifurcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexander Taborda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for the synthesis and the classification of nonsmooth limit cycles and its bifurcations (named Non-Standard Bifurcations or Discontinuity Induced Bifurcations or DIBs in n-dimensional piecewise-smooth dynamical systems, particularly Continuous PWS and Discontinuous PWS (or Filippov-type PWS systems. The proposed qualitative approach explicitly includes two main aspects: multiple discontinuity boundaries (DBs in the phase space and multiple intersections between DBs (or corner manifolds—CMs. Previous classifications of DIBs of limit cycles have been restricted to generic cases with a single DB or a single CM. We use the definition of piecewise topological equivalence in order to synthesize all possibilities of nonsmooth limit cycles. Families, groups and subgroups of cycles are defined depending on smoothness zones and discontinuity boundaries (DB involved. The synthesized cycles are used to define bifurcation patterns when the system is perturbed with parametric changes. Four families of DIBs of limit cycles are defined depending on the properties of the cycles involved. Well-known and novel bifurcations can be classified using this approach.

  3. Topological insulators and topological superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bernevig, Andrei B

    2013-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook is the first pedagogical synthesis of the field of topological insulators and superconductors, one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed matter physics. Presenting the latest developments, while providing all the calculations necessary for a self-contained and complete description of the discipline, it is ideal for graduate students and researchers preparing to work in this area, and it will be an essential reference both within and outside the classroom. The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topolo...

  4. On the dynamics of a plasma vortex street and its topological signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siregar, E.; Stribling, W.T.; Goldstein, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma vortex street configuration can evolve when two velocity and one magnetic shear layer interact strongly. A study of the interaction between two- and three-dimensional plasma modes and a mean sheared magnetic field is undertaken using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic spectral Galerkin computation. The initial state is a simple magnetic shear in a plane perpendicular to the plasma velocity shear plane. In a very weak magnetic field, secondary instabilities (three-dimensional modes), expressed by the kinking of vortex tubes, lead to plasma flow along and around the axes of the vortex cores, creating characteristic patterns of kinetic helicity and linkages between vortex filaments. Three-dimensionality leads to the vortex breakdown process. A strong sheared magnetic field inhibits the kinking of vortex tubes, maintaining two-dimensionality. This inhibits vortex breakdown over long dynamical times. There is an anticorrelation in time between linkage indices of the vortex filament (related to kinetic helicity), suggesting that the ellipticity axes of the vortex cores along the street undergo a global inphase evolution. This anticorrelation has a dynamical interpretation. It extends to a relaxing plasma in the Navier--Stokes flow notion that helical regions of opposite helicities interact and screen each other off so that the global helicity remains bounded

  5. Regulation of 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor channel gating dynamics by mutant presenilin in Alzheimer's disease cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Li, Xiang; Cai, Meichun; Liu, Yanping; Jung, Peter; Shuai, Jianwei

    2017-06-01

    In neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration is increased by its release from the endoplasmic reticulum via the inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R). In this paper, we discuss the IP3R gating dynamics in familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) cells induced with presenilin mutation PS1. By fitting the parameters of an IP3R channel model to experimental data of the open probability, the mean open time and the mean closed time of IP3R channels, in control cells and FAD mutant cells, we suggest that the interaction of presenilin mutation PS1 with IP3R channels leads the decrease in the unbinding rates of IP3 and the activating Ca2+ from IP3Rs. As a result, the increased affinities of IP3 and activating Ca2+ for IP3R channels induce the increase in the Ca2+ signal in FAD mutant cells. Specifically, the PS1 mutation decreases the IP3 dissociation rate of IP3R channels significantly in FAD mutant cells. Our results suggest possible novel targets for FAD therapeutic intervention.

  6. Topological dynamics of optical singularities in speckle-fields induced by photorefractive scattering in a LiNbO3 : Fe crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Vasilii I; Soskin, M S

    2013-01-01

    A natural singular dynamics of elliptically polarised speckle-fields induced by the 'optical damage' effect in a photorefractive crystal of lithium niobate by a passing beam of a helium — neon laser is studied by the developed methods of singular optics. For the polarisation singularities (C points), a new class of chain reactions, namely, singular chain reactions are discovered and studied. It is shown that they obey the topological charge and sum Poincare index conservation laws. In addition, they exist for all the time of crystal irradiation. They consist of a series of interlocking chains, where singularity pairs arising in a chain annihilate with singularities from neighbouring independently created chains. Less often singular 'loop' reactions are observed where arising pairs of singularities annihilate after reversible transformations in within the boundaries of a single speckle. The type of a singular reaction is determined by a topology and dynamics of the speckles, in which the reactions are developing. (laser optics 2012)

  7. Topological Methods for Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berres, Anne Sabine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United Stat

    2016-04-07

    This slide presentation describes basic topological concepts, including topological spaces, homeomorphisms, homotopy, betti numbers. Scalar field topology explores finding topological features and scalar field visualization, and vector field topology explores finding topological features and vector field visualization.

  8. Probing topology and dynamics of the second transmembrane domain (M2δ) of the acetyl choline receptor using magnetically aligned lipid bilayers (bicelles) and EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Indra D; Mayo, Daniel J; Subbaraman, Nidhi; Inbaraj, Johnson J; McCarrick, Robert M; Lorigan, Gary A

    2017-08-01

    Characterizing membrane protein structure and dynamics in the lipid bilayer membrane is very important but experimentally challenging. EPR spectroscopy offers a unique set of techniques to investigate a membrane protein structure, dynamics, topology, and distance constraints in lipid bilayers. Previously our lab demonstrated the use of magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers (bicelles) for probing topology and dynamics of the membrane peptide M2δ of the acetyl choline receptor (AchR) as a proof of concept. In this study, magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers and rigid spin labels were further utilized to provide improved dynamic information and topology of M2δ peptide. Seven TOAC-labeled AchR M2δ peptides were synthesized to demonstrate the utility of a multi-labeling amino acid substitution alignment strategy. Our data revealed the helical tilts to be 11°, 17°, 9°, 17°, 16°, 11°, 9°±4° for residues I7TOAC, Q13TOAC, A14TOAC, V15TOAC, C16TOAC, L17TOAC, and L18TOAC, respectively. The average helical tilt of the M2δ peptide was determined to be ∼13°. This study also revealed that the TOAC labels were attached to the M2δ peptide with different dynamics suggesting that the sites towards the C-terminal end are more rigid when compared to the sites towards the N-terminus. The dynamics of the TOAC labeled sites were more resolved in the aligned samples when compared to the randomly disordered samples. This study highlights the use of magnetically aligned lipid bilayer EPR technique to determine a more accurate helical tilt and more resolved local dynamics of AchR M2δ peptide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Beginning topology

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Sue E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning Topology is designed to give undergraduate students a broad notion of the scope of topology in areas of point-set, geometric, combinatorial, differential, and algebraic topology, including an introduction to knot theory. A primary goal is to expose students to some recent research and to get them actively involved in learning. Exercises and open-ended projects are placed throughout the text, making it adaptable to seminar-style classes. The book starts with a chapter introducing the basic concepts of point-set topology, with examples chosen to captivate students' imaginations while i

  10. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  11. The gating mechanism of the human aquaporin 5 revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorant Janosi

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are protein channels located across the cell membrane with the role of conducting water or other small sugar alcohol molecules (aquaglyceroporins. The high-resolution X-ray structure of the human aquaporin 5 (HsAQP5 shows that HsAQP5, as all the other known aquaporins, exhibits tetrameric structure. By means of molecular dynamics simulations we analyzed the role of spontaneous fluctuations on the structural behavior of the human AQP5. We found that different conformations within the tetramer lead to a distribution of monomeric channel structures, which can be characterized as open or closed. The switch between the two states of a channel is a tap-like mechanism at the cytoplasmic end which regulates the water passage through the pore. The channel is closed by a translation of the His67 residue inside the pore. Moreover, water permeation rate calculations revealed that the selectivity filter, located at the other end of the channel, regulates the flow rate of water molecules when the channel is open, by locally modifying the orientation of His173. Furthermore, the calculated permeation rates of a fully open channel are in good agreement with the reported experimental value.

  12. Flocking dynamics and mean-field limit in the Cucker-Smale-type model with topological interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Haskovec, Jan

    2013-01-01

    separating them. This makes the model scale-free and is motivated by recent extensive observations of starling flocks, suggesting that the interaction ruling animal collective behavior depends on topological rather than the metric distance. We study

  13. Topology control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.; Wagner, D.; Wattenhofer, R.

    2007-01-01

    Information between two nodes in a network is sent based on the network topology, the structure of links connecting pairs of nodes of a network. The task of topology control is to choose a connecting subset from all possible links such that the overall network performance is good. For instance, a

  14. Calculation of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction from dynamic cardiac-gated 15O-water PET/CT: 5D-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Nordström

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF is of increasing interest in the clinical assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD. 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET is considered the gold standard for non-invasive MBF measurements. However, calculation of left ventricular (LV volumes and ejection fraction (EF is not possible from standard 15O-water uptake images. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the possibility of calculating LV volumes and LVEF from cardiac-gated parametric blood volume (V B 15O-water images and from first pass (FP images. Sixteen patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation underwent an eight-gate dynamic cardiac-gated 15O-water PET/CT scan and cardiac MRI. V B and FP images were generated for each gate. Calculations of end-systolic volume (ESV, end-diastolic volume (EDV, stroke volume (SV and LVEF were performed with automatic segmentation of V B and FP images, using commercially available software. LV volumes and LVEF were calculated with surface-, count-, and volume-based methods, and the results were compared with gold standard MRI. Results Using V B images, high correlations between PET and MRI ESV (r = 0.89, p  0.86, p < 0.001. Conclusion Calculation of LV volumes and LVEF from dynamic 15O-water PET is feasible and shows good correlation with MRI. However, the analysis method is laborious, and future work is needed for more automation to make the method more easily applicable in a clinical setting.

  15. Toric topology

    CERN Document Server

    Buchstaber, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    This book is about toric topology, a new area of mathematics that emerged at the end of the 1990s on the border of equivariant topology, algebraic and symplectic geometry, combinatorics, and commutative algebra. It has quickly grown into a very active area with many links to other areas of mathematics, and continues to attract experts from different fields. The key players in toric topology are moment-angle manifolds, a class of manifolds with torus actions defined in combinatorial terms. Construction of moment-angle manifolds relates to combinatorial geometry and algebraic geometry of toric v

  16. Topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Topological Insulators, volume six in the Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Series, describes the recent revolution in condensed matter physics that occurred in our understanding of crystalline solids. The book chronicles the work done worldwide that led to these discoveries and provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field. Starting in 2004, theorists began to explore the effect of topology on the physics of band insulators, a field previously considered well understood. However, the inclusion of topology brings key new elements into this old field. Whereas it was

  17. Topological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-01

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.

  18. Topology Based Domain Search (TBDS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manning, William

    2002-01-01

    This effort will explore radical changes in the way Domain Name System (DNS) is used by endpoints in a network to improve the resilience of the endpoint and its applications in the face of dynamically changing infrastructure topology...

  19. Cardiac gated ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, C.W. III; Hoffman, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart

  20. Cosmic Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic Topology is the name given to the study of the overall shape of the universe, which involves both global topological features and more local geometrical properties such as curvature. Whether space is finite or infinite, simply-connected or multi-connected like a torus, smaller or greater than the portion of the universe that we can directly observe, are questions that refer to topology rather than curvature. A striking feature of some relativistic, multi-connected "small" universe models is to create multiples images of faraway cosmic sources. While the most recent cosmological data fit the simplest model of a zero-curvature, infinite space model, they are also consistent with compact topologies of the three homogeneous and isotropic geometries of constant curvature, such as, for instance, the spherical Poincaré Dodecahedral Space, the flat hypertorus or the hyperbolic Picard horn. After a "dark age" period, the field of Cosmic Topology has recently become one of the major concerns in cosmology, not only for theorists but also for observational astronomers, leaving open a number of unsolved issues.

  1. Self-similar dynamics of air film entrained by a solid disk in confined space: A simple prototype of topological transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Hana; Yamagishi, Yuki; Okumura, Ko

    2018-05-01

    In hydrodynamic topological transitions, one mass of fluid breaks into two or two merge into one. For example, in honey-drop formation when honey is dripping from a spoon, honey is extended to separate into two masses as the liquid neck bridging them thins down to the micron scale. At the moment when the topology changes due to the breakup, physical observables such as surface curvature locally diverge. Such singular dynamics has widely attracted physicists, revealing universality in self-similar dynamics, which shares much in common with critical phenomena in thermodynamics. Many experimental examples have been found, including an electric spout and vibration-induced jet eruption. However, only a few cases have been physically understood on the basis of equations that govern the singular dynamics and even in such a case the physical understanding is mathematically complicated, inevitably involving delicate numerical calculations. Here we study the breakup of air film entrained by a solid disk into viscous liquid in a confined space, which leads to formation, thinning, and breakup of the neck of air. As a result, we unexpectedly find that equations governing the neck dynamics can be solved analytically by virtue of two remarkable experimental features: Only a single length scale linearly dependent on time remains near the singularity and two universal scaling functions describing the singular neck shape and velocity field are both analytic. The present solvable case would be essential for a better understanding of the singular dynamics and will help reveal the physics of unresolved examples intimately related to daily-life phenomena and diverse practical applications.

  2. Electrically tuned magnetic order and magnetoresistance in a topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuocheng; Feng, Xiao; Guo, Minghua; Li, Kang; Zhang, Jinsong; Ou, Yunbo; Feng, Yang; Wang, Lili; Chen, Xi; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Wang, Yayu

    2014-09-15

    The interplay between topological protection and broken time reversal symmetry in topological insulators may lead to highly unconventional magnetoresistance behaviour that can find unique applications in magnetic sensing and data storage. However, the magnetoresistance of topological insulators with spontaneously broken time reversal symmetry is still poorly understood. In this work, we investigate the transport properties of a ferromagnetic topological insulator thin film fabricated into a field effect transistor device. We observe a complex evolution of gate-tuned magnetoresistance, which is positive when the Fermi level lies close to the Dirac point but becomes negative at higher energies. This trend is opposite to that expected from the Berry phase picture, but is intimately correlated with the gate-tuned magnetic order. The underlying physics is the competition between the topology-induced weak antilocalization and magnetism-induced negative magnetoresistance. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and magnetoresistance facilitates future topological insulator based spintronic devices.

  3. Topology with applications topological spaces via near and far

    CERN Document Server

    Naimpally, Somashekhar A

    2013-01-01

    The principal aim of this book is to introduce topology and its many applications viewed within a framework that includes a consideration of compactness, completeness, continuity, filters, function spaces, grills, clusters and bunches, hyperspace topologies, initial and final structures, metric spaces, metrization, nets, proximal continuity, proximity spaces, separation axioms, and uniform spaces. This book provides a complete framework for the study of topology with a variety of applications in science and engineering that include camouflage filters, classification, digital image processing, forgery detection, Hausdorff raster spaces, image analysis, microscopy, paleontology, pattern recognition, population dynamics, stem cell biology, topological psychology, and visual merchandising. It is the first complete presentation on topology with applications considered in the context of proximity spaces, and the nearness and remoteness of sets of objects. A novel feature throughout this book is the use of near and...

  4. Relational topology

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Gunther

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces and develops new algebraic methods to work with relations, often conceived as Boolean matrices, and applies them to topology. Although these objects mirror the matrices that appear throughout mathematics, numerics, statistics, engineering, and elsewhere, the methods used to work with them are much less well known. In addition to their purely topological applications, the volume also details how the techniques may be successfully applied to spatial reasoning and to logics of computer science. Topologists will find several familiar concepts presented in a concise and algebraically manipulable form which is far more condensed than usual, but visualized via represented relations and thus readily graspable. This approach also offers the possibility of handling topological problems using proof assistants.

  5. Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    . A way to solve the initial design problem namely finding a form can be solved by so-called topology optimization. The idea is to define a design region and an amount of material. The loads and supports are also fidefined, and the algorithm finds the optimal material distribution. The objective function...... dictates the form, and the designer can choose e.g. maximum stiness, maximum allowable stresses or maximum lowest eigenfrequency. The result of the topology optimization is a relatively coarse map of material layout. This design can be transferred to a CAD system and given the necessary geometrically...... refinements, and then remeshed and reanalysed in other to secure that the design requirements are met correctly. The output of standard topology optimization has seldom well-defined, sharp contours leaving the designer with a tedious interpretation, which often results in less optimal structures. In the paper...

  6. Topological rings

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1993-01-01

    This text brings the reader to the frontiers of current research in topological rings. The exercises illustrate many results and theorems while a comprehensive bibliography is also included. The book is aimed at those readers acquainted with some very basic point-set topology and algebra, as normally presented in semester courses at the beginning graduate level or even at the advanced undergraduate level. Familiarity with Hausdorff, metric, compact and locally compact spaces and basic properties of continuous functions, also with groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and modules, and with Zorn''s Lemma, is also expected.

  7. Topology of Functional Connectivity and Hub Dynamics in the Beta Band As Temporal Prior for Natural Vision in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Viviana; Corbetta, Maurizio; de Pasquale, Francesco; Wens, Vincent; Della Penna, Stefania

    2018-04-11

    Networks hubs represent points of convergence for the integration of information across many different nodes and systems. Although a great deal is known on the topology of hub regions in the human brain, little is known about their temporal dynamics. Here, we examine the static and dynamic centrality of hub regions when measured in the absence of a task (rest) or during the observation of natural or synthetic visual stimuli. We used Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in humans (both sexes) to measure static and transient regional and network-level interaction in α- and β-band limited power (BLP) in three conditions: visual fixation (rest), viewing of movie clips (natural vision), and time-scrambled versions of the same clips (scrambled vision). Compared with rest, we observed in both movie conditions a robust decrement of α-BLP connectivity. Moreover, both movie conditions caused a significant reorganization of connections in the α band, especially between networks. In contrast, β-BLP connectivity was remarkably similar between rest and natural vision. Not only the topology did not change, but the joint dynamics of hubs in a core network during natural vision was predicted by similar fluctuations in the resting state. We interpret these findings by suggesting that slow-varying fluctuations of integration occurring in higher-order regions in the β band may be a mechanism to anticipate and predict slow-varying temporal patterns of the visual environment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A fundamental question in neuroscience concerns the function of spontaneous brain connectivity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that topology of intrinsic brain connectivity and its dynamics might predict those observed during natural vision. Using MEG, we tracked the static and time-varying brain functional connectivity when observers were either fixating or watching different movie clips. The spatial distribution of connections and the dynamics of centrality of a set of regions were similar

  8. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim; Donges, Jonathan; Molkenthin, Nora

    2016-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: Which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this work, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth System modeling

  9. Double optical gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Steve

    The observation and control of dynamics in atomic and molecular targets requires the use of laser pulses with duration less than the characteristic timescale of the process which is to be manipulated. For electron dynamics, this time scale is on the order of attoseconds where 1 attosecond = 10 -18 seconds. In order to generate pulses on this time scale, different gating methods have been proposed. The idea is to extract or "gate" a single pulse from an attosecond pulse train and switch off all the other pulses. While previous methods have had some success, they are very difficult to implement and so far very few labs have access to these unique light sources. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new method, called double optical gating (DOG), and to demonstrate its effectiveness at generating high contrast single isolated attosecond pulses from multi-cycle lasers. First, the method is described in detail and is investigated in the spectral domain. The resulting attosecond pulses produced are then temporally characterized through attosecond streaking. A second method of gating, called generalized double optical gating (GDOG), is also introduced. This method allows attosecond pulse generation directly from a carrier-envelope phase un-stabilized laser system for the first time. Next the methods of DOG and GDOG are implemented in attosecond applications like high flux pulses and extreme broadband spectrum generation. Finally, the attosecond pulses themselves are used in experiments. First, an attosecond/femtosecond cross correlation is used for characterization of spatial and temporal properties of femtosecond pulses. Then, an attosecond pump, femtosecond probe experiment is conducted to observe and control electron dynamics in helium for the first time.

  10. A neural mechanism of dynamic gating of task-relevant information by top-down influence in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Akikazu; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kashimori, Yoshiki

    2016-12-01

    Visual recognition involves bidirectional information flow, which consists of bottom-up information coding from retina and top-down information coding from higher visual areas. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of early visual areas such as primary visual area (V1) in recognition and memory formation. V1 neurons are not passive transformers of sensory inputs but work as adaptive processor, changing their function according to behavioral context. Top-down signals affect tuning property of V1 neurons and contribute to the gating of sensory information relevant to behavior. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanism underlying the gating of task-relevant information in V1. To address this issue, we focus on task-dependent tuning modulations of V1 neurons in two tasks of perceptual learning. We develop a model of the V1, which receives feedforward input from lateral geniculate nucleus and top-down input from a higher visual area. We show here that the change in a balance between excitation and inhibition in V1 connectivity is necessary for gating task-relevant information in V1. The balance change well accounts for the modulations of tuning characteristic and temporal properties of V1 neuronal responses. We also show that the balance change of V1 connectivity is shaped by top-down signals with temporal correlations reflecting the perceptual strategies of the two tasks. We propose a learning mechanism by which synaptic balance is modulated. To conclude, top-down signal changes the synaptic balance between excitation and inhibition in V1 connectivity, enabling early visual area such as V1 to gate context-dependent information under multiple task performances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic Topological Qubits in Conventional Bilayer Quantum Hall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maissam Barkeshli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of topological quantum computation is to build powerful and robust quantum computers with certain macroscopic quantum states of matter called topologically ordered states. These systems have degenerate ground states that can be used as robust “topological qubits” to store and process quantum information. In this paper, we propose a new experimental setup that can realize topological qubits in a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with proper electric gate configurations. Our proposal is accessible with current experimental techniques, involves well-established topological states, and, moreover, can realize a large class of topological qubits, generalizing the Majorana zero modes studied in recent literature to more computationally powerful possibilities. We propose three tunneling and interferometry experiments to detect the existence and nonlocal topological properties of the topological qubits.

  12. Multi-scaled normal mode analysis method for dynamics simulation of protein-membrane complexes: A case study of potassium channel gating motion correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaokun; Han, Min; Ming, Dengming, E-mail: dming@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-10-07

    Membrane proteins play critically important roles in many cellular activities such as ions and small molecule transportation, signal recognition, and transduction. In order to fulfill their functions, these proteins must be placed in different membrane environments and a variety of protein-lipid interactions may affect the behavior of these proteins. One of the key effects of protein-lipid interactions is their ability to change the dynamics status of membrane proteins, thus adjusting their functions. Here, we present a multi-scaled normal mode analysis (mNMA) method to study the dynamics perturbation to the membrane proteins imposed by lipid bi-layer membrane fluctuations. In mNMA, channel proteins are simulated at all-atom level while the membrane is described with a coarse-grained model. mNMA calculations clearly show that channel gating motion can tightly couple with a variety of membrane deformations, including bending and twisting. We then examined bi-channel systems where two channels were separated with different distances. From mNMA calculations, we observed both positive and negative gating correlations between two neighboring channels, and the correlation has a maximum as the channel center-to-center distance is close to 2.5 times of their diameter. This distance is larger than recently found maximum attraction distance between two proteins embedded in membrane which is 1.5 times of the protein size, indicating that membrane fluctuation might impose collective motions among proteins within a larger area. The hybrid resolution feature in mNMA provides atomic dynamics information for key components in the system without costing much computer resource. We expect it to be a conventional simulation tool for ordinary laboratories to study the dynamics of very complicated biological assemblies. The source code is available upon request to the authors.

  13. ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion - 6. How Architectural Features Affect. Building During Earthquakes? C VRMurty. 48 Turbulence and Dispersion. K 5 Gandhi. BOOK REVIEWS. 86 Algebraic Topology. Siddhartha Gadgil. Front Cover. - .. ..-.......... -. Back Cover. Two-dimensional vertical section through a turbulent plume. (Courtesy: G S Shat, CAOS, IISc.).

  14. Topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Taking as a starting point a design case for a compliant mechanism (a force inverter), the fundamental elements of topology optimization are described. The basis for the developments is a FEM format for this design problem and emphasis is given to the parameterization of design as a raster image...

  15. DNA topology and transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzine, Fedor; Levens, David; Baranello, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is a complex assembly that compacts DNA inside the nucleus while providing the necessary level of accessibility to regulatory factors conscripted by cellular signaling systems. In this superstructure, DNA is the subject of mechanical forces applied by variety of molecular motors. Rather than being a rigid stick, DNA possesses dynamic structural variability that could be harnessed during critical steps of genome functioning. The strong relationship between DNA structure and key genomic processes necessitates the study of physical constrains acting on the double helix. Here we provide insight into the source, dynamics, and biology of DNA topological domains in the eukaryotic cells and summarize their possible involvement in gene transcription. We emphasize recent studies that might inspire and impact future experiments on the involvement of DNA topology in cellular functions. PMID:24755522

  16. A model of cardiac ryanodine receptor gating predicts experimental Ca2+-dynamics and Ca2+-triggered arrhythmia in the long QT syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dan; Ermentrout, Bard; Němec, Jan; Salama, Guy

    2017-09-01

    Abnormal Ca2+ handling is well-established as the trigger of cardiac arrhythmia in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and digoxin toxicity, but its role remains controversial in Torsade de Pointes (TdP), the arrhythmia associated with the long QT syndrome (LQTS). Recent experimental results show that early afterdepolarizations (EADs) that initiate TdP are caused by spontaneous (non-voltage-triggered) Ca2+ release from Ca2+-overloaded sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) rather than the activation of the L-type Ca2+-channel window current. In bradycardia and long QT type 2 (LQT2), a second, non-voltage triggered cytosolic Ca2+ elevation increases gradually in amplitude, occurs before overt voltage instability, and then precedes the rise of EADs. Here, we used a modified Shannon-Puglisi-Bers model of rabbit ventricular myocytes to reproduce experimental Ca2+ dynamics in bradycardia and LQT2. Abnormal systolic Ca2+-oscillations and EADs caused by SR Ca2+-release are reproduced in a modified 0-dimensional model, where 3 gates in series control the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) conductance. Two gates control RyR2 activation and inactivation and sense cytosolic Ca2+ while a third gate senses luminal junctional SR Ca2+. The model predicts EADs in bradycardia and low extracellular [K+] and cessation of SR Ca2+-release terminate salvos of EADs. Ca2+-waves, systolic cell-synchronous Ca2+-release, and multifocal diastolic Ca2+ release seen in subcellular Ca2+-mapping experiments are observed in the 2-dimensional version of the model. These results support the role of SR Ca2+-overload, abnormal SR Ca2+-release, and the subsequent activation of the electrogenic Na+/Ca2+-exchanger as the mechanism of TdP. The model offers new insights into the genesis of cardiac arrhythmia and new therapeutic strategies.

  17. Z Specification of Gate and Apron Control Management at Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of an air traffic control (ATC system is an open issue and has become a challenging problem due to its complexity and increase of traffic at airports and in airspace. Consequently, automated ATC systems are suggested to improve efficiency ensuring the safety standards. It is reported that the number of collisions that occurred at airports surface is three times larger than in airspace. Further, it is observed that gates and aprons congestions cause significant delays at airports; hence, effective monitoring and guidance mechanisms are required to control ground air traffic. In this paper, formal procedure of managing air traffic from gate to enter in the active area of airport for taxiing is provided using Z notation. An integration of gate and apron controllers is described to manipulate the information for correct decision making and flow management. Graph theory is used for representation of airport topology and appropriate routs. In static part of the model, safety properties are described in terms of invariants over the critical data types. In dynamic model, the state space is updated by defining pre- and postconditions ensuring the safety. Formal specification is analysed using Z/Eves tool.

  18. Magnetic and optical holonomic manipulation of colloids, structures and topological defects in liquid crystals for characterization of mesoscale self-assembly and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Michael C. M.

    Colloidal systems find important applications ranging from fabrication of photonic crystals to direct probing of phenomena encountered in atomic crystals and glasses; topics of great interest for physicists exploring a broad range of scientific, industrial and biomedical fields. The ability to accurately control particles of mesoscale size in various liquid host media is usually accomplished through optical trapping methods, which suffer limitations intrinsic to trap laser intensity and force generation. Other limitations are due to colloid properties, such as optical absorptivity, and host properties, such as viscosity, opacity and structure. Therefore, alternative and/or novel methods of colloidal manipulation are of utmost importance in order to advance the state of the art in technical applications and fundamental science. In this thesis, I demonstrate a magnetic-optical holonomic control system to manipulate magnetic and optical colloids in liquid crystals and show that the elastic structure inherent to nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals may be used to assist in tweezing of particles in a manner impossible in other media. Furthermore, I demonstrate the utility of this manipulation in characterizing the structure and microrheology of liquid crystals, and elucidating the energetics and dynamics of colloids interacting with these structures. I also demonstrate the utility of liquid crystal systems as a table top model system to probe topological defects in a manner that may lead to insights into topologically related phenomena in other fields, such as early universe cosmology, sub-atomic and high energy systems, or Skrymionic structures. I explore the interaction of colloid surface anchoring with the structure inherent in cholesteric liquid crystals, and how this affects the periodic dynamics and localization metastability of spherical colloids undergoing a "falling" motion within the sample. These so called "metastable states" cause colloidal dynamics to

  19. Homotopical topology

    CERN Document Server

    Fomenko, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    This classic text of the renowned Moscow mathematical school equips the aspiring mathematician with a solid grounding in the core of topology, from a homotopical perspective. Its comprehensiveness and depth of treatment are unmatched among topology textbooks: in addition to covering the basics—the fundamental notions and constructions of homotopy theory, covering spaces and the fundamental group, CW complexes, homology and cohomology, homological algebra—the book treats essential advanced topics, such as obstruction theory, characteristic classes, Steenrod squares, K-theory and cobordism theory, and, with distinctive thoroughness and lucidity, spectral sequences. The organization of the material around the major achievements of the golden era of topology—the Adams conjecture, Bott periodicity, the Hirzebruch–Riemann–Roch theorem, the Atiyah–Singer index theorem, to name a few—paints a clear picture of the canon of the subject. Grassmannians, loop spaces, and classical groups play a central role ...

  20. Capacitorless one-transistor dynamic random-access memory based on asymmetric double-gate Ge/GaAs-heterojunction tunneling field-effect transistor with n-doped boosting layer and drain-underlap structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Jun; Seo, Jae Hwa; Kang, In Man

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present a capacitorless one-transistor dynamic random-access memory (1T-DRAM) based on an asymmetric double-gate Ge/GaAs-heterojunction tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET) for DRAM applications. The n-doped boosting layer and gate2 drain-underlap structure is employed in the device to obtain an excellent 1T-DRAM performance. The n-doped layer inserted between the source and channel regions improves the sensing margin because of a high rate of increase in the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) probability. Furthermore, because the gate2 drain-underlap structure reduces the recombination rate that occurs between the gate2 and drain regions, a device with a gate2 drain-underlap length (L G2_D-underlap) of 10 nm exhibited a longer retention performance. As a result, by applying the n-doped layer and gate2 drain-underlap structure, the proposed device exhibited not only a high sensing margin of 1.11 µA/µm but also a long retention time of greater than 100 ms at a temperature of 358 K (85 °C).

  1. Algebraic topological entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1989-01-01

    As a 'by-product' of the Connes-Narnhofer-Thirring theory of dynamical entropy for (originally non-Abelian) nuclear C * -algebras, the well-known variational principle for topological entropy is eqivalently reformulated in purly algebraically defined terms for (separable) Abelian C * -algebras. This 'algebraic variational principle' should not only nicely illustrate the 'feed-back' of methods developed for quantum dynamical systems to the classical theory, but it could also be proved directly by 'algebraic' methods and could thus further simplify the original proof of the variational principle (at least 'in principle'). 23 refs. (Author)

  2. Search for Majorana fermions in topological superconductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shi, Xiaoyan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hawkins, Samuel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klem, John Frederick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this project is to search for Majorana fermions (a new quantum particle) in a topological superconductor (a new quantum matter achieved in a topological insulator proximitized by an s-wave superconductor). Majorana fermions (MFs) are electron-like particles that are their own anti-particles. MFs are shown to obey non-Abelian statistics and, thus, can be harnessed to make a fault-resistant topological quantum computer. With the arrival of topological insulators, novel schemes to create MFs have been proposed in hybrid systems by combining a topological insulator with a conventional superconductor. In this LDRD project, we will follow the theoretical proposals to search for MFs in one-dimensional (1D) topological superconductors. 1D topological superconductor will be created inside of a quantum point contact (with the metal pinch-off gates made of conventional s-wave superconductors such as niobium) in a two-dimensional topological insulator (such as inverted type-II InAs/GaSb heterostructure).

  3. Designing topological defects in 2D materials using scanning probe microscopy and a self-healing mechanism: a density functional-based molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Igor; Đurišić, Ivana; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2017-12-01

    Engineering of materials at the atomic level is one of the most important aims of nanotechnology. The unprecedented ability of scanning probe microscopy to address individual atoms opened up the possibilities for nanomanipulation and nanolitography of surfaces and later on of two-dimensional materials. While the state-of-the-art scanning probe lithographic methods include, primarily, adsorption, desorption and repositioning of adatoms and molecules on substrates or tailoring nanoribbons by etching of trenches, the precise modification of the intrinsic atomic structure of materials is yet to be advanced. Here we introduce a new concept, scanning probe microscopy with a rotating tip, for engineering of the atomic structure of membranes based on two-dimensional materials. In order to indicate the viability of the concept, we present our theoretical research, which includes atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, Fourier analysis and electronic transport calculations. While stretching can be employed for fabrication of atomic chains only, our comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations indicate that nanomanipulation by scanning probe microscopy with a rotating tip is capable of assembling a wide range of topological defects in two-dimensional materials in a rather controllable and reproducible manner. We analyze two possibilities. In the first case the probe tip is retracted from the membrane while in the second case the tip is released beneath the membrane allowing graphene to freely relax and self-heal the pore made by the tip. The former approach with the tip rotation can be achieved experimentally by rotation of the sample, which is equivalent to rotation of the tip, whereas irradiation of the membrane by nanoclusters can be utilized for the latter approach. The latter one has the potential to yield a yet richer diversity of topological defects on account of a lesser determinacy. If successfully realized experimentally the concept proposed here could

  4. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  5. Complex brain networks: From topological communities to clustered

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Complex brain networks: From topological communities to clustered dynamics ... Recent research has revealed a rich and complicated network topology in the cortical connectivity of mammalian brains. ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  6. Topology of the elliptical billiard with the Hooke's potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radnović Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Fomenko graphs, we present a topological description of the elliptical billiard with Hooke's potential. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174020: Geometry and Topology of Manifolds and Integrable Dynamical Systems

  7. Toward prethreshold gate-based quantum simulation of chemical dynamics: using potential energy surfaces to simulate few-channel molecular collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornborger, Andrew T.; Stancil, Phillip; Geller, Michael R.

    2018-05-01

    One of the most promising applications of an error-corrected universal quantum computer is the efficient simulation of complex quantum systems such as large molecular systems. In this application, one is interested in both the electronic structure such as the ground state energy and dynamical properties such as the scattering cross section and chemical reaction rates. However, most theoretical work and experimental demonstrations have focused on the quantum computation of energies and energy surfaces. In this work, we attempt to make the prethreshold (not error-corrected) quantum simulation of dynamical properties practical as well. We show that the use of precomputed potential energy surfaces and couplings enables the gate-based simulation of few-channel but otherwise realistic molecular collisions. Our approach is based on the widely used Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the structure problem coupled with a semiclassical method for the dynamics. In the latter the electrons are treated quantum mechanically but the nuclei are classical, which restricts the collisions to high energy or temperature (typically above ≈ 10 eV). By using operator splitting techniques optimized for the resulting time-dependent Hamiltonian simulation problem, we give several physically realistic collision examples, with 3-8 channels and circuit depths < 1000.

  8. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  9. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Guillemin, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Differential Topology provides an elementary and intuitive introduction to the study of smooth manifolds. In the years since its first publication, Guillemin and Pollack's book has become a standard text on the subject. It is a jewel of mathematical exposition, judiciously picking exactly the right mixture of detail and generality to display the richness within. The text is mostly self-contained, requiring only undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. By relying on a unifying idea-transversality-the authors are able to avoid the use of big machinery or ad hoc techniques to establish the main

  10. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  11. Crystal structure and dynamics of a lipid-induced potential desensitized-state of a pentameric ligand-gated channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basak, Sandip [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States; Schmandt, Nicolaus [Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States; Gicheru, Yvonne [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States; Chakrapani, Sudha [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States

    2017-03-06

    Desensitization in pentameric ligand-gated ion channels plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. Here, we show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in synaptic membranes, enhances the agonist-induced transition to the desensitized state in the prokaryotic channel GLIC. We determined a 3.25 Å crystal structure of the GLIC-DHA complex in a potentially desensitized conformation. The DHA molecule is bound at the channel-periphery near the M4 helix and exerts a long-range allosteric effect on the pore across domain-interfaces. In this previously unobserved conformation, the extracellular-half of the pore-lining M2 is splayed open, reminiscent of the open conformation, while the intracellular-half is constricted, leading to a loss of both water and permeant ions. These findings, in combination with spin-labeling/EPR spectroscopic measurements in reconstituted-membranes, provide novel mechanistic details of desensitization in pentameric channels.

  12. ERG voltage-gated K+ channels regulate excitability and discharge dynamics of the medial vestibular nucleus neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessia, Mauro; Servettini, Ilenio; Panichi, Roberto; Guasti, Leonardo; Grassi, Silvarosa; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Wanke, Enzo; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2008-10-15

    The discharge properties of the medial vestibular nucleus neurones (MVNn) critically depend on the activity of several ion channel types. In this study we show, immunohistochemically, that the voltage-gated K(+) channels ERG1A, ERG1B, ERG2 and ERG3 are highly expressed within the vestibular nuclei of P10 and P60 mice. The role played by these channels in the spike-generating mechanisms of the MVNn and in temporal information processing was investigated electrophysiologically from mouse brain slices, in vitro, by analysing the spontaneous discharge and the response to square-, ramp- and sinusoid-like intracellular DC current injections in extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp studies. We show that more than half of the recorded MVNn were responsive to ERG channel block (WAY-123,398, E4031), displaying an increase in spontaneous activity and discharge irregularity. The response to step and ramp current injection was also modified by ERG block showing a reduction of first spike latency, enhancement of discharge rate and reduction of the slow spike-frequency adaptation process. ERG channels influence the interspike slope without affecting the spike shape. Moreover, in response to sinusoid-like current, ERG channel block caused frequency-dependent gain enhancement and phase-lead shift. Taken together, the data demonstrate that ERG channels control the excitability of MVNn, their discharge regularity and probably their resonance properties.

  13. Emerging Trends in Topological Insulators and Topological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/reso/022/08/0787-0800. Keywords. Superconductor, quantum Hall effect, topological insulator, Majorana fermions. Abstract. Topological insulators are new class of materials which arecharacterized by a bulk band gap like ordinary ...

  14. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Margalef-Roig, J

    1992-01-01

    ...there are reasons enough to warrant a coherent treatment of the main body of differential topology in the realm of Banach manifolds, which is at the same time correct and complete. This book fills the gap: whenever possible the manifolds treated are Banach manifolds with corners. Corners add to the complications and the authors have carefully fathomed the validity of all main results at corners. Even in finite dimensions some results at corners are more complete and better thought out here than elsewhere in the literature. The proofs are correct and with all details. I see this book as a reliable monograph of a well-defined subject; the possibility to fall back to it adds to the feeling of security when climbing in the more dangerous realms of infinite dimensional differential geometry. Peter W. Michor

  15. Topological orders in rigid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, X.G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors study a new kind of ordering topological order in rigid states (the states with no local gapless excitations). This paper concentrates on characterization of the different topological orders. As an example the authors discuss in detail chiral spin states of 2+1 dimensional spin systems. Chiral spin states are described by the topological Chern-Simons theories in the continuum limit. The authors show that the topological orders can be characterized by a non-Abelian gauge structure over the moduli space which parametrizes a family of the model Hamiltonians supporting topologically ordered ground states. In 2 + 1 dimensions, the non-Abelian gauge structure determines possible fractional statistics of the quasi-particle excitations over the topologically ordered ground states. The dynamics of the low lying global excitations is shown to be independent of random spatial dependent perturbations. The ground state degeneracy and the non-Abelian gauge structures discussed in this paper are very robust, even against those perturbations that break translation symmetry. The authors also discuss the symmetry properties of the degenerate ground states of chiral spin states. The authors find that some degenerate ground states of chiral spin states on torus carry non-trivial quantum numbers of the 90 degrees rotation

  16. Topological supersymmetric structure of hadron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Ouvry, S.

    1980-12-01

    Recently a way of fully implementing unitarity in the framework of a Dual Topological Unitarization theory, including not only mesons but also baryons, was found. This theory consists in the topological description of hadron interactions involving confined quarks in terms of two 2-dimensional surfaces (a closed 'quantum' surface and a bounded 'classical' surface). We show that this description directly leads, at the zeroth order of the topological expansion, to certain relations between hadron cross-sections, in nice agreement with experimental data. A new topological suppression mechanism is shown to play an important dynamical role. We also point out a new topological supersymmetry property, which leads to realistic experimental consequences. A possible topological origin of the rho and ω universality relations emerges as a by-product of our study

  17. Nuclear Pasta: Topology and Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Don; Caplan, Matt; Briggs, Christian

    2015-04-01

    A layer of complex non-uniform phases of matter known as nuclear pasta is expected to exist at the base of the crust of neutron stars. Using large scale molecular dynamics we study the topology of some pasta shapes, the formation of defects and how these may affect properties of neutron star crusts.

  18. Ultra low power full adder topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Wisland, Dag T.; Mahmoodi, Hamid

    In this paper several low power full adder topologies are presented. The main idea of these circuits is based on the sense energy recovery full adder (SERF) design and the GDI (gate diffusion input) technique. These subthreshold circuits are employed for ultra low power applications. While the pr...... the proposed circuits have some area overhead that is negligible, they have at least 62% less power dissipation when compared with existing designs. In this paper, 65 nm standard models are used for simulations....

  19. Role of controllability in optimizing quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rebing; Hsieh, Michael A.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reveals an important role that controllability plays in the complexity of optimizing quantum control dynamics. We show that the loss of controllability generally leads to multiple locally suboptimal controls when gate fidelity in a quantum control system is maximized, which does not happen if the system is controllable. Such local suboptimal controls may attract an optimization algorithm into a local trap when a global optimal solution is sought, even if the target gate can be perfectly realized. This conclusion results from an analysis of the critical topology of the corresponding quantum control landscape, which refers to the gate fidelity objective as a functional of the control fields. For uncontrollable systems, due to SU(2) and SU(3) dynamical symmetries, the control landscape corresponding to an implementable target gate is proven to possess multiple locally optimal critical points, and its ruggedness can be further increased if the target gate is not realizable. These results imply that the optimization of quantum dynamics can be seriously impeded when operating with local search algorithms under these conditions, and thus full controllability is demanded.

  20. The topology of architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Rummets topologi, Historiens topologi: betragtninger om menneskets orientering til rum - fra hulen over beherskelse af flere akser til det flydende rum.......Rummets topologi, Historiens topologi: betragtninger om menneskets orientering til rum - fra hulen over beherskelse af flere akser til det flydende rum....

  1. Dynamics of Line-Driven Winds from Disks in Cataclysmic Variables. I. Solution Topology and Wind Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Feldmeier, Achim; Shlosman, Isaac

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of 2-D stationary, line-driven winds from accretion disks in cataclysmic variable stars. The driving force is that of line radiation pressure, in the formalism developed by Castor, Abbott & Klein for O stars. Our main assumption is that wind helical streamlines lie on straight cones. We find that the Euler equation for the disk wind has two eigenvalues, the mass loss rate and the flow tilt angle with the disk. Both are calculated self-consistently. The wind is characte...

  2. Topology and prediction of RNA pseudoknots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidys, Christian; Huang, Fenix; Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Several dynamic programming algorithms for predicting RNA structures with pseudoknots have been proposed that differ dramatically from one another in the classes of structures considered. Results: Here, we use the natural topological classification of RNA structures in terms...

  3. Monte Carlo Simulations of High-speed, Time-gated MCP-based X-ray Detectors: Saturation Effects in DC and Pulsed Modes and Detector Dynamic Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruschwitz, Craig; Ming Wu; Moy, Ken; Rochau, Greg

    2008-01-01

    We present here results of continued efforts to understand the performance of microchannel plate (MCP)-based, high-speed, gated, x-ray detectors. This work involves the continued improvement of a Monte Carlo simulation code to describe MCP performance coupled with experimental efforts to better characterize such detectors. Our goal is a quantitative description of MCP saturation behavior in both static and pulsed modes. We have developed a new model of charge buildup on the walls of the MCP channels and measured its effect on MCP gain. The results are compared to experimental data obtained with a short-pulse, high-intensity ultraviolet laser; these results clearly demonstrate MCP saturation behavior in both DC and pulsed modes. The simulations compare favorably to the experimental results. The dynamic range of the detectors in pulsed operation is of particular interest when fielding an MCP-based camera. By adjusting the laser flux we study the linear range of the camera. These results, too, are compared to our simulations

  4. Mechanical Model of Geometric Cell and Topological Algorithm for Cell Dynamics from Single-Cell to Formation of Monolayered Tissues with Pattern

    KAUST Repository

    Kachalo, Sëma

    2015-05-14

    Geometric and mechanical properties of individual cells and interactions among neighboring cells are the basis of formation of tissue patterns. Understanding the complex interplay of cells is essential for gaining insight into embryogenesis, tissue development, and other emerging behavior. Here we describe a cell model and an efficient geometric algorithm for studying the dynamic process of tissue formation in 2D (e.g. epithelial tissues). Our approach improves upon previous methods by incorporating properties of individual cells as well as detailed description of the dynamic growth process, with all topological changes accounted for. Cell size, shape, and division plane orientation are modeled realistically. In addition, cell birth, cell growth, cell shrinkage, cell death, cell division, cell collision, and cell rearrangements are now fully accounted for. Different models of cell-cell interactions, such as lateral inhibition during the process of growth, can be studied in detail. Cellular pattern formation for monolayered tissues from arbitrary initial conditions, including that of a single cell, can also be studied in detail. Computational efficiency is achieved through the employment of a special data structure that ensures access to neighboring cells in constant time, without additional space requirement. We have successfully generated tissues consisting of more than 20,000 cells starting from 2 cells within 1 hour. We show that our model can be used to study embryogenesis, tissue fusion, and cell apoptosis. We give detailed study of the classical developmental process of bristle formation on the epidermis of D. melanogaster and the fundamental problem of homeostatic size control in epithelial tissues. Simulation results reveal significant roles of solubility of secreted factors in both the bristle formation and the homeostatic control of tissue size. Our method can be used to study broad problems in monolayered tissue formation. Our software is publicly

  5. The influence of single neuron dynamics and network topology on time delay-induced multiple synchronous behaviors in inhibitory coupled network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Gu, Huaguang

    2015-01-01

    individual neurons, topology of network, time delay, and coupling strength on the multiple synchronous behaviors are helpful to the understanding of the synchronous dynamics of the neuronal network composed of inhibitory neurons.

  6. Topological superconductors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masatoshi; Ando, Yoichi

    2017-07-01

    This review elaborates pedagogically on the fundamental concept, basic theory, expected properties, and materials realizations of topological superconductors. The relation between topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions are explained, and the difference between dispersive Majorana fermions and a localized Majorana zero mode is emphasized. A variety of routes to topological superconductivity are explained with an emphasis on the roles of spin-orbit coupling. Present experimental situations and possible signatures of topological superconductivity are summarized with an emphasis on intrinsic topological superconductors.

  7. Introduction to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Gamelin, Theodore W

    1999-01-01

    A fresh approach to introductory topology, this volume explains nontrivial applications of metric space topology to analysis, clearly establishing their relationship. Also, topics from elementary algebraic topology focus on concrete results with minimal algebraic formalism. The first two chapters consider metric space and point-set topology; the second two, algebraic topological material. 1983 edition. Solutions to Selected Exercises. List of Notations. Index. 51 illustrations.

  8. Topology of foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Itiro

    1992-01-01

    This book provides historical background and a complete overview of the qualitative theory of foliations and differential dynamical systems. Senior mathematics majors and graduate students with background in multivariate calculus, algebraic and differential topology, differential geometry, and linear algebra will find this book an accessible introduction. Upon finishing the book, readers will be prepared to take up research in this area. Readers will appreciate the book for its highly visual presentation of examples in low dimensions. The author focuses particularly on foliations with compact leaves, covering all the important basic results. Specific topics covered include: dynamical systems on the torus and the three-sphere, local and global stability theorems for foliations, the existence of compact leaves on three-spheres, and foliated cobordisms on three-spheres. Also included is a short introduction to the theory of differentiable manifolds.

  9. NMR structural and dynamical investigation of the isolated voltage-sensing domain of the potassium channel KvAP: implications for voltage gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Paramonov, Alexander S; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shingarova, Lyudmila N; Yakimov, Sergei A; Dubinnyi, Maxim A; Chupin, Vladimir V; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Blommers, Marcel J J; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2010-04-28

    The structure and dynamics of the isolated voltage-sensing domain (VSD) of the archaeal potassium channel KvAP was studied by high-resolution NMR. The almost complete backbone resonance assignment and partial side-chain assignment of the (2)H,(13)C,(15)N-labeled VSD were obtained for the protein domain solubilized in DPC/LDAO (2:1) mixed micelles. Secondary and tertiary structures of the VSD were characterized using secondary chemical shifts and NOE contacts. These data indicate that the spatial structure of the VSD solubilized in micelles corresponds to the structure of the domain in an open state of the channel. NOE contacts and secondary chemical shifts of amide protons indicate the presence of tightly bound water molecule as well as hydrogen bond formation involving an interhelical salt bridge (Asp62-R133) that stabilizes the overall structure of the domain. The backbone dynamics of the VSD was studied using (15)N relaxation measurements. The loop regions S1-S2 and S2-S3 were found mobile, while the S3-S4 loop (voltage-sensor paddle) was found stable at the ps-ns time scale. The moieties of S1, S2, S3, and S4 helices sharing interhelical contacts (at the level of the Asp62-R133 salt bridge) were observed in conformational exchange on the micros-ms time scale. Similar exchange-induced broadening of characteristic resonances was observed for the VSD solubilized in the membrane of lipid-protein nanodiscs composed of DMPC, DMPG, and POPC/DOPG lipids. Apparently, the observed interhelical motions represent an inherent property of the VSD of the KvAP channel and can play an important role in the voltage gating.

  10. Topological edge modes in multilayer graphene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Lixin

    2015-08-10

    Plasmons can be supported on graphene sheets as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively. A tight-binding model for graphene plasmons is a good description as the field confinement in the normal direction is strong. With this model, the topological properties of plasmonic bands in multilayer graphene systems are investigated. The Zak phases of periodic graphene sheet arrays are obtained for different configurations. Analogous to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model in electronic systems, topological edge plasmon modes emerge when two periodic graphene sheet arrays with different Zak phases are connected. Interestingly, the dispersion of these topological edge modes is the same as that in the monolayer graphene and is invariant as the geometric parameters of the structure such as the separation and period change. These plasmonic edge states in multilayer graphene systems can be further tuned by electrical gating or chemical doping. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  11. Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jing; Kou Su-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. (topical review)

  12. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  13. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-04-04

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  14. New gate opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  15. Dual gated PET/CT imaging of small targets of the heart: method description and testing with a dynamic heart phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokki, Tommi; Sipilä, Hannu T; Teräs, Mika; Noponen, Tommi; Durand-Schaefer, Nicolas; Klén, Riku; Knuuti, Juhani

    2010-01-01

    In PET imaging respiratory and cardiac contraction motions interfere the imaging of heart. The aim was to develop and evaluate dual gating method for improving the detection of small targets of the heart. The method utilizes two independent triggers which are sent periodically into list mode data based on respiratory and ECG cycles. An algorithm for generating dual gated segments from list mode data was developed. The test measurements showed that rotational and axial movements of point source can be separated spatially to different segments with well-defined borders. The effect of dual gating on detection of small moving targets was tested with a moving heart phantom. Dual gated images showed 51% elimination (3.6 mm out of 7.0 mm) of contraction motion of hot spot (diameter 3 mm) and 70% elimination (14 mm out of 20 mm) of respiratory motion. Averaged activity value of hot spot increases by 89% when comparing to non-gated images. Patient study of suspected cardiac sarcoidosis shows sharper spatial myocardial uptake profile and improved detection of small myocardial structures such as papillary muscles. The dual gating method improves detection of small moving targets in a phantom and it is feasible in clinical situations.

  16. Precise linear gating circuit on integrated microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butskii, V.V.; Vetokhin, S.S.; Reznikov, I.V.

    Precise linear gating circuit on four microcircuits is described. A basic flowsheet of the gating circuit is given. The gating circuit consists of two input differential cascades total load of which is two current followers possessing low input and high output resistances. Follower outlets are connected to high ohmic dynamic load formed with a current source which permits to get high amplification (>1000) at one cascade. Nonlinearity amounts to <0.1% in the range of input signal amplitudes of -10-+10 V. Front duration for an output signal with 10 V amplitude amounts to 100 ns. Attenuation of input signal with a closed gating circuit is 60 db. The gating circuits described is used in the device intended for processing of scintillation sensor signals.

  17. Topology of polymer chains under nanoscale confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarifard, Vahid; Heidari, Maziar; Mashaghi, Samaneh; Tans, Sander J; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2017-08-24

    Spatial confinement limits the conformational space accessible to biomolecules but the implications for bimolecular topology are not yet known. Folded linear biopolymers can be seen as molecular circuits formed by intramolecular contacts. The pairwise arrangement of intra-chain contacts can be categorized as parallel, series or cross, and has been identified as a topological property. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the contact order distributions and topological circuits of short semi-flexible linear and ring polymer chains with a persistence length of l p under a spherical confinement of radius R c . At low values of l p /R c , the entropy of the linear chain leads to the formation of independent contacts along the chain and accordingly, increases the fraction of series topology with respect to other topologies. However, at high l p /R c , the fraction of cross and parallel topologies are enhanced in the chain topological circuits with cross becoming predominant. At an intermediate confining regime, we identify a critical value of l p /R c , at which all topological states have equal probability. Confinement thus equalizes the probability of more complex cross and parallel topologies to the level of the more simple, non-cooperative series topology. Moreover, our topology analysis reveals distinct behaviours for ring- and linear polymers under weak confinement; however, we find no difference between ring- and linear polymers under strong confinement. Under weak confinement, ring polymers adopt parallel and series topologies with equal likelihood, while linear polymers show a higher tendency for series arrangement. The radial distribution analysis of the topology reveals a non-uniform effect of confinement on the topology of polymer chains, thereby imposing more pronounced effects on the core region than on the confinement surface. Additionally, our results reveal that over a wide range of confining radii, loops arranged in parallel and cross

  18. Transcending binary logic by gating three coupled quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael; Rogge, S; Remacle, F; Levine, R D

    2007-09-01

    Physical considerations supported by numerical solution of the quantum dynamics including electron repulsion show that three weakly coupled quantum dots can robustly execute a complete set of logic gates for computing using three valued inputs and outputs. Input is coded as gating (up, unchanged, or down) of the terminal dots. A nanosecond time scale switching of the gate voltage requires careful numerical propagation of the dynamics. Readout is the charge (0, 1, or 2 electrons) on the central dot.

  19. Book Review: Computational Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Computational Topology by Herbert Edelsbrunner and John L. Harer. American Matheamtical Society, 2010 - ISBN 978-0-8218-4925-5......Computational Topology by Herbert Edelsbrunner and John L. Harer. American Matheamtical Society, 2010 - ISBN 978-0-8218-4925-5...

  20. Observation of elastic topological states in soft materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaifeng; Zhao, Degang; Niu, Hao; Zhu, Xuefeng; Zang, Jianfeng

    2018-04-10

    Topological elastic metamaterials offer insight into classic motion law and open up opportunities in quantum and classic information processing. Theoretical modeling and numerical simulation of elastic topological states have been reported, whereas the experimental observation remains relatively unexplored. Here we present an experimental observation and numerical simulation of tunable topological states in soft elastic metamaterials. The on-demand reversible switch in topological phase has been achieved by changing filling ratio, tension, and/or compression of the elastic metamaterials. By combining two elastic metamaterials with distinct topological invariants, we further demonstrate the formation and dynamic tunability of topological interface states by mechanical deformation, and the manipulation of elastic wave propagation. Moreover, we provide a topological phase diagram of elastic metamaterials under deformation. Our approach to dynamically control interface states in soft materials paves the way to various phononic systems involving thermal management and soft robotics requiring better use of energy.

  1. Topological massive sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we construct topological sigma models which include a potential and are related to twisted massive supersymmetric sigma models. Contrary to a previous construction these models have no central charge and do not require the manifold to admit a Killing vector. We use the topological massive sigma model constructed here to simplify the calculation of the observables. Lastly it is noted that this model can be viewed as interpolating between topological massless sigma models and topological Landau-Ginzburg models. ((orig.))

  2. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  3. Free Boolean Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Sipacheva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.

  4. Probing spin helical surface states in topological HgTe nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, J.; Kozlovsky, R.; Gorini, C.; Liu, M.-H.; Weishäupl, S.; Maier, H.; Fischer, R.; Kozlov, D. A.; Kvon, Z. D.; Mikhailov, N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Richter, K.; Weiss, D.

    2018-01-01

    Nanowires with helical surface states represent key prerequisites for observing and exploiting phase-coherent topological conductance phenomena, such as spin-momentum locked quantum transport or topological superconductivity. We demonstrate in a joint experimental and theoretical study that gated nanowires fabricated from high-mobility strained HgTe, known as a bulk topological insulator, indeed preserve the topological nature of the surface states, that moreover extend phase-coherently across the entire wire geometry. The phase-coherence lengths are enhanced up to 5 μ m when tuning the wires into the bulk gap, so as to single out topological transport. The nanowires exhibit distinct conductance oscillations, both as a function of the flux due to an axial magnetic field and of a gate voltage. The observed h /e -periodic Aharonov-Bohm-type modulations indicate surface-mediated quasiballistic transport. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the scaling of the observed gate-dependent conductance oscillations reveals the topological nature of these surface states. To this end we combined numerical tight-binding calculations of the quantum magnetoconductance with simulations of the electrostatics, accounting for the gate-induced inhomogeneous charge carrier densities around the wires. We find that helical transport prevails even for strongly inhomogeneous gating and is governed by flux-sensitive high-angular momentum surface states that extend around the entire wire circumference.

  5. Topological entropy of continuous functions on topological spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lei; Wang Yangeng; Wei Guo

    2009-01-01

    Adler, Konheim and McAndrew introduced the concept of topological entropy of a continuous mapping for compact dynamical systems. Bowen generalized the concept to non-compact metric spaces, but Walters indicated that Bowen's entropy is metric-dependent. We propose a new definition of topological entropy for continuous mappings on arbitrary topological spaces (compactness, metrizability, even axioms of separation not necessarily required), investigate fundamental properties of the new entropy, and compare the new entropy with the existing ones. The defined entropy generates that of Adler, Konheim and McAndrew and is metric-independent for metrizable spaces. Yet, it holds various basic properties of Adler, Konheim and McAndrew's entropy, e.g., the entropy of a subsystem is bounded by that of the original system, topologically conjugated systems have a same entropy, the entropy of the induced hyperspace system is larger than or equal to that of the original system, and in particular this new entropy coincides with Adler, Konheim and McAndrew's entropy for compact systems

  6. Synchronization in complex networks with switching topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Qing-guo

    2011-01-01

    This Letter investigates synchronization issues of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. By constructing a common Lyapunov function, we show that local and global synchronization for a linearly coupled network with switching topology can be evaluated by the time average of second smallest eigenvalues corresponding to the Laplacians of switching topology. This result is quite powerful and can be further used to explore various switching cases for complex dynamical networks. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results in the end. -- Highlights: → Synchronization of complex networks with switching topology is investigated. → A common Lyapunov function is established for synchronization of switching network. → The common Lyapunov function is not necessary to monotonically decrease with time. → Synchronization is determined by the second smallest eigenvalue of its Laplacian. → Synchronization criterion can be used to investigate various switching cases.

  7. Time-Space Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    A method for space-time topology optimization is outlined. The space-time optimization strategy produces structures with optimized material distributions that vary in space and in time. The method is demonstrated for one-dimensional wave propagation in an elastic bar that has a time-dependent Young......’s modulus and is subjected to a transient load. In the example an optimized dynamic structure is demonstrated that compresses a propagating Gauss pulse....

  8. A topological lens for a measure-preserving system

    OpenAIRE

    Glasner, Eli; Lemanczyk, Mariusz; Weiss, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a functor which associates to every measure preserving system (X,B,\\mu,T) a topological system (C_2(\\mu),\\tilde{T}) defined on the space of 2-fold couplings of \\mu, called the topological lens of T. We show that often the topological lens "magnifies" the basic measure dynamical properties of T in terms of the corresponding topological properties of \\tilde{T}. Some of our main results are as follows: (i) T is weakly mixing iff \\tilde{T} is topologically transitive (iff it is topol...

  9. Nonperturbative summation over 3D discrete topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Louapre, David

    2003-01-01

    The group field theories realizing the sum over all triangulations of all topologies of 3D discrete gravity amplitudes are known to be nonuniquely Borel summable. We modify these models to construct a new group field theory which is proved to be uniquely Borel summable, defining in an unambiguous way a nonperturbative sum over topologies in the context of 3D dynamical triangulations and spin foam models. Moreover, we give some arguments to support the fact that, despite our modification, this new model is similar to the original one, and therefore could be taken as a definition of the sum over topologies of 3D quantum gravity amplitudes

  10. Network topology analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, Jeffrey L.; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging high-bandwidth, low-latency network technology has made network-based architectures both feasible and potentially desirable for use in satellite payload architectures. The selection of network topology is a critical component when developing these multi-node or multi-point architectures. This study examines network topologies and their effect on overall network performance. Numerous topologies were reviewed against a number of performance, reliability, and cost metrics. This document identifies a handful of good network topologies for satellite applications and the metrics used to justify them as such. Since often multiple topologies will meet the requirements of the satellite payload architecture under development, the choice of network topology is not easy, and in the end the choice of topology is influenced by both the design characteristics and requirements of the overall system and the experience of the developer.

  11. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  12. Topological entropy of autonomous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    When studying fluid dynamics, especially in a turbulent regime, it is crucial to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom or of localized structures in the system. The topological entropy quantifies the exponential growth of the number of `distinct` orbits in a dynamical system as a function of their length, in the infinite spatial resolution limit. Here, I illustrate a novel method for its evaluation, which extends beyond maps and is applicable to any system, including autonomous flows: these are characterized by lack of a definite absolute time scale for the orbit lengths. (author) 8 refs.

  13. Pavement cells and the topology puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ross; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E; Hartley, Matthew; Grieneisen, Verônica A; Marée, Athanasius F M

    2017-12-01

    D'Arcy Thompson emphasised the importance of surface tension as a potential driving force in establishing cell shape and topology within tissues. Leaf epidermal pavement cells grow into jigsaw-piece shapes, highly deviating from such classical forms. We investigate the topology of developing Arabidopsis leaves composed solely of pavement cells. Image analysis of around 50,000 cells reveals a clear and unique topological signature, deviating from previously studied epidermal tissues. This topological distribution is established early during leaf development, already before the typical pavement cell shapes emerge, with topological homeostasis maintained throughout growth and unaltered between division and maturation zones. Simulating graph models, we identify a heuristic cellular division rule that reproduces the observed topology. Our parsimonious model predicts how and when cells effectively place their division plane with respect to their neighbours. We verify the predicted dynamics through in vivo tracking of 800 mitotic events, and conclude that the distinct topology is not a direct consequence of the jigsaw piece-like shape of the cells, but rather owes itself to a strongly life history-driven process, with limited impact from cell-surface mechanics. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. How to model wireless mesh networks topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanni, M L; Hashim, A A; Anwar, F; Ali, S; Ahmed, G S M

    2013-01-01

    The specification of network connectivity model or topology is the beginning of design and analysis in Computer Network researches. Wireless Mesh Networks is an autonomic network that is dynamically self-organised, self-configured while the mesh nodes establish automatic connectivity with the adjacent nodes in the relay network of wireless backbone routers. Researches in Wireless Mesh Networks range from node deployment to internetworking issues with sensor, Internet and cellular networks. These researches require modelling of relationships and interactions among nodes including technical characteristics of the links while satisfying the architectural requirements of the physical network. However, the existing topology generators model geographic topologies which constitute different architectures, thus may not be suitable in Wireless Mesh Networks scenarios. The existing methods of topology generation are explored, analysed and parameters for their characterisation are identified. Furthermore, an algorithm for the design of Wireless Mesh Networks topology based on square grid model is proposed in this paper. The performance of the topology generated is also evaluated. This research is particularly important in the generation of a close-to-real topology for ensuring relevance of design to the intended network and validity of results obtained in Wireless Mesh Networks researches

  15. From topology to geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhart, M.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic study of the charge density topologies corresponding to a number of transition metal aluminides with the B2 structure indicates that unstable crystal structures are sometimes associated with uncharacteristic topologies. This observation invites the speculation that the distance to a topological instability might relate to a metals phase behavior. Following this speculation, a metric is imposed on the topological theory of Bader, producing a geometrical theory, where it is now possible to assign a distance from a calculated charge density topology to a topological instability. For the cubic transition metals, these distances are shown to correlate with single crystal elastic constants, where the metals that are furthest from an instability are observed to be the stiffest. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  16. Topological mirror superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Kane, C L; Mele, E J

    2013-08-02

    We demonstrate the existence of topological superconductors (SCs) protected by mirror and time-reversal symmetries. D-dimensional (D=1, 2, 3) crystalline SCs are characterized by 2(D-1) independent integer topological invariants, which take the form of mirror Berry phases. These invariants determine the distribution of Majorana modes on a mirror symmetric boundary. The parity of total mirror Berry phase is the Z(2) index of a class DIII SC, implying that a DIII topological SC with a mirror line must also be a topological mirror SC but not vice versa and that a DIII SC with a mirror plane is always time-reversal trivial but can be mirror topological. We introduce representative models and suggest experimental signatures in feasible systems. Advances in quantum computing, the case for nodal SCs, the case for class D, and topological SCs protected by rotational symmetries are pointed out.

  17. Interactive Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten

    Interactivity is the continuous interaction between the user and the application to solve a task. Topology optimization is the optimization of structures in order to improve stiffness or other objectives. The goal of the thesis is to explore how topology optimization can be used in applications...... on theory of from human-computer interaction which is described in Chapter 2. Followed by a description of the foundations of topology optimization in Chapter 3. Our applications for topology optimization in 2D and 3D are described in Chapter 4 and a game which trains the human intuition of topology...... optimization is presented in Chapter 5. Topology optimization can also be used as an interactive modeling tool with local control which is presented in Chapter 6. Finally, Chapter 7 contains a summary of the findings and concludes the dissertation. Most of the presented applications of the thesis are available...

  18. Emergency Gate Vibration of the Pipe-Turbine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Predin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration behavior of an emergency gate situated on a horizontal-shaft Kaplan turbine is studied. The analysis and transfer of the dynamic movements of the gate are quite complex. In particular the behavior is examined of the emergency gate for the case when the power unit is disconnected from the system or there is a breakdown of the guide vane system at the moment when the maximal head and capacity are achieved. Experimental-numerical methods both in the time domain and in the frequency domain are employed. Natural vibrations characterize a first zone, corresponding to relatively small gate openings. As the gate opening increases, the vibration behavior of the gate becomes increasingly dependent on the swirl pulsations in the draft tube of the turbine. Finally, the data transfer from the model to the prototype by use of the dynamic similitude law is discussed.

  19. Topology of Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Siino, Masaru

    1997-01-01

    The topologies of event horizons are investigated. Considering the existence of the endpoint of the event horizon, it cannot be differentiable. Then there are the new possibilities of the topology of the event horizon though they are excluded in smooth event horizons. The relation between the topology of the event horizon and the endpoint of it is revealed. A torus event horizon is caused by two-dimensional endpoints. One-dimensional endpoints provide the coalescence of spherical event horizo...

  20. Topology optimization of flow problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates how to apply topology optimization using the material distribution technique to steady-state viscous incompressible flow problems. The target design applications are fluid devices that are optimized with respect to minimizing the energy loss, characteristic properties...... transport in 2D Stokes flow. Using Stokes flow limits the range of applications; nonetheless, the thesis gives a proof-of-concept for the application of the method within fluid dynamic problems and it remains of interest for the design of microfluidic devices. Furthermore, the thesis contributes...... at the Technical University of Denmark. Large topology optimization problems with 2D and 3D Stokes flow modeling are solved with direct and iterative strategies employing the parallelized Sun Performance Library and the OpenMP parallelization technique, respectively....

  1. Quantum topological entropy: First steps of a 'pedestrian' approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1991-01-01

    We introduce a notion of topological entropy for automorphisms of arbitrary (noncommutative, but unital) nuclear C * -algebras A, generalizing the 'classical' topological entropy for a homeomorphism T: X → X of an arbitrary (possibly connected) compact Hausdorff space X, where the generalization is of course understood in the sense that the latter topological dynamical system (with Z-action) is equivalently viewed as the C * -dynamical system given by the T-induced automorphism of the Abelian C * -algebra A = C(X) of (complex-valued) continuous functions on X. As a simple but basic example, we calculate our quantum topological entropy for shift automorphisms on AF algebras A associated with topological Markov chains (i.e. 'quantum topological' Markov chains); and also a real physical interpretation of our simple 'quantum probabilistic' entropy functionals is discussed (already in the introduction, anticipating the later definitions and results). (author)

  2. Topological nanophononic states by band inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmann, Martin; Lamberti, Fabrice Roland; Senellart, Pascale; Favero, Ivan; Krebs, Olivier; Lanco, Loïc; Gomez Carbonell, Carmen; Lemaître, Aristide; Lanzillotti-Kimura, Norberto Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Nanophononics is essential for the engineering of thermal transport in nanostructured electronic devices, it greatly facilitates the manipulation of mechanical resonators in the quantum regime, and it could unveil a new route in quantum communications using phonons as carriers of information. Acoustic phonons also constitute a versatile platform for the study of fundamental wave dynamics, including Bloch oscillations, Wannier-Stark ladders, and other localization phenomena. Many of the phenomena studied in nanophononics were inspired by their counterparts in optics and electronics. In these fields, the consideration of topological invariants to control wave dynamics has already had a great impact for the generation of robust confined states. Interestingly, the use of topological phases to engineer nanophononic devices remains an unexplored and promising field. Conversely, the use of acoustic phonons could constitute a rich platform to study topological states. Here, we introduce the concept of topological invariants to nanophononics and experimentally implement a nanophononic system supporting a robust topological interface state at 350 GHz. The state is constructed through band inversion, i.e., by concatenating two semiconductor superlattices with inverted spatial mode symmetries. The existence of this state is purely determined by the Zak phases of the constituent superlattices, i.e., the one-dimensional Berry phase. We experimentally evidenced the mode through Raman spectroscopy. The reported robust topological interface states could become part of nanophononic devices requiring resonant structures such as sensors or phonon lasers.

  3. Using heteroclinic orbits to quantify topological entropy in fluid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattari, Sulimon; Chen, Qianting; Mitchell, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Topological approaches to mixing are important tools to understand chaotic fluid flows, ranging from oceanic transport to the design of micro-mixers. Typically, topological entropy, the exponential growth rate of material lines, is used to quantify topological mixing. Computing topological entropy from the direct stretching rate is computationally expensive and sheds little light on the source of the mixing. Earlier approaches emphasized that topological entropy could be viewed as generated by the braiding of virtual, or “ghost,” rods stirring the fluid in a periodic manner. Here, we demonstrate that topological entropy can also be viewed as generated by the braiding of ghost rods following heteroclinic orbits instead. We use the machinery of homotopic lobe dynamics, which extracts symbolic dynamics from finite-length pieces of stable and unstable manifolds attached to fixed points of the fluid flow. As an example, we focus on the topological entropy of a bounded, chaotic, two-dimensional, double-vortex cavity flow. Over a certain parameter range, the topological entropy is primarily due to the braiding of a period-three orbit. However, this orbit does not explain the topological entropy for parameter values where it does not exist, nor does it explain the excess of topological entropy for the entire range of its existence. We show that braiding by heteroclinic orbits provides an accurate computation of topological entropy when the period-three orbit does not exist, and that it provides an explanation for some of the excess topological entropy when the period-three orbit does exist. Furthermore, the computation of symbolic dynamics using heteroclinic orbits has been automated and can be used to compute topological entropy for a general 2D fluid flow.

  4. $L$-Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bajravani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ‎By substituting the usual notion of open sets in a topological space $X$ with a suitable collection of maps from $X$ to a frame $L$, we introduce the notion of L-topological spaces. Then, we proceed to study the classical notions and properties of usual topological spaces to the newly defined mathematical notion. Our emphasis would be concentrated on the well understood classical connectedness, quotient and compactness notions, where we prove the Thychonoff's theorem and connectedness property for ultra product of $L$-compact and $L$-connected topological spaces, respectively.

  5. Elements of topology

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Tej Bahadur

    2013-01-01

    Topological SpacesMetric Spaces Topologies Derived Concepts Bases Subspaces Continuity and ProductsContinuityProduct TopologyConnectednessConnected Spaces Components Path-Connected Spaces Local ConnectivityConvergence Sequences Nets Filters Hausdorff SpacesCountability Axioms 1st and 2nd Countable Spaces Separable and Lindelöf SpacesCompactnessCompact Spaces Countably Compact Spaces Compact Metric Spaces Locally Compact Spaces Proper Maps Topological Constructions Quotient Spaces Identification Maps Cones, Suspensions and Joins Wedge Sums and Smash Products Adjunction Spaces Coherent Topologie

  6. Topological Gyroscopic Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Lisa Michelle

    Topological materials are generally insulating in their bulk, with protected conducting states on their boundaries that are robust against disorder and perturbation of material property. The existence of these conducting edge states is characterized by an integer topological invariant. Though the phenomenon was first discovered in electronic systems, recent years have shown that topological states exist in classical systems as well. In this thesis we are primarily concerned with the topological properties of gyroscopic materials, which are created by coupling networks of fast-spinning objects. Through a series of simulations, numerical calculations, and experiments, we show that these materials can support topological edge states. We find that edge states in these gyroscopic metamaterials bear the hallmarks of topology related to broken time reversal symmetry: they transmit excitations unidirectionally and are extremely robust against experimental disorder. We also explore requirements for topology by studying several lattice configurations and find that topology emerges naturally in gyroscopic systems.A simple prescription can be used to create many gyroscopic lattices. Though many of our gyroscopic networks are periodic, we explore amorphous point-sets and find that topology also emerges in these networks.

  7. Quantum gate decomposition algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepoy, Alexander

    2006-07-01

    Quantum computing algorithms can be conveniently expressed in a format of a quantum logical circuits. Such circuits consist of sequential coupled operations, termed ''quantum gates'', or quantum analogs of bits called qubits. We review a recently proposed method [1] for constructing general ''quantum gates'' operating on an qubits, as composed of a sequence of generic elementary ''gates''.

  8. General Topology of the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Aalok

    2002-01-01

    General topology of the universe is descibed. It is concluded that topology of the present universe is greater or stronger than the topology of the universe in the past and topology of the future universe will be stronger or greater than the present topology of the universe. Consequently, the universe remains unbounded.

  9. A topological derivative method for topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norato, J.; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Haber, RB

    2007-01-01

    resource constraint. A smooth and consistent projection of the region bounded by the level set onto the fictitious analysis domain simplifies the response analysis and enhances the convergence of the optimization algorithm. Moreover, the projection supports the reintroduction of solid material in void......We propose a fictitious domain method for topology optimization in which a level set of the topological derivative field for the cost function identifies the boundary of the optimal design. We describe a fixed-point iteration scheme that implements this optimality criterion subject to a volumetric...... regions, a critical requirement for robust topology optimization. We present several numerical examples that demonstrate compliance minimization of fixed-volume, linearly elastic structures....

  10. Topology optimization approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Topology optimization has undergone a tremendous development since its introduction in the seminal paper by Bendsøe and Kikuchi in 1988. By now, the concept is developing in many different directions, including “density”, “level set”, “topological derivative”, “phase field”, “evolutionary...

  11. Introduction to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Bert

    1990-01-01

    Highly regarded for its exceptional clarity, imaginative and instructive exercises, and fine writing style, this concise book offers an ideal introduction to the fundamentals of topology. It provides a simple, thorough survey of elementary topics, starting with set theory and advancing to metric and topological spaces, connectedness, and compactness. 1975 edition.

  12. Topology from Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-12-01

    If to each element x of a set X there corresponds a set B(x of subsets of X such that the properties VI, VII, VIII and VIV are satisfied, then there is a unique topological structure on X such that, for each x ∈ X, B(x is the set of neighborhoods of x in this topology.

  13. Formation of topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachaspati, T.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the formation of point and line topological defects (monopoles and strings) from a general point of view by allowing the probability of formation of a defect to vary. To investigate the statistical properties of the defects at formation we give qualitative arguments that are independent of any particular model in which such defects occur. These arguments are substantiated by numerical results in the case of strings and for monopoles in two dimensions. We find that the network of strings at formation undergoes a transition at a certain critical density below which there are no infinite strings and the closed-string (loop) distribution is exponentially suppressed at large lengths. The results are contrasted with the results of statistical arguments applied to a box of strings in dynamical equilibrium. We argue that if point defects were to form with smaller probability, the distance between monopoles and antimonopoles would decrease while the monopole-to-monopole distance would increase. We find that monopoles are always paired with antimonopoles but the pairing becomes clean only when the number density of defects is small. A similar reasoning would also apply to other defects

  14. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  15. Computational Power of Symmetry-Protected Topological Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, David T; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Prakash, Abhishodh; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Raussendorf, Robert

    2017-07-07

    We consider ground states of quantum spin chains with symmetry-protected topological (SPT) order as resources for measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC). We show that, for a wide range of SPT phases, the computational power of ground states is uniform throughout each phase. This computational power, defined as the Lie group of executable gates in MBQC, is determined by the same algebraic information that labels the SPT phase itself. We prove that these Lie groups always contain a full set of single-qubit gates, thereby affirming the long-standing conjecture that general SPT phases can serve as computationally useful phases of matter.

  16. Machine learning topological states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong-Ling; Li, Xiaopeng; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-11-01

    Artificial neural networks and machine learning have now reached a new era after several decades of improvement where applications are to explode in many fields of science, industry, and technology. Here, we use artificial neural networks to study an intriguing phenomenon in quantum physics—the topological phases of matter. We find that certain topological states, either symmetry-protected or with intrinsic topological order, can be represented with classical artificial neural networks. This is demonstrated by using three concrete spin systems, the one-dimensional (1D) symmetry-protected topological cluster state and the 2D and 3D toric code states with intrinsic topological orders. For all three cases, we show rigorously that the topological ground states can be represented by short-range neural networks in an exact and efficient fashion—the required number of hidden neurons is as small as the number of physical spins and the number of parameters scales only linearly with the system size. For the 2D toric-code model, we find that the proposed short-range neural networks can describe the excited states with Abelian anyons and their nontrivial mutual statistics as well. In addition, by using reinforcement learning we show that neural networks are capable of finding the topological ground states of nonintegrable Hamiltonians with strong interactions and studying their topological phase transitions. Our results demonstrate explicitly the exceptional power of neural networks in describing topological quantum states, and at the same time provide valuable guidance to machine learning of topological phases in generic lattice models.

  17. Signatures of Mechanosensitive Gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard G

    2017-01-10

    The question of how mechanically gated membrane channels open and close is notoriously difficult to address, especially if the protein structure is not available. This perspective highlights the relevance of micropipette-aspirated single-particle tracking-used to obtain a channel's diffusion coefficient, D, as a function of applied membrane tension, σ-as an indirect assay for determining functional behavior in mechanosensitive channels. While ensuring that the protein remains integral to the membrane, such methods can be used to identify not only the gating mechanism of a protein, but also associated physical moduli, such as torsional and dilational rigidity, which correspond to the protein's effective shape change. As an example, three distinct D-versus-σ "signatures" are calculated, corresponding to gating by dilation, gating by tilt, and gating by a combination of both dilation and tilt. Both advantages and disadvantages of the approach are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum and Classical Approaches in Graphene and Topological Insulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posvyanskiy, Vladimir

    mechanical study, this approach can give simple and pictorial explanation of the topological edge states. In our work we find the semiclassical orbits for the samples of different geometries and also discuss the influence of the quantum effects, the Berry phase, on the semiclassical electron dynamics....... Finally, we try to find the semiclassical mechanism responsible for topological protection of the edge states....

  19. Emerging Trends in Topological Insulators and Topological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tems can lead to a state that supports zero energy Majorana fermions .... orbital motion is a relativistic effect most pronounced in heavy ... 1D helical edge states appear within the gap with a linear disper- ... free fermion in 1D. .... less, and electrically neutral. ... to be used as a building block for the next generation topological.

  20. Quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Zou Yan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize coherent quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits. We first consider a hybrid system where a quantum dot (QD) is tunnel-coupled to a semiconductor Majorana-hosted nanowire (MNW) via using gated control as a switch, the information encoded in the superposition state of electron empty and occupied state can be transferred to each other through choosing the proper interaction time to make measurements. Then we consider another system including a double QDs and a pair of parallel MNWs, it is shown that the entanglement information transfer can be realized between the two kinds of systems. We also realize long distance quantum information transfer between two quantum dots separated by an MNW, by making use of the nonlocal fermionic level formed with the pared Majorana feimions (MFs) emerging at the two ends of the MNW. Furthermore, we analyze the teleportationlike electron transfer phenomenon predicted by Tewari et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 027001 (2008)] in our considered system. Interestingly, we find that this phenomenon exactly corresponds to the case that the information encoded in one QD just returns back to its original place during the dynamical evolution of the combined system from the perspective of quantum state transfer. (paper)

  1. Importance of being topologically excited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldi, D.G.

    1980-08-01

    A class of Euclidean configurations that appear to be dominant in the functional integral of the CP/sup N-1/ models is identified. These configurations are point-like topological excitations, and they may be viewed as constituents of instantons, although they are defined independently of instantons through a continuum duality transformation. Not only do these configurations survive as N → infinity, but in the plasma phase they are responsible for the effects encountered within the 1/N expansion - confinement, theta dependence, and dynamical mass generation

  2. Field programmable gate array-based real-time optical Doppler tomography system for in vivo imaging of cardiac dynamics in the chick embryo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht; Norozi, Kambiz

    2009-01-01

    efficient and compact implementation by combining the conversion to an analytic signal with a pulse shaping function without the need for extra resources as compared to the Hilbert transform method. The conversion of the analytic signal to amplitude and phase is done by use of the coordinate rotation......We demonstrate a field programmable gate-array-based real-time optical Doppler tomography system. A complex-valued bandpass filter is used for the first time in optical coherence tomography signal processing to create the analytic signal. This method simplifies the filter design, and allows...

  3. Acoustic topological insulator and robust one-way sound transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng; Ni, Xu; Ge, Hao; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Chen, Yan-Bin; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Topological design of materials enables topological symmetries and facilitates unique backscattering-immune wave transport. In airborne acoustics, however, the intrinsic longitudinal nature of sound polarization makes the use of the conventional spin-orbital interaction mechanism impossible for achieving band inversion. The topological gauge flux is then typically introduced with a moving background in theoretical models. Its practical implementation is a serious challenge, though, due to inherent dynamic instabilities and noise. Here we realize the inversion of acoustic energy bands at a double Dirac cone and provide an experimental demonstration of an acoustic topological insulator. By manipulating the hopping interaction of neighbouring ’atoms’ in this new topological material, we successfully demonstrate the acoustic quantum spin Hall effect, characterized by robust pseudospin-dependent one-way edge sound transport. Our results are promising for the exploration of new routes for experimentally studying topological phenomena and related applications, for example, sound-noise reduction.

  4. Realization of a topological phase transition in a gyroscopic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Noah P.; Nash, Lisa M.; Irvine, William T. M.

    2018-03-01

    Topological metamaterials exhibit unusual behaviors at their boundaries, such as unidirectional chiral waves, that are protected by a topological feature of their band structures. The ability to tune such a material through a topological phase transition in real time could enable the use of protected waves for information storage and readout. Here we dynamically tune through a topological phase transition by breaking inversion symmetry in a metamaterial composed of interacting gyroscopes. Through the transition, we track the divergence of the edge modes' localization length and the change in Chern number characterizing the topology of the material's band structure. This Rapid Communication provides a new axis with which to tune the response of mechanical topological metamaterials.

  5. Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment based on multilayer virtual topology and ant colony optimization in elastic software-defined optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Feng; Rao, Lan; Xin, Xiangjun

    2017-07-01

    Elastic software-defined optical networks greatly improve the flexibility of the optical switching network while it has brought challenges to the routing and spectrum assignment (RSA). A multilayer virtual topology model is proposed to solve RSA problems. Two RSA algorithms based on the virtual topology are proposed, which are the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm of minimum consecutiveness loss and the ACO algorithm of maximum spectrum consecutiveness. Due to the computing power of the control layer in the software-defined network, the routing algorithm avoids the frequent link-state information between routers. Based on the effect of the spectrum consecutiveness loss on the pheromone in the ACO, the path and spectrum of the minimal impact on the network are selected for the service request. The proposed algorithms have been compared with other algorithms. The results show that the proposed algorithms can reduce the blocking rate by at least 5% and perform better in spectrum efficiency. Moreover, the proposed algorithms can effectively decrease spectrum fragmentation and enhance available spectrum consecutiveness.

  6. Signatures of topological superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yang

    2017-07-19

    The prediction and experimental discovery of topological insulators brought the importance of topology in condensed matter physics into the limelight. Topology hence acts as a new dimension along which more and more new states of matter start to emerge. One of these topological states of matter, namely topological superconductors, comes into the focus because of their gapless excitations. These gapless excitations, especially in one dimensional topological superconductors, are Majorana zero modes localized at the ends of the superconductor and exhibit exotic nonabelian statistics, which can be potentially applied to fault-tolerant quantum computation. Given their highly interesting physical properties and potential applications to quantum computation, both theorists and experimentalists spend great efforts to realize topological supercondoctors and to detect Majoranas. In two projects within this thesis, we investigate the properties of Majorana zero modes in realistic materials which are absent in simple theoretical models. We find that the superconducting proximity effect, an essential ingredient in all existing platforms for topological superconductors, plays a significant role in determining the localization property of the Majoranas. Strong proximity coupling between the normal system and the superconducting substrate can lead to strongly localized Majoranas, which can explain the observation in a recent experiment. Motivated by experiments in Molenkamp's group, we also look at realistic quantum spin Hall Josephson junctions, in which charge puddles acting as magnetic impurities are coupled to the helical edge states. We find that with this setup, the junction generically realizes an exotic 8π periodic Josephson effect, which is absent in a pristine Josephson junction. In another two projects, we propose more pronounced signatures of Majoranas that are accessible with current experimental techniques. The first one is a transport measurement, which uses

  7. From geometry to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Flegg, H Graham

    2001-01-01

    This excellent introduction to topology eases first-year math students and general readers into the subject by surveying its concepts in a descriptive and intuitive way, attempting to build a bridge from the familiar concepts of geometry to the formalized study of topology. The first three chapters focus on congruence classes defined by transformations in real Euclidean space. As the number of permitted transformations increases, these classes become larger, and their common topological properties become intuitively clear. Chapters 4-12 give a largely intuitive presentation of selected topics.

  8. Duality and topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento, P. D.; Vieira, V. R.

    2018-04-01

    Mappings between models may be obtained by unitary transformations with preservation of the spectra but in general a change in the states. Non-canonical transformations in general also change the statistics of the operators involved. In these cases one may expect a change of topological properties as a consequence of the mapping. Here we consider some dualities resulting from mappings, by systematically using a Majorana fermion representation of spin and fermionic problems. We focus on the change of topological invariants that results from unitary transformations taking as examples the mapping between a spin system and a topological superconductor, and between different fermionic systems.

  9. Algebraic topology and concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Raussen, Martin; Goubault, Eric

    2006-01-01

    We show in this article that some concepts from homotopy theory, in algebraic topology,are relevant for studying concurrent programs. We exhibit a natural semantics of semaphore programs, based on partially ordered topological spaces, which are studied up to “elastic deformation” or homotopy...... differences between ordinary and directed homotopy through examples. We also relate the topological view to a combinatorial view of concurrent programs closer to transition systems, through the notion of a cubical set. Finally we apply some of these concepts to the proof of the safeness of a two...

  10. Topology general & algebraic

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, D

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: This book provides exposition of the subject both in its general and algebraic aspects. It deals with the notions of topological spaces, compactness, connectedness, completeness including metrizability and compactification, algebraic aspects of topological spaces through homotopy groups and homology groups. It begins with the basic notions of topological spaces but soon going beyond them reaches the domain of algebra through the notions of homotopy, homology and cohomology. How these approaches work in harmony is the subject matter of this book. The book finally arrives at the

  11. Topological pregauge-pregeometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Keiichi; Oda, Ichiro.

    1990-12-01

    The pregauge-pregeometric action, i.e. the fundamental matter action whose quantum fluctuations give rise to the Einstein-Hilbert and the Yang-Mills actions is investigated from the viewpoint of the topological field theory. We show that the scalar pregauge-pregeometric action is a topological invariant for appropriate choices of the internal gauge group. This model realizes the picture that the gravitational and internal gauge theory at the low energy scale is induced as the quantum effects of the topological field theory at the Planck scale. (author)

  12. Elementary topology problem textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Viro, O Ya; Netsvetaev, N Yu; Kharlamov, V M

    2008-01-01

    This textbook on elementary topology contains a detailed introduction to general topology and an introduction to algebraic topology via its most classical and elementary segment centered at the notions of fundamental group and covering space. The book is tailored for the reader who is determined to work actively. The proofs of theorems are separated from their formulations and are gathered at the end of each chapter. This makes the book look like a pure problem book and encourages the reader to think through each formulation. A reader who prefers a more traditional style can either find the pr

  13. Trees and spatial topology change in CDT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Budd, Timothy George

    2013-01-01

    Generalized causal dynamical triangulations (generalized CDT) is a model of two-dimensional quantum gravity in which a limited number of spatial topology changes is allowed to occur. We solve the model at the discretized level using bijections between quadrangulations and trees. In the continuum...

  14. Neural Dynamics of Autistic Repetitive Behaviors and Fragile X Syndrome: Basal Ganglia Movement Gating and mGluR-Modulated Adaptively Timed Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Kishnan, Devika

    2018-01-01

    This article develops the iSTART neural model that proposes how specific imbalances in cognitive, emotional, timing, and motor processes that involve brain regions like prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum may interact together to cause behavioral symptoms of autism. These imbalances include underaroused emotional depression in the amygdala/hypothalamus, learning of hyperspecific recognition categories that help to cause narrowly focused attention in temporal and prefrontal cortices, and breakdowns of adaptively timed motivated attention and motor circuits in the hippocampus and cerebellum. The article expands the model's explanatory range by, first, explaining recent data about Fragile X syndrome (FXS), mGluR, and trace conditioning; and, second, by explaining distinct causes of stereotyped behaviors in individuals with autism. Some of these stereotyped behaviors, such as an insistence on sameness and circumscribed interests, may result from imbalances in the cognitive and emotional circuits that iSTART models. These behaviors may be ameliorated by operant conditioning methods. Other stereotyped behaviors, such as repetitive motor behaviors, may result from imbalances in how the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia open or close movement gates, respectively. These repetitive behaviors may be ameliorated by drugs that augment D2 dopamine receptor responses or reduce D1 dopamine receptor responses. The article also notes the ubiquitous role of gating by basal ganglia loops in regulating all the functions that iSTART models.

  15. Neural Dynamics of Autistic Repetitive Behaviors and Fragile X Syndrome: Basal Ganglia Movement Gating and mGluR-Modulated Adaptively Timed Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Grossberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article develops the iSTART neural model that proposes how specific imbalances in cognitive, emotional, timing, and motor processes that involve brain regions like prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum may interact together to cause behavioral symptoms of autism. These imbalances include underaroused emotional depression in the amygdala/hypothalamus, learning of hyperspecific recognition categories that help to cause narrowly focused attention in temporal and prefrontal cortices, and breakdowns of adaptively timed motivated attention and motor circuits in the hippocampus and cerebellum. The article expands the model’s explanatory range by, first, explaining recent data about Fragile X syndrome (FXS, mGluR, and trace conditioning; and, second, by explaining distinct causes of stereotyped behaviors in individuals with autism. Some of these stereotyped behaviors, such as an insistence on sameness and circumscribed interests, may result from imbalances in the cognitive and emotional circuits that iSTART models. These behaviors may be ameliorated by operant conditioning methods. Other stereotyped behaviors, such as repetitive motor behaviors, may result from imbalances in how the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia open or close movement gates, respectively. These repetitive behaviors may be ameliorated by drugs that augment D2 dopamine receptor responses or reduce D1 dopamine receptor responses. The article also notes the ubiquitous role of gating by basal ganglia loops in regulating all the functions that iSTART models.

  16. Optical XOR gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2013-11-12

    An optical XOR gate is formed as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) from two sets of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each set of the optical waveguide devices including an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical XOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs to generate an XOR function digital optical output. The optical XOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  17. Controlling the layer localization of gapless states in bilayer graphene with a gate voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskólski, W.; Pelc, M.; Bryant, Garnett W.; Chico, Leonor; Ayuela, A.

    2018-04-01

    Experiments in gated bilayer graphene with stacking domain walls present topological gapless states protected by no-valley mixing. Here we research these states under gate voltages using atomistic models, which allow us to elucidate their origin. We find that the gate potential controls the layer localization of the two states, which switches non-trivially between layers depending on the applied gate voltage magnitude. We also show how these bilayer gapless states arise from bands of single-layer graphene by analyzing the formation of carbon bonds between layers. Based on this analysis we provide a model Hamiltonian with analytical solutions, which explains the layer localization as a function of the ratio between the applied potential and interlayer hopping. Our results open a route for the manipulation of gapless states in electronic devices, analogous to the proposed writing and reading memories in topological insulators.

  18. Topology optimized microbioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäpper, Daniel; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the fusion of two hitherto unrelated fields—microbioreactors and topology optimization. The basis for this study is a rectangular microbioreactor with homogeneously distributed immobilized brewers yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that produce a recombinant protein...

  19. Real topological string amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, K.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Piazzalunga, N. [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3636 (United States); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy); Tanzini, A. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G{sub χ}, at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g{sup ′}=−χ+1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F{sub g}.

  20. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  1. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  2. Contact and symplectic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Vincent; Stipsicz, András

    2014-01-01

    Symplectic and contact geometry naturally emerged from the mathematical description of classical physics. The discovery of new rigidity phenomena and properties satisfied by these geometric structures launched a new research field worldwide. The intense activity of many European research groups in this field is reflected by the ESF Research Networking Programme "Contact And Symplectic Topology" (CAST). The lectures of the Summer School in Nantes (June 2011) and of the CAST Summer School in Budapest (July 2012) provide a nice panorama of many aspects of the present status of contact and symplectic topology. The notes of the minicourses offer a gentle introduction to topics which have developed in an amazing speed in the recent past. These topics include 3-dimensional and higher dimensional contact topology, Fukaya categories, asymptotically holomorphic methods in contact topology, bordered Floer homology, embedded contact homology, and flexibility results for Stein manifolds.

  3. Topology for analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wilansky, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Three levels of examples and problems make this volume appropriate for students and professionals. Abundant exercises, ordered and numbered by degree of difficulty, illustrate important topological concepts. 1970 edition.

  4. Fall Foliage Topology Seminars

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This book demonstrates the lively interaction between algebraic topology, very low dimensional topology and combinatorial group theory. Many of the ideas presented are still in their infancy, and it is hoped that the work here will spur others to new and exciting developments. Among the many techniques disussed are the use of obstruction groups to distinguish certain exact sequences and several graph theoretic techniques with applications to the theory of groups.

  5. Large scale genomic reorganization of topological domains at the HoxD locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Pierre J; Leleu, Marion; Mormann, Benjamin H; Lopez-Delisle, Lucille; Noordermeer, Daan; Beccari, Leonardo; Duboule, Denis

    2017-08-07

    The transcriptional activation of HoxD genes during mammalian limb development involves dynamic interactions with two topologically associating domains (TADs) flanking the HoxD cluster. In particular, the activation of the most posterior HoxD genes in developing digits is controlled by regulatory elements located in the centromeric TAD (C-DOM) through long-range contacts. To assess the structure-function relationships underlying such interactions, we measured compaction levels and TAD discreteness using a combination of chromosome conformation capture (4C-seq) and DNA FISH. We assessed the robustness of the TAD architecture by using a series of genomic deletions and inversions that impact the integrity of this chromatin domain and that remodel long-range contacts. We report multi-partite associations between HoxD genes and up to three enhancers. We find that the loss of native chromatin topology leads to the remodeling of TAD structure following distinct parameters. Our results reveal that the recomposition of TAD architectures after large genomic re-arrangements is dependent on a boundary-selection mechanism in which CTCF mediates the gating of long-range contacts in combination with genomic distance and sequence specificity. Accordingly, the building of a recomposed TAD at this locus depends on distinct functional and constitutive parameters.

  6. Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.

  7. Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2016-05-27

    Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.

  8. Topological organization of (low-dimensional) chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufillaro, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress toward classifying low-dimensional chaos measured from time series data is described. This classification theory assigns a template to the time series once the time series is embedded in three dimensions. The template describes the primary folding and stretching mechanisms of phase space responsible for the chaotic motion. Topological invariants of the unstable periodic orbits in the closure of the strange set are calculated from the (reconstructed) template. These topological invariants must be consistent with ampersand ny model put forth to describe the time series data, and are useful in invalidating (or gaining confidence in) any model intended to describe the dynamical system generating the time series

  9. Topological Coherent Modes in Trapped Bose Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.; Marzlin, K.-P.; Yukalova, E.P.; Bagnato, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    The report reviews the problem of topological coherent modes, which are nonlinear collective states of Bose-condensed atoms. Such modes can be generated by means of alternating external fields, whose frequencies are in resonance with the transition frequencies between the related modes. The Bose gas with generated topological coherent modes is a collective nonlinear analog of a resonant atom. Such systems exhibit a variety of nontrivial effects, e.g. interference fringes, interference current, mode locking, dynamic transitions, critical phenomena, chaotic motion, harmonic generation, parametric conversion, atomic squeezing, and entanglement production

  10. Three-dimensional topological insulators and bosonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Andrea [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Randellini, Enrico [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Sisti, Jacopo [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA),Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-05-25

    Massless excitations at the surface of three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators possess both fermionic and bosonic descriptions, originating from band theory and hydrodynamic BF theory, respectively. We analyze the corresponding field theories of the Dirac fermion and compactified boson and compute their partition functions on the three-dimensional torus geometry. We then find some non-dynamic exact properties of bosonization in (2+1) dimensions, regarding fermion parity and spin sectors. Using these results, we extend the Fu-Kane-Mele stability argument to fractional topological insulators in three dimensions.

  11. Bistable Topological Insulator with Exciton-Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Skryabin, Dmitry V.

    2017-12-01

    The functionality of many nonlinear and quantum optical devices relies on the effect of optical bistability. Using microcavity exciton-polaritons in a honeycomb arrangement of microcavity pillars, we report the resonance response and bistability of topological edge states. A balance between the pump, loss, and nonlinearity ensures a broad range of dynamical stability and controls the distribution of power between counterpropagating states on the opposite edges of the honeycomb lattice stripe. Tuning energy and polarization of the pump photons, while keeping their momentum constant, we demonstrate control of the propagation direction of the dominant edge state. Our results facilitate the development of practical applications of topological photonics.

  12. Phase coherent transport in hybrid superconductor-topological insulator devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Aaron

    2015-03-01

    Heterostructures of superconductors and topological insulators are predicted to host unusual zero energy bound states known as Majorana fermions, which can robustly store and process quantum information. Here, I will discuss our studies of such heterostructures through phase-coherent transport, which can act as a unique probe of Majorana fermions. We have extensively explored topological insulator Josephson junctions through SQUID and single-junction diffraction patterns, whose unusual behavior give evidence for low-energy Andreev bound states. In topological insulator devices with closely spaced normal and superconducting leads, we observe prominent Fabry-Perot oscillations, signifying gate-tunable, quasi-ballistic transport that can elegantly interact with Andreev reflection. Superconducting disks deposited on the surface of a topological insulator generate Aharonov-Bohm-like oscillations, giving evidence for unusual states lying near the interface between the superconductor and topological insulator surface. Our results point the way towards sophisticated interferometers that can detect and read out the state of Majorana fermions in topological systems. This work was done in collaboration with Cihan Kurter, Yew San Hor, and Dale Van Harlingen. We acknowledge funding from Microsoft Project Q.

  13. Observation of symmetry-protected topological band with ultracold fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Zhang, Long; He, Chengdong; Poon, Ting Fung Jeffrey; Hajiyev, Elnur; Zhang, Shanchao; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Jo, Gyu-Boong

    2018-01-01

    Symmetry plays a fundamental role in understanding complex quantum matter, particularly in classifying topological quantum phases, which have attracted great interests in the recent decade. An outstanding example is the time-reversal invariant topological insulator, a symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phase in the symplectic class of the Altland-Zirnbauer classification. We report the observation for ultracold atoms of a noninteracting SPT band in a one-dimensional optical lattice and study quench dynamics between topologically distinct regimes. The observed SPT band can be protected by a magnetic group and a nonlocal chiral symmetry, with the band topology being measured via Bloch states at symmetric momenta. The topology also resides in far-from-equilibrium spin dynamics, which are predicted and observed in experiment to exhibit qualitatively distinct behaviors in quenching to trivial and nontrivial regimes, revealing two fundamental types of spin-relaxation dynamics related to bulk topology. This work opens the way to expanding the scope of SPT physics with ultracold atoms and studying nonequilibrium quantum dynamics in these exotic systems. PMID:29492457

  14. Some Aspects of Mathematical and Physical Approaches for Topological Quantum Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kantser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm to build a quantum computer, based on topological invariants is highlighted. The identities in the ensemble of knots, links and braids originally discovered in relation to topological quantum field theory are shown: how they define Artin braid group -- the mathematical basis of topological quantum computation (TQC. Vector spaces of TQC correspond to associated strings of particle interactions, and TQC operates its calculations on braided strings of special physical quasiparticles -- anyons -- with non-Abelian statistics. The physical platform of TQC is to use the topological quantum numbers of such small groups of anyons as qubits and to perform operations on these qubits by exchanging the anyons, both within the groups that form the qubits and, for multi-qubit gates, between groups. By braiding two or more anyons, they acquire up a topological phase or Berry phase similar to that found in the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Topological matter such as fractional quantum Hall systems and novel discovered topological insulators open the way to form system of anyons -- Majorana fermions -- with the unique property of encoding and processing quantum information in a naturally fault-tolerant way. In the topological insulators, due to its fundamental attribute of topological surface state occurrence of the bound, Majorana fermions are generated at its heterocontact with superconductors. One of the key operations of TQC -- braiding of non-Abelian anyons: it is illustrated how it can be implemented in one-dimensional topological isolator wire networks.

  15. An evaluation of gating window size, delivery method, and composite field dosimetry of respiratory-gated IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Solberg, Timothy D.

    2002-01-01

    A respiratory gating system has been developed based on a commercial patient positioning system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the ability of the gating system to reproduce normal, nongated IMRT operation and to quantify the errors produced by delivering a nongated IMRT treatment onto a moving target. A moving phantom capable of simultaneous two-dimensional motion was built, and an analytical liver motion function was used to drive the phantom. Studies were performed to assess the effect of gating window size and choice of delivery method (segmented and dynamic multileaf collimation). Additionally, two multiple field IMRT cases were delivered to quantify the error in gated and nongated IMRT with motion. Dosimetric error between nonmoving and moving deliveries is related to gating window size. By reducing the window size, the error can be reduced. Delivery error can be reduced for both dynamic and segmented delivery with gating. For the implementation of dynamic IMRT delivery in this study, dynamic delivery was found to generate larger delivery errors than segmented delivery in most cases studied. For multiple field IMRT delivery, the largest errors were generated in regions where high field modulation was present parallel to the axis of motion. Gating was found to reduce these large errors to clinically acceptable levels

  16. Topology optimization using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2005-01-01

    in this presentation is focused on a prototype model for topology optimization of steady heat diffusion. This allows for a study of the basic ingredients in working with FVM methods when dealing with topology optimization problems. The FVM and FEM based formulations differ both in how one computes the design...... derivative of the system matrix $\\mathbf K$ and in how one computes the discretized version of certain objective functions. Thus for a cost function for minimum dissipated energy (like minimum compliance for an elastic structure) one obtains an expression $ c = \\mathbf u^\\T \\tilde{\\mathbf K} \\mathbf u...... the arithmetic and harmonic average with the latter being the well known Reuss lower bound. [1] Bendsøe, MP and Sigmund, O 2004: Topology Optimization - Theory, Methods, and Applications. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag [2] Versteeg, HK and Malalasekera, W 1995: An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics...

  17. Topology optimization using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in this presentation is focused on a prototype model for topology optimization of steady heat diffusion. This allows for a study of the basic ingredients in working with FVM methods when dealing with topology optimization problems. The FVM and FEM based formulations differ both in how one computes the design...... derivative of the system matrix K and in how one computes the discretized version of certain objective functions. Thus for a cost function for minimum dissipated energy (like minimum compliance for an elastic structure) one obtains an expression c = u^\\T \\tilde{K}u $, where \\tilde{K} is different from K...... the well known Reuss lower bound. [1] Bendsøe, M.P.; Sigmund, O. 2004: Topology Optimization - Theory, Methods, and Applications. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag [2] Versteeg, H. K.; W. Malalasekera 1995: An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: the Finite Volume Method. London: Longman...

  18. Chimera states: Effects of different coupling topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Bidesh K.; Majhi, Soumen; Ghosh, Dibakar; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-04-01

    Collective behavior among coupled dynamical units can emerge in various forms as a result of different coupling topologies as well as different types of coupling functions. Chimera states have recently received ample attention as a fascinating manifestation of collective behavior, in particular describing a symmetry breaking spatiotemporal pattern where synchronized and desynchronized states coexist in a network of coupled oscillators. In this perspective, we review the emergence of different chimera states, focusing on the effects of different coupling topologies that describe the interaction network connecting the oscillators. We cover chimera states that emerge in local, nonlocal and global coupling topologies, as well as in modular, temporal and multilayer networks. We also provide an outline of challenges and directions for future research.

  19. Countable Fuzzy Topological Space and Countable Fuzzy Topological Vector Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apu Kumar Saha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with countable fuzzy topological spaces, a generalization of the notion of fuzzy topological spaces. A collection of fuzzy sets F on a universe X forms a countable fuzzy topology if in the definition of a fuzzy topology, the condition of arbitrary supremum is relaxed to countable supremum. In this generalized fuzzy structure, the continuity of fuzzy functions and some other related properties are studied. Also the class of countable fuzzy topological vector spaces as a generalization of the class of fuzzy topological vector spaces has been introduced and investigated.

  20. Decoherence patterns of topological qubits from Majorana modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shih-Hao; Chao, Sung-Po; Chou, Chung-Hsien; Lin, Feng-Li

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the decoherence patterns of topological qubits in contact with the environment using a novel way of deriving the open system dynamics, rather than using the Feynman–Vernon approach. Each topological qubit is made up of two Majorana modes of a 1D Kitaev chain. These two Majorana modes interact with the environment in an incoherent way which yields peculiar decoherence patterns of the topological qubit. More specifically, we consider the open system dynamics of topological qubits which are weakly coupled to fermionic/bosonic Ohmic-like environments. We find atypical patterns of quantum decoherence. In contrast to the case for non-topological qubits—which always decohere completely in all Ohmic-like environments—topological qubits decohere completely in Ohmic and sub-Ohmic environments but not in super-Ohmic ones. Moreover, we find that the fermion parities of the topological qubits, though they cannot prevent the qubit states from exhibiting decoherence in sub-Ohmic environments, can prevent thermalization turning the state into a Gibbs state. We also study the cases in which each Majorana mode can couple to different Ohmic-like environments, and the time dependence of concurrence for two topological qubits. (paper)

  1. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Ilten, Philip; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays. (paper)

  2. p-topological Cauchy completions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wig

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The duality between “regular” and “topological” as convergence space properties extends in a natural way to the more general properties “p-regular” and “p-topological.” Since earlier papers have investigated regular, p-regular, and topological Cauchy completions, we hereby initiate a study of p-topological Cauchy completions. A p-topological Cauchy space has a p-topological completion if and only if it is “cushioned,” meaning that each equivalence class of nonconvergent Cauchy filters contains a smallest filter. For a Cauchy space allowing a p-topological completion, it is shown that a certain class of Reed completions preserve the p-topological property, including the Wyler and Kowalsky completions, which are, respectively, the finest and the coarsest p-topological completions. However, not all p-topological completions are Reed completions. Several extension theorems for p-topological completions are obtained. The most interesting of these states that any Cauchy-continuous map between Cauchy spaces allowing p-topological and p′-topological completions, respectively, can always be extended to a θ-continuous map between any p-topological completion of the first space and any p′-topological completion of the second.

  3. Mechanical Model of Geometric Cell and Topological Algorithm for Cell Dynamics from Single-Cell to Formation of Monolayered Tissues with Pattern

    KAUST Repository

    Kachalo, Së ma; Naveed, Hammad; Cao, Youfang; Zhao, Jieling; Liang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    development, and other emerging behavior. Here we describe a cell model and an efficient geometric algorithm for studying the dynamic process of tissue formation in 2D (e.g. epithelial tissues). Our approach improves upon previous methods by incorporating

  4. Interaction between counter-propagating quantum Hall edge channels in the 3D topological insulator BiSbTeSe2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C.; De Ronde, B.; Nikitin, A.; Huang, Y.; Golden, M.S.; De Visser, A.; Brinkman, A.

    2017-01-01

    The quantum Hall effect is studied in the topological insulator BiSbTeSe2. By employing top- and back-gate electric fields at high magnetic field, the Landau levels of the Dirac cones in the top and bottom topological surface states can be tuned independently. When one surface is tuned to the

  5. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show...

  6. The Topological Vertex

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2005-01-01

    We construct a cubic field theory which provides all genus amplitudes of the topological A-model for all non-compact Calabi-Yau toric threefolds. The topology of a given Feynman diagram encodes the topology of a fixed Calabi-Yau, with Schwinger parameters playing the role of Kahler classes of Calabi-Yau. We interpret this result as an operator computation of the amplitudes in the B-model mirror which is the Kodaira-Spencer quantum theory. The only degree of freedom of this theory is an unconventional chiral scalar on a Riemann surface. In this setup we identify the B-branes on the mirror Riemann surface as fermions related to the chiral boson by bosonization.

  7. Riemann, topology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michael I

    2008-01-01

    This significantly expanded second edition of Riemann, Topology, and Physics combines a fascinating account of the life and work of Bernhard Riemann with a lucid discussion of current interaction between topology and physics. The author, a distinguished mathematical physicist, takes into account his own research at the Riemann archives of Göttingen University and developments over the last decade that connect Riemann with numerous significant ideas and methods reflected throughout contemporary mathematics and physics. Special attention is paid in part one to results on the Riemann–Hilbert problem and, in part two, to discoveries in field theory and condensed matter such as the quantum Hall effect, quasicrystals, membranes with nontrivial topology, "fake" differential structures on 4-dimensional Euclidean space, new invariants of knots and more. In his relatively short lifetime, this great mathematician made outstanding contributions to nearly all branches of mathematics; today Riemann’s name appears prom...

  8. Knot topology in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, L.P.; Zhang, P.M.; Pak, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    We consider topological structure of classical vacuum solutions in quantum chromodynamics. Topologically non-equivalent vacuum configurations are classified by non-trivial second and third homotopy groups for coset of the color group SU(N) (N=2,3) under the action of maximal Abelian stability group. Starting with explicit vacuum knot configurations we study possible exact classical solutions. Exact analytic non-static knot solution in a simple CP 1 model in Euclidean space–time has been obtained. We construct an ansatz based on knot and monopole topological vacuum structure for searching new solutions in SU(2) and SU(3) QCD. We show that singular knot-like solutions in QCD in Minkowski space–time can be naturally obtained from knot solitons in integrable CP 1 models. A family of Skyrme type low energy effective theories of QCD admitting exact analytic solutions with non-vanishing Hopf charge is proposed

  9. Topology of tiling spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Sadun, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Aperiodic tilings are interesting to mathematicians and scientists for both theoretical and practical reasons. The serious study of aperiodic tilings began as a solution to a problem in logic. Simpler aperiodic tilings eventually revealed hidden "symmetries" that were previously considered impossible, while the tilings themselves were quite striking. The discovery of quasicrystals showed that such aperiodicity actually occurs in nature and led to advances in materials science. Many properties of aperiodic tilings can be discerned by studying one tiling at a time. However, by studying families of tilings, further properties are revealed. This broader study naturally leads to the topology of tiling spaces. This book is an introduction to the topology of tiling spaces, with a target audience of graduate students who wish to learn about the interface of topology with aperiodic order. It isn't a comprehensive and cross-referenced tome about everything having to do with tilings, which would be too big, too hard to ...

  10. Topology, calculus and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Komornik, Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Presenting basic results of topology, calculus of several variables, and approximation theory which are rarely treated in a single volume, this textbook includes several beautiful, but almost forgotten, classical theorems of Descartes, Erdős, Fejér, Stieltjes, and Turán. The exposition style of Topology, Calculus and Approximation follows the Hungarian mathematical tradition of Paul Erdős and others. In the first part, the classical results of Alexandroff, Cantor, Hausdorff, Helly, Peano, Radon, Tietze and Urysohn illustrate the theories of metric, topological and normed spaces. Following this, the general framework of normed spaces and Carathéodory's definition of the derivative are shown to simplify the statement and proof of various theorems in calculus and ordinary differential equations. The third and final part is devoted to interpolation, orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration, asymptotic expansions and the numerical solution of algebraic and differential equations. Students of both pure an...

  11. Algebraic topology a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Deo, Satya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first concepts of the topics in algebraic topology such as the general simplicial complexes, simplicial homology theory, fundamental groups, covering spaces and singular homology theory in greater detail. Originally published in 2003, this book has become one of the seminal books. Now, in the completely revised and enlarged edition, the book discusses the rapidly developing field of algebraic topology. Targeted to undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics, the prerequisite for this book is minimal knowledge of linear algebra, group theory and topological spaces. The book discusses about the relevant concepts and ideas in a very lucid manner, providing suitable motivations and illustrations. All relevant topics are covered, including the classical theorems like the Brouwer’s fixed point theorem, Lefschetz fixed point theorem, Borsuk-Ulam theorem, Brouwer’s separation theorem and the theorem on invariance of the domain. Most of the exercises are elementary, but sometimes chal...

  12. Topological and non-topological soliton solutions to some time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Topological and non-topological soliton solutions to some time-fractional differential equations ... These equations have been widely applied in many branches of nonlinear ... Department of Engineering Sciences, Faculty of Technology and ...

  13. Dirichlet topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.M.; Trodden, M.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a class of field theories featuring solitonic solutions in which topological defects can end when they intersect other defects of equal or higher dimensionality. Such configurations may be termed open-quotes Dirichlet topological defects,close quotes in analogy with the D-branes of string theory. Our discussion focuses on defects in scalar field theories with either gauge or global symmetries, in 3+1 dimensions; the types of defects considered include walls ending on walls, strings on walls, and strings on strings. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  14. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  15. CFT and topological recursion

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    We study the quasiclassical expansion associated with a complex curve. In a more specific context this is the 1/N expansion in U(N)-invariant matrix integrals. We compare two approaches, the CFT approach and the topological recursion, and show their equivalence. The CFT approach reformulates the problem in terms of a conformal field theory on a Riemann surface, while the topological recursion is based on a recurrence equation for the observables representing symplectic invariants on the complex curve. The two approaches lead to two different graph expansions, one of which can be obtained as a partial resummation of the other.

  16. Topology from Neighbourhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    Using Mizar [9], and the formal topological space structure (FMT_Space_Str) [19], we introduce the three U-FMT conditions (U-FMT filter, U-FMT with point and U-FMT local) similar to those VI, VII, VIII and VIV of the proposition 2 in [10]: If to each element x of a set X there corresponds a set B(x) of subsets of X such that the properties VI, VII, VIII and VIV are satisfied, then there is a unique topological structure on X such that, for each x ∈ X, B(x) is the set of neighborhoods of x ...

  17. Topology in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, M I

    2006-01-01

    This book reports new results in condensed matter physics for which topological methods and ideas are important. It considers, on the one hand, recently discovered systems such as carbon nanocrystals and, on the other hand, new topological methods used to describe more traditional systems such as the Fermi surfaces of normal metals, liquid crystals and quasicrystals. The authors of the book are renowned specialists in their fields and present the results of ongoing research, some of it obtained only very recently and not yet published in monograph form.

  18. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  19. Stochastic quantization and topological theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, V.Y.; Subbotin, A.V.; Kuznetsov, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    In the last two years topological quantum field theories (TQFT) have attached much attention. This paper reports that from the very beginning it was realized that due to a peculiar BRST-like symmetry these models admitted so-called Nicolai mapping: the Nicolai variables, in terms of which actions of the theories become gaussian, are nothing but (anti-) selfduality conditions or their generalizations. This fact became a starting point in the quest of possible stochastic interpretation to topological field theories. The reasons behind were quite simple and included, in particular, the well-known relations between stochastic processes and supersymmetry. The main goal would have been achieved, if it were possible to construct stochastic processes governed by Langevin or Fokker-Planck equations in a real Euclidean time leading to TQFT's path integrals (equivalently: to reformulate TQFTs as non-equilibrium phase dynamics of stochastic processes). Further on, if it would appear that these processes correspond to the stochastic quantization of theories of some definite kind, one could expect (d + 1)-dimensional TQFTs to share some common properties with d-dimensional ones

  20. Amplifying genetic logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew

    2013-05-03

    Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.

  1. A role for chromatin topology in imprinted domain regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, William A; Sachani, Saqib S; White, Carlee R; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2016-02-01

    Recently, many advancements in genome-wide chromatin topology and nuclear architecture have unveiled the complex and hidden world of the nucleus, where chromatin is organized into discrete neighbourhoods with coordinated gene expression. This includes the active and inactive X chromosomes. Using X chromosome inactivation as a working model, we utilized publicly available datasets together with a literature review to gain insight into topologically associated domains, lamin-associated domains, nucleolar-associating domains, scaffold/matrix attachment regions, and nucleoporin-associated chromatin and their role in regulating monoallelic expression. Furthermore, we comprehensively review for the first time the role of chromatin topology and nuclear architecture in the regulation of genomic imprinting. We propose that chromatin topology and nuclear architecture are important regulatory mechanisms for directing gene expression within imprinted domains. Furthermore, we predict that dynamic changes in chromatin topology and nuclear architecture play roles in tissue-specific imprint domain regulation during early development and differentiation.

  2. Creation and manipulation of topological states in chiral nematic microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tetiana; Aßhoff, Sarah Jane; Yamaguchi, Tadatsugu; Katsonis, Nathalie; Brasselet, Etienne

    2015-07-01

    Topology is a universal concept that is encountered in daily life and is known to determine many static and dynamical properties of matter. Taming and controlling the topology of materials therefore constitutes a contemporary interdisciplinary challenge. Building on the controllable spatial properties of soft matter appears as a relevant strategy to address the challenge, in particular, because it may lead to paradigmatic model systems that allow checking theories experimentally. Here we report experimentally on a wealth of complex free-standing metastable topological architectures at the micron scale, in frustrated chiral nematic droplets. These results support recent works predicting the formation of free-standing knotted and linked disclination structures in confined chiral nematic fluids. We also demonstrate that various kinds of external fields (thermal, electrical and optical) can be used to achieve topological remote control. All this may foster the development of new devices based on topologically structured soft media.

  3. Topological superconductivity, topological confinement, and the vortex quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2011-01-01

    Topological matter is characterized by the presence of a topological BF term in its long-distance effective action. Topological defects due to the compactness of the U(1) gauge fields induce quantum phase transitions between topological insulators, topological superconductors, and topological confinement. In conventional superconductivity, because of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the photon acquires a mass due to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. In this paper we derive the corresponding effective actions for the electromagnetic field in topological superconductors and topological confinement phases. In topological superconductors magnetic flux is confined and the photon acquires a topological mass through the BF mechanism: no symmetry breaking is involved, the ground state has topological order, and the transition is induced by quantum fluctuations. In topological confinement, instead, electric charge is linearly confined and the photon becomes a massive antisymmetric tensor via the Stueckelberg mechanism. Oblique confinement phases arise when the string condensate carries both magnetic and electric flux (dyonic strings). Such phases are characterized by a vortex quantum Hall effect potentially relevant for the dissipationless transport of information stored on vortices.

  4. Photoinduced Topological Phase Transitions in Topological Magnon Insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2018-03-13

    Topological magnon insulators are the bosonic analogs of electronic topological insulators. They are manifested in magnetic materials with topologically nontrivial magnon bands as realized experimentally in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) kagomé ferromagnet Cu(1-3, bdc), and they also possess protected magnon edge modes. These topological magnetic materials can transport heat as well as spin currents, hence they can be useful for spintronic applications. Moreover, as magnons are charge-neutral spin-1 bosonic quasiparticles with a magnetic dipole moment, topological magnon materials can also interact with electromagnetic fields through the Aharonov-Casher effect. In this report, we study photoinduced topological phase transitions in intrinsic topological magnon insulators in the kagomé ferromagnets. Using magnonic Floquet-Bloch theory, we show that by varying the light intensity, periodically driven intrinsic topological magnetic materials can be manipulated into different topological phases with different sign of the Berry curvatures and the thermal Hall conductivity. We further show that, under certain conditions, periodically driven gapped topological magnon insulators can also be tuned to synthetic gapless topological magnon semimetals with Dirac-Weyl magnon cones. We envision that this work will pave the way for interesting new potential practical applications in topological magnetic materials.

  5. Topological field theories and duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephany, J.; Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas

    1996-05-01

    Topologically non trivial effects appearing in the discussion of duality transformations in higher genus manifold are discussed in a simple example, and their relation with the properties of Topological Field Theories is established. (author). 16 refs

  6. Wireless sensor network topology control

    OpenAIRE

    Zuk, Olexandr; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Sova, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Topology control process for the wireless sensor network is considered. In this article the use of rule base for making decision on the search of optimum network topology is offered for the realization of different aims of network management.

  7. Topology optimization of viscoelastic rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    An approach for the design of microfluidic viscoelastic rectifiers is presented based on a combination of a viscoelastic model and the method of topology optimization. This presumption free approach yields a material layout topologically different from experimentally realized rectifiers...

  8. Quantitative evaluation of renal dynamic scan with 99mTc-MAG3 assessment of interoposterior myocardial infarction using ECG gated SPECT with 99mTc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Keiichi; Kumita, Shinichiro; Mizumura, Sunao

    1997-01-01

    Simultaneous assessment of regional myocardial perfusion and local contraction ability of interoposterior myocardial infarction was examined by ECG gated SPECT. In thirteen cases of acute interoposterior myocardial infarction, the above-mentioned data were obtained by 180deg data acquisition method using L-shaped 2 detecting element type gamma camera. Mean and standard deviation of %Uptake and wall thickening (WT) in inferior wall were as follows: Infarction case; 57±9.2%/23±11.3%, normal case; 71±8.2%/61±10.2%. The significant depression (p<0.01/p<0.001) of both data were found in the infarction case. The both data in posterior wall were as follows: Infarction case; 55±10.7%/16±8.9%, normal case; 64±9.7%/41±15.0%. The significant depression (p<0.05/p<0.001) were also found in the infarction case. In both inferior wall and posterior wall, the AUC of ROC curve of WT was greater than that of %Uptake, and diagnostic ability of this method was favorable. The best sensitivity/specificity rate and the threshold were as follows: %Uptake of inferior wall 77/65, -0.5SD, WT of inferior wall 100/100, -2SD, %Uptake of posterior wall 62/82, -1SD, WT of posterior wall 85/88, -4SD. Accordingly, in diagnosis of interoposterior myocardial infarction, assessment of focus cardiac function, for example WT, is necessary as well as %Uptake. (K.H.)

  9. Slope constrained Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, J.; Sigmund, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The problem of minimum compliance topology optimization of an elastic continuum is considered. A general continuous density-energy relation is assumed, including variable thickness sheet models and artificial power laws. To ensure existence of solutions, the design set is restricted by enforcing...

  10. Architecture, Drawing, Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Morten

    This book presents contributions of drawing and text along with their many relationalities from ontology to history and vice versa in a range of reflections on architecture, drawing and topology. We hope to thereby indicate the potential of the theme in understanding not only the architecture of ...

  11. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  12. Some geometry and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, G.; Morandi, G.

    1995-01-01

    In this lecture some mathematical problems that arise when one deals with low-dimensional field theories, such as homotopy and topological invariants, differential calculus on Lie groups and coset spaces, fiber spaces and parallel transport, differential calculus on fiber bundles, sequences on principal bundles and Chern-Simons terms are discussed

  13. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  14. Coherence Multiplex System Topologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Arjan; Taniman, R.O.; Heideman, G.H.L.M.; van Etten, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Coherence multiplexing is a potentially inexpensive form of optical code-division multiple access, which is particularly suitable for short-range applications with moderate bandwidth requirements, such as access networks, LANs, or interconnects. Various topologies are known for constructing an

  15. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  16. Electrically tunable robust edge states in graphene-based topological photonic crystal slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zidong; Liu, HongJun; Huang, Nan; Wang, ZhaoLu

    2018-03-01

    Topological photonic crystals are optical structures supporting topologically protected unidirectional edge states that exhibit robustness against defects. Here, we propose a graphene-based all-dielectric photonic crystal slab structure that supports two-dimensionally confined topological edge states. These topological edge states can be confined in the out-of-plane direction by two parallel graphene sheets. In the structure, the excitation frequency range of topological edge states can be dynamically and continuously tuned by varying bias voltage across the two parallel graphene sheets. Utilizing this kind of architecture, we construct Z-shaped channels to realize topological edge transmission with diffrerent frequencies. The proposal provides a new degree of freedom to dynamically control topological edge states and potential applications for robust integrated photonic devices and optical communication systems.

  17. Adjoint entropy vs topological entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Bruno, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently the adjoint algebraic entropy of endomorphisms of abelian groups was introduced and studied. We generalize the notion of adjoint entropy to continuous endomorphisms of topological abelian groups. Indeed, the adjoint algebraic entropy is defined using the family of all finite-index subgroups, while we take only the subfamily of all open finite-index subgroups to define the topological adjoint entropy. This allows us to compare the (topological) adjoint entropy with the known topologic...

  18. Topology of Document Retrieval Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Daniel M.; Cater, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    Explains the use of a topological structure to examine the closeness between documents in retrieval systems and analyzes the topological structure of a vector-space model, a fuzzy-set model, an extended Boolean model, a probabilistic model, and a TIRS (Topological Information Retrieval System) model. Proofs for the results are appended. (17…

  19. Comparing topological charge definitions using topology fixing actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmann, Falk; Gruber, Florian; Jansen, Karl; Marinkovic, Marina; Urbach, Carsten; Wagner, Marc

    2009-05-01

    We investigate both the hyperbolic action and the determinant ratio action designed to fix the topological charge on the lattice. We show to what extent topology is fixed depending on the parameters of these actions, keeping the physical situation fixed. At the same time the agreement between different definitions of topological charge - the field theoretic and the index definition - is directly correlated to the degree topology is fixed. Moreover, it turns out that the two definitions agree very well. We also study finite volume effects arising in the static potential and related quantities due to topology fixing. (orig.)

  20. Gate valve performance prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.H.; Damerell, P.S.; Wang, J.K.; Kalsi, M.S.; Wolfe, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute is carrying out a program to improve the performance prediction methods for motor-operated valves. As part of this program, an analytical method to predict the stem thrust required to stroke a gate valve has been developed and has been assessed against data from gate valve tests. The method accounts for the loads applied to the disc by fluid flow and for the detailed mechanical interaction of the stem, disc, guides, and seats. To support development of the method, two separate-effects test programs were carried out. One test program determined friction coefficients for contacts between gate valve parts by using material specimens in controlled environments. The other test program investigated the interaction of the stem, disc, guides, and seat using a special fixture with full-sized gate valve parts. The method has been assessed against flow-loop and in-plant test data. These tests include valve sizes from 3 to 18 in. and cover a considerable range of flow, temperature, and differential pressure. Stem thrust predictions for the method bound measured results. In some cases, the bounding predictions are substantially higher than the stem loads required for valve operation, as a result of the bounding nature of the friction coefficients in the method

  1. Stanford, Duke, Rice,... and Gates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an open letter to Bill Gates. In his letter, the author suggests that Bill Gates should build a brand-new university, a great 21st-century institution of higher learning. This university will be unlike anything the world has ever seen. He asks Bill Gates not to stop helping existing colleges create the higher-education system…

  2. Fine topology and locally Minkowskian manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Gunjan; Sinha, Soami Pyari

    2018-05-01

    Fine topology is one of the several well-known topologies of physical and mathematical relevance. In the present paper, it is obtained that the nonempty open sets of different dimensional Minkowski spaces with the fine topology are not homeomorphic. This leads to the introduction of a new class of manifolds. It turns out that the technique developed here is also applicable to some other topologies, namely, the s-topology, space topology, f-topology, and A-topology.

  3. Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long......-range excitations, `wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force....

  4. Topology of foreign exchange markets using hierarchical structure methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Michael J.; Rose, Lawrence C.; Moyle, Brendan J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper uses two physics derived hierarchical techniques, a minimal spanning tree and an ultrametric hierarchical tree, to extract a topological influence map for major currencies from the ultrametric distance matrix for 1995-2001. We find that these two techniques generate a defined and robust scale free network with meaningful taxonomy. The topology is shown to be robust with respect to method, to time horizon and is stable during market crises. This topology, appropriately used, gives a useful guide to determining the underlying economic or regional causal relationships for individual currencies and to understanding the dynamics of exchange rate price determination as part of a complex network.

  5. Even-dimensional topological gravity from Chern-Simons gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, N.; Perez, A.; Salgado, P.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the topological action for gravity in 2n-dimensions can be obtained from the (2n+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity genuinely invariant under the Poincare group. The 2n-dimensional topological gravity is described by the dynamics of the boundary of a (2n+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity theory with suitable boundary conditions. The field φ a , which is necessary to construct this type of topological gravity in even dimensions, is identified with the coset field associated with the non-linear realizations of the Poincare group ISO(d-1,1).

  6. A VHF Class E DC-DC Converter with Self-Oscillating Gate Driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Toke Meyer; Christensen, Søren K.; Knott, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    , is inherently resonant, and switching losses are greatly reduced by ensuring Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) of the power semiconductor devices. A design method to ensure ZVS operation when combining the inverter, rectifier, and gate driver is provided. Several parasitic effects and their influence on converter......This paper describes the analysis and design of a DC-DC converter topology which is operational at frequencies in the Very High Frequency (VHF) band ranging from 30 MHz − 300 MHz. The presented topology, which consists of a class E inverter, class E rectifier, and self-oscillating gate driver...... operation are discussed, and measurement results of a 100 MHz prototype converter are presented and evaluated. The designed prototype converter verifies the described topology....

  7. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Insinga, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a Λcool figure of merit of 0.472 is reached, which is an increase of 100% compared to a previous optimized design.

  8. Undergraduate topology a working textbook

    CERN Document Server

    McCluskey, Aisling

    2014-01-01

    This textbook offers an accessible, modern introduction at undergraduate level to an area known variously as general topology, point-set topology or analytic topology with a particular focus on helping students to build theory for themselves. It is the result of several years of the authors' combined university teaching experience stimulated by sustained interest in advanced mathematical thinking and learning, alongside established research careers in analytic topology. Point-set topology is a discipline that needs relatively little background knowledge, but sufficient determination to grasp i

  9. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian; Insinga, Andrea Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron...... and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a ΛcoolΛcool figure of merit of 0...

  10. Nobel Lecture: Topological quantum matter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, F. Duncan M.

    2017-10-01

    Nobel Lecture, presented December 8, 2016, Aula Magna, Stockholm University. I will describe the history and background of three discoveries cited in this Nobel Prize: The "TKNN" topological formula for the integer quantum Hall effect found by David Thouless and collaborators, the Chern insulator or quantum anomalous Hall effect, and its role in the later discovery of time-reversal-invariant topological insulators, and the unexpected topological spin-liquid state of the spin-1 quantum antiferromagnetic chain, which provided an initial example of topological quantum matter. I will summarize how these early beginnings have led to the exciting, and currently extremely active, field of "topological matter."

  11. Graph topologies on closed multifunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Maio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study function space topologies on closed multifunctions, i.e. closed relations on X x Y using various hypertopologies. The hypertopologies are in essence, graph topologies i.e topologies on functions considered as graphs which are subsets of X x Y . We also study several topologies, including one that is derived from the Attouch-Wets filter on the range. We state embedding theorems which enable us to generalize and prove some recent results in the literature with the use of known results in the hyperspace of the range space and in the function space topologies of ordinary functions.

  12. Ultrafilters and topologies on groups

    CERN Document Server

    Zelenyuk, Yevhen

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the relationship between ultrafilters and topologies on groups. It shows how ultrafilters are used in constructing topologies on groups with extremal properties and how topologies on groups serve in deriving algebraic results aboutultrafilters. Topics covered include: topological and left topological groups, ultrafilter semigroups, local homomorphisms and automorphisms, subgroups and ideal structure of ßG, almost maximal spaces and projectives of finite semigroups, resolvability of groups. This is a self-contained book aimed at graduate students and researchers working in to

  13. Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Blind quantum computation is a novel secure quantum-computing protocol that enables Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, to delegate her quantum computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output and algorithm. A recent proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating blind quantum computation in an optical system has raised new challenges regarding the scalability of blind quantum computation in realistic noisy conditions. Here we show that fault-tolerant blind quantum computation is possible in a topologically protected manner using the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal scheme. The error threshold of our scheme is 4.3 × 10(-3), which is comparable to that (7.5 × 10(-3)) of non-blind topological quantum computation. As the error per gate of the order 10(-3) was already achieved in some experimental systems, our result implies that secure cloud quantum computation is within reach.

  14. Comparison of different lattice definitions of the topological charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Ottnad, Konstantin; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.; Urbach, Carsten; Zimmermann, Falk; Bonn Univ.; Wenger, Urs

    2014-11-01

    We present a comparison of different definitions of the topological charge on the lattice, using a small-volume ensemble with 2 flavours of dynamical twisted mass fermions. The investigated definitions are: index of the overlap Dirac operator, spectral projectors, spectral flow of the Hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator and field theoretic with different kinds of smoothing of gauge fields (HYP and APE smearings, gradient flow, cooling). We also show some results on the topological susceptibility.

  15. Topological susceptibility from twisted mass fermions using spectral projectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IAS; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IKP; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JCHP; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    We discuss the computation of the topological susceptibility using the method of spectral projectors and dynamical twisted mass fermions. We present our analysis concerning the O(a)- improvement of the topological susceptibility and we show numerical results for N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavours, performing a study of the quark mass dependence in terms of leading order chiral perturbation theory.

  16. New multilevel inverter with reduction of switches and gate driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaei, M.R., E-mail: m.banaei@azaruniv.ed [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salary, E. [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents a novel topology for symmetrical cascade multilevel converter. The proposed circuit consists of series connected sub multilevel converters units and it can generate DC voltage levels similar to other topologies. The proposed topology results in reduction of switches number, losses, installation area and converter cost. This converter has been used in a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). Simulation results carried out by MATLAB/SIMULINK show the voltage injection capability of converter and the efficiency of its controller in compensating voltage sag and swell.

  17. Controlling flow-induced vibrations of flood barrier gates with data-driven and finite-element modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdbrink, C.D.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Klijn, F.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2012-01-01

    Operation of flood barrier gates is sometimes hampered by flow-induced vibrations. Although the physics is understood for specific gate types, it remains challenging to judge dynamic gate behaviour for unanticipated conditions. This paper presents a hybrid modelling system for predicting vibrations

  18. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters.

  19. Characterizing granular networks using topological metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijksman, Joshua A.; Kovalcinova, Lenka; Ren, Jie; Behringer, Robert P.; Kramar, Miroslav; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Kondic, Lou

    2018-04-01

    We carry out a direct comparison of experimental and numerical realizations of the exact same granular system as it undergoes shear jamming. We adjust the numerical methods used to optimally represent the experimental settings and outcomes up to microscopic contact force dynamics. Measures presented here range from microscopic through mesoscopic to systemwide characteristics of the system. Topological properties of the mesoscopic force networks provide a key link between microscales and macroscales. We report two main findings: (1) The number of particles in the packing that have at least two contacts is a good predictor for the mechanical state of the system, regardless of strain history and packing density. All measures explored in both experiments and numerics, including stress-tensor-derived measures and contact numbers depend in a universal manner on the fraction of nonrattler particles, fNR. (2) The force network topology also tends to show this universality, yet the shape of the master curve depends much more on the details of the numerical simulations. In particular we show that adding force noise to the numerical data set can significantly alter the topological features in the data. We conclude that both fNR and topological metrics are useful measures to consider when quantifying the state of a granular system.

  20. Network topology mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Daniel A [Los Alamos, NM; Gavrilov, Eugene M [Los Alamos, NM; Fisk, Michael E [Jemez, NM

    2008-01-15

    A method enables the topology of an acyclic fully propagated network to be discovered. A list of switches that comprise the network is formed and the MAC address cache for each one of the switches is determined. For each pair of switches, from the MAC address caches the remaining switches that see the pair of switches are located. For each pair of switches the remaining switches are determined that see one of the pair of switches on a first port and the second one of the pair of switches on a second port. A list of insiders is formed for every pair of switches. It is determined whether the insider for each pair of switches is a graph edge and adjacent ones of the graph edges are determined. A symmetric adjacency matrix is formed from the graph edges to represent the topology of the data link network.

  1. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  2. Topologies of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is quickly becoming a ubiquitous socionatural reality, mediating extremes of sociospatial scale from the bodily to the planetary. Although environmentalism invites us to ‘think globally and act locally', the meaning of these scalar designations remains ambiguous. This paper explores...... the topological presuppositions of social theory in the context of global climate change, asking how carbon emissions ‘translate' into various sociomaterial forms. Staging a meeting between Tim Ingold's phenomenology of globes and spheres and the social topologies of actor-network theory (ANT), the paper advances...... a ‘relational-scalar' analytics of spatial practices, technoscience, and power. As technoscience gradually constructs a networked global climate, this ‘grey box' comes to circulate within fluid social spaces, taking on new shades as it hybridizes knowledges, symbols, and practices. Global climates thus come...

  3. Electrical and proximity-magnetic effects induced quantum Goos–Hänchen shift on the surface of topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuai, Jian [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers College, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China); Da, H.X., E-mail: haixia8779@163.com [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-03-15

    We use scattering matrix method to theoretically demonstrate that the quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulator coated by ferromagnetic strips is sensitive to the magnitude of ferromagnetic magnetization. The dependence of quantum Goos–Hänchen shift on magnetization and gate bias is investigated by performing station phase approach. It is found that quantum Goos–Hänchen shift is positive and large under the magnetic barrier but may be positive as well as negative values under the gate bias. Furthermore, the position of quantum Goos–Hänchen peak can also be modulated by the combination of gate bias and proximity magnetic effects. Our results indicate that topological insulators are another candidates to support quantum Goos–Hänchen shift. - Highlights: • Quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators is first investigated. • The magnetization affects quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators. • Quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators can be manipulated by the gate voltages.

  4. Topological confinement and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.

  5. The topology of fullerenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Wirz, Lukas; Avery, James Emil

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes are carbon molecules that form polyhedral cages. Their bond structures are exactly the planar cubic graphs that have only pentagon and hexagon faces. Strikingly, a number of chemical properties of a fullerene can be derived from its graph structure. A rich mathematics of cubic planar g....... In this paper, we present a general overview of recent topological and graph theoretical developments in fullerene research over the past two decades, describing both solved and open problems....

  6. Technologies for converter topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Haiyu

    2017-02-28

    In some embodiments of the disclosed inverter topologies, an inverter may include a full bridge LLC resonant converter, a first boost converter, and a second boost converter. In such embodiments, the first and second boost converters operate in an interleaved manner. In other disclosed embodiments, the inverter may include a half-bridge inverter circuit, a resonant circuit, a capacitor divider circuit, and a transformer.

  7. Operator algebras and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, T.

    2002-01-01

    These notes, based on three lectures on operator algebras and topology at the 'School on High Dimensional Manifold Theory' at the ICTP in Trieste, introduce a new set of tools to high dimensional manifold theory, namely techniques coming from the theory of operator algebras, in particular C*-algebras. These are extensively studied in their own right. We will focus on the basic definitions and properties, and on their relevance to the geometry and topology of manifolds. A central pillar of work in the theory of C*-algebras is the Baum-Connes conjecture. This is an isomorphism conjecture, as discussed in the talks of Luck, but with a certain special flavor. Nevertheless, it has important direct applications to the topology of manifolds, it implies e.g. the Novikov conjecture. In the first chapter, the Baum-Connes conjecture will be explained and put into our context. Another application of the Baum-Connes conjecture is to the positive scalar curvature question. This will be discussed by Stephan Stolz. It implies the so-called 'stable Gromov-Lawson-Rosenberg conjecture'. The unstable version of this conjecture said that, given a closed spin manifold M, a certain obstruction, living in a certain (topological) K-theory group, vanishes if and only M admits a Riemannian metric with positive scalar curvature. It turns out that this is wrong, and counterexamples will be presented in the second chapter. The third chapter introduces another set of invariants, also using operator algebra techniques, namely L 2 -cohomology, L 2 -Betti numbers and other L 2 -invariants. These invariants, their basic properties, and the central questions about them, are introduced in the third chapter. (author)

  8. Aging and rejuvenation of active matter under topological constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.M.C.; Kaiser, A.; Löwen, H.W.

    2017-01-01

    The coupling of active, self-motile particles to topological constraints can give rise to novel non-equilibrium dynamical patterns that lack any passive counterpart. Here we study the behavior of self-propelled rods confined to a compact spherical manifold by means of Brownian dynamics simulations.

  9. Topological Substituent Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea V. DIUDEA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. Substituted 1,3,5-triazines are known as useful herbicidal substances. In view of reducing the cost of biological screening, computational methods are carried out for evaluating the biological activity of organic compounds. Often a class of bioactives differs only in the substituent attached to a basic skeleton. In such cases substituent descriptors will give the same prospecting results as in case of using the whole molecule description, but with significantly reduced computational time. Such descriptors are useful in describing steric effects involved in chemical reactions. Method. Molecular topology is the method used for substituent description and multi linear regression analysis as a statistical tool. Results. Novel topological descriptors, XLDS and Ws, based on the layer matrix of distance sums and walks in molecular graphs, respectively, are proposed for describing the topology of substituents linked on a chemical skeleton. They are tested for modeling the esterification reaction in the class of benzoic acids and herbicidal activity of 2-difluoromethylthio-4,6-bis(monoalkylamino-1,3,5-triazines. Conclusions. Ws substituent descriptor, based on walks in graph, satisfactorily describes the steric effect of alkyl substituents behaving in esterification reaction, with good correlations to the Taft and Charton steric parameters, respectively. Modeling the herbicidal activity of the seo of 1,3,5-triazines exceeded the models reported in literature, so far.

  10. Dynamic Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Free-Breathing: Feasibility of a Cartesian T1-Weighted Acquisition Technique With Compressed Sensing and Additional Self-Navigation Signal for Hard-Gated and Motion-Resolved Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbach, Benjamin; Bucher, Andreas M; Wichmann, Julian L; Nickel, Dominik; Polkowski, Christoph; Hammerstingl, Renate; Vogl, Thomas J; Bodelle, Boris

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a free-breathing dynamic liver imaging technique using a prototype Cartesian T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) sequence with compressed sensing and simultaneous acquisition of a navigation signal for hard-gated and motion state-resolved reconstruction. A total of 43 consecutive oncologic patients (mean age, 66 ± 11 years; 44% female) underwent free-breathing dynamic liver imaging for the evaluation of liver metastases from colorectal cancer using a prototype Cartesian VIBE sequence (field of view, 380 × 345 mm; image matrix, 320 × 218; echo time/repetition time, 1.8/3.76 milliseconds; flip angle, 10 degrees; slice thickness, 3.0 mm; acquisition time, 188 seconds) with continuous data sampling and additionally acquired self-navigation signal. Data were iteratively reconstructed using 2 different approaches: first, a hard-gated reconstruction only using data associated to the dominating motion state (CS VIBE, Compressed Sensing VIBE), and second, a motion-resolved reconstruction with 6 different motion states as additional image dimension (XD VIBE, eXtended dimension VIBE). Continuous acquired data were grouped in 16 subsequent time increments with 11.57 seconds each to resolve arterial and venous contrast phases. For image quality assessment, both CS VIBE and XD VIBE were compared with the patient's last staging dynamic liver magnetic resonance imaging including a breathhold (BH) VIBE as reference standard 4.5 ± 1.2 months before. Representative quality parameters including respiratory artifacts were evaluated for arterial and venous phase images independently, retrospectively and blindly by 3 experienced radiologists, with higher scores indicating better examination quality. To assess diagnostic accuracy, same readers evaluated the presence of metastatic lesions for XD VIBE and CS VIBE compared with reference BH examination in a second session. Compared with CS VIBE, XD VIBE

  11. Ultrafast gated imaging of laser produced plasmas using the optical Kerr effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, D. R.; Wegner, U.; Ahlswede, H.-C.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Gallegos, P. L.; Divall, E. J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Neely, D.; Smith, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Optical imaging is a versatile diagnostic for investigations of plasmas generated under intense laser irradiation. Electro-optic gating techniques operating on the >100 ps timescale are commonly used to reduce the amount of light detected from self-emission of hot plasma or improve the temporal resolution of the detector. The use of an optical Kerr gate enables a superior dynamic range and temporal resolution compared to electronically gated devices. The application of this method for enhanced imaging of laser produced plasmas with gate time ∼100 fs is demonstrated, and the possibility to produce a sub-10 fs, high dynamic range 'all optical' streak camera is discussed.

  12. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  13. Noise Gating Solar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Craig; Seaton, Daniel B.; Darnell, John A.

    2017-08-01

    I present and demonstrate a new, general purpose post-processing technique, "3D noise gating", that can reduce image noise by an order of magnitude or more without effective loss of spatial or temporal resolution in typical solar applications.Nearly all scientific images are, ultimately, limited by noise. Noise can be direct Poisson "shot noise" from photon counting effects, or introduced by other means such as detector read noise. Noise is typically represented as a random variable (perhaps with location- or image-dependent characteristics) that is sampled once per pixel or once per resolution element of an image sequence. Noise limits many aspects of image analysis, including photometry, spatiotemporal resolution, feature identification, morphology extraction, and background modeling and separation.Identifying and separating noise from image signal is difficult. The common practice of blurring in space and/or time works because most image "signal" is concentrated in the low Fourier components of an image, while noise is evenly distributed. Blurring in space and/or time attenuates the high spatial and temporal frequencies, reducing noise at the expense of also attenuating image detail. Noise-gating exploits the same property -- "coherence" -- that we use to identify features in images, to separate image features from noise.Processing image sequences through 3-D noise gating results in spectacular (more than 10x) improvements in signal-to-noise ratio, while not blurring bright, resolved features in either space or time. This improves most types of image analysis, including feature identification, time sequence extraction, absolute and relative photometry (including differential emission measure analysis), feature tracking, computer vision, correlation tracking, background modeling, cross-scale analysis, visual display/presentation, and image compression.I will introduce noise gating, describe the method, and show examples from several instruments (including SDO

  14. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  15. A quantum Fredkin gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Raj B.; Ho, Joseph; Ferreyrol, Franck; Ralph, Timothy C.; Pryde, Geoff J.

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing the resources required to build logic gates into useful processing circuits is key to realizing quantum computers. Although the salient features of a quantum computer have been shown in proof-of-principle experiments, difficulties in scaling quantum systems have made more complex operations intractable. This is exemplified in the classical Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate for which, despite theoretical proposals, no quantum analog has been realized. By adding control to the SWAP unitary, we use photonic qubit logic to demonstrate the first quantum Fredkin gate, which promises many applications in quantum information and measurement. We implement example algorithms and generate the highest-fidelity three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states to date. The technique we use allows one to add a control operation to a black-box unitary, something that is impossible in the standard circuit model. Our experiment represents the first use of this technique to control a two-qubit operation and paves the way for larger controlled circuits to be realized efficiently. PMID:27051868

  16. A quantum Fredkin gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Raj B; Ho, Joseph; Ferreyrol, Franck; Ralph, Timothy C; Pryde, Geoff J

    2016-03-01

    Minimizing the resources required to build logic gates into useful processing circuits is key to realizing quantum computers. Although the salient features of a quantum computer have been shown in proof-of-principle experiments, difficulties in scaling quantum systems have made more complex operations intractable. This is exemplified in the classical Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate for which, despite theoretical proposals, no quantum analog has been realized. By adding control to the SWAP unitary, we use photonic qubit logic to demonstrate the first quantum Fredkin gate, which promises many applications in quantum information and measurement. We implement example algorithms and generate the highest-fidelity three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states to date. The technique we use allows one to add a control operation to a black-box unitary, something that is impossible in the standard circuit model. Our experiment represents the first use of this technique to control a two-qubit operation and paves the way for larger controlled circuits to be realized efficiently.

  17. A double-gate double-feedback JFET charge-sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzi, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) without a physical resistance in the feedback is presented. The input device has to be a double-gate JFET. In this new preamplifier configuration the feedback capacitor is continuously discharged by means of a second DC current feedback loop closed through the bottom gate of the input JFET. The top gate-channel junction works as usual in reverse bias, the bottom gate-channel is forward biased. A fraction of the current injected by the bottom gate reaches the top gate discharging the feedback capacitor. The n-channel double-gate JFET is considered from the viewpoint of the restoring action as a parasitic p-n-p ''transversal'' bipolar junction transistor. The new preamplifier is also suited for detectors operating at room temperature with leakage current which may vary with time. The DC behaviour and the dynamic behaviour of the circuit is analyzed and new measurements presented. (orig.)

  18. Multiple Independent Gate FETs: How Many Gates Do We Need?

    OpenAIRE

    Amarù, Luca; Hills, Gage; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Mitra, Subhasish; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Independent Gate Field Effect Transistors (MIGFETs) are expected to push FET technology further into the semiconductor roadmap. In a MIGFET, supplementary gates either provide (i) enhanced conduction properties or (ii) more intelligent switching functions. In general, each additional gate also introduces a side implementation cost. To enable more efficient digital systems, MIGFETs must leverage their expressive power to realize complex logic circuits with few physical resources. Rese...

  19. Electronic transport in bismuth selenide in the topological insulator regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohun

    The 3D topological insulators (TIs) have an insulating bulk but spin-momentum coupled metallic surface states stemming from band inversion due to strong spin-orbit interaction, whose existence is guaranteed by the topology of the band structure of the insulator. While the STI surface state has been studied spectroscopically by e.g. photoemission and scanned probes, transport experiments have failed to demonstrate clear signature of the STI due to high level of bulk conduction. In this thesis, I present experimental results on the transport properties of TI material Bi2Se3 in the absence of bulk conduction (TI regime), achieved by applying novel p-type doping methods. Field effect transistors consisting of thin (thickness: 5-17 nm) Bi2Se3 are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of single crystals, and a combination of conventional dielectric (300 nm thick SiO2) and electrochemical or chemical gating methods are used to move the Fermi energy through the surface Dirac point inside bulk band gap, revealing the ambipolar gapless nature of transport in the Bi2Se3 surface states. The minimum conductivity of the topological surface state is understood within the self-consistent theory of Dirac electrons in the presence of charged impurities. The intrinsic finite-temperature resistivity of the topological surface state due to electron-acoustic phonon scattering is measured to be 60 times larger than that of graphene largely due to the smaller Fermi and sound velocities in Bi2Se 3, which will have implications for topological electronic devices operating at room temperature. Along with semi-classical Boltzmann transport, I also discuss 2D weak anti-localization (WAL) behavior of the topological surface states. By investigating gate-tuned WAL behavior in thin (5-17 nm) TI films, I show that WAL in the TI regime is extraordinarily sensitive to the hybridization induced quantum mechanical tunneling between top and bottom topological surfaces, and interplay of phase coherence

  20. Gated myocardial SPECT using spatial and temporal filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, R.L.; Hutton, B.F.; Kyme, A.Z.; Larcos, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Standard protocols for examining myocardial perfusion and motion defects involve the use of gated SPECT images, and a composite of the gated frames. This study examines the usefulness of extracting one or a combination of frames from the gated image to assess perfusion, and whether the addition of a temporal filter to the gated image improves signal to noise. Choice of the most appropriate frame was also considered. Sixteen and eight frame gated SPECT studies were simulated using the dynamic NURBS-based cardiac torso (NCAT) phantom. Variously sized perfusion defects were included in the inferior wall to assess contrast to normal tissue. Scatter and attenuation were not included. Butterworth spatial cutoff frequencies were varied to establish the most appropriate combination of temporal/spatial filters to reduce noise and retain contrast in the images. The 16 frame data produced higher ejection fraction across all spatial filter cutoffs, and generally was unaffected by temporal filtering. Temporal filtering reduced the noise in a uniform liver region in the gated images to within 25% of the composite image noise. The lesion extent and contrast were greater in the end-diastolic frames compared to end-systolic and mid-cycle frames. In conclusion, by using a temporally filtered end-diastolic image from the gated sequence, a favourable balance between noise and contrast can be achieved. Work is progress to confirm these findings in the clinical situation. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  1. 100-nm gate lithography for double-gate transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoperova, Azalia A.; Zhang, Ying; Babich, Inna V.; Treichler, John; Yoon, Jung H.; Guarini, Kathryn; Solomon, Paul M.

    2001-09-01

    The double gate field effect transistor (FET) is an exploratory device that promises certain performance advantages compared to traditional CMOS FETs. It can be scaled down further than the traditional devices because of the greater electrostatic control by the gates on the channel (about twice as short a channel length for the same gate oxide thickness), has steeper sub-threshold slope and about double the current for the same width. This paper presents lithographic results for double gate FET's developed at IBM's T. J. Watson Research Center. The device is built on bonded wafers with top and bottom gates self-aligned to each other. The channel is sandwiched between the top and bottom polysilicon gates and the gate length is defined using DUV lithography. An alternating phase shift mask was used to pattern gates with critical dimensions of 75 nm, 100 nm and 125 nm in photoresist. 50 nm gates in photoresist have also been patterned by 20% over-exposure of nominal 100 nm lines. No trim mask was needed because of a specific way the device was laid out. UV110 photoresist from Shipley on AR-3 antireflective layer were used. Process windows, developed and etched patterns are presented.

  2. Specular Andreev reflection in thin films of topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Leyla; Asgari, Reza

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically reveal the possibility of specular Andreev reflection in a thin film topological insulator normal-superconductor (N/S) junction in the presence of a gate electric field. The probability of specular Andreev reflection increases with the electric field, and electron-hole conversion with unit efficiency happens in a wide experimentally accessible range of the electric field. We show that perfect specular Andreev reflection can occur for all angles of incidence with a particular excitation energy value. In addition, we find that the thermal conductance of the structure displays exponential dependence on the temperature. Our results reveal the potential of the proposed topological insulator thin-film-based N/S structure for the realization of intraband specular Andreev reflection.

  3. Topological imprint for periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Jesús San; Moscoso, Ma José; Gómez, A González

    2012-01-01

    The more self-crossing points an orbit has the more complex it is. We introduce the topological imprint to characterize crossing points and focus on the period-doubling cascade. The period-doubling cascade topological imprint determines the topological imprint for orbits in chaotic bands. In addition, there is a closer link between this concept and the braids studied by Lettelier et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 1809–25). (paper)

  4. Intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, We introduce an intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and investigate the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces and intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure spaces. Moreover, we can obtain intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space. We study the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and the intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space

  5. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  6. Topology and geometry for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Charles

    1983-01-01

    Differential geometry and topology are essential tools for many theoretical physicists, particularly in the study of condensed matter physics, gravity, and particle physics. Written by physicists for physics students, this text introduces geometrical and topological methods in theoretical physics and applied mathematics. It assumes no detailed background in topology or geometry, and it emphasizes physical motivations, enabling students to apply the techniques to their physics formulas and research. ""Thoroughly recommended"" by The Physics Bulletin, this volume's physics applications range fr

  7. Topology optimization and lattice Boltzmann methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sebastian Arlund

    This thesis demonstrates the application of the lattice Boltzmann method for topology optimization problems. Specifically, the focus is on problems in which time-dependent flow dynamics have significant impact on the performance of the devices to be optimized. The thesis introduces new topology...... a discrete adjoint approach. To handle the complexity of the discrete adjoint approach more easily, a method for computing it based on automatic differentiation is introduced, which can be adapted to any lattice Boltzmann type method. For example, while it is derived in the context of an isothermal lattice...... Boltzmann model, it is shown that the method can be easily extended to a thermal model as well. Finally, the predicted behavior of an optimized design is compared to the equiva-lent prediction from a commercial finite element solver. It is found that the weakly compressible nature of the lattice Boltzmann...

  8. Gapless Symmetry-Protected Topological Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Scaffidi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce exactly solvable gapless quantum systems in d dimensions that support symmetry-protected topological (SPT edge modes. Our construction leads to long-range entangled, critical points or phases that can be interpreted as critical condensates of domain walls “decorated” with dimension (d-1 SPT systems. Using a combination of field theory and exact lattice results, we argue that such gapless SPT systems have symmetry-protected topological edge modes that can be either gapless or symmetry broken, leading to unusual surface critical properties. Despite the absence of a bulk gap, these edge modes are robust against arbitrary symmetry-preserving local perturbations near the edges. In two dimensions, we construct wave functions that can also be interpreted as unusual quantum critical points with diffusive scaling in the bulk but ballistic edge dynamics.

  9. Topological sound in active-liquid metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souslov, Anton; van Zuiden, Benjamin C.; Bartolo, Denis; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    Liquids composed of self-propelled particles have been experimentally realized using molecular, colloidal or macroscopic constituents. These active liquids can flow spontaneously even in the absence of an external drive. Unlike spontaneous active flow, the propagation of density waves in confined active liquids is not well explored. Here, we exploit a mapping between density waves on top of a chiral flow and electrons in a synthetic gauge field to lay out design principles for artificial structures termed topological active metamaterials. We design metamaterials that break time-reversal symmetry using lattices composed of annular channels filled with a spontaneously flowing active liquid. Such active metamaterials support topologically protected sound modes that propagate unidirectionally, without backscattering, along either sample edges or domain walls and despite overdamped particle dynamics. Our work illustrates how parity-symmetry breaking in metamaterial structure combined with microscopic irreversibility of active matter leads to novel functionalities that cannot be achieved using only passive materials.

  10. OPTIMAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed as part of a research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. It is intended that this new design technique consider all important performance measures explicitly and take into account the constraints due to various technical feasibilities. In the current program, technical constraints are taken care of by the user properly forming the starting set of candidate components (e.g. nonfeasible links are not included). As subsets are generated, they are tested to see if they form an acceptable network by checking that all requirements are satisfied. Thus the first acceptable subset encountered gives the cost-optimal topology satisfying all given constraints. The user must sort the set of "feasible" link elements in increasing order of their costs. The program prompts the user for the following information for each link: 1) cost, 2) connectivity (number of stations connected by the link), and 3) the stations connected by that link. Unless instructed to stop, the program generates all possible acceptable networks in increasing order of their total costs. The program is written only to generate topologies that are simply connected. Tests on reliability, delay, and other performance measures are discussed in the documentation, but have not been incorporated into the program. This program is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under PC DOS. The disk contains source code only. This program was developed in 1985.

  11. Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2015-08-25

    The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.

  12. A Topology Control Strategy with Reliability Assurance for Satellite Cluster Networks in Earth Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Zhang, Jinxiu; Hu, Ze

    2017-02-23

    This article investigates the dynamic topology control problemof satellite cluster networks (SCNs) in Earth observation (EO) missions by applying a novel metric of stability for inter-satellite links (ISLs). The properties of the periodicity and predictability of satellites' relative position are involved in the link cost metric which is to give a selection criterion for choosing the most reliable data routing paths. Also, a cooperative work model with reliability is proposed for the situation of emergency EO missions. Based on the link cost metric and the proposed reliability model, a reliability assurance topology control algorithm and its corresponding dynamic topology control (RAT) strategy are established to maximize the stability of data transmission in the SCNs. The SCNs scenario is tested through some numeric simulations of the topology stability of average topology lifetime and average packet loss rate. Simulation results show that the proposed reliable strategy applied in SCNs significantly improves the data transmission performance and prolongs the average topology lifetime.

  13. Topologically nontrivial quantum layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, G.; Exner, P.; Krejcirik, D.

    2004-01-01

    Given a complete noncompact surface Σ embedded in R 3 , we consider the Dirichlet Laplacian in the layer Ω that is defined as a tubular neighborhood of constant width about Σ. Using an intrinsic approach to the geometry of Ω, we generalize the spectral results of the original paper by Duclos et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 223, 13 (2001)] to the situation when Σ does not possess poles. This enables us to consider topologically more complicated layers and state new spectral results. In particular, we are interested in layers built over surfaces with handles or several cylindrically symmetric ends. We also discuss more general regions obtained by compact deformations of certain Ω

  14. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topologies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  15. Foundations of combinatorial topology

    CERN Document Server

    Pontryagin, L S

    2015-01-01

    Hailed by The Mathematical Gazette as ""an extremely valuable addition to the literature of algebraic topology,"" this concise but rigorous introductory treatment focuses on applications to dimension theory and fixed-point theorems. The lucid text examines complexes and their Betti groups, including Euclidean space, application to dimension theory, and decomposition into components; invariance of the Betti groups, with consideration of the cone construction and barycentric subdivisions of a complex; and continuous mappings and fixed points. Proofs are presented in a complete, careful, and eleg

  16. Design as Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    that increasingly develop mixed reality environments with context-aware out-of-the-box computing as well as the soci-ocultural and experiental horizon of a virtually and physically mobile citizenry. Design here must meet an ongoing and exceedingly complex interactivity among environmental, technical, social...... and personal multiplicities of urban nodes on the move. This chapter focuses on the design of a busy traffic intersection in the South Korean u-city Songdo. Hence, the discussion whether and how Songdo may be approached via design as topology primarily considers the situation, event, and experience in which...

  17. Modern general topology

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, J-I

    1985-01-01

    This classic work has been fundamentally revised to take account of recent developments in general topology. The first three chapters remain unchanged except for numerous minor corrections and additional exercises, but chapters IV-VII and the new chapter VIII cover the rapid changes that have occurred since 1968 when the first edition appeared.The reader will find many new topics in chapters IV-VIII, e.g. theory of Wallmann-Shanin's compactification, realcompact space, various generalizations of paracompactness, generalized metric spaces, Dugundji type extension theory, linearly ordered topolo

  18. Default cascades in complex networks: topology and systemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukny, Tarik; Bersini, Hugues; Pirotte, Hugues; Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano

    2013-09-26

    The recent crisis has brought to the fore a crucial question that remains still open: what would be the optimal architecture of financial systems? We investigate the stability of several benchmark topologies in a simple default cascading dynamics in bank networks. We analyze the interplay of several crucial drivers, i.e., network topology, banks' capital ratios, market illiquidity, and random vs targeted shocks. We find that, in general, topology matters only--but substantially--when the market is illiquid. No single topology is always superior to others. In particular, scale-free networks can be both more robust and more fragile than homogeneous architectures. This finding has important policy implications. We also apply our methodology to a comprehensive dataset of an interbank market from 1999 to 2011.

  19. Radiation-hard silicon gate bulk CMOS cell family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbon, C.F.; Habing, D.H.; Flores, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate CMOS technology and a topologically simple, high-performance dual-port cell family utilizing this process have been demonstrated. Additional circuits, including a random logic circuit containing 4800 transistors on a 236 x 236 mil die, are presently being designed and processed. Finally, a joint design-process effort is underway to redesign the cell family in reduced design rules; this results in a factor of 2.5 cell size reduction and a factor of 3 decrease in chip interconnect area. Cell performance is correspondingly improved

  20. Expert Oracle GoldenGate

    CERN Document Server

    Prusinski, Ben; Chung, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle GoldenGate is a hands-on guide to creating and managing complex data replication environments using the latest in database replication technology from Oracle. GoldenGate is the future in replication technology from Oracle, and aims to be best-of-breed. GoldenGate supports homogeneous replication between Oracle databases. It supports heterogeneous replication involving other brands such as Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2 Universal Server. GoldenGate is high-speed, bidirectional, highly-parallelized, and makes only a light impact on the performance of databases involved in replica