WorldWideScience

Sample records for gastrostomy peg randomised

  1. PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY WITH JEJUNAL EXTENSION PLUS PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY (PEG-J PLUS PEG IN PATIENTS WITH GASTRIC/DUODENAL CANCER OUTLET OBSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge FONSECA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Stent palliation is the gold standard for gastric/duodenal cancer outlet obstruction. When stenting is impossible, feeding may be achieved through a gastrojejunostomy (PEG-J, but displacement of jejunal tube is frequent due to manipulation for feeding and drainage. Gastric outlet obstruction results on increased gastroesophageal reflux or extra-tube leakage. In order to reduce the jejunostomy tube manipulation and the gastric residuum, we created a second gastrostomy (PEG dedicated to gastric drainage, reducing the PEG-J handling. Objective Our aim was evaluating of the usefulness of an added second gastrostomy in a PEG-J patient, for: 1. controlling symptomatic reflux and extra-tube leakage; 2. preventing jejunal tube dislocation. Methods We retrospectively evaluated patients were stent palliation of gastric/duodenal cancer outlet obstruction was not achieved, who were referred and underwent PEG-J. We selected four of these patients who needed a second PEG dedicated to gastric drainage, which was performed a few centimetres apart from the gastrojejunostomy. In order to achieve an efficient gastric drainage and provide the maximum comfort to the patient, the drainage PEG tube could be linked to an ileostomy bag. Results The four PEG-J cancer patients with longer survival developed symptoms associated with an important gastric residuum. After the drainage gastrostomy, symptoms subsided or vanished and there were no jejunal tube dislocations. Conclusions When stenting is not possible in patients with gastric/duodenal outlet obstruction due to cancer growing, feeding PEG-J plus drainage PEG may be an alternative, allowing duodenal/jejunal feeding and gastric drainage with minimal manipulation of the jejunal tube.

  2. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with jejunal extension plus percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG-j plus PEG) in patients with gastric/duodenal cancer outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jorge; Santos, Carla Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Stent palliation is the gold standard for gastric/duodenal cancer outlet obstruction. When stenting is impossible, feeding may be achieved through a gastrojejunostomy (PEG-J), but displacement of jejunal tube is frequent due to manipulation for feeding and drainage. Gastric outlet obstruction results on increased gastroesophageal reflux or extra-tube leakage. In order to reduce the jejunostomy tube manipulation and the gastric residuum, we created a second gastrostomy (PEG) dedicated to gastric drainage, reducing the PEG-J handling. Our aim was evaluating of the usefulness of an added second gastrostomy in a PEG-J patient, for: 1. controlling symptomatic reflux and extra-tube leakage; 2. preventing jejunal tube dislocation. Methods We retrospectively evaluated patients were stent palliation of gastric/duodenal cancer outlet obstruction was not achieved, who were referred and underwent PEG-J. We selected four of these patients who needed a second PEG dedicated to gastric drainage, which was performed a few centimetres apart from the gastrojejunostomy. In order to achieve an efficient gastric drainage and provide the maximum comfort to the patient, the drainage PEG tube could be linked to an ileostomy bag. The four PEG-J cancer patients with longer survival developed symptoms associated with an important gastric residuum. After the drainage gastrostomy, symptoms subsided or vanished and there were no jejunal tube dislocations. When stenting is not possible in patients with gastric/duodenal outlet obstruction due to cancer growing, feeding PEG-J plus drainage PEG may be an alternative, allowing duodenal/jejunal feeding and gastric drainage with minimal manipulation of the jejunal tube.

  3. Difficulties with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG): a practical guide for the endoscopist.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, S

    2013-03-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a widely used and effective means of providing long-term nutrition in patients with inadequate oral intake. The demand for this intervention has risen steadily since the early 1990s. Endoscopists who perform PEG insertion have become increasingly concerned about inappropriate use of this intervention.

  4. Assessment of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Risako; Matsuura, Kazuto; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Katagiri, Katsunori; Imai, Takayuki; Ishida, Eichi; Saijyo, Shigeru; Kato, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    As nutrition support for head and neck cancer patients who receive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and whose oral cavity or pharynx is exposed to radiation, we perform percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement. We examined 235 patients who underwent PEG in our division between January 2003 and December 2009. For 64% of them, the purpose of performing PEG was nutrition support for CRT, of whom 74% actually used the tube. However, the situation varied according to the primary sites of patients. Forty-four percent of laryngeal cancer patients who underwent PEG actually used the tube, which was a significantly lower rate than others. Also, 81% of them removed the PEG tube within one year. These findings suggest that PEG-tube placement for nutrition support is not indispensable for all CRT cases. Therefore, we recommend performing PEG for oral, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal cancer patients. (author)

  5. Transthoracic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) after esophagectomy and gastric pull-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmiller, R F; Gillinov, A M; Kafonek, D

    1997-08-01

    The technique of transthoracic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement is described as an alternative to standard nasogastric tube drainage and inpatient observation for those patients who require gastric decompression after esophagectomy with gastric pull-up. Indications for transthoracic PEG tube insertion are distention and poor emptying of the intrathoracic stomach conduit with or without contained anastomotic leak, especially when it appears as if the problem will be slow to resolve. This technique is not advocated for patients with free anastomotic leaks. The potential advantages of this technique over standard nasogastric drainage are that it permits stable patients to be treated successfully as outpatients.

  6. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for enteral nutrition in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, L; Hauge, T

    2003-09-01

    The use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for enteral nutrition in patients admitted for stroke is difficult, varying and needs specific consideration. There is therefore need for more data on this patient group. We examined the indications, survival, tube removal and time with PEG in stroke patients and in other patients with PEG with the aim of providing guidance for the management of enteral nutrition via PEG in stroke patients. Retrospective assessment of data from all stroke patients and patients with other diseases (control group) who had received PEG for enteral nutrition during a period of 8.5 years. Eighty-three stroke patients with dysphagia received PEG after unsuccessful use of nasogastric tubes or long-term tube feeding. Early mortality rate was 19% in the stroke group, 26% in the older group (>74 years) and 12% in the younger group (60-74 years). The PEG tubes were later removed due to swallowing recovery in 20% of the older group and in 31% of the younger group. At 90 days, 50%-60% still needed PEG. The stroke patients were older compared to the control group (n = 115); 30-day mortality was similar but more patients recovered the ability to swallow. Stroke patients are older than other patients who receive PEG; 27% have swallowing recovery and more than 75% have long-term need for PEG. Nasogastric tubes often fail, and the need for early PEG placement (within 2 weeks) must be assessed in appropriate patients. The patient's prognosis, the objective of nutritional treatment, duration of dysphagia, age and comorbidity should all be taken into consideration.

  7. Acceptability and outcomes of the Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG tube placement- patients' and care givers' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Hasnain A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube has now become a preferred option for the long-term nutritional support device for patients with dysphagia. There is a considerable debate about the health issues related to the quality of life of these patients. Our aim of the study was to assess the outcome and perspectives of patients/care givers, about the acceptability of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. Methods This descriptive analytic study conducted in patients, who have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement during January 1998 till December 2004. Medical records of these patients were evaluated for their demographic characteristics, underlying diagnosis, indications and complications. Telephonic interviews were conducted till March 2005, on a pre-tested questionnaire to address psychological, social and physical performance status, of the health related quality of life issues. Results A total of 191 patients' medical records were reviewed, 120 (63% were males, and mean age was 63 years. Early complication was infection at PEG tube site in 6 (3% patients. In follow up over 365 ± 149 days, late complications (occurring 72 hours later were infection at PEG tube site in 29 (15 % patient and dislodgment/blockage of the tube in 26 (13.6%. Interviews were possible with 126 patients/caretakers. Karnofsky Performance Score of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 was found in 13(10%, 18(14%, 21(17%, 29(23% and 45(36% with p-value Conclusion PEG-tube placement was found to be relatively free from serious immediate and long- term complications. Majority of caregivers and patient felt that PEG-tube helped in feeding and prolonging the survival. Studies are needed to assess the real benefit in terms of actual nutritional gain and quality of life in such patients.

  8. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in a general hospital: prospective evaluation of indications, outcome, and randomised comparison of two tube designs.

    OpenAIRE

    Panos, M Z; Reilly, H; Moran, A; Reilly, T; Wallis, P J; Wears, R; Chesner, I M

    1994-01-01

    The indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and patient outcome, were examined prospectively in the setting of a general hospital. In the course of 26 months, 76 patients underwent PEG (median age 62 years (range 18-99)) and were followed up for 6887 patient days. The median (range) duration of PEG feeding was 93 (3-785) days. The procedure was carried out for neurological indications in 76% of cases (stroke 51%) and 53% of patients were severely malnourished (body mass inde...

  9. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in a general hospital: prospective evaluation of indications, outcome, and randomised comparison of two tube designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panos, M Z; Reilly, H; Moran, A; Reilly, T; Wallis, P J; Wears, R; Chesner, I M

    1994-11-01

    The indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and patient outcome, were examined prospectively in the setting of a general hospital. In the course of 26 months, 76 patients underwent PEG (median age 62 years (range 18-99)) and were followed up for 6887 patient days. The median (range) duration of PEG feeding was 93 (3-785) days. The procedure was carried out for neurological indications in 76% of cases (stroke 51%) and 53% of patients were severely malnourished (body mass index tube blockage 12%, and tube connector leak 5%. During seven days of observation, demands on nursing time for routine care of the PEG were the same as for nasogastric tube feeding, median (range) 21 (4-42) v 16 (4-40) min/day respectively, but in about half the latter cases the tube had to be replaced at least once. Over 15 months, 29 patients were randomised to receive a 1.9 mm inner, 2.9 mm (9F) outer diameter Fresenius and 27 a 3.0 mm inner, 4.0 mm (12F) outer diameter Bower polyurethane tube and were followed for 2920 and 2388 patient days respectively. There was no difference in the insertion time (median (range) 20 (10-45) v 24 (10-45) min respectively) or number of patients with complications (three v eight patients NS), although there were more minor mechanical problems (three v 12, p tube. The internal anchoring device of the 12F tube allowed its non-endoscopic removal, a method applicable too 16% of cases. No tubes were removed because of blockage.

  10. A randomised prospective comparison of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding after acute dysphagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, B.; Homer-Ward, M.; Donnelly, M. T.; Long, R. G.; Holmes, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding after acute dysphagic stroke. DESIGN--Randomised prospective study of inpatients with acute stroke requiring enteral nutrition. SETTING--One university hospital (Nottingham) and one district general hospital (Derby). SUBJECTS--30 patients with persisting dysphagia at 14 days after acute stroke: 16 patients were randomised to gastrostomy tube feeding and 14 to nasogastric tube feeding. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Six week mortality; amount of feed administered; change in nutritional state; treatment failure; and length of hospital stay. RESULTS--Mortality at 6 weeks was significantly lower in the gastrostomy group with two deaths (12%) compared with eight deaths (57%) in the nasogastric group (P nasogastric patients lost at least one day's feed. Nasogastric patients received a significantly (P tube showed greater improvement in nutritional state, according to several different criteria at six weeks compared with the nasogastric group. In the gastrostomy group the mean albumin concentration increased from 27.1 g/l (24.5 g/l to 29.7 g/l) to 30.1 g/l (28.3 g/l to 31.9 g/l). In contrast, among the nasogastric group there was a reduction from 31.4 g/l (28.6 g/l to 34.2 g/l) to 22.3 g/l (20.7 g/l to 23.9 g/l) (P nasogastric group (P indicates that early gastrostomy tube feeding is greatly superior to nasogastric tube feeding and should be the nutritional treatment of choice for patients with acute dysphagic stroke. PMID:8555849

  11. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube feeding; PEG tube care; Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding ... pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  12. PEG 3350 (Transipeg) versus lactulose in the treatment of childhood functional constipation: a double blind, randomised, controlled, multicentre trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuijl, W.; de Lorijn, F.; Verwijs, W.; Hogeman, P.; Heijmans, J.; Mäkel, W.; Taminiau, J.; Benninga, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Recently, polyethylene glycol ( PEG 3350) has been suggested as a good alternative laxative to lactulose as a treatment option in paediatric constipation. However, no large randomised controlled trials exist evaluating the efficacy of either laxative. Aims: To compare PEG 3350 (

  13. Herniation through gastrostomy site: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Herniation through gastrostomy site is a possible complication of PEG tube and clinicians should consider this possibility in patients with ongoing leakage, bulge or pain at the gastrostomy site. This entity can be safely corrected via laparoscopic or open techniques.

  14. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jye Hae; Rhie, Seonkyeong; Jeong, Su Jin

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) can improve nutritional status and reduce the amount of time needed to feed neurologically impaired children. We evaluated the characteristics, complications, and outcomes of neurologically impaired children treated with PEG. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 32 neurologically impaired children who underwent PEG between March 2002 and August 2008 at our medical center. Forty-two PEG procedures comprising 32 PEG insertions and 10 PEG exchanges, were performed. The mean follow-up time was 12.2 (6.6) months. Mean patient age was 9.4 (4.5) years. The main indications for PEG insertion were swallowing difficulty with GI bleeding due to nasogastric tube placement and/or the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The overall rate of complications was 47%, with early complications evident in 25% of patients and late complications in 22%. The late complications included one gastro-colic fistula, two cases of aggravated GERD, and four instances of wound infection. Among the 15 patients with histological evidence of GERD before PEG, 13 (87%) had less severe GERD, experienced no new aspiration events, and showed increased body weight after PEG treatment. PEG is a safe, effective, and relatively simple technique affording long-term enteral nutritional support in neurologically impaired children. Following PEG treatment, the body weight of most patients increased and the levels of vomiting, GI bleeding, and aspiration fell. We suggest that PEG with post-procedural observation be considered for enteral nutritional support of neurologically impaired children.

  15. Indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in complex tuberculosis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, G.; Poels, B. J. J.; van Altena, R.; Peters, F. T. M.

    OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous end oscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a widely used method for providing long-term administration of tube feeding. Different indications in relation to diseases, impairments and nutritional factors for PEG placement have been mentioned in guidelines. Treatment with PEG has not

  16. Abdominal Plain Film Before Gastrostomy Tube Placement to Predict Success of Percutaneous Endoscopic Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruijsen, J. M.; de Bruin, A.; Sekema, G.; Koetse, H. A.; van Rheenen, P. F.

    Objectives: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube feeding is a convenient method for children requiring long-term enteral nutrition. Preoperative fitness of the majority of pediatric PEG candidates is graded as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status >= III, indicating

  17. CIRSE Standards of Practice Guidelines on Gastrostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, James, E-mail: jasutcliffe@gmail.com; Wigham, Andrew, E-mail: a.wigham@doctors.org.uk [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Mceniff, Niall, E-mail: nmceniff@stjames.ie [St. James’s Hospital, Radiology (DiagIm) (Ireland); Dvorak, Petr, E-mail: petr-dvorak@email.cz [Faculty Hospital Charles University, Radiology Department (Czech Republic); Crocetti, Laura, E-mail: laura.crocetti@med.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Hepatology and Liver Transplants (Italy); Uberoi, Raman, E-mail: Raman.Uberoi@ouh.nhs.uk [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiology Department (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    PurposeSurgical Gastrostomy has been around since the 19th century but in 1980 the first successful percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was reported. A year later the first successful percutaneous gastrostomy was performed using fluoroscopic guidance. The technique for percutaneous insertion and the equipment used has been refined since then and it is now considered the gold standard for gastrostomy insertion. Here we present guidelines for image-guided enteral feeding tubes in adults.Material and MethodWe performed a review and analysis of the scientific literature, other national and international guidelines and expert opinion.ResultsStudies have shown fluoroscopic techniques have consistently higher success rates with lower rates of major complications than endoscopic techniques. However, the Achilles' heel of many fluoroscopic techniques is the requirement for smaller gastrostomy tube sizes resulting in them being more prone to blockages and thus requiring further intervention.ConclusionRadiological feeding tube insertion is a safe and effective procedure. Success rates are higher, and complication rates lower than PEG or surgical gastrostomy tube placement and innovative techniques for gastric and jejunal access mean that there are very few cases in which RIG is not possible. The principal weakness of radiologically inserted gastrostomies is the limitiation on tube size which leads to a higher rate of tube blockage. Per-oral image-guided gastrostomies have to an extent addressed this but have not been popularised. Currently many centres still consider endoscopic gastrostomies as the first line unless patients are too unwell to undergo this procedure or previous attempts have failed, in which case radioloically inserted gastrostomies are the technique of choice.

  18. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye Hae Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG can improve nutritional status and reduce the amount of time needed to feed neurologically impaired children. We evaluated the characteristics, complications, and outcomes of neurologically impaired children treated with PEG. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 32 neurologically impaired children who underwent PEG between March 2002 and August 2008 at our medical center. Forty-two PEG procedures comprising 32 PEG insertions and 10 PEG exchanges, were performed. The mean follow-up time was 12.2 (6.6 months. Results: Mean patient age was 9.4 (4.5 years. The main indications for PEG insertion were swallowing difficulty with GI bleeding due to nasogastric tube placement and/or the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. The overall rate of complications was 47%, with early complications evident in 25% of patients and late complications in 22%. The late complications included one gastro-colic fistula, two cases of aggravated GERD, and four instances of wound infection. Among the 15 patients with histological evidence of GERD before PEG, 13 (87% had less severe GERD, experienced no new aspiration events, and showed increased body weight after PEG treatment. Conclusion: PEG is a safe, effective, and relatively simple technique affording long-term enteral nutritional support in neurologically impaired children. Following PEG treatment, the body weight of most patients increased and the levels of vomiting, GI bleeding, and aspiration fell. We suggest that PEG with post-procedural observation be considered for enteral nutritional support of neurologically impaired children.

  19. Percutaneous Gastrostomy in Patients Who Fail or Are Unsuitable for Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, Frank J.; Varghese, Jose C.; Haslam, Philip J.; McGrath, Frank P.; Keeling, Frank; Lee, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is not possible or fails in some patients. We aimed to categorize the reasons for PEG failure, to study the success of percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG) in these patients, and to highlight the associated technical difficulties and complications.Methods: Forty-two patients (28 men, 14 women; mean age 60 years, range 18-93 years) in whom PEG failed or was not possible, underwent PRG. PEG failure or unsuitability was due to upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction or other pathology precluding PEG in 15 of the 42 patients, suboptimal transillumination in 22 of 42 patients, and advanced cardiorespiratory decompensation precluding endoscopy in five of 42 patients. T-fastener gastropexy was used in all patients and 14-18 Fr catheters were inserted.Results: PRG was successful in 41 of 42 patients (98%). CT guidance was required in four patients with altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy. PRG failed in one patient despite CT guidance. In the 16 patients with high subcostal stomachs who failed PEG because of inadequate transillumination, intercostal tube placement was required in three and cephalad angulation under the costal margin in six patients. Major complications included inadvertent placement of the tube in the peritoneal cavity. There was one case of hemorrhage at the gastrostomy site requiring transfusion and one case of superficial gastrostomy site infection requiring tube removal. Minor complications included superficial wound infection in six patients, successfully treated with routine wound toilette.Conclusion: We conclude that PRG is a safe, well-tolerated and successful method of gastrostomy and gastrojejunostomy insertion in the technically difficult group of patients who have undergone an unsuccessful PEG. In many such cases optimal clinical evaluation will suggest primary referral for PRG as the preferred option

  20. Comparison of percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy by using cone beam CT and endoscopic gastrostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Nyeong; Han, Young Min; Jin, Gong Yong; Choi, Eun Jeong; Song, Ji Soo

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG) by using cone beam CT and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). This study retrospectively reviewed 129 patients who underwent PRG (n = 53) and PEG (n = 76) over a 2-years period. The C-arm cone beam CT images were obtained from all PRG patients before the procedure in order to decide the safest accessing routes. The parameters including technical success rates, complication rates and tube migration rates were all analyzed according to statistical methods. The success rate of tube placement was higher in PRG than in PEG (100% to 93%, p = 0.08). Minor complications occurred in 5 patients of the PRG group (10%; 5/53, 3 wound infection, 2 blood oozing), and occurred in 6 patients of PEG group (7.9%; 6/76, 5 wound infection, 1 esophageal ulcer). Major complications occurred only in 5 patients of PEG group (6.6%; 5/76, 1 panperitonitis, 4 buried bumper syndrome). There were no statistical differences of minor and major complication rates in the two groups (respectively, p = 0.759, p = 0.078). Tube migration rate was lower in PRG than PEG group (7.5% vs. 38.2%, p < 0.005). PRG using cone beam CT is the effective and safe method, the cone beam CT provides the safest accessing route during gastrostomy. Less tube migration occurs in the PRG than in PEG.

  1. Peg-interferon plus nucleotide analogue treatment versus no treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load: a randomised controlled, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Niet, Annikki; Jansen, Louis; Stelma, Femke; Willemse, Sophie B; Kuiken, Sjoerd D; Weijer, Sebastiaan; van Nieuwkerk, Carin M J; Zaaijer, Hans L; Molenkamp, Richard; Takkenberg, R Bart; Koot, Maarten; Verheij, Joanne; Beuers, Ulrich; Reesink, Hendrik W

    2017-08-01

    Antiviral treatment is currently not recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. However, they might benefit from acquiring a functional cure (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] loss with or without formation of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen [anti-HBs]). We assessed HBsAg loss during peg-interferon-alfa-2a (peg-IFN) and nucleotide analogue combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. In this randomised controlled, open-label trial, patients were enrolled from the Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam, Netherlands. Eligible patients were HBsAg positive and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative for more than 6 months, could be treatment naive or treatment experienced, and had alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations less than 5 × upper limit of normal (ULN). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by a computerised randomisation programme (ALEA Randomisation Service) to receive peg-IFN 180 μg/week plus adefovir 10 mg/day, peg-IFN 180 μg/week plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 245 mg/day, or no treatment for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with serum HBsAg loss among those who received at least one dose of study drug or had at least one study visit (modified intention-to-treat population [mITT]). All patients have finished the initial study of 72 weeks and will be observed for up to 5 years of follow-up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00973219. Between Aug 4, 2009, and Oct 17, 2013, 167 patients were screened for enrolment, of whom 151 were randomly assigned (52 to peg-IFN plus adefovir, 51 to peg-IFN plus tenofovir, and 48 to no treatment). 46 participants in the peg-IFN plus adefovir group, 45 in the peg-IFN plus tenofovir group, and 43 in the no treatment group began treatment or observation and were included in the mITT population. At week 72, two (4%) patients in the peg-IFN plus adefovir group and two (4

  2. Gastric Outlet Obstruction Caused by Foley Catheter: A Complication when Substituting for Commercial Gastrostomy Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda B. Lewis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of using percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG for long-term enteral feeding is well established and commonly used. While the technique is relatively safe and simple, the gastrostomy tube itself may deteriorate or malfunction, requiring a replacement tube. We present a case of a 58-year-old woman who was found to have gastric outlet obstruction from the inflated balloon of a Foley catheter being used as a replacement for her PEG tube. This case illustrates a potential complication of using a Foley catheter in place of commercially available gastrostomy tubes.

  3. Problems Experienced by Family of Child with Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    OpenAIRE

    Figen Işık Esenay; Tufan Aslı Sezer; Şule Kurşun; Gamze Gülez Gedik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the most commonly used form of enteral nutrition in the long-term diet of children with dysphagia, neurological, gastrointestinal and esophageal diseases. Families may experience physical, psychological, social and economic problems in home care. In this study, families whose children with PEG were followed-up in a pediatric surgery clinic were examined with respect to the problems experienced in the home care. Materials and Method...

  4. Pneumoperitoneum with Subcutaneous Emphysema after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Iscan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a safe way for enteral nutrition in selected patients. Generally, complications of this procedure are very rare but due to patients general health condition, delayed diagnosis and treatment of complications can be life threatening. In this study, we present a PEG-related massive pneumoperitoneum and subcutaneous emphysema in a patient with neuro-Behçet.

  5. [The PEG: why wait?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja Aguayo, E; Delgado Alvira, R; Elías Pollina, J; González Esgueda, A; Esteban Ibarz, J A

    2010-01-01

    The swallowing disorder is an impediment to feed the patient. The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) offers importants advantages over nasogastric tube feeding in patients who need long-term enteral nutrition with difficulty to swallow and to failure to thrive. We have achieved 40 PEG in our department over the past 10 years. We registered date of the age, weight, indications, types of PEG, the time to first change, evolution of weight and percentiles and the complications. The average age of our patients was 5 years, 30% under 1 year. We used mostly tubes between 9 and 15 Fr and increasing the size according to nutritional needs. The average weight at the time of PEG placement was 13 kg. The main indications were the impossibility to swallow and failure to thrive and the principal diagnosis was the encephalopathy in 45% of cases. The surgical technique was successful in 100%. Of the complications, only two patients required surgery, a gastrocolic fistula and a laparotomy about broken tube of gastrostomy that has been caught in the cecum. In our series we reported 11 cases of mortality from causes unrelated to the gastrotmy. The PEG is a good alternative to nasogastric tube in patients with swallowing disorders or failure to thrive in chronic diseases, even in children under one year. The early placement of the PEG support the growth development in these patients with chronic disease who require enteral nutrition for long periods. Probably, the time of placement should be more precocious in chronic patients as well tolerated and may have a long life with a good care.

  6. Pain and Swelling after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Removal: An Unexpected Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Queirós

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrostomy site metastization is considered an uncommon complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG placement in patients with head and neck tumours, but it is important to consider this possibility when evaluating gastrostomy-related symptoms. The authors present the case of a 40-year-old male with excessive alcohol consumption and active smoking, diagnosed with a stage IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The patient developed a paraneoplastic demyelinating motor polyneuropathy that, associated with tumour mass effect, caused dysphagia with need for nasogastric tube feeding. Treatment with radiotherapy and then chemoradiotherapy was administered and a PEG was placed with the pull method. Cancer remission and resolution of polyneuropathy was achieved, so PEG was removed. Two weeks later, the patient presented with pain and swelling at the gastrostomy site suggesting a local abscess, with improvement after drainage and antibiotic therapy. After 1 month, there was a tumour mass at the gastrostomy site and an oropharyngeal cancer metastasis was diagnosed. The patient underwent surgical excision of abdominal wall metastasis and abdominal disease was controlled. Nevertheless, there was subsequent oropharyngeal neoplasia recurrence and the patient died 6 months later. This case raises the discussion about gastrostomy placement methods that could avoid gastrostomy site metastization, the possible differential diagnosis, and diagnostic workout. Surgical resection may allow metastatic disease control, but by primary disease evolution greatly affects prognosis.

  7. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in the Enteral Feeding of the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Lin Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Today we are faced with an aging society that may develop malnutrition because of dysphagia related to dementia, stroke, and malignancy seen often in the elderly. The preferred form of nutritional supplementation for this group is enteral nutrition, and the most appropriate long-term method is by use of a gastrostomy. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG was first introduced in 1980 as an alternative to the traditional operative procedure and rapidly became the preferred procedure. In geriatric patients, the principal indications are neurological dysphagia and malnutrition, related to an underlying disease or anorexia-cachexia in very elderly. PEG is contraindicated in the presence of respiratory distress, previous gastric resection, total esophageal obstruction, coagulation disorders and sepsis in the elderly. Common complications include wound infection, leakage, hemorrhage, and fistula in the general population, but aspiration pneumonia is the major case of death in this group. Risks and complications of PEG must be discussed with patients and their families; and the decision for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion should only be made after careful consideration and discussion between managing physicians, allied health professionals, and the patient and/or family. Four ethical principles may help make feeding decisions: beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice. Attentive long-term care after tube replacement is mandatory. Acceptance of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement by patients and their families tends to increase once favorable outcomes are offered.

  8. Gastric Outlet and Duodenal Obstruction as a Complication of Migrated Gastrostomy Tube: Report of Two Cases and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jamil; Sunkara, Tagore; Yarlagadda, Krishna Sowjanya; Rawla, Prashanth; Gaduputi, Vinaya

    2018-02-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a well-recognized procedure for providing enteral feeding and long-term enteral nutritional support. Although it is mostly well tolerated, complications, sometimes mechanical in nature, do occur. Rare, and often initially unrecognized, late complications of PEG tube placement are gastric outlet obstruction and duodenal obstruction. Simple adjustment of the gastrostomy tube will lead to the improvement of the patient's clinical condition and prevent further complications. Physicians should be aware of and suspect gastric outlet and duodenal obstruction as rare late complications of PEG tube placement. Simple adjustment of the gastrostomy tube can resolve the problem without unnecessary medical tests and overly aggressive care. Here, we present two interesting cases of elderly women who developed mechanical obstruction after inadvertent migration of the gastrostomy tube.

  9. A feasibility study incorporating a pilot randomised controlled trial of oral feeding plus pre-treatment gastrostomy tube versus oral feeding plus as-needed nasogastric tube feeding in patients undergoing chemoradiation for head and neck cancer (TUBE trial): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleri, Vinidh; Wood, Joshua; Patterson, Joanne; Stocken, Deborah D; Cole, Mike; Vale, Luke; Franks, Jeremy; Guerrero-Urbano, Teresa; Donnelly, Rachael; Barclay, Stewart; Rapley, Tim; Rousseau, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    There are 7000 new cases of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC) treated by the NHS each year. Stage III and IV HNSCC can be treated non-surgically by radio therapy (RT) or chemoradiation therapy (CRT). CRT can affect eating and drinking through a range of side effects with 90 % of patients undergoing this treatment requiring nutritional support via gastrostomy (G) or nasogastric (NG) tube feeding. Long-term dysphagia following CRT is a primary concern for patients. The effect of enteral feeding routes on swallowing function is not well understood, and the two feeding methods have, to date, not been compared to assess which leads to a better patient outcome. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing these two options with particular emphasis on patient willingness to be randomised and clinician willingness to approach eligible patients. This is a mixed methods multicentre study to establish the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial comparing oral feeding plus pre-treatment gastrostomy versus oral feeding plus as required nasogastric tube feeding in patients with HNSCC. A total of 60 participants will be randomised to the two arms of the study (1:1 ratio). The primary outcome of feasibility is a composite of recruitment (willingness to randomise and be randomised) and retention. A qualitative process evaluation investigating patient, family and friends and staff experiences of trial participation will also be conducted alongside an economic modelling exercise to synthesise available evidence and provide estimates of cost-effectiveness and value of information. Participants will be assessed at baseline (pre-randomisation), during CRT weekly, 3 months and 6 months. Clinicians are in equipoise over the enteral feeding options for patients being treated with CRT. Swallowing outcomes have been identified as a top priority for patients following treatment and this trial would inform

  10. [Severe diarrhea after the original well-functioning percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube was replaced by a Mic-Key button].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Susanne Wigh; Eriksen, Jan; Kristensen, Kurt

    2006-03-06

    We report two cases of colocutaneous fistula as a complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in small children. Both children developed severe osmotic diarrhoea immediately after the original PEG tube was replaced by a Mic-Key button which subsequently migrated to the colon.

  11. Polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) tube used as a support conduit in open gastrostomy: report of a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaeekia, Alireza; Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Abbasi, Hamid R

    2010-01-01

    When percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or percutaneous radiographic gastrostomy (PRG) are not possible or fail, surgical gastrostomy would be the convenient method. Stamm's procedure has increasingly replaced other methods of surgical gastrostomy (SG). However, this procedure has various complications. In this study we used a Gore-Tex tube as a conduit to support a French 18 catheter for gastrostomy and evaluated its safety, efficacy, and usefulness in decreasing postoperative complications. Forty patients with CNS trauma, swallowing dysfunction or esophageal obstruction and in whom PEG had either failed or was not possible were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two equal groups of Gore-Tex assisted modified Stamm's gastrostomy (GAMSG) and the conventional Stamm gastrostomy (CSG). In the GAMSG group we initially secured a 6-10 cm length and 8mm diameter tubular Gore-Tex to the gastric and abdominal wall as a conduit and then passed a French 18 catheter through it. Conventional Stamm procedure was applied to all patients in CSG group. Groups were compared for insertion times, pain, dislodgment, leakage rate, surrounding skin erythema and major complications. These patients were followed monthly for 6 months. The overall complication rate after GAMSG group was 5.3% (0% major) compared with 33.3% for Stamm gastrostomies (11.2% major) (pGore-Tex conduit as a support for a feeding tube in Stamm's method effectively lowers complication rates without significantly increasing operation time or expenses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy versus nasogastric tube feeding for adults with swallowing disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Claudio A R; Andriolo, Régis B; Bennett, Cathy; Lustosa, Suzana A S; Matos, Delcio; Waisberg, Daniel R; Waisberg, Jaques

    2015-05-22

    A number of conditions compromise the passage of food along the digestive tract. Nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding is a classic, time-proven technique, although its prolonged use can lead to complications such as lesions to the nasal wing, chronic sinusitis, gastro-oesophageal reflux, and aspiration pneumonia. Another method of infusion, percutaneous endoscopy gastrostomy (PEG), is generally used when there is a need for enteral nutrition for a longer time period. There is a high demand for PEG in patients with swallowing disorders, although there is no consistent evidence about its effectiveness and safety as compared to NGT. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PEG compared with NGT for adults with swallowing disturbances. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS from inception to January 2014, and contacted the main authors in the subject area. There was no language restriction in the search. We planned to include randomised controlled trials comparing PEG versus NGT for adults with swallowing disturbances or dysphagia and indications for nutritional support, with any underlying diseases. The primary outcome was intervention failure (e.g. feeding interruption, blocking or leakage of the tube, no adherence to treatment). We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. For dichotomous and continuous variables, we used risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD), respectively with the random-effects statistical model and 95% confidence interval (CI). We assumed statistical heterogeneity when I² > 50%. We included 11 randomised controlled studies with 735 participants which produced 16 meta-analyses of outcome data. Meta-analysis indicated that the primary outcome of intervention failure, occurred in lower proportion of participants with PEG compared to NGT (RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.59, eight studies, 408 participants, low quality evidence) and this difference was statistically significant. For this outcome

  13. [Enteral alimentation at home: why PEG now?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Hanyu, N; Kashiwagi, H; Kubo, T; Aoki, T

    1996-12-01

    The history of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is relatively short. In 1980, a report entitled "Gastrostomy without laparotomy: A percutaneous endoscopic technique" by Ponsky and Gaudere was first published in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Thereafter, PEG soon saw widespread use in Western countries because of its clinical efficacy and economy. It has been performed in about 170,000 cases annually in the US. In contrast, its spread in Japan has been extremely slow: only about 10,000 cases have undergone this procedure annually, and this number accounted for less than 5% of patients receiving enteral alimentation. The reason why PEG has not spread may be the medical insurance system in Japan and the local distaste for operation scarring. However, in consideration of the unprecedented ageing of society that is surely coming in the near future, the role of PEG in Japan must be reexamined. In this report, we presented the methodology of enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG, giving special consideration to: (1) "What points are improved by using enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG in various diseases; (2) dysphagia due to cerebral angiopathy; (3) terminal cancer; (4) otolaryngological diseases; and (5) Crohn disease. We also discussed "Why PEG is important now?" in performing enteral alimentation at home.

  14. [PERCUTANEOUS ENCOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle A, Martín

    1998-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is an increasingly utilized method of enteral nutrition in patients who for a variety of reasons, are unable to swallow or possess a high risk of aspiration. This method has replaced both surgical gastrostomy and the prolonged used of nasogastric tubes since its creation, in 1980. The most frequent indications are severe neurological diseases such as cerebrovascular accidents, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis and other processes such as severe trauma, multi-infarct dementia or diverse head and neck tumors. The procedure involves the performance of an upper endoscopy in the usual manner, followed by an insertion of a plastic catheter percutaneously in the area of maximum contact between the gastric and abdominal walls, under direct endoscopic view. Then, a guidewire is introduced through the lumen of the catheter and is enlaced by a polypectomy snare passed through the working channel of the endoscope, utilizing the guidewire to tie the distal portion of the feeding tube, which will be pulled to its final position. The complications associated to this procedure are minimal, most of them related to the endoscopy itself, like reactions to sedation, aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions, etc. There is also a possibility of local infection at the insertion site, perforation of the colon and excessive leaking of gastric contents around the tube, and for these reasons the procedure should only be performed by trained physicians, familiarized with the management of these events. The goal of this review is to illustrate the reader about the indications, contral indications, complications and general considerations in the patients who will have a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

  15. Modified Radiology-Guided Percutaneous Gastrostomy (MRPG) for Patients with Complete Obstruction of the Upper Digestive Tract and Who are without Endoscopic or Nasogastric Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Siu Cheung; Liu, Kar Wai; Liao, Chun Ta; Lee, Tsung Shih; Ng, Shu Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center and Keelung Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Chu, Winnie Chiu Wing [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-04-15

    We wanted to report on our experience with modified radiology-guided percutaneous gastrostomy (MRPG) without endoscopic or nasogastric access for treating patients with complete obstruction of the upper digestive tract. Fourteen oncology patients (13 had hypopharyngeal cancer and 1 had upper esophageal cancer) with complete obstruction of the upper digestive tract were recruited. Conventional percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and radiologic (fluoroscopy-guided) percutaneous gastrostomy (RPG) were not feasible in all the patients. An MRPG technique (with a combination of ultrasound, an air enema and fluoroscopic guidance) was performed in these patients. We achieved successfully percutaneous gastrostomy using the modified technique in all patients without any major or minor complications after the procedure. A modified radiology-guided percutaneous gastrostomy technique can be safely performed in patients who failed to receive conventional PEG or RPG due to the absence of nasogastric access in the completely obstructed upper digestive tract

  16. Indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and survival in old adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Faxén-Irving

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many diseases striking old adults result in eating difficulties. Indications for selecting individuals for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG are unclear and everybody may not benefit from the procedure. Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate indications for and survival after PEG insertion in patients older than 65 years. Design and Methods : A retrospective analysis including age, gender, diagnosis, indication, and date of death was made in 201 consecutive individuals, 94 male, mean age 79±7 years, who received a nutritional gastrostomy. Results: Dysphagia was present in 86% of the patients and stroke was the most common diagnosis (49%. Overall median survival was 123 days and 30-day mortality was 22%. Patients with dementia and Mb Parkinson had the longest survival (i.e. 244 and 233 days, while those with other neurological diseases, and head and neck malignancy had the shortest (i.e. 75 and 106 days. There was no difference in mortality in patients older or younger than 80 years, except in patients with dementia. Conclusions: Old age should not be a contraindication for PEG. A high 30-day mortality indicates that there is a need of better criteria for selection and timing of PEG insertion in the elderly.

  17. [Efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiwen; Gong, Sitang; Yang, Min; Chen, Peiyu; Xu, Zhaohui; Liang, Cuiping; Fang, Tiefu; Ren, Lu; Liu, Liying; Li, Jiexia; Geng, Lanlan

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in pediatric patients. From October 2011 to October 2014, children in the gastrointestinal ward of Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center received PEG or jejunal tube PEG(JET-PEG). The success rate, operation time were recorded. The changes of their weight, enteral nutrition calories and the incidence of pneumonia before and after the first 6 months of operation were compared. Follow-up was conducted until October 2014, the recent and long term complications, the length of indwelling time, the replacement or removal of the tube were recorded, the patients swallowing function or the primary disease's outcomes were observed. Of the 13 cases, 10 were male, 3 were female, their average age was 2 years (range 1.8 months-9 years). We performed PEG for 12 of the patients who had congenital craniofacial problems that led to feeding difficulties or recurrent cough and pneumonia (6/12), or neurological disorders (6/12) with inability to swallow, and in one case JET-PEG was performed, this child suffered from chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction with vomiting and abdominal distension. The gastrostomy was successful in all the patients through one operation, the average operation time of PEG was (25 ± 3) minutes, JET-PEG was 60 minutes. One local skin infection was noted, no long-term complication occurred. In the first 6 months after operation, all the patients gained weight((5.5-30.5) kg postoperation vs. (3.0-30.0) kg preoperation), and 12 cases' enteral nutrition calories increased (from (209-502) to(272-543) kJ/(kg·d)), the incidence of pneumonia decreased in the children who had recurrent pneumonia before the operation (from (0-1.5) to (0-0.16) per month). Until October 2014, their average length of gastric tube indwelling time was 17.8 months (range 4-36 months). In 4 cases PEG tube was removed when they could eat completely independently, the other 9 needed enteral vein nutrition via PEG

  18. [Button gastrostomy in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Iu A; Novozhilov, V A; Rasputin, A A; Us, G P; Kuznetsova, N N

    2015-01-01

    For the period January 2002 to December 2013 it was performed 84 interventions for introduction of gastrostomy tube. The first group included 24 open operations and the second group had 60 laparoscopic operations by using of button devices MIC-KEY (Kimberly-Clark, Roswell, USA) in neonates and infants. Statistically significant difference was not observed during comparison of demographic data of patients. Differences in groups were found in statistical analysis of intra- and postoperative parameters (p<0.05). Mean duration of surgery in the first group was 37.29 min, in the second group - 23.97 min. Time to start of feeding and transition to complete enteral nutrition was less in patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery than after open intervention (10.5 and 19.13 hours, 23.79 and 35.88 hours respectively; p<0.05). It was revealed augmentation of hospital stay in the 1st group in comparison with the 2(nd) group (11.71 and 7.09 days respectively; p<0.05). Frequency of postoperative complications was 18.33% in the 2(nd) group and 24% - in the 1st group (p<0.05). The authors consider that button devices are simply and effective technique of gastrostomy establishment in children. It is associated with minimal surgery duration and allows to start early enteral nutrition in comparison with open techniques.

  19. Nutritional support teams increase percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy uptake in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Sanders, Leanne; Fraser, Robert J L

    2012-11-28

    To examine factors influencing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) uptake and outcomes in motor neuron disease (MND) in a tertiary care centre. Case notes from all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of MND who had attended the clinic at the Repatriation General Hospital between January 2007 and January 2011 and who had since died, were audited. Data were extracted for demographics (age and gender), disease characteristics (date of onset, bulbar or peripheral predominance, complications), date and nature of discussion of gastrostomy insertion, nutritional status [weight measurements, body mass index (BMI)], date of gastrostomy insertion and subsequent progress (duration of survival) and quality of life (QoL) [Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R)]. In addition, the type of clinician initiating the discussion regarding gastrostomy was recorded as Nutritional Support Team (involved in providing nutrition input viz Gastroenterologist, Speech Pathologist, Dietitian) and other (involved in non-nutritional aspects of patient care). Factors affecting placement and outcomes including length of survival, change in weight and QoL were determined. Case records were available for all 86 patients (49 men, mean age at diagnosis 66.4 years). Thirty-eight patients had bulbar symptoms and 48 had peripheral disease as their presenting feature. Sixty-six patients reported dysphagia. Thirty-one patients had undergone gastrostomy insertion. The major indications for PEG placement were dysphagia and weight loss. Nine patients required immediate full feeding, whereas 17 patients initially used the gastrostomy to supplement oral intake, 4 for medication administration and 1 for hydration. Initially the PEG regime met 73% ± 31% of the estimated total energy requirements, increasing to 87% ± 32% prior to death. There was stabilization of weight in patients undergoing gastrostomy [BMI at 3 mo (22.6 ± 2.2 kg/m(2)) and 6 mo (22.5 ± 2.0 kg/m(2

  20. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-06-15

    Jun 15, 1991 ... Indications, technique and complication:s at Groote Schuur Hospital. ,. J. ZAK, D. A. ... nasogastric intubation. PEG may also be used for gastro .... Gastric haemorrhage2. Haematoma2. Upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhageS. Fatal necrotising fasciitis6. Minor. Wound infection. Tube pUlled out. lIeus/Ogilvie's.

  1. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in the neurosurgical intensive care unit: complications and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Demet; Gercek, Arzu; Gencosmanoglu, Rasim; Tozun, Nurdan

    2007-01-01

    Even with a functioning gastrointestinal tract, it is not always easy to initiate oral feeding in some neurosurgical patients because of their persistently depressed neurologic status or severe lower cranial nerve palsies. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) may be required for long-term feeding in these patients. The purpose of the present study is to report our experience with PEG chosen for establishing an enteral route in patients of neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU). The outcome and complications of PEG in neurosurgical ICU patients of Marmara University Institute of Neurological Science between January 2001 and November 2006 were retrospectively evaluated. Thirty-one patients, with the median age of 51 years (range, 14-78 years) underwent PEG placement. PEG was placed before the craniotomy in 2 patients and after in 29. Indications for PEG were absent gag reflex in 10 patients and low Glasgow Coma Scale score in 21. Before the PEG tube insertion, 18 patients had enteral nutrition by a nasogastric tube and 10 had parenteral nutrition (PN), with a median duration of 14.5 (range, 4-60) and 12 (range, 7-25) days, respectively. Two patients accidentally pulled out the gastrostomy tubes 10 and 11 days after insertion. Buried bumper syndrome developed in 1 patient. Two patients died 8 and 34 days after the procedure in the neurosurgical ICU. Twenty-nine patients were discharged from the hospital while being fed via the PEG tubes. In 11 patients who were able to resume oral feeding, the tube was removed, with a median interval of 62 (range, 25-150) days. Procedure-related mortality, 30-day mortality, and overall mortality of the patients were 0%, 6.4%, and 45%, respectively. PEG is a safe and well-tolerated gastrostomy method for neurosurgical ICU patients with depressed neurologic state or severe lower cranial nerve palsies.

  2. Long-term results of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Aksoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In order to provide enteral nutrition for patientsin intensive-care units who cannot be fed orally, weaimed to present our percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy(PEG experience, which is a minimally invasivemethod.Materials and methods: In this study, 700 patients whoapplied to our clinic between January 2000 and June2011 and who had a PEG because they could not be fedorally were retrospectively assessed in terms of indications,complications, and results.Results: Among these patients, 400 (57% were maleand 300 (43% were female. Most of the patients withfeeding problems had also neurologically caused pathologies.After the PEG, 50 (7.1% patients had under-skininfections, 18 (2.5% patients had leakage from the edgeof the PEG, and 16 (2.0% patients had bleeding from theedge of the PEG.Conclusion: PEG is a secure and effective nutritionmethod as it can be performed with a minimally invasiveprocedure and it has low mortality and morbidity.

  3. [The effects of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding in patients with swallowing disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Y; Nakayoshi, T; Kuramochi, A; Masuda, K; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, Y; Ikegami, M; Kawakami, M

    2001-12-01

    Because the number of patients who need home healthcare has recently increased in Japan, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) will soon become more popular. This study aims to examine the effects of enteral alimentation via PEG. The subjects were 18 patients who underwent PEG instead of receiving total parental nutrition (TPN) (TPN-to-PEG group), 13 patients who underwent PEG instead of receiving enteral nutrition through a naso gastric tube (NG-to-PEG group), and 11 healthy volunteers (control). Morphological changes of the small bowel mucosa and activities of daily life (ADL) after PEG were also investigated. In the TPN-to-PEG group, the serum level of total protein and albumin, length of duodenal villi, ration of positive proliferative cells, width of duodenal microvilli and ADL markedly increased. In the NG-to-PEG group, body weight and ADL were markedly improved after PEG. Nutrition via PEG is superior to TPN or enteral nutrition with an NG tube. I conclude that PEG will become the first choice for improving nutrition in patients with dysphasia and will contribute to continuous enteral nutrition for home care.

  4. CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy: success rate, early and late complications; CT-gesteuerte perkutane Gastrostomie: Technischer Erfolg, Frueh- und Spaetkomplikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, A.; Voelk, M. [Radiologie, Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm (Germany); Strotzer, M. [Radiologie, Klinikum Hohe Warte (Germany); Feuerbach, S.; Rogler, G. [Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Regensburg (Germany); Seitz, J. [Radiologie, MVZ Dr. Neumaier und Kollegen (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Purpose: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG) are the standard methods of ensuring long-term enteral food intake in patients with dysphagia caused by neoplasia or neurological disorders. High-grade obstructions of the upper digestive tract or inadequate transillumination can prevent PEG. CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) represents a special technique for enabling gastrostomy in patients for whom the endoscopic method is impossible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy. Materials and Methods: CT-guided PG was performed in 83 patients, mostly with malignancy of the upper respiratory or digestive tract. Medical records for these patients were reviewed, and the results and complications of the CT-guided PG were analyzed retrospectively. Complications were grouped into four categories: Major and minor complications as well as early and late complications. Results: In 95.2 % of all cases (79/83), CT-guided PG was successful in the first attempt. Within the first 3 days, 5 major complications including 4 tube dislocations and one case of peritonitis were found in 4/79 patients (5.1 %). One of these patients experienced two early major complications. Early minor complications, mainly local skin irritations and temporary stomachache, were observed in 31 patients (39.2 %). Three days after CT-guided PG, 4 cases of major complications were documented, yielding a total rate of major complications was 8.7 % (7/79). Hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion or perforation after gastrostomy was not observed. 29.1 % of the patients (23/79) experienced late minor complications. (orig.)

  5. Pediatric gastrostomy tubes and techniques: making safer and cleaner choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Cabrini; Carr, Benjamin; Biddle, Kassia Zalewski; Jarboe, Marcus; Gadepalli, Samir K

    2017-12-01

    Gastrostomy tube placement is a common procedure that can be accomplished with a variety of techniques, each with its attendant complications. In an effort to standardize practice at our institution, we retrospectively evaluated complications including early dislodgement requiring operative repair, leaks, and granulation tissue to determine the optimal technique. A retrospective cohort study (June 2008-July 2014) evaluating children (technique, and postoperative complications within 120 days. The seven techniques in use at our institution were categorized into three groups: standard pull-type techniques for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies (PEGs), "push" techniques using transabdominal sutures or T-fasteners for securement of the stomach, and "fascial" techniques using sutures directly from the stomach to the abdominal fascia at the stoma site. Descriptive statistics were analyzed using t test and Kruskal-Wallis tests as appropriate, and outcomes with P technique, 245 patients underwent fascial placement (54.4%), 112 underwent push (24.9 %), and 93 underwent PEG (20.7%). Push and fascial techniques were less likely become dislodged than PEG, with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.14 (confidence interval CI 0.02-0.66) and 0.31 (CI 0.11-0.83), respectively. Fascial techniques had more granulation tissue than either push or PEG pull methods, OR 2.39 (CI 1.20-3.36), and more leakage, OR 2.22 (CI 1.19-4.15). Dislodgement is most likely with PEG techniques. Granulation and leakage are most likely with fascial suture techniques. Push techniques are associated with the lowest complication rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Laparoscopy-assisted percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy using a "Funada-kit II" device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Miyano, Go; Shiyanagi, Satoko; Lane, Geoffrey J; Yamataka, Atsuyuki

    2012-09-01

    We aimed at assessing the effect of using a "Funada-kit II" device during laparoscopy-assisted percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (Lap-PEG), by reviewing 29 cases of Lap-PEG we performed from 2001 to 2011. We started using the "Funada-kit II" (CREATE MEDIC CO., Kanagawa, Japan) device with two parallel needles to puncture the stomach and assist suturing the anterior gastric wall to the anterior abdominal wall during Lap-PEG in 2011 (F-PEG). By introducing a loop through the lumen of one needle which allows placement of a suture introduced through the lumen of the other needle. Once repeated, the stomach can be pexied at two points, approximately 2 cm apart. We compared Lap-PEG (n = 23) with F-PEG (n = 6) where the mean ages and weights at surgery and sex ratios were similar. All cases were uneventful without intraoperative complications, although one postoperative wound infection occurred in a Lap-PEG case. There were no differences in the duration of analgesia, time taken to commence tube feeding, and return to full feeding. However, mean operating time was significantly shorter in F-PEG (28.1 min) versus Lap-PEG (46.1 min) p < 0.05. As per results F-PEG would appear to be as safe as Lap-PEG, but much quicker.

  7. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy following previous abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L

    1984-01-01

    During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334

  8. Endoscopic gastrostomy: critical analysis in a regional referral hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, Gabriel Marques; Filho, Tiago Franco; Coca, Diego Soares; Cunha, Marco Antonio; Sato Uemura, Ricardo; Furuya Júnior, Carlos Kyoshi; Aparício, Dayse; Artifon, Everson L A

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a safe and effective endoscopic surgical procedure for enteral access and gastrointestinal decompression, and it is an excellent alternative to surgical gastrostomy. There are various clinical indications and these mainly include the need for prolonged enteral nutritional support due to complications from neurological, geriatric and oncological diseases and decompression of the gastrointestinal tract. Although safe and effective, a number of possible complications relating to the time (early or late complications) and severity (minor or major complications) may occur. To evaluate the indications and complications relating to PEG among selected patients at the digestive endoscopy service of a regional referral hospital. A retrospective study on patients who underwent PEG between May 2013 and April 2015 was conducted. The patients were identified through searching the medical records and using a standardized data form. 53 cases were analyzed. The average age was 70.47 years and 60.37% of the patients werewomen. The main indication identified was the need for enteral nutritional support, and 73.58% of these indications were derived from neurological complications, 15.09% from geriatric complications and 9.43% from oncological complications and 1.88% were due to gastrointestinal decompression. Complications occurred in 24.52% of the cases: 23.07% were major and 76.93% were minor. Regarding the time, there were eight cases of late complications and five of early complications. PEG was shown to be an effective and safe method for enteral access. The indication and complication rates were similar to those reported in the literature.

  9. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy. PMID:27462190

  10. Gastric outlet obstruction: An unusual adverse event of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barosa, Rita; Santos, Carla; Fonseca, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dear Editor, A 75-year-old woman living in a nursing home presented with a 24-hour history of abdominal cramping and vomiting. Medical history was remarkable for dementia and a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was performed 3 years earlier. The day before the admission the feeding tube was accidentally pulled out and a Foley catheter was placed in order to avoid stoma closure. On physical examination, there was extravasation of the gastric content through the stoma. The base of the "Y" of the Foley catheter was introduced in the gastric stoma and a pulling sensation was felt when it was mobilized. The remainder abdominal examination was unremarkable. On esophagogastroduodenoscopy the Foley catheter was identified passing the pylorus and pulling duodenal bulb towards the antrum (Figure 1). Advancing the scope through the duodenum, the Foley balloon impacted in the duodenal apex was identified. There was no mucosal injury so the balloon was deflated and the catheter removed. A 14 Fr. Bard PEG tube was latter placed to allow a reduction in the calibre of the stoma. Gastric outlet obstruction is an unusual adverse event of PEG tubes. In adults it is usually related to Foley catheters use as peristalsis can pull the balloon into the duodenum in the absence of an external bumper. A clinical picture of abdominal cramping, vomiting and resistance to the attempt of percutaneous reposition should raise the suspicion of gastrostomy tube migration through the pylorus. Foley catheters are easily available and some may use it to prevent gastrostomy closure after accidentally PEG tube extraction. We have performed more than 800 PEG and assisted several cases of gastric outlet obstruction and even stoma damage in this setting. This case emphasises the importance of receiving an early PEG tube with external bumper replacement to prevent this adverse event.

  11. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: An update on its indications, management, complications, and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucendo, Alfredo J; Friginal-Ruiz, Ana Belén

    2014-12-01

    Numerous disorders impairing or diminishing a patient's ability to swallow may benefit from a PEG tube placement. This is considered the elective feeding technique if a functional digestive system is present. A PubMed-based search restricted to the English literature from the last 20 years was conducted. References in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. PEG feeding has consistently demonstrated to be more effective and safe than nasogastric tube feeding, having also replaced surgical and radiological gastrostomy techniques for long term feeding. PEG is considered a minimally invasive procedure to ensure an adequate source for enteral nutrition in institutionalized and at home patients. Acute and chronic conditions associated with risk of malnutrition and dysphagia benefit from PEG placement: Beyond degenerative neuro-muscular disorders, an increasing body of evidence supports the advantages of PEG tubes in patients with head and neck cancer and in a wide range of situations in pediatric settings.The safety of PEG placement under antithrombotic medication is discussed. While antibiotic prophylaxis reduces peristomal wound infection rates, co-trimoxazole solutions administered through a newly inserted catheter constitutes an alternative to intravenous antibiotics. Early feeding (3-6 hours) after PEG placement firmly supports on safety evidences, additionally resulting in reduced costs and hospital stays. Complications of PEG are rare and the majority prevented with appropriated nursing cares. PEG feeding provides the most valuable access for nutrition in patients with a functional gastrointestinal system. Its high effectiveness, safety and reduced cost underlie increasing worldwide popularity.

  12. Effectiveness of prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for oropharyngeal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Masanori; Tanimoto, Hitoshi; Saito, Miki; Otsuki, Naoki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Kiyota, Naomi; Okuno, Shinya; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Patients with head and neck carcinoma are often provided concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), but they experience severe mucositis and dysphagia. These side effects can lead to decreased oral intake, resulting in interruption of treatment. In our hospital, from September 2007, all patients with oropharyngeal cancer who were to receive CCRT, were principally offered percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) before the start of treatment, and tube feeding was started when swallowing became impaired, to accomplish the treatment as planned. To evaluate the effect of prophylactic PEG, outcome measures in this study included the frequency of unplanned break from CCRT, nutritional deterioration and required analgesic during CCRT, complication of PEG, and patient satisfaction between 15 patients with PEG and 11 patients without PEG as a control group. Although no significant weight loss occurred in either group, there were fewer patients with a Body Mass Index <18.5 in the PEG group after CCRT than in the control group. Regarding the treatment, most patients were satisfied with their PEG and considered that prophylactic PEG was necessary and helpful in completing the CCRT. This study suggests that prophylactic PEG helps patients to complete CCRT both mentally and nutritionally. (author)

  13. Clinical significance of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for patients with severe craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Hanggen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the application of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG to patients with severe craniocerebral injury for the purpose of nutritional support therapy and pulmonary infection prevention. Methods: A total of 43 patients with severe craniocerebral injury admitted to our department from January 2008 to December 2012 received PEG followed by nutritional therapy. There were other 82 patients who were prescribed nasal-feeding nutrition. Nutrition status was evaluated by comparing serum albumin levels, and the incidence of pulmonary infection 1 week before and 2 weeks after operation was identifi ed and compared. Results: Both PEG and nasal-feeding nutrition therapies have significantly levated serum albumin levels (P<0.05. Serum albumin levels before and after nutritional therapies showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05. The incidence of pulmonary infection in PEG group was significantly decreased compared with that in nasal-feeding nutrition group (P<0.05. Conclusion: PEG is an effective method for severe craniocerebral injury patients. It can not only provide enteral nutrition but also prevent pulmonary infection induced by esophageal refl ux. Key words: Gastrostomy; Craniocerebral trauma; Enteral nutrition

  14. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Insertion in Neurodegenerative Disease: A Retrospective Study and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Pamela; Cole, Alice; Scolding, Neil J; Rice, Claire M

    2017-05-01

    With the notable exceptions of dementia, stroke, and motor neuron disease, relatively little is known about the safety and utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to determine the safety and utility of PEG feeding in the context of neurodegenerative disease and to complete a literature review in order to identify whether particular factors need to be considered to improve safety and outcome. A retrospective case note review of patients referred for PEG insertion by neurologists in a single neuroscience center was conducted according to a pre-determined set of standards. For the literature review, we identified references from searches of PubMed, mainly with the search items "percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy" and "neurology" or "neurodegenerative disease." Short-term mortality and morbidity associated with PEG in patients with neurological disease were significant. Age greater than 75 years was associated with poor outcome, and a trend toward adverse outcome was observed in patients with low serum albumin. This study highlights the relatively high risk of PEG in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We present points for consideration to improve outcome in this particularly vulnerable group of patients.

  15. Initial experience with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with T-fastener fixation in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvello, Morten; Knatten, Charlotte Kristensen; Perminow, Gøri; Skari, Hans; Engebretsen, Anders; Schistad, Ole; Emblem, Ragnhild; Bjørnland, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Background and study aims  Insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) with push-through technique and T-fastener fixation (PEG-T) has recently been introduced in pediatric patients. The T-fasteners allow a primary insertion of a balloon gastrostomy. Due to limited data on the results of this technique in children, we have investigated peri- and postoperative outcomes after implementation of PEG-T in our department. Patients and methods  This retrospective chart review included all patients below 18 years who underwent PEG-T placement from 2010 to 2014. Main outcomes were 30-day postoperative complications and late gastrostomy-related complications. Results  In total, 87 patients were included, and median follow-up time was 2.4 years (1 month – 4.9 years). Median age and weight at PEG-T insertion were 1.9 years (9.4 months – 16.4 years) and 10.4 kg (5.4 – 33.0 kg), respectively. Median operation time was 28 minutes (10 – 65 minutes), and 6 surgeons and 3 endoscopists performed the procedures. During the first 30 days, 54 complications occurred in 41 patients (47 %). Most common were peristomal infections treated with either local antibiotics in 11 patients (13 %) or systemic antibiotics in 11 other patients (13 %). 9 patients (10 %) experienced tube dislodgment. Late gastrostomy-related complications occurred in 33 patients (38 %). The T-fasteners caused early and late complications in 9 (10 %) and 11 patients (13 %), respectively. Of these, 4 patients (5 %) had subcutaneously migrated T-fasteners which were removed under general anesthesia. Conclusion  We found a high rate of complications after PEG-T. In particular, problems with the T-fasteners and tube dislodgment occurred frequently after PEG-T insertion. PMID:29399615

  16. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Experience Ižn A General Surgery Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Serdar Karaca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is the most preferable procedure for nutritional support in patients starving for a long time, who have difficulty in swallowing or feeding by oral way due to various diseases. The five years%u2019 experience of this surgery clinic was obtained in this study. Material and Method: The indications, complications and long term follow-up were recorded by physicians for 197 patients who had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. We used standart pull method for lite application of gastrostomy. Results: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed successfully in 141 (%71 chronic neurological patients, 35 (%17 patients with malignancy and 21 (%10 patients with various diseases with especially long time ventilation. It was performed on 141 male and 56 female patients, with a median age of 52.7 years (range 14-93 years. One hundred thirdy nine (total mortality 71% patients died because of the primary disease and after being discharged from the hospital. There was no mortality attributable to the procedure. The median time the patients used percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was 101.4 days (range 1-322 days excluding 37 (19% patients in whom the communication was lost during follow-up. There were a catheter leakage early in 34 and later in 19 patients, unsettled cathether in 6 patients, obstruction in 8 patients and catheter area inflamation in patients. PEG was performed twice in 7 patients. Discussion: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a safe and reliable procedure for enteral feeding. The important complications are generally related to catheter care. In order to reduce complicatoins in the long run, further education of caretakers of patients and organization of the nutrition outpatient unit is advisable.

  17. [Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in geriatrics : Indications, technique and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Rainer

    2018-02-01

    The technique of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was introduced in 1979 as a semi-invasive approach for children with the need for a gastric fistula in order to avoid an operative intervention. The suture pull-through method was rapidly established and is now omnipresent. Because scientific evidence is broadly missing, there is some uncertainty about the indications in geriatric medicine. Guidelines do not recommend the insertion of a PEG in patients with severe dementia and malnutrition. Tube feeding is mainly recommended as a temporary method for patients who cannot take oral nutrition for more than 3 days or for whom the energy intake for more than 10 days presumably covers less than 50% of their needs, assuming that the overall prognosis is reasonable. Insertion of a PEG is only recommended if artificial nutrition is expected to be necessary for more than 3-4 weeks or if a nasogastric tube is not tolerated.

  18. Rigid inflatable gastrostomy tube malposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E. Murray, MB, MCh, MRCS, FFR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rigid inflatable gastrostomy (RIG tubes are widely used in contemporary clinical practice for a variety of indications. Insertion of RIG tubes is associated with a high technical success rate and low incidence of mortality. In this case report, a procedural pitfall associated with intraperitoneal-extragastric malposition is described. Rigorous assessment of abdominal radiographs, as well as awareness of the expected appearance of the RIG tube and gastropexy T-fasteners, allows the abdominal radiologist to detect early RIG position in the early postprocedural period. Abdominal radiography is a widely available and inexpensive technique. The high spatial resolution it provides makes it a valuable tool in determining hardware position.

  19. Gastric Emptying of Elemental Liquid Diets Versus Semisolid Diets in Bedridden Gastrostomy-fed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Akira; Sakai, Ryosei; Tamaki, Michio; Kajiyama, Masashi; Tanaka, Naoki; Morikawa, Akio

    2018-03-21

    Aspiration is a common problem in bedridden gastrostomy-fed patients. We compared gastric emptying of an elemental liquid diet and a commercial semisolid diet in bedridden gastrostomy-fed patients. Study 1: from January 2013 to December 2016, consecutive bedridden patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) semisolid feeding hospitalized due to aspiration pneumonia were switched to elemental liquid diet feedings. The frequency of defecation, tube feed contents aspirated from the trachea, and aspiration pneumonia during hospitalization were retrospectively reviewed. Study 2 was a randomized, crossover trial comparing C sodium acetate gastric emptying of a commercial elemental liquid or a commercial semisolid diet in bedridden PEG patients and controls. Study 1: 18 patients were enrolled. Elemental liquid diet was aspirated from the trachea in 1 (5.6%) (once in 24 observations); neither aspiration pneumonia nor diarrhea developed during elemental liquid diet feeding over 2 weeks observation. Study 2: 8 PEG patients and 8 healthy subjects were separately randomized to assess gastric emptying of the commercial elemental and semisolid diets. The elemental liquid diet was associated with a significant decrease of the 10%, 30%, or 50% emptying (excretion) time (Pdiet (Pdiets. Elemental liquid diets emptied more rapidly from the stomach than semisolid diets in bedridden PEG patients. They may prevent or reduce aspiration pneumonia compared with semisolid diets.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  20. CT fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gastrostomy with loop gastropexy and peel-away sheath trocar technique in 31 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bucourt, Maximilian; Collettini, Federico; Althoff, Christian; Streitparth, Florian; Greupner, Johannes; Hamm, Bernd (Dept. of Radiology, Charite - Univ. Medicine, Berlin (Germany)), Email: mdb@charite.de; Teichgraeber, U.K. (Dept. of Radiology, Jena Univ. (Germany))

    2012-04-15

    Background: In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with respiratory impairment and/or advanced disease, performing even mild sedation - as is usually necessary for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placements - is fraught with risk. These patients are often referred to Interventional Radiology for alternative percutaneous gastrostomy tube placement options. Purpose: To report our experience with CT fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gastrostomy with a novel loop gastropexy and peel-away sheath trocar technique in ALS patients as an alternative to endoscopic techniques. Material and Methods: A consecutive series of 31 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients in whom endoscopic gastrostomy was considered too dangerous or impossible to perform underwent CT-guided percutaneous gastropexy and gastrostomy and prospective follow-up. All procedures were performed with a 15 FR Freka Pexact gastrostomy kit, a 16-row CT scanner (Aquilion 16) and single shot CT fluoroscopy mode. Results: The procedure was performed successfully in 30 of 31 patients (20 men, 11 women; median age 60 years, range 38-80 years). In the remaining case the stomach was punctured under CT fluoroscopy and CO2 insufflation was initiated thereafter, leading to successful gastrostomy without prior gastropexy and without further adverse events during follow-up. Two patients reported unproblematic exchange of a balloon tube due to skin irritations with no further adverse events. One patient reported accidental displacement of an exchanged new balloon tube in domestic environment due to balloon leakage: A new balloon tube was easily re-inserted in a hospital the same day. No serious adverse events such as peritonitis, persistent local bleeding, systemic blood loss, or any local infection requiring surgical intervention were observed. Until August 11, 2011 follow-up resulted in 7473 cumulative gastrostomy-days from the date of first placement. Conclusion: Initial results suggest that the described

  1. An audit of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in a general hospital in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, H B; Kaushik, S P; Lau, T C; Tan, C C

    2000-02-01

    We conducted an audit on 50 percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies (PEGs) performed by physician endoscopists from January 1996 up to November 1997. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The mean age of the patients was 68.5 years (range 20-101) and the main indications were cerebrovascular accident in 40 (80%), neurological dysphagia in six (12%) and head injury in three (6%). The interval between the diagnosis of dysphagia and PEG was > 60 days in 19 patients (38%), 31-60 days in eight (16%) and nasogastric tube in 49 patients (98%). Twelve patients had antibiotics given concurrently for other infections and two had antibiotics given specifically to cover PEG insertion. There was evidence of post-PEG infection in two of 14 patients given antibiotics (14%) and in 14 of 36 patients not given antibiotics (39%). By Cox regression, the adjusted relative risk of infection in patients receiving antibiotics versus those not receiving was 0.6927 (95% CI 0.3396-1.4130; not significant). The 30-day mortality was 7/48 patients (15%), with two patients lost to follow-up before 30 days. There were no deaths directly attributable to PEG. PEG is still not adequately requested by doctors for patients needing enteral feeding for more than 30 days. The use of antibiotics in this retrospective cohort study failed to show any benefit in reducing the rate of infective complications.

  2. [Endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy: an update on the indications, technique and nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friginal-Ruiz, Ana Belén; González-Castillo, Sonia; Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2011-01-01

    There are numerous conditions and pathologies in which the patient's swallowing ability is diminished or prevented despite having working digestive system. These are the fundamental requirements for the placement of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube (PEG) as a method of choice to provide safe, effective, and prolonged enteral nutrition for the patient at home or when admitted to hospital. Due to its simplicity, safety and low cost, PEG offers several advantages over other feeding techniques, particularly nasogastric tube and parenteral feeding, although it does require simple and accurate knowledge and application of care that ensures low incidence of complications. The placement of a PEG tube should be contemplated in several clinical situations: a) for temporal use in those patients with potentially reversible diseases; b) in non-reversible diseases in which a long survival (of more than 6 months) is foreseeable, and c) in patients affected of terminal and debilitating illnesses in whom a relatively long survival is probable. In these last cases the indication and implementation for PEG should be individualized and agreed jointly. The appropriate training of care professionals and familiar supporters in charge of the patients carrying a PEG tube ensures its continuous functioning and reduces the risk of complications. This paper aims to review the indications and appropriate care for patients carrying a PEG tube and presents the most accurate care that should be provided by both the professional health carers and caregivers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. The results of the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion: Analysis of 113 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım Ekin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the results and experiences of the patients who received percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG. Methods: A total of 113 patients who admitted to the Dicle University Medical Faculty , Department of Gastroenterology between January 2012 and December 2014 and in whom received PEG was performed. The patients were assessed in terms of indications, complications and results. Results: Among these patients, 70 (61.9% were male and 40 (38.1% were female. Though 8 (7% patients had head, neck and esophageal cancer; 105 (93% patients had primer or seconder neurological disorders. After the PEG, any serious complication was seen in patients. Wound infections were encountered in five patients (4.4% and the rate of minor complications was found to be 9.7%. The risk of complications was higher in patients over sixty years and men (p values of 0.049 and 0.022. Conclusion: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, a simple and safe method of enteral nutrition with a low complication rate, should be the first choice when extended period enteral nutrition is required. There is increased risk of complications in elderly males.

  4. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: an update on its indications, management, complications, and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous disorders impairing or diminishing a patient's ability to swallow may benefit from a PEG tube placement. This is considered the elective feeding technique if a functional digestive system is present. Methods: A PubMed-based search restricted to the English literature from the last 20 years was conducted. References in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: PEG feeding has consistently demonstrated to be more effective and safe than nasogastric tube feeding, having also replaced surgical and radiological gastrostomy techniques for long term feeding. PEG is considered a minimally invasive procedure to ensure an adequate source for enteral nutrition in institutionalized and at home patients. Acute and chronic conditions associated with risk of malnutrition and dysphagia benefit from PEG placement: Beyond degenerative neuro-muscular disorders, an increasing body of evidence supports the advantages of PEG tubes in patients with head and neck cancer and in a wide range of situations in pediatric settings. The safety of PEG placement under antithrombotic medication is discussed. While antibiotic prophylaxis reduces peristomal wound infection rates, co-trimoxazole solutions administered through a newly inserted catheter constitutes an alternative to intravenous antibiotics. Early feeding (3-6 hours after PEG placement firmly supports on safety evidences, additionally resulting in reduced costs and hospital stays. Complications of PEG are rare and the majority prevented with appropriated nursing cares. Conclusions: PEG feeding provides the most valuable access for nutrition in patients with a functional gastrointestinal system. Its high effectiveness, safety and reduced cost underlie increasing worldwide popularity.

  5. Disease-based mortality after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: utility of the enterprise data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Benjamin K; Kaiser, Joan; Beck, William C; Jackson, Pearlie; Nealon, William H; Sharp, Kenneth W; Holzman, Michael D

    2013-11-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) remains a mainstay of enteral access. Thirty-day mortality for PEG has ranged from 16 to 43 %. This study aims to discern patient groups that demonstrate limited survival after PEG placement. The Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) concept allows an efficient means of integrating administrative, clinical, and quality-of-life data. On the basis of this concept, we developed the Vanderbilt Procedural Outcomes Database (VPOD) and analyzed these data for evaluation of post-PEG mortality over time. Patients were identified using the VPOD from 2008 to 2010 and followed for 1 year after the procedure. Patients were categorized according to common clinical groups for PEG placement: stroke/CNS tumors, neuromuscular disorders, head and neck cancers, other malignancies, trauma, cerebral palsy, gastroparesis, or other indications for PEG. All-cause mortality at 30, 60, 90, 180, and 360 days was determined by linking VPOD information with the Social Security Death Index. Chi-square analysis was used to determine significance across groups. Nine hundred fifty-three patients underwent PEG placement during the study period. Mortality over time (30-, 60-, 90-, 180-, and 360-day mortality) was greatest for patients with malignancies other than head and neck cancer (29, 45, 57, 66, and 72 %) and least for cerebral palsy or patients with gastroparesis (7 % at all time points). Patients with neuromuscular disorders had a similar mortality curve as head and neck cancer patients. Stroke/CNS tumor patients and patients with other indications had the second highest mortality, while trauma patients had low mortality. PEG mortality was much higher in patients with malignancies other than head and neck cancer compared to previously published rates. PEG should be used with great caution in this and other high-risk patient groups. This study demonstrates the power of an EDW-based database to evaluate large numbers of patients with clinically meaningful

  6. Utility of esophageal gastroduodenoscopy at the time of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalea Thomas M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utility of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD performed at the time of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is unclear. We examined whether EGD at time of PEG yielded clinically useful information important in patient care. We also reviewed the outcome and complication rates of EGD-PEG performed by trauma surgeons. Methods Retrospective review of all trauma patients undergoing EGD with PEG at a level I trauma center from 1/01–6/03. Results 210 patients underwent combined EGD with PEG by the trauma team. A total of 37% of patients had unsuspected upper gastrointestinal lesions seen on EGD. Of these, 35% had traumatic brain injury, 10% suffered multisystem injury, and 47% had spinal cord injury. These included 15 esophageal, 61 gastric, and six duodenal lesions, mucosal or hemorrhagic findings on EGD. This finding led to a change in therapy in 90% of patients; either resumption/continuation of H2 -blockers or conversion to proton-pump inhibitors. One patient suffered an upper gastrointestinal bleed while on H2-blocker. It was treated endoscopically. Complication rates were low. There were no iatrogenic visceral perforations seen. Three PEGs were inadvertently removed by the patient (1.5%; one was replaced with a Foley, one replaced endoscopically, and one patient underwent gastric repair and open jejunostomy tube. One PEG leak was repaired during exploration for unrelated hemorrhage. Six patients had significant site infections (3%; four treated with local drainage and antibiotics, one requiring operative debridement and later closure, and one with antibiotics alone. Conclusion EGD at the time of PEG may add clinically useful data in the management of trauma patients. Only one patient treated with acid suppression therapy for EGD diagnosed lesions suffered delayed gastrointestinal bleeding. Trauma surgeons can perform EGD and PEG with acceptable outcomes and complication rates.

  7. The role of gastrostomy tube placement in advanced dementia with dysphagia: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg LS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leanne S Goldberg,1 Kenneth W Altman2 1Department of Otolaryngology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USAPurpose: Over 4.5 million people in North America had a diagnosis of dementia in the year 2000, and more than half had advanced disease with potential aspiration risk. There is much controversy regarding the use and timing of enteral feeding support in these patients with dysphagia. The management of dysphagia is far more complex when considering quality of life, “comfort care” hand feeding, the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG, and associated mortality rates. This study seeks to critically review the literature that evaluates PEG placement in this population. Methods: A systematic literature review of PubMed, from 1995–2012, was conducted to identify studies relating to PEG placement in dementia patients with dysphagia. The principal outcomes and related survival rates for this population were compared. Results: In total, 100 articles were identified in the search. Of these, ten met the search criteria and were analyzed. There was one study with a 2b level of evidence, one with 3b, and the remainder had level 4. All studies discussed long-term survival in the PEG versus non-PEG populations. No studies showed definitive evidence to suggest long-term survival rates improved in patients who underwent PEG placement as compared to those who did not. Two studies documented median survival worse in patients over age 80 with dementia and PEG placement.Conclusion: There is presently no evidence to suggest long-term survival rates improved in patients with advanced dementia who underwent PEG placement for dysphagia. Relevance to quality of life, need for nutrition and hydration, and ethical considerations in the decision process are discussed.Keywords: PEG, aspiration, elderly, feeding tube, swallow

  8. Gastrostomy tube feeding of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlseng, Magnus O; Andersen, Guro L; DA Graca Andrada, Maria

    2012-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of gastrostomy tube feeding (GTF) of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in six European countries.......To compare the prevalence of gastrostomy tube feeding (GTF) of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in six European countries....

  9. Prolonged duodenal paralysis after PEG placement in a patient with traumatic brain injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammi, P; Zaccaria, B; Dazzi, F; Saccavini, M

    2011-03-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has recently become a usual procedure for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness after brain injuries. Despite a high rate of success and a very low procedure-related mortality, morbidity associated to PEG placement reaches 9.4% in a recent large meta-analysis. This case report describes an uncommon complication of PEG placement in a patient with vegetative state after traumatic brain injury: the development of prolonged duodenal paralysis. This patient was treated by placement of a transient jejunostomy until recovery of duodenal functional activity, to permit adequate nutrition. This procedure-related complication is previously unreported in scientific literature.

  10. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF COMPLICATIONS RELATED TO PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY IN ICU PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokanath S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The first percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy performed on a child was on June 12, 1979, at the Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Dr. Michael W.L. Gauderer, paediatric surgeon; Dr. Jeffrey Ponsky, endoscopist; and Dr. James Bekeny, surgical resident, performed the procedure on a 4 1 ⁄2-month-old child with inadequate oral intake. The authors of the technique, Dr. Michael W.L. Gauderer and Dr. Jeffrey Ponsky, first published the technique in 1980. In 2001, the details of the development of the procedure were published. Gastrostomy maybe indicated in numerous situations usually those in which normal or nutrition (or nasogastric feeding is impossible. The causes for these situations maybe neurological (e.g. stroke, anatomical (e.g. cleft lip and palate during the process of correction or other (e.g. radiation therapy for tumours in head and neck region. In certain situations where normal or nasogastric feeding is not possible, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy maybe of clinical benefit. This provides enteral nutrition (making use of the natural digestion process of the gastrointestinal tract despite bypassing the mouth; enteral nutrition is generally preferable to parenteral nutrition (which is only used when the GI tract must be avoided. The PEG procedure is an alternative to open surgical gastrostomy insertion and does not require a general anaesthetic; mild sedation is typically used. PEG tubes may also be extended into the small intestine by passing a jejunal extension tube (PEG-J tube through the PEG tube and into the jejunum via the pylorus. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in the Department of General Medicine on 32 patients who underwent PEG placement by gastroenterologist at Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital, Visakhapatnam, from January 2016 to December 2016. Patients were aged 18 years and above. All patients had placement of Ponsky pull PEs either in the

  11. A retrospective matched cohort study evaluating the effects of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tubes on nutritional status and survival in patients with advanced gastroesophageal malignancies undergoing systemic anti-cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Scott; Williams, John P; Bhatti, Harsimrandeep; Kachaamy, Toufic; Weber, Jeffrey; Weiss, Glen J

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with cancer or other systemic illnesses can experience malnutrition. One way to mitigate malnutrition is by insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube (PEG tube). The goal of this retrospective matched cohort study is to evaluate if PEG tube placement improved nutritional status and overall survival (OS) in advanced gastroesophageal (GE) cancer patients who are undergoing anti-neoplastic therapy. GE cancer patients who were treated and evaluated by a nutritionist and had at least 2 nutritionist follow-up visits were identified. Patients with PEG tube were matched to patients that did not undergo PEG placement (non-PEG). Clinical characteristics, GE symptoms reported at nutrition follow-up visits, and OS were recorded. 20 PEG and 18 non-PEG cases met criteria for further analyses. After correction for multiple testing, there were no OS differences between PEG and non-PEG, treatment naive and previously treated. However, PEG esophageal carcinoma has statistically significant inferior OS compared with non-PEG esophageal carcinoma. PEG placement did not significantly reduce the proportion of patients with weight loss between the initial nutrition assessment and 12-week follow-up. In this small study, PEG placement had inferior OS outcome for GE esophageal carcinoma, no improvement in OS for other evaluated groups, and did not reduce weight loss between baseline and 12-week follow-up. Unless there is prospective randomized trial that can show superiority of PEG placement in this population, PEG placement in this group cannot be endorsed.

  12. Minority race and male sex as risk factors for non-beneficial gastrostomy tube placements after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigle, Roland; Carrese, Joseph A; Cooper, Lisa A; Urrutia, Victor C; Gottesman, Rebecca F

    2018-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are widely used for enteral feeding after stroke; however, PEG tubes placed in patients in whom death is imminent are considered non-beneficial. We sought to determine whether placement of non-beneficial PEG tubes differs by race and sex. In this retrospective cohort study, inpatient admissions for stroke patients who underwent palliative/withdrawal of care, were discharged to hospice, or died during the hospitalization, were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2007 and 2011. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between race and sex with PEG placement. Of 36,109 stroke admissions who underwent palliative/withdrawal of care, were discharge to hospice, or experienced in-hospital death, a PEG was placed in 2,258 (6.3%). Among PEG recipients 41.1% were of a race other than white, while only 22.0% of patients without PEG were of a minority race (prace was associated with PEG placement compared to whites (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.57-1.96), and men had 1.27 times higher odds of PEG compared to women (95% CI 1.16-1.40). Racial differences were most pronounced among women: ethnic/racial minority women had over 2-fold higher odds of a PEG compared to their white counterparts (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.81-2.41), while male ethnic/racial minority patients had 1.44 increased odds of a PEG when compared to white men (95% CI 1.24-1.67, p-value for interaction race and male sex are risk factors for non-beneficial PEG tube placements after stroke.

  13. Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy in a patient with colon cancer after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Hirotoshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of patients undergo percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG under various conditions. Open colectomy is usually performed for colon cancer in patients with PEG because the safety of the laparoscopic approach for such patients has not been established. However, if the laparoscopic approach is possible in patients with PEG, it will be less invasive and more helpful in rehabilitation into society. Case presentation We describe the case of a 64-year-old male with a T1 adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon 2 years after surgery for nasal cancer and PEG for dysphagia. The patient did not have any distant metastases or malignant tumors on preoperative computed tomography and positron-emission tomography. He underwent laparoscopic-assisted colectomy (LAC with lymph node dissection. No complications developed during or after the surgery. Conclusions LAC could be a potential option for the treatment of colon cancer in patients who have undergone PEG. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of an ascending colon cancer treated with LAC under the condition of gastrostoma.

  14. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy as a method of nutrition support in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Piotr; Banaszak, Beata; Szczepańska, Maria; Morawiec-Knysak, Aurelia; Szprynger, Krystyna; Budziński, Dariusz; Karpe, Jacek; Ziora, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) exerts a significant impact on children's growth and development. In infants and children with CKD, feeding-related problems are not infrequent, leading to protein-energy malnutrition and resulting in retarded physical development. Because spontaneous energy intake is usually inadequate in children with CKD, special dietary counseling with supportive procedures are often required. Placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is one practical way to allow home tube feeding. Such nutrition support is valuable in children with CKD, and although it is not free from complications and technical problems, it seems to be helpful in providing required nutrition intake. In this report, the authors describe their own experience with PEG implantation and use in 3 children with CKD.

  15. Randomized study of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy versus nasogastric tubes for enteral feeding in head and neck cancer patients treated with (chemo)radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corry, J.; Poon, W.; McPhee, N.; Milner, A. D.; Cruickshank, D.; Rischin, D.; Peters, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes have largely replaced nasogastric tubes (NGT) for nutritional support of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing curative (chemo)radiotherapy without any good scientific basis. A randomized trial was conducted to compare PEG tubes and NGT in terms of nutritional outcomes, complications, patient satisfaction and cost. The study was closed early because of poor accrual, predominantly due to patients' reluctance to be randomized. There were 33 patients eligible for analysis. Nutritional support with both tubes was good. There were no significant differences in overall complication rates, chest infection rates or in patients' assessment of their overall quality of life. The cost of a PEG tube was 10 times that of an NGT. The duration of use of PEG tubes was significantly longer, a median 139 days compared with a median 66 days for NGT. We found no evidence to support the routine use of PEG tubes over NGT in this patient group

  16. A prospective study of the workload of a newly formed PEG advice team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewson, K; White, S; Torrance, A; Clark, S; Bottrill, P

    2001-02-01

    A multidisciplinary advice team may be the optimal way of providing the long-term nutritional and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-related care for patients dependent on PEG feeding but the workload involved is unknown. To study prospectively the workload of a proactive, multidisciplinary PEG advice team over a 2-year period. Separate documentation from main case notes of each episode of the team's contact with PEG or potential PEG patients, including assessment, advice and therapy given, from the time of its establishment, for four consecutive 6-monthly periods. During the audit, 89 patients were referred to the team for consideration of PEG insertion and PEGs were placed in 74. Eighty-nine additional patients were referred for follow up having had a PEG placed elsewhere. During the four audit periods the rate of new PEG insertions increased by 53%, the rate of PEG replacements by 315%, and the number of patients under the team increased from 16 to 70, an increase of 337%. Numbers of inpatient and outpatient consultations, and visits to other institutions by members of the team increased commensurately. The rapidly increasing workload of the team suggests it is playing a valued role but there are significant resource implications.

  17. Pneumonia and mortality after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Neville; Ellul, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding provides enteral nutrition to patients with neurological dysphagia. Thirty-day mortality rates of 4-26% have been reported, with pneumonia being the common cause post-percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion. This retrospective analysis of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertions in Malta (January 2008 - June 2010) compares the incidence of pneumonia in patients fed through a nasogastric tube versus in those fed via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. We analyzed the indications, poor prognostic factors and mortality for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion. Ninety-seven patients underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion. Fifty-four patients received nasogastric feeds before percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeds. Patients on nasogastric feeds developed 32 episodes of pneumonia over a total of 7884 days of feeds (1 every 246 days). Patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeds after a period of nasogastric feeds developed 48 pneumonia episodes over 36,238 days (1 every 755 days). Patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeds without previous nasogastric feeds developed 28 pneumonia episodes over 23,983 days (1 every 856 days), and this was statistically significant (χ 2 test p value nasogastric feeds. However, pneumonia is still the major cause of death among percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy patients.

  18. Safety of pull-type and introducer percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes in oncology patients: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelckmans Paul A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG allows long-term tube feeding. Safety of pull-type and introducer PEG placement in oncology patients with head/neck or oesophageal malignancies is unknown. Methods Retrospective analysis of 299 patients undergoing PEG tube placement between January 2006 and December 2008 revealed 57 oncology patients. All patients with head/neck or oesophageal malignancy were treated with chemo- and radiotherapy. In case of high-grade stenosis introducer Freka® Pexact PEG tube was placed (n = 24 and in all other patients (n = 33 conventional pull-type PEG tube. Short-term complications and mortality rates were compared. Results Patients' characteristics and clinical status were comparable in both groups. Short-term complications were encountered in 11/24 (48% introducer PEG patients as compared to only 4/33 (12% pull-type PEG patients (P vs. 0/33 (0%, P vs. 3/33 (9%, NS. Finally, 3/24 gastrointestinal perforations (12% resulted from a difficult placement procedure vs. 1/33 (3%, leading to urgent surgical intervention and admission to ICU. Two introducer PEG patients died at ICU, resulting in an overall mortality rate of 8% vs. 0% (P = 0.091. Conclusion The introducer Freka® Pexact PEG procedure for long-term tube feeding may lead to significantly higher complication and mortality rates in patients with head/neck or oesophageal malignancies treated with chemo- and radiotherapy. It is suggested to use the conventional pull-type PEG tube placement in this group of patients, if possible.

  19. IMPLANTATION METASTASIS OF LARYNGEAL CANCER AFTER PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Guz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell head and neck carcinoma is frequently associated with dysphagia. An adequate enteral nutrition is the key to successful treatment and rehabilitation of these patients. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is the preferred route of feeding and nutritional support in head and neck cancer patients with dysphagia. We report a rare case of implantation metastasis of laryngeal cancer following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Our experience in treating this complication has been described. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a less-invasive procedure than open gastrostomy. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy can be accompanied by severe complications such as implantation metastasis at gastrostomy site. Careful monitoring can provide early detection of this complication and early treatment. 

  20. Outcome of Rehabilitation and Swallowing Therapy after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Dysphagia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh Yoon, Ezekiel Wong; Hirao, Jun; Minoda, Naoko

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the outcomes of rehabilitation (with swallowing therapy) after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in patients with neurogenic dysphagia. Forty-seven patients (29 males and 18 females) who were transferred to the rehabilitation ward of our hospital after receiving PEG tube placements during a 5-year period were enrolled in this study. Patients' demographic data, comorbidities, nutritional statuses, and laboratory biomarkers before the PEG procedure were collected. Rehabilitation (with swallowing therapy) outcomes such as changes in Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and dysphagia grade (using Fujishima's classification) were evaluated. Significant improvements in FIM scores and dysphagia grades after rehabilitation therapy were observed. Twenty-seven patients (57.4 %) were discharged with some oral intake and 10 patients (21.3%) were discharged PEG-free (defined as the PEG tube not being used or removed). Factors associated with being discharged with some oral intake were increase in FIM score (adjusted OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.02-1.19) and higher baseline dysphagia grade (adjusted OR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.04-3.39). Factors associated with being discharged PEG-free were longer rehabilitation period (OR 1.03, 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), absence of respiratory disorders (OR 0.12, 95 % CI 0.03-0.35), and increase in FIM score (OR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.08-1.28). Changes in dysphagia grade were significantly correlated with changes in FIM score (r 2  = 0.46, p rehabilitation therapy may play an important role in the treatment of dysphagia.

  1. Elemental diets may reduce the risk of aspiration pneumonia in bedridden gastrostomy-fed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Akira; Nakayama, Yoshiko; Sakai, Ryosei; Suzuki, Manabu; Kajiyama, Masashi; Tanaka, Naoki

    2013-05-01

    Our clinical experience suggested that elemental diets were associated with a reduction in aspiration pneumonia among bedridden patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We compared the effects of elemental and standard liquid diets on the risk of clinical aspiration pneumonia and gastric emptying in bedridden patients receiving PEG feedings. Study 1: consecutive bedridden PEG patients received elemental diets or standard liquid diets in the same fashion. The frequency of defecation, diet aspirated from the trachea, and aspiration pneumonia during hospitalization were prospectively recorded. Study 2: a randomized, crossover trial using elemental or standard liquid diets containing (13)C sodium acetate as a tracer given to bedridden PEG patients who had experienced aspiration pneumonia. (13)C breath tests were performed to estimate gastric emptying. Study 1: 127 patients were enrolled, 60 with elemental and 67 with standard liquid diets. The diet was aspirated from the trachea in none (0%) with the elemental diet vs. 8 (11.9%) with standard liquid diets (P=0.0057); aspiration pneumonia developed none with the elemental diet vs. 5 (7.5%) with standard liquid diets (P=0.031) (number needed to treat 14, 95% confidence interval 7-85). Study 2: 19 patients were enrolled. The elemental diet was associated with a significant increase in the 10, 30 or 50% emptying (excretion) time (Pdiet (Pdiets were associated with more rapid gastric empting and fewer episodes of aspiration than standard liquid diets in bedridden PEG patients. They may be preferred for bedridden PEG patients especially who have experienced aspiration pneumonia. Properly performed randomized-controlled trials are needed to prove this potential benefit.

  2. Effectiveness of prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy on nutritional status and mucositis in oropharyngeal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Miki; Takemoto, Naoko; Sano, Ayaka

    2012-01-01

    Recently, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is frequently used for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. However, CCRT induces mucositis and dysphagia and causes inadequate oral nutrition intake. Thus, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in advance is recently recommended. To evaluate the effectiveness of PEG on nutritional intake, nutritional status, blood test, and grade of mucositis of 29 patients who had CCRT with PEG were investigated retrospectively. The results were statistically compared with those of 13 patients who had CCRT without PEG as a control group. Regarding the total energy, no significant change was observed in the PEG group, while the total energy intake significantly decreased in the control group (P=0.026). A significant correlation was observed between the rate of body weight loss during CCRT and total energy intake (R=0.78). The total energy intake of patients who could maintain body weight was 34.1 kcal/kg/day. Taken together, these results suggested that early nutritional administration using PEG can reduce the weight loss during CCRT. (author)

  3. Perceptions of Healthcare Professionals on the Usage of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in a Teaching Hospital from a Middle-Income South East Asian Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, M H; Mahadeva, S; Subramanian, P; Tan, M P

    2017-01-01

    To explore the perceptions of healthcare professionals' (HCPs) in a South East Asian nation towards percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews. A teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 17 healthcare professionals aged 23-43 years, 82% women. Thematic analysis revealed five themes that represent HCPs' perceptions in relation to the usage of PEG feeding: 1) knowledge of HCPs, 2) communication, 3) understanding among patients, and 4) financial and affordability. The rationale for reluctance towards PEG feeding observed in this regions was explained by lack of education, knowledge, communication, team work, and financial support. Future studies should assess the effects of educational programmes among HCPs and changes in policies to promote affordability on the utilization of PEG feeding in this region.

  4. Radiologic Percutaneous Gastrostomy in Nondistended Stomach: A Modified Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrocelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.petrocelli@hsanmartino.it; Salsano, Giancarlo, E-mail: giancarlo.salsano@yahoo.it; Bovio, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.bovio@hsanmartino.it; Camerano, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.camerano@gmail.com; Utili, Alice, E-mail: aliceutili@gmail.com; Ferro, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.ferro@hsanmartino.it [IRCCS San Martino University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    IntroductionGastrostomy tube placement for patients requiring long-term nutritional support may be performed using different techniques including endoscopic, surgical, and percutaneous radiologically guided methods. Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG), typically performed when percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is not possible, requires proper gastric distension that is achieved by insufflating air through a nasogastric tube. We describe a simple technique to prevent air escape from the stomach during gastrostomy tube placement. To the best of our knowledge, this technique has not yet been described in the literature.Materials and MethodsFour patients with unsuccessful percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy were referred for fluoroscopic-guided gastrostomy. One patient had a pyriform sinus tumor and three had an ischemic stroke causing dysphagia. Gastric distention was not achieved in the patients due to air escaping into the bowel during the standard RIG procedure. A modified approach using a balloon catheter inflated in the pylorus to avoid air passing into the duodenum permitted successful RIG.ResultsThe modified RIG procedure was successfully carried out in all cases without complications.DiscussionInadequate air distension of the stomach is an unusual event that causes a failure of gastrostomy tube placement and an increased risk of both major and minor complications. The use of a balloon catheter inflated in the first part of the duodenum prevents the air passage into the bowel allowing the correct positioning of the gastrostomy.

  5. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Mortality and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó Perseguer, J; Madejón Seiz, A; Romero Portales, M; Martínez Hernández, J; Mora Pardina, J S; García-Samaniego, J

    2018-03-26

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes severe dysphagia and weight loss. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is currently the technique of choice for the enteral nutrition of these patients. To analyse mortality and complications in a series of patients diagnosed with ALS who underwent PEG, and to evaluate factors related to patient survival after the procedure. We performed a prospective, observational study including all patients diagnosed with ALS and treated by our hospital's Gastroenterology Department in the period 1997-2013. We studied mortality, complications, and clinical and biochemical parameters, and correlated these with the survival rate. The study included a total of 57 patients, of whom 49 were ultimately treated with PEG. ALS onset was bulbar in 30 patients and spinal in 19. Mortality during the procedure and at 30 days was 2% (n = 1). Six patients (12.2%) experienced major complications; 17 (34.7%) experienced less serious complications which were easily resolved with conservative treatment. No significant differences were observed in forced vital capacity, albumin level, or age between patients with (n = 6) and without (n = 43) major complications. PEG is an effective, relatively safe procedure for the enteral nutrition of patients with ALS, although not without morbidity and mortality. Neither forced vital capacity nor the form of presentation of ALS were associated with morbidity in PEG. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Postoperative complications following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy are common in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvard Hansen, Erik Sören; Qvist, N.; Rasmussen, L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Inserting a feeding tube using percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy may be necessary to ensure that children with eating problems receive sufficient enteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the perioperative and postoperative complications of percutaneous endoscopic...... gastrostomy when the pull-through method was the standard procedure. Methods: This was a retrospective review of 229 children (50.7% male) who underwent a gastrostomy procedure at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2012. The median age of the children was 1.6 years...... were grade 3b complications. No gastrostomy-related deaths were observed, and no single preoperative risk factor was identified. Perioperative complications were experienced by 2.6% of the patients. Conclusion: Gastrostomy feeding tube placement was associated with a high rate of postoperative...

  7. Percutaneous gastrostomy and gastroenterostomy: 2. Clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sonnenberg, E; Wittich, G R; Cabrera, O A; Quinn, S F; Casola, G; Lee, A A; Princenthal, R A; Lyons, J W

    1986-03-01

    This report describes the authors' initial experience with percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) and gastroenterostomy (PGE) in 40 patients. Indications for PG and PGE included alimentation (35 patients) and small bowel decompression (five). Seldinger technique with air distension of the stomach via a nasogastric tube (20 patients) is a simple method to insert small (7-9 French) and firm catheters; tube exchanges for larger and softer catheters often are necessary by this method (23 procedures in 17 patients). Coaxial trocar technique (19 patients) permits initial insertion of softer and often larger catheters (9-14 French feeding tubes), which are less likely to clog or require exchange; the intragastric balloon support method facilitates trocar insertion. Now preferred is a system that uses 18-gauge needle puncture and allows coaxial insertion of a final soft feeding tube at the initial procedure. Small bowel catheter positioning (PGE) (31 patients) was more common than gastrostomy alone (8 patients); "downhill puncture" toward the gastric antrum assists direct guide-wire cannulation of the duodenum via the gastric puncture (12 patients). Five complications occurred; two were major and included catheter dislodgement in one patient. Another patient, who had a pharyngeal tumor, suffered profound respiratory difficulty from premedication and nasogastric tube malposition; patients with head and neck tumors present particular problems with nasogastric tube passage and airway monitoring. Inability to pass a nasogastric tube does not preclude PG and PGE, as direct puncture of the stomach is feasible.

  8. Complication Rates and Patency of Radiologically Guided Mushroom Gastrostomy, Balloon Gastrostomy, and Gastrojejunostomy: A Review of 250 Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Doris; Vanasco, Matthew; Funaki, Brian

    2004-01-01

    To compare complication rates and tube performance of percutaneous mushroom gastrostomy, balloon gastrostomy, and gastrojejunostomy. Between September 9, 1999 and April 23, 2001, 203 patients underwent 250 radiologically guided percutaneous gastrostomy and gastrojejunostomy procedures. Follow-up was conducted through chart reviews and review of our interventional radiology database. Procedural and catheter-related complications were recorded. Chi-square statistical analysis was performed. In patients receiving mushroom-retained gastrostomy catheters (n = 114), the major complication rate was 0.88% (n = 1), the minor complication rate was 5.3% (n = 6), and the tube complication rate was 4.4% (n = 5). In patients receiving balloon-retained gastrostomy tubes (n = 67), the major complication rate was 0, the minor complication rate was 4.5% (n = 3), and the tube complication rate was 34.3% (n = 23). In patients receiving gastrojejunostomy catheters (n = 69), the major complication rate was 1.4% (n = 1), the minor complication rate was 2.9% (n = 2), and the tube complication rate was 34.8% (n = 24). No statistically significant differences were found between procedural or peri-procedural complications among the different types of tubes. Mushroom-retained catheters had significantly fewer tube complications (p < 0.01). Percutaneous gastrostomy and gastrojejunostomy have similar procedural and peri-procedural complication rates. Mushroom gastrostomy catheters have fewer tube-related complications compared with balloon gastrostomy and gastrojejunostomy catheters. In addition, mushroom-retained catheters exhibit the best overall long-term tube patency and are therefore the gastrostomy catheter of choice

  9. Indications, medical conditions and services related to gastrostomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indications, medical conditions and services related to gastrostomy placement in infants and children at a tertiary hospital in South Africa. V Norman, SA Singh, T Hittler, N Jones, N Kenny, R Mann, S McFarlane, A Moeng ...

  10. Percutaneous gastrostomy tube placement in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sane, S.S.; Towbin, A.; Bergey, E.A.; Kaye, R.D.; Fitz, C.R.; Albright, L.; Towbin, R.B. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital of Pittsburgh, 3705 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to determine the risk of CNS and/or peritoneal infection in children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts in whom a percutaneous gastrostomy tube is placed. Materials and methods. We placed 205 gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy tubes from January of 1991 to December 1996. Twenty-three patients (10 boys, 13 girls) had ventriculoperitoneal shunts at the time of placement. All shunts were placed at least 1 month prior to placement of the gastrostomy tube. The patients ranged in age from 8 months to 16 years with a mean age of 6 years, 9 months. Patient weight ranged from 2 kg to 60 kg. All 23 children required long-term nutritional support due to severe neurologic impairment. No prophylactic antibiotics were given prior to the procedure. Of the patients, 21/23 had a 14-F Sacks-Vine gastrostomy tube with a fixed terminal retention device inserted, using percutaneous fluoroscopic antegrade technique. Two of the 23 patients had a Ross 14-F Flexi-flo gastrostomy tube which required a retrograde technique due to a small caliber esophagus in these children. Results. All 23 children had technically successful placements of percutaneous gastrostomy (7) or gastrojejunostomy (16) tubes. Of the children, 21/23 (91 %) had no complications from the procedure. Two of 23 (9 %) patients demonstrated signs of peritonitis after placement of their gastrostomy tubes and subsequently had shunt infections. In both, children CSF culture grew gram-positive cocci. The antegrade technique was used in both children who developed peritonitis. Conclusion. Our study indicates children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts who undergo percutaneous gastrostomy are at greater risk for infection and subsequent shunt malfunction. Therefore, we recommend prophylactic antibiotic therapy to cover for skin and oral flora. (orig.) With 1 fig., 7 refs.

  11. Percutaneous gastrostomy tube placement in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sane, S.S.; Towbin, A.; Bergey, E.A.; Kaye, R.D.; Fitz, C.R.; Albright, L.; Towbin, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to determine the risk of CNS and/or peritoneal infection in children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts in whom a percutaneous gastrostomy tube is placed. Materials and methods. We placed 205 gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy tubes from January of 1991 to December 1996. Twenty-three patients (10 boys, 13 girls) had ventriculoperitoneal shunts at the time of placement. All shunts were placed at least 1 month prior to placement of the gastrostomy tube. The patients ranged in age from 8 months to 16 years with a mean age of 6 years, 9 months. Patient weight ranged from 2 kg to 60 kg. All 23 children required long-term nutritional support due to severe neurologic impairment. No prophylactic antibiotics were given prior to the procedure. Of the patients, 21/23 had a 14-F Sacks-Vine gastrostomy tube with a fixed terminal retention device inserted, using percutaneous fluoroscopic antegrade technique. Two of the 23 patients had a Ross 14-F Flexi-flo gastrostomy tube which required a retrograde technique due to a small caliber esophagus in these children. Results. All 23 children had technically successful placements of percutaneous gastrostomy (7) or gastrojejunostomy (16) tubes. Of the children, 21/23 (91 %) had no complications from the procedure. Two of 23 (9 %) patients demonstrated signs of peritonitis after placement of their gastrostomy tubes and subsequently had shunt infections. In both, children CSF culture grew gram-positive cocci. The antegrade technique was used in both children who developed peritonitis. Conclusion. Our study indicates children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts who undergo percutaneous gastrostomy are at greater risk for infection and subsequent shunt malfunction. Therefore, we recommend prophylactic antibiotic therapy to cover for skin and oral flora. (orig.)

  12. Percutaneous gastrostomy -a report of twenty-seven cases-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Ho Suk; Kim, Yong Joo; Kim, Tae Hun; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kang, Duk Sik [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    Nutritional support by gastrostomy feeding is an important treatment adjunct when major swallowing difficulty or debilitating diseases is present. This technique for percutaneous placement of a gastric feeding tube now provides many patients with a simple, safe, and well-tolerated alternative to surgical feeding gastrostomy. We experienced 27 cases of percutaneous gastrostomy from January 1989 to February 1991 at Kyungpook National University Hospital. The underlying diseases of the patients were esophageal cancer (11), pyriform sinus cancer (4), laryngeal cancer (3), tongue cancer (2), lye stricture (1), lung cancer (1), chordoma (1), lethal midline granuloma (1), malignant lymphoma (1), maxillary cancer (1), and tonsil cancer (1). Selding method was used in all cases. In five patients it was difficult to insert the nasogastric tube for air insufflation, and one patient had subtotal gastrectomy with gastrojejunostomy, but gastrostomy was performed in all cases. The general condition improved in all patients. We experienced one case of mild peritonitis, but no other significant complications were observed. Gastrostomy tubes were patient in all patients during their survival period, except two patients who experienced obstruction 2 and 6 months after the procedure. Percutaneous gastrostomy can be used safely and effectively in such patients who have pharyngoesophageal or CNS lesions precluding oral intake.

  13. Open gastrostomy by mini-laparotomy: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Gil R; Taveira-Gomes, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Gastrostomy tube feeding is the best option for long lasting nutritional support in patients with dysphagia caused by obstructive tumours of the mouth, pharynx, larynx and ooesophagus or neuromuscular diseases. However, these severely compromised patients often present severe respiratory risks, precluding the use of general anesthesia, sedation or even endoscopy. A simplified open gastrostomy (SOG) under local anesthesia has been in practice in our institution, especially for patients with severe neuromuscular diseases and continuous non-invasive ventilatory support. In this study, we try to compare the surgical outcomes of this technique, with the classical Stamm gastrostomy (SG). This simplified technique uses a minimal vertical midline incision (3 cm), just below the xyphoid process, under local anesthesia. The gastrostomy tube is passed by a left lateral stab wound, inserted in a double purse-string in the gastric wall and pulled to the anterior abdominal wall. No sutures between the stomach and the peritoneum are placed. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of 63 consecutive gastrostomies performed upon a 3-year period, 23 of which were by SOG. The SG was performed mainly in oncological patients, and SOG in patients with neuromuscular diseases (p family/caregivers is very good. The simplified mini-laparotomy gastrostomy is a safe and effective alternative to other approaches. The association of local anesthesia with a minimal surgical offense and a short operative time render its effectiveness, even in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2010 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The practice of gastrostomy tube placement across a Canadian regional health authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Deepak; Duerksen, Donald R; Singh, Harminder

    2010-07-01

    We sought to conduct an assessment of the practice of gastrostomy (G) tube placement across an entire city, which would reflect usual clinical care as compared with referral center practice. We reviewed and retrospectively extracted data from patient records for all percutaneous endoscopic G (PEG) and radiological percutaneous G (RPG) tube placements at six Winnipeg hospitals between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2007. A total of 418 patients had G tubes (376 PEG, 42 RPG) inserted during the study period. The most common indications were cerebrovascular accidents (25%), head and neck cancer (23%), and head trauma (10%). The position of the external bolster was not documented in 38% of patients. The median time to the first complication was 10 days, initiation of feeding was 48 hours, and tube removal was 40 days. Complications developed in 102 (24%) patients. Patients with RPG tubes had more infections and were less likely to receive prophylactic antibiotics (PRPG tubes and after insertions by lowest procedure volume physicians. Overall mortality was 12% within 30 days of G-tube placement. Death of one patient was directly related to peritonitis after G-tube insertion. In usual clinical practice, there is an underuse of prophylactic antibiotics and a delay in the institution of nutritional support after G-tube placement. A small but significant proportion of patients may develop major complications, with associated risk of mortality. The higher complication rate after procedures performed by lowest volume physicians needs further evaluation.

  15. Endoscopic gastrostomy for enteral nutrition in neurogenic dysphagia: Application of a nasogastric tube or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitines, Gennaro; Ugenti, Ippazio; Memeo, Riccardo; Clemente, Nicola; Iambrenghi, Onofrio Caputi

    2009-01-01

    Enteral nutrition can be administered via a nasogastric tube or, in selected patients, via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. In patients with neurogenic dysphagia, the choice of nutritional administration, and above all the timing, are crucial. Our aim was to retrospectively assess the impact of new guidelines for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion adopted since January 2002 and compare them with our previous experience. From January 1992 to June 2007, 285 gastrostomies (168 M, 117 F) were positioned in our institute. We analysed 232 patients (139 M, 93 F) in whom a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was applied for neurogenic dysphagia: Group A (from January 1992 to December 2001) consisting of 174 patients; Group B (from January 2002 to June 2007) consisting of 58 patients. The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was positioned in all the cases with neurogenic dysphagia after a period of not less than 3 weeks of nutrition by nasogastric tube. A total of 6 major complications (2.3 %) occurred, almost all in group A. The mortality rate (3 patients, 2%) correlated with the complications in group A. In cases of neurogenic dysphagia we believe that greater methodological rigour in the multidisciplinary decision-making process, and a period of about 6-8 weeks' nutrition by nasogastric tube after the acute neurological damage may be useful to ensure a better prognostic evaluation of the patient and hence of the indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

  16. Peritonitis following percutaneous gastrostomy tube insertions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dookhoo, Leema [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, ON (Canada); Mahant, Sanjay [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Parra, Dimitri A.; John, Philip R.; Amaral, Joao G.; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy has a high success rate, low morbidity, and can be performed under different levels of sedation or local anesthesia in children. Despite its favourable safety profile, major complications can occur. Few studies have examined peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children. To identify potential risk factors and variables influencing the development and early diagnosis of peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of children who developed peritonitis within 7 days of percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy between 2003 and 2012. From the 1,504 patients who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy, patients who developed peritonitis (group 1) were matched by closest date of procedure to those without peritonitis (group 2). Peritonitis was defined according to recognized clinical criteria. Demographic, clinical, procedural, management and outcomes data were collected. Thirty-eight of 1,504 children (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy developed peritonitis ≤7 days post procedure (group 1). Fever (89%), irritability (63%) and abdominal pain (55%) occurred on presentation of peritonitis. Group 1 patients were all treated with antibiotics; 41% underwent additional interventions: tube readjustments (8%), aspiration of pneumoperitoneum (23%), laparotomy (10%) and intensive care unit admission (10%). In group 1, enteral feeds started on average 3 days later and patients were discharged 5 days later than patients in group 2. There were two deaths not directly related to peritonitis. Neither age, gender, weight, underlying diagnoses nor operator was identified as a risk factor. Peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children occurs in approximately 2.5% of cases. No risk factors for its development were identified. Medical management is usually sufficient for a good outcome

  17. Peritonitis following percutaneous gastrostomy tube insertions in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dookhoo, Leema; Mahant, Sanjay; Parra, Dimitri A.; John, Philip R.; Amaral, Joao G.; Connolly, Bairbre L.

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy has a high success rate, low morbidity, and can be performed under different levels of sedation or local anesthesia in children. Despite its favourable safety profile, major complications can occur. Few studies have examined peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children. To identify potential risk factors and variables influencing the development and early diagnosis of peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of children who developed peritonitis within 7 days of percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy between 2003 and 2012. From the 1,504 patients who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy, patients who developed peritonitis (group 1) were matched by closest date of procedure to those without peritonitis (group 2). Peritonitis was defined according to recognized clinical criteria. Demographic, clinical, procedural, management and outcomes data were collected. Thirty-eight of 1,504 children (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy developed peritonitis ≤7 days post procedure (group 1). Fever (89%), irritability (63%) and abdominal pain (55%) occurred on presentation of peritonitis. Group 1 patients were all treated with antibiotics; 41% underwent additional interventions: tube readjustments (8%), aspiration of pneumoperitoneum (23%), laparotomy (10%) and intensive care unit admission (10%). In group 1, enteral feeds started on average 3 days later and patients were discharged 5 days later than patients in group 2. There were two deaths not directly related to peritonitis. Neither age, gender, weight, underlying diagnoses nor operator was identified as a risk factor. Peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children occurs in approximately 2.5% of cases. No risk factors for its development were identified. Medical management is usually sufficient for a good outcome

  18. Peritonitis following percutaneous gastrostomy tube insertions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dookhoo, Leema; Mahant, Sanjay; Parra, Dimitri A; John, Philip R; Amaral, Joao G; Connolly, Bairbre L

    2016-09-01

    Percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy has a high success rate, low morbidity, and can be performed under different levels of sedation or local anesthesia in children. Despite its favourable safety profile, major complications can occur. Few studies have examined peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children. To identify potential risk factors and variables influencing the development and early diagnosis of peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of children who developed peritonitis within 7 days of percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy between 2003 and 2012. From the 1,504 patients who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy, patients who developed peritonitis (group 1) were matched by closest date of procedure to those without peritonitis (group 2). Peritonitis was defined according to recognized clinical criteria. Demographic, clinical, procedural, management and outcomes data were collected. Thirty-eight of 1,504 children (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy developed peritonitis ≤7 days post procedure (group 1). Fever (89%), irritability (63%) and abdominal pain (55%) occurred on presentation of peritonitis. Group 1 patients were all treated with antibiotics; 41% underwent additional interventions: tube readjustments (8%), aspiration of pneumoperitoneum (23%), laparotomy (10%) and intensive care unit admission (10%). In group 1, enteral feeds started on average 3 days later and patients were discharged 5 days later than patients in group 2. There were two deaths not directly related to peritonitis. Neither age, gender, weight, underlying diagnoses nor operator was identified as a risk factor. Peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children occurs in approximately 2.5% of cases. No risk factors for its development were identified. Medical management is usually sufficient for a good outcome

  19. Gastrostomy and gastroesophageal reflux in neurologically impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cappellano

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrostomy has been increasingly indicated for daily feeding ofneurologically impaired children with swallowing abnormalitiesthat hinder the use of the mouth. Therefore, the enteral route hasstill been used by means of oral, nasogastric or nasojejunal tube.However it is no longer the preferential method, mainly in cases ofprolonged use. Today gastrostomy is the most often utilizedprocedure, particularly Stamm gastrostomy. Many of thesepatients present pulmonary abnormalities due to a possiblegastroesophageal reflux (GER. After the study by Jolley et al.(1, in1985, fundoplication has become a systematic and routinecomplement to gastrostomy. The neurologically impaired patientshave been submitted to two surgeries, leading to possible andpredictable increase in morbidity and mortality rates. Althougheffective when properly indicated, this simple management hasrecently been very much debated and rejected. Thus, an updatingbased on recent studies is necessary to make pediatric surgeonsand pediatricians aware of other manners to solve this problem,which aim at correctly feeding these children with impairedswallowing and GER and helping them have a better quality of life.The literature reviewed was searched in PubMed/Medline, fromJanuary 1994 to May 2003. Other articles read and mentioned inthis review and published before 1994 were collected based onarticles cited in the references. Thus, we could assess thechronological progression in management of neurologicallyimpaired children who need gastrostomy for their feeding, andcarry out an analysis of current fundoplication and the questionwhether the use of a prophylactic antireflux valve is compulsoryor not.

  20. Nursing care for children with gastrostomy: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Nascimento Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze national and international scientific production on nursing care for children with gastrostomy. Method: Integrative review conducted in the databases Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO,Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL without temporal delimitation of publications. The following Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH were used: gastrostomia/gastrostomy/cuidado da criança/children care/enfermagem/nursing. Twenty references were found in LILACS, four in SciELO, 116 in MEDLINE and 167 in CINAHL. The studies found in the LILACS and SciELO did not meet the inclusion criteria. Three articles were selected from MEDLINE and 02 from CINAHL; thus, 05 articles composed the sample of the study. Results: We observed that gastrostomy brought about satisfaction to caregivers despite post-surgery complications. Improvements brought about by the use of the device and reduction of complications related to feeding difficulties, weight gain, decreased vomiting, abdominal distention and fatigue of the patient throughout the day were mentioned. It was also noted that caregivers in the studies felt fear and insecurity at decision-making on the insertion of gastrostomy, showing that the information for the care of these patients was a common concern among them. Conclusion: The study allows us to conclude that the care provided by nurses to children with gastrostomy and family contributes to increase knowledge, thus facilitating decision-making during the management of the device. The use of educational technologies are to be highlighted as a strategy for promoting care during hospitalization and preparing parents to take care of the gastrostomy after hospital discharge.

  1. Giant small bowel diverticulum presenting after percutaneous gastrostomy: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, G.J.; Clark, J.A.; Pugash, R.A. [St. Michael' s Hospital, Wellesley Central Site, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-10-01

    The standard technique for percutaneous gastrostomy requires insufflation of air into the stomach via a nasogastric tube before percutaneous gastric puncture. We present a previously undescribed complication in which the insertion of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube resulted in the distention of a previously undiagnosed giant small bowel diverticulum. This led to discomfort for the patient, further radiologic investigation and a delay in discharge. Symptoms resolved with conservative management. We suggest a strategy for avoiding this complication, as well as for reducing the incidence of post-procedure ileus. (author)

  2. Indications, medical conditions and services related to gastrostomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Services were required from a variety of health care professionals for a period ranging from 6 to 103 months (mean 18 months). The speech-language therapist was consulted most frequently before gastrostomy placement (85%), while the stoma sister (97%) and dietician (97%) were consulted after placement. Conclusions.

  3. Percutaneous gastrostomy with gastropexy: experience in 125 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, S; Mueller, P R; Gaa, J; Briggs, S E; Hahn, P F; Forman, B H; Tung, G A; Silverman, S G; Lee, M J; Morrison, M C

    1990-05-01

    We report our experience with radiologically guided percutaneous tube gastrostomy in 125 patients by using a gastropexy technique in which the anterior gastric wall is nonsurgically sutured to the anterior abdominal wall with percutaneously placed T-fasteners before catheter insertion. Short-term follow-up of up to 2 weeks was available in all patients. In 63 patients, long-term follow-up (greater than 4 weeks; average, 3.5 months; maximum, 1 year) was available. Catheter placement was successful in 124 (99%) of 125 patients, including three patients with anatomic changes after Bilroth II hemigastrectomy and two patients with failed endoscopic attempts. There were no deaths related to the procedure, and no patients required surgical intervention for complications attributable to the gastrostomy procedure. The 30-day mortality rate was 11% (n = 7). These deaths were due to cardiorespiratory arrest and were not attributable to the gastrostomy procedure. Major complications occurred in 1.6% (n = 1) and minor complications in 9.5% (n = 6). These results indicate that percutaneous gastrostomy with gastropexy is a safe and effective technique for placement of catheters in the stomach.

  4. A prospective comparison of the use of nasogastric and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes for long-term enteral feeding in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwolatzky, T; Berezovski, S; Friedmann, R; Paz, J; Clarfield, A M; Stessman, J; Hamburger, R; Jaul, E; Friedlander, Y; Rosin, A; Sonnenblick, M

    2001-12-01

    To compare the indications for and the outcome of long-term enteral feeding by nasogastric tube (NGT) with that of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. A prospective, multicenter cohort study. Acute geriatric units and long-term care (LTC) hospitals in Jerusalem, Israel. 122 chronic patients aged 65 years and older for whom long-term enteral feeding was indicated as determined by the treating physician. Patients with acute medical conditions at the time of tube placement were excluded. We examined the indications for enteral feeding, nutritional status, outcome and complications in all subjects. Subjects were followed for a minimum period of six months. Although the PEG patients were older and had a higher incidence of dementia, there was an improved survival in those patients with PEG as compared to NGT (hazard ratio (HR)=0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.76; P=0.01). Also, the patients with PEG had a lower rate of aspiration (HR=0.48; 95% CI 0.26-0.89) and self-extubation (HR=0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.58) than those with NGT. Apart from a significant improvement in the serum albumin level at the 4-week follow-up assessment in the patients with PEG compared to those with NGT (adjusted mean 3.35 compared to 3.08; F=4.982), nutritional status was otherwise similar in both groups. In long-term enteral feeding, in a selected group of non-acute patients, the use of PEG was associated with improved survival, was better tolerated by the patient and was associated with a lower incidence of aspiration. A randomized controlled study is needed to determine whether PEG is truly superior to NGT. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  5. A New Tube Gastrostomy Model in Animal Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Sezer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The orogastric route is the most preferred application method in the vast majority of the animal experiments in which application can be achieved by adding the material to the water of the experiment animal, through an orogastric tube or with a surgically managed ostomy. Material and Method: This experiment was constructed with twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats which were randomly assigned to one of two groups consist of control group ( group C, n: 6 and tube gastrostomy group ( group TG, n: 6.A novel and simple gastrostomy tube was derivated from a silicone foley catheter. Tube gastrostomy apparatus was constituted with a silicone foley catheter (6 French. In the group TG an incision was performed, and the stomach was visualized. A 1 cm incision was made in the midline and opening of the peritoneum. Anchoring sutures were placed and anterior gastric wall was lifted. The gastric wall is then opened. The apparatus was placed into the stomach and pulled through from a tunnel under the skin and fixed to the lateral abdominal wall with a 2/0 silk suture. Result: The procedure was ended in the 10th day of experiment. No mortality was observed in group C. The rats were monitored daily and no abnormal behavior consists of self harming incision site, resistance to oral intake or attending to displace. There was statistically significant difference in increasing alanine transaminase level (p<0.05 and decrease in the total protein and body weight (p<0.05 at the group TG at the end of experiment. There was significant increase in urea levels in Group C (p<0.05 at the end of experiment. The statistically significant decrease was observed in the same period in group C between aspartate transaminase, albumin, total protein, and body weight (p<0.05.  Glucose (p=0.047 and aspartate transaminase (p=0.050 level decrease changes and weight loose (p=0.034 from preoperative period to the end of the experiment between gastrostomy and laparotomy groups were

  6. [Dysphagia in patients with disorders of the nervous system--comparison of a nasogastric tube with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehler, E; Geier, P; Vyhnálek, P; Hájek, J; Sákra, L

    2002-06-01

    Dysphagia is frequently encountered in patients with acute affections of the nervous system (cerebrovascular attacks, craniocerebral injuries) and in chronic nervous diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson s disease, dementia). To these patients enteral nutrition must be administered. If the perspective of dysphagia is short (several days) then nutrition by a nasogastric tube is fully indicated and sufficient. In cases of more prolonged dysphagia and in patients with a long perspective of dysphagia percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is indicated. Both these methods of enteral nutrition have their advantages and disadvantages which are manifested in different ways in patients with disorders of the nervous system. The authors compared 62 patients hospitalized in the course of 4.5 years at the neurological department who had PEG with 72 patients who had nasogastric tubes and were hospitalized at the neurological intensive care unit in the course of one year. The authors evaluated the different indications for application, the incidence of complications and the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods.

  7. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding of locally advanced oro-pharygo-laryngeal cancer patients: Blenderized or commercial food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakostas, Pyrros; Tsaousi, Georgia; Stavrou, George; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tsiropoulos, Gavriil; Rova, Constantina; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Michalopoulos, Antonios; Grosomanidis, Vasilios; Kotzampassi, Katerina

    2017-11-01

    Head and neck cancer patients commonly suffer from severe malnutrition at the time of tentative diagnosis. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy [PEG] feeding is now considered as an efficient tool to reduce nutritional deterioration alongside concurrent treatment. We undertook the challenge to retrospectively evaluate the impact of a commercial, disease-specific, feeding formula [Supportan, Fresenius Kabi, Hellas] versus blenderized family food on nutritional outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected nutritional and anthropometric data at the time of PEG placement, at the 8th week [after treatment termination] and at 8 months [6mo of recovery from treatment]. All patients were prescribed a commercial feeding formula. The final dataset included 212 patients: 112 received the commercial formula, 69 voluntarily decided to switch into blenderized-tube-feeding, and 31 were prescribed to receive a home-made formula of standard ingredients. The commercial formula seemed to help patients to fight the catabolism of concurrent treatment, since, at the 8mo assessment, both Body Mass index and Fat Free Mass had almost recovered to the values at the time of first diagnosis. Neither group on blenderized or home-made formulas exhibited nutritional improvement, but experienced a significant deterioration throughout the study period, with the home-made formula group being the worst. These findings clearly indicate that home-made and blenderized foods do not adequately support the nutritional requirements of patients with HNC scheduled to receive concurrent CRT treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous gastrostomy: initial experience at a cancer center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Santos, Erich Frank Vater; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Chojniak, Rubens [A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (HUCAM/UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Cassiano Antonio de Morais. Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2017-03-15

    Gastrostomy is indicated for patients with conditions that do not allow adequate oral nutrition. To reduce the morbidity and costs associated with the procedure, there is a trend toward the use of percutaneous gastrostomy, guided by endoscopy, fluoroscopy, or, most recently, computed tomography. The purpose of this paper was to review the computed tomography-guided gastrostomy procedure, as well as the indications for its use and the potential complications. (author)

  9. Noninvasive ventilation during percutaneous gastrostomy placement in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J F; Birnkrant, D J; Martin, J E; Repucci, A H

    1997-06-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is used for respiratory support in a number of diseases causing acute or chronic respiratory failure. We describe a novel use of NPPV to provide respiratory support during sedation for percutaneous placement of a gastrostomy tube in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The patient had severe respiratory insufficiency, progressive dysphagia, and undernutrition. In addition to the case in this report, we have used NPPV to provide respiratory support to DMD patients during five other gastrointestinal endoscopies without complication. The technique is highly labor intensive and requires physicians and respiratory therapists familiar with NPPV. The primary risk associated with this technique is lack of definitive airway protection during the procedure, which must be balanced against the risks of intubation in an anesthetized patient with neuromuscular disease. The potential benefit to selected patients is substantial, such as initiation of gastrostomy tube feeding in our patient, with subsequent improvement in his quality of life and nutritional status.

  10. Evaluation of Clensia®, a new low-volume PEG bowel preparation in colonoscopy: Multicentre randomized controlled trial versus 4L PEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Cristiano; Cesaro, Paola; Bazzoli, Franco; Saracco, Giorgio Maria; Cipolletta, Livio; Buri, Luigi; Crosta, Cristiano; Petruzziello, Lucio; Ceroni, Liza; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Giordanino, Chiara; Elia, Chiara; Rotondano, Gianluca; Bianco, Maria A; Simeth, Catrin; Consalvo, Danilo; De Roberto, Giuseppe; Fiori, Giancarla; Campanale, Mariachiara; Costamagna, Guido

    2017-06-01

    Success of colonoscopy is linked to the adequacy of bowel cleansing. Polyethylene glycol 4L (PEG 4L) solutions are widely used for colonic cleansing but with limitations concerning tolerability and acceptability. To demonstrate the equivalence of a new low-volume PEG containing citrates and simeticone (Clensia) versus a standard PEG 4L. In this, multicentre, randomised, observer-blind trial, patients received either Clensia 2L or PEG 4L solution. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with colon cleansing evaluated as excellent or good. 422 patients received Clensia (n=213) or PEG 4L (n=209). Rate of excellent/good bowel cleansing was 73.6% and 72.3% in Clensia and PEG 4L group respectively. Clensia was demonstrated to be equivalent to PEG 4L. No SAEs were observed. Clensia showed better gastrointestinal tolerability (37.0% vs 25.4%). The acceptability was significantly better with Clensia in terms of proportion of subjects who felt no distress (Clensia 72.8% vs PEG 4L 63%, P=0.0314) and willingness-to-repeat (93.9% vs 82.2%, P=0.0002). The rate of optimal compliance was similar with both formulations (91.1% for Clensia vs 90.9% for PEG 4L, P=0.9388). The low-volume Clensia is equally effective and safe in bowel cleansing compared to the standard PEG 4L, with better gastrointestinal tolerability and acceptability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth outcomes and complications after radiologic gastrostomy in 120 children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Evan Cole [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Ottawa (Canada); Connolly, Bairbre; Temple, Michael; John, Philip; Chait, Peter G.; Vaughan, Jennifer; Amaral, Joao G. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Image Guided Therapy, Toronto (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    Enteral feeding is ideal for children with low caloric intake. It can be provided through different methods, including nasogastric, nasojejunal, gastrostomy, or gastrojejunostomy tubes. To assess growth outcomes of pediatric patients following retrograde percutaneous gastrostomy (RPG) and compare complications with those following other gastrostomy methods. We retrospectively reviewed 120 random RPG patients from 2002 to 2003 (mean follow-up, 2.7 years). Patient weights and growth percentiles were recorded at insertion, and at 0-5 months, 6-12 months, and 18-24 months after insertion, and then compared using a Student's t-test. Complications and tube maintenance issues (TMIs) were recorded. Gastrostomy tube insertion was successful in all 120 patients (59 boys, 61 girls; mean age 4.3 years). The most common underlying diagnosis was neurologic disease (29%, 35/120) and the main indication was inadequate caloric intake (24%, 29/120). Significant increases in growth percentile for the entire population were demonstrated between insertion and 0-5 months (18.7-25.3; P<0.001) and between insertion and 18-24 months (18.7-25.8; P<0.001). In boys and girls significant growth increases occurred between insertion and 0-5 months (boys P=0.004; girls P=0.01). There were 11 major postprocedural complications, 100 minor complications and 169 TMIs. RPG provides long-term enteral nutrition in the pediatric population and increases growth significantly 6 and 24 months after insertion. Minor complications and TMIs are frequent. (orig.)

  12. Growth outcomes and complications after radiologic gastrostomy in 120 children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Evan Cole; Connolly, Bairbre; Temple, Michael; John, Philip; Chait, Peter G.; Vaughan, Jennifer; Amaral, Joao G.

    2008-01-01

    Enteral feeding is ideal for children with low caloric intake. It can be provided through different methods, including nasogastric, nasojejunal, gastrostomy, or gastrojejunostomy tubes. To assess growth outcomes of pediatric patients following retrograde percutaneous gastrostomy (RPG) and compare complications with those following other gastrostomy methods. We retrospectively reviewed 120 random RPG patients from 2002 to 2003 (mean follow-up, 2.7 years). Patient weights and growth percentiles were recorded at insertion, and at 0-5 months, 6-12 months, and 18-24 months after insertion, and then compared using a Student's t-test. Complications and tube maintenance issues (TMIs) were recorded. Gastrostomy tube insertion was successful in all 120 patients (59 boys, 61 girls; mean age 4.3 years). The most common underlying diagnosis was neurologic disease (29%, 35/120) and the main indication was inadequate caloric intake (24%, 29/120). Significant increases in growth percentile for the entire population were demonstrated between insertion and 0-5 months (18.7-25.3; P<0.001) and between insertion and 18-24 months (18.7-25.8; P<0.001). In boys and girls significant growth increases occurred between insertion and 0-5 months (boys P=0.004; girls P=0.01). There were 11 major postprocedural complications, 100 minor complications and 169 TMIs. RPG provides long-term enteral nutrition in the pediatric population and increases growth significantly 6 and 24 months after insertion. Minor complications and TMIs are frequent. (orig.)

  13. Incidence and Management of Bleeding Complications Following Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Nieun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu Bo [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a serious complication that sometimes occurs after percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG). We evaluated the incidence of bleeding complications after a PRG and its management including transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). We retrospectively reviewed 574 patients who underwent PRG in our institution between 2000 and 2010. Eight patients (1.4%) had symptoms or signs of upper GI bleeding after PRG. The initial presentation was hematemesis (n = 3), melena (n = 2), hematochezia (n = 2) and bloody drainage through the gastrostomy tube (n = 1). The time interval between PRG placement and detection of bleeding ranged from immediately after to 3 days later (mean: 28 hours). The mean decrease in hemoglobin concentration was 3.69 g/dL (range, 0.9 to 6.8 g/dL). In three patients, bleeding was controlled by transfusion (n = 2) or compression of the gastrostomy site (n = 1). The remaining five patients underwent an angiography because bleeding could not be controlled by transfusion only. In one patient, the bleeding focus was not evident on angiography or endoscopy, and wedge resection including the tube insertion site was performed for hemostasis. The other four patients underwent prophylactic (n = 1) or therapeutic (n = 3) TAEs. In three patients, successful hemostasis was achieved by TAE, whereas the remaining one patient underwent exploration due to persistent bleeding despite TAE. We observed an incidence of upper GI bleeding complicating the PRG of 1.4%. TAE following conservative management appears to be safe and effective for hemostasis.

  14. Use of Gastrostomy Tube to Prevent Maternal PKU Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoerer, Jessica A Scott; Obernolte, Lisa; Van Calcar, Sandra; Heighway, Susan; Bankowski, Heather; Williams, Phillip; Rice, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Maternal Phenylketonuria Syndrome (MPKU) can occur in infants born to mothers with PKU with poor metabolic control during pregnancy. Elevated phenylalanine (phe) acts as a teratogen to the developing fetus with consequences including intellectual disability, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, growth retardation, and congenital heart disease. MPKU can be prevented if metabolic control is achieved by 8-10 weeks gestation. If control is not achieved, there is a significant risk for MPKU. Therefore, in women with poor metabolic control at time of pregnancy, establishing metabolic control quickly is important.Clinically, establishing metabolic control in women with PKU can present challenges. Social issues, psychological issues, and insufficient education about PKU play an important role in a patient's inability to reinstitute this challenging diet. Maintaining phe levels within a range to allow for infant growth, while preventing toxicity, is challenging, particularly for those women who no longer follow the PKU diet. Gastrostomy tube placement is an option to deliver medical formula to women who are unable to restart diet due to severe nausea or palatability issues.Here we discuss two pregnancies in which a gastrostomy tube was placed to achieve metabolic control after other measures failed to reduce phe concentrations into the recommended range. For these two pregnancies, placement of the gastrostomy tube led to improvement in phe levels with normal infant outcomes including normal growth, head circumference, and heart structure.

  15. Injector having multiple fuel pegs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mark Allan; Felling, David Kenton

    2013-04-30

    A fuel injector is provided, including a fuel injector body, a plurality of fuel vanes, and a plurality of fuel pegs. The injector body includes a manifold and an inlet. The manifold is configured for receiving fuel, and the inlet is configured for receiving air. The fuel vanes are located within the injector body and are positioned in a direction that is generally parallel with a longitudinal axis of the injector body to orient the air flowing from the inlet. The plurality of fuel pegs are fluidly connected to the manifold and are arranged within the plurality of fuel vanes. The plurality of fuel pegs are each spaced at a distance that is about equal between each of the plurality of fuel pegs.

  16. Correlates associated with the desire for PEG tube placement at the end of life among community-dwelling older Mexican Americans: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, M Rosina; Macias, R Lillianne; Becho, Johanna; Wood, Robert C; Hernandez, Arthur E; Espino, David V

    2013-04-01

    Use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes in older adults remains controversial. This cross-sectional study examines community-dwelling Mexican American older adults' attitudes toward PEG tube placement in the hypothetical event of a terminal illness. Interviews were conducted with 100 community-dwelling Mexican American (MA's) adults, age 60 and over, in San Antonio, Texas. Subjects were screened for cognitive competence using Folstein's mini-mental examination. This was followed by an evaluation of socioeconomic status, depressive symptoms, religiosity, health status and attitudes toward end-of-life care, including PEG tube feeding. Higher income MA's, professionals, those without a living will, those who saw religious belief as not important and those who attended church less than once a month were more likely to agree with PEG placement (all P desire for insertion of a PEG tube at the end of life. This is the first community-based study to describe older Mexican American's attitudes toward PEG tube placement at the end of life. Older community-dwelling Mexican Americans with higher incomes, lack of a living will or low religious involvement might be more likely to choose PEG tube placement even in the context of a terminal condition.

  17. Insertion of balloon retained gastrostomy buttons: a 5-year retrospective review of 260 patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review.

  18. Risks of PEG tube placement in patients with cirrhosis-associated ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Abboodi Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yasir Al-Abboodi,1 Ali Ridha,2 Matthew Fasullo,3 Tarek H Naguib4 1Internal Medicine Department, Saint Davis Round Rock Medical Centre, Round Rock, TX, USA, 2Internal Medicine Department, University of Arkansas for Medical Science, Little Rock, AR, USA, 3Internal Medicine Department, Umass Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA, 4Internal Medicine Department, Texas Tech University Health and Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, USA Abstract: This study examined the safety of placing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG tube in people with liver cirrhosis. The target population was further subdivided into people with ascites (case group and people without ascites (control. We compare the morbidity and the mortality difference of PEG placement in cirrhotic patients with ascites vs cirrhotic patients without ascites. We then examined multiple factors including sex, race, chronic illness including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and others and their influence on the inpatient mortality of all cirrhotic patients who had PEG placement. A total of 38,175 inpatient PEG tube placements were identified. Only 583 patients out of 38,175 had a history of cirrhosis. One hundred seven had ascites and the rest did not. Mean age of the patients was 61.14 years. Patient demography included (65.2% male and the rest were female, 359 were white (64.4%, 90 black (14.8%, 84 Hispanic (13.7%, 23 Asians (3.3%, 7 Native Americans (0.4%, and 20 others (3.5%. Complications from PEG procedure in cirrhosis with ascites vs non-ascites included bleeding of 4 (0.8% vs 2 (1.9% (P=0.35, surgical site infection 2 (0.4% vs 1 (0.9% (P=0.51, and urinary tract infection 105 (22.1% vs 34 (23.8% (P=0.34, respectively. There was no colonic injury in either group. The total inpatient mortality was 75 out of the 583. Fifty-six (11.8% were in the ascites group and 19 (17.8% in the non-ascites group (P=0.097. Factors including ascites, postsurgical bleeding, and surgical site

  19. Nutritional assessment and post-procedural complications in older stroke patients after insertion of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy – a retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hede, Gunnel Wärn; Faxén-Irving, Gerd; Olin, Ann Ödlund; Ebbeskog, Britt; Crisby, Milita

    2016-01-01

    Background Oropharyngeal dysphagia is one of the major complications of stroke and a risk factor for malnutrition and prolonged in-hospital stay. Objective The overall aim was to describe to what extent nutritional assessments (i.e. BMI kg/m2, eating problem, and weight loss) were performed and documented in the records of older stroke patients treated with enteral nutrition by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). A secondary aim was to identify documented post-procedural complications after PEG insertion during hospital stay. Design The study is retrospective. Data were collected from records of 161 stroke patients ≥65 years, who received PEG, admitted to three stroke units during a 4-year period. Results Mean age of the patients was 82.2 (±7) years, and 86% of the patients were ≥75 years old. On admission, body weight was documented in 50% of the patients and at discharge in 38% of the patients. BMI data were not documented at all at discharge in one of the units. Almost 80% of the patients fulfilled the European Network criteria for multimorbidity. Morbidity and multimorbidity correlated to the length of stay (pnutritional status was poorly recorded which could affect the patient's nutritional treatment during the hospital stay. This study indicates that implementation of guidelines in patients with stroke is needed. The high number of pressure ulcers was an unexpected finding. PMID:27487849

  20. Effects of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy on survival of patients in a persistent vegetative state after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kunpeng; Chen, Ying; Yan, Caihong; Huang, Zhijia; Wang, Deming; Gui, Peigen; Bao, Juan

    2017-10-01

    To assess the effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy on short- and long-term survival of patients in a persistent vegetative state after stroke and determine the relevant prognostic factors. Stroke may lead to a persistent vegetative state, and the effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy on survival of stroke patients in a persistent vegetative state remains unclear. Prospective study. A total of 97 stroke patients in a persistent vegetative state hospitalised from January 2009 to December 2011 at the Second Hospital, University of South China, were assessed in this study. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed in 55 patients, and mean follow-up time was 18 months. Survival rate and risk factors were analysed. Median survival in the 55 percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy-treated patients was 17·6 months, higher compared with 8·2 months obtained for the remaining 42 patients without percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy treatment. Univariate analyses revealed that age, hospitalisation time, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy treatment status, family financial situation, family care, pulmonary infection and nutrition were significantly associated with survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that older age, no gastrostomy, poor family care, pulmonary infection and poor nutritional status were independent risk factors affecting survival. Indeed, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy significantly improved the nutritional status and decreased pulmonary infection rate in patients with persistent vegetative state after stroke. Interestingly, median survival time was 20·3 months in patients with no or one independent risk factors of poor prognosis (n = 38), longer compared with 8·7 months found for patients with two or more independent risk factors (n = 59). Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy significantly improves long-term survival of stroke patients in a persistent vegetative state and is associated with improved nutritional status

  1. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding.

  2. [Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: prospective experience at a national private center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yriberry Ureña, Simón; Monge Zapata, Victor; Salazar Cabrera, Fernando; Barriga Calle, Eduardo; Vesco Monteagudo, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding is a safe and effective method of providing long-term enteral nutrition in patients who are unable to swallow and offers important advantages over nasogastric tub feeding. The indications of this procedure have been received and over 7 years of practice on 103 patients and 128 procedures have been experienced with Ponsky pull techniques. All patients were given vitamin K and a prophylactic antibiotic (chephalotine) prior to testing. 1.56% of major deadly complications have been reports both for reflux and aspiration at 48 and 72 hours post treatment. The most common minor complication was wound infection in 8.9% of patients. There was no further mortality during testing or while undergoing treatment in the following 30 days. All patients were suffering from post heart attack dementia and stroke (CVA) at a rate of 23.3% and 21.4%, respectively. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy has become the method of choice to sustain long-term enteral nutrition.

  3. Maternal psychological distress and parenting stress after gastrostomy placement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitsland, Tone Lise; Faugli, Anne; Pripp, Are Hugo; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Bjørnland, Kristin; Emblem, Ragnhild

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate stress in mothers of children with feeding problems before and after gastrostomy placement, and to identify changes in child health and variables affecting maternal stress. Psychological distress and parenting stress in 34 mothers of children referred for gastrostomy were assessed using general health questionnaire (GHQ) (overall psychological distress), impact of event scale (IES) (intrusive stress related to child's feeding problems), and parenting stress index (PSI) (stress related to parenting) before, 6, and 18 months after placement of a gastrostomy. Information of child health and long-term gastrostomy complications were recorded. A semistructured interview constructed for the present study explored maternal preoperative expectations and child's quality of life. Insertion of a gastrostomy did not significantly influence vomiting or the number of children with a low weight-for-height percentile. All of the children experienced peristomal complications. Despite this, mothers' overall psychological distress was significantly reduced after 6 and 18 months, and the majority of mothers (85%) reported that their preoperative expectations were fulfilled and that the child's quality of life was improved after gastrostomy placement. Maternal concerns for the child's feeding problems, measured as intrusive stress, had effect on maternal overall psychological distress. Despite frequent stomal complications the gastrostomy significantly reduced the mothers' psychological distress and improved the child's quality of life as reported by the mother.

  4. Basic geriatric assessment does not predict in-hospital mortality after PEG placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoliner Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is an established procedure for long-term nutrition. However, studies have underlined the importance of proper patient selection as mortality has been shown to be relatively high in acute illness and certain patient groups, amongst others geriatric patients. Objective of the study was to gather information about geriatric patients receiving PEG and to identify risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality after PEG placement. Methods All patients from the GEMIDAS database undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in acute geriatric wards from 2006 to 2010 were included in a retrospective database analysis. Data on age, gender, main diagnosis leading to hospital admission, death in hospital, care level, and legal incapacitation were extracted from the main database of the Geriatric Minimum Data Set. Self-care capacity was assessed by the Barthel index, and cognitive status was rated with the Mini Mental State Examination or subjectively judged by the clinician. Descriptive statistics and group comparisons were chosen according to data distribution and scale of measurement, logistic regression analysis was performed to examine influence of various factors on hospital mortality. Results A total of 1232 patients (60.4% women with a median age of 82 years (range 60 to 99 years were included. The mean Barthel index at admission was 9.5 ± 14.0 points. Assessment of cognitive status was available in about half of the patients (n = 664, with 20% being mildly impaired and almost 70% being moderately to severely impaired. Stroke was the most common main diagnosis (55.2%. In-hospital mortality was 12.8%. In a logistic regression analysis, old age (odds ratio (OR 1.030, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.003-1.056, male sex (OR 1.741, 95% CI 1.216-2.493, and pneumonia (OR 2.641, 95% CI 1.457-4.792 or the diagnosis group ‘miscellaneous disease’ (OR 1.864, 95% CI 1

  5. Polyethylene glycols (PEG) and related structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, Emily; Kroigaard, Mogens; Mosbech, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We describe hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols (PEGs), with cross-reactivity to a structural analog, polysorbate 80, in a 69-year-old patient with perioperative anaphylaxis and subsequent, severe anaphylactic reactions to unrelated medical products. PEGs and PEG analogs are prevalent...

  6. ESPGHAN Position Paper on Management of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschkel, R B; Gottrand, F; Devarajan, K

    2015-01-01

    Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. RESULTS: Endoscopically placed gastrostomy devices are essential in the management of children with feeding and nutritional problems. The article focuses on practical issues such as indications and contraindications. CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Single port laparoscopic long-term tube gastrostomy in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Vegge, Andreas; Moesgaard, S G

    2015-01-01

    Oral dosing by gavage is often used to test compounds in minipigs. This method is also used for certain nutritional studies that require exact dosing. This procedure may be stressful for the animal and requires the assistance of more than one technician. We investigated whether a gastrostomy tube...... it was evident that the catheter had entered the stomach in the fundus region in 11/12 of the animals. In one animal the catheter had entered the antrum region. None of the animals developed leakage or clinically detectable reactions to the gastrostomy tube. Histopathologically, only discrete changes were...... observed. Single port laparoscopic tube gastrostomy with a locking pigtail catheter is safe, simple and reliable and is an appropriate alternative to, for example, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, when long-term enteral delivery of pharmacological or nutritional compounds is needed. The use...

  8. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for nutritional palliation of upper esophageal cancer unsuitable for esophageal stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grilo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Most patients with advanced esophageal cancer have significant dysphagia that contributes to weight loss and malnutrition. Esophageal stenting is a widespread palliation approach, but unsuitable for cancers near the upper esophageal sphincter, were stents are poorly tolerated. Generally, guidelines do not support endoscopic gastrostomy in this clinical setting, but it may be the best option for nutritional support. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective evaluation of patients with dysphagia caused advanced esophageal cancer, no expectation of resuming oral intake and with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for comfort palliative nutrition. METHOD: We selected adult patients with unresecable esophageal cancer histological confirmed, in whom stenting was impossible due to proximal location, and chemotherapy or radiotherapy were palliative, using gastrostomy for enteral nutrition. Clinical and nutritional data were evaluated, including success of gastrostomy, procedure complications and survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, and evolution of body mass index, albumin, transferrin and cholesterol. RESULTS: Seventeen males with stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 60.9 years. Most of the patients had toxic habits. All underwent palliative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Gastrostomy was successfully performed in all, but nine required prior dilatation. Most had the gastrostomy within 2 months after diagnosis. There was a buried bumper syndrome treated with tube replacement and four minor complications. There were no cases of implantation metastases or procedure related mortality. Two patients were lost and 12 died. Mean survival of deceased patients was 5.9 months. Three patients are alive 6, 14 and 17 months after the gastrostomy procedure, still increasing the mean survival. Mean body mass index and laboratory

  9. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, Sarah; Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  10. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Sarah, E-mail: sarahpower28@yahoo.co.uk; Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2013-04-15

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  11. Feasibility study of EUS-NOTES as a novel approach for peroral cholecysto-gastrostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, P; Bhutani, M S

    2013-01-01

    EUS-guided cholecysto-gastrostomy might be a useful minimally invasive procedure used for salvage drainage in advanced pancreaticobiliary cancers, but also for drainage of the gallbladder in acute cholecystitis in patients deemed unfit for laparoscopic surgery.......EUS-guided cholecysto-gastrostomy might be a useful minimally invasive procedure used for salvage drainage in advanced pancreaticobiliary cancers, but also for drainage of the gallbladder in acute cholecystitis in patients deemed unfit for laparoscopic surgery....

  12. [Nursing Experience With a Patient With Gastrostomy Leakage Resulting in Moisture-Associated Skin Damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Yu; Hsu, Hsiao-Hui; Lyu, Ji-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Leakage is a common complication of gastrostomy. Exposure of the skin surrounding the gastrostomy tube to moisture or chemical irritants may cause moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. This case study describes a nursing experience with gastrostomy leakage that resulted in MASD. An assessment conducted from July 29, 2015 to August 20, 2015 revealed that heavy gastronomy leakage had caused extensive skin erosion, ulceration, hyperplasia, and superficial infection. Simultaneously, the patient was required to conduct complex stoma care, which resulted in physical and psychological exhaustion. Changes in traditional tube and wound care were discussed on multiple occasions with an interdisciplinary healthcare team. Based on the evidence-based literature, we provide gastrostomy and MASD management strategies. Through team collaboration, we prevented gastric contents from contacting the patient's skin directly, improved patient comfort, controlled effluent and skin infections, maintained fluid and electrolyte balances, and acce-lerated the healing of the damaged skin. We recommend that healthcare professionals caring for patients with gastrostomy leakage be provided with early skin protection programs to learn the standard methods for identifying and correcting leakage factors, containing effluent, and adequately stabilizing the gastrostomy tube in order to reduce the impact on the patient's quality of life. In addition, patient education on tube and skin care should be provided to prevent the reoccurrence of complications.

  13. [Indication and effectiveness of endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy as a route of parenteral alimentation for the home care patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, T; Hida, S; Higasa, K; Shinomiya, S; Matsumoto, T; Fukuoka, K; Yamanaka, E; Ozaki, S; Takayama, E

    2000-12-01

    We are managing 8 home care patients who have a gastrostomy made using an endoscopic percutaneous technique as a route of parenteral alimentation. Based on our experience, the preconditions for an endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy as a route of parenteral alimentation are 1. normal gastrointestinal function, 2. difficulty in swallowing, 3. possibility that the caregiver can manage the gastrostomy. When we performed an endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy as a route of parenteral alimentation for 8 home care patients, we obtained the several advantages mentioned below. 1. Swallowing pneumonia was prevented. 2. Adequate amount of alimental liquid could be infused. 3. Patient could take a bath or shower with the gastrostomy, and good QOL was realized. 4. The home care patient with the gastrostomy could have a satisfactorily long life.

  14. Wrośnięty PEG – powikłanie żywienia dojelitowego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Adamiec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional status of the patient is very often key to successful medical intervention. For patients capable of safe and efficient swallowing, the modification of diet or introduction of oral nutritional supplements is sufficient. In patients with swallowing disorders, regardless of their aetiology, artificial nutrition access is required. In the case of long-term nutritional therapy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG insertion is considered the gold standard. The procedure of inserting a PEG feeding tube is not difficult to perform and is widely used. As any invasive medical procedure, PEG tube insertion involves the risk of complications. Typical complications that may follow this common procedure include dislodgement, dysfunction, skin infection in the area of PEG catheter placement and aspiration of gastric contents. A rare or rather rarely diagnosed complication that may result from PEG tube placement is the migration of the internal bumper under the gastric mucosa, or even deeper. This can result in the covering of the internal bumper with granulation tissue and gradual loss of its functionality. Correct prevention and treatment allows to keep the catheter functionality and protect against other serious, often life-threatening, complications such as extensive phlegmon infection of the anterior abdominal wall. The best prophylaxis is the education of caregivers providing long-term care of the PEG outside of hospital. Early recognition of the complication allows for preservative treatment and maintenance of a fully functional nutrition access. In the case of extensive and deep migration and the site being fully covered with mucosa, PEG removal and insertion of a new one is often necessary. In some cases, it is possible to use the existing, mature PEG canal with well-defined edges; however, in the case of severe infection a new PEG tube is inserted at another site.

  15. Registered dietitians' roles in decision-making processes for PEG placement in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Maria O P; Maillet, Julie O'Sullivan; Brody, Rebecca A; Parrott, J Scott

    2014-01-01

    The role of registered dietitians (RDs) in decision-making for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement was explored. The ethical climate in their workplace and the relationship between decision-making and the ethical climate were examined. The survey included 67 RDs in complex continuing care and long-term care settings in Ontario. Descriptive statistics were used to describe roles, ethical climate, and professional characteristics. Pearson's and nonparametric correlations were used to examine relationships between roles, ethical climate, and professional characteristics. Among the respondents, 97% thought RDs had a role in decision-making processes. The majority of RDs were usually or always involved in two roles: identifying relevant nutrition issues (91.2%) and discussing feeding options and alternatives (80.7%). Dietitians' roles in decision-making processes were more extensive when their relationship with physicians was positive (r=0.321, P=0.016), they had adequate knowledge (r=0.465, Prole (r=0.554, Proles in decision-making processes concerning PEG placement in the elderly. A positive working relationship with physicians, knowledge, skills, and role satisfaction significantly increase RDs' involvement with patients and families.

  16. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with gastrostomy preservation in neurologically impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaron, Franklin C; Oiticica, Claudio; Lanning, David A

    2010-06-01

    Robotic fundoplication has equivalent safety profiles, hospital stay, and time to alimentation, compared to laparoscopic fundoplication, but is not indicated for routine repair due to higher cost, decreased availability, and longer procedure time. Robotic surgery does offer key advantages over standard laparoscopy by employing internally articulating arms, a stable camera platform, and three dimensional imaging. Children presenting for initial or redo fundoplication after feeding gastrostomy are a subset of patients that may benefit from the robotic approach. Minimal dissection of the phrenoesophageal ligament, in combination with four anchoring sutures from the esophagus to the crura, has been shown to lead to less wrap herniation in children. This technique is particularly difficult in standard laparoscopy without dislodgement of the gastrostomy, particularly if there are abundant adhesions or a replaced left hepatic artery to preserve. In this article, we present 15 children with neurologic impairment and previous gastrostomy who underwent Nissen fundoplication, using the da Vinci surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). All patients underwent a floppy Nissen fundoplication after crural closure and placement of four anchoring stitches to the crura. Six patients (40%) had redo Nissens and 5 (33.3%) had replaced left hepatic or accessory arteries that were preserved. Seven patients underwent repair of a hiatal hernia and 2 had biologic mesh placed. There were no conversions to open or intraoperative complications. One child had a revision of the gastrostomy site, because the prior percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy had been placed through the transverse mesocolon. There were only a few minor postoperative complications. All children were doing well at latest follow-up (average, 32 months). The da Vinci surgical robot can be used to safely perform fundoplications in patients with gastrostomy tubes. The articulating instruments allow for the

  17. Nutritional assessment and post-procedural complications in older stroke patients after insertion of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy – a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnel Wärn Hede

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is one of the major complications of stroke and a risk factor for malnutrition and prolonged in-hospital stay. Objective: The overall aim was to describe to what extent nutritional assessments (i.e. BMI kg/m2, eating problem, and weight loss were performed and documented in the records of older stroke patients treated with enteral nutrition by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG. A secondary aim was to identify documented post-procedural complications after PEG insertion during hospital stay. Design: The study is retrospective. Data were collected from records of 161 stroke patients ≥65 years, who received PEG, admitted to three stroke units during a 4-year period. Results: Mean age of the patients was 82.2 (±7 years, and 86% of the patients were ≥75 years old. On admission, body weight was documented in 50% of the patients and at discharge in 38% of the patients. BMI data were not documented at all at discharge in one of the units. Almost 80% of the patients fulfilled the European Network criteria for multimorbidity. Morbidity and multimorbidity correlated to the length of stay (p<0.0005. Complications were reported in 111 (69% of the patient records. In 53 patients (33% more than one complication was reported. A total of 116 pressure ulcers were reported and 30 patients had more than one pressure ulcer. The number of complications was related to weight loss (p=0.046 and BMI change (p=0.018. Conclusions: Essential information of the patient's nutritional status was poorly recorded which could affect the patient's nutritional treatment during the hospital stay. This study indicates that implementation of guidelines in patients with stroke is needed. The high number of pressure ulcers was an unexpected finding.

  18. [Use of gastrostomies in patients over 75 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Monedero, María Elena; Montero-Errasquín, Beatriz; Sánchez-Corral, Juan; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J

    To describe the indications of insertion of a percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) in older patients in a university hospital, as well as patient characteristics, short and long term complications, and mortality. Retrospective descriptive study of all patients over 75 years who had a PG inserted during a three year period by the Interventional Radiology Department. The indication of the procedure was reviewed, and the incidence of complications and mortality during a 36 months follow-up period were assessed through electronic medical records. The study included 74 patients, with a mean age of 84±6.1 years, and 57% were female. Furthermore, 40% lived in nursing homes and 80% had cognitive impairment. The main indications for PG insertion were dysphagia in severe dementia (56.8%), tumours of the oropharyngeal cavity (12.2%), Parkinson's disease (10.8%), and stroke (9.6%). PG was permanent in 90.5% of cases. The most common complication was aspiration pneumonia (32.4%). Overall mortality was 59.5% after a median follow-up of 18 months. Dysphagia in severe dementia was the main indication for PG in patients over 75 years. This intervention did not prevent aspiration pneumonia, which was the most common complication. Mortality in patients who have a PG was high. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Percutaneous gastrostomy and jejunostomy: Technique, results, and complications in 55 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.R.; Brown, A.; Saini, S.; Hahn, P.F.; Steiner, E.; Ferrucci, J.T.; Forman, B.H.; Silverman, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy is a well-described method that has not been widely adopted by radiologists. The authors reviewed their experience to highlight technical points and clinical results. Direct percutaneous gastrostomy was performed in 51 patients and percutaneous jejunostomy in four. Indications for gastrostomy procedures were the need for general nutrition (n = 31), complications of use of a nasogastric feeding tube (n = 7), gastric or small bowel decompression (n = 4) and endoscopic failure (n = 5). The major indication for percutaneous jejunostomy was decompression of small bowel obstruction. Key technical aspects include the use of a novel needle device that tacks the abdominal wall to the stomach, thus assuring a seal between the two structures. In the percutaneous gastrostomies, 18-F Foley catheters were introduced through the tacked portion of the stomach with a Seldinger technique and dilators. For percutaneous jejunostomy, 18-F feeding tubes were placed. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia. The authors conclude that a radiologic percutaneous gastrostomy is a safe and effective procedure and should be pursued aggressively by interventional radiologists

  20. Low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid versus high-volume PEG as bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corporaal, Sietske; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. High volumes of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based solutions as bowel preparation for colonoscopy are effective, but often poorly tolerated. To compare a 2 l PEG-based solution combined with ascorbic acid (PEG + Asc) with 4 l PEG-based solution (PEG). Methods. In a single blind,

  1. Complement activation by PEG-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes is independent of PEG molecular mass and surface density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Windschiegl, Barbara; Ilbasmis-Tamer, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Carboxylated (4%) multi-walled carbon nanotubes were covalently functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol)1000 (PEG1000), PEG1500 and PEG4000 with a PEG loading of approximately 11% in all cases. PEG loading generated non-uniform and heterogeneous higher surface structures and increased nanotube...

  2. Removal of T-fasteners 2 days after gastrostomy is feasible.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Foster, A

    2009-03-01

    T-fastener gastropexy is widely performed as part of gastrostomy insertion. The current literature recommends removal of T-fasteners at 2 weeks. We present a series of patients in whom T-fasteners were removed at 2 days with no major complications. We removed T-fasteners in 109 patients (male-to-female ratio 59:50, age range 18 to 88 years, mean age 62 years) at 2 days after gastrostomy insertion. Indications for gastrostomy included amytrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebrovascular accidents, head and neck carcinoma, multiple sclerosis, and others, including brain tumours and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. No peritubal leaks or other major complications were seen in the study population. In the study group, 15 minor complications were recorded (14%), including localised infection and pain, both of which resolved on removal of T-fasteners. We conclude that it is feasible and safe to remove T-fasteners at 2 days.

  3. Split-dose menthol-enhanced PEG vs PEG-ascorbic acid for colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Ala I; Harb, Ali H; Sarkis, Fayez S; Chalhoub, Jean M; Badreddine, Rami; Mourad, Fadi H; Othman, Mahmoud; Masri, Omar

    2015-02-14

    To compare the efficacy and palatability of 4 L polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG) plus sugar-free menthol candy (PEG + M) vs reduced-volume 2 L ascorbic acid-supplemented PEG (AscPEG). In a randomized controlled trial setting, ambulatory patients scheduled for elective colonoscopy were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either PEG + M or AscPEG, both split-dosed with minimal dietary restriction. Palatability was assessed on a linear scale of 1 to 5 (1 = disgusting; 5 = tasty). Quality of preparation was scored by assignment-blinded endoscopists using the modified Aronchick and Ottawa scales. The main outcomes were the palatability and efficacy of the preparation. Secondary outcomes included patient willingness to retake the same preparation again in the future and completion of the prescribed preparation. Overall, 200 patients were enrolled (100 patients per arm). PEG + M was more palatable than AscPEG (76% vs 62%, P = 0.03). Completing the preparation was not different between study groups (91% PEG + M vs 86% AscPEG, P = 0.38) but more patients were willing to retake PEG + M (54% vs 40% respectively, P = 0.047). There was no significant difference between PEG + M vs AscPEG in adequate cleansing on both the modified Aronchick (82% vs 77%, P = 0.31) and the Ottawa scale (85% vs 74%, P = 0.054). However, PEG + M was superior in the left colon on the Ottawa subsegmental score (score 0-2: 94% for PEG + M vs 81% for AscPEG, P = 0.005) and received significantly more excellent ratings than AscPEG on the modified Aronchick scale (61% vs 43%, P = 0.009). Both preparations performed less well in afternoon vs morning examinations (inadequate: 29% vs 15.2%, P = 0.02). 4 L PEG plus menthol has better palatability and acceptability than 2 L ascorbic acid- PEG and is associated with a higher rate of excellent preparations; Clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT01788709.

  4. Radiologic percutaneous gastrostomy and gastroenterostomy: Indications, results, and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casola, G.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Sukthankar, R.; Varney, R.A.; Stavas, J.; Cohen, M.; Christensen, R.A.; Wittich, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the authors' experience with 130 radiologic percutaneous gastrostomies (PG) and percutaneous gastroenterostomies (PGE). Procedures were accomplished successfully in 127 of 130 candidates. One case was unsuccessful and two were unfeasible. Indications were for feeding, decompression, or both. Underlying diseases included neurologic disorders, head and neck and esophageal tumors, pelvic and abdominal malignancies, trauma, and a variety of other diseases. Various guidance systems, techniques, and catheters were used. Complications occurred in 8%, most being minor. Three patients were operated on after PG/PGE-two had peritonitis, one due to tube dislodgment. Difficulties were encountered at different portions of the procedure. During catheter insertion the following problems were most common: (1) the access route was difficult because of overlying colon, (2) inability to insert a nasogastric tube in patients with esophageal carcinoma or large head and neck tumors, (3) inability to keep the stomach distended in patients with increased motility and those with surgical gastroenterostomies (Billroth I or II), (4) high position of the residual stomach in patients with hemigastrectomy, (5) the presence of ascites or peritoneal tumor anterior to the stomach in patients with ovarian carcinoma, and (6) tenting or herniation of the anterior wall of the stomach during dilatation. Difficulties that were encountered following catheter insertion included (1) chemical peritonitis from leakage of gastric juices, (2) peritonities from leakage of gastric feedings, (3) leakage around the skin entry site in patients with ascites, (4) catheters backing out and forming an intraperitorial loop, (5) catheters kinking and becoming occluded, and (6) catheters being pulled out

  5. Is survival improved by the use of NIV and PEG in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS? A post-mortem study of 80 ALS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Burkhardt

    Full Text Available Non-invasive ventilation (NIV and percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG are guideline-recommended interventions for symptom management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Their effect on survival is controversial and the impact on causes of death is unknown.To investigate the effect of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death in ALS patients.Eighty deceased ALS patients underwent a complete post mortem analysis for causes of death between 2003 and 2015. Forty-two of these patients consented for genetic testing. Effects of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death were analyzed in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression.Six patients, who requested assisted suicide causing drug-induced hypoxia, were excluded from final analysis. Respiratory failure was the main cause of death in 72 out of 74 patients. Fifteen out of 74 died of aspiration pneumonia 23/74 of bronchopneumonia and 8/74 of a combination of aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia. Twenty died of hypoxia without concomitant infection, and six patients had pulmonary embolism alone or in combination with pneumonia. NIV (p = 0.01 and PEG (p<0.01 had a significant impact on survival. In patients using NIV bronchopneumonia was significantly more frequent (p <0.04 compared to non-NIV patients. This effect was even more pronounced in limb onset patients (p<0.002. Patients with C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions showed faster disease progression and shorter survival (p = 0.01.The use of NIV and PEG prolongs survival in ALS. This study supports current AAN and EFNS guidelines which recommend NIV and PEG as a treatment option in ALS. The risk of bronchopneumonia as cause of death may be increased by NIV.

  6. Attitudes of Health Care Professionals Towards Gastrostomy Feeding in Older Adults in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hasif Jaafar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: This survey indicated that most HCPs involved in the care of geriatric patients would advocate PEG feeding. Important factors inhibiting the use of PEG tube feeding in Malaysia were identified. Future studies should explore the barriers to acceptance in order to identify potential solutions to improving PEG feeding use in Malaysia.

  7. Expression of PEG11 and PEG11AS transcripts in normal and callipyge sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moody Diane E

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The callipyge mutation is located within an imprinted gene cluster on ovine chromosome 18. The callipyge trait exhibits polar overdominant inheritance due to the fact that only heterozygotes inheriting a mutant paternal allele (paternal heterozygotes have a phenotype of muscle hypertrophy, reduced fat and a more compact skeleton. The mutation is a single A to G transition in an intergenic region that results in the increased expression of several genes within the imprinted cluster without changing their parent-of-origin allele-specific expression. Results There was a significant effect of genotype (p DLK1, PEG11, and MEG8 in the muscles of lambs with the callipyge allele. DLK1 and PEG11 transcript levels were elevated in the hypertrophied muscles of paternal heterozygous animals relative to animals of the other three genotypes. The PEG11 locus produces a single 6.5 kb transcript and two smaller antisense strand transcripts, referred to as PEG11AS, in skeletal muscle. PEG11AS transcripts were detectable over a 5.5 kb region beginning 1.2 kb upstream of the PEG11 start codon and spanning the entire open reading frame. Analysis of PEG11 expression by quantitative PCR shows a 200-fold induction in the hypertrophied muscles of paternal heterozygous animals and a 13-fold induction in homozygous callipyge animals. PEG11 transcripts were 14-fold more abundant than PEG11AS transcripts in the gluteus medius of paternal heterozygous animals. PEG11AS transcripts were expressed at higher levels than PEG11 transcripts in the gluteus medius of animals of the other three genotypes. Conclusions The effect of the callipyge mutation has been to alter the expression of DLK1, GTL2, PEG11 and MEG8 in the hypertrophied skeletal muscles. Transcript abundance of DLK1 and PEG11 was highest in paternal heterozygous animals and exhibited polar overdominant gene expression patterns; therefore, both genes are candidates for causing skeletal muscle

  8. Gastrostomy tube feeding in children with cerebral palsy: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Peter B; Juszczak, Edmund; Bachlet, Allison M E; Lambert, Bridget; Vernon-Roberts, Angharad; Grant, Hugh W; Eltumi, Muftah; McLean, Liz; Alder, Nicola; Thomas, Adrian G

    2005-02-01

    We report a longitudinal, prospective, multicentre cohort study designed to measure the outcomes of gastrostomy tube feeding in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifty-seven children with CP (28 females, 29 males; median age 4y 4mo, range 5mo to 17y 3mo) were assessed before gastrostomy placement, and at 6 and 12 months afterwards. Three-quarters of the children enrolled (43 of 57) had spastic quadriplegia; other diagnoses included mixed CP (6 of 57), hemiplegia (3 of 57), undiagnosed severe neurological impairment (3 of 57), ataxia (1 of 57), and extrapyramidal disorder (1 of 57). Only 7 of 57 (12%) could sit independently, and only 3 of 57 (5%) could walk unaided. Outcome measures included growth/anthropometry, nutritional intake, general health, and complications of gastrostomy feeding. At baseline, half of the children were more than 38D below the average weight for their age and sex when compared with the standards for typically-developing children. Weight increased substantially over the study period; the median weight z score increased from -3 before gastrostomy placement to -2.2 at 6 months and -1.6 at 12 months. Almost all parents reported a significant improvement in their child's health after this intervention and a significant reduction in time spent feeding. Statistically significant and clinically important increases in weight gain and subcutaneous fat deposition were noted. Serious complications were rare, with no evidence of an increase in respiratory complications.

  9. Factors Associated With Gastrostomy Tube Removal in Patients With Dysphagia After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmskoetter, Janina; Herbert, Teri Lynn; Bonilha, Heather S

    2017-04-01

    Gastrostomy feeding tubes are commonly placed in patients with dysphagia after stroke. The subsequent removal of the tube is a primary goal during rehabilitation. The purpose of our review was to identify predictors and factors associated with gastrostomy tube removal in patients with dysphagia after stroke. We conducted a literature review following the PRISMA statement and included the search databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Articles were included in the final analysis per predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Our search retrieved a total of 853 results consisting of 416 articles (after eliminating duplicates). Six articles met our final eligibility criteria. The following factors were identified in at least 1 article as being significantly associated with gastrostomy tube removal: reduced age, decreased number of comorbidities, prolonged inpatient rehabilitation stay, absence of bilateral stroke, nonhemorrhagic stroke, reduced dysphagia severity, absence of aspiration, absence of premature bolus loss, and timely initiation of pharyngeal swallow. Aspiration was the only factor that was investigated by 2 studies-both using multiple regression and both showing stable results, with absence of aspiration increasing the chances for tube removal. In conclusion, little is known about factors associated with gastrostomy tube removal in patients with dysphagia after stroke. Most of the identified factors are associated with stroke or disease severity; however, the role of the individual factors remains unclear. The strongest predictor appears to be absence of aspiration on modified barium swallow studies emphasizing the importance of instrumental swallow studies in this patient population.

  10. Investigation of the Existence of Supplier-Induced Demand in use of Gastrostomy Among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshiki; Babazono, Akira; Nishi, Takumi; Yasui, Midori; Harano, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to clarify whether there is small area variation in the use of gastrostomy that is explained by hospital physician density, so as to detect the existence of supplier-induced demand (SID). The study design is a retrospective cohort using claim data of Fukuoka Late Elders’ Health Insurance, submitted from 2010 to 2013. Study participants included 51,785 older adults who had been diagnosed with eating difficulties. We designated use of gastrostomy as an event. Multilevel logistic analyses were then used to investigate the existence of SID. After controlling for patient factors, we found significant regional level variance in gastrectomy use (median odds ratio [MOR]: 1.72, 1.37–2.51). Hospital physician density was significantly positively related with gastrostomy (adjusted OR of hospital physician density: 1.75, 1.25–2.45; P < 0.001). MORs were largely reduced for the input variable of hospital physician density. We found that the small area variation in use of gastrostomy among older adults could be explained by hospital physician density, which might indicate the existence of SID. PMID:26844459

  11. Peristomal infection after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: a 7-year surveillance of 297 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Duarte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Healthcare-associated infection represents the most frequent adverse event during care delivery. Medical advances like percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy have brought improvement on quality of life to patients but an increased risk of healthcare-associated infection. Predictive risk factors for peristomal wound infection are largely unknown but evidence suggests that antibiotic prophylaxis and preventive strategies related to infection control may reduce infection rates. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to evaluate the global prevalence rate of peristomal infection. Secondary objectives were to characterise the positive culture results, to evaluate the prophylactic antibiotic protocol and to identify potential risk factors for peristomal infection. METHODS: Retrospective study of 297 patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy performed at a general hospital between January 2004 and September 2010. Patients received prophylactic cefazolin before the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, underling disease conditions to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and patient potential intrinsic risk factors. Statistical analysis was made with the statistical program SPSS 17.0. RESULTS: A total of 297 percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes were inserted. Wound infection occurred in 36 patients (12.1%. Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistant was the most frequently isolated microorganism (33.3% followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.6%. The incidence rate had been rising each year and differ from 4.65% in 2004/2007 to 17.9% in 2008/2010. This finding was consistent with the increasing of prevalence global infection rates of the hospital. Most of the infections (55.6% were detected in the first 10 days post procedure. There was no significant difference in age, body mass index values, mean survival time and duration of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding between patients with and

  12. Should they have a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy? the importance of assessing decision-making capacity and the central role of a multidisciplinary team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gemma; Galbraith, Sarah; Woodward, Jeremy; Holland, Anthony; Barclay, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    Decisions about percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) can be clinically and ethically challenging, particularly when patients lack decision-making capacity. As the age of the UK population rises, with the associated increase in prevalence of dementias and neurodegenerative diseases, it is becoming an increasingly important issue for clinicians. The recent review and subsequent withdrawal of the Liverpool Care Pathway highlighted feeding as a particular area of concern. The authors undertook a 1-year retrospective review of individuals referred to the feeding issues multidisciplinary team (FIMDT) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK, in 2011. The majority of patients referred (n = 158) had a primary diagnosis of cancer (44%). The second largest group was those who had had a stroke or brain haemorrhage (13%). Twenty-eight per cent of patients had no, or uncertain, decision-making capacity on at least one occasion during decision-making. There are reflections on the role of a multidisciplinary team in the process of decision-making for these complex patients. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  13. Stereocomplex mediated gelation of PEG-(PLA)2 and PEG(PLA)8 block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, C.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Stereocomplex mediated hydrogels have been prepared by mixing solutions of polymers of opposite chirality of either PEG-(PLA)2 triblock copolymers or PEG-(PLA)8 star block copolymers. The critical gel concentrations of the mixed enantiomer solutions were considerably lower compared to polymer

  14. T-Fastener Gastropexy and Percutaneous Gastrostomy Under CT-Fluoroscopic Guidance in a Patient with Partial Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Cheung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time images of computed tomography (CT-fluoroscopy provide an excellent means of guidance for percutaneous interventions. We describe the performance of T-fastener gastropexy and percutaneous gastrostomy under CT-fluoroscopic guidance in a 59-year-old woman who had received total pharyngolaryngectomy for hypopharyngeal cancer and partial gastrectomy with Billroth II anastomosis for bleeding gastric ulcer 10 years before this operation. The previous gastric operation altered the gastrointestinal anatomy and made conventional fluoroscopic-guided percutaneous gastrostomy extremely difficult and risky. The T-fastener gastropexy and percutaneous gastrostomy were accomplished smoothly in a single session using CT-fluoroscopic guidance. This modified method of percutaneous gastrostomy may be useful in patients with anatomic distortion due to previous gastric surgery.

  15. Noninvasive ventilation during gastrostomy tube placement in patients with severe duchenne muscular dystrophy: case reports and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnkrant, D J; Ferguson, R D; Martin, J E; Gordon, G J

    2006-02-01

    Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy may benefit from gastrostomy tube feeding due to progressive dysphagia and malnutrition. However, due to their severely impaired pulmonary function, these individuals are at risk of severe complications when they are sedated or undergo anesthesia for the procedure. We previously described a technique of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation to provide respiratory support during gastrostomy tube placement in such patients, but this technique had risks and limitations. In this case report, we examine two alternative techniques we used to provide respiratory support successfully to patients with severe muscular dystrophy and malnutrition who underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. We then review the literature and discuss the potential benefits, risks, and limitations of the above techniques and of other options for gastrostomy placement in people with severe muscular dystrophy. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Biodegradation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in three tropical soils using radio labelled PEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, A.L. [Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: abdalla@cena.usp.br; Regitano, J.B.; Tornisielo, V.L.; Marchese, L. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Piracicaba SP (Brazil); Pecanha, M.R.S.R.; Vitti, D.M.S.S. [Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil); Smith, T. [School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-19

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) may be added to forage based diets rich in tannins for ruminant feeding because it binds to tannins and thus prevent the formation of potentially indigestible tannin-protein complexes. The objective of this work was to determine the in vitro biodegradation (mineralization, i.e., complete breakdown of PEG to CO{sub 2}) rate of PEG. {sup 14}C-Polyethylene glycol ({sup 14}C-PEG) was added to three different tropical soils (a sandy clay loam soil, SaCL; a sandy clay soil, SaC; and a sandy loam soil, SaL) and was incubated in Bartha flasks. Free PEG and PEG bound to tannins from a tannin rich local shrub were incubated under aerobic conditions for up to 70 days. The biodegradation assay monitored the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved after degradation of the labelled PEG in the soils. After incubation, the amount of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved from the {sup 14}C-PEG application was low. Higher PEG mineralization values were found for the soils with higher organic matter contents (20.1 and 18.6 g organic matter/kg for SaCL and SaC, respectively) than for the SaL soil (11.9 g organic matter/kg) (P < 0.05). The extent of mineralization of PEG after 70 days of incubation in the soil was significantly lower (P < 0.05) when it was added as bound to the browse tannin than in the free form (0.040 and 0.079, respectively). (author)

  17. Biodegradation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in three tropical soils using radio labelled PEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, A.L.; Regitano, J.B.; Tornisielo, V.L.; Marchese, L.; Pecanha, M.R.S.R.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Smith, T.

    2005-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) may be added to forage based diets rich in tannins for ruminant feeding because it binds to tannins and thus prevent the formation of potentially indigestible tannin-protein complexes. The objective of this work was to determine the in vitro biodegradation (mineralization, i.e., complete breakdown of PEG to CO 2 ) rate of PEG. 14 C-Polyethylene glycol ( 14 C-PEG) was added to three different tropical soils (a sandy clay loam soil, SaCL; a sandy clay soil, SaC; and a sandy loam soil, SaL) and was incubated in Bartha flasks. Free PEG and PEG bound to tannins from a tannin rich local shrub were incubated under aerobic conditions for up to 70 days. The biodegradation assay monitored the 14 CO 2 evolved after degradation of the labelled PEG in the soils. After incubation, the amount of 14 CO 2 evolved from the 14 C-PEG application was low. Higher PEG mineralization values were found for the soils with higher organic matter contents (20.1 and 18.6 g organic matter/kg for SaCL and SaC, respectively) than for the SaL soil (11.9 g organic matter/kg) (P < 0.05). The extent of mineralization of PEG after 70 days of incubation in the soil was significantly lower (P < 0.05) when it was added as bound to the browse tannin than in the free form (0.040 and 0.079, respectively). (author)

  18. Factors influencing decision regret regarding placement of a PEG among substitute decision-makers of older persons in Japan: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraoka, Yumiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-28

    A tube feeding decision aid designed at the Ottawa Health Research Institute was specifically created for substitute decision-makers who must decide whether to allow placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube in a cognitively impaired older person. We developed a Japanese version and found that the decision aid promoted the decision-making process of substitute decision-makers to decrease decisional conflict and increase knowledge. However, the factors that influence decision regret among substitute decision-makers were not measured after the decision was made. The objective of this study was to explore the factors that influence decision regret among substitute decision-makers 6 months after using a decision aid for PEG placement. In this prospective study, participants comprised substitute decision-makers for 45 inpatients aged 65 years and older who were being considered for placement of a PEG tube in hospitals, nursing homes and patients' homes in Japan. The Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) was used to evaluate decisional conflict among substitute decision-makers immediately after deciding whether to introduce tube feeding and the Decision Regret Scale (DRS) was used to evaluate decisional regret among substitute decision-makers 6 months after they made their decision. Normalized scores were evaluated and analysis of variance was used to compare groups. The results of the multiple regression analysis suggest that PEG placement (P conflict (P conflict immediately after deciding whether to allow PEG placement have an influence on decision regret among substitute decision-makers after 6 months.

  19. Risk of bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrotrostomy (PEG tube insertion under antiplatelet therapy: a systematic review with a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG tube placement often are under antiplatelet therapy with a potential thromboembolic risk if these medications are discontinued. This systematic review aims to assess if maintaining aspirin and/or clopidogrel treatment increases the risk of bleeding following PEG placement. Methods: A systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases was developed for studies investigating the risk of bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy undergoing PEG tube insertion. Summary estimates, including 95 % confidence intervals (CI, were calculated. A fixed or random effects model was used depending on heterogeneity (I². Publication bias risks were assessed by means of funnel plot analysis. Results: Eleven studies with a total of 6,233 patients (among whom 3,665 were undergoing antiplatelet treatment, met the inclusion criteria and were included in the quantitative summary. Any PEG tube placement-related bleeding was found in 2.67 % (95 % CI 1.66 %, 3.91 % of the entire population and in 2.7 % (95 % CI 1.5 %, 4.1 % of patients not receiving antiplatelet therapy. Pooled relative risk (RR for bleeding in patients under aspirin, when compared to controls, was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.89, 2.29; I² = 0 %; pooled RR for clopidogrel was 1.21 (95 % CI 0.48, 3.04; I² = 0 % and for dual antiplatelet therapy, 2.13; (95 % CI 0.77, 5.91; I² = 47 %. No significant publication bias was evident for the different medications analyzed. Conclusion: Antiplatelet therapy was safe among patients undergoing PEG tube insertion. Future prospective and randomized studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the results of this study.

  20. Contribution of submandibular gland and swallowing structure sparing to post-radiation therapy PEG dependence in oropharynx cancer patients treated with split-neck IMRT technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Nyflot, Matthew; Laramore, George E; Liao, Jay J; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2016-11-15

    Radiation therapy-related dysphagia is worsened by xerostomia. The submandibular glands (SMG) produce saliva rich in lubricating mucins, and sparing the SMG has been shown to reduce xerostomia. The goal of this study was to determine whether SMG sparing IMRT is associated with reduced post-treatment PEG dependence in locally advanced oropharynx cancer patients. Patients treated with definitive radiation therapy for oropharynx cancer were included in this retrospective study. Those with disease recurrence were excluded. Salivary glands and swallowing-related organs at risk, including pharyngeal constrictors, were contoured. Primary endpoint was time from end of radiation treatment to freedom from gastrostomy (PEG) tube dependence. Cox proportional hazards regression and logistic regression were used to assess influence of normal tissue doses on swallowing related endpoints. Sixty-nine patients were included. All had stage III/IV disease and 97% received concurrent systemic therapy. Fifty-seven percent had contralateral SMG (cSMG) mean dose  42 Gy (p = 0.002). Patients treated with cSMG sparing radiotherapy had significantly shorter time to PEG tube removal after treatment, suggesting a clinically meaningful reduction in subacute dysphagia compared to non-cSMG sparing treatment.

  1. Gastrostomy vs nasogastric tube feeding in patients with head and neck cancer during radiotherapy alone or combined chemoradiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Ainara; Santacruz, Elisa; Vega-Piñeiro, Belén; Gión, María; Molina, Javier; Villamayor, María; Mateo, Raquel; Riveiro, Javier; Nattero, Lia; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2017-06-05

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) submitted to radiotherapy alone or combined chemoradiotherapy present a high prevalence of malnutrition at baseline. Prophylactic use of gastrostomy has been suggested for these patients for delivering enteral nutrition. On the other hand, other authors have failed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this measure over nasogastric tube feeding. We studied 40 patients with HNC with moderate or severe malnutrition who were offered either prophylactic percutaneous gastrostomy before starting oncologic treatment or close follow-up with nutritional counseling with the placement of a nasogastric tube when necessary. There were no significant changes throughout the study period in weight (p = 0.338), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.314) or serum proteins (p = 0.729), and these changes showed no differences between the gastrostomy vsnasogastric tube feeding groups. The amount of delivered energy was above the estimated energy needs with both gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding, but there were no differences in the total energy provided by enteral nutrition between groups. Patients in the gastrostomy group received enteral nutrition support for a longer period of time (p = 0.007). Both gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding are effective methods of delivering enteral nutrition in patients with HNC submitted to radiotherapy alone or combined chemoradiotherapy, with no differences between them in terms of avoiding further nutritional deterioration.

  2. Ballistic energy transport in PEG oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kireev Victor V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy transport between the terminal groups of the azido-PEG-succinimide ester compounds with a number of repeating PEG units of 0, 4, 8, and 12 was studied using relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. The through-bond energy transport time, evaluated as the waiting time at which the cross peak maximum is reached, Tmax, was found to be linearly dependent on the chain length for chain lengths up to 60 Å suggesting a ballistic energy transport regime. The through-bond energy transport speed is found to be ca. 500 m/s. The cross-peak amplitude at the maximum decays exponentially with the chain length with a characteristic decay distance of 15.7 ± 1 Å. Substantial mode delocalization across the PEG bridge is found, which can support the energy propagation as a wavepacket.

  3. Gastrostomy in head and neck cancer: current literature, controversies and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paula T; Brown, Teresa; Paleri, Vinidh

    2015-04-01

    This article explores the literature on the role of gastrostomy tube feeding use in the management of head and neck cancer, with special attention to its indications, timing of insertion, advantages, complications and quality of life issues. The current guidelines in place across different countries and two ongoing randomized controlled trials are discussed in detail, and placed in the context of current evidence. There remains a lack of consensus about when and which enteral feeding routes (gastrostomy or nasogastric tube) should be used and controversy about the long-term effects on swallowing function as well as quality of life for patients. Local guidelines should be used or generated to guide practice or patients enrolled into existing trials until higher level evidence is generated.

  4. Abdominal wall necrotizing fasciitis from dislodged percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alexandra A; Miller, George; Bamboat, Zubin M; Hiotis, Karen

    2004-09-01

    We report three cases of abdominal wall necrotizing fasciitis that occurred as a result of leakage from displaced percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. This is the first report of such a series. Patients underwent extensive operative excisions of their abdominal walls down to their posterior fascia. All patients tolerated their initial surgery, however, two patients ultimately expired from respiratory complications. The surviving patient underwent multiple repeat debridements and reconstructive abdominal wall surgery. We review the epidemiology of patients at risk for this complication and discuss its presentation, as well as the appropriate workup and management. We also address the issues of closure of large abdominal wall defects and future alimentation in this patient group. Finally, abdominal wall necrotizing faciitis from gastrostomy tube leakage is a devastating complication, and the development of preventative strategies for patients at risk is of paramount importance.

  5. Buried bumber syndrome (internal button buried of the gastrostomy): Unearthing the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Nelson; Otero, William; Gomez, Martin; Bula, Rodrigo; Otero, Elder

    2006-01-01

    The Buried bumper syndrome is a major complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and the literature of in of having described of rarely. The physiopathology is the gastric isquemy of the mucous one for an excessive pressure for the ends that fix the gastrostomy. Their clinical manifestations that depend on the depth of migration of the end go from the absence of symptoms, spill of the nutrition enteral being the most frequent, until peritonitis. The diverse described treatment modalities are based on the depth of migration of the end valued endoscopically. The successful use of the ecoendosonography is described for the estimate of the depth of the migration, when you cannot visualize the end internal endoscopically and we propose a handling .algorithm based on this technique

  6. Replacement of Dislodged Gastrostomy Tubes After Stoma Dilation in the Pediatric Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiloni Bhambani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A dislodged gastrostomy tube (GT is a common complaint that requires evaluation in the pediatric emergency department (ED and, on occasion, will require stoma dilation to successfully replace the GT. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency that stoma dilation is required, the success rate of replacement, complications encountered, and the techniques used to confirm placement of the GT after dilation. Methods: We conducted a retrospective medical record review of children 0–18 years who presented to the pediatric ED from February 2013 through February 2015 with a dislodged GT that required stoma dilation by pediatric emergency physicians with serially increasing Foley catheter sizes prior to successful placement of the GT. Results: We reviewed a total of 302 encounters in 215 patients, with 97 (32% of the encounters requiring stoma dilation prior to replacing a GT. The median amount of dilation was 2 French between the initial Foley catheter size and the final GT size. There was a single complication of a mal-positioned balloon that was identified at the index visit. No delayed complications were encountered. We performed confirmation of placement in all patients. The two most common forms of confirmation were aspiration of gastric contents (56/97 [58%] followed by contrast radiograph in 39 (40%. Conclusion: The practice of serial dilation of a gastrostomy stoma site to allow successful replacement of a gastrostomy tube in pediatric patients who present to the ED with a dislodged gastrostomy tube is generally successful and without increased complication. All patients received at least one form of confirmation for appropriate GT placement with the most common being aspiration of gastric contents.

  7. The Optimal PEG for Kidney Preservation: A Preclinical Porcine Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Sebastien; Thuillier, Raphael; Codas, Ricardo; Manguy, Emily; Barrou, Benoit; Valagier, Alexandre; Puichaud, Alexis; Badet, Lionel; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Eugene, Michel; Hauet, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    University of Wisconsin (UW) solution is not optimal for preservation of marginal organs. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) could improve protection. Similarly formulated solutions containing either 15 or 20 g/L PEG 20 kDa or 5, 15 and 30 g/L PEG 35 kDa were tested in vitro on kidney endothelial cells, ex vivo on preserved kidneys, and in vivo in a pig kidney autograft model. In vitro, all PEGs provided superior preservation than UW in terms of cell survival, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, and activation of survival pathways. Ex vivo, tissue injury was lower with PEG 20 kDa compared to UW or PEG 35 kDa. In vivo, function recovery was identical between UW and PEG 35 kDa groups, while PEG 20 kDa displayed swifter recovery. At three months, PEG 35 kDa 15 and 30 g/L animals had worse outcomes than UW, while 5 g/L PEG 35 kDa was similar. PEG 20 kDa was superior to both UW and PEG 35 kDa in terms of function and fibrosis development, with low activation of damage pathways. PEG 20 kDa at 15 g/L was superior to 20 g/L. While in vitro models did not discriminate between PEGs, in large animal models of transplantation we showed that PEG 20 kDa offers a higher level of protection than UW and that longer chains such as PEG 35 kDa must be used at low doses, such as found in Institut George Lopez (IGL1, 1g/L). PMID:29401654

  8. Probing adsorption of DSPE-PEG2000 and DSPE-PEG5000 to the surface of felodipine and griseofulvin nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Hanna A; Yanez Arteta, Marianna; Berg, Staffan; Lindfors, Lennart; Sigfridsson, Kalle

    2016-08-20

    Nanosized formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs show great potential due to improved bioavailability. In order to retain colloidal stability, the nanocrystals need to be stabilized. Here we explore the use of the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated phospholipids DSPE-PEG2000 and DSPE-PEG5000 as stabilizers of felodipine and griseofulvin nanocrystals. Nanocrystal stability and physicochemical properties were examined and the interaction between the PEGylated lipids and the nanocrystal surface as well as a macroscopic model surface was investigated. Using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring both mass adsorption and the thickness of the adsorbed layer were estimated. The results indicate that the PEGylated lipids are adsorbed as flat layers of around 1-3nm, and that DSPE-PEG5000 forms a thicker layer compared with DSPE-PEG2000. In addition, the mass adsorption to the drug crystals and the model surface are seemingly comparable. Furthermore, both DSPE-PEG2000 and DSPE-PEG5000 rendered stable drug nanocrystals, with a somewhat higher surface binding and stability seen for DSPE-PEG2000. These results suggest DSPE-PEG2000 and DSPE-PEG5000 as efficient nanocrystal stabilizers, with DSPE-PEG2000 giving a somewhat higher surface coverage and superior colloidal stability, whereas DSPE-PEG5000 shows a more extended structure that may have advantages for prolongation of circulation time in vivo and facilitation for targeting modifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Raman scattering studies on PEG functionalized hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, D; Devanand Venkatasubbu, G; Kumar, J; Ramakrishnan, V

    2014-01-03

    The pure hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by wet chemical precipitation method. Raman spectral measurements have been made for pure HAP, pure Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and PEG coated HAP in different mass ratios (sample 1, sample 2 and sample 3). The peaks observed in Raman spectrum of pure HAP and the XRD pattern have confirmed the formation of HAP NPs. Vibrational modes have been assigned for pure HAP and pure PEG 6000. The observed variation in peak position of Raman active vibrational modes of PEG in PEG coated HAP has been elucidated in this work, in terms of intermolecular interactions between PEG and HAP. Further these results suggest that the functionalization of nanoparticles may be independent of PEG mass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy in patients with clinically severe obesity presenting with complications after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsas, Theodore; Kraniotis, Pantelis; Spyropoulos, Charalambos; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Karatzas, Andreas; Kalfarentzos, Fotis

    2010-10-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous gastrostomy in patients presenting with complications after bariatric surgery. From January 2003 up to today, 25 patients (20 women), formerly operated for severe obesity, were referred for gastrostomy, after presenting with a complication. The mean age and body mass index were 38±9.3 years and 46±7.1 kg/m, respectively. A gastrostomy tube was placed under CT in all patients. The procedure's technical success rate was 96%, with mean interventional time of 80±42 minutes. In 14 of 25 (56%) cases submucosal spread of air was noticed during air insufflation into the stomach. No major complications were recorded. There was a statistically significant improvement of both albumin and prealbumin values compared with the initial ones (Pbariatric surgery, provides a reliable alternative for nutritional support. It restores the normal absorption route, reversing metabolic deficiencies.

  11. CT-Guided Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrostomy for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Retrospective Evaluation in 177 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akio, E-mail: a.akahane@gmail.com; Kato, Kenichi, E-mail: kkato@iwate-med.ac.jp; Suzuki, Michiko, E-mail: mamimichiko@me.com [Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sone, Miyuki, E-mail: msone@me.com [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Tanaka, Ryoichi, E-mail: rtanaka@iwate-med.ac.jp; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko, E-mail: nakasato@iwate-med.ac.jp; Ehara, Shigeru, E-mail: ehara@iwate-med.ac.jp [Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to assess the technical success rate and adverse events (AEs) associated with computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous gastrostomy for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC).Materials and MethodsThis retrospective study included patients with HNC who had undergone CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy between February 2007 and December 2013. Information regarding the patients’ backgrounds, CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy techniques, technical success rate, and AEs were obtained from the medical records. In all patients, the stomach was punctured under CT fluoroscopy with a Funada gastropexy device.ResultsDuring the study period, 177 patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy. The most common tumor location was the oral cavity, followed by the pharynx and maxilla. The indication for CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy were tumor obstruction in 78 patients, postoperative dysphagia in 55 patients, radiation edema in 43 patients, and cerebral infarction in 1 patient. The technical success rate was 97.7 %. The overall mean procedure time was 25.3 min. Major AEs occurred in seven patients (4.0 %), including bleeding (n = 4), colonic injury (n = 1), gastric tear (n = 1), and aspiration pneumonia (n = 1). Minor AEs occurred in 15 patients (8.5 %), which included peristomal leakage (n = 6), irritation (n = 4), inadvertent removal (n = 2), peristomal hemorrhage (n = 1), peristomal infection (n = 1), and wound granulation (n = 1). The mean follow-up period was 111 days (range 1–1106 days).ConclusionOur study suggests that CT-guided gastrostomy may be suitable in patients with HNC.

  12. Tips and Tricks of Percutaneous Gastrostomy Under Image Guidance in Patients with Limited Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Figl, Andrea; Thariat, Juliette [Sophia Antipolis University, Nice cedex (France); Lacout, Alexis [Centre Me' dico-Chirurgical, Aurillac (France)

    2011-10-15

    We read with great interest the article by Chan et al. (1) in the March issue of Korean Journal of Radiology on their experience of modified radiology-guided percutaneous gastrostomy (MRPG). The authors proposed a technique to access the stomach in patients with upper digestive tract obstruction (UDTO). Following marking a patient's left liver inferior margin and room air-colonography, the authors punctured the gastric area using a 21G fine needle under X-ray guidance and withdrew their syringe gradually while injecting contrast medium. We noted that the gastrostomy may be performed using a 0.0035-inch hydrophilic guide wire and a 6.5-Fr angled catheter in almost 100% of patients contraindicated for endoscopy gastrostomy, including those with tortuous or tight cervical stenosis (2). In patients with a collapsed stomach, orally administered effervescent sodium bicarbonate powder can produce sufficient gas in the stomach to allow for a percutaneous needle puncture. In UDTO patients, diatrizoate meglumine can be directly injected into the gastric lumen under ultrasound (US) guidance, as reported by Pugash et al. (3) in 1995. Since the stomach appears collapsed with apposed multi-layer walls and virtual lumen on US, the needle tip is hardly seen. In such circumstances, after having transfixed the stomach with a 21G Chiba needle, further gradual needle withdrawing is performed under fluoroscopic guidance while injecting small amounts of diatrizoate meglumine until a ruga pattern is seen. Moreover, a cancer patient's subcutaneous fat is often absent and the anterior gastric wall is close to the abdominal wall. High frequency US monitoring does improve needle visualization in such a circumstance. Conversely, in obese patients, back- and forth motions of the needle stylet under Doppler color US guidance clearly improves needle visualization. We noted that by using this technique we successfully performed percutaneous fluoroscopy gastrostomy (PFG) in two partially

  13. Tips and Tricks of Percutaneous Gastrostomy Under Image Guidance in Patients with Limited Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Figl, Andrea; Thariat, Juliette; Lacout, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    We read with great interest the article by Chan et al. (1) in the March issue of Korean Journal of Radiology on their experience of modified radiology-guided percutaneous gastrostomy (MRPG). The authors proposed a technique to access the stomach in patients with upper digestive tract obstruction (UDTO). Following marking a patient's left liver inferior margin and room air-colonography, the authors punctured the gastric area using a 21G fine needle under X-ray guidance and withdrew their syringe gradually while injecting contrast medium. We noted that the gastrostomy may be performed using a 0.0035-inch hydrophilic guide wire and a 6.5-Fr angled catheter in almost 100% of patients contraindicated for endoscopy gastrostomy, including those with tortuous or tight cervical stenosis (2). In patients with a collapsed stomach, orally administered effervescent sodium bicarbonate powder can produce sufficient gas in the stomach to allow for a percutaneous needle puncture. In UDTO patients, diatrizoate meglumine can be directly injected into the gastric lumen under ultrasound (US) guidance, as reported by Pugash et al. (3) in 1995. Since the stomach appears collapsed with apposed multi-layer walls and virtual lumen on US, the needle tip is hardly seen. In such circumstances, after having transfixed the stomach with a 21G Chiba needle, further gradual needle withdrawing is performed under fluoroscopic guidance while injecting small amounts of diatrizoate meglumine until a ruga pattern is seen. Moreover, a cancer patient's subcutaneous fat is often absent and the anterior gastric wall is close to the abdominal wall. High frequency US monitoring does improve needle visualization in such a circumstance. Conversely, in obese patients, back- and forth motions of the needle stylet under Doppler color US guidance clearly improves needle visualization. We noted that by using this technique we successfully performed percutaneous fluoroscopy gastrostomy (PFG) in two partially

  14. De novo radiologic placement of button gastrostomy: a feasibility study in children with cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richioud, Bertrand; Beji, Hedi; Kalenderian, Anne-Charlotte; Cuinet, Marie; Pilleul, Frank [Centre Leon Berard, Department of Radiology, Lyon (France); Louazon, Typhaine; Bertrand, Amandine; Roux, Pascale; Marec-Berard, Perrine [Institut d' Hematologie et d' Oncologie Pediatrique, Pediatric Oncology, Lyon (France)

    2015-12-15

    Primary placement of percutaneous radiologic button gastrostomy has been successfully performed in adults but research is lacking as to its success in children during cancer treatment. To assess the safety and effectiveness of such treatment at a single center. We conducted a 3-year retrospective feasibility study reporting on placement procedure, feeding plan, acute complications and effectiveness of this technique based on the evolution of the weight and weight-to-height during a period of 3 months. Eleven gastrostomies were performed in 11 children and young adults (3-20 years old) during oncological treatment. No major complications occurred. Two patients experienced minor side effects - local leakage and granulation tissue formation - both easily treated. In all cases, enteral feeding started within 24 h following the button placement. The patients were able to go home within 72 h. After 1 month, 64% (7/11) had gained weight, 18% (2/11) had maintained weight and 9% (1/11) had lost weight. After 3 months, 73% (8/11) had gained weight and 9% (1/11) had lost weight. The procedure and devices were well tolerated and mostly effective in our cohort. (orig.)

  15. De novo radiologic placement of button gastrostomy: a feasibility study in children with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richioud, Bertrand; Beji, Hedi; Kalenderian, Anne-Charlotte; Cuinet, Marie; Pilleul, Frank; Louazon, Typhaine; Bertrand, Amandine; Roux, Pascale; Marec-Berard, Perrine

    2015-01-01

    Primary placement of percutaneous radiologic button gastrostomy has been successfully performed in adults but research is lacking as to its success in children during cancer treatment. To assess the safety and effectiveness of such treatment at a single center. We conducted a 3-year retrospective feasibility study reporting on placement procedure, feeding plan, acute complications and effectiveness of this technique based on the evolution of the weight and weight-to-height during a period of 3 months. Eleven gastrostomies were performed in 11 children and young adults (3-20 years old) during oncological treatment. No major complications occurred. Two patients experienced minor side effects - local leakage and granulation tissue formation - both easily treated. In all cases, enteral feeding started within 24 h following the button placement. The patients were able to go home within 72 h. After 1 month, 64% (7/11) had gained weight, 18% (2/11) had maintained weight and 9% (1/11) had lost weight. After 3 months, 73% (8/11) had gained weight and 9% (1/11) had lost weight. The procedure and devices were well tolerated and mostly effective in our cohort. (orig.)

  16. Therapeutic effects of mosapride citrate and lansoprazole for prevention of aspiration pneumonia in patients receiving gastrostomy feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Kento; Yoshida, Rihito; Horai, Aya; Satake, Shinya; Ose, Takayuki; Kitajima, Naoto; Yoneda, Shushi; Adachi, Kyoichi; Amano, Yuji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2013-10-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is an emerging problem in patients receiving gastrostomy feeding. This study is designed to clarify the therapeutic effects of mosapride citrate and lansoprazole for prevention of aspiration pneumonia in patients receiving gastrostomy feeding. The study subjects were 119 patients with dysphasia who required gastrostomy feeding. They were randomly assigned to the control (without medication), lansoprazole (15 mg, 1/day), and mosapride (5 mg, 3/day) groups. The number of days with fever (≥37.8 °C), vomiting, and antibiotics administration, as well as the occurrence of pneumonia were investigated during the 6-month observation period. The incidence of pneumonia during the observation period was significantly lower in the mosapride group as compared to the control (7/38 vs. 16/40, p = 0.038) and lansoprazole (vs. 20/41, p = 0.005) groups. The mosapride group also showed a significant decrease in days with fever and antibiotics administration as compared to the other groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of hiatal hernia was a significant risk factor and administration of mosapride was a significant preventive factor for pneumonia. Mosapride has a preventive effect on occurrence of pneumonia in patients receiving gastrostomy feeding.

  17. Investigation of the Existence of Supplier-Induced Demand in use of Gastrostomy Among Older Adults: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshiki; Babazono, Akira; Nishi, Takumi; Yasui, Midori; Harano, Yumi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether there is small area variation in the use of gastrostomy that is explained by hospital physician density, so as to detect the existence of supplier-induced demand (SID).The study design is a retrospective cohort using claim data of Fukuoka Late Elders' Health Insurance, submitted from 2010 to 2013. Study participants included 51,785 older adults who had been diagnosed with eating difficulties. We designated use of gastrostomy as an event. Multilevel logistic analyses were then used to investigate the existence of SID.After controlling for patient factors, we found significant regional level variance in gastrectomy use (median odds ratio [MOR]: 1.72, 1.37-2.51). Hospital physician density was significantly positively related with gastrostomy (adjusted OR of hospital physician density: 1.75, 1.25-2.45; P < 0.001). MORs were largely reduced for the input variable of hospital physician density.We found that the small area variation in use of gastrostomy among older adults could be explained by hospital physician density, which might indicate the existence of SID.

  18. Comparative Study of Esophageal Self-expandable Metallic Stent Insertion and Gastrostomy Feeding for Dysphagia Caused by Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Min, Yang Won; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2018-03-25

    Dysphagia is encountered in a large proportion of patients with lung cancer and is associated with malnutrition and a poor quality of life. This study compared the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion and percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) feeding for patients with lung cancer and dysphagia. A total of 261 patients with lung cancer, who underwent either SEMS insertion (stent group) or PG (gastrostomy group) as an initial treatment procedure for dysphagia between July 1997 and July 2015 at the Samsung Medical Center, were reviewed retrospectively, and 84 patients with esophageal obstruction were identified. The clinical outcomes, including the overall survival, additional intervention, complications, and post-procedural nutritional status in the two groups, were compared. Among the 84 patients finally analyzed, 68 patients received SEMS insertion and 16 had PG. The stent group had less cervical obstruction and more mid-esophageal obstruction than the gastrostomy group. The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed similar overall survival in the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the two modalities had similar survival rates (PG compared with SEMS insertion, hazard ratio 0.682, p=0.219). Fifteen patients (22.1%) in the stent group received additional intervention, whereas there was no case in the gastrostomy group (p=0.063). The decrease in the serum albumin level after the procedure was lower in the gastrostomy group than in the stent group (-0.20±0.54 g/dL vs. -0.65±0.57 g/dL, p=0.013). SEMS insertion and PG feeding for relieving dysphagia by lung cancer had a comparable survival outcome. On the other hand, PG was associated with a better nutritional status.

  19. Gastrostomy Tube Feeding in Children With Developmental or Acquired Disorders: A Longitudinal Comparison on Healthcare Provision and Eating Outcomes 4 Years After Gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Ellen; Karlsson, Ann-Kristin; Sjögreen, Lotta

    2018-03-30

    Studies on long-term feeding and eating outcomes in children requiring gastrostomy tube feeding (GT) are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe children with developmental or acquired disorders receiving GT and to compare longitudinal eating and feeding outcomes. A secondary aim was to explore healthcare provision related to eating and feeding. This retrospective cohort study reviewed medical records of children in 1 administrative region of Sweden with GT placement between 2005 and 2012. Patient demographics, primary diagnoses, age at GT placement, and professional healthcare contacts prior to and after GT placement were recorded and compared. Feeding and eating outcomes were assessed 4 years after GT placement. The medical records of 51 children, 28 boys and 23 girls, were analyzed and grouped according to "acquired" (n = 13) or "developmental" (n = 38) primary diagnoses. At 4 years after GT placement, 67% were still using GT. Only 6 of 37 (16%) children with developmental disorders transferred to eating all orally, as opposed to 10 of 11 (91%) children with acquired disorders. Children with developmental disorders were younger at the time of GT placement and displayed a longer duration of GT activity when compared with children with acquired disorders. This study demonstrates a clear difference between children with developmental or acquired disorders in duration of GT activity and age at GT placement. The study further shows that healthcare provided to children with GT is in some cases multidisciplinary, but primarily focuses on feeding rather than eating. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  20. A simple suture-retrieval device for the placement of u-stitches during laparoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Peter

    2009-02-01

    During minimally invasive operations, it is sometimes necessary to retrieve the end of a suture or a suture needle and bring it out through the abdominal wall. Using a standard needle and a length of suture, we have developed a simple device that allows the retrieval of a suture end during minimally invasive operations that require the placement of U-or stay stitches. The author has used the device described during more than 100 laparoscopic gastrostomy placement procedures and other operations involving the placement of U- or stay stitches with excellent results and no complications. Using a beveled hollow-bore needle and a loop of polypropylene suture, one can construct a simple device that allows the retrieval of a suture from within a body cavity during minimally invasive surgery, making the placement of U- and stay stitches easier and more precise.

  1. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and stent placement via gastrostomy: technical aspects and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderman, W H; Etzkorn, K P; Harig, J M; Watkins, J L

    1995-01-01

    Significant advances in the field of enteral nutrition (1), combined with technical advances in percutaneous access, have increased the indications for, and safety of, enteral alimentation (2). A mature gastrostomy stoma not only provides access to the gastrointestinal lumen for nutrition, but in selected cases, provides access for the diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopist. In 1971, Wiendl first reported diagnostic fiberoptic stomal endoscopy (3). This has since been followed by reports of diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (4), and more recently, the first case of therapeutic ERCP by Gray et al. (5). We report here on the second case of therapeutic ERCP in a patient with metastatic squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck, with liver metastasis. We discuss the technical aspects, indications, and future of therapeutic stomal endoscopy.

  2. Negotiating mothering against the odds: gastrostomy tube feeding, stigma, governmentality and disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Gillian M; Scambler, Graham

    2006-03-01

    Using the findings of a small-scale qualitative investigation based on in-depth interviews with mothers attending a tertiary paediatric referral centre in London, this paper explores professional and parental discourses in relation to gastrostomy tube feeding and disabled children. Detailed accounts are given of women's struggles to negotiate their identities, and those of their children, within dominant discourses of mothering and child-centredness. Constructions of feeding practices as coercive conflict with normative expectations of 'good mothering' and the 'idealised autonomous' child. Although notions of 'stigmatised identities' featured in women's accounts of feeding children, both orally and by tube, stigma fails to explain why mothers are rendered culpable within expert discourses. Prevailing theories of stigma and coping are interrogated and judged to be more descriptive than explanatory. Felt stigma is posited as an aspect of governmentality.

  3. Multi-agency practice for developing a blended diet for children fed via gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sian

    2017-07-10

    The administration of a blended diet via a gastrostomy tube to children with complex needs is an evolving area of practice. Healthcare professionals must provide guidance, promote best practice and optimise patient safety where patients and families choose a blended diet in preference to the prescribed commercial feed. The Aneurin Bevan Health University Health Board in Newport, Wales, took a collaborative approach, by working with parents as equal partners, to enable a child with complex needs to receive a blended diet at school. The development of a protocol and risk-assessed approach enabled the delivery of bespoke flexible care that met the holistic needs of the child and family and improved the child's quality of life. The initiative also led to positive outcomes for the school and wider community.

  4. Owner experiences and complications with home use of a replacement low profile gastrostomy device for long-term enteral feeding in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimoto, Sean K.; Marks, Stanley L.; Struble, Andrea L.; Riel, Darlene L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate complications and owner impressions of a low profile gastrostomy device (LPGD) for enteral feeding in dogs. Medical records of dogs that had placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube followed by a LPGD between 1995 and 2003 were reviewed. Fifteen dogs had 29 devices placed for a variety of disease states in which enteral nutritional support was indicated. The individual tubes were placed for a median duration of 212 d. Most complications...

  5. Rates and risks of gastrostomy tubes in infants with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, Sharon R; Sidman, James D

    2011-03-01

    To review data on a cohort of infants with cleft palate to (1) determine rates of gastrostomy (G)-tube placement, (2) identify contributing comorbidities, and (3) use relative risk analyses to improve management of cleft palate in infants with feeding difficulty. Retrospective medical record review. Tertiary care children's hospital. Infants with cleft palate born between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008, without G-tubes prior to referral were included. Comorbidities were analyzed, including syndromes and chromosomopathies (syn/chrom) and cardiac, respiratory, neurologic, and gastrointestinal diagnoses. These comorbidities were analyzed independently. Gastrostomy-tube placement. Of 214 infants with cleft palate, 34 required G-tubes. Of these, 19 had syn/chrom. Independent of these diagnoses, 17 infants had 1 system comorbidity and 12 had multisystem comorbidities. Of the 180 patients without G-tubes, 20 had syn/chrom. Independent of these diagnoses, 10 infants had 1 system comorbidity and 2 had multisystem comorbidities. Rates of G-tube placement ranged from 3% in infants without any comorbidity to 94% in infants with respiratory comorbidity. Relative risks of G-tube placement with syn/chrom, 1 system comorbidity, and multisystem comorbidities were 5.68 (95% confidence interval, 3.18-10.16), 21.79 (8.76-54.17), and 29.66 (12.18-72.21), respectively. Diagnosis of syn/chrom or major comorbidity significantly increases risk of G-tube placement. Regardless of syn/chrom association, problems affecting the heart, respiratory system, central nervous system, and lower esophageal sphincter are the most significant risk factors, implying that particular comorbidities are more influential than a simple diagnosis of syn/chrom. These data should help identify children at greatest risk for G-tubes and those expected to overcome feeding difficulties, leading to more persistent use of nonsurgical therapy before resorting to G-tubes.

  6. Impact of the prophylactic gastrostomy for unresectable squamous cell head and neck carcinomas treated with radio-chemotherapy on quality of life: Prospective randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Sebastien; Baumstarck-Barrau, Karine; Alfonsi, Marc; Digue, Laurence; Bagarry, Danielle; Feham, Nasreddine; Bensadoun, Rene Jean; Pignon, Thierry; Loundon, Anderson; Deville, Jean-Laurent; Zanaret, Michel; Favre, Roger; Duffaud, Florence; Auquier, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Concomitant radio-chemotherapy is the gold standard treatment for unresectable head and neck carcinomas. Placement of prophylactic gastrostomy has been proposed to provide adequate nutrition during the therapeutic sequence. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of prophylactic gastrostomy on the 6-month quality of life, and to determine the factors related to this quality of life. Materials and methods: Design. randomized, controlled, open study ('systematic percutaneous gastrostomy' versus 'no systematic gastrostomy'). Patients. squamous cell head and neck carcinoma (stages III and IV, UICC 1997). Setting. oncological departments of French university teaching hospitals. Treatment. optimal concomitant radio-chemotherapy. Evaluations. T0 baseline evaluation, T1 during the treatment, T2 end of the treatment, and T3 6-month post-inclusion. Primary endpoint. 6-month quality of life (Qol) assessed using SF36, EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ H and N35 questionnaires. Results: The Qol changes from baseline included a decline (T1 and T2) followed by an improvement (T3). Qol at 6 months was significantly higher in the group receiving systematic prophylactic gastrostomy (p = 10 -3 ). Higher initial BMI and lower initial Karnofsky index were significant factors related to a higher 6-month Qol. Conclusions: The study results suggest that prophylactic gastrostomy improves post-treatment quality of life for unresectable head and neck cancer patients, after adjusting for other potential predictive quality of life factors.

  7. Intercellular coupling mediated by potassium accumulation in peg-and-socket junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigmond, Edward J.; Bardakjian, Berj L.; Thuneberg, Lars

    2000-01-01

    Physiology, peg-and-socket junctions, smooth muscle, boundary element method, coupling, morphology......Physiology, peg-and-socket junctions, smooth muscle, boundary element method, coupling, morphology...

  8. PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI MEMBRAN HIBRIDA KITOSAN-SILIKA- PEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Widhi Mahatmanti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Membran kitosan mempunyai efektivitas pemisahan relatif tinggi tetapi kestabilan mekanik rendah. Untuk meningkatkan kestabilan perlu ditambahkan silika sehingga dihasilkan membran kitosan-silika. Sebagai bahan dasar silika digunakan natrium silikat yang diisolasi dari abu sekam padi. Dalam pembuatan membran kitosan-silika, plasticizer (polietilen glikol/PEG digunakan untuk meningkatkan kestabilan mekanik membran secara signifikan. Pembuatan membran kitosan-silika-PEG dilakukan dengan cara penguapan larutan dan pencetakan. Membran kitosan-silika-PEG dikarakterisasi sifat mekaniknya dengan menguji kekuatan tarik, persen perpanjangan dan Modulus Young, perubahan gugus fungsi, morfologi, sifat kristalinitas, kestabilan terhadap suhu, sifat hidrofilisitas, dan uji terhadap fluks air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa membran kitosan-silika dengan komposisi kitosan/silika 1:0,8 mempunyai harga kuat tarik optimum. Penambahan PEG akan meningkatkan harga persen perpanjangan, tidak menunjukkan perubahan yang signifikan pada hasil uji FTIR dan XRD, tetapi meningkatkan sifat hidrofil seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi PEG dan pH. Nilai Fluks air menurun dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi PEG, dimungkinkan PEG terjebak secara fisik dalam padatan komposit.

  9. Notes on solving and playing peg solitaire on a computer

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, George I.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the one-person game of peg solitaire played on a computer. Two popular board shapes are the 33-hole cross-shaped board, and the 15-hole triangle board---we use them as examples throughout. The basic game begins from a full board with one peg missing and the goal is to finish at a board position with one peg. First, we discuss ways to solve the basic game on a computer. Then we consider the problem of quickly distinguishing board positions where the goal can still be reached ("winn...

  10. Peg-on-Hole: Fundamental Principles of Motion of a Peg Leaning on a Horizontal Hole Edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Simakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to the problem of a peg leaning on the edge of a horizon-tal hole at three points. The object of the interest is the motion in the course of automated peg-in-hole assembly. The complex motion of a peg is described in two degrees of freedom. These degrees of freedom are planar motion and rotational motion. Planar motion provides parts alignment via a change of nutation angle. Rotational motion occurs around a hole axis. It is described by a precession angle. The kinematic analysis of these was performed. Based on this analysis the directions of the peg velocities at the contact points were established. The directions of forces acting on the peg at these points were also determined. The system of Dynamic Differential Equations of the generalized coordinates was derived. This system determines the equations of the peg motion and dynamic reactions. During rotational motion, the forces acting on the peg at contact points are shown to be significantly reduced. This reduction improves the conditions of parts alignment and increases the assembly quality.

  11. ERCP via gastrostomy vs. double balloon enteroscopy in patients with prior bariatric Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kwang; Chiorean, Michael V; Coté, Gregory A; El Hajj, Ihab I; El Hajj, Ihab; Ballard, Darren; Fogel, Evan L; Watkins, James L; McHenry, Lee; Sherman, Stuart; Lehman, Glen A

    2013-08-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric surgery. The performance of ERCP in bariatric RYGB is challenging due to the long Roux limb. We herein compared the indications and technical outcomes of ERCP via percutaneous gastrostomy (GERCP) and double balloon enteroscopy (DBERCP) for patients with prior bariatric RYGB anatomy. Between December 2005 and November 2011, consecutive ERCP patients who had undergone RYGB were identified using a prospectively maintained electronic ERCP database. Medical records were abstracted for ERCP indications and outcomes. In most cases, the gastrostomy was done by either laparoscopic or open surgery and allowed to mature at least 1 month before performing ERCP. The choice of route for ERCP was at discretion of managing physician. Forty-four patients (F = 42) with GERCP and 28 patients (F = 26) with DBERCP were identified. The mean age was younger in GERCP than DBERCP (44.8 vs. 56.1, p successful in all but two (97 %), whereas duct cannulation and interventions were successful in all. In DBERCP, the success rate of accessing major papilla, cannulation and therapeutic intervention was 78, 63, 56 %, respectively. There was one (3.1 %) post-ERCP pancreatitis in DBERCP. Complications occurred in 11 GERCP procedures (14.5 %) and 10 were related to the gastrostomy. This was significantly higher than that of DBERCP (p = 0.022). GERCP is more effective than DBERCP in gaining access to the pancreatobiliary tree in patients with RYGB, but it is hindered by the gastrostomy maturation delay and a higher morbidity. Technical improvements in each method are needed.

  12. Percutaneous gastric remnant gastrostomy following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: a single tertiary center's 13-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shehbaz Hasam; Stenz, Justin Jay; McVinnie, David W; Morrison, James J; Getzen, Todd; Carlin, Arthur M; Mir, Farhaan R

    2017-09-19

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the indications, techniques, and outcomes for percutaneous gastrostomy placement in the gastric remnant following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in bariatric patients. Retrospective chart review and summary statistical analysis was performed on all RYGB patients that underwent attempted percutaneous remnant gastrostomy placement at our institution between April 2003 and November 2016. A total of 38 patients post-RYGB who underwent gastric remnant gastrostomy placement were identified, 32 women and 6 men, in which a total of 41 procedures were attempted. Technical success was achieved in 39 of the 41 cases (95%). Indications for the procedure were delayed gastric remnant emptying/biliopancreatic limb obstruction (n = 8), malnutrition related to RYGB (n = 17), nutritional support for conditions unrelated to RYGB (n = 15), and access for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, n = 1). Insufflation of the gastric remnant was performed via a clear window (n = 35), transhepatic (n = 5), and transjejunal (n = 1) routes. Five complications were encountered. The four major complications (9.8%) included early tube dislodgement with peritonitis, early tube dislodgement requiring repeat intervention, intractable pain, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A single minor complication occurred (2.4%), cellulitis. Patients with a history of RYGB present a technical challenge for excluded gastric remnant gastrostomy placement. As the RYGB population increases and ages, obtaining and maintaining access to the gastric remnant is likely to become an important part of interventional radiology's role in the management of the bariatric patient.

  13. Routine gastrostomy tube placement in gastric bypass patients: impact on length of stay and 30-day readmission rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Rena; Teixeira, Andre; Potenza, Kelly; Jawad, Muhammad A

    2013-02-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective treatment for morbid obesity. Current average length of hospital stay (LOS) after RYGB is 2-3 days and 30-day readmission rate is 8-13 %. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of routine gastrostomy tube placement in perioperative outcomes of RYGB patients. Between January 2008 and December 2010, a total of 840 patients underwent RYGB at our institution. All RYGB patients had gastrostomy tube placed, which was kept for 6 weeks. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was performed for all RYGB patients, noting the outcomes and complications of the procedure. Average LOS in our patient population was 1.1 days (range, 1-14 days), and 824 (98.3 %) patients were discharged on postoperative day 1. Readmissions within 30 days after the index RYGB was observed in 31 (3.7 %) patients. Reasons included abdominal pain (n = 14), nausea/vomiting (n = 6), gastrostomy tube-related complications (n = 5), chest pain (n = 3), allergic reaction (n = 1), urinary tract infection (n = 1), and dehydration (n = 1). Of these readmitted patients, nine (1.1 %) patients required reoperations due to small bowel obstruction (n = 5), perforated anastomotic ulcer (n = 1), anastomotic leak (n = 1), subphrenic abscess (n = 1), and appendicitis (n = 1). Routine gastrostomy tube placement in the gastric remnant at the time of RYGB seems to have contributed to our short LOS and low 30-day readmission rate.

  14. Long-term swallow function after chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer: the influence of a prophylactic gastrostomy or reactive nasogastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, R J D; Teo, M T W; Gilbert, A; Williams, G; Dyker, K E; Sen, M

    2014-02-01

    Two contrasting approaches of a prophylactic gastrostomy or a nasogastric tube as needed are widely used to support patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. The influence of the type and timing of enteral feeding tube support upon long-term swallowing is uncertain. This study analysed the patients' perspective on long-term swallowing, comparing two groups of patients who received chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer managed with the two approaches. The MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) was posted to 63 consecutive patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy between January 2007 and June 2009, who had not required therapeutic enteral feeding before treatment and who were disease free on follow-up at least 2 years after treatment. In total, 56/63 patients completed questionnaires; 43 had been managed with a prophylactic gastrostomy and 13 with a policy of nasogastric tube as needed. There were no significant differences in all global, emotional, physical or functional domains of the MDADI according to enteral feeding strategy. Diet at 6 months after treatment was significantly correlated with better MDADI scores. In this study, the choice of a prophylactic gastrostomy or nasogastric tube as needed did not seem to influence long-term swallowing function. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin D status of gastrostomy-fed children with special needs: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuter, Hayley; Das, Geeta; Mughal, M Zulf

    2017-12-01

    To assess the vitamin D status of gastrostomy-fed children. Vitamin D status was measured in 32 children aged five to 16 years recruited from special schools in Manchester, UK (53° 48 ' N). All children were receiving a nutritionally complete, commercially prepared enteral feed via gastrostomy, and had been established on this regimen for over 12 months. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured at the end of winter. Children with serum concentrations of 25OHD >50 nmol/L were considered to be sufficient, and those with concentrations 50 nmol/L). One subject was vitamin D deficient (serum 25OHD vitamin D insufficient (serum 25OHD >25 nmol/L - vitamin D derived from enteral feeds was 9.45 μg/day; range 3.5-30; 13 children (41%) received less than 10 μg of vitamin D per day from their enteral feed. Nutritionally complete gastrostomy feeds may be protective against vitamin D deficiency in the majority of children with special needs. We recommend that all children over 1 year of age receive 10 μg (400 IU) of vitamin D, as recommended by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Role of PEG 2000 in the surface modification and physicochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gourab Karmakar

    2018-03-29

    Mar 29, 2018 ... Abstract. Hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, tristearin and oleic acid were employed in preparing nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Surface modified NLCs (NLCPEG) were formulated by adding polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG 2000) in the dispersion medium along with Tween 60.

  17. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG Sulfosuccinates as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG) sulfosuccinates, which function in cosmetics mostly as surfactants/cleansing agents. Although these ingredients may cause ocular and skin irritation, dermal penetration is unlikely because of the substantial polarity and molecular size of these ingredients. The Panel considered the negative oral carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity data on chemically related laureths (PEG lauryl ethers) and negative repeated dose toxicity and skin sensitization data on disodium laureth sulfosuccinate supported the safety of these alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates in cosmetic products, but. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that the alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Optimizing the Esthetics of peg-shaped teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Fabia Danielle Sales da Cunha Medeiros e Silva; Rosângela Marques Duarte; Ana Karina Maciel Andrade; Ricardo Jorge Alves Figueiredo

    2008-01-01

    In modern esthetic dentistry, recontouring peg-shaped teeth present the option of a technique for obtaining a harmonious smile. In thiscontext, the advancement of direct dental materials, such as resin composites and adhesive systems, allows this procedure to be performedsimply and efficiently, when compared with other available techniques. Thus, the aim of this report is to present a clinical case with an esthetic solution in peg-shaped lateral incisors (12 and 22). Initially, it was opted f...

  19. Perioperative management of gastrostomy tube placement in Duchenne muscular dystrophy adolescent and young adult patients: A role for a perioperative surgical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Ariane; Antonelli, Richard; Sethna, Navil F

    2018-02-01

    In past decades, Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have been living longer and as the disease advances, patients experience multisystemic deterioration. Older patients often require gastrostomy tube placement for nutritional support. For optimizing the perioperative care, a practice of multidisciplinary team can better anticipate, prevent, and manage possible complications and reduce the overall perioperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to review our experience with perioperative care of adolescent and young adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy undergoing gastrostomy by various surgical approaches in order to identify challenges and improve future perioperative care coordination to reduce morbidity. We retrospectively examined cases of gastrostomy tube placement in patients of ages 15 years and older between 2005 and 2016. We reviewed preoperative evaluation, anesthetic and surgical management, and postoperative complications. Twelve patients were identified; 1 had open gastrostomy, 3 laparoscopic gastrostomies, 5 percutaneous endoscopic guided, and 3 radiologically inserted gastrostomy tubes. All patients had preoperative cardiac evaluation with 6 patients demonstrating cardiomyopathy. Nine patients had preoperative pulmonary consultations and the pulmonary function tests reported forced vital capacity of ≤36% of predicted. Eight patients were noninvasive positive pressure ventilation dependent. General anesthesia with tracheal intubation was administered in 8 patients, and intravenous sedation in 4 patients; 1 received sedation supplemented with regional anesthesia and 3 received deep sedation. One patient had a difficult intubation that resulted in trauma and prolonged tracheal intubation. Three patients developed postoperative respiratory complications. Two patients' procedures were postponed due to inadequate preoperative evaluation and 1 because of disagreement between anesthesia and procedural services as to the optimal

  20. Bilio-entero-gastrostomy: prospective assessment of a modified biliary reconstruction with facilitated future endoscopic access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Mostafa A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepaticojejunostomy (HJ is the classical reconstruction for benign biliary stricture. Endoscopic management of anastomotic complications after hepaticojejunostomy is extremely difficult. In this work we assess a modified biliary reconstruction in the form of bilio-entero-gastrostomy (BEG regarding the feasibility of endoscopic access to HJ and management of its stenosis if encountered. Methods From October 2008 till February 2011 all patients presented to the authors with benign biliary stricture who needed bilio-enteric shunt were considered. For each patient bilio-entero-gastrostomy (BEG of either type I, II or III was constructed. In the fourth week postoperatively, endoscopy was performed to explore the possibility to access the biliary anastomosis and perform cholangiography. Results BEG shunt was performed for seventeen patients, one of whom, with BEG type I, died due to myocardial infarction leaving sixteen patients with a diagnosis of postcholecystectomy biliary injury (9, inflammatory stricture with or without choledocholithiasis (5 and strictured biliary shunt (2. BEG shunts were either type I (3, type II (3 or type III (10. Endoscopic follow up revealed successful access to the anastomosis in 14 patients (87.5%, while the access failed in one type I and one type II BEG (12.5%. Mean time needed to access the anastomosis was 12.6 min (2-55 min. On a scale from 1–5, mean endoscopic difficulty score was 1.7. One patient (6.25%, with BEG type I, developed anastomotic stricture after 18 months that was successfully treated endoscopically by stenting. These preliminary results showed that, in relation to the other types, type III BEG demonstrated the tendency to be surgically simpler to perform, endoscopicall faster to access, easier and with no failure. Conclusions BEG, which is a modified biliary reconstruction, facilitates endoscopic access of the biliary anastomosis, offers management option for its

  1. The effect of PEG molecular weights on the thermal stability and dissolution behaviors of griseofulvin-PEG crystalline inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotong; Zhong, Zhi; Huang, Yanbin

    2016-07-11

    Co-crystals formed between small molecular drugs and hydrophilic co-formers have shown great potential to optimize the dissolution profiles of drug substances. So far most of the co-formers used are small molecules. However, linear polymers are also able to form drug-polymer crystalline inclusion complexes (ICs). In contrast to the small molecular co-formers, molecular weight of the polymer co-formers can be easily changed without disrupting the IC crystal structure, and hence represents an interesting approach to tune the IC properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of PEG molecular weights on the thermal stability and dissolution behavior of Gris-PEG ICs. It was found that the thermal stability of Gris-PEG IC crystals first increased with PEG molecular weight, and then reached a plateau value, while an optimized PEG molecular weight existed for the dissolution profile. The experimental results were explained by the formation of two types of crystal defects during the IC growth in PEG melt: the void defects and the grain boundary defects. This is the first study on the pharmaceutical profiles of drug-polymer crystalline inclusion complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre- and Postoperative Vomiting in Children Undergoing Video-Assisted Gastrostomy Tube Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjörn Backman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of pre- and postoperative vomiting in children undergoing a Video-Assisted Gastrostomy (VAG operation. Patients and Methods. 180 children underwent a VAG operation and were subdivided into groups based on their underlying diagnosis. An anamnesis with respect to vomiting was taken from each of the children’s parents before the operation. After the VAG operation, all patients were followed prospectively at one and six months after surgery. All complications including vomiting were documented according to a standardized protocol. Results. Vomiting occurred preoperatively in 51 children (28%. One month after surgery the incidence was 43 (24% in the same group of children and six months after it was found in 40 (22%. There was a difference in vomiting frequency both pre- and postoperatively between the children in the groups with different diagnoses included in the study. No difference was noted in pre- and postoperative vomiting frequency within each specific diagnosis group. Conclusion. The preoperative vomiting symptoms persisted after the VAG operation. Neurologically impaired children had a higher incidence of vomiting than patients with other diagnoses, a well-known fact, probably due to their underlying diagnosis and not the VAG operation. This information is useful in preoperative counselling.

  3. Gastrostomy Tube Placement Without Nasogastric Tube: A Retrospective Evaluation in 85 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberlein, Wolf E., E-mail: weheberlein@uams.edu; Goodwin, Whitney J.; Wood, Clint E.; Yousaf, Muhammad; Culp, William C. [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Our study evaluated techniques for percutaneous gastrostomy (G)-tube placement without the use of a nasogastric (NG) tube. Instead, direct puncture of a physiologic air bubble or effervescent-enhanced gastric bubble distention was performed in patients with upper digestive tract obstruction (UDTO) or psychological objections to NG tubes. Materials and Methods: A total of 886 patients underwent G-tube placement in our department during a period of 7 years. We present our series of 85 (9.6%) consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous G-tube placement without use of an NG tube. Results: Of these 85 patients, fluoroscopic guided access was attempted by direct puncture of a physiologically present gastric air bubble in 24 (28%) cases. Puncture of an effervescent-induced large gastric air bubble was performed in 61 (72%) patients. Altogether, 82 (97%) of 85 G tubes were successfully placed in this fashion. The three failures comprised refusal of effervescent, vomiting of effervescent, and one initial tube misplacement when a deviation from our standard technique occurred. Conclusion: The described techniques compare favorably with published large series on G-tube placement with an NG tube in place. The techniques are especially suited for patients with UDTO due to head, neck, or esophageal malignancies, but they should be considered as an alternative in all patients. Direct puncture of effervescent-enhanced gastric bubble distention is a safe, patient-friendly and effective technique.

  4. MAPLE Fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum Antimicrobial Surfaces for Improved Gastrostomy Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgiana Anghel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization.

  5. A retrospective review of enteral nutrition support practices at a tertiary pediatric hospital: A comparison of prolonged nasogastric and gastrostomy tube feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciuto, Amanda; Baird, Robert; Sant'Anna, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Despite the frequent use of tube-mediated enteral feeding, there is little evidence clarifying best practices pertaining to prolonged nasogastric and gastrostomy tube use in children. At the Montreal Children's Hospital, tube feeding practices are non-standardized and highly variable, with many patients remaining on protracted nasogastric feeds. We aimed to characterize enteral nutrition practices at our institution and to compare prolonged nasogastric and gastrostomy tube use, hypothesizing that earlier gastrostomy improves outcomes, particularly the development of food refusal. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the charts of children beginning long-term (>3 months) nasogastric or gastrostomy feeds at our institution between January 2007 and December 2011, with follow-up until May 2013. Patient demographics, anthropometric parameters, swallowing assessment, tube feeding duration and complications were recorded. Among 166 patients, the median total tube feeding duration was 24.9 (3.0-75.6) months and varied with underlying disease and swallowing assessment. The median duration of nasogastric tube use was 7.8 (0.7-45.3) months. Food refusal was significantly associated with nasogastric tube exposure >3 months (RR 3.3, p nasogastric group. Prolonged nasogastric feeding is common at our institution. Its association with increased food refusal and less favorable anthropometric outcomes may warrant earlier gastrostomy placement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. PEG Grafted-Nanodiamonds for the Delivery of Gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingxia; Wang, Yu-Kai; Zhao, Jiacheng; Lu, Hongxu; Stenzel, Martina H; Xiao, Pu

    2016-12-01

    Carboxyl end-functionalized poly[poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] [P(PEGMEMA)] and its block copolymer with gemcitabine substituted poly(N-hydroxysuccinimide methacrylate) [PGem-block-P(PEGMEMA)] are synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Then, two polymers are grafted onto the surface of amine-functionalized nanodiamonds to obtain [P(PEGMEMA)]-grafted nanodiamonds (ND-PEG) and [PGem-block-P(PEGMEMA)]-grafted nanodiamonds (ND-PF). Gemcitabine is physically absorbed to ND-PEG to produce ND-PEG (Gem). Two polymer-grafted nanodiamonds (i.e., with physically absorbed gemcitabine ND-PEG (Gem) and with chemically conjugated gemcitabine ND-PF) are characterized using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis. The drug release, cytotoxicity (to seed human pancreatic carcinoma AsPC-1 cells), and cellular uptake of ND-PEG (Gem) and ND-PF are also investigated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Optimizing the Esthetics of peg-shaped teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Danielle Sales da Cunha Medeiros e Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern esthetic dentistry, recontouring peg-shaped teeth present the option of a technique for obtaining a harmonious smile. In thiscontext, the advancement of direct dental materials, such as resin composites and adhesive systems, allows this procedure to be performedsimply and efficiently, when compared with other available techniques. Thus, the aim of this report is to present a clinical case with an esthetic solution in peg-shaped lateral incisors (12 and 22. Initially, it was opted first to perform dental bleaching with a home bleaching gel (16% carbamide peroxide associated with an acetate mold duly made for this purpose. The peg-shaped teeth were recontoured with a microhybrid resin composite (shade EA1 and DA1 with the aid of a platinum guide in silicone, obtained after diagnostic waxing on the plaster model. It was concluded that the association of esthetic procedures is of the utmost importance for obtaining good looking, aligned and harmonious teeth.

  8. Fermentation kinetics of sainfoin hay with and without PEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, S; Guglielmelli, A; Iannaccone, F; Danieli, P P; Tudisco, R; Ruggiero, C; Piccolo, G; Cutrignelli, M I; Infascelli, F

    2012-10-01

    The in vitro gas production technique was applied to evaluate the biological activity of tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) hay cut at four progressive phenological stages. The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) rumen fluid was used as inoculum, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added as specific binding agent and an alfalfa hay (AH) was used as control. All samples were analysed for chemical composition and condensed tannin (CTs). According to the phenological stage of sainfoin, crude protein gradually decreased [from 219 to 122 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) increased (from 391 to 514 g/kg DM). Condensed tannins showed the highest value at the first phenological stage [31.5 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g DM], and their level significantly decreased at the subsequent growth stages. Gas production and fermentation rate were significantly affected by substrate type and PEG addition. The first stage of sainfoin showed the lowest value of gas and volatile fatty acids production and the slowest fermentation kinetics compared with the other samples, when incubated without PEG, because of the CTs effect. The incubation with PEG improved the fermentation process of the first stage of sainfoin, but no effect was registered on AH, where CTs were not detected. Among the sainfoin samples, the slowest kinetics with PEG was observed in the hay harvested at the fourth stage, probably due to its chemical composition. The use of PEG allowed to verify the effect of tannins on the in vitro fermentation characteristics of sainfoin hay. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS. Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE.Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number.Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  10. The Use of Gastrostomy Tube for the Long-Term Remission of Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia After Roux-en-y Gastric Bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, CM; Lamendola, C; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is an increasingly reported complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), for which there is currently no acceptable treatment. We present a case of the reversal of severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia through gastrostomy tube (GT) feeding to th...... as an effective and durable treatment for severe refractory hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after RYGB. (AACE Clinical Case Rep. 2015;1:e84-e87)......Objective: Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is an increasingly reported complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), for which there is currently no acceptable treatment. We present a case of the reversal of severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia through gastrostomy tube (GT) feeding...

  11. PEG Enhancement for EM1 and EM2+ Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von der Porten, Paul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hawkins, Matt

    2018-01-01

    NASA is currently building the Space Launch System (SLS) Block-1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. The next evolution of SLS, the Block-1B Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2), is currently being designed. The Block-1 and Block-1B vehicles will use the Powered Explicit Guidance (PEG) algorithm. Due to the relatively low thrust-to-weight ratio of the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS), certain enhancements to the Block-1 PEG algorithm are needed to perform Block-1B missions. In order to accommodate mission design for EM-2 and beyond, PEG has been significantly improved since its use on the Space Shuttle program. The current version of PEG has the ability to switch to different targets during Core Stage (CS) or EUS flight, and can automatically reconfigure for a single Engine Out (EO) scenario, loss of communication with the Launch Abort System (LAS), and Inertial Navigation System (INS) failure. The Thrust Factor (TF) algorithm uses measured state information in addition to a priori parameters, providing PEG with an improved estimate of propulsion information. This provides robustness against unknown or undetected engine failures. A loft parameter input allows LAS jettison while maximizing payload mass. The current PEG algorithm is now able to handle various classes of missions with burn arcs much longer than were seen in the shuttle program. These missions include targeting a circular LEO orbit with a low-thrust, long-burn-duration upper stage, targeting a highly eccentric Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) orbit, targeting a disposal orbit using the low-thrust Reaction Control System (RCS), and targeting a hyperbolic orbit. This paper will describe the design and implementation of the TF algorithm, the strategy to handle EO in various flight regimes, algorithms to cover off-nominal conditions, and other enhancements to the Block-1 PEG algorithm. This paper illustrates challenges posed by the Block-1B vehicle, and results show that the improved PEG

  12. Outcomes of Infants with Home Tube Feeding: Comparing Nasogastric Versus Gastrostomy Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Syed Tariq; Uhing, Michael R.; Duesing, Lori; Visotcky, Alexis; Tarima, Sergey; Nghiem-Rao, T. Hang

    2017-01-01

    Background Determine the tube-related complications and feeding outcomes of infants discharged home from the NICU with nasogastric (NG) tube feeding or gastrostomy (G-tube) feeding. Material & Methods We performed a chart review of 335 infants discharged from our NICU with home NG tube or G-tube feeding between January 2009 – December 2013. The primary outcome was the incidence of feeding tube-related complications requiring emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, or deaths. Secondary outcome was feeding status at 6 months post-discharge. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results There were 322 infants discharged with home enteral tube feeding, 84 NG tube and 238 G-tube, with available out-patient data for the 6 month post-discharge period. A total of 115 ED visits, 28 hospitalizations, and 2 deaths were due to a tube-related complication. The incidence of tube-related complications requiring an ED visit was significantly higher in the G-tube group compared to the NG tube group (33.6% vs 9.5%, p tube related complication. By 6 months post-discharge, full oral feeding was achieved in 71.4% of infants in the NG tube group compared to 19.3% in the G-tube group (p tube and percentage of oral feeding at discharge were significantly associated with continued tube feeding at 6 months post-discharge. Conclusion Home NG tube feeding is associated with fewer ED visits for tube-related complications compared to home G-tube feeding. There may be some infants who could benefit from a trial home NG tube feeding. PMID:27647478

  13. Outcomes of Infants With Home Tube Feeding: Comparing Nasogastric vs Gastrostomy Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Syed Tariq; Uhing, Michael R; Duesing, Lori; Visotcky, Alexis; Tarima, Sergey; Nghiem-Rao, T Hang

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the tube-related complications and feeding outcomes of infants discharged home from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with nasogastric (NG) tube feeding or gastrostomy (G-tube) feeding. We performed a chart review of 335 infants discharged from our NICU with home NG tube or G-tube feeding between January 2009 and December 2013. The primary outcome was the incidence of feeding tube-related complications requiring emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, or deaths. Secondary outcome was feeding status at 6 months postdischarge. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. There were 322 infants discharged with home enteral tube feeding (NG tube, n = 84; G-tube, n = 238), with available outpatient data for the 6-month postdischarge period. A total of 115 ED visits, 28 hospitalizations, and 2 deaths were due to a tube-related complication. The incidence of tube-related complications requiring an ED visit was significantly higher in the G-tube group compared with the NG tube group (33.6% vs 9.5%, P tube-related complication. By 6 months postdischarge, full oral feeding was achieved in 71.4% of infants in the NG tube group compared with 19.3% in the G-tube group ( P tube and percentage of oral feeding at discharge were significantly associated with continued tube feeding at 6 months postdischarge. Home NG tube feeding is associated with fewer ED visits for tube-related complications compared with home G-tube feeding. Some infants could benefit from a trial home NG tube feeding.

  14. Respiratory outcomes of children with BPD and gastrostomy tubes during the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Hayashi, Madoka; Aherrera, Angela D; Collaco, Joseph M

    2014-06-01

    Infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) often undergo gastrostomy tube (GT) placement and/or Nissen fundoplication (Nissen) to improve weight gain and to attenuate chronic respiratory symptoms related to feeding difficulties. After initial hospitalization little is known how these children do with regard to respiratory symptoms when compared to children with BPD who did not receive GTs. This study was done to determine if differences in respiratory outcomes were associated with the presence of a GT or Nissen/GT in children with BPD during the first 2 years of life. Children (n = 398) were recruited from the Johns Hopkins BPD Outpatient Clinic. Medical charts were reviewed and acute care usage and respiratory symptoms were assessed by caregiver questionnaires. Ninety-two children with BPD had GTs, with the majority placed by 6 months of age. Of children with GTs, 64.7% also had Nissen fundoplication. Children with Nissen/GTs were more likely to have birth weights <10th percentile and to be discharged on supplemental oxygen. After initial hospitalization, children with GTs and Nissen/GTs weaned off supplemental oxygen at significantly older ages than children without GTs. Children with Nissen/GTs also had more hospitalizations than children without GTs. Caregivers of children with GTs and Nissen/GTs reported similar respiratory symptoms as caregivers of children without GTs. Weaning off supplemental oxygen occurred later in children with GTs and Nissen/GTs compared to children without GTs. Although children with Nissen/GTs had more re-hospitalizations, there were no differences in reported respiratory symptoms between any of the groups by caregiver questionnaire. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Safety and caregiver satisfaction with gastrostomy in patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Thomas O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T is a rare monogenetic neurodegenerative disease with pulmonary, nutritional, and dysphagic complications. Gastrostomy tube (GT feedings are commonly recommended to manage these co-morbidities. In general, outcomes of GT placement in patients with progressive diseases that develop during childhood are not well characterized. The primary purposes of this study were to determine whether GT placement in patients with A-T would be tolerated and associated with caregiver satisfaction. Methods We completed a retrospective review of 175 patients who visited the A-T Children's Center at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2001 through 2008, and identified 28 patients with A-T (19 males, 9 females who underwent GT placement for non-palliative reasons. Information was obtained from medical records, interviews with primary health care providers, and 24 (83% caregivers of patients with GT's who responded to survey requests. Results Twenty-five (89% patients tolerated GT placement and were a median of 5.0 (0.4-12.6 years post GT placement at the time of this investigation. Three (11% patients died within one month of GT placement. In comparison to patients who tolerated GT placement, patients with early mortality were older when GT's were placed (median 24.9 vs. 12.3 years, p = 0.006 and had developed a combination of dysphagia, nutritional, and respiratory problems. Caregivers of patients tolerating GT placement reported significant improvements in mealtime satisfaction and participation in daily activities. Conclusions GT placement can be well tolerated and associated with easier mealtimes in patients with A-T when feeding tubes are placed at young ages. Patients with childhood onset of disorders with predictable progression of the disease process and impaired swallowing may benefit from early versus late placement of feeding tubes.

  16. Stability of Balloon-Retention Gastrostomy Tubes with Different Concentrations of Contrast Material: In Vitro Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera, Jorge E.; Alvarez, Alex; Trimmer, Clayton; Josephs, Shellie; Anderson, Matthew; Dolmatch, Bart

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of two balloon-retention-type gastrostomy tubes when the balloons are inflated with two types of contrast materials at different concentrations. Two commonly used balloon-retention-type tubes (MIC and Tri-Funnel) were inflated to the manufacturer's recommended volumes (4 and 20 cm 3 , respectively) with normal saline or normal saline plus different concentrations of contrast material. Five tubes of each brand were inflated with normal saline and 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% contrast material dilutions, using either nonionic hyperosmolar contrast, or nonionic iso-osmolar contrast. The tubes were submerged in a glass basin containing a solution with a pH of 4. Every week the tubes were visually inspected to determine the integrity of the balloons, and the diameter of the balloons was measured with a caliper. The tests were repeated every week for a total of 12 weeks. The MIC balloons deflated slightly faster over time than the Tri-Funnel balloons. The Tri-Funnel balloons remained relatively stable over the study period for the different concentrations of contrast materials. The deflation rates of the MIC balloons were proportionally related to the concentration of saline and inversely related to the concentration of the contrast material. At high contrast material concentrations, solidification of the balloons was observed. In conclusion, this in vitro study confirms that the use of diluted amounts of nonionic contrast materials is safe for inflating the balloons of two types of balloon-retention feeding tubes. High concentrations of contrast could result in solidification of the balloons and should be avoided.

  17. In vitro studies of PEG thin films with different molecular weights deposited by MAPLE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Ion, Valentin; Luculescu, Catalin-Romeo

    2012-01-01

    In this work, polyethylene glycol (PEG) films were produced by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE). The possibility to tailor the properties of the films by means of polymer molecular weight was explored. The films of PEG of average molecular weights 400 Da, 1450 Da, and 10000 Da (PEG...... and their behavior in vitro. Thus, immersion in PBS induced swelling of the PEG films, which was more pronounced for PEG polymers of higher molecular weight. Prior to immersion in PBS, the PEG films of higher molecular weight were more hydrophilic, the water contact angles decreasing from ∼66 grd for PEG400 to ∼41...... grd for PEG 1450 and to ∼15 grd for PEG10000. The same trend was observed during immersion of the PEG films in PBS. Before immersion in PBS, the refractive index of the films increased from ∼1.43 for PEG400 to ∼1.48 for PEG1450 and to ∼1.68 for PEG10000. During immersion in PBS the refractive index...

  18. Overcoming the PEG-addiction: well-defined alternatives to PEG, from structure–property relationships to better defined therapeutics

    KAUST Repository

    Barz, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic methods in polymer chemistry have evolved tremendously during the last decade. Nowadays more and more attention is devoted to the application of those tools in the development of the next generation of nanomedicines. Nevertheless, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) remains the most frequently used polymer for biomedical applications. In this review, we try to summarize recent efforts and developments in controlled polymerisation techniques that may allow alternatives to PEG based systems and can be used to improve the properties of future polymer therapeutics. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Enhanced Bioactivity of Internally Functionalized Cationic Dendrimers with PEG Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    biochemical properties of the lysosome.20,37 Endosomal Escape. In a recent report, we showed the release of coumarin dyes from a 2-armPEG-G4 in B16 cells.20...After cleavage of covalently loaded coumarins from the dendritic carrier, the released dyes showed a cytoplasmic localization, while the dendrimers

  20. Effect of drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) on germination indices in corn ( Zea mays L.) hybrids. ... Hybrid K3651/1×K166B produced the highest germination percent, germination rate, root length, seedling length and seed vigour, hence this hybrid was the most tolerant hybrid to drought stress.

  1. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation of the fused egfp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A transformation system for the basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus was established using PEG-mediated transformation. The homologous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd) promoter and terminator regions of P. ostreatus were amplified and cloned onto the restriction site of the pUC19 vector.

  2. Enhanced delivery of biodegradable mPEG-PLGA-PLL ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... effectively down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of PDGF‐BB thanNPs plus US (P=0.014 and P=0.007, respectively). Histology showed no evident tissue damage after UTMDmediatedNPs loading siRNA transfection. UTMD could be used safely to enhance the delivery of mPEG-PLGAPLLNPs loading siRNA ...

  3. Development practices and lessons learned in developing SimPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockett, R.; Heagy, L. J.; Kang, S.; Rosenkjaer, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modelling provides a mathematical framework for constructing a model of physical property distributions in the subsurface that are consistent with the data collected in geophysical surveys. The geosciences are increasingly moving towards the integration of geological, geophysical, and hydrological information to better characterize the subsurface. This integration must span disciplines and is not only challenging scientifically, but additionally the inconsistencies between conventions often makes implementations complicated, non­ reproducible, or inefficient. SimPEG is an open-source, multi-university effort aimed at providing a generalized framework for solving forward and inverse problems. SimPEG includes finite volume discretizations on structured and unstructured meshes, interfaces to standard numerical solver packages, convex optimization algorithms, model parameterizations, and visualization routines. The SimPEG package (http://simpeg.xyz) supports an ecosystem of forward and inverse modelling applications, including electromagnetics, vadose zone flow, seismic, and potential­ fields, that are all written with a common interface and toolbox. The goal of SimPEG is to support a community of researchers with well-tested, extensible tools, and encourage transparency and reproducibility both of the SimPEG software and the geoscientific research it is applied to. In this presentation, we will share some of the lessons we have learned in designing the modular infrastructure, testing and development practices of SimPEG. We will discuss our use of version control, extensive unit-testing, continuous integration, documentation, issue tracking, and resources that facilitate communication between existing team members and allows new researchers to get involved. These practices have enabled the use of SimPEG in research, industry, and education as well as the ability to support a growing number of dependent repositories and applications. We hope that sharing our

  4. Synthesis and bioactivity study of 30kda linear peg-interferon and its comparison with tri-branched peg-interferon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabar, M.F.; Awan, F.I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is conjugated to the therapeutic proteins to enhance their circulating half life. PEGylation is a clinically proven strategy for increasing the therapeutic efficacy of protein-based medicines. PEG size and structure is very important in achieving specific properties in the conjugated protein. In this study we have compared the properties of newly synthesized linear PEG-IFN with a same sized (i.e., 30KDa) tri-branched PEG-IFN synthesized in the same lab earlier. For PEGylation reaction, interferon-alpha2 (IFNalpha2) concentration in sodium borate buffer pH 8.5 was optimized as 4.0mg/ml. The optimized molar ratio of PEG/IFN alpha2 was 3:1 instead of 5:1 in the case of tri-branched PEG published earlier. Other parameters of reaction were same as in our previous publication. Mono PEGylation degree reached to 21%. Cation exchange chromatography was used to separate and purify mono PEGylated IFN from the reaction mixture. The purity of mono PEGylated IFN was greater than 95%. It is noticed that PEGylation was more site specific in tribranched than the linear conjugate. The in vitro bioactivity of linear mPEG-IFN is 10-fold lesser than as reported of tri-branched mPEG3L2-IFN. Thermal stability of linear mPEG-IFN is also smaller than mPEG/sub 3/L/sub 2/-IFN at 4 degree C. (author)

  5. Ultrasensitive probing of the protein resistance of PEG surfaces by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingshott, P.; McArthur, S.; Thissen, H.

    2002-01-01

    The highly sensitive surface analytical techniques X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight static secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used to test the resistance of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coatings towards adsorption of lysozyme (LYS) and fibronectin (FN). PEG...... temperature to maximise the graft density of the PEG chains. XPS showed that the grafted density of PEG chains was slightly higher on the allylamine surface. XPS detected no adsorption of either protein on either PEG coating. ToF-SIMS analysis, on the other hand, found, in the positive ion spectra, minute...... but statistically significant signals assignable to amino acid fragment ions from both proteins adsorbed to the lower density PEG coating and from LYS but not FN on the higher density PEG coating. Negative ion spectra contained relatively more intense protein fragment ion signals for the lower density PEG coating...

  6. Use of gastrostomy in head and neck cancer: a systematic review to identify areas for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleri, V; Patterson, J

    2010-06-01

    To perform a systematic review of studies, which investigate the role of gastrostomy tube feeding in head and neck squamous cell cancer. A systematic review of the English literature, identifying areas of clinical equipoise and recommendations for future studies. Varying practices in G-tube use in HNSCC, the benefits and disadvantages of G-tubes, the effect of G-tube placement on multidimensional outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer, including quality of life and health economics and to draw themes that may lend themselves to future research. The search identified 216 articles of which 59 were considered relevant. During treatment, a significant number of patients need enteral nutritional supplementation through nasogastric or G-tubes. Gastrostomy tubes have a good safety profile. Most clinicians agree that the use should be restricted to advanced tumours. Studies on prophylactic insertion of G-tubes do not show a consistent advantage to the nutritional status compared with NG tubes. At 1 year, G-tube retention rates vary between 10% and 30%. The presence of a feeding tube has a negative impact on quality of life. Placing G-tubes may have an adverse effect on swallowing after chemoradiation. There is a lack of consensus among clinicians about indications for placing G-tubes. There is sufficient equipoise in this area for further investigation of the effect of varying feeding practices on functional outcomes, quality of life and health economics.

  7. Gastrostomia endoscópica em pacientes com cardiopatia complicada Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in cardiologic complicated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso CUKIER

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes cardiopatas complicados com isquemia cerebral e insuficiência cardíaca necessitam terapia nutricional enteral prolongada por se apresentarem em situação de risco nutricional. Complicações advindas do uso prolongado da sonda nasoenteral poderiam ser evitadas com a execução da gastrostomia endoscópica. Esta é alternativa técnica para acesso ao tubo digestivo em nutrição enteral. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o tempo de indicação para gastrostomia endoscópica em pacientes com nutrição enteral com uso de sonda nasoenteral e as principais complicações do procedimento. Doze pacientes foram submetidos a gastrostomia endoscópica, sendo oito do sexo masculino. A idade média foi de 62,42 + 22,10 anos. A indicação principal foi síndrome isquêmica cerebral após parada cardiorespiratória por patologia clínica (sete pacientes ou cirurgia cardiovascular complicada (cinco. O tempo médio para indicação da gastrostomia endoscópica foi de 35,58 + 26,79 dias após introdução da nutrição enteral. Não houve intercorrências com o procedimento e, no período pós-operatório tardio, ocorreu infecção do orifício de inserção da gastrostomia endoscópica em um caso, resolvida com cuidados locais. Em conclusão, a gastrostomia endoscópica é técnica segura, com baixa incidência de complicações. Pode ser realizada em ambulatório, no leito do paciente, ou em centro de terapia intensiva e sua indicação deveria ser mais precoce.Complicated cardiologic patients with brain ischemia and heart failure need long term enteral nutrition. Long term nasoenteral tuibe feeding may cause complications that could be avoided with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and its main complications. Twelve patients were submitted to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (eight male with main age of 62,42 ± 22,10 years old. Brain ischemia

  8. Electrospinning synthesis and characterization of PLA-PEG-MNPs composite fibrous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Klimke, S.; Preiss, A.; Unruh, D.; Wengerowsky, D.; Lehmann, R.; Sindelar, R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Boča, R.; Renz, F.

    2017-11-01

    An electrospinning technique was used to fabricate PLA, PLA-PEG and PLA-PEG-MNPs composite fibrous membranes. The morphology of electrospun composite membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscope. To test the potential availability of MNPs in PLA-PEG composite membranes, TG, Raman, Mössbauer, VSM and ICP-OES analysis were used. The PLA-PEG composite fibrous membranes showed the presence of MNPs, hence offers the possibility for magnetically triggered on-demand drug delivery.

  9. Genetic and molecular analyses of PEG10 reveal new aspects of genomic organization, transcription and translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Lux

    Full Text Available The paternally expressed gene PEG10 is a retrotransposon derived gene adapted through mammalian evolution located on human chromosome 7q21. PEG10 codes for at least two proteins, PEG10-RF1 and PEG10-RF1/2, by -1 frameshift translation. Overexpression or reinduced PEG10 expression was seen in malignancies, like hepatocellular carcinoma or B-cell acute and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PEG10 was also shown to promote adipocyte differentiation. Experimental evidence suggests that the PEG10-RF1 protein is an inhibitor of apoptosis and mediates cell proliferation. Here we present new data on the genomic organization of PEG10 by identifying the major transcription start site, a new splice variant and report the cloning and analysis of 1.9 kb of the PEG10 promoter. Furthermore, we show for the first time that PEG10 translation is initiated at a non-AUG start codon upstream of the previously predicted AUG codon as well as at the AUG codon. The finding that PEG10 translation is initiated at different sides adds a new aspect to the already interesting feature of PEG10's -1 frameshift translation mechanism. It is now important to unravel the cellular functions of the PEG10 protein variants and how they are related to normal or pathological conditions. The generated promoter-reporter constructs can be used for future studies to investigate how PEG10 expression is regulated. In summary, our study provides new data on the genomic organization as well as expression and translation of PEG10, a prerequisite in order to study and understand the role of PEG10 in cancer, embryonic development and normal cell homeostasis.

  10. Multicentre survey of radiologically inserted gastrostomy feeding tube (RIG) in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, A.S.; Laasch, H.U.; Stephenson, S.; Butterfield, C.; Goodwin, M.; Kay, C.L.; Glancy, S.; Jackson, S.; Brown, D.; McLean, P.; Keanie, J.; Thrower, A.; Briggs, R.; Punekar, S.; Krishnan, S.; Thomas, B.; Yap, K.; Mullan, D.; Maskell, G.; Hancock, J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the variance in current UK clinical practice and clinical outcomes for direct percutaneous radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG). Materials and methods: A prospective UK multicentre survey of RIG performed between October 2008 and August 2010 was performed through the British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (BSGAR). Results: Data from 684 patients were provided by 45 radiologists working at 17 UK centres. Two hundred and sixty-three cases (40%) were performed with loop-retained catheters, and 346 (53%) with balloon-retained devices. Sixty percent of all patients experienced pain in the first 24 h, but settled in the majority thereafter. Early complications, defined as occurring in the first 24 h, included minor bleeding (1%), wound infection (3%), peritonism (2%), and tube misplacement (1%). Late complications, defined as occurring between day 2 and day 30 post-procedure, included mild pain (30%), persisting peritonism (2%), and 30 day mortality of 1% (5/665). Pre-procedural antibiotics or anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prophylaxis did not affect the rate of wound infection, peritonitis, post-procedural pain, or mortality. Ninety-three percent of cases were performed using gastropexy. Gastropexy decreased post-procedural pain (p < 0.001), but gastropexy-related complications occurred in 5% of patients. However, post-procedure pain increased with the number of gastropexy sutures used (p < 0.001). The use of gastropexy did not affect the overall complication rate or mortality. Post-procedure pain increased significantly as tube size increased (p < 0.001). The use of balloon-retention feeding tubes was associated with more pain than the deployment of loop-retention devices (p < 0.001). Conclusion: RIG is a relatively safe procedure with a mortality of 1%, with or without gastropexy. Pain is the commonest complication. The use of gastropexy, fixation dressing or skin sutures, smaller tube sizes, and

  11. Replacement of Mushroom Cage Gastrostomy Tube Using a Modified Technique to Allow Percutaneous Replacement with an Endoscopic Tube in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, Thoraya; Rio, Alan; Ampong, Mary Ann; Sidhu, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiologic inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is the preferred method in our institution for enteral feeding in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Skin-level primary-placed mushroom cage gastrostomy tubes become tight with weight gain. We describe a minimally invasive radiologic technique for replacing mushroom gastrostomy tubes with endoscopic mushroom cage tubes in ALS. All patients with ALS who underwent replacement of a RIG tube were included. Patients were selected for a modified replacement when the tube length of the primary placed RIG tube was insufficient to allow like-for-like replacement. Replacement was performed under local anesthetic and fluoroscopic guidance according to a preset technique, with modification of an endoscopic mushroom cage gastrostomy tube to allow percutaneous placement. Assessment of the success, safety, and durability of the modified technique was undertaken. Over a 60-month period, 104 primary placement mushroom cage tubes in ALS were performed. A total of 20 (19.2%) of 104 patients had a replacement tube positioned, 10 (9.6%) of 104 with the modified technique (male n = 4, female n = 6, mean age 65.5 years, range 48-85 years). All tubes were successfully replaced using this modified technique, with two minor complications (superficial wound infection and minor hemorrhage). The mean length of time of tube durability was 158.5 days (range 6-471 days), with all but one patient dying with a functional tube in place. We have devised a modification to allow percutaneous replacement of mushroom cage gastrostomy feeding tubes with minimal compromise to ALS patients. This technique allows tube replacement under local anesthetic, without the need for sedation, an important consideration in ALS.

  12. Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

  13. Characteristics and cytotoxicity of folate-modified curcumin-loaded PLA-PEG micellar nano systems with various PLA:PEG ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc Thong; Le, Mai Huong; Le, Thi Thu Huong; Tran, Thi Hong Ha; Xuan, Phuc Nguyen; Ha, Phuong Thu

    2016-06-30

    Targeting delivery system use natural drugs for tumor cells is an appealing platform help to reduce the side effects and enhance the therapeutic effects of the drug. In this study, we synthesized curcumin (Cur) loaded (D, L Poly lactic - Poly ethylenglycol) micelle (Cur/PLA-PEG) with the ratio of PLA/PEG of 3:1 2:1 1:1 1:2 and 1:3 (w/w) and another micelle modified by folate (Cur/PLA-PEG-Fol) for targeting cancer therapy. The PLA-PEG copolymer was synthesized by ring opening polymerization method. After loading onto the micelle, solubility of Cur increased from 0.38 to 0.73mgml(-1). The average size of prepared Cur/PLA-PEG micelles was from 60 to 69nm (corresponding to the ratio difference of PLA/PEG) and the drug encapsulating efficiency was from 48.8 to 91.3%. Compared with the Cur/PLA-PEG micelles, the size of Cur/PLA-PEG-Fol micelles were from 80 to 86nm and showed better in vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of the NPs however depends much on the PEG component. The results demonstrated that Folate-modified micelles could serve as a potential nano carrier to improve solubility, anti-cancer activity of Cur and targeting ability of the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Coatings from Reactive Star Shaped PEG-stat-PPG Prepolymers and Grafted Linear PEG for Biological and Medical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groll, J.; Ademovic, Z.; Klee, D.

    2005-01-01

    Grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a common strategy for reducing nonspecific interactions of surfaces with proteins. We have used grafting at "cloud point" solution conditions that ensures maximum grafting density of linear methoxy terminated PEG-aldehyde (mPEG-ald, M-W = 5000 and 30000)....... Protein adsorption was monitored by surface MALDI-TOF MS and fluorescence microscopy. No protein adsorption could be detected on Star PEG coatings and on mPEG-ald 5000, whereas mPEG-ald 30 000 could only prevent adsorption of lysozyme but not of the smaller insulin.......Grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a common strategy for reducing nonspecific interactions of surfaces with proteins. We have used grafting at "cloud point" solution conditions that ensures maximum grafting density of linear methoxy terminated PEG-aldehyde (mPEG-ald, M-W = 5000 and 30000...... reactive endgroups, these molecules form a dense network on the substrate with a high polymer surface coverage. The two systems were compared regarding their ability to prevent unspecific adsorption of insulin and lysozyme. The layers were analyzed by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, and XPS...

  15. Influence of molecular weight of PEG chain on interaction between streptavidin and biotin-PEG-conjugated phospholipids studied with QCM-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, Yuji; Kuroyama, Kohei; Takai, Madoka

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated phospholipid (PEG-lipid) derivatives spontaneously incorporate into lipid bilayer membranes, thus, they are useful for immobilizing bioactive substances onto cell surfaces. Here, we investigated how the density and molecular weight of PEG molecules influenced immobilization and cellular uptake of a bioactive substance. We analyzed how three biotin-PEG-lipids (1k, 5k, and 40k, with PEG molecular weights: 1kD, 5kD, and 40kD, respectively) interacted with streptavidin on a surface attached to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). We found that the volume excluded by 1k PEG could not effectively prevent adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA). In contrast, 5k PEG chains could completely prevent protein adsorption. However, due to strong static repulsion, 40k PEG chains could not be packed at high density. Thus, BSA migrated between PEG chains, and adsorption was not effectively prevented. When streptavidin was added, it bound to multiple neighboring sites on 1k and 5k biotin-PEG-lipids, which reduced chain viscoelasticity. In contrast, streptavidins bound at a one-to-one stoichiometry with the 40k biotin-PEG-lipids, which increased chain viscoelasticity. However, differences in PEG viscoelasticity and PEG molecular weights did not influence cellular uptake of immobilized streptavidin. Therefore, these are not important factors in designing polymers that prevent cellular endocytosis. Poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated phospholipid (PEG-lipid) derivatives have been widely used to modify not only liposome surface, but also the surfaces of cells and pancreatic islets for cell transplantation. Since the entire cell surface can be modified with PEG-lipid through hydrophobic interactions, it is a promising approach for improving graft survival in clinical settings. Although the surface modification is protective in the early stages of transplantation, it is important to understand the factors that influence on the cellular

  16. O uso da gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica The use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ferreira Minicucci

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica foi introduzida na prática clínica como via alternativa de alimentação enteral. É procedimento que não necessita de anestesia ou laparotomia, como a gastrostomia cirúrgica. A gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica tem como objetivos a manutenção do aporte nutricional e a melhoria da qualidade de vida e sobrevida dos pacientes. É indicada quando o paciente necessita de dieta enteral por período superior a um mês. A freqüência de complicações varia de 1,0% a 10,0% e a mortalidade de 0,3% a 1,0%. É propósito deste trabalho abordar aspectos relevantes desse método de alimentação enteral, aprimorar seu manejo, bem como facilitar o manejo pelos pacientes que dele se utilizam. Para isso, vamos comentar as indicações e contra-indicações da gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica, técnica de colocação, material das sondas, antibiótico profilático, início de utilização, custo do procedimento, além de suas complicações, aspectos legais e éticos.Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is an alternative way to administer enteral diets. It is a procedure requiring no anesthetic or abdominal incision as required in open surgical gastrostomy. The main objective of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is to prevent deterioration of the nutritional status and improve the quality of life and it is now the method of choice when the patient requires an enteral diet for more than a month. Complications occur in 1.0% to10.0% of the cases and mortality in 0.3% to 1.0%. This paper deals with aspects relevant to this method of enteral feeding, how to improve handling procedures and deal with the patients who use it, commenting on the indications and contraindications for its use, placement techniques, materials used for the probes, prophylactic antibiotics, start-up of its use and costs, in addition to discussing some of its complications and legal and ethical aspects.

  17. Debinding behaviour of a water soluble PEG/PMMA binder for Ti metal injection moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang; Cao, Peng; Wen, Guian; Edmonds, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been becoming a common component in the design of water soluble binder systems for metal injection moulding. Similar to solvent debinding, PEG can be leached out by water and the mechanism of debinding was proposed in the literature with somehow misleading information about the debinding mechanism, particularly about the formation of PEG gel. This work investigates the debinding behaviours of a PEG-based binder in titanium compacts. Titanium powder is formulated with PEG, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA) to formulate titanium feedstock. To determine the debinding kinetics, the PEG removal percentages are measured at three different temperatures and for various specimen thicknesses. A mathematic model based on diffusion-controlled debinding process is established. The evolution of porous microstructure during the water debinding process is observed using scanning electron microscopy. Based on these observations, a water debinding mechanism for titanium alloy compacts formulated with PEG-based binders is proposed. - Highlights: ► The water-debinding behaviours of the PEG binder system were investigated. ► PEG dissolution and transportation, and the pore structure development. ► A water debinding mechanism of PEG-based binders is proposed. ► Incorrect explanation of PEG gelling in the literature is corrected. ► Correction/modification made as per the reviewers' comments and suggestions

  18. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation of the fused egfp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... Protoplasts were finally resuspended in 100 µl of MMC buffer [0.5 M mannitol, 50 mM maleic acid buffer (pH 5.5), 5 mM CaCl2] to a concentration of 108 to 109 protoplasts per ml for storage at 4°C. Highly efficient PEG transformation of protoplasts. Protoplasts (~108 in 70 µl MTC [0.5 M mannitol, 10 mM Tris- ...

  19. Cubic Phase Formation in Phospholipid and PEG-Lipid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murley, Kimberly; Cunningham, Beth; Wolfe, David; Williams, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    Lipid systems modeling cell membranes are capable of self-assembling into various liquid crystal mesophases with varying geometry and dimensions. We have suggested that it is possible to engineer the lipid systems through the incorporation of covalently attached polymer lipids to produce unique effects. The results of this engineering process include both the stabilization of lipid phases that normally exist over very limited temperature ranges and the induction of novel phases that are not normally present in the parent lipid. In this study, we used x-ray diffraction and NMR to investigate the phase behavior of the DOPE:PEG:MO and MO:PEG:D2O systems with varying molar ratios and PEG sizes. The phase diagram which we have generated indicates the conditions necessary to induce specific phase structures and sizes into three-dimensional cubic lipid systems. This information may be useful to create nanostructures which will be valuable in applications such as protein crystallization and protein biochip development.

  20. Germination of tomatoes under PEG-induced drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar-Jokanović Milka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were: to assess the effects of drought stress on germination percentage, germination energy and number of days to complete germination in fifteen tomato populations; to distinguish the treatment that is the most suitable for classifying the tomatoes for their response to early-imposed drought; as well as to distinguish populations which could be used for breeding tolerant varieties. The experiment included control germination assay (distilled water and the increasing (4, 8, and 12%, w/v polyethylene glycol (PEG treatments. Both germination percentage and energy considerably decreased with the increasing PEG treatments, while the observed average increase in the number of days required to complete germination remained statistically insignificant. The differences in germination among the populations were most pronounced in 12% PEG treatment, which is therefore recommended for further research. Several populations are indicated as tolerant; however, tomato drought tolerance exhibited as early as at the germination stage does not necessarily indicate the tolerance in later phases of plant development. The population 105 is recommended for breeding drought tolerant varieties.

  1. [Effects of fullerene soot on the thermal decomposition and Fourier transform infrared spectrum of PEG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Li, Shu-fen; Zhao, Feng-qi; Pan, Qing; Yi, Jian-hua

    2008-12-01

    Effects of fullerene soot (FS) on the thermal decomposition and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) of polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight= 20,000) were investigated by thermal analysis (TG-DTG) and in-situ FTIR experiments. The results of thermal analytical experiments showed that the addition of FS postponed not only the initial decomposition temperatures but also the temperatures at maximum decomposition rate of PEG. The maximum decomposition peak temperatures increased and the maximum decomposition rates were lowered even with the addition of 0.1%FS. The in-situ FTIR experiments proved that there was no difference between the IR spectra of PEG and PEG with 10%FS. There wasn't any new chemical band formed but Vander waals force between FS and PEG. Although the addition of FS didn't influence the constitution of decomposition products of PEG, it obviously increased the decomposition temperature and the decomposition rate of PEG. Through the researches on condensed phase and gaseous phase FTIR spectrum of PEG and PEG with 10%FS, one could see that the effect of FS on the condensed phase FTIR spectrum of PEG was not obvious, but the addition of FS markedly enhanced the occurrence temperatures of most gaseous decomposition products of PEG. These results showed that the effect of FS on thermal decomposition of PEG was through the absorbance and desorption of gaseous phase decomposition products. With the temperature elevated, the gaseous products were gradually desorbed from the activity centers and the decomposition of PEG continued. The thermal decomposition peak of PEG was moved toward hi gher temperature with the addition of FS than that without FS.

  2. Multidisciplinary approach to the management of a case of classical respiratory diphtheria requiring percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Matthew James; Vijendren, Ananth; Acharya, Vikas; Mulla, Rohinton; Panesar, Miss Jaan

    2017-03-06

    We present a case of a Caucasian woman aged 67 years referred with a 4-day history of sore throat, dysphagia, fever and nasal blockage. Examination revealed a swollen neck and pharyngeal pseudomembrane. A throat swab was positive on culture for Corynebacterium ulcerans , with toxin expression confirmed on PCR and Elek testing. A diagnosis of classical respiratory diphtheria was made, with subsequent confirmation of the patient's domesticated dog as the source of infection. The dog had recently been attacked by a wild badger and was being treated for an ear infection. The patient made a good recovery with intravenous antimicrobial and supportive therapy; however, she subsequently developed a diphtheritic polyneuropathy in the form of a severe bulbar palsy with frank aspiration necessitating percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. A mild sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy was also diagnosed. The patient eventually made an almost complete recovery. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Gastrostomy Tube Weaning and Treatment of Severe Selective Eating in Childhood: Experience in Israel Using an Intensive Three Week Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalem, Tzippora; Fradkin, Akiva; Dunitz-Scheer, Marguerite; Sadeh-Kon, Tal; Goz-Gulik, Tali; Fishler, Yael; Weiss, Batia

    2016-06-01

    Children dependent on gastrostomy tube feeding and those with extremely selective eating comprise the most challenging groups of early childhood eating disorders. We established, for the first time in Israel, a 3 week intensive weaning and treatment program for these patients based on the "Graz model." To investigate the Graz model for tube weaning and for treating severe selective eating disorders in one center in Israel. Pre-program assessment of patients' suitability to participate was performed 3 months prior to the study, and a treatment goal was set for each patient. The program included a multidisciplinary outpatient or inpatient 3 week treatment course. The major outcome measures were achievement of the target goal of complete or partial tube weaning for those with tube dependency, and expansion of the child's nutritional diversity for those with selective eating. Thirty-four children, 28 with tube dependency and 6 with selective eating, participated in four programs conducted over 24 months. Their mean age was 4.3 ± 0.37 years. Of all patients, 29 (85%) achieved the target goal (24 who were tube-dependent and 5 selective eaters). One patient was excluded due to aspiration pneumonia. After 6 months follow-up, 24 of 26 available patients (92%) maintained their target or improved. This intensive 3 week program was highly effective in weaning children with gastrostomy tube dependency and ameliorating severe selective eating. Preliminary evaluation of the family is necessary for completion of the program and achieving the child's personal goal, as are an experienced multidisciplinary team and the appropriate hospital setup, i.e., inpatient or outpatient.

  4. Preparation of hydrophilic poly(lactic acid) tissue engineering scaffold via (PLA)-(PLA-b-PEG)-(PEG) solution casting and thermal-induced surface structural transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhong, Tian; Huang, Ran; Wan, Ajun

    2015-01-01

    Porous poly(lactic acid) (PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds with a hydrophilic surface assembled by polyethylene glycol aggregations were prepared by the solvent casting/particulate leaching method from (PLA)-(PLA-b-PEG)-(PEG) blend solution, where the PLA-b-PEG block polymer serves as an amphiphilic glue between two phases. A thermal recrystallization process was inserted before leaching to induce a phase separation, which subsequently squeezes out PEG to form a hydrophilic shell. Characterizations of XRD and DSC indicated the composition and mixing states of materials. The water contact angle test qualitatively presented the excellent hydrophilicity compared to the pure PLA or PLA-PEG simple blend scaffold. The scanning electron microscope results confirmed the formation of porous structure of [Formula: see text] pore size, with an observable phase separation on the surface. The scaffold was degraded in PBS at [Formula: see text], and the degradation exhibits a three-stage behavior, which evidenced the amphiphilically glued phase separations.

  5. Safety of PEGylated recombinant human full-length coagulation factor VIII (BAX 855) in the overall context of PEG and PEG conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidl, R; Fuchs, S; Bossard, M; Siekmann, J; Turecek, P L; Putz, M

    2016-01-01

    BAX 855 is a PEGylated human full-length recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) based on licensed rFVIII (ADVATE). The applied PEGylation technology has been optimized to retain functionality of the FVIII molecule, improve its pharmacokinetic properties and allow less frequent injections while maintaining efficacy. The aim of this study was to confirm that the excellent safety profile of ADVATE remains unchanged after PEGylation. Non-clinical safety studies with BAX 855 and its respective unbound polyethylene glycol (PEG) were conducted in several species. The distribution of a single dose of radiolabelled BAX 855 was further investigated in rats. Publically available safety data on PEG alone and PEGylated biomolecules were summarized and reviewed for specific safety findings attributable to PEG or PEGylated biopharmaceuticals. Safety pharmacology studies in rabbits and macaques and repeated dose toxicity studies in rats and macaques identified no safety issues. Results of a distribution study in rats administered radiolabelled BAX 855 showed that radioactivity was completely excreted; urine was the major elimination route. A 28-day study in rats dosed with the unbound PEG constituent (PEG2ru20KCOOH) of BAX 855 showed no adverse or non-adverse effects. Safety data for PEG and PEG-protein conjugates indicate no safety concerns associated with PEG at clinically relevant dose levels. Although vacuolation of certain cell types has been reported in mammals, no such vacuolation was observed with BAX 855 or with the unbound PEG constituent. Non-clinical safety evaluation of PEG and BAX 855 identified no safety signals; the compound is now in clinical development for the treatment of patients with haemophilia A. © 2015 Baxalta Innovations GmbH. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Different clinical utility of oropharyngeal bacterial screening prior to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in oncological and neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupa, Radek; Jurankova, Jana; Dastych, Milan; Senkyrik, Michal; Pavlik, Tomas; Prokesova, Jitka; Jecmenova, Marketa; Dolina, Jiri; Hep, Ales

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor oropharyngeal bacterial colonization in patients indicated for percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG). Oropharyngeal swabs were obtained from patients prior to PEG placement. A development of peristomal infection was evaluated. The analysis of oropharyngeal and peristomal site pathogens was done. Consecutive 274 patients referred for PEG due to neurological disorder or cancer completed the study. Oropharyngeal colonization with pathogens was observed in 69% (190/274), dominantly in the neurologic subgroup of patients (P < 0.001). Peristomal infection occurred in 30 (10.9%) of patients and in 57% of them the correlation between oropharyngeal and peristomal agents was present. The presence of oropharyngeal pathogens was assessed as an important risk factor for the development of peristomal infection only in oncological patients (OR = 8.33, 95% CI: 1.66-41.76). Despite a high prevalence of pathogens in neurological patients, it did not influence the risk of peristomal infection with the exception for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers (OR 4.5, 95% CI: 1.08-18.76). During oropharyngeal microbial screening prior to the PEG insertion, the detection of pathogens may be a marker of the increased risk of peristomal infection in cancer patients only. In neurological patients the benefit of the screening is limited to the detection of MRSA carriers.

  7. Different Clinical Utility of Oropharyngeal Bacterial Screening prior to Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Oncological and Neurological Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Kroupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to monitor oropharyngeal bacterial colonization in patients indicated for percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG. Methods. Oropharyngeal swabs were obtained from patients prior to PEG placement. A development of peristomal infection was evaluated. The analysis of oropharyngeal and peristomal site pathogens was done. Results. Consecutive 274 patients referred for PEG due to neurological disorder or cancer completed the study. Oropharyngeal colonization with pathogens was observed in 69% (190/274, dominantly in the neurologic subgroup of patients (P < 0.001. Peristomal infection occurred in 30 (10.9% of patients and in 57% of them the correlation between oropharyngeal and peristomal agents was present. The presence of oropharyngeal pathogens was assessed as an important risk factor for the development of peristomal infection only in oncological patients (OR = 8.33, 95% CI: 1.66–41.76. Despite a high prevalence of pathogens in neurological patients, it did not influence the risk of peristomal infection with the exception for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA carriers (OR 4.5, 95% CI: 1.08–18.76. Conclusion. During oropharyngeal microbial screening prior to the PEG insertion, the detection of pathogens may be a marker of the increased risk of peristomal infection in cancer patients only. In neurological patients the benefit of the screening is limited to the detection of MRSA carriers.

  8. Hydroxynortriptyline of Empty Fruit Bunches Fibre using Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreen, F.M.Z.; Sarani Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches fibre (EFBF) via chemical modification and hydroxynortriptyline method using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The first stage was the modification of EFB fibre using NaOH and isopropanol. The next stage was the preparation of hydroxypropylated-empty fruit bunches fibre (HP-EFBF), using different molecular weight of PEG (6,000, 8,000 and 10,000). The characterisation involved in this study were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), determination of kinetic activation energy (E a ), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cellulose crystallinity index (CrI) and weight increment of the HP-EFB fibre. SEM results showed the surface of HP-EFBF swelled and craters formed along the surface of the fibre. IR spectrum also showed OH stretching band in EFB without treatment is 3402 cm -1 , but after hydroxynortriptyline process, the OH stretching band in HP-EFBF (10000, 8000 and 6000) slightly shifted to 3392, 3384 and 3370 cm -1 , respectively. TGA showed the thermal stability of HP-EFBF 6,000 was lower than HP-EFBF 8,000 and 10,000. After chemical modification, the activation energy, E a increased from 32.4 to 51.9 kJ/ mol more than EFB without treatment, 12.5 kJ/ mol. XRD showed that diffraction peak (002) shifted to the smaller 2θ angle and the peaks (101, 10I) disappeared after hydroxynortriptyline process. Crystallinity index, of EFB without treatment decreased from 27 % to 25 % after chemical modification. The higher the molecular weight of the PEG, the greater the weight increment of the HP-EFBF. (author)

  9. Adsorption of polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto cellulose nano-crystals to improve its dispersity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong; Wen, Yangbing; Wang, Lijuan; An, Xingye; Zhu, Xuhai; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-06-05

    In this work, the adsorption of polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto cellulose nano-crystals (CNC) was investigated for preparing re-dispersible dried CNC. Results showed that the re-dispersity of CNC in water can be significantly enhanced using a PEG1000 dosage of 5wt% (based on the dry weight of CNC). The elemental analysis confirmed the adsorption of PEG onto the CNC surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the dry powder and indicated that the irreversible agglomeration of CNC after drying was essentially eliminated based on the PEG adsorption concept. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that CNC crystallinity and thermal stability were not affected by the adsorption of PEG. Thus, the adsorption of PEG has great potential for producing re-dispersible powder CNC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PEGYLATION OF αα-Hb USING SUCCINIMIDYL PROPIONIC ACID PEG 5K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fantao; Tsai, Amy G.; Intaglietta, Marcos; Acharya, Seetharama A.

    2014-01-01

    PEGylation of intramolecularly crosslinked Hb has been studied here to overcome the limitation of dissociation of Hb tetramers. New hexa and deca PEGylated low oxygen affi nity PEG-αα-Hbs have been generated. Infl uence of PEG conjugation chemistry and the PEG shell structure on the functional properties as well as PEGylation induced plasma expander like properties of the protein has been delineated. The results have established that in the design of PEG-Hbs as oxygen therapeutics, the infl uence of conjugation chemistry and the PEG shell structure on the oxygen affi nity of Hb needs to be optimized independently besides optimizing the PEG shell structure for inducing resuscitation fluid like properties. PMID:24597567

  11. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG on Blood Parameters of Sheep Given Leucaena Pallida Leaves Base Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Rusdi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi kemampuan PEG dalam mengurangi pengaruh negatif dari pemberian daun Leucaena pallida pada ternak domba melalui pengamatan parameter darah.  Sebanyak 12 ekor domba ditempatkan secara acak pada dua perlakuan dengan 6 ulangan. Domba diberi pakan dasar daun Leucaena pallida dengan tambahan PEG atau tanpa PEG selama empat minggu melalui automatic feeders. Data parameter darah antar perlakuan dianalisa dengan uji t. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa PEG secara konsisten meningkatkan kecernaan makanan terkonsumsi dalam saluran pencernaan domba yang ditunjukan dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi urea darah, glukosa darah dan b-hydroxybutyrat darah.  Dengan demikian dapat dikatakan bahwa penambahan PEG ke dalam ransum yang mengandung tannin berpotensi untuk meningkatkan nilai hayati pakan.  (Animal Production 9(1: 18-22 (2007   Kata Kunci : PEG, darah, tannin

  12. II Peg: Spectroscopic Evidence for Multiple Starspot Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Douglas; Saar, Steven H.; Neff, James E. Neff

    We present spectroscopic evidence for multiple spot temperatures on the RS CVn star II Pegasi (HD 224085). We fit the strengths of the 7055 AAg and 8860 AAg TiO absorption bands in the spectrum of an active star using weighted sums of comparison spectra: the spectrum of an inactive K star to represent the non-spotted photosphere and the spectrum of an M star to represent the spots. We can thus independently measure starspot filling factor (fspot) and temperature (tspot). During 3/4 of a rotation of II Peg in Sept.-Oct. 1996, we measure fspot approximately constant at 55+/-5%. However, tspot varies from 3350 K to 3500 K. Since our method yields one derived tspot integrated over the visible hemisphere of the star, we present the results of simple models of a star with two distinct spot temperatures and compute the tspot we would derive in those cases. The changing tspot correlates with emission strengths of Hα and the Ca 2 infrared triplet, in the sense that cooler \\tspot accompanies weaker emission. We explore the consequences of these results for the physical properties of the spots on II Peg and for stellar surface structure in general.

  13. Impedance Spectroscopy and FTIR Studies of PEG - Based Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anji Reddy Polu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic conductivity of poly(ethylene glycol (PEG - ammonium chloride (NH4Cl based polymer electrolytes can be enhanced by incorporating ceramic filler TiO2 into PEG-NH4Cl matrix. The electrolyte samples were prepared by solution casting technique. FTIR studies indicates that the complex formation between the polymer, salt and ceramic filler. The ionic conductivity was measured using impedance spectroscopy technique. It was observed that the conductivity of the electrolyte varies with TiO2 concentration and temperature. The highest room temperature conductivity of the electrolyte of 7.72×10−6 S cm-1 was obtained at 15% by weight of TiO2 and that without TiO2 filler was found to be 9.58×10−7 S cm−1. The conductivity has been improved by 8 times when the TiO2 filler was introduced into the PEG–NH4Cl electrolyte system. The conductance spectra shows two distinct regions: a dc plateau and a dispersive region. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the polymer electrolytes seems to obey the VTF relation. The conductivity values of the polymer electrolytes were reported and the results were discussed. The imaginary part of dielectric constant (εi decreases with increase in frequency in the low frequency region whereas frequency independent behavior is observed in the high frequency region.

  14. The effect of PEG-5K grafting level and particle size on tumor accumulation and cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chun-Liang; Chou, Meng-Han; Lu, Pei-Lin; Lo, I-Wen; Chiang, Yi-Ting; Hung, Shang-Yu; Yang, Chieh-Yu; Lin, Shuian-Yin; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Lo, Jem-Mau; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2013-11-18

    PEG-modified gold nanoparticles (PEG-modified GNs) with diameters of 40 nm and 70 nm were prepared to elucidate the effect of extent of PEG (M.W. 5000) grafting and particle size on tumor accumulation and cellular uptake. Flow cytometry reveals that cellular uptake is strongly related to the size of PEG-modified GNs, rather than the extent of PEG-5K grafting level. Cytotoxicity analysis based on the intracellular release of drugs showed that the 70 nm PEG-modified GNs have the higher cytotoxicity, beccause of their greater cellular uptake. Also, particle size, rather than PEG-5K grafting level affects tumor accumulation. However, PEG-5K grafting level significantly affects the accumulation of particles in the liver and spleen. This finding is important in determining the proper PEG-5K grafting level and particle size for designing nano-medicines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PEG-b-PPS-b-PEI micelles and PEG-b-PPS/PEG-b-PPS-b-PEI mixed micelles as non-viral vectors for plasmid DNA: tumor immunotoxicity in B16F10 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velluto, Diana; Thomas, Susan N; Simeoni, Eleonora; Swartz, Melody A; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2011-12-01

    Cationic micelles formed from poly(ethylene glycol)-bl-poly(propylene sulfide)-bl-poly(ethylene imine) (PEG-b-PPS-b-PEI) and from mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol)-bl-poly(propylene sulfide) (PEG-b-PPS) with PEG-b-PPS-b-PEI were explored as non-viral vectors for plasmid DNA (pDNA) transfection in a tumor immunotoxicity model. Complexes with pDNA were found to be templated exclusively by the size of the pDNA-free micelles and ranged from 240 nm (for PEG-b-PPS-b-PEI) to 30 nm (for mixed micelles of PEG-b-PPS/PEG-b-PPS-b-PEI). Both formulations transfected melanoma cells well in vitro. As a model with a functional read-out of tumor cell death, one with likely only small bystander effects, tumors were transfected with an antigen transgene, using an antigen to which the recipient animals had been previously vaccinated with a Th1-biasing adjuvant. Reduction in tumor growth, increase in intratumoral infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and accumulation of Th1-biasing cytokines indicated that both micelle formulations transfected efficiently compared with naked pDNA and with low cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Delivery of paclitaxel by physically loading onto poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-graft-carbon nanotubes for potent cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Chee Leng; Liu, Hui Qi; Tan, Hui Ru; Liu, Ye

    2010-02-10

    Physically loading of paclitaxel (PTX) onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is achieved through immersion of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-graft-single walled CNTs (PEG-g-SWNTs) or PEG-graft-multi-walled CNTs (PEG-g-MWNTs) in a saturated solution of PTX in methanol. After loading once the loading capacity (LD%) is 26% (w/w) and 36% (w/w) for PEG-g-SWNTs or PEG-g-MWNTs, respectively. With these PTX contents, PTX loaded PEG-g-SWNTs and PTX loaded PEG-g-MWNTs still have good dispersity in aqueous solution and individual CNTs can be observed in TEM images. PTX can be released from PEG-g-CNTs several times faster than from free PTX but still in a sustained profile with less than 40% of PTX being released in 40 days at pH 7 or 5. In vitro cytotoxicity of samples is evaluated in HeLa cells and MCF-7 cells. PEG-g-SWNTs and PEG-g-MWNTs show low cytotoxicity in both cells with insignificant effects on the cell proliferation rates. However, both PTX loaded PEG-g-SWNTs and PTX loaded PEG-g-MWNTs show high efficacy to kill HeLa cells and MCF-7 cells, as reflected by IC(50) lower than free PTX. Therefore, PTX loaded PEG-g-CNTs are promising for cancer therapeutics. carbon nanotubes, poly(ethylene glycol), drug delivery, cancer therapy, nanomedicine.

  17. Delivery of paclitaxel by physically loading onto poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-graftcarbon nanotubes for potent cancer therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng Lay, Chee; Liu, Hui Qi; Tan, Hui Ru; Liu, Ye

    2010-02-01

    Physically loading of paclitaxel (PTX) onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is achieved through immersion of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-graft-single walled CNTs (PEG-g-SWNTs) or PEG-graft-multi-walled CNTs (PEG-g-MWNTs) in a saturated solution of PTX in methanol. After loading once the loading capacity (LD%) is 26% (w/w) and 36% (w/w) for PEG-g-SWNTs or PEG-g-MWNTs, respectively. With these PTX contents, PTX loaded PEG-g-SWNTs and PTX loaded PEG-g-MWNTs still have good dispersity in aqueous solution and individual CNTs can be observed in TEM images. PTX can be released from PEG-g-CNTs several times faster than from free PTX but still in a sustained profile with less than 40% of PTX being released in 40 days at pH 7 or 5. In vitro cytotoxicity of samples is evaluated in HeLa cells and MCF-7 cells. PEG-g-SWNTs and PEG-g-MWNTs show low cytotoxicity in both cells with insignificant effects on the cell proliferation rates. However, both PTX loaded PEG-g-SWNTs and PTX loaded PEG-g-MWNTs show high efficacy to kill HeLa cells and MCF-7 cells, as reflected by IC50 lower than free PTX. Therefore, PTX loaded PEG-g-CNTs are promising for cancer therapeutics. Keywords: carbon nanotubes, poly(ethylene glycol), drug delivery, cancer therapy, nanomedicine.

  18. Biodegradable self-assembled PEG-PCL-PEG micelles for hydrophobic honokiol delivery: I. Preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Changyang; Wei Xiawei; Wang Xiuhong; Wang Yujun; Guo Gang; Mao Yongqiu; Luo Feng; Qian Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to develop self-assembled poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE) micelles to encapsulate hydrophobic honokiol (HK) in order to overcome its poor water solubility and to meet the requirement of intravenous administration. Honokiol loaded micelles (HK-micelles) were prepared by self-assembly of PECE copolymer in aqueous solution, triggered by its amphiphilic characteristic assisted by ultrasonication without any organic solvents, surfactants and vigorous stirring. The particle size of the prepared HK-micelles measured by Malvern laser particle size analyzer were 58 nm, which is small enough to be a candidate for an intravenous drug delivery system. Furthermore, the HK-micelles could be lyophilized into powder without any adjuvant, and the re-dissolved HK-micelles are stable and homogeneous with particle size about 61 nm. Furthermore, the in vitro release profile showed a significant difference between the rapid release of free HK and the much slower and sustained release of HK-micelles. Moreover, the cytotoxicity results of blank micelles and HK-micelles showed that the PECE micelle was a safe carrier and the encapsulated HK retained its potent antitumor effect. In short, the HK-micelles were successfully prepared by an improved method and might be promising carriers for intravenous delivery of HK in cancer chemotherapy, being effective, stable, safe (organic solvent and surfactant free), and easy to produce and scale up.

  19. Biodegradable self-assembled PEG-PCL-PEG micelles for hydrophobic honokiol delivery: I. Preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, ChangYang; Wei, XiaWei; Wang, XiuHong; Wang, YuJun; Guo, Gang; Mao, YongQiu; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to develop self-assembled poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE) micelles to encapsulate hydrophobic honokiol (HK) in order to overcome its poor water solubility and to meet the requirement of intravenous administration. Honokiol loaded micelles (HK-micelles) were prepared by self-assembly of PECE copolymer in aqueous solution, triggered by its amphiphilic characteristic assisted by ultrasonication without any organic solvents, surfactants and vigorous stirring. The particle size of the prepared HK-micelles measured by Malvern laser particle size analyzer were 58 nm, which is small enough to be a candidate for an intravenous drug delivery system. Furthermore, the HK-micelles could be lyophilized into powder without any adjuvant, and the re-dissolved HK-micelles are stable and homogeneous with particle size about 61 nm. Furthermore, the in vitro release profile showed a significant difference between the rapid release of free HK and the much slower and sustained release of HK-micelles. Moreover, the cytotoxicity results of blank micelles and HK-micelles showed that the PECE micelle was a safe carrier and the encapsulated HK retained its potent antitumor effect. In short, the HK-micelles were successfully prepared by an improved method and might be promising carriers for intravenous delivery of HK in cancer chemotherapy, being effective, stable, safe (organic solvent and surfactant free), and easy to produce and scale up.

  20. Gastrostomía percutánea endoscópica con sonda de Pezzer modificada Endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy with modified Pezzer's stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio González Sabin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La gastrostomía percutánea endoscópica requiere una sonda especial comercializada en un juego de elevado costo, lo cual ha dificultado su uso amplio en pacientes que requieren gastrostomía y cuya única contraindicación es la estenosis esofágica no dilatable. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo introducir la gastrostomía percutánea endoscópica en la práctica quirúrgica pediátrica, con una sonda de Pezzer modificada en lugar de las sondas para ello comercializadas. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con todos los niños remitidos al Servicio de Cirugía Pediátrica del Hospital «William Soler» entre enero del 2002 y diciembre del 2007, para la realización de una gastrostomía, que podía ser percutánea endoscópica y en la cual se utilizó una sonda de Pezzer modificada. Se recogieron los datos siguientes: edad, antecedentes patológicos, indicación de la gastrostomía, duración del procedimiento, complicaciones, estadía posoperatoria y costos. RESULTADOS. Se realizaron 31 gastrostomías percutáneas endoscópicas empleando la sonda de Pezzer modificada. Los niños tenían edades entre 0 y 15 años y se utilizó fundamentalmente en pacientes con daño cerebral grave, para facilitar la alimentación. No se presentaron complicaciones y con el empleo de la sonda modificada se ahorraron 4181,90 $, al no tener que adquirir los juegos comerciales. CONCLUSIONES. La gastrostomía percutánea endoscópica tiene, entre otras, las ventajas de evitar laparotomías y todas las consecuencias de ellas derivadas (menos dolor, menor formación de adherencias, etc.. El procedimiento puede realizarse fuera de la unidad quirúrgica, con disminución significativa del tiempo quirúrgico y de la estadía posoperatoria, así como de los costos hospitalarios.INTRODUCTION. Endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy requires a special stent commercialized in an expensive set, which makes difficult its wide use in patients

  1. Comparable Efficacy of a 1-L PEG and Ascorbic Acid Solution Administered with Bisacodyl versus a 2-L PEG and Ascorbic Acid Solution for Colonoscopy Preparation: A Prospective, Randomized and Investigator-Blinded Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Su Hwan; Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background Two liters of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution administered with ascorbic acid (Asc) can provide efficacy similar to that of a 4-L PEG solution for colonoscopy preparation. In addition, oral bisacodyl (Bis) has been shown to reduce the volume of PEG needed for a bowel preparation with comparable efficacy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a 2-L PEG solution mixed with Asc versus the combination of Bis, Asc and a 1-L PEG solution. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, multi-centre, single-blind, non-inferiority trial. Participants who were scheduled for colonoscopy were included and randomized to receive either 2-L PEG and Asc (2L PEG/Asc group) or 1-L PEG, Asc and 20 mg Bis (1L PEG/Asc + Bis group). The quality of bowel preparation was assessed using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. Data regarding tolerance, compliance and adverse events were also gathered. Results A total of 187 participants were analyzed; 96 were allocated to the 2L PEG/Asc group and 91 to the 1L PEG/Asc + Bis group. Bowel preparation was adequate in 87.5% (84/96) of patients in the 2L PEG/Asc group and 94.5% of the 1L PEG/Asc + Bis group (86/91, p = 0.10). There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to compliance, tolerability or safety. The patients allocated to the 1L PEG/Asc + Bis group expressed more willingness to repeat the procedure than patients in the 2L PEG/Asc group (p = 0.01). Conclusions Bowel preparation with Bis and a 1-L PEG/Asc solution is as effective, well-tolerated, and safe as a 2-L PEG/Asc solution. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01745835; Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS) KCT0000708 PMID:27588943

  2. Comparable Efficacy of a 1-L PEG and Ascorbic Acid Solution Administered with Bisacodyl versus a 2-L PEG and Ascorbic Acid Solution for Colonoscopy Preparation: A Prospective, Randomized and Investigator-Blinded Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kwon

    Full Text Available Two liters of polyethylene glycol (PEG solution administered with ascorbic acid (Asc can provide efficacy similar to that of a 4-L PEG solution for colonoscopy preparation. In addition, oral bisacodyl (Bis has been shown to reduce the volume of PEG needed for a bowel preparation with comparable efficacy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a 2-L PEG solution mixed with Asc versus the combination of Bis, Asc and a 1-L PEG solution.This was a prospective, randomized, multi-centre, single-blind, non-inferiority trial. Participants who were scheduled for colonoscopy were included and randomized to receive either 2-L PEG and Asc (2L PEG/Asc group or 1-L PEG, Asc and 20 mg Bis (1L PEG/Asc + Bis group. The quality of bowel preparation was assessed using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. Data regarding tolerance, compliance and adverse events were also gathered.A total of 187 participants were analyzed; 96 were allocated to the 2L PEG/Asc group and 91 to the 1L PEG/Asc + Bis group. Bowel preparation was adequate in 87.5% (84/96 of patients in the 2L PEG/Asc group and 94.5% of the 1L PEG/Asc + Bis group (86/91, p = 0.10. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to compliance, tolerability or safety. The patients allocated to the 1L PEG/Asc + Bis group expressed more willingness to repeat the procedure than patients in the 2L PEG/Asc group (p = 0.01.Bowel preparation with Bis and a 1-L PEG/Asc solution is as effective, well-tolerated, and safe as a 2-L PEG/Asc solution.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01745835; Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS KCT0000708.

  3. Investigation of PEG crystallization in frozen PEG-sucrose-water solutions. I. Characterization of the nonequilibrium behavior during freeze-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Bakul S; Martin, Susan M; Teagarden, Dirk L; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2010-06-01

    Our objective was to characterize the nonequilibrium thermal behavior of frozen aqueous solutions containing PEG and sucrose. Aqueous solutions of (i) sucrose (10%, w/v) with different concentrations of PEG (1-20%, w/v), and (ii) PEG (10%, w/v) with different concentrations of sucrose (2-20%, w/v), were cooled to -70 degrees C at 5 degrees C/min and heated to 25 degrees C at 2 degrees C/min in a differential scanning calorimeter. Annealing was performed at temperatures ranging from -50 to -20 degrees C for 2 or 6 h. Similar experiments were also performed in the low-temperature stage of a powder X-ray diffractometer. A limited number of additional DSC experiments were performed wherein the samples were cooled to -100 degrees C. In unannealed systems with a fixed sucrose concentration (10%, w/v), the T'g decreased from -35 to -48 degrees C when PEG concentration was increased from 1% to 20% (w/v). On annealing at -25 degrees C, PEG crystallized. This was evident from the increase in T'g and the appearance of a secondary melting endotherm in the DSC. Low-temperature XRD provided direct evidence of PEG crystallization. Annealing at temperatures PEG concentration (10%, w/v), the T'g increased from -50 to -40 degrees C when sucrose concentration was increased from 5% to 50%, w/v. As the annealing time increased (at -25 degrees C), the T'g approached that of a sucrose-water system, reflecting progressive PEG crystallization. A second glass transition at approximately -65 degrees C was evident in unannealed systems [10%, w/v sucrose and 10 (or 20%), w/v PEG] cooled to -100 degrees C. Investigation of the nonequilibrium behavior of frozen PEG-sucrose-water ternary system revealed phase separation in the freeze-concentrate. Annealing facilitated PEG crystallization. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  4. Volumetric properties of (peg 400 + water) and (peg 400 + ethanol) mixtures at several temperatures and correlation with the jouyban-acree model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Gerson A.; Holguín, Andrés R.; Martínez, Fleming; Khoubnasabjafari, Maryam; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    Molar volumes and excess molar volumes were investigated from density values for (PEG 400 + water) and (PEG 400 + ethanol) binary mixtures at temperatures from 283.15 K to 313.15 K. Both systems exhibit negative excess volumes probably due to increased interactions like hydrogen bonding and/or large differences in molar volumes of components. Volume thermal expansion coefficients were also calculated for binary mixtures and pure solvents. The Jouyban-Acree model was used for density and molar...

  5. Effects of PEG4000 template on sol-gel synthesis of porous cerium titanate photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Tao, Yingjie; Li, Chuanguo

    2018-04-01

    Porous cerium titanate was synthesized by sol-gel method, using polyethylene glycol (PEG4000) as template agent. Brannerite structured CeTi2O6 in monoclinic system is the major substance formed in the materials. Formation of CeO2 and rutile TiO2 depends on the amount of PEG4000. The addition of PEG4000 leads to production of fine particles in the samples, but it does not apparently affect the band gap energy. Pore volume of the cerium titanate sample continuously increases with rising PEG4000 amount. The sample obtained using 3.5 g PEG4000 has BET surface area of 16.2 m2/g and pore volume of 0.0232 cm3/g. The addition of PEG4000 can obviously promote photocatalytic activity of cerium titanate, which can be proven by both enhanced production of hydroxyl radical and ofloxacin degradation efficiency. As much as 95.2% of the initial ofloxacin molecules are removed from the solution after 50 min of photocatalytic degradation on the cerium titanate obtained using 3.5 g PEG4000, while only 48.4% ofloxacin is removed on cerium titanate obtained without PEG4000.

  6. Complete regression of xenograft tumors using biodegradable mPEG-PLA-SN38 block copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Zheng, Yan; Weng, Shuqiang; Zhu, Wenwei; Chen, Jinhong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Lee, Robert J; Yu, Bo; Jia, Huliang; Qin, Lunxiu

    2016-06-01

    7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-comptothecin (SN38) is an active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11) and the clinical application of SN38 is limited by its hydrophobicity and instability. To address these issues, a series of novel amphiphilic mPEG-PLA-SN38-conjugates were synthesized by linking SN38 to mPEG-PLA-SA, and they could form micelles by self-assembly. The effects of mPEG-PLA composition were studied in vitro and in vivo. The mean diameters of mPEG2K-PLA-SN38 micelles and mPEG4K-PLA-SN38 micelles were 10-20nm and 120nm, respectively, and mPEG2K-PLA-SN38 micelles showed greater antitumor efficacy than mPEG4K-PLA-SN38 micelles both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that the lengths of mPEG and PLA chains had a major impact on the physicochemical characteristics and antitumor activity of SN38-conjugate micelles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations on aqueous two-phase systems - Single PEG-molecules in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oelmeier Stefan A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations are a promising tool to generate molecular understanding of processes related to the purification of proteins. Polyethylene glycols (PEG of various length are commonly used in the production and purification of proteins. The molecular mechanisms behind PEG driven precipitation, aqueous two-phase formation or the effects of PEGylation are however still poorly understood. Results In this paper, we ran MD simulations of single PEG molecules of variable length in explicitly simulated water. The resulting structures are in good agreement with experimentally determined 3D structures of PEG. The increase in surface hydrophobicity of PEG of longer chain length could be explained on an atomic scale. PEG-water interactions as well as aqueous two-phase formation in the presence of PO4 were found to be correlated to PEG surface hydrophobicity. Conclusions We were able to show that the taken MD simulation approach is capable of generating both structural data as well as molecule descriptors in agreement with experimental data. Thus, we are confident of having a good in silico representation of PEG.

  8. Expression of PEG10 Is Associated with Poor Survival and Tumor Recurrence in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Heejin; Ha, Sang Yun; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Park, Cheol-Keun

    2015-10-01

    Paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10), first identified as an imprinted gene, is paternally expressed and maternally silenced. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), PEG10 has been identified as a potential target gene located within the amplified 7q21 locus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of PEG10 protein in HCC and evaluate its prognostic significance. PEG10 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissues from 218 HCC patients undergoing curative resection. Furthermore, the relationships between PEG10 expression and clinicopathologic features or postoperative survival of HCC patients were evaluated. The median follow-up period was 119.8 months for survivors. PEG10 expression was observed in 148 of the 218 HCCs (67.9%) and was significantly correlated with younger age, female, higher Edmondson grade, microvascular invasion, intrahepatic metastasis, higher American Joint Committee on Cancer T-stage, and higher α-fetoprotein level. PEG10 expression was an independent predictor of early recurrence (p=0.013), and it showed an unfavorable influence on recurrence-free survival (p expression showed an unfavorable influence on overall survival (p=0.007) but was not an independent predictor of shorter overall survival (p=0.128). PEG10 protein could be a potential biomarker predicting early recurrence and recurrence-free survival in HCC patients after curative resection, even in those with normal serum α-fetoprotein levels.

  9. Upper estimates of complexity of algorithms for multi-peg Tower of Hanoi problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Novikov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available There are proved upper explicit estimates of complexity of lgorithms: for multi-peg Tower of Hanoi problem with the limited number of disks, for Reve's puzzle and for $5$-peg Tower of Hanoi problem with the free number of disks.

  10. Surface-active copolymer formation stabilizes PEG droplets and bubbles in silicone foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Helen; Fawcett, Amanda S; Sheardown, Heather; Brook, Michael A

    2013-01-15

    Large increases in viscosity are not normally observed when insoluble liquid polymers are mixed in the absence of a compatibilizing agent: the liquids separate into bulk phases. Mixing propyl- or allyl-modified oligo(ethylene glycol)(PEG), but not the parent hydroxy-terminated oligo(ethylene glycol), with silicone pre-elastomers led a sharp increase in viscosity that preceded the onset of cure. Only in the case of allyl-modified PEG, however, did a low density, closed cell silicone foam form that, in addition to trapped bubbles, contained dispersed PEG droplets. Rheological studies demonstrate that the origins of the viscosity build lie in the formation, shortly after mixing, of organo-PEG stabilized droplets that act as fillers within the silicone pre-elastomers. Similar viscosity builds were not observed with hydroxy-terminated oligo(ethylene glycol). Although the propyl-modified PEG led initially to large viscosity increases, its ability to stabilize bubbles was comparably limited. The surface activity of the propyl- and allyl-PEG compounds themselves facilitates the formation of a colloidal dispersion within the silicone. However, the key to the observed foamed product is the in situ platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation of the allyl group, prior to or concomitant with silicone cure, leading to PEG-silicone copolymers that are able to stabilize both dispersed PEG droplets and bubbles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Crystalline polyoxometalate (POM)–polyethylene glycol (PEG) composites aimed as non-humidified intermediate-temperature proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, Masaki [Department of Basic Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Mizuno, Noritaka [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Uchida, Sayaka, E-mail: csayaka@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Basic Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Crystalline polyoxometalate (POM)–polyethylene glycol (PEG) composites aimed as non-humidified intermediate-temperature proton conductors were synthesized and characterized by single crystal and powder XRD, solid state MASNMR, and TG-DTA measurements. Among the POM–PEG composites, Cs{sub 2.7}H{sub 0.3}[PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]·1.2PEG1000 (CsHPW-PEG1000) possessed one-dimensional channels with diameters of ca. 6 and 8 Å, where PEG probably resided, and showed the best performance as a proton conductor (1.2×10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} at 443 K). Proton conductivities of POM–PEG composites decreased by the increase in molecular weights of PEG (CsHPW-PEG12,000) or anion charges (CsHSiW-PEG1000). Variable contact time {sup 13}C-CP (cross polarization) MASNMR revealed that local mobility (i.e., segmental motion) of PEG is related to the trends in proton conductivities. These results show that amount of acidic protons (H{sup +}) is not the primary factor in proton conduction and that segmental motion of PEG assists the proton hopping among POMs in the crystal lattice of POM–PEG composites. - Graphical abstract: Non-humidified intermediate-temperature proton conduction in crystalline polyoxometalate (POM)–polyethylene (PEG) composites are assisted by the segmental motion of PEG. - Highlights: • Crystalline polyoxometalate–polyethlene glycol (PEG) composites were synthesized. • CsHPW-PEG1000 possessed one-dimensional channels and showed the highest proton conductivity. • {sup 13}C CPMASNMR revealed that segmental motion of PEG is related to the proton conduction.

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of peg-only laxative on faecal impaction and chronic constipation in children. A controlled double blind randomized study vs a standard peg-electrolyte laxative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Viola, Serena; Erasmo, Maiullari; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Oliva, Salvatore; Cucchiara, Salvatore

    2012-11-15

    PEG-based laxatives are considered today the gold standard for the treatment of constipation in children. PEG formulations differ in terms of composition of inactive ingredients which may have an impact on acceptance, compliance and adherence to treatment. We therefore compared the efficacy, tolerability, acceptance and compliance of a new PEG-only formulation compared to a reference PEG-electrolyte (PEG-EL) formulation in resolving faecal impaction and in the treatment of chronic constipation. Children aged 2-16 years with functional chronic constipation for at least 2 months were randomized to receive PEG-only 0.7 g/kg/day in 2 divided doses or 6.9 g PEG-EL 1-4 sachets according to age for 4 weeks. Children with faecal impaction were randomized to receive PEG-only 1.5/g/kg in 2 divided doses until resolution or for 6 days or PEG-EL with an initial dose of 4 sachets and increasing 2 sachets a day until resolution or for 7 days. Ninety-six children were randomized into the study. Five patients withdrew consent before starting treatment. Three children discontinued treatment for refusal due to bad taste of the product (1 PEG-only, 2 PEG-EL); 1 (PEG-EL) for an adverse effect (abdominal pain). Intent-to-treat analysis was carried out in 49 children in the PEG-only group and 42 in the PEG-EL group.No significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups at baseline.Adequate relief of constipation in terms of normalized frequency and painless defecation of soft stools was achieved in all patients in both groups. The number of stools/week was 9.2 ± 3.2 (mean ± SD) in the PEG-only group and 7.8 ± 2.4 in the PEG-EL group (p = 0.025); the number of days with stool was 22.4 ± 5.1 in the PEG-only group and 19.6 ± 7.2 in the PEG-EL group (p = 0.034).In the PEG-only group faecaloma resolution was observed in 5 children on the second day and in 2 children on the third day, while in the PEG-EL group it was observed in 2 children on the second day, in 3

  13. PEG spacers of different length influence the biological profile of bombesin-based radiolabeled antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamous, Mazen; Tamma, Maria L.; Gourni, Eleni; Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean C.; Maecke, Helmut R.; Mansi, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) was shown to be expressed with high density on several types of cancers. Radiolabeled peptides for imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy have been developed. In this study, we evaluated the potential of statine-based bombesin antagonists, conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) through oligoethyleneglycol spacers, labeled with 177 Lu and we determined the effect of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) spacer length on in vitro and in vivo properties. Methods: The bombesin antagonists were synthesized on solid phase using Fmoc chemistry; the spacers Fmoc-dPEG x -OH (x = 2, 4, 6 and 12) and the DOTA(tBu) 3 were coupled using a standard procedure. The peptides were labeled with 177 Lu and evaluated in vitro (lipophilicity, serum stability, internalization and binding affinity assays). Biodistribution studies were performed in PC-3 tumor-bearing nude mice. Results: The solid-phase synthesis was straightforward with an overall yield ranging from 30% to 35% based on the first Fmoc cleavage. The hydrophilicity increased with spacer length (logD: − 1.95 vs − 2.22 of PEG 2 and PEG 12 analogs, respectively). There is a tendency of increased serum stability by increasing the spacer length (T 1/2 = 246 ± 4 and 584 ± 20 for PEG 2 and PEG 6 analogs, respectively) which seems to reverse with the PEG 12 analog. The IC 50 values are similar with the only significant difference of the PEG 12 analog. The 177 Lu-labeled PEG 4 and PEG 6 conjugates showed similar pharmacokinetic with high tumor uptake and excellent tumor-to-kidney ratios (7.8 and 9.7 at 4 h for the PEG 4 and PEG 6 derivatives, respectively). The pancreas uptake was relatively high at 1 h but it shows fast washout (0.46% ± 0.02% IA/g and 0.29% ± 0.08% IA/g already at 4 h). Conclusion: Among all the studied analogs the PEG 4 and PEG 6 showed significantly better properties. The very high tumor-to-non-target organ ratios, in

  14. Graphene oxide stabilized by PLA-PEG copolymers for the controlled delivery of paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulou, A; Voulgari, E; Diamanti, E K; Gournis, D; Avgoustakis, K

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the application of water-dispersible poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) copolymers for the stabilization of graphene oxide (GO) aqueous dispersions and the feasibility of using the PLA-PEG stabilized GO as a delivery system for the potent anticancer agent paclitaxel. A modified Staudenmaier method was applied to synthesize graphene oxide (GO). Diblock PLA-PEG copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of dl-lactide in the presence of monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG). Probe sonication in the presence of PLA-PEG copolymers was applied in order to reduce the hydrodynamic diameter of GO to the nano-size range according to dynamic light scattering (DLS) and obtain nano-graphene oxide (NGO) composites with PLA-PEG. The composites were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and DLS. The colloidal stability of the composites was evaluated by recording the size of the composite particles with time and the resistance of composites to aggregation induced by increasing concentrations of NaCl. The composites were loaded with paclitaxel and the in vitro release profile was determined. The cytotoxicity of composites against A549 human lung cancer cells in culture was evaluated by flow cytometry. The uptake of FITC-labeled NGO/PLA-PEG by A549 cells was also estimated with flow cytometry and visualized with fluorescence microscopy. The average hydrodynamic diameter of NGO/PLA-PEG according to DLS ranged between 455 and 534 nm, depending on the molecular weight and proportion of PLA-PEG in the composites. NGO/PLA-PEG exhibited high colloidal stability on storage and in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (far exceeding physiological concentrations). Paclitaxel was effectively loaded in the composites and released by a highly sustained fashion. Drug release could be regulated by the molecular weight of the PLA-PEG copolymer and its proportion in the composite. The paclitaxel

  15. Cell-instructive starPEG-heparin-collagen composite matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binner, Marcus; Bray, Laura J; Friedrichs, Jens; Freudenberg, Uwe; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Werner, Carsten

    2017-04-15

    Polymer hydrogels can be readily modulated with regard to their physical properties and functionalized to recapitulate molecular cues of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, they remain structurally different from the hierarchical supramolecular assemblies of natural ECM. Accordingly, we herein report a set of hydrogel composite materials made from starPEG-peptide conjugates, maleimide-functionalized heparin and collagen type I that combine semisynthetic and ECM-derived components. Collagen fibrillogenesis was controlled by temperature and collagen concentration to form collagen microstructures which were then homogeneously distributed within the 3D composite matrix during hydrogel formation. The collagen-laden hydrogel materials showed a heterogeneous local variation of the stiffness and adhesion ligand density. Composite gels functionalized with growth factors and cell adhesive peptides (RGDSP) supported the growth of embedded human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and induced the alignment of embedded bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the collagen microstructures in vitro. The introduced composite hydrogel material is concluded to faithfully mimic cell-instructive features of the ECM. Cell-instructive materials play an important role in the generation of both regenerative therapies and advanced tissue and disease models. For that purpose, biofunctional polymer hydrogels recapitulating molecular cues of the extracellular matrix (ECM) were successfully applied in various different studies. However, hydrogels generally lack the hierarchical supramolecular structure of natural ECM. We have therefore developed a hydrogel composite material made from starPEG-peptide conjugates, maleimide-functionalized heparin and collagen type I fibrils. The collagen-laden scaffolds showed a heterogeneous local variation in the stiffness of the material. The composite gels were successfully tested in culture experiments with human umbilical

  16. Novel Biocompatible Au Nanostars@PEG Nanoparticles for In Vivo CT Imaging and Renal Clearance Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Daiyuan; Gao, Wei; Yuan, Yajiang; Guo, Lingling; Mei, Xifan

    2017-10-12

    Nanoprobes are rapidly becoming potentially transformative tools on disease diagnostics for a wide range of in vivo computed tomography (CT) imaging. Compared with conventional molecular-scale contrast agents, nanoparticles (NPs) promise improved abilities for in vivo detection. In this study, novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)-functionalized Au nanoparticles with star shape (AuNS@PEG) with strong X-ray mass absorption coefficient were synthesized as CT imaging contrast agents. Experimental results revealed that AuNS@PEG nanoparticles are well constructed with ultrasmall sizes, effective metabolisability, high computed tomography value, and outstanding biocompatibility. In vivo imaging also showed that the obtained AuNS@PEG nanoparticles can be efficiently used in CT-enhanced imaging. Therefore, the synthesized contrast agent AuNS@PEG nanoparticles as a great potential candidate can be widely used for CT imaging.

  17. Influence of thermalization on thermal conduction through molecular junctions: Computational study of PEG oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Hari Datt; Leitner, David M.

    2017-08-01

    Thermalization in molecular junctions and the extent to which it mediates thermal transport through the junction are explored and illustrated with computational modeling of polyethylene glycol (PEG) oligomer junctions. We calculate rates of thermalization in the PEG oligomers from 100 K to 600 K and thermal conduction through PEG oligomer interfaces between gold and other materials, including water, motivated in part by photothermal applications of gold nanoparticles capped by PEG oligomers in aqueous and cellular environments. Variation of thermalization rates over a range of oligomer lengths and temperatures reveals striking effects of thermalization on thermal conduction through the junction. The calculated thermalization rates help clarify the scope of applicability of approaches that can be used to predict thermal conduction, e.g., where Fourier's law breaks down and where a Landauer approach is suitable. The rates and nature of vibrational energy transport computed for PEG oligomers are compared with available experimental results.

  18. Improving dielectric permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG block copolymer into PDMS network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    .Combination of both polymers as a block copolymer depicts a possibility for substantial improvement of properties such as high permittivity and non-conductivity – if carefully designed 2. The objective of my research is to synthesize PDMS-PEG block copolymer assembling into different morphologies such as lamellae...... introduces different properties in terms of contact angles, dielectric permittivity and rheological behaviour. All morphologies of PDMS-PEG block copolymer in this study exhibit high storage permittivity; at the same time the loss permittivity is even higher which implies that the synthesized PDMS-PEG block...... copolymers are conductive. By incorporating conductive PDMS-PEG block copolymer into commercial PDMS elastomer from Wacker Chemie,the storage permittivity is significantly enhanced by 38% with 20% of PDMS-PEG block copolymer incorporated in pure PDMS network as depicted in Fig. 2....

  19. Effect of grafted PEG chain conformation on albumin and lysozyme adsorption: A combined study using QCM-D and DPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Han, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chang; Liu, Jingchuan; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Jinghua; Liang, Haojun

    2015-12-01

    In this study, elucidation of protein adsorption mechanism is performed using dual polarization interferometry (DPI) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) to study adsorption behaviors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LYZ) on poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) layers. From the analysis of DPI, PEG2000 and PEG5000 show tight and loose mushroom conformations, respectively. Small amount of LYZ could displace the interfacial water surrounding the tight mushroomed PEG2000 chains by hydrogen bond attraction, leading to protein adsorption. The loose mushroomed PEG5000 chains exhibit a more flexible conformation and high elastic repulsion energy that could prevent protein adsorption of all BSA and most of LYZ. From the analysis of QCM, PEG2000 and PEG5000 show tight and extended brush conformations. The LYZ adsorbed mass has critical regions of PEG2000 (0.19 chain/nm(2)) and PEG5000 (0.16 chain/nm(2)) graft density. When graft density of PEG is higher than the critical region (brush conformations), the attraction of hydrogen bonds between PEG and LYZ is the dominant factor. When graft density of PEG is lower than the critical region (mushroom conformations), elastic repulsion between PEG and proteins is driven by the high conformation entropy of PEG chains, which is the dominant force of steric repulsion in PEG-protein systems. Therefore, the adsorption of BSA is suppressed by the high elastic repulsion energy of PEG chains, whereas the adsorption of LYZ is balanced by the interactions between the repulsion of entropy elasticity and the attraction of hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PEG/CaFe2O4 nanocomposite: Structural, morphological, magnetic and thermal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Lavanya; Verma, Narendra K.

    2013-01-01

    The coating of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) on calcium ferrite (CaFe 2 O 4 ) nanoparticles has been reported in the present study. The X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the formation of orthorhombic structure of bare CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, which was also retained after the PEG coating, along with additional characteristic peaks of PEG at 19° and 23°. The rings of CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were identified by the selected area electron diffraction pattern. The characteristic bands of PEG as observed in its Fourier transform infrared spectrum were also present in PEG coated CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, hence confirming its presence. In the thermal gravimetric studies, the complete thermal decomposition of PEG occurred in a one step process, but in case of PEG coated CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, the decomposition took place at a higher temperature owing to the formation of covalent bonds of PEG with CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles. The presence of PEG on CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, spherical formation of PEG coated CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles and reduced agglomeration in the CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope studies, respectively. In vibrating sample magnetometer analysis, both bare as well as coated CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior. However, a drop in the magnetic saturation value was observed from 36.76 emu/g for CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles to 6.74 emu/g for PEG coated CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, due to the formation of magnetically dead layer of PEG. In ZFC and FC analyses, superparamagnetic behavior with blocking temperature for bare and coated nanoparticles has been observed at ∼40 K and ∼60 K, respectively. The increase in the blocking temperature is attributed to the increase in the particle size after PEG coating

  1. Sensitive and rapid detection of anti-PEG in blood using surface plasmon resonance sensor (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang; Jiang, Shaoyi; Yu, Qiuming

    2016-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is widely used to modify many therapeutic proteins and nanoparticles to reduce their immunogenicity and to improve their pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. It is generally accepted that PEG is non-immunogenic and non-antigenic. However, an emerging of literature and studies shows that the immune system can generate specific antibodies binding PEG. These anti-PEG antibodies not only correlate with adverse reactions appeared after patient infusions, but are also found to be the reason for therapeutic efficacy loss during chronical administrations. In addition, because of constant exposure to PEG in daily consumer products including detergents, processed food and cosmetics, a substantial proportion of the population has likely developed anti-PEG immunity. Thus a method to quickly and accurately measure the anti-PEG antibody level is desired. Nevertheless, the gold standard to detect anti-PEG antibodies is ELISA, which is costly and time-consuming especially for quantification. Herein, we demonstrated the anti-PEG measurement in blood serum using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. Several PEG-based surface functionalization on SPR sensor chip were studied in terms of protein resistance and the limit of detection (LOD) of anti-PEG. The quantitative detection can be achieved in less than 30 min with LOD comparable to ELISA. Furthermore, the IgG and IgM of anti-PEG can be differentiated by following the secondary antibody.

  2. Analysis of PEG oligomers in black gel inks: Discrimination and ink dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Xiang, Ping; Yang, Xu; Shen, Min

    2017-08-01

    Carbon-based black gel inks are common samples in forensic practice of questioned document examination in China, but there are few analytical methods for this type of ink. In this study, a liquid chromatography-.high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was established for the analysis of PEG oligomers in carbon-based black gel ink entries. The coupled instruments achieve both the identification and quantification of PEG oligomers in ink entries with reproducible results. Twenty carbon-based black gel inks, whose Raman spectra appeared identical, were analyzed using the LC-HRMS method. As a result, the twenty gel inks were classified into four groups according to the distribution of PEG oligomers. Artificially aging of PEG 400 and a gel ink showed that as PEG degraded, the relative amounts of low molecular weight PEG oligomers increased, while those of high molecular weight decreased. The degradation of PEG oligomers in a naturally aged gel ink was consistent with those in the artificially aged samples, but occurred more slowly. This study not only provided a new method for discriminating carbon-based black gel ink entries, but also offered a new approach for studying the relative ink dating of carbon-based black gel ink entries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Tannins and Additional Peg on In Vitro Gas Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro

    2004-01-01

    Agro-wastes such as sugar cane straw are potential sources as feed. Sugar cane straw contains tannins, an anti-nutrient, which could effect feed quality. The effect of tannins by in vitro gas production was compared to maize straw which has low tannins. Tannin concentration was measured by using PEG which is labelled by 14 C. The result showed that the tannins concentration of sugar cane straw is 10.88 % dry matter. The others are digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, VFA, ammonia and pH. The gas production is 48.83 ml/500 mg after 24 h incubation. It is lower than the control i.e. 100.64 ml/500 mg. Additional PEG increase the gas production i.e. 30.5 %, because tannins is bounded by it. The concentration of ammonia, VFA, dry matter and organic matter digestibility on sugar cane straw with additional PEG is higher than without PEG, i.e 28.29 mg/100 ml, 15.56 nmol/100 ml, 52.18 % and 47.54 %. pH of sugar cane without PEG i.e. 6.62 is higher than additional PEG, i.e. 6.54. It could be concluded, tannins decrease of gas production, ammonia, VFA, dry matter, and organic matter digestibility and additional PEG increase gas production of sugar cane. (author)

  4. PEG-stearate coated solid lipid nanoparticles as levothyroxine carriers for oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Rostami, Elham

    2014-03-01

    In this study, poly ethylene glycol 100 stearate (PEG 100-S) was used to prepare coated solid lipid nanoparticles with loading levothyroxine sodium (levo-loaded PEG 100-S-coated SLNs) by microemulsification technique. Evaluation of the release kinetic of prepared colloidal carriers was conducted. The particle size and zeta potential of levo-loaded PEG 100-S-coated SLNs have been measured to be 187.5 nm and -23.0 mV, respectively, using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). Drug entrapment efficiency (EE) was calculated to be 99 %. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the majority of drug loaded in PEG 100-S-coated SLNs were in amorphous state which could be considered desirable for drug delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a new nanoparticle system, consisting lipid nanoparticles coated with PEG 100-S. The modification procedure led to a reduction in the zeta potential values, varying from -40.0 to -23.0 mV for the uncoated and PEG-coated SLNs, respectively. Stability results of the nanoparticles in gastric and intestinal media show that the low pH of the gastric medium is responsible for the critical aggregation and degradation of the uncoated lipid nanoparticles. PEG 100-S-coated SLNs were more stable due to their polymer coating layer which prevented aggregation of SLNs. Consequently, it is possible that the PEG surrounds the particles reducing the attachment of enzymes and further degradation of the triglyceride cores. Shape and surface morphology of particles were determined by transition electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy that revealed spherical shape of nanoparticles. In vitro drug release of PEG 100-S-coated SLNs was characterized using diffusion cell which showed a controlled release for drug.

  5. Properties of PEDOT:PEG/ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soylu, Murat, E-mail: soylum74@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Bingol University, Bingol (Turkey); Girtan, Mihaela [Photonics Laboratory, Angers University, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2012-06-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have fabricated PEDOT:PEG/ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diode by sputter and spin coating, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of PEDOT:PEG/ZnO show diode-like behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AFM images indicate that the ZnO and PEDOT:PEG films are formed from the nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEDOT:PEG is a semiconductor material with wide optical band energy gap of 3.81 eV. - Abstract: The zinc oxide (ZnO) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) bis-poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEDOT:PEG) films were deposited on p-Si substrate by sputter and spin coating methods, respectively. An organic/inorganic heterojunction diode having PEDOT:PEG/ZnO on p-Si substrate was fabricated. The barrier height (BH) and the ideality factor values for the device were found to be 0.82 {+-} 0.01 eV and 1.9 {+-} 0.01, respectively. It has been seen that the value of BH is significantly larger than those of conventional Au/p-Si metal-semiconductor contacts. The PEDOT:PEG/ZnO/p-Si heterostructure exhibits a non-ideal I-V behavior with the ideality factor greater than unity that could be ascribed to the interfacial layer, interface states and series resistance. The modified Norde's function combined with conventional forward I-V method was used to extract the parameters including the barrier height and series resistance. At the same time, the physical properties of ZnO and PEDOT:PEG films deposited by sputter and spin coating technique, respectively, were investigated at room temperature. The obtained results indicate that the electrical parameters of the diode are affected by structural properties of ZnO film and PEDOT:PEG organic film.

  6. Novel PEG functionalized graphene nanosheets: enhancement of dispersibility and thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shupeng; Xiong, Pan; Yang, Xujie; Wang, Xin

    2011-05-01

    A series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized graphene sheet hybrid materials (FGHMs) have been successfully synthesized via ester linkages. Interestingly, our products can be dispersed in both polar/protic solvents and nonpolar/nonprotic ones, which differ significantly from previously reported systems and are of great value in the wide-spread application of these ``carbon nanosheet'' based materials by solution-phase processing. Furthermore, the addition of PEG-modified carbon nanosheets as nanofillers significantly improves the thermal stability of the bulk polymers. In our case, an increase of 35 K in thermal stability can be obtained for PEG4000 after filling with as low as 1 wt % of the PEG modified carbon sheets, suggesting their great potential as novel nanofillers in industry.A series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized graphene sheet hybrid materials (FGHMs) have been successfully synthesized via ester linkages. Interestingly, our products can be dispersed in both polar/protic solvents and nonpolar/nonprotic ones, which differ significantly from previously reported systems and are of great value in the wide-spread application of these ``carbon nanosheet'' based materials by solution-phase processing. Furthermore, the addition of PEG-modified carbon nanosheets as nanofillers significantly improves the thermal stability of the bulk polymers. In our case, an increase of 35 K in thermal stability can be obtained for PEG4000 after filling with as low as 1 wt % of the PEG modified carbon sheets, suggesting their great potential as novel nanofillers in industry. Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) available: Table S1: Digital pictures of several typical hybrid materials dispersed in water and 22 organic solvents; Video 1: GO-PEG400 can be re-dispersed in the isooctane by simply turning the vials up and down. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00923g

  7. PEG-templated mesoporous silica nanoparticles exclusively target cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Catia; Maris, Pamela; Sisci, Diego; Perrotta, Enrico; Brunelli, Elvira; Perrotta, Ida; Panno, Maria Luisa; Tagarelli, Antonio; Versace, Carlo; Casula, Maria Francesca; Testa, Flaviano; Andò, Sebastiano; Nagy, Janos B.; Pasqua, Luigi

    2011-08-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been proposed as DNA and drug delivery carriers, as well as efficient tools for fluorescent cell tracking. The major limitation is that MSNs enter cells regardless of a target-specific functionalization. Here we show that non functionalized MSNs, synthesized using a PEG surfactant-based interfacial synthesis procedure, do not enter cells, while a highly specific, receptor mediated, cellular internalization of folic acid (FOL) grafted MSNs (MSN-FOL), occurs exclusively in folate receptor (FR) expressing cells. Neither the classical clathrin pathway nor macropinocytosis is involved in the MSN endocytic process, while fluorescent MSNs (MSN-FITC) enter cells through aspecific, caveolae-mediated, endocytosis. Moreover, internalized particles seem to be mostly exocytosed from cells within 96 h. Finally, cisplatin (Cp) loaded MSN-FOL were tested on cancerous FR-positive (HeLa) or normal FR-negative (HEK293) cells. A strong growth arrest was observed only in HeLa cells treated with MSN-FOL-Cp. The results presented here show that our mesoporous nanoparticles do not enter cells unless opportunely functionalized, suggesting that they could represent a promising vehicle for drug targeting applications.Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been proposed as DNA and drug delivery carriers, as well as efficient tools for fluorescent cell tracking. The major limitation is that MSNs enter cells regardless of a target-specific functionalization. Here we show that non functionalized MSNs, synthesized using a PEG surfactant-based interfacial synthesis procedure, do not enter cells, while a highly specific, receptor mediated, cellular internalization of folic acid (FOL) grafted MSNs (MSN-FOL), occurs exclusively in folate receptor (FR) expressing cells. Neither the classical clathrin pathway nor macropinocytosis is involved in the MSN endocytic process, while fluorescent MSNs (MSN-FITC) enter cells through aspecific, caveolae

  8. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van; Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun; Chen, Jim-Ray; Jwo, Shyh-Chuan; Hsieh, Ming-Fa

    2010-01-01

    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG-COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX

  9. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Industry, 12 Nguyen Van Bao St, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jim-Ray [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Jwo, Shyh-Chuan [Division of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa, E-mail: mfhsieh@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-28

    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG-COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  10. Supercritical CO2-assisted preparation of ibuprofen loaded PEG-PVP complexes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available transport properties. Closer inspection of the PVP C=O and PEG C-O absorption bands show that in regions containing a lower fraction of PEG molecules the PVP C=O peak maxima is shifted to lower wavenumbers (1661 cm-1) and the PEG C-O band.... [4] T. Vandamme and L. Brobeck, Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers as ophthalmic vehicles for ocular delivery of pilocarpine nitrate and tropicamide, Journal of Controlled Release, 102 (2005) 23-38. [5] V. Tantishaiyakul, N. Kaewnopparat, and S...

  11. Long-Term Stability of PEG-Based Antifouling Surfaces in a Marine Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Kiil, Søren; Hvilsted, Søren

    The work presented here concerns the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to reduce marine biofouling on ship hulls. The long-term stability of PEG towards degradation in a marine environment is reviewed, and the results of experiments designed to test the degradation of polyethylene glycol moieties...... structure and the end-group on the degradation of different PEG-containing compounds in accelerated conditions, while showing very little degradation in real exposure tests in seawater after 3 months. Further experiments will be discussed involving long-term stability and degradation pathways involved...

  12. Enhancing relative permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymers in binary polymer blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are well-known to be soft and highly stretchable, yet they never achieve maximum elongation when utilised as dielectric elastomers, simply because their dielectric permittivity remains rather low. Conversely, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable......, but they do possess high permittivity. Combining two such polymers in a block copolymer allows for further crosslinking and presents the possibility of substantial improvements in the actuation response of the resulting dielectric elastomer – if carefully designed. The objective is to synthesise a PDMS......, the discontinuity in PEG can be acquired and the relative permittivity (ε’) is significantly enhanced (60%) with 5wt% of PDMS-PEG block copolymer incorporated into the silicone elastomer....

  13. Time-Resolved SAXS/WAXS Study of the Phase Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Drug/PEG Solid Dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qing; Harris, Michael T.; Taylor, Lynne S. (Purdue)

    2013-03-07

    Simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) was employed to elucidate the physical state and location of various small molecule drugs blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG), as well as the time dependent microstructural evolution of the systems. Samples were prepared by comelting physical mixtures of the drug and PEG, followed by solidification at 25 C. The model drugs selected encompassed a wide variety of physicochemical properties in terms of crystallization tendency and potential for interaction with PEG. It was observed that compounds which crystallized rapidly and had weak interactions with PEG tended to be excluded from the interlamellar region of the PEG matrix. In contrast, drugs which had favorable interactions with PEG were incorporated into the interlamellar regions of the polymer up until the point at which the drug crystallized whereby phase separation occurred. These factors are likely to impact the effectiveness of drug/PEG systems as drug delivery systems.

  14. Time-Resolved SAXS/WAXS Study of the Phase Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Drug/PEG Solid Dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Qing; Harris, Michael T.; Taylor, Lynne S.

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) was employed to elucidate the physical state and location of various small molecule drugs blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG), as well as the time dependent microstructural evolution of the systems. Samples were prepared by comelting physical mixtures of the drug and PEG, followed by solidification at 25 C. The model drugs selected encompassed a wide variety of physicochemical properties in terms of crystallization tendency and potential for interaction with PEG. It was observed that compounds which crystallized rapidly and had weak interactions with PEG tended to be excluded from the interlamellar region of the PEG matrix. In contrast, drugs which had favorable interactions with PEG were incorporated into the interlamellar regions of the polymer up until the point at which the drug crystallized whereby phase separation occurred. These factors are likely to impact the effectiveness of drug/PEG systems as drug delivery systems.

  15. A Versatile Star PEG Grafting Method for the Generation of Nonfouling and Nonthrombogenic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Thalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG grafting has a great potential to create nonfouling and nonthrombogenic surfaces, but present techniques lack versatility and stability. The present work aimed to develop a versatile PEG grafting method applicable to most biomaterial surfaces, by taking advantage of novel primary amine-rich plasma-polymerized coatings. Star-shaped PEG covalent binding was studied using static contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D. Fluorescence and QCM-D both confirmed strong reduction of protein adsorption when compared to plasma-polymerized coatings and pristine poly(ethyleneterephthalate (PET. Moreover, almost no platelet adhesion was observed after 15 min perfusion in whole blood. Altogether, our results suggest that primary amine-rich plasma-polymerized coatings offer a promising stable and versatile method for PEG grafting in order to create nonfouling and nonthrombogenic surfaces and micropatterns.

  16. Optimization of PEG-based extraction of polysaccharides from Dendrobium nobile Lindl. and bioactivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Hongxin; Wang, Peng; Ma, ChaoYang; He, GuoHua; Rahman, Md Ramim Tanver

    2016-11-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a green solvent was employed to extract polysaccharide. The optimal conditions for PEG-based ultrasonic extraction of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. polysaccharide (JCP) were determined by response surface methodology. Under the optimal conditions: extraction temperature of 58.5°C; ultrasound power of 193W, and the concentration of polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200) solution of 45%, the highest JCP yield was obtained as 15.23±0.57%, which was close to the predicted yield, 15.57%. UV and FT-IR analysis revealed the general characteristic absorption peaks of both JCP with water extraction (JCP w ) and PEG-200 solvent extraction (JCP p ). Thermal analysis of both JCPs was performed with Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Antioxidant activities of two polysaccharides were also compared and no significant difference in vitro was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gravity-regulated formation of the peg in developing cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.

    1994-01-01

    It has been proposed that peg formation in the vascular transition region (TR zone) between the hypocotyl and the root in Cucurbitaceae seedlings is a gravimorphogenetic phenomenon. Initiation of the peg became visible 36 h after imbibition when cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Burpee Hybrid II) seeds were germinated in a horizontal position at 24 degrees C in the dark. Simultaneously, sedimented amyloplasts (putative statoliths) were apparent in the sheath cells surrounding the vascular strands, and in the cortical cells immediately adjacent to them, in the TR zone. In contrast, the other cortical cells, some of which were destined to develop into the peg, contained amyloplasts which were not sedimented. These results suggest that the graviperception mechanism for peg formation may be like that of statoliths in shoot gravitropism. By 48 h following imbibition, the cells of the TR zone still had sedimented amyloplasts but had lost their sensitivity to gravity, possibly because of their maturation.

  18. Improving dielectric permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG block copolymer into PDMS network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based elastomers are well-known to actuate with large strain mainly due to their low modulus and their non-conducting nature. On the other hand, polyethyleneglycols(PEG) are not stretchable but they have high permittivity and are conductive. Combination of the two...... polymers as a block copolymer depicts a possibility for substantial improvement of properties such as high permittivity and non-conductivity – if carefully designed. The objective is to synthesize PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymer assembling into different morphologies1 such as lamellar,cylinder, gyroid...... and spheres based on variation of volume fractions of PDMS and PEG. The synthesisis amended from Klasner et al.2 and Jukarainen et al.3 Variation in the ratio between the two constituents introduces distinctive properties in terms of dielectric permittivity and rheological behaviour. PDMS-PEG multiblock...

  19. POLYSACCHARIDES AND eDNA AID BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT TO POLYMER BRUSH COATINGS (PLL-g-PEG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    density plays a critical role and we therefore investigated the antifouling properties of the poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) coating produced by the recently developed temperature-induced polyelectrolyte (TIP) grafting technique. The PLL-g-PEG coatings with higher density resulted......Polymer brush coatings of poly(ethylene glycol) are considered the gold standard for nonfouling surfaces, but nevertheless, a few bacteria manage to attach and initiate biofilm formation on these coatings. To achieve robust resistance against bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, grafting......-cell adhesion forces measured for each strain and toward titanium and the two types of PLL-g-PEG coatings. We were intrigued by the strain-dependent results in adhesion to conventional PLL-g-PEG, and investigated if the difference in adhesion mechanism between the three strains could explain the result. We...

  20. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-3350, Colyte Poisoning due to Intra-Peritoneal Leakage in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hee Chung

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350 is the most frequently used lavage solution for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy or elective surgery because its large molecular weight means that it is poorly absorbed. However, if it leaks into the peritoneal cavity, complications may arise. Few published studies have assessed the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of PEG. Moreover, no published clinical data regarding complications due to the intra-peritoneal leakage of PEG-3350 could be found. We report on an elderly patient who developed the poisoning caused by leaking of PEG-3350 during bowel preparation. It resulted in severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, hyperosmolality and a high anion gap, but it was effectively treated with early continuous renal replacement therapy after surgery.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity of glutathione-PEG-iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Paula S.; Santos, Marconi C. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, Exact and Earth Sciences Department (Brazil); Guzzi Cassago, Carolina Aparecida de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of Biology (Brazil); Bernardes, Juliana S. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (LNNano), National Center for Energy and Materials (CNPEM) (Brazil); Jesus, Marcelo Bispo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of Biology (Brazil); Seabra, Amedea B., E-mail: amedea.seabra@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, Exact and Earth Sciences Department (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    Recently, increasing interest is spent on the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, followed by their characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity towards tumorigenic cell lines. In this work, magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were synthesized by the polyol method and coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and glutathione (GSH), leading to the formation of PEG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and GSH-PEG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by state-of-the-art techniques: dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic measurements. PEG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and GSH-PEG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have crystallite sizes of 10 and 5 nm, respectively, indicating compression in crystalline lattice upon addition of GSH on the nanoparticle surface. Both nanoparticles presented superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and AFM images revealed the regular spherical shape of the nanomaterials and the absence of particle aggregation. The average hydrodynamic sizes of PEG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and GSH-PEG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were 69 ± 37 and 124 nm ± 75 nm, respectively. The cytotoxicity of both nanoparticles was screened towards human prostatic carcinoma cells (PC-3). The results demonstrated a decrease in PC-3 viability upon treatment with PEG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or GSH-PEG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the cytotoxicity was not time-dependent. Due to the superparamagnetic behavior of PEG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or GSH-PEG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, upon the application of an external magnetic field, those nanoparticles can be guided to the target site yielding local toxic effects to tumor cells with minimal side effects to normal tissues, highlighting the promising uses of iron oxide nanoparticles in

  2. Management of type II dens invaginatus and peg laterals with spacing of maxillary anteriors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Puthen Purayil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of peg-shaped lateral with dens invaginatus (DI and midline diastema affecting maxillary incisors in a 32-year old female patient is discussed. This clinical report describes the endodontic management of DI in tooth #12, esthetic correction of peg laterals and diastema with all ceramic restorations. Satisfactory results were achieved esthetically following treatment and gave the patient a new confident smile.

  3. PEG300-assisted synthesis and characterization of PbS nanostructured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaci, S.; Keffous, A.; Trari, M.; Menari, H.; Manseri, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report here an attempt to relate the structural and optical properties of lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystalline thin films, grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) process at room temperature on corning glass and Si(1 0 0) substrates, with the variation of polyethylene glycol (PEG300) amount in the solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples. The concentration of PEG300 found to play crucial role in the deposition process. By making several trials, the amount of PEG300 was optimized. The transmittance of the films, for a fixed reaction time, increased from ∼30% to ∼80% with the increase of % PEG300 in the solution, indicating the formation of very thin films due to the decrease of reaction rate with the increase of the concentration of PEG300. The concentration of PEG300 not only affects the reaction rate but also the morphology of the obtained films. PbS nanoparticles were found to be oriented preferentially along the (2 0 0) plane. Particle sizes between 2.8 and 8.7 nm were obtained by varying the % of PEG300 from 0.2 to 1.5. The absorption shifts towards short wavelength compared with the bulk PbS indicated a deep blue shift as a consequence of quantum confinement. The optical band gaps found to be strongly relied to the composition of the bath deposition and increase with the increase of the PEG300 amount in the solution.

  4. Enhancement of dielectric permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymers in silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    A silicone elastomer from PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymer has been prepared by use of silylation reactions for both copolymer preparation and crosslinking. The dielectric and mechanical properties of the silicone elastomers were carefully investigated, as well as the morphology of the elastomers wa...... to a significantly increased dielectric permittivity. The conductivity also remained low due to the resulting discontinuity in PEG within the silicone matrix....

  5. Preparation of flexible PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites by melt blending and radiation crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chang-Hee; Hwang, In-Tae; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PEG-POSS) nanocomposites with or without triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) were investigated by melt blending and electron beam irradiation to enhance the flexibility of PLA. Based on the results of the crosslinking degree measurements, the PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites were crosslinked by electron beam irradiation in the presence of triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) and their crosslinking degree reached up to 80% based on the absorbed dose and their compositions. From the results of the FE-SEM and EDX Si-mapping, the crosslinked PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites were homogenous without a micro-phase separation or radiation-induced morphological change. Based on the results of the tensile test, the PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites containing 15 wt% PEG-POSS exhibited the highest flexibility, and their tensile strength showed a maximum value of 44.5 MPa after electron beam irradiation at an absorbed dose of 100 kGy in the presence of TAIC, which is comparable to non-biodegradable polypropylene. The results of the dynamic mechanical analysis revealed that the crosslinked PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites exhibited a higher thermal resistance above their melting temperature in comparison to that of the neat PLA, although their glass transition temperature was lower than that of the neat PLA. The enzymatic biodegradation test revealed that the PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites were biodegradable even though their biodegradability was deteriorated in comparison to that of the neat PLA. - Highlights: • PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending. • The nanocomposites containing TAIC were crosslinked by electron beam irradiation. • The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were comparable to polypropylene. • The crosslinked nanocomposites can be biodegradable

  6. A PEG Construction of LDPC Codes Based on the Betweenness Centrality Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHURTAH-SEEWOOSUNGKUR, I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressive Edge Growth (PEG constructions are usually based on optimizing the distance metric by using various methods. In this work however, the distance metric is replaced by a different one, namely the betweenness centrality metric, which was shown to enhance routing performance in wireless mesh networks. A new type of PEG construction for Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC codes is introduced based on the betweenness centrality metric borrowed from social networks terminology given that the bipartite graph describing the LDPC is analogous to a network of nodes. The algorithm is very efficient in filling edges on the bipartite graph by adding its connections in an edge-by-edge manner. The smallest graph size the new code could construct surpasses those obtained from a modified PEG algorithm - the RandPEG algorithm. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper produces the best regular LDPC column-weight two graphs. In addition, the technique proves to be competitive in terms of error-correcting performance. When compared to MacKay, PEG and other recent modified-PEG codes, the algorithm gives better performance over high SNR due to its particular edge and local graph properties.

  7. Germination Behaviour of Lawsonia inermis L. as Influenced by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enneb Hanen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tunisian Flora is well known for its richness and diversity of medicinal plants such as henna plant (Lawsonia inermis L. a flowering plant belongs to the family of Lyteraceae, distributed in dry tropical and subtropical zones including North Africa. This plant pertains to continental oases where water shortage, constitute the essential limiting factor of agricultural production. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of water stress on the germination of the henna plant (Lawsonia inermis L.. Seeds were germinated under stress of aqueous Polyethylene Glycol (PEG solutions blended to create water potentials of 0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, - 0.8 and -1 MPa. Results showed that seeds germinated in PEG solutions exhibited significantly lower cumulative germination rate (CGR than control especially when water potential fell below -0.6 MPa. Mean germination time (MGT was delayed by increasing PEG concentrations, while germination stress tolerance index (GSTI was decreased with the increase in PEG concentrations. The highest percentage of GSTI in stressed condition was 84.13% for PEG (-0.2MPa whereas, the lowest value was 8.37% for PEG (-1MPa.

  8. Insulin radioimmunoassay kit (125I) using polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and a double antibody separation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borza, Virginia; Chariton, Delfina; Neacsu, Elena

    1997-01-01

    Insulin is a polypeptide hormone formed from proinsulin in the b-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. It has a widespread effect on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. Diabetes mellitus is the result of an insulin deficiency brought about either by insufficient insulin secretion or by rapid insulin catabolism. The determination of the insulin level is important for differential etiologic diagnosis and subsequent therapy and prognosis. Insulin radioimmunoassay kit provides a sensitive, precise and specific assay for insulin concentration in serum. Standard and insulin in the patient sample compete with tracer for binding sites on an insulin antibody. The antigen-antibody combination, which forms during incubation time, will be separated from free insulin by different methods. The separation technique using the double antibody technique combined with Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) is presented. The results are compared with the separation method using PEG alone and with double antibody technique. Antiserum to insulin was produced in rats immunized with porcine insulin, while rabbits immunized with rat-g globulin were used as a source for the second antibody.The tested PEG was PEG 6000. The best results were obtained using the double antibody at a 1/50 dilution combined with 7.5 PEG solutions. The time for precipitating the antibody bound fraction by this technique was established to be 30 minutes. The results obtained using this method as separation technique for insulin - antibody complex were better than those obtained using the double antibody techniques or PEG as precipitating agent alone. (authors)

  9. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG/PPG Ethers as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of 131 alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG)/polypropylene glycol ethers as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment when formulated to be nonirritating. Most of the alkyl PEG/PPG ethers included in this review are reported to function in cosmetics as surfactants, skin-conditioning agents, and/or emulsifying agents. The alkyl PEG/PPG ethers share very similar physiochemical properties as the alkyl PEG ethers, which were reviewed previously by the CIR Expert Panel and found safe when formulated to be nonirritating. The alkyl PEG ethers differ by the inclusion of PPG repeat units, which are used to fine-tune the surfactant properties of this group. The Panel relied heavily on data on analogous ingredients, extracted from the alkyl PEG ethers and PPG reports, when making its determination of safety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Glutathione-mediated release of Bodipy® from PEG cofunctionalized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Meenan, Brian J; Dixon, Dorian

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles synthesized via sodium citrate reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) were functionalized with either various concentrations of thiol-terminated Bodipy® FL L-cystine (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 μg/mL) or Bodipy-poly(ethylene glycol) at concentrations of 0.5–18.75, 1.0–12.50, and 1.5–6.25 μg/mL to form a mixed monolayer of BODIPY-PEG. Thiol-terminated Bodipy, a fluorescing molecule, was used as the model drug, while PEG is widely used in drug-delivery applications to shield nanoparticles from unwanted immune responses. Understanding the influence of PEG-capping on payload release is critical because it is the most widely used type of nanoparticle functionalization in drug delivery studies. It has been previously reported that glutathione can trigger release of thiol-bound payloads from gold nanoparticles. Bodipy release from Bodipy capped and from Bodipy-PEG functionalized gold nanoparticles was studied at typical intracellular glutathione levels. It was observed that the addition of PEG capping inhibits the initial burst release observed in gold nanoparticles functionalized only with Bodipy and inhibits nanoparticle aggregation. Efficient and controlled payload release was observed in gold nanoparticles cofunctionalized with only a limited amount of PEG, thus enabling the coattachment of large amounts of drug, targeting groups or other payloads. PMID:22915847

  11. Sequential nucleophilic substitutions permit orthogonal click functionalization of multicomponent PEG brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jin; Lippmann, Ethan S; McNulty, Jason; Ma, Yulu; Ashton, Randolph S

    2013-09-09

    Multicomponent poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brushes (i.e., ≥ 2 adjacent PEG brushes) can be used to engineer culture substrates with microscale, nonfouling regions decorated with covalently immobilized ligands that mediate biospecific interactions. However, synthesizing such brushes with orthogonal immobilization chemistries to permit differential biofunctionalization is nontrivial and often requires synthesis of PEG-co-polymers. To simplify synthesis and enhance the versatility of such substrates, we developed a protocol for generating orthogonal click-functionalized multicomponent PEG brushes using sequential nucleophilic substitutions by sodium azide, ethanolamine, and propargylamine. The novel application of propargylamine-mediated substitution functionalizes PEG brushes with acetylene groups, and for the first time, ethanolamine-mediated substitution is shown to be sufficient for passivating the "living" polymer chain ends between brush synthesis steps. Thus, our multicomponent PEG brushes present dual orthogonal chemistries (i.e., azido and acetylene groups) for ligand immobilization via versatile copper-free click reactions, which are useful for in situ surface modifications during cell culture.

  12. Pore structure modified diatomite-supported PEG composites for thermal energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tingting; Li, Jinhong; Deng, Yong

    2016-09-01

    A series of novel composite phase change materials (PCMs) were tailored by blending PEG and five kinds of diatomite via a vacuum impregnation method. To enlarge its pore size and specific surface area, different modification approaches including calcination, acid treatment, alkali leaching and nano-silica decoration on the microstructure of diatomite were outlined. Among them, 8 min of 5 wt% NaOH dissolution at 70 °C has been proven to be the most effective and facile. While PEG melted during phase transformation, the maximum load of PEG could reach 70 wt.%, which was 46% higher than that of the raw diatomite. The apparent activation energy of PEG in the composite was 1031.85 kJ·mol(-1), which was twice higher than that of the pristine PEG. Moreover, using the nano-silica decorated diatomite as carrier, the maximum PEG load was 66 wt%. The composite PCM was stable in terms of thermal and chemical manners even after 200 cycles of melting and freezing. All results indicated that the obtained composite PCMs were promising candidate materials for building applications due to its large latent heat, suitable phase change temperature, excellent chemical compatibility, improved supercooling extent, high thermal stability and long-term reliability.

  13. Preparation and characterization of (PCL-crosslinked-PEG)/hydroxyapatite as bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupaei, Narjes; Karkhaneh, Akbar; Daliri Joupari, Morteza

    2015-12-01

    In this study, interconnected porous bioactive scaffolds were synthesized for bone tissue engineering. At the first step, poly( ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) diols were diacrylated with acryloyl chloride. Then, the scaffolds were synthesized by radical crosslinking reaction of PCL and poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) diacrylates in the presence of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles. Morphological, swelling, thermal, and mechanical characteristics as well as degradability of the scaffolds were investigated. Results showed that increasing the ratio of PEG to PCL led to significant increase of swelling ratio and degradation rate, and decrease of crystallinity and compressive modulus of the networks, respectively. It was found that the incorporation of HA particles with the polymer matrices resulted in an augmented crystallinity, a decreased swelling ratio, and also a significantly increased compressive modulus of the networks. Cytocompatability and osteoconductivity of the scaffolds were assessed by MTT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays, respectively. The results confirmed the cytocompatible nature of PCL/PEG/HA scaffolds with no toxicity. MG-63 cells attached and spread on the pore walls offered by the scaffolds. PCL/PEG/HA scaffolds compared with PCL/PEG ones showed higher ALP activity. Thus, the results indicated that the PCL/PEG/HA scaffolds have the potential of being used as promising substrates in bone tissue engineering. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sustainable and Low Viscous 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate + PEG Solvent for Cellulose Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airong Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing sustainable, low viscous and efficient solvents are always advantageous to the processing/fabricating of cellulose materials in practical applications. To this end, in this work novel solvents were developed; ([Amim][CH3COO]/PEG by dissolving polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG-200 in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Amim][CH3COO]. The solubilities of cellulose in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvents were determined as a function of temperature, and the possible dissolution mechanism of cellulose in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvent was investigated. The novel solvent exhibits outstanding advantages for good dissolution capacity of cellulose, such as low viscosity, negligible vapor pressure, and recycling capability. The [CH3COO]− anion and the [Amim]+ cation of [Amim][CH3COO] in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG-10 are the driving force for cellulose dissolution verified by the 13C NMR spectra. In addition, the regenerated cellulose films from [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to estimate their morphologies and structures.

  15. Pore structure modified diatomite-supported PEG composites for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tingting; Li, Jinhong; Deng, Yong

    2016-09-01

    A series of novel composite phase change materials (PCMs) were tailored by blending PEG and five kinds of diatomite via a vacuum impregnation method. To enlarge its pore size and specific surface area, different modification approaches including calcination, acid treatment, alkali leaching and nano-silica decoration on the microstructure of diatomite were outlined. Among them, 8 min of 5 wt% NaOH dissolution at 70 °C has been proven to be the most effective and facile. While PEG melted during phase transformation, the maximum load of PEG could reach 70 wt.%, which was 46% higher than that of the raw diatomite. The apparent activation energy of PEG in the composite was 1031.85 kJ·mol-1, which was twice higher than that of the pristine PEG. Moreover, using the nano-silica decorated diatomite as carrier, the maximum PEG load was 66 wt%. The composite PCM was stable in terms of thermal and chemical manners even after 200 cycles of melting and freezing. All results indicated that the obtained composite PCMs were promising candidate materials for building applications due to its large latent heat, suitable phase change temperature, excellent chemical compatibility, improved supercooling extent, high thermal stability and long-term reliability.

  16. Lysozyme release and polymer erosion behavior of injectable implants prepared from PLGA-PEG block copolymers and PLGA/PLGA-PEG blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milacic, Vesna; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the controlled release lysozyme from various poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 50/50-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block copolymers relative to PLGA 50/50. Methods Lysozyme was encapsulated in cylindrical implants (0.8 mm diameter) by a solvent extrusion method. Release studies were conducted in phosphate buffered saline + 0.02 % Tween 80 (PBST) at 37°C. Lysozyme activity was measured by a fluorescence-based assay. Implant erosion was evaluated by kinetics of polymer molecular weight decline, water uptake, and mass loss. Results Lysozyme release from an AB15 di-block copolymer (15% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 28 kDa) was very fast, whereas an AB10 di-block copolymer (with 10% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 45 kDa) and ABA10 tri-block copolymer (with 10% 6 kDa PEG, PLGA 27kDa) showed release profiles similar to PLGA. We achieved continuous lysozyme release for up to 4 weeks from AB10 and ABA10 by lysozyme co-encapsulation with the pore- forming and acid-neutralizing MgCO3, and from AB15 by co-encapsulation of MgCO3 and blending AB15 with PLGA. Lysozyme activity was mostly recovered during four weeks. Conclusions These block co-polymers may have utility either alone or as PLGA blends for the controlled release of proteins. PMID:23959854

  17. Lysozyme release and polymer erosion behavior of injectable implants prepared from PLGA-PEG block copolymers and PLGA/PLGA-PEG blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesna Milacic, Vesna Milacic; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the controlled release of lysozyme from various poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 50/50-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block copolymers relative to PLGA 50/50. Lysozyme was encapsulated in cylindrical implants (0.8 mm diameter) by a solvent extrusion method. Release studies were conducted in phosphate buffered saline +0.02% Tween 80 (PBST) at 37°C. Lysozyme activity was measured by a fluorescence-based assay. Implant erosion was evaluated by kinetics of polymer molecular weight decline, water uptake, and mass loss. Lysozyme release from an AB15 di-block copolymer (15% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 28 kDa) was very fast, whereas an AB10 di-block copolymer (with 10% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 45 kDa) and ABA10 tri-block copolymer (with 10% 6 kDa PEG, PLGA 27 kDa) showed release profiles similar to PLGA. We achieved continuous lysozyme release for up to 4 weeks from AB10 and ABA10 by lysozyme co-encapsulation with the pore-forming and acid-neutralizing MgCO3, and from AB15 by co-encapsulation of MgCO3 and blending AB15 with PLGA. Lysozyme activity was mostly recovered during 4 weeks. These block co-polymers may have utility either alone or as PLGA blends for the controlled release of proteins.

  18. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fa Hsieh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments: Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol (mPEG and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε‑caprolactone (PCL; which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG‑COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14 of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  19. Catalytic Behavior of Lipase Immobilized onto Congo Red and PEG-Decorated Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens A. Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-decorated polystyrene (PS nanoparticles with mean hydrodynamic diameter (D and zeta–potential (ζ of (286 ± 15 nm and (−50 ± 5 mV, respectively, were modified by the adsorption of Congo red (CR. The PS/PEG/CR particles presented D and ζ values of (290 ± 19 nm and (−36 ± 5 mV, respectively. The adsorption of lipase onto PS/PEG or PS/PEG/CR particles at (24 ± 1 °C and pH 7 changed the mean D value to (380 ± 20 and (405 ± 11 nm, respectively, and ζ value to (−32 ± 4 mV and (−25 ± 2 mV, respectively. The kinetic parameters of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate were determined for free lipase, lipase immobilized onto PS/PEG and PS/PEG/CR particles. Lipase on PS/PEG/CR presented the largest Michaelis-Menten constant (KM, but also the highest Vmax and kcat values. Moreover, it could be recycled seven times, losing a maximum 10% or 30% of the original enzymatic activity at 40 °C or 25 °C, respectively. Although lipases immobilized onto PS/PEG particles presented the smallest KM values, the reactions were comparatively the slowest and recycling was not possible. Hydrolysis reactions performed in the temperature range of 25 °C to 60 °C with free lipases and lipases immobilized onto PS/PEG/CR particles presented an optimal temperature at 40 °C. At 60 °C free lipases and lipases immobilized onto PS/PEG/CR presented ~80% and ~50% of the activity measured at 40 °C, indicating good thermal stability. Bioconjugation effects between CR and lipase were evidenced by circular dichroism spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. CR molecules mediate the open state conformation of the lipase lid and favor the substrate approaching.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Cationic PLA-PEG Nanoparticles for Delivery of Plasmid DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Weiwei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of the present work was to formulate and evaluate cationic poly(lactic acid-poly(ethylene glycol (PLA-PEG nanoparticles as novel non-viral gene delivery nano-device. Cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. The gene loaded nanoparticles were obtained by incubating the report gene pEGFP with cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties (e.g., morphology, particle size, surface charge, DNA binding efficiency and biological properties (e.g., integrity of the released DNA, protection from nuclease degradation, plasma stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro transfection ability in Hela cells of the gene loaded PLA-PEG nanoparticles were evaluated, respectively. The obtained cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles and gene loaded nanoparticles were both spherical in shape with average particle size of 89.7 and 128.9 nm, polydispersity index of 0.185 and 0.161, zeta potentials of +28.9 and +16.8 mV, respectively. The obtained cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles with high binding efficiency (>95% could protect the loaded DNA from the degradation by nuclease and plasma. The nanoparticles displayed sustained-release properties in vitro and the released DNA maintained its structural and functional integrity. It also showed lower cytotoxicity than Lipofectamine 2000 and could successfully transfect gene into Hela cells even in presence of serum. It could be concluded that the established gene loaded cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles with excellent properties were promising non-viral nano-device, which had potential to make cancer gene therapy achievable.

  1. A fundamental research on T3 radioimmunoassay by polyethylene glycol (PEG) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tadashige; Hayakawa, Susumu; Takagi, Atsushi; Sugisawa, Yoshihiko; Kurata, Kunio

    1976-01-01

    Since Chopra, et al. produced an antibody of triiodothyronine (T 3 ), measurement of serum T 3 by radioimmunoassay has been widely used as a clinical test. However, the dextran coated charcoal (DCC) method which is most commonly used for B/F separation requires strict control of incubation temperature and time. The authors reduced this disadvantage by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) instead of DCC for B/F separation. Crossreactivities of the antibody used with thyroxine, monoiodothyrosine and diiodotyrosine are less than 0.06% which is considered to be satisfactory in comparison with those previously reported. The recovery ratios of added T 3 were between 92.4 - 105.9% and that reflected T 3 concentration well. The dilution test showed good linearity. Correlation of T 3 values measured by DCC method and PEG method in 26 sera was good (r=0.99), and linear regression function was y=0.89x + 0.30 (y: PEG method and x: DCC method). No significant differences were observed in the results obtained by 2 hr incubation at 20 - 35 0 C and 24 hr incubation at 4 0 C. As for the volume of PEG solution, 1.0 ml was most suitable. Samples should be kept at 4 0 C when centrifugation is impossible within 30 min after addition of PEG. Also in various conditions of centrifugation, the authors obtained almost same results. As described above, the authors conquered the problem involved in the DCC method, and also simplified the assay procedure by using the PEG method for B/F separation. PEG method is considered to be the methods of choice for clinical routine test for serum T 3 levels (Evans, J.)

  2. mPEG-PLA Micelle for Delivery of Effective Parts of Andrographis Paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hailu; Song, Shiyong; Miao, Xiaolu; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Shao, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yu; Han, Guang

    2017-11-19

    Many studies have shown that Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has a good anti-tumor effect, but poor solubility in water and poor bioavailability hinder the modernization of it. To formulate the effective parts (mainly diterpene lactones) of Andrographis paniculata (AEP) into targeting drug delivery system, a series of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D.L-lactic acid)(mPEG-PLA) with different ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segment were synthetized to encapsulate AEP. AEP micelles were prepared by a simple solvent-evaporation method. According to the loading capacity, the best polymer was chosen. mPEG-PLA micelles were characterized in terms of drug entrapping efficiency, loading capacity, size, the crystalline state of AEP, stability and release profile. Meanwhile the cytotoxicity of micelles on mouse breast cancer 4T-1 was investigated. These micelle (mPEG-PLA-AEP) particles had a size of (92.84±5.63) nm and a high entrapping efficiency and loading capacity of (91.00±11.53)% and (32.14±3.02)%(w/w), respectively. The powder DSC showed that drugs were well encapsulated in the core of micelles. mPEG-PLA-AEP had a good stability against salt dissociation, protein adsorption and anion substitution and the solubility of andrographolide (AG) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide(DDAG) in AEP increased 4.51 times and 2.12 times in water, and the solubility of DAG has no difference. mPEG-PLA-AEP had the same release profile in different dissolution medium. Cytotoxicity testing in vitro demonstrated that mPEG-PLA-AEP exhibited higher cell viability inhibition in mouse breast cancer 4T-1 than free AEP. mPEG-PLA micelles offer a promising alternative for TCM therapy with higher solubility and improved antitumor effect. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. The optimal currency-peg for an oil exporting country: The case of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasbahi, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In a world of generalized floating exchange rates, it is not enough to solve the problem of exchange rate policy by determining whether to peg or float the currency under consideration. It is also necessary to choose to what major currency to peg. The main purpose of this study is to investigate and determine empirically the optimum currency peg for the Saudi riyal. To accomplish this goal, a simple conventional trade model, that includes variables found in many other studies of import and export demand, was used. In addition, an exchange rate term was added as a separate independent variable in the import and export demand equations in order to assess the effect of exchange rate on the trade flows. The criteria for the optimal currency peg in this study were based on two factors. First, the error statistics for projected imports and exports using alternative exchange rate regimes. Second, variances of projected imports, exports and trade balance using alternative exchange rate regimes. The exchange rate has a significant impact on the Saudia Arabian trade flows which implies that changes in the riyals value affect the Saudi trade deficit. Moreover, the exchange rate has a more powerful effect on its aggregate imports than on the world demand for its exports. There is also a strong support for the hypothesis that the exchange rate affects the value of the Saudi bilateral trade with its five major trade partners. On the aggregate level, the SDR peg seems to be the best currency peg for the Saudi riyal since it provides the best prediction errors and the lowest variance for the trade balance. Finally, on the disaggregate level, the US dollar provides the best performance and yields the best results among all the six currency pegs considered in this study

  4. Improving aqueous solubility and antitumor effects by nanosized gambogic acid-mPEG2000 micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai LL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lulu Cai,1,* Neng Qiu,2,* Mingli Xiang,3,* Rongsheng Tong,1 Junfeng Yan,1 Lin He,1 Jianyou Shi,1 Tao Chen,4 Jiaolin Wen,3 Wenwen Wang,3 Lijuan Chen31Department of Pharmacy, Sichuan Academy of Medical Science and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, 2College of Materials and Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, 3State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China; 4Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this paperAbstract: The clinical application of gambogic acid, a natural component with promising antitumor activity, is limited due to its extremely poor aqueous solubility, short half-life in blood, and severe systemic toxicity. To solve these problems, an amphiphilic polymer-drug conjugate was prepared by attachment of low molecular weight (ie, 2 kDa methoxy poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether (mPEG to gambogic acid (GA-mPEG2000 through an ester linkage and characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The GA-mPEG2000 conjugates self-assembled to form nanosized micelles, with mean diameters of less than 50 nm, and a very narrow particle size distribution. The properties of the GA-mPEG2000 micelles, including morphology, stability, molecular modeling, and drug release profile, were evaluated. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide tests demonstrated that the GA-mPEG2000 micelle formulation had obvious cytotoxicity to tumor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Further, GA-mPEG2000 micelles were effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonged survival in subcutaneous B16-F10 and C26 tumor models. Our findings suggest that GA-mPEG2000 micelles may have promising applications in tumor therapy.Keywords: gambogic acid, poly(ethylene glycol-drug conjugate, micelle, antitumor, toxicity

  5. Nanobody-functionalized PEG-b-PCL polymersomes and their targeting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tao; Dembele, Fatimata; Beugnet, Anne; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Trepout, Sylvain; Marco, Sergio; de Marco, Ario; Li, Min-Hui

    2015-11-20

    We prepared and characterized polymersomes functionalized with nanobodies (VHHs) on the basis of biocompatible, biodegradable and FDA-approved poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL). Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and N-beta-maleimidopropyl-oxysuccinimide ester were allowed reacting with H2N-PEG-b-PCL to produce FITC and maleimide (Mal) functionalized copolymers, Mal-PEG-b-PCL and FITC-PEG-b-PCL. A mixture of MeO-PEG-b-PCL, Mal-PEG-b-PCL and FITC-PEG-b-PCL was used to prepare polymersomes by thin film hydration and nanoprecipitation methods. Morphological studies by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) showed that the nanoparticles exhibited predominantly vesicular structures (polymersomes). Their mean diameters measured by dynamic light scattering were around 150 nm and the zeta-potentials around -1 mV at pH 7.4. The nanoparticles were functionalized with either anti-HER2 (VHH1) or anti-GFP (VHH2) nanobodies using maleimide-cysteine chemistry. Their particle size and zeta-potential increased slightly after nanobody-functionalization. The specific binding of VHH-functionalized polymersomes and control nanoparticles towards HER2 positive breast cancer cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The collected results represent the first report which experimentally demonstrates that VHH1-functionalized PEO-b-PCL polymersomes can target specifically breast cancer cells expressing HER2 receptors. The detailed morphological and cell-binding studies described herein pave the way for future in vivo studies to evaluate the feasibility to use such nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Randomised trial of biofeedback training for encopresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, R. N.; Benninga, M. A.; Redekop, W. K.; Taminiau, J. A.; Büller, H. A.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate biofeedback training in children with encopresis and the effect on psychosocial function. Prospective controlled randomised study. PATIENT INTERVENTIONS: A multimodal treatment of six weeks. Children were randomised into two groups. Each group received dietary and toilet advice, enemas,

  7. Effects of cloud-point grafting, chain length, and density of PEG layers on competitive adsorption of ocular proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingshott, P.; Thissen, H.; Griesser, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of pinning density, chain length, and 'cloud point' (CP) versus non-CP grafting conditions have been studied on the ability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) layers to minimize adsorption from a multicomponent (lysozyme, human serum albumin (HSA), IgG and lactoferrin) protein solution......-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that under these conditions, PEG(ald)(2) produced a thick linear PEG layer, most likely by aldol condensation. Protein adsorption was assessed using XPS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) in the surface mode...... density) r.f.g.d. polymer layers. The PEG graft density was varied also by increasing the temperature and salt (K2SO4) content of the grafting solution; it reached a maximum at the CP of the PEGs. The CP reaction conditions were critical for producing PEG layers capable of minimizing protein adsorption. X...

  8. Biocompatible and colloidally stabilized mPEG-PE/calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles loaded with siRNAs targeting tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Pei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, He; Li, Yaogang; Duan, Yourong

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are safe and effective delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), as a result of their excellent biocompatibility. In this work, mPEG-PE (polyethylene glycol-L-?-phosphatidylethanolamine) was synthesized and used to prepare nanoparticles composed of mPEG-PE and calcium phosphate for siRNA delivery. Calcium phosphate and mPEG-PE formed the stable hybrid nanoparticles through self-assembly resulting from electrostatic interaction in water. The average s...

  9. Electrothermal Microactuators With Peg Drive Improve Performance for Brain Implant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sindhu; Sutanto, Jemmy; Baker, Michael S; Okandan, Murat; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2012-07-13

    This paper presents a new actuation scheme for in-plane bidirectional translation of polysilicon microelectrodes. The new Chevron-peg actuation scheme uses microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based electrothermal microactuators to move microelectrodes for brain implant applications. The design changes were motivated by specific needs identified by the in vivo testing of an earlier generation of MEMS microelectrodes that were actuated by the Chevron-latch type of mechanism. The microelectrodes actuated by the Chevron-peg mechanism discussed here show improved performance in the following key areas: higher force generation capability (111 μ N per heat strip compared to 50 μ N), reduced power consumption (91 mW compared to 360 mW), and reliable performance with consistent forward and backward movements of microelectrodes. Failure analysis of the Chevron-latch and the Chevron-peg type of actuation schemes showed that the latter is more robust to wear over four million cycles of operation. The parameters for the activation waveforms for Chevron-peg actuators were optimized using statistical analysis. Waveforms with a 1-ms time period and a 1-Hz frequency of operation showed minimal error between the expected and the actual movement of the microelectrodes. The new generation of Chevron-peg actuators and microelectrodes are therefore expected to enhance the longevity and performance of implanted microelectrodes in the brain.  [2011-0341].

  10. PW1/Peg3 expression regulates key properties that determine mesoangioblast stem cell competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Chiara; Rossi, Giuliana; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Giannotta, Monica; Benedetti, Sara; Tonlorenzi, Rossana; Antonini, Stefania; Marazzi, Giovanna; Dejana, Elisabetta; Sassoon, David; Cossu, Giulio; Messina, Graziella

    2015-01-01

    Mesoangioblasts are vessel-associated progenitor cells that show therapeutic promise for the treatment of muscular dystrophy. Mesoangioblasts have the ability to undergo skeletal muscle differentiation and cross the blood vessel wall regardless of the developmental stage at which they are isolated. Here we show that PW1/Peg3 is expressed at high levels in mesoangioblasts obtained from mouse, dog and human tissues and its level of expression correlates with their myogenic competence. Silencing PW1/Peg3 markedly inhibits myogenic potential of mesoangioblasts in vitro through MyoD degradation. Moreover, lack of PW1/Peg3 abrogates mesoangioblast ability to cross the vessel wall and to engraft into damaged myofibres through the modulation of the junctional adhesion molecule-A. We conclude that PW1/Peg3 function is essential for conferring proper mesoangioblast competence and that the determination of PW1/Peg3 levels in human mesoangioblasts may serve as a biomarker to identify the best donor populations for therapeutic application in muscular dystrophies. PMID:25751651

  11. PEGylation of novel hydroxyapatite/PEG/Ag nanocomposite particles to improve its antibacterial efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheeswaran, S; Sundrarajan, M

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocomposite particles were prepared simply in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fabricated with silver via a sol-gel route and the physico-chemical and biological properties of these materials were investigated. The objective of this study is to inspect the crystallinity and antibacterial activity of these composite materials. PEG has been used to greatly promote biocompatibility and biodegradability of HAp. Silver nanoparticles were used for improving its bactericidal efficacy while applying composites. Nano-sized HAp composite particles with PEG and nano-silver was incorporated to increase the crystalline nature of the nanocomposite. The structure of nanocomposite particles was studied by XRD, FTIR, HR-SEM, EDS and TEM analyses. Silver nanoparticles loaded on the synthesized HAp-PEG showed a synergistic antibacterial effect against Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). The controlled release of Ag(+) ion from HAp-PEG-Ag nanocomposite has given good antibacterial efficacy evidenced by epi-fluorescence microscopy images during different hours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Influence of PEG400 and Acetone on Polysulfone Membrane Morphology and Fouling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T.P. Aryanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modification of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane was conducted by blending polysulfone with PEG400 and acetone as additives. The influence of each additive on the resulted membrane morphology and fouling characteristics were investigated. The experimental results showed that the hydrophilicity of the polysulfone membrane was improved by the increase of PEG400 in the polysulfone membrane. The water contact angle of the membrane was decreased from 76.1° to 38.31° when 35 %wt of PEG400 was added into the polysulfone solution, while the water content of the membrane was increased by around 38%. The high concentration of PEG400 in the polysulfone solution led to the formation of longer finger-like cavities in the membrane structure and resulted in a thicker membrane skin layer. The high concentration of PEG400 also contributed to the increase in hydraulic resistance of the membrane due to organic matter fouling. This problem could be minimized by the addition of acetone into the polysulfone solution, which resulted in a lower fouling resistance of organic matter during up to five hours of peat water filtration.

  13. SELECTIVE SYNTHESIS OF PEG-MONOESTER USING CESIUM HETEROPOLY ACID AS HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Zahara Abdullah

    Full Text Available Esterification of oleic acid with polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG-600 to produce polyethylene glycol monooleate (PEG-monooleate and polyethylene glycol dioleate (PEG-dioleate as by-product has been studied in the presence of heterogeneous acid catalysts, i.e. cesium heteropoly acid (Cs HPA. The results are compared with those obtained from a classical homogeneous acid catalyst; p-toluene sulphonic acid (p-TSA. The reaction was conducted under nitrogen flow with vigorous stirring at 130 ºC and 150 ºC. The catalyst loading kept at 4% and the reaction was monitored at 1, 3, 7 and 24 hours. Reaction samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC equipped with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD. The results obtained showed that Cs HPAs exhibit 100% selectivity of PEG-monooleate from the first hour until 24 hours. However, this does not happen with homogeneous p-TSA, where formation of by-product; PEG-dioleate is observed in the initial stage. It is also showed that the mole ratio is the most important parameter not only to produce high yield of monoester but also to maintain it along the reaction. Chemical and physical properties of catalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Fourier Tranmittance Infra-Red (FTIR, ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD and X-ray Diffraction (XRD.

  14. CpG-PEG Conjugates and their Immune Modulating Effects after Systemic Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Caixing; Xiang, Xiaofei; Yue, Yang; Li, Lin; Li, Yesen; Zhang, Chong; Xu, Yuhong

    2018-03-02

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs were found to be able to target cells that express Toll-like receptor 9 to modulate innate and adaptive immune reactions. But their in vivo application in immunotherapy against cancer has not been successful. We attempted in this study to examine polyethylene-glycol (PEG) conjugated CpG ODNs and investigated their mechanism of immune modulation in anti-cancer therapy. CpG-PEG conjugates with different PEG lengths were synthesized. In vitro activity as well as in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties were evaluated. CpG-PEG20Ks were found to be able to persist longer in circulation and activate various downstream effector cells. After intravenous injection, they resulted in higher levels of IL-12p70 in the circulation and lower M-MDSC infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment. Such activities were different from those of CpG ODNs without PEGylation, suggesting different PK-PD profiles systemically and locally. Our data support the development of CpG-PEGs as a new therapeutic agent that can be systemically administered to modulate immune responses and the microenvironment in tumor tissues.

  15. Immunosuppressive Activity of Size-Controlled PEG-PLGA Nanoparticles Containing Encapsulated Cyclosporine A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We encapsulated cyclosporine A (CsA in poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs by nanoprecipitation of CsA and PEG-PLGA. The resulting CsA/PEG-PLGA-NPs were <100 nm in diameter with a narrow particle size distribution. The NP size could be controlled by tuning the polymer concentration, solvent, or water/solvent ratio during formulation. The PEGylated NPs maintained non-aggregated in salt solution. Solid NPs lyoprotected with bovine serum albumin were prepared for the convenience of storage and transportation. The release kinetics of CsA (55.6% released on Day 1 showed potential for maintaining therapeutic CsA concentrations in vivo. In T-cell assays, both free CsA and CsA/PEG-PLGA-NPs suppressed T-cell proliferation and production of inflammatory cytokines dose dependently. In a mixed lymphocyte reaction assay, the IC50 values for free CsA and CsA/PEG-PLGA-NPs were found to be 30 and 35 ng/mL, respectively. This nanoparticulate CsA delivery technology constitutes a strong basis for future targeted delivery of immunosuppressive drugs with improved efficiency and potentially reduced toxicity.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Star-Shaped Block Copolymer sPCL-b-PEG-GA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to linear polymers with the same molecular weight, star-shaped polymers have the superiority of drug loading and delivery. The glycyrrhetinic acid (GA from licorice is remarkably characteristic of liver distribution and liver cells targetability. In this paper, four-armed star-shaped polycaprolactone was synthesized and amino polyethylene glycol was modified by glycyrrhetinic acid (NH2-PEG-GA. Then the condensation reaction between the two above polymers finally produced four-armed star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(ε-caprolactone block copolymer (sPCL-b-PEG-GA. The structures of the intermediates and product were characterized by 1H NMR. The results indicated that the structure and molecular weight of sPCL-b-PEG-GA can be controlled by the varied ratios of pentaerythritol (PTOL to ε-caprolactone (ε-CL in the presence of stannous octoate (Sn(Oct2, and the amphiphilic copolymer sPCL-b-PEG-GA consists of PTOL as core, PCL as inner hydrophobic segments, PEG as external hydrophilic segments, and terminal glycyrrhetic acid as targeting ligand. The work explored a new synthesis route of star poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(ε-caprolactone copolymer with liver targetability. The star-shaped polymer is expected to be an efficient drug carrier.

  17. Enhancing relative permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multi block copolymers in binary polymer blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are well-known to actuate with relatively large strains due to low modulus, but they possess lowpermittivity. Contrary, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable but possess high permittivity. Combination of the two polymers in a block copolymer depicts a possibil......Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are well-known to actuate with relatively large strains due to low modulus, but they possess lowpermittivity. Contrary, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable but possess high permittivity. Combination of the two polymers in a block copolymer depicts...... a possibility for substantial improvement of properties such as high permittivity, stretchability and non-conductivity – if carefully designed. The objective is to synthesize PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymer assembling into discontinuous morphologies in PEG based on variation of volume fractions of PDMS....... The utilized synthesis of PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymer is based on hydrosilylation reaction, which is amended from Klasner et al.1 and Jukarainen etal.2 Variation in the ratio between the two constituents introduces distinctive properties in terms of dielectric permittivity and rheological behaviour. PDMS...

  18. Mechanical diffraction of a snake-like robot through an array of pegs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, Jennifer; Schiebel, Perrin; Pazouki, Arman; Hubbard, Alex; Qian, Feifei; Goddard, Zachary; Zhang, Tingnan; Zangwill, Andrew; Negrut, Dan; Goldman, Daniel

    Snakes successfully navigate through a diversity of environments which can include hard ground, loose sand, twigs and leaf litter. Despite the seeming simplicity of this movement, the interaction with the ground coupled with intermittent obstacle collisions can give rise to complex dynamics. We study these interactions in a model system, in which a 13-segment snake-like robot interacts with a row of five evenly-spaced vertical pegs oriented perpendicular to the robots initial direction of motion. The robot is placed at different positions within a region with lateral and longitudinal dimensions set by the peg spacing and distance traveled in one undulation cycle. Forces imparted to the pegs are recorded as a function of time, revealing that the robot preferentially applies forces to the sides of the pegs and that contributions from all segments are significant. Despite the complexity of these interactions, we find that the robot emerges along preferred paths, which we characterize by the angle of rotation of the direction of travel, and that these angles decrease with increasing peg spacing. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with experiments and allow for a more thorough exploration of this dependence.

  19. Application of 10B entrapped PEG-liposome to boron neutron-capture therapy for pancreatic cancer model in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, H.; Eriguchi, M.; Maruyama, K.; Takizawa, T.; Ishida, O.; Ogura, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakurai, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Ono, K.; Rant, J.; Skvarc, J.; Ilic, R.; Shinohara, A.; Chiba, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects for tumor were evaluated with intravenous injection 10 B PEG-liposome (Stealth liposome) on human pancreatic carcinoma wenografts in nude mice with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with 10 B bare-liposome or 10 B PEG liposome, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Injection of 10 B PEG-liposome caused the greatest tumour suppression with thermal neutron irradiation in vivo. These results suggest that intravenous injection of 10 B PEG-liposome can increase the retention of 10 B atoms by tumor cells, causing tumor growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation.(author)

  20. Generation, characterization and in vivo biological activity of two distinct monoclonal anti-PEG IgMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Yosuke; Shimizu, Taro; Mima, Yu [Department of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics, Subdivision of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-78-1, Sho-machi, Tokushima 770-8505 (Japan); Abu Lila, Amr S. [Department of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics, Subdivision of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-78-1, Sho-machi, Tokushima 770-8505 (Japan); Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Sharqia Governorate, Zagazig 44519 (Egypt); Ishida, Tatsuhiro, E-mail: ishida@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics, Subdivision of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-78-1, Sho-machi, Tokushima 770-8505 (Japan); Kiwada, Hiroshi [Department of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics, Subdivision of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-78-1, Sho-machi, Tokushima 770-8505 (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    PEGylation, the attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to nanocarriers and proteins, is a widely accepted approach to improving the in vivo efficacy of the non-PEGylated products. However, both PEGylated liposomes and PEGylated proteins reportedly trigger the production of specific antibodies, mainly IgM, against the PEG moiety, which possibly leads to a reduction in safety and therapeutic efficacy of the PEGylated products. In the present study, two monoclonal anti-PEG IgMs — HIK-M09 via immunization with an intravenous injection of PEGylated liposomes (SLs) and HIK-M11 via immunization with a subcutaneous administration of PEGylated ovalbumin (PEG-OVA) were successfully generated. The generated IgMs showed efficient reactivity to mPEG{sub 2000} conjugated to 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine (DSPE), PEGylated liposome (SL) and PEG-OVA. It appears that HIK-M09 recognizes ethoxy (OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}) repeat units along with a terminal motif of PEG, while HIK-M11 recognizes only ethoxy repeat units of PEG. Such unique properties allow HIK-M09 to bind with dense PEG. In addition, their impact on the in vivo clearance of the PEGylated products was investigated. It was found that the generated ant-PEG IgMs induced a clearance of SL as they were intravenously administered with SL. Interestingly, the HIK-M11, generated by PEG-OVA, induced the clearance of both SL and PEG-OVA, while the HIK-M09, generated by SL, induced the clearance of SL only. We here revealed that the presence of serum anti-PEG IgM and the subsequent binding of anti-PEG IgM to the PEGylated products are not necessarily related to the enhanced clearance of the products. It appears that subsequent complement activation following anti-PEG IgM binding is the most important step in dictating the in vivo fate of PEGylated products. This study may have implications for the design, development and clinical application of PEGylated products and therapeutics. - Highlights: • Two monoclonal

  1. Generation, characterization and in vivo biological activity of two distinct monoclonal anti-PEG IgMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Yosuke; Shimizu, Taro; Mima, Yu; Abu Lila, Amr S.; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    PEGylation, the attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to nanocarriers and proteins, is a widely accepted approach to improving the in vivo efficacy of the non-PEGylated products. However, both PEGylated liposomes and PEGylated proteins reportedly trigger the production of specific antibodies, mainly IgM, against the PEG moiety, which possibly leads to a reduction in safety and therapeutic efficacy of the PEGylated products. In the present study, two monoclonal anti-PEG IgMs — HIK-M09 via immunization with an intravenous injection of PEGylated liposomes (SLs) and HIK-M11 via immunization with a subcutaneous administration of PEGylated ovalbumin (PEG-OVA) were successfully generated. The generated IgMs showed efficient reactivity to mPEG 2000 conjugated to 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine (DSPE), PEGylated liposome (SL) and PEG-OVA. It appears that HIK-M09 recognizes ethoxy (OCH 2 CH 2 ) repeat units along with a terminal motif of PEG, while HIK-M11 recognizes only ethoxy repeat units of PEG. Such unique properties allow HIK-M09 to bind with dense PEG. In addition, their impact on the in vivo clearance of the PEGylated products was investigated. It was found that the generated ant-PEG IgMs induced a clearance of SL as they were intravenously administered with SL. Interestingly, the HIK-M11, generated by PEG-OVA, induced the clearance of both SL and PEG-OVA, while the HIK-M09, generated by SL, induced the clearance of SL only. We here revealed that the presence of serum anti-PEG IgM and the subsequent binding of anti-PEG IgM to the PEGylated products are not necessarily related to the enhanced clearance of the products. It appears that subsequent complement activation following anti-PEG IgM binding is the most important step in dictating the in vivo fate of PEGylated products. This study may have implications for the design, development and clinical application of PEGylated products and therapeutics. - Highlights: • Two monoclonal anti-PEG Ig

  2. Application of 10BSH entrapped transferrin-PEG-liposome to boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) for solid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, K.; Ishida, O.; Iwatsuru, M.; Yanagie, H.; Eriguchi, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2000-01-01

    The successful treatment of cancer by BNCT requires the selective concentration of 10 B within malignant tumor cells. Intracellular targeting ability and cytotoxic effects of 10 B entrapped TF-PEG-liposomes, in which TF is covalently linked to the distal terminal of PEG chains on the external surface of PEG-liposomes, were examined in Colon 26 tumor-bearing mice. TF-PEG-liposomes readily bound to tumor cells in vivo, and were internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis. 10 B-PEG-liposomes and 10 B-TF-PEG-liposomes showed prolonged residence time in the circulation and low RES uptake in tumor-bearing mice, resulting in enhanced extravasation of the liposomes into the solid tumor tissue and reached high level of 10 B content in tumor. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with 10 B-PEG-liposomes or 10 B-TF-PEG-liposome, tumor growth was suppressed relative to controls. These results suggest that intravenous injection of 10 B TF-PEG-liposome can increase the intracellular retention of 10 B atoms, which were introduced by receptor mediated endocytosis after binding, causing tumor growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. (author)

  3. Polyethylene Oxide (PEO and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Polymer Sieving Matrix for RNA Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available The selection of sieving polymer for RNA fragments separation by capillary electrophoresis is imperative. We investigated the separation of RNA fragments ranged from 100 to 10,000 nt in polyethylene glycol (PEG and polyethylene oxide (PEO solutions with different molecular weight and different concentration. We found that the separation performance of the small RNA fragments (4000 nt deteriorated in PEG/PEO solutions when the concentration was above 1.0%/0.6%, respectively. By double logarithmic plot of mobility and RNA fragment size, we revealed three migration regimes for RNA in PEG (300-500k and PEO (4,000k. Moreover, we calculated the smallest resolvable nucleotide length (Nmin from the resolution length analysis.

  4. Supramolecular hydrogel capsules based on PEG: a step toward degradable biomaterials with rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Torsten; Bayer, Sebastian; Albrecht, Ralf; Tzschucke, C Christoph; Seiffert, Sebastian

    2013-09-01

    Supramolecular microgel capsules based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) are a promising class of soft particulate scaffolds with tailored properties. An approach to fabricate such particles with exquisite control by droplet-based microfluidics is presented. Linear PEG precursor polymers that carry bipyridine moieties on both chain termini are gelled by complexation to iron(II) ions. To investigate the biocompatibility of the microgels, living mammalian cells are encapsulated within them. The microgel elasticity is controlled by using PEG precursors of different molecular weights at different concentrations and the influence of these parameters on the cell viabilities, which can be optimized to exceed 90% is studied. Reversion of the supramolecular polymer cross-linking allows the microcapsules to be degraded at mild conditions with no effect on the viability of the encapsulated and released cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Polyethylene Oxide (PEO) and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Polymer Sieving Matrix for RNA Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Li, Zhenqing; Zhu, Xifang; Liu, Chenchen; Zhang, Dawei; Dou, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    The selection of sieving polymer for RNA fragments separation by capillary electrophoresis is imperative. We investigated the separation of RNA fragments ranged from 100 to 10,000 nt in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) solutions with different molecular weight and different concentration. We found that the separation performance of the small RNA fragments (4000 nt) deteriorated in PEG/PEO solutions when the concentration was above 1.0%/0.6%, respectively. By double logarithmic plot of mobility and RNA fragment size, we revealed three migration regimes for RNA in PEG (300-500k) and PEO (4,000k). Moreover, we calculated the smallest resolvable nucleotide length (Nmin) from the resolution length analysis.

  6. Microelectrode Arrays and the Use of PEG-Functionalized Diblock Copolymer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Uppal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PEG-modified diblock copolymer surfaces have been examined for their compatibility with microelectrode array based analytical methods. The use of PEG-modified polymer surfaces on the arrays was initially problematic because the redox couples used in the experiments were adsorbed by the polymer. This led the current measured by cyclic voltammetry for the redox couple to be unstable and increase with time. However, two key findings allow the experiments to be successful. First, after multiple cyclic voltammograms the current associated with the redox couple does stabilize so that a good baseline current can be established. Second, the rate at which the current stabilizes is consistent every time a particular coated array is used. Hence, multiple analytical experiments can be conducted on an array coated with a PEG-modified diblock copolymer and the data obtained is comparable as long as the data for each experiment is collected at a consistent time point.

  7. Ionic networks derived from the protonation of dendritic amines with carboxylic acid end‐functionalized PEGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel ionic networks linked by the ammonium salts of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers of the first (PPI G1) and second (PPI G2) generation and two short bis carboxymethyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s (DiCOOH‐PEG) with different molecular...... weights (Mn ∼ 250 and Mn ∼ 600) are reported. Likewise, an ionic network based on PPI G1 and a long αω‐dicarboxylic acid functionalized PEG (Mn ∼ 4800) were evaluated. Simpler ionic structures based on tris(2‐aminoethyl)amine or hexamethylene diamine and the short DiCOOH‐PEGs are also investigated....... The ionic structures formed were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated‐total‐reflection mode, and 1H‐13C NMR spectroscopy. A comprehensive 1H NMR analysis revealed that only the primary amines of the PPI G1 dendrimer residing...

  8. Synthesis of porous PEG microgels using CaCO3 microspheres as hard templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behra, Muriel; Schmidt, Stephan; Hartmann, Jürgen; Volodkin, Dmitry V; Hartmann, Laura

    2012-06-27

    Porous poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microgels of both 17.6 and 8.3 μm in diameter are synthesized via hard templating with calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) microparticles. The synthesis is performed in three steps: loading of PEG macromonomers into CaCO(3) microparticles, crosslinking via photopolymerization, and removal of the CaCO(3) template under acidic conditions. The resulting porous PEG microgels are inverse replicates of their templates as indicated by light microscopy, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and permeability studies. Thus this process allows for the straightforward and highly reproducible synthesis of porous hydrogel particles of two different diameters and porosities that show great potential as carriers for drugs or nanomaterials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Dispersion of titanate nanotubes for nanomedicine: comparison of PEI and PEG nanohybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anne-Laure; Boudon, Julien; Bellat, Vanessa; Loiseau, Alexis; Bisht, Harender; Sallem, Fadoua; Chassagnon, Rémi; Bérard, Véronique; Millot, Nadine

    2015-01-14

    In the present study, we report the dispersion of titanate nanotubes (TiONts) via polymer grafting (PolyEthylene Glycol, PEG) or polymer adsorption (polyethylene imine, PEI) where different TiONts/polymer ratios have been investigated. The TiONts/PEI and TiONts/PEG nanohybrids were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by zeta potential measurements in order to determine both their dispersion state and stability in water (at different pH for zetametry). The nature of the chemical bonds at the surface of these nanohybrids was investigated by Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy while the grafting densities of PEG on the nanotubes were quantified by thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The nanohybrids reported here are promising tools for biotechnology applications due to their tubular morphology, their very good dispersion in water and the reactivity of their surface.

  10. PEG-asparaginase allergy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Louise Tram; Harila-Saari, Arja; Ruud, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: L-Asparaginase is an effective drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The use of L-asparaginase may be limited by serious adverse events of which allergy is the most frequent. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical aspects of PEG...... ALL2008 toxicity registry. In the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol, patients are randomized to 8 or 15 doses of intramuscular PEG-asparaginase (Oncaspar®) 1,000 IU/m(2) /dose administered at 2 or 6 weeks intervals during a total period of 30 weeks. (Clinical trials.gov no: NCT00819351). RESULTS: Of 615......, the clinical allergic reactions appeared within 2 hr after PEG-asparaginase administration and ranged from mild symptoms to systemic anaphylaxis. Nine patients experienced an anaphylactic reaction within 1 hr and 50 min from asparaginase administration; none were fatal. Four of 68 patients (6%) who...

  11. Degradation behavior and biocompatibility of PEG/PANI-derived polyurethane co-polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Ling; Nan, Yun-Fei; Xu, Feng; Chen, Ya-Shao; Zhao, Pei

    2010-01-01

    A series of polyurethane (PU) co-polymers with designable molecular weight between cross-linking dots was synthesized by a hydrogen transfer polymerization route from polyaniline (PANI), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), various curing agents and chain extenders using dibutyltin dilaurate as a catalyst. Their swelling, hydrophilicity, degradation and biocompatibility were inspected and assessed based on different degrees of polymerization of PANI and PEG, and their component proportion. Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and goniometry were used to characterize the structure and surface morphology of the synthesized PEG/PANI-based PU co-polymers, PU residues after degradation and degraded polymers at different time periods of hydrolysis. The thermal properties, aggregate structure and surface microstructure were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hemolysis, static platelet adhesion, dynamic clotting measurements and MTT assays were adopted to evaluate the hemo- or cytocompatibility. The experimental results indicated that these polymers exhibit various degrees of micro-phase separation, depending on the concentration and degree of polymerization of PANI, molecular weight of PEG, type of curing agent and chain extender, which further influence their swelling, hydrophilicity, degradable properties and biological performances in vitro. The incorporation of PANI and PANI* in co-polymers led to decreased thermal stability but slower decomposition rates than typical PEG-based PUs. The stress-strain tests showed that the as-prepared PU co-polymers possessed increased tensile strength and modulus, and decreased toughness in comparison with the blank PEG-based PU. These co-polymers are expected to find specific applications in tissue engineering or controlled drug release.

  12. Andrographolide-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles to improve its bioavailability and anticancer efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming; Li, Yingbo; Gao, Wei; Repka, Michael A; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Meiwan

    2014-09-01

    Andrographolide (ADG) isolated from Andrographis paniculata exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, but high hydrophobicity and poor bioavailability greatly restricts its clinical application. In this study, ADG was encapsulated in a micelle formulation based on poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) amphiphilic triblock copolymers, in order to enhance the anticancer efficacy and bioavailability in vivo. The physicochemical properties of the ADG-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles were investigated for encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential and critical micelle concentration. These micelles were further evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity, including proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and pro-apoptosis effects against human breast cancer MAD-MB-231 cells, cellular uptake and pharmacokinetics study in rat. ADG-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles had a high encapsulation and loading efficiency of about 92 and 8.4% (w/w), respectively, and a stable particle size of 124.3 ± 6.4 nm. In vitro cytotoxicity testing demonstrated that ADG-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles exhibited higher proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and pro-apoptosis effects in MAD-MB-231 cells, which would be contributed to higher efficiency of cellular uptake and intracellular transport. Further, the plasma AUC(0 - ∞) and mean resident time of ADG-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles were increased by 2.7- and 2.5-fold, respectively, when compared to the raw suspension. All of these investigations suggest that PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles may be a potential drug delivery strategy for improving ADG bioavailability and efficacy in cancer therapy.

  13. Influence of PEG coating on the oral bioavailability of gold nanoparticles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alalaiwe, Ahmed; Roberts, Georgia; Carpinone, Paul; Munson, John; Roberts, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Metallic nanoparticles can be produced in a variety of shapes, sizes, and surface chemistries, making them promising potential tools for drug delivery. Most studies to date have evaluated uptake of metallic nanoparticles from the GI tract with methods that are at best semi-quantitative. This study used the classical method of comparing blood concentration area under the curve (AUC) following intravenous and oral doses to determine the oral bioavailability of 1, 2 and 5 kDa PEG-coated 5 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Male rats were given a single intravenous dose (0.8 mg/kg) or oral (gavage) dose (8 mg/kg) of a PEG-coated AuNP, and the concentration of gold was measured in blood over time and in tissues (liver, spleen and kidney) at sacrifice. Blood concentrations following oral administration were inversely related to PEG size, and the AUC in blood was significantly greater for the 1 kDa PEG-coated AuNPs than particles coated with 2 or 5 kDa PEG. However, bioavailabilities of all of the particles were very low (< 0.1%). Concentrations in liver, spleen and kidney were similar after the intravenous doses, but kidney showed the highest concentrations after an oral dose. In addition to providing information on the bioavailability of AuNPs coated with PEG in the 1-5 kDa range, this study demonstrates the utility of applying the blood AUC approach to assess the quantitative oral bioavailability of metallic nanoparticles.

  14. Biodegradable PLGA-b-PEG polymeric nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, and nanomedical applications as drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Erica; Comes Franchini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    During the past decades many synthetic polymers have been studied for nanomedicine applications and in particular as drug delivery systems. For this purpose, polymers must be non-toxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is one of the most studied polymers due to its complete biodegradability and ability to self-assemble into nanometric micelles that are able to entrap small molecules like drugs and to release them into body in a time-dependent manner. Despite fine qualities, using PLGA polymeric nanoparticles for in vivo applications still remains an open challenge due to many factors such as poor stability in water, big diameter (150–200 nm), and the removal of these nanocarriers from the blood stream by the liver and spleen thus reducing the concentration of drugs drastically in tumor tissue. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most used polymers for drug delivery applications and the first PEGylated product is already on the market for over 20 years. This is due to its stealth behavior that inhibits the fast recognition by the immune system (opsonization) and generally leads to a reduced blood clearance of nanocarriers increasing blood circulation time. Furthermore, PEG is hydrophilic and able to stabilize nanoparticles by steric and not ionic effects especially in water. PLGA–PEG block copolymer is an emergent system because it can be easily synthesized and it possesses all good qualities of PLGA and also PEG capability so in the last decade it arose as one of the most promising systems for nanoparticles formation, drug loading, and in vivo drug delivery applications. This review will discuss briefly on PLGA-b-PEG synthesis and physicochemical properties, together with its improved qualities with respect to the single PLGA and PEG polymers. Moreover, we will focus on but in particular will treat nanoparticles formation and uses as new drug delivery system for nanomedical applications.

  15. Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

  16. Pharmacokinetic properties and antitumor efficacy of the 5-fluorouracil loaded PEG-hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Bokyung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have studied the in vitro and in vivo utility of polyethylene glycol (PEG-hydrogels for the development of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU delivery system. Methods A 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel was implanted subcutaneously to evaluate the drug retention time and the anticancer effect. For the pharmacokinetic study, two groups of male rats were administered either an aqueous solution of 5-FU (control group/or a 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel (treated group at a dose of 100 mg/kg. For the pharmacodynamic study, a human non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma (NSCLC cell line, A549 was inoculated to male nude mice with a cell density of 3 × 106. Once tumors start growing, the mice were injected with 5-FU/or 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel once a week for 4 weeks. The growth of the tumors was monitored by measuring the tumor volume and calculating the tumor inhibition rate (IR over the duration of the study. Results In the pharmacokinetic study, the 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel gave a mean residence time (MRT of 8.0 h and the elimination half-life of 0.9 h; these values were 14- and 6-fold, respectively, longer than those for the free solution of 5-FU (p Conclusion We suggest that 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogels could provide a useful tool for the development of an anticancer drug delivery system.

  17. Co-electrospun blends of PU and PEG as potential biocompatible scaffolds for small-diameter vascular tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Heyun; Feng, Yakai; Fang, Zichen; Yuan, Wenjie; Khan, Musammir

    2012-01-01

    A small-diameter vascular graft (inner diameter 4 mm) was fabricated from polyurethane (PU) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) solutions by blend electrospinning technology. The fiber diameter decreased from 1023 ± 185 nm to 394 ± 106 nm with the increasing content of PEG in electrospinning solutions. The hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds showed randomly nanofibrous morphology, high porosity and well-interconnected porous structure. The hydrophilicity of these scaffolds had been improved significantly with the increasing contents of PEG. The mechanical properties of electrospun hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds were obviously different from that of PU scaffold, which was caused by plasticizing or hardening effect imparted by PEG composition. Under hydrated state, the hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds demonstrated low mechanical performance due to the hydrophilic property of materials. Compared with dry PU/PEG scaffolds with the same content of PEG, the tensile strength and elastic modulus of hydrated PU/PEG scaffolds decreased significantly, while the elongation at break increased. The hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds demonstrated a lower possibility of thrombi formation than blank PU scaffold in platelet adhesion test. The hemolysis assay illustrated that all scaffolds could act as blood contacting materials. To investigate further in vitro cytocompatibility, HUVECs were seeded on the scaffolds and cultured over 14 days. The cells could attach and proliferate well on the hybrid scaffolds than blank PU scaffold, and form a cell monolayer fully covering on the PU/PEG (80/20) hybrid scaffold surface. The results demonstrated that the electrospun hybrid PU/PEG tubular scaffolds possessed the special capacity with excellent hemocompatibility while simultaneously supporting extensive endothelialization with the 20 and 30% content of PEG in hybrid scaffolds. - Highlights: ► We develop small-diameter vascular grafts made of PU and PEG by electrospinning. ► The hybrid scaffolds could suppress the platelet

  18. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of exquisite targeting SPIONs-PEG-HER in HER2+ human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzehalipour Almaki, Javad; Nasiri, Rozita; Idris, Ani; Majid, Fadzilah Adibah Abdul; Salouti, Mojtaba; Wong, Tet Soon; Dabagh, Shadab; Marvibaigi, Mohsen; Amini, Neda

    2016-03-01

    A stable, biocompatible and exquisite SPIONs-PEG-HER targeting complex was developed. Initially synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were silanized using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) as the coupling agent in order to allow the covalent bonding of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the SPIONs to improve the biocompatibility of the SPIONs. SPIONs-PEG were then conjugated with herceptin (HER) to permit the SPIONs-PEG-HER to target the specific receptors expressed over the surface of the HER2+ metastatic breast cancer cells. Each preparation step was physico-chemically analyzed and characterized by a number of analytical methods including AAS, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, FESEM, TEM, DLS and VSM. The biocompatibility of SPIONs-PEG-HER was evaluated in vitro on HSF-1184 (human skin fibroblast cells), SK-BR-3 (human breast cancer cells, HER+), MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer cells, HER-) and MDA-MB-468 (human breast cancer cells, HER-) cell lines by performing MTT and trypan blue assays. The hemolysis analysis results of the SPIONs-PEG-HER and SPIONs-PEG did not indicate any sign of lysis while in contact with erythrocytes. Additionally, there were no morphological changes seen in RBCs after incubation with SPIONs-PEG-HER and SPIONs-PEG under a light microscope. The qualitative and quantitative in vitro targeting studies confirmed the high level of SPION-PEG-HER binding to SK-BR-3 (HER2+ metastatic breast cancer cells). Thus, the results reflected that the SPIONs-PEG-HER can be chosen as a favorable biomaterial for biomedical applications, chiefly magnetic hyperthermia, in the future.

  19. Facile synthesis, spectral properties and formation mechanism of sulfur nanorods in PEG-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xin-yuan; Li, Li-yun; Zheng, Pu-sheng; Zheng, Wen-jie; Bai, Yan; Cheng, Tian-feng; Liu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of about 6–8 was obtained. The sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble from spherical particles to nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift which was due to the production of nanorods. Highlights: ► A novel, facile and greener method to synthesize sulfur nanorods by the solubilizing and templating effect of PEG-200 was reported. ► S 0 nanoparticles could self assemble in PEG-200 and finally form monodisperse and homogeneous rod-like structure with an average diameter of about 80 nm, the length ca. 600 nm. ► The absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously during the self-assembling process. ► PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sulfur sol by dissolving sublimed sulfur in a green solvent-PEG-200 was studied. Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of 6–8 was obtained. The structure, morphology, size, and stability of the products were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The spectral properties of the products were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy (RRS). The results showed that the spherical sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble into nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously. There was physical cross-linking between PEG and sulfur nanoparticles. PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the

  20. POLYSACCHARIDES AND eDNA AID BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT TO POLYMER BRUSH COATINGS (PLL-g-PEG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    Polymer brush coatings of poly(ethylene glycol) are considered the gold standard for nonfouling surfaces, but nevertheless, a few bacteria manage to attach and initiate biofilm formation on these coatings. To achieve robust resistance against bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, grafting...... density plays a critical role and we therefore investigated the antifouling properties of the poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) coating produced by the recently developed temperature-induced polyelectrolyte (TIP) grafting technique. The PLL-g-PEG coatings with higher density resulted...

  1. Mechanically compliant electrodes and dielectric elastomers from PEG-PDMS copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    Soft conducting elastomers have been prepared from polydimethylsiloxane-polyethyleneglycol (PDMS-PEG) copolymer and surfactant-stabilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The copolymer was chain-extended with PDMS of molecular weight 17.2 kg mol-1 in order to obtain a crosslinkable PDMS...... showed high conductivity combined with inherent softness. The high conductivity and softness, PDMS-PEG copolymers with incorporated MWCNTs hold great promises as compliant and highly stretchable electrodes for stretchable devices such as electro-mechanical transducers....

  2. Complement activation cascade triggered by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes: The challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Hashemi, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    reactions to certain PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines in both experimental animals and man. These reactions are classified as pseudoallergy and may be associated with cardiopulmonary disturbance and other related symptoms of anaphylaxis. Recent studies suggest that complement activation may be a contributing......, but not a rate limiting factor, in eliciting hypersensitivity reactions to such nanomedicines in sensitive individuals. This is rather surprising since PEGylated structures are generally assumed to suppress protein adsorption and blood opsonization events including complement. Here, we examine the molecular...... basis of complement activation by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes and discuss the challenges ahead....

  3. [Effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-simulated drought stress on Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seed germination on sandy land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiaojun; Li, Zhihui; Kang, Hongzhang; Fan, Yezhan

    2005-05-01

    With introduced sandy land Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) seeds as test material, this paper studied the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-simulated drought stress on their germination. The results showed that PEG could retard the germination of stressed seeds, and the germination rate, germination index, and germination potential were all decreased with increasing PEG concentration. The seeds treated with 30% PEG (about -1.20 MPa water potential) could not germinate at all throughout the experiment period, suggesting that 30% PEG or -1.20 MPa water potential was the threshold for the germination of Mongolian pine seeds. Under 10% PEG stress (about -0.20 MPa water potential), the lengths of radicle and hypocotyl were shorter, illustrating their growth be more sensitive to PEG-simulated drought stress, while the radicle/hypocotyl ratio was increased with increasing PEG concentration, indicating that Mongolian pine seeds had a stronger resistance to drought stress after germination. Drought stress might be a possible cause that inhibited the natural regeneration of Mongolian pine on sandy land.

  4. Nanosized self-emulsifying lipid vesicles of diacylglycerol-PEG lipid conjugates: Biophysical characterization and inclusion of lipophilic dietary supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Tihova, Mariana (OSU); (Biopharma)

    2010-04-12

    Hydrated diacylglycerol-PEG lipid conjugates, glyceryl dioleate-PEG12 (GDO-PEG12) and glyceryl dipalmitate-PEG23 (GDP-PEG23), spontaneously form uni- or oligolamellar liposomes in their liquid crystalline phase, in distinct difference from the PEGylated phospholipids which form micelles. GDP-PEG23 exhibits peculiar hysteretic phase behavior and can arrange into a long-living hexagonal phase at ambient and physiological temperatures. Liposomes of GDO-PEG12 and its mixture with soy lecithin exchange lipids with the membranes much more actively than common lecithin liposomes; such an active lipid exchange might facilitate the discharging of the liposome cargo upon uptake and internalization, and can thus be important in drug delivery applications. Diacylglycerol-PEG lipid liposome formulations can encapsulate up to 20-30 wt.% lipophilic dietary supplements such as fish oil, coenzyme Q10, and vitamins D and E. The encapsulation is feasible by way of dry mixing, avoiding the use of organic solvent.

  5. The effect of pH on bromelain partition from Ananas comosus by PEG4000/phosphate ATPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ferrari Ferreira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the thermodynamic equilibrium and applying of PEG4000/Phosphate ATPS on the purification of bromelain extracted from pineapple was studied. A rigorous study of the equilibrium curves and tie-line length from PEG4000/phosphate ATPS were done for the pH 6-11 at 25ºC. Results showed that there was augment in the PEG and salt contents with the high pH value from PEG4000/Phosphate ATPS and two-phase formation needed only increasing the PEG content. Two tie-line length at pH 11 from PEG4000/Phosphate ATPS were optimal condition for bromelain purification, one on composition of 14% PEG and 13% salt and other at 12.6% PEG and 12.2% salt, while a 25-62 folds of enzyme was found. SDS-PAGE electrophoreses had one band only, which showed that bromelain was purified. Optimum conditions of bromelain use were found at pH 7 and between 30-40ºC.

  6. Phase I and pharmacologic study of oral (PEG-1000) 9-aminocamptothecin in adult patients with solid tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, M. J.; Punt, C. J.; Gelderblom, A. H.; Loos, W. J.; van Beurden, V.; Planting, A. S.; van der Burg, M. E.; van Maanen, L. W.; Dallaire, B. K.; Verweij, J.; Wagener, D. J.; Sparreboom, A.

    1999-01-01

    9-Amino-20(S)-camptothecin (9-AC) is a specific inhibitor of topoisomerase-I. Recently, a bioavailability of approximately 48% for the oral PEG-1000 formulation was reported. We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral PEG-1000 formulation of 9-AC to define the maximum-tolerated

  7. PEG-lipid micelles enable cholesterol efflux in Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease-based lysosomal storage disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anna; Patel, Siddharth; Ward, Carl; Lorenz, Anna; Ortiz, Mauren; Duross, Allison; Wieghardt, Fabian; Esch, Amanda; Otten, Elsje G.; Heiser, Laura M.; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Sun, Conroy; Sarkar, Sovan; Sahay, Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    2-Hydroxy-propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a cholesterol scavenger, is currently undergoing Phase 2b/3 clinical trial for treatment of Niemann Pick Type C-1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that stems from abnormal cholesterol accumulation in the endo/lysosomes. Unfortunately, the extremely high doses of HPβCD required to prevent progressive neurodegeneration exacerbates ototoxicity, pulmonary toxicity and autophagy-based cellular defects. We present unexpected evidence that a poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lipid conjugate enables cholesterol clearance from endo/lysosomes of Npc1 mutant (Npc1-/-) cells. Herein, we show that distearyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-PEG (DSPE-PEG), which forms 12-nm micelles above the critical micelle concentration, accumulates heavily inside cholesterol-rich late endosomes in Npc1-/- cells. This potentially results in cholesterol solubilization and leakage from lysosomes. High-throughput screening revealed that DSPE-PEG, in combination with HPβCD, acts synergistically to efflux cholesterol without significantly aggravating autophagy defects. These well-known excipients can be used as admixtures to treat NPC1 disorder. Increasing PEG chain lengths from 350 Da-30 kDa in DSPE-PEG micelles, or increasing DSPE-PEG content in an array of liposomes packaged with HPβCD, improved cholesterol egress, while Pluronic block copolymers capable of micelle formation showed slight effects at high concentrations. We postulate that PEG-lipid based nanocarriers can serve as bioactive drug delivery systems for effective treatment of lysosomal storage disorders.

  8. The exploration of endocytic mechanisms of PLA-PEG nanoparticles prepared by coaxialtri-capillary electrospray-template removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaming; Cao, Lihua; Cui, Yuecheng; Tu, Kehua; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Li-Qun

    2018-01-01

    The nano-sized poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) particles with core-shell structure were efficiently prepared by using coaxial tri-capillary electrospray-template removal method. The cellular uptake mechanism, intracellular distribution and exocytosis in A549 cell model of electrosprayed PLA-PEG nanoparticles were systemically studied. The drug release behavior of electrosprayed PLA-PEG nanoparticles were also investigated. Our results showed that PLA-PEG nanoparticles can be endocytosed quickly by A549 cells. The cellular uptake of PLA-PEG nanoparticles was an energy dependent endocytosis process. Caveolae-mediated endocytosis was only one of endocytosis pathways in A549 cells for PLA-PEG nanoparticles, while clathrin mediated endocytosis was not involved in the endocytosis process. The endocytosed PLA-PEG nanoparticles enriched in the head of A549 cells and only a small amount of them was transported into lysosome after 24h incubation. These findings provided insights into the application of electrosprayed PLA-PEG nanoparticles in nano drug delivery field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Design of PEG-grafted-PLA nanoparticles as oral permeability enhancer for P-gp substrate drug model Famotidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mohamed; Gosselin, Patrick; Lacasse, François; Hildgen, Patrice

    2017-02-01

    Bioavailability of oral drugs can be limited by an intestinal excretion process mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a known P-gp inhibitor. Dispersion of Famotidine (a P-gp substrate) within PEGylated nanoparticles (NPs) was used to improve its oral bioavailability. In this work, we evaluated the potential impact of NPs prepared from a grafted copolymer of polylactic acid and PEG on P-gp function by studying in vitro permeability of Famotidine across Caco-2 cells. Copolymers of PEG grafted on polylactic acid (PLA) backbone (PLA-g-PEG) were synthesised with 1 mol% and 5 mol% PEG vs. lactic acid monomer using PEG 750 and 2000 Da. The polymers were used to prepare Famotidine-loaded NPs and tested in vitro on Caco-2 cells. Significant decrease in basolateral-to-apical transport of Famotidine was observed when Famotidine was encapsulated in NPs prepared from PLA-g-PEG5%. NPs prepared from PLA-g-PEG5% are promising to improve oral bioavailability of P-gp substrates.

  10. Tailored protein release from biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone-PEG)- b-poly(ε-caprolactone) multiblock-copolymer implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stankovic, Milica; Tomar, Jasmine; Hiemstra, Christine; Steendam, Rob; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    In this study, the in vitro release of proteins from novel, biodegradable phase-separated poly(ε-caprolactone-PEG)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone), [PCL-PEG]-b-[PCL]) multiblock copolymers with different block ratios and with a low melting temperature (49-55 °C) was studied. The effect of block ratio and

  11. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-Treated Hydroponic Culture Reduces Length and Diameter of Root Hairs of Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is an important cereal crop worldwide that often suffers from moisture deficits at the reproductive stage. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-treated hydroponic conditions create negative osmotic potential which is compared with moisture deficit stress. An experiment was conducted in a growth chamber to study the effects of PEG on root hair morphology and associated traits of wheat varieties. Plants of 13 wheat varieties were grown hydroponically and three different doses of PEG 6000 (w/v: 0% (control, 0.3% and 0.6% (less than −1 bar were imposed on 60 days after sowing for 20 days’ duration. A low PEG concentration was imposed to observe how initial low moisture stress might affect root hair development. PEG-treated hydroponic culture significantly decreased root hair diameter and length. Estimated surface area reduction of root hairs at the main axes of wheat plants was around nine times at the 0.6% PEG level compared to the control plants. Decrease in root hair diameter and length under PEG-induced culture decreased “potential” root surface area per unit length of main root axis. A negative association between panicle traits, length and dry weight and the main axis length of young roots indicated competition for carbon during their development. Data provides insight into how a low PEG level might alter root hair development.

  12. Effect of DSPE-PEG on compound action potential, injury potential and ion concentration following compression in ex vivo spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Huo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Guanghao; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Changzhe; Rong, Wei; Xu, Jing; Song, Tao

    2016-05-04

    It has been shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG) can reseal membrane disruption on the spinal cord, but only high concentrations of PEG have been shown to have this effect. Therefore, the effect of PEG is somewhat limited, and it is necessary to investigate a new approach to repair spinal cord injury. This study assesses the ability of 1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(poly (ethylene glycol)) 2000] (DSPE-PEG) to recover physiological function and attenuate the injury-induced influx of extracellular ions in ex vivo spinal cord injury. Isolated spinal cords were subjected to compression injury and treated with PEG or DSPE-PEG immediately after injury. The compound action potential (CAP) was recorded before and after injury to assess the functional recovery. Furthermore, injury potential, the difference in gap potentials before and after compression, and the concentration of intracellular ions were used to evaluate the effect of DSPE-PEG on reducing ion influx. Data showed that the injury potential and ion concentration of the untreated, PEG and DSPE-PEG group, without significant difference among them, are remarkably higher than those of the intact group. Moreover, the CAP recovery of the DSPE-PEG and PEG treated spinal cords was significantly greater than that of the untreated spinal cords. The level of CAP recovery in the DSPE-PEG and PEG treated groups was the same, but the concentration of DSPE-PEG used was much lower than the concentration of PEG. These results suggest that instant application of DSPE-PEG could effectively repair functional disturbance in SCI at a much lower concentration than PEG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ESR studies of redox-active PMNT-PEG-PMNT polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarowicz, M., E-mail: magda.bednarowicz@gmail.com [Medical Physics Division, Physics Department of Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznań, NanoBioMedical Centre, Umultowska 85 St, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Dobosz, B.; Krzyminiewski, R.; Hałupka-Bryl, M.; Deptuła, T. [Medical Physics Division, Physics Department of Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznań, NanoBioMedical Centre, Umultowska 85 St, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Nagasaki, Y. [Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Master' s School of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Satellite Laboratory, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of nitroxide radical-containing PMNT-PEG-PMNT triblock copolymer in different solvents: water, dimethyl formamide (DMF) and chloroform. Temperature dependence of electron spin resonance spectra were measured for each probe and several spectroscopic parameters describing physical properties, such as g-spectroscopic splitting factor value, resonance field (H{sub r}), peak-to-peak line width (ΔH{sub pp}) and correlation time (τ) were calculated and discussed. For the determination of the parameters characterizing the dynamics of TEMPO radicals in complex spectra the computer resolution enhancement method (CREM) and EasySpin software for ESR spectra simulations were used. - Highlights: • We present ESR measurements of nitroxide radical-containing PMNT-PEG-PMNT copolymer. • We found triblock copolymer PMNT-PEG-PMNT chain state depends on solvent polarity. • In less polar solvents PMNT-PEG-PMNT collapses, in more polar it swells. • The CREM method and EasySpin simulating help analyzing complex ESR spectra.

  14. Novel thermosensitive telechelic PEGs with antioxidant activity: synthesis, molecular properties and conformational behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sergeeva, O.; Vlasov, P. S.; Domnina, N. S.; Bogomolova, Anna; Konarev, P. V.; Svergun, D. I.; Walterová, Zuzana; Horský, Jiří; Štěpánek, Petr; Filippov, Sergey K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 79 (2014), s. 41763-41771 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PEG * antioxidant * SANS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  15. An efficient PEG-400 mediated catalyst free green synthesis of 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This green protocol can be utilized for fast synthesis of various 2-aminothiazoles in good yields. Keywords. 2-amino thiazole; α-diazoketone; PEG-400; green synthesis. 1. Introduction. Heterocyclic amines such as 2-amino thiazoles are very interesting compounds as they are found to be useful in the treatment of allergies,1 ...

  16. PEGylated polyplex with optimized PEG shielding enhances gene introduction in lungs by minimizing inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Satoshi; Itaka, Keiji; Chen, Qixian; Osada, Kensuke; Ishii, Takehiko; Shibata, Masa-Aki; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    Safety is a critical issue in clinical applications of nonviral gene delivery systems. Safe and effective gene introduction into the lungs was previously achieved using polyplexes from poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG)-block-polycation [PEG-block-PAsp(DET)] and plasmid DNA (pDNA). Although PEGylated polyplexes appeared to be safe, an excess ratio of polycation to pDNA was needed to obtain sufficient transgene expression, which may cause toxicities shortly after gene introduction. In the present study, we investigated the combined use of two polymers, PEG-block-PAsp(DET) (B) and homo PAsp(DET) (H) across a range of mixing ratios to construct polyplexes. Although transgene expressions following in vitro transfections increased in parallel with increased proportions of H, polyplexes with B/H = 50/50 formulation produced the highest expression level following in vivo intratracheal administration. Higher proportions of H elicited high levels of cytokine induction with significant inflammation as assessed by histopathological examinations. Based on the aggregation behavior of polyplexes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs), we suggested that rapid aggregation of polyplexes in the lung induced acute inflammatory responses, resulting in reduced transgene expression. B/H formulation of polyplex can help to improve gene therapy for the respiratory system because it achieves both effective PEG shielding of polyplexes and functioning of PAsp(DET) polycations to enhance endosomal escape.

  17. PEG-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapu, Murali Mohan; Foy, Susan P; Jain, Tapan K; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were tested as a drug carrier system, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agent, and ability to conjugate to an antibody. Methods An iron oxide core coated with oleic acid (OA) and then with OA-PEG forms a water dispersible MNP formulation. Hydrophobic doxorubicin partitions into the OA layer for sustained drug delivery. The T1 and T2 MRI contrast properties were determined in vitro and the circulation of the MNPs measured in mouse carotid arteries. An N-hydroxysuccinimide group (NHS) on the OA-PEG-80 was used to conjugate the amine functional group on antibodies for active targeting in the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Results The optimized formulation had a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 184 nm with an 8 nm iron-oxide core. The MNPs enhance the T2 MRI contrast, and have a long circulation time in vivo with 30% relative concentration 50 min post-injection. Doxorubicin-loaded MNPs showed sustained drug release and dose-dependent antiproliferative effects in vitro; the drug effect was enhanced with transferrin antibody conjugated MNPs. Conclusion PEG functionalized MNPs could be developed as a targeted drug delivery system and MRI contrast agent. PMID:20845067

  18. Phylogenetic and Epigenetic Footprinting of the Putative Enhancers of the Peg3 Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joomyeong Kim

    Full Text Available The Peg3 (Paternally Expressed Gene 3 imprinted domain is predicted to be regulated through a large number of evolutionarily conserved regions (ECRs that are localized within its middle 200-kb region. In the current study, we characterized these potential cis-regulatory regions using phylogenetic and epigenetic approaches. According to the results, the majority of these ECRs are potential enhancers for the transcription of the Peg3 domain. Also, these potential enhancers can be divided into two groups based on their histone modification and DNA methylation patterns: ubiquitous and tissue-specific enhancers. Phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses further revealed that several cis-regulatory motifs are frequently associated with the ECRs, such as the E box, PITX2, NF-κB and RFX1 motifs. A series of subsequent ChIP experiments demonstrated that the trans factor MYOD indeed binds to the E box of several ECRs, further suggesting that MYOD may play significant roles in the transcriptional control of the Peg3 domain. Overall, the current study identifies, for the first time, a set of cis-regulatory motifs and corresponding trans factors that may be critical for the transcriptional regulation of the Peg3 domain.

  19. Optimization Properties of Environmentally Friendly Paper Coating Based Starch-Polyethylene glycol (PEG) Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galih Saputri, Diani; Khairuddin; Dwi Nurhayati, Nanik; Pham, Trinh

    2017-11-01

    The use of starch as biodegradable base material for packaging application was of great interest as an environmentally friendly alternative to the present use of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. However, starch tended to be brittle and had a lack of stability due to exposure to water. Several aproaches have been done to improve shellac properties including through chemical modification, mixing with polymers, clays, and plasticizers. The present study related to optimization of starch properties when mixing with polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated on the paper. The aim was to obtain the temperature and mixing time between starch and PEG so produced composites with optimal barrier properties. The composites of PEG/starch 10 % w/w were prepared using solvent casting and coated on paper surface, and dried in the oven for 12 hours at 40°C. Water Vapour Transmitter Rate (WVTR) (Payne cup method) showed that 70°C was the optimum temperature when mixing time was 30 minutes. Moreover, it showed that the optimum mixing time was 30 minutes when mixing temperature was 80 and 70 °C. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) showed a strong interaction between PEG400 and starch.

  20. Modulation of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Odontogenesis in a Tunable PEG-Fibrinogen Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injectable hydrogels have the great potential for clinical translation of dental pulp regeneration. A recently developed PEG-fibrinogen (PF hydrogel, which comprises a bioactive fibrinogen backbone conjugated to polyethylene glycol (PEG side chains, can be cross-linked after injection by photopolymerization. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of this hydrogel, which allows tuning of its mechanical properties, as a scaffold for dental pulp tissue engineering. The cross-linking degree of PF hydrogels could be controlled by varying the amounts of PEG-diacrylate (PEG-DA cross-linker. PF hydrogels are generally cytocompatible with the encapsulated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, yielding >85% cell viability in all hydrogels. It was found that the cell morphology of encapsulated DPSCs, odontogenic gene expression, and mineralization were strongly modulated by the hydrogel cross-linking degree and matrix stiffness. Notably, DPSCs cultured within the highest cross-linked hydrogel remained mostly rounded in aggregates and demonstrated the greatest enhancement in odontogenic gene expression. Consistently, the highest degree of mineralization was observed in the highest cross-linked hydrogel. Collectively, our results indicate that PF hydrogels can be used as a scaffold for DPSCs and offers the possibility of influencing DPSCs in ways that may be beneficial for applications in regenerative endodontics.

  1. Modulation of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Odontogenesis in a Tunable PEG-Fibrinogen Hydrogel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiqi; Pandya, Mirali; Rufaihah, Abdul Jalil; Rosa, Vinicius; Tong, Huei Jinn; Seliktar, Dror; Toh, Wei Seong

    2015-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels have the great potential for clinical translation of dental pulp regeneration. A recently developed PEG-fibrinogen (PF) hydrogel, which comprises a bioactive fibrinogen backbone conjugated to polyethylene glycol (PEG) side chains, can be cross-linked after injection by photopolymerization. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of this hydrogel, which allows tuning of its mechanical properties, as a scaffold for dental pulp tissue engineering. The cross-linking degree of PF hydrogels could be controlled by varying the amounts of PEG-diacrylate (PEG-DA) cross-linker. PF hydrogels are generally cytocompatible with the encapsulated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), yielding >85% cell viability in all hydrogels. It was found that the cell morphology of encapsulated DPSCs, odontogenic gene expression, and mineralization were strongly modulated by the hydrogel cross-linking degree and matrix stiffness. Notably, DPSCs cultured within the highest cross-linked hydrogel remained mostly rounded in aggregates and demonstrated the greatest enhancement in odontogenic gene expression. Consistently, the highest degree of mineralization was observed in the highest cross-linked hydrogel. Collectively, our results indicate that PF hydrogels can be used as a scaffold for DPSCs and offers the possibility of influencing DPSCs in ways that may be beneficial for applications in regenerative endodontics. PMID:26124841

  2. Effects of PEG-induced osmotic stress on growth and dhurrin levels of forage sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, Natalie H.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Neale, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    . Given that finely regulating soil moisture under controlled conditions is notoriously difficult, we exposed sorghum plants to varying degrees of osmotic stress by growing them for different lengths of time in hydroponic solutions containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). Plants grown in medium containing 20...

  3. Evolution of mechanics in α-helical peptide conjugated linear- and star-block PEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, S C; Bhuiyan, Z H; Tu, R S

    2017-10-25

    We have designed a peptide conjugated poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) bioconjugate system that allows us to examine the intra- and inter-molecular dynamics of gelation. We measure the kinetics of gelation for end-functionalized linear- and star-architectures, and we correlate the gelation behavior with the molecular structure and self-association. The 23-amino acid peptide sequence is known to form a coiled-coil structure as a function of the solution's electrolyte concentration, and the two topologies of the PEG are peptide end-functionalized to examine formation of supramolecular assemblies. Subsequently, microrheology is used to evaluate the dynamics of self-assembly and the gelation time-scales. This study shows that the dynamics of peptide folding and assembly for linear-PEG conjugated systems yield a percolated network, but the star-PEG conjugated systems yield discrete assemblies and remain viscous. The results suggest that the degree of intra- and inter-molecular folding defines the critical gel behavior of the supramolecular system.

  4. Treatment of human papillomavirus with peg-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.P. Pavan

    Full Text Available We reported one case of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infected patient who presented a significant improvement of human papillomavirus (HPV lesions during the treatment of chronic hepatitis using peg-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin.

  5. Decisive test of the ideal behavior of tetra-PEG gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Nishi, Kengo; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the thermodynamic and scattering behavior of tetra-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) gels. Complementary measurements, including osmotic swelling pressure, elastic modulus, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS), are reported for a series of tetra-PEG gels made from different molecular weight precursor chains at different concentrations. Analysis of the osmotic swelling pressure vs polymer volume fraction curves makes it possible to separate the elastic and mixing contributions of the network free energy. It is shown that in tetra-PEG gels these free energy components are additive. The elastic term varies with the one-third power of the polymer volume fraction and its numerical value is equal to the shear modulus obtained from independent mechanical measurements. The mixing pressure of the cross-linked polymer is slightly smaller than that of the corresponding solution of the uncross-linked polymer of infinite molecular weight but it exhibits similar dependence on the polymer concentration. The observed deviation between the osmotic mixing pressures of the gel and the solution can be attributed to the presence of small amount of structural inhomogeneities frozen-in by the cross-links. SANS reveals that the scattering response of tetra-PEG gel is mainly governed by the thermodynamic concentration fluctuations of the network, i.e., the contribution from static inhomogeneities to the SANS signal is small.

  6. Effect of PEG biofunctional spacers and TAT peptide on dsRNA loading on gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Vanesa; Conde, Joao; Hernandez, Yulan [Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (Spain); Baptista, Pedro V. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Centro de Investigacao em Genetica Molecular Humana (Portugal); Ibarra, M. R.; Fuente, Jesus M. de la, E-mail: jmfuente@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) plays a critical role in the self-assembly of thiolated molecules and in retaining the biological function of the conjugated biomolecules. According to the well-established gold-thiol interaction the undefined ionic species on citrate-reduced gold nanoparticle surface can be replaced with a self-assembled monolayer of certain thiolate derivatives and other biomolecules. Understanding the effect of such derivatives in the functionalization of several types of biomolecules, such as PEGs, peptides or nucleic acids, has become a significant challenge. Here, an approach to attach specific biomolecules to the AuNPs ({approx}14 nm) surface is presented together with a study of their effect in the functionalization with other specific derivatives. The effect of biofunctional spacers such as thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains and a positive peptide, TAT, in dsRNA loading on AuNPs is reported. Based on the obtained data, we hypothesize that loading of oligonucleotides onto the AuNP surface may be controlled by ionic and weak interactions positioning the entry of the oligo through the PEG layer. We demonstrate that there is a synergistic effect of the TAT peptide and PEG chains with specific functional groups on the enhancement of dsRNA loading onto AuNPs.

  7. Thermoresponsive PEG-Coated Nanotubes as Chiral Selectors of Amino Acids and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameta, Naohiro; Dong, Jiuchao; Yui, Hiroharu

    2018-04-01

    A series of nanotubes with a dense layer of short poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains on the inner surface are prepared by means of a coassembly process using glycolipids and PEG derivatives. Dehydration of the PEG chains by heating increases the hydrophobicity of the nanotube channel and fluorescent-dye-labeled amino acids are extracted from bulk solution. Rehydration of the PEG chains by cooling results in back-extraction of the amino acids into the bulk solution. Because of the supramolecular chirality of the nanotubes, amino acid enantiomers can be separated in the back-extraction procedure, which is detectable with the naked eye as a change in fluorescence as the amino acids are released from the nanotubes. The efficiency and selectivity of the chiral separation are enhanced by tuning the chemical features and inner diameter of the nanotube channels. For example, compared with wide nanotube channels (8 nm), narrow nanotube channels (4 nm) provide more effective electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bond interaction environments for the transporting amino acids. Introduction of branched alkyl chains to the inner surface of the nanotubes enables chiral separation of peptides containing hydrophobic amino acids. The system described here provides a simple, quick, and on-site chiral separation in biological and medical fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. MICROWAVE-ACCELERATED SUZUKI CROSS-COUPLING REACTION IN POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (PEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is found to be an inexpensive and nontoxic reaction medium for the microwave-assisted Suzuki cross-coupling of arylboronic acids with aryl halides. This environmentally friendly microwave protocol offers the ease of operation and enables the recyclabilit...

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of SPIO-loaded PEG-b-PS Micelles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    66

    size of SPIO cluster. However, the relaxivity reaches its maximum in the static dephasing regime (SDR); then, it decreased with increasing clustering size in the echo-limiting regime. (ELR). SPIO loaded PEG-b-PS micelles presented similar phenomena in MAR. The r2* values were linearly increased by the size of micelles ...

  10. Superabsorbent crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose-PEG hydrogels for potential wound dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanema, Nádia S V; Mansur, Alexandra A P; de Jesus, Anderson C; Carvalho, Sandhra M; de Oliveira, Luiz C; Mansur, Herman S

    2018-01-01

    This study focused on the synthesis and comprehensive characterization of environmentally friendly hydrogel membranes based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) for wound dressing and skin repair substitutes. These new CMC hydrogels were prepared with two degrees of functionalization (DS=0.77 and 1.22) and chemically crosslinked with citric acid (CA) for tuning their properties. Additionally, CMC-based hybrids were prepared by blending with polyethylene glycol (PEG, 10wt.%). The results demonstrated that superabsorbent hydrogels (SAP) were produced with swelling degree typically ranging from 100% to 5000%, which was significantly dependent on the concentration of CA crosslinker and the addition of PEG as network modifier. The spectroscopical characterizations indicated that the mechanism of CA crosslinking was mostly associated with the chemical reaction with CMC hydroxyl groups and that PEG played an important role on the formation of a hybrid polymeric network. These hydrogels presented very distinct morphological features depended on the degree of crosslinking and the surface nanomechanical properties (e.g., elastic moduli) were drastically affected (from approximately 0.08GPa to 2.0GPa) due to the formation of CMC-PEG hybrid nanostructures. These CMC-based hydrogels were cytocompatible considering the in vitro cell viability responses of over 95% towards human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) used as model cell line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A soft and conductive PDMS-PEG block copolymer as a compliant electrode for dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    -methyl pyrrolidinone) with 1 wt% of surfactant (Triton X-100). The dispersion of MWCNTs in PDMS-PEG systemis shown in figure 2 where MWCNTs (dark areas) are well-distributed in the system indicating an acceptable dispersional though some big clusters appear in the optical microscope image. The conductivity of 4 phr...

  12. Effects of physical properties of PEG 6000 on pellets produced by melt pelletization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T W; Wan, L S; Heng, P W

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) binders of different physical forms and from different commercial sources on size and size distribution of pellets produced. The meltable binders used were PEG 6000 in the form of flakes, and coarse and fine powders, and melt pelletization using lactose 450 M was carried out in an 8-liter high-shear mixer. Binder particle size, molecular weight, tack, and viscosity were determined. The results showed that the size and size distribution of the pellets obtained could not be explained by the binder particle size. The size and size distribution of the pellets were related to the tack and viscosity of the molten binders. PEGs used were labeled as the same nominal molecular weight grade, although their determined molecular weights could be quite different. Differences in tack and viscosity of the molten binders were associated with determined molecular weight of the binders. The melt pelletization process is sensitive to tack and viscosity of the molten binders. When different PEG brands of the same nominal molecular weight or different batches of the same brand are used in melt pelletization, it is important to characterize the tack and viscosity of the binders used. The effects of the physical form of binders on the pellet quality appear to be less important when compared to the influences of tack and viscosity of the molten binder.

  13. In vivo biocompatibility of p(HPMAm-lac)-PEG hydrogels hybridized with hyaluronan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabbieti, Maria Giovanna; Dubbini, Alessandra; Laus, Fulvio; Paggi, Emanuele; Marchegiani, Andrea; Capitani, Melania; Marchetti, Luigi; Dini, Fabrizio; Vermonden, Tina; Di Martino, Piera; Agas, Dimitrios; Censi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on the biocompatibility in vivo after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in Balb/c mice of vinyl sulphone bearing p(HPMAm-lac1-2)-PEG-p(HPMAm-lac1-2)/thiolated hyaluronic acid hydrogels, designed as novel injectable biomaterials for potential application in the

  14. PEG-SO 3 H as a catalyst in aqueous media: A simple, proficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quinoline derivatives were prepared in water, an excellent solvent in terms of environmental impact and with reduced waste production. PEG-SO3H effectively catalysed the one-pot synthesis of quinolines by the condensation of -aminoaryl ketones and carbonyl compound with high yields (75-95%). The compounds ...

  15. Two peg spade plate for distal radius fractures A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad M Hardikar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The two peg volar spade plate provides a stable subchondral support in comminuted intraarticular fractures and maintains reduction in osteoporotic fractures of the distal radius. Early mobilization with this implant helps in restoring wrist motion and to prevent development of wrist stiffness.

  16. PEG-SO3H as a catalyst in aqueous media: A simple, proficient and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A convenient and efficient method was developed for the synthesis of quinolines, an important class of potentially bioactive compounds. The quinoline derivatives were prepared in water, an excellent solvent in terms of environmental impact and with reduced waste production. PEG-SO3H effectively catalysed the.

  17. PEG-conjugated highly dispersive multifunctional magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for cellular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Jayant J.; Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Satavalekar, Sneha D.; Bhansali, Sujit G.; Aher, Naval D.; Kharas, Firuza; Banerjee, Shashwat S.

    2012-01-01

    We report synthesis of a highly versatile multicomponent nanosystem by covalently decorating the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and fluorophore fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The resulting Fe3O4-PEG-FITC-CNT nanosystem demonstrates high dispersion ability in an aqueous medium, magnetic responsiveness, and fluorescent capacity. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles were well anchored onto the surfaces of the CNT. In vitro time kinetic experiments using confocal microscopy demonstrated a higher uptake of the Fe3O4-PEG-FITC-CNT nanosystem localized at the perinuclear region of MCF7 cells compared to the free FITC. In addition, the CNT nanosystem demonstrated no evidence of toxicity on cell growth. Surface conjugation of multicomponents, combined with in vitro non-toxicity, enhanced cellular uptake for FITC and site specific targeting ability makes this fluorescent Fe3O4-PEG-FITC-CNT nanosystem an ideal candidate for bioimaging, both in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Research on PEG modified Bi-doping lead dioxide electrode and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Weihua, E-mail: yangwh@hqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Yang Wutao; Lin Xiaoyan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Bi-doping PbO{sub 2} electrode, which is called Bi-PbO{sub 2} for short, modified with different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was prepared by electrodeposition method in this paper. The microstructure and electrochemical properties of the different modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Mott-Schottky, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear sweep voltammetry techniques. The results show that adulteration of PEG has a noticeable improvement in the morphology of Bi-PbO{sub 2} electrode which can greatly decrease its particle size and enlarge its active surface area. Phenol degradation experiments reveal that the modified electrodes have excellent electro-catalytic activity and stability, and the optimal adulterate concentration of PEG is 8 g L{sup -1}. Electrochemical performance tests show that the modified electrodes exhibit more negative flatband potential (E{sub fb}), larger adsorption pseudo capacitance, lower adsorption resistance and higher oxygen evolution potential, and these characteristics promote the electro-catalytic activity of the Bi-PbO{sub 2} electrode. Finally, accelerated lifetime tests demonstrate that PEG modification can highly lengthen the service life of Bi-PbO{sub 2} electrode in its practical application.

  19. Financial policy and speculative runs with a crawling peg: Argentina 1979-1981

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a model of a balance-of-payment crisis and examines the financial policy of the Argentine government in dealing with the speculative runs on the peg between December 1978 and February 1981. The evolution of a crisis when a collapse is not perfectly foreseen; The factors that

  20. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of PEG-Substituted Macromolecular Prodrugs of Mitomycin C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoste, K.; Schacht, E. H.; Říhová, Blanka

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2002), s. 123-138 ISSN 0883-9115 Grant - others:Ministry of Scientific Programming(BE) IUAP/PAI-IV/11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : peg * substituted * mitomycin c Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2002

  1. PEG capped methotrexate silver nanoparticles for efficient anticancer activity and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Zarmina; Raza, Abida; Ghafoor, Sana; Naeem, Ayesha; Naz, Syeda Sohaila; Riaz, Sundus; Ahmed, Wajiha; Rana, Nosheen Fatima

    2016-08-25

    Nanocarriers endow tremendous benefits to the drug delivery systems depending upon the specific properties of either component. These benefits include, increase in the drug blood retention time, reduced efflux, additional toxicity and targeted delivery. Methotrexate (MTX) is clinically used for cancer treatment. Higher dosage of MTX results in hepatic and renal toxicity. In this study methotrexate silver nanoparticles (Ag-MTX) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) are synthesized and characterized. Their anticancer activity and biocompatibility is also evaluated. Ag-MTX nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical reduction method. They are characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Average size of PEG coated Ag-MTX nanoparticles (PEG-Ag-MTX nanoparticles) is 12nm. These particles exhibited improved anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell line. Hemolytic activity of these particles was significantly less than MTX. PEG-Ag-MTX nanoparticles are potential nanocarrier of methotrexate which may offer MTX based cancer treatment with reduced side effects. In-vivo investigations should be carried out to explore them in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiome precision editing: Using PEG as a selective fermentation initiator against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ming-Shan; Huang, Stephen; Chang, Wei-Lin; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Huang, Chun-Jen; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Recent creation of a Unified Microbiome Initiative (UMI) has the aim of understanding how microbes interact with each other and with us. When pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus infects the skin, the interplay between S. aureus and skin commensal bacteria occurs. Our previous data revealed that skin commensal bacteria can mediate fermentation against the growth of USA300, a community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus MRSA. By using a fermentation process with solid media on a small scale, we define poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) as a selective fermentation initiator which can specifically intensify the probiotic ability of skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. At least five short-chain fatty acids including acetic, butyric and propionic acids with anti-USA300 activities are produced by PEG-DMA fermentation of S. epidermidis. Furthermore, the S. epidermidis-laden PEG-DMA hydrogels effectively decolonized USA300 in skin wounds in mice. The PEG-DMA and its derivatives may become novel biomaterials to specifically tailor the human skin microbiome against invading pathogens. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synergistic effect of non-ionic surfactants Tween 80 and PEG6000 on cytotoxicity of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diqiu; Wu, Xiwei; Yu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Qingchun; Tao, Liming

    2015-03-01

    The use of surfactants in the development of a suitable formulation for insecticides should improve the solubility behavior, the permeability and the efficiency against pests meanwhile decrease the toxic risks of insecticides on human health. Cytotoxicity of insecticides including abamectin, chlorfluazuron, hexaflumuron, chlorpyrifos, and tebufenozide was assessed on human HepG2 and lepidopteran Tn5B1-4 cells utilizing insecticide alone and in combination with nontoxic concentrations of nonionic surfactants Tween 80 and PEG6000. The results showed avermection revealed high cytotoxicity, chlorfluazuron and hexaflumuron possessed median cytotoxicity, and chlorpyrifos and tebufenozide had little cytotoxicity on HepG2 and Tn5B1-4 cells. The co-incubation with Tween 80 and PEG6000 powerfully counteracted the cytotoxicity of avermectin. Tween 80 enhanced, whereas PEG6000 compressed, the cytotoxicity of chlorfluazuron on Tn5B1-4 cells, and also improved a bit of the cytotoxicity of chlorpyrifos or tebufenozide on HepG2 cells. PEG6000 was more suitable to be used as surfactant in improving insecticide solubility and reducing the cytotoxicity. The present investigation demonstrates the necessity of utilizing surfactants to weaken the cytotoxicity of insecticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An Outline for an intelligent System performing Peg-in-Hole Actions with flexible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordt, Andreas; Fugl, Andreas Rune; Bodenhagen, Leon

    We describe the outline of an adaptable system which is able to perform grasping and peg-in-hole actions with flexible objects. the system makes use of visual tracking and shape reconstruction, physical modeling of flexible material and learning based on a kernel density approach. We show results...

  5. Long-term stability of PEG-based antifouling surfaces in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    , in both accelerated laboratory tests and real seawater conditions. This article shows how PEG-based copolymers, which have been exposed in fouling-release coatings to real-life seawater conditions, are isolated and compared to those exposed to accelerated laboratory testing with successful results...

  6. Evaluation of chondrogenesis within PEGT: PBT scaffolds with high PEG content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Tahir A.; Shastri, V. Prasad; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Langer, Robert; Riesle, J.U.

    2006-01-01

    Porous poly(ethylene glycol) terephthalate:poly (butylene terephthalate) (PEGT:PBT) scaffolds with high PEG molecular weight (1000 g/mole) and PEGT content (60%) were fabricated using two different processes - paraffin templating and compression molding - for cartilage engineering applications. This

  7. Cholesterol-PEG comodified poly (N-butyl) cyanoacrylate nanoparticles for brain delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Yang, Feifei; Liao, Yonghong; Li, Lin; Zhang, Lan

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated cholesterol-polyethylene glycol (PEG) comodified poly (ethyleneglycol)-poly (lactide) nanoparticles (CLS-PEG NPs) as a novel, biodegradable brain drug delivery system and included an evaluation of its in vitro and in vivo properties. To this end, coumarin-6 (C6), a fluorescent probe, was encapsulated into CLS-PEG NPs by an emulsion polymerization method. We reported that the use of CLS-PEG NPs led to a sustained drug release in vitro. Additionally, cell viability experiments confirmed their safety. The uptake and transport of CLS-PEG NPs, by bEnd.3 cells (an immortalized mouse brain endothelial cell line), was significantly higher than that of a control C6 solution. An investigation of the uptake mechanisms of different NP formulations demonstrated that cholesterol modifications may be the primary way to improve the efficiency of cellular uptake, wherein macropinocytosis may be the most important endocytic pathway in this process. An investigation of the transport mechanisms of CLS-PEG NPs also implicated macropinocytosis, energy and cholesterol in bEnd.3 cells lines. Following an intravenous (IV) administration to rats, pharmacokinetic experiments indicated that C6-loaded CLS-PEG NPs achieved sustained release for up to 12 h. In addition, IV delivery of CLS-PEG NPs appeared to significantly improve the ability of C6 to pass through the blood-brain barrier: the concentration of C6 found in the brain increased nearly 14.2-fold when C6 CLS-PEG NPs were used rather than a C6 solution. These in vitro and in vivo results strongly suggest that CLS-PEG NPs are a promising drug delivery system for targeting the brain, with low toxicity.

  8. Synthesis of linear and cyclic peptide-PEG-lipids for stabilization and targeting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Kai K; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Steffes, Victoria M; Wonder, Emily A; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2016-03-15

    Because nucleic acids (NAs) have immense potential value as therapeutics, the development of safe and effective synthetic NA vectors continues to attract much attention. In vivo applications of NA vectors require stabilized, nanometer-scale particles, but the commonly used approaches of steric stabilization with a polymer coat (e.g., PEGylation; PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)) interfere with attachment to cells, uptake, and endosomal escape. Conjugation of peptides to PEG-lipids can improve cell attachment and uptake for cationic liposome-DNA (CL-DNA) complexes. We present several synthetic approaches to peptide-PEG-lipids and discuss their merits and drawbacks. A lipid-PEG-amine building block served as the common key intermediate in all synthetic routes. Assembling the entire peptide-PEG-lipid by manual solid phase peptide synthesis (employing a lipid-PEG-carboxylic acid) allowed gram-scale synthesis but is mostly applicable to linear peptides connected via their N-terminus. Conjugation via thiol-maleimide or strain-promoted (copper-free) azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry is highly amenable to on-demand preparation of peptide-PEG-lipids, and the appropriate PEG-lipid precursors are available in a single chemical step from the lipid-PEG-amine building block. Azide-alkyne cycloaddition is especially suitable for disulfide-bridged peptides such as iRGD (cyclic CRGDKGPDC). Added at 10 mol% of a cationic/neutral lipid mixture, the peptide-PEG-lipids stabilize the size of CL-DNA complexes. They also affect cell attachment and uptake of nanoparticles in a peptide-dependent manner, thereby providing a platform for preparing stabilized, affinity-targeted CL-DNA nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Paclitaxel molecularly imprinted polymer-PEG-folate nanoparticles for targeting anticancer delivery: Characterization and cellular cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi; Darvishi, Behrad; Ishkuh, Fatemeh Azizi; Shahmoradi, Elnaz; Mohammadi, Ali; Javanbakht, Mehran; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymer-poly ethylene glycol-folic acid (MIP-PEG-FA) nanoparticles for use as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to cancer cells. MIP nanoparticles were synthesized by a mini-emulsion polymerization technique and then PEG-FA was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles showed high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, 15.6 ± 0.8 and 100%, respectively. The imprinting efficiency of MIPs was evaluated by binding experiments in human serum. Good selective binding and recognition were found in MIP nanoparticles. In vitro drug release studies showed that MIP-PEG-FA have a controlled release of PTX, because of the presence of imprinted sites in the polymeric structure, which makes it is suitable for sustained drug delivery. The drug release from polymeric nanoparticles was indeed higher at acidic pH. The molecular structure of MIP-PEG-FA was confirmed by Hydrogen-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H NMR), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR), and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) spectroscopy, and their thermal behaviors by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) results showed that nanoparticles have a smooth surface and spherical shape with an average size of 181 nm. MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles showed a greater amount of intracellular uptake in folate receptor-positive cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) in comparison with the non-folate nanoparticles and free PTX, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of 4.9 ± 0.9, 7.4 ± 0.5 and 32.8 ± 3.8 nM, respectively. These results suggest that MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles could be a potentially useful drug carrier for targeting drug delivery to cancer cells. - Highlights: • MIP-PEG-FA was synthesized as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery to cancerous cells. • Nanoparticles

  10. Paclitaxel molecularly imprinted polymer-PEG-folate nanoparticles for targeting anticancer delivery: Characterization and cellular cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darvishi, Behrad [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ishkuh, Fatemeh Azizi [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmoradi, Elnaz [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Ali [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javanbakht, Mehran [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Rassoul [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atyabi, Fatemeh, E-mail: atyabifa@tums.ac.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymer-poly ethylene glycol-folic acid (MIP-PEG-FA) nanoparticles for use as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to cancer cells. MIP nanoparticles were synthesized by a mini-emulsion polymerization technique and then PEG-FA was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles showed high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, 15.6 ± 0.8 and 100%, respectively. The imprinting efficiency of MIPs was evaluated by binding experiments in human serum. Good selective binding and recognition were found in MIP nanoparticles. In vitro drug release studies showed that MIP-PEG-FA have a controlled release of PTX, because of the presence of imprinted sites in the polymeric structure, which makes it is suitable for sustained drug delivery. The drug release from polymeric nanoparticles was indeed higher at acidic pH. The molecular structure of MIP-PEG-FA was confirmed by Hydrogen-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H NMR), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR), and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) spectroscopy, and their thermal behaviors by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) results showed that nanoparticles have a smooth surface and spherical shape with an average size of 181 nm. MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles showed a greater amount of intracellular uptake in folate receptor-positive cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) in comparison with the non-folate nanoparticles and free PTX, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of 4.9 ± 0.9, 7.4 ± 0.5 and 32.8 ± 3.8 nM, respectively. These results suggest that MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles could be a potentially useful drug carrier for targeting drug delivery to cancer cells. - Highlights: • MIP-PEG-FA was synthesized as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery to cancerous cells. • Nanoparticles

  11. Endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyuan Hu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanyuan Hu1, Yangde Zhang21Xiangya School of Medicine and 2National Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center, Ministry of Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, which was approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration in 2005, has a broad spectrum of activity against solid tumors. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the anticancer effect of Endostar is increased by using a nanocarrier system. It is expected that the prolonged circulation of endostar will improve its anticancer activity. Endostar-loaded nanoparticles were prepared to improve controlled release of the drug in mice and rabbits, as well as its anticancer effects in mice with colon cancer. A protein release system could be exploited to act as a drug carrier. Nanoparticles were formulated from poly (ethylene glycol modified poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PEG-PLGA by a double emulsion technique. Physical and release characteristics of endostar-loaded nanoparticles in vitro were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS, and micro bicinchoninic acid protein assay. The pharmacokinetic parameters of endostar nanoparticles in rabbit and mice plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot was used to detect endostatin in different tissues. To study the effects of endostar-loaded nanoparticles in vivo, nude mice in which tumor cells HT-29 were implanted, were subsequently treated with endostar or endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles. Using TEM and PCS, endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles were found to have a spherical core-shell structure with a diameter of 169.56 ± 35.03 nm. Drug-loading capacity was 8.22% ± 2.35% and drug encapsulation was 80.17% ± 7.83%. Compared with endostar, endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles had a longer elimination half-life and lower peak

  12. Antibiofouling hybrid dendritic Boltorn/star PEG thiol-ene cross-linked networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jeremy W; Imbesi, Philip M; Finlay, John A; Fidge, Christopher; Ma, Jun; Seppala, Jonathan E; Nystrom, Andreas M; Mackay, Michael E; Callow, James A; Callow, Maureen E; Wooley, Karen L

    2011-06-01

    A series of thiol-ene generated amphiphilic cross-linked networks was prepared by reaction of alkene-modified Boltorn polyesters (Boltorn-ene) with varying weight percent of 4-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tetrathiol (0-25 wt%) and varying equivalents of pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) (0-64 wt%). These materials were designed to present complex surface topographies and morphologies, with heterogeneity of surface composition and properties and robust mechanical properties, to serve as nontoxic antibiofouling coatings that are amenable to large-scale production for application in the marine environment. Therefore, a two-dimensional matrix of materials compositions was prepared to study the physical and mechanical properties, over which the compositions spanned from 0 to 25 wt% PEG tetrathiol and 0-64 wt% PETMP (the overall thiol/alkene (SH/ene) ratios ranged from 0.00 to 1.00 equiv), with both cross-linker weight percentages calculated with respect to the weight of Boltorn-ene. The Boltorn-ene components were prepared through the esterification of commercially available Boltorn H30 with 3-butenoic acid. The subsequent cross-linking of the Boltorn-PEG-PETMP films was monitored using IR spectroscopy, where it was found that near-complete consumption of both thiol and alkene groups occurred when the stoichiometry was ca. 48 wt% PETMP (0.75 equiv SH/ene, independent of PEG amount). The thermal properties of the films showed an increase in T(g) with an increase in 4-armed PEG-tetrathiol wt%, regardless of the PETMP concentration. Investigation of the bulk mechanical properties in dry and wet states found that the Young's modulus was the greatest at 48 wt% PETMP (0.75 equiv of SH/ene). The ultimate tensile strength increased when PETMP was constant and the PEG concentration was increased. The Young's modulus was slightly lower for wet films at constant PEG or constant PETMP amounts, than for the dry samples. The nanoscopic surface features were

  13. Effect of PEG molecular weight and PEGylation degree on the physical stability of PEGylated lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Josefine; Baumann, Pascal; Brunner, Carina; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2017-03-15

    During production, purification, formulation, and storage proteins for pharmaceutical or biotechnological applications face solution conditions that are unfavorable for their stability. Such harmful conditions include extreme pH changes, high ionic strengths or elevated temperatures. The characterization of the main influencing factors promoting undesired changes of protein conformation and aggregation, as well as the manipulation and selective control of protein stabilities are crucially important to biopharmaceutical research and process development. In this context PEGylation, i.e. the covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to proteins, represents a valuable strategy to improve the physico-chemical properties of proteins. In this work, the influence of PEG molecular weight and PEGylation degree on the physical stability of PEGylated lysozyme is investigated. Specifically, conformational and colloidal properties were studied by means of high-throughput melting point determination and automated generation of protein phase diagrams, respectively. Lysozyme from chicken egg-white as a model protein was randomly conjugated to 2kDa, 5kDa and 10kDa mPEG-aldehyde and resulting PEGamer species were purified by chromatographic separation. Besides protein stability assessment, residual enzyme activities were evaluated employing a Micrococcus lysodeikticus based activity assay. PEG molecules with lower molecular weights and lower PEGylation degrees resulted in higher residual activities. Changes in enzyme activities upon PEGylation have shown to result from a combination of steric hindrance and molecular flexibility. In contrast, higher PEG molecular weights and PEGylation degrees enhanced conformational and colloidal stability. By PEGylating lysozyme an increase of the protein solubility by more than 11-fold was achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A temperature-regulating fiber made of PEG-based smart copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qinghao; Hu, Jinlian [Shape Memory Textile Center, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-10-15

    A poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based thermoplastic shape memory polyurethane was synthesized via bulk polymerization. The corresponding fiber, as a temperature-regulating fiber, was fabricated via melt spinning. The prepared 100-dtex fiber had a tenacity of 0.7 cN/dtex and breaking elongation of about 488%. The fiber's phase change behaviors, crystalline morphology, dynamic mechanical properties, and temperature-resistant performance were investigated using polarizing optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and thermogravimetry. The PEG soft segment phase transfer between crystalline and amorphous states resulted in heat storage and release. The hydrogen-bonded hard segment phase, serving as 'physical cross-links,' restricted the free movement of soft segments, hence at temperatures above the PEG phase melting transition, the fiber still possessed certain mechanical strength. The differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the fiber had large latent heat-storage capacity of about 100 J/g with a crystallizing temperature of 20.9 C and a melting temperature of 44.7 C. The dynamic mechanical analysis results showed that the fiber has a plateau elastic modulus in the region above the PEG phase melting transition and below 160 C. The thermogravimetry results suggested that the fiber had a much broader applicable temperature range compared to pure PEG. The thermo-mechanical cyclic tensile testing results showed that the fiber had good shape memory effect with the shape fixity ratio more than 85.8% and the recovery ratio above 95.4%. (author)

  15. PEGylation of Phytantriol-Based Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Particles-The Effect of Lipid Composition, PEG Chain Length, and Temperature on the Internal Nanostructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Christa; Ostergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Susan Weng

    2014-01-01

    of these lipidic nonlamellar liquid crystalline particles by using DSPE-mPEGs with three different block lengths of the hydrophilic PEG segment. The effects of lipid composition, PEG chain length, and temperature on the morphology and internal nanostructure of these self-assembled lipidic aqueous dispersions based...

  16. A Novel Mutant Allele of Pw1/Peg3 Does Not Affect Maternal Behavior or Nursing Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lyse Denizot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Parental imprinting is a mammalian-specific form of epigenetic regulation in which one allele of a gene is silenced depending on its parental origin. Parentally imprinted genes have been shown to play a role in growth, metabolism, cancer, and behavior. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying parental imprinting have been largely elucidated, the selective advantage of silencing one allele remains unclear. The mutant phenotype of the imprinted gene, Pw1/Peg3, provides a key example to illustrate the hypothesis on a coadaptation between mother and offspring, in which Pw1/Peg3 is required for a set of essential maternal behaviors, such as nursing, nest building, and postnatal care. We have generated a novel Pw1/Peg3 mutant allele that targets the last exon for the PW1 protein that contains >90% of the coding sequence resulting in a loss of Pw1/Peg3 expression. In contrast to previous reports that have targeted upstream exons, we observe that maternal behavior and lactation are not disrupted upon loss of Pw1/Peg3. Both paternal and homozygous Pw1/Peg3 mutant females nurse and feed their pups properly and no differences are detected in either oxytocin neuron number or oxytocin plasma levels. In addition, suckling capacities are normal in mutant pups. Consistent with previous reports, we observe a reduction of postnatal growth. These results support a general role for Pw1/Peg3 in the regulation of body growth but not maternal care and lactation.

  17. A Novel Mutant Allele of Pw1/Peg3 Does Not Affect Maternal Behavior or Nursing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizot, Anne-Lyse; Besson, Vanessa; Correra, Rosa Maria; Mazzola, Alessia; Lopes, Izolina; Courbard, Jean-Remy; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Parental imprinting is a mammalian-specific form of epigenetic regulation in which one allele of a gene is silenced depending on its parental origin. Parentally imprinted genes have been shown to play a role in growth, metabolism, cancer, and behavior. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying parental imprinting have been largely elucidated, the selective advantage of silencing one allele remains unclear. The mutant phenotype of the imprinted gene, Pw1/Peg3, provides a key example to illustrate the hypothesis on a coadaptation between mother and offspring, in which Pw1/Peg3 is required for a set of essential maternal behaviors, such as nursing, nest building, and postnatal care. We have generated a novel Pw1/Peg3 mutant allele that targets the last exon for the PW1 protein that contains >90% of the coding sequence resulting in a loss of Pw1/Peg3 expression. In contrast to previous reports that have targeted upstream exons, we observe that maternal behavior and lactation are not disrupted upon loss of Pw1/Peg3. Both paternal and homozygous Pw1/Peg3 mutant females nurse and feed their pups properly and no differences are detected in either oxytocin neuron number or oxytocin plasma levels. In addition, suckling capacities are normal in mutant pups. Consistent with previous reports, we observe a reduction of postnatal growth. These results support a general role for Pw1/Peg3 in the regulation of body growth but not maternal care and lactation. PMID:27187722

  18. Development and Validation of a New Near-Infrared Sensor to Measure Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Concentration in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Olivier; Yuan, Shengyang; Routley, Benjamin

    2017-06-10

    A near-infrared absorption based laser sensor has been designed and validated for the real-time measurement of polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration. The wavelength was selected after the determination of the absorption spectrum of deionised water and PEG solutions using a Varian Cary 6000i spectrophotometer, in order to limit the influence of PEG molecular mass on the absorption measurement. With this new sensor, the water is treated as the attenuating species and the addition of PEG in water reduces the absorbance of the medium. The concept was validated using three different PEG types (PEG 6,000, 20,000, and 35,000) and it was found that the results follow Beer Lambert's law. The influence of temperature was assessed by testing the PEG 20,000 at four different temperatures that could be encountered in a laboratory environment. The data show a slight temperature influence (increase of absorbance by 8% when the temperature rises from about 20 to about 29 degrees). Following the validation phase conducted ex situ, a prototype of an immersible sensor was built and calibrated for in situ measurements.

  19. A Functional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Modified with PLA-PEG-DG as Tumor-Targeted MRI Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Hu, Ke; Yu, Haoli; Zhou, Lijun; Song, Lina; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Xiuhong; Liu, Jianping; Gu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Tumor targeting could greatly promote the performance of magnetic nanomaterials as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) agent for tumor diagnosis. Herein, we reported a novel magnetic nanoparticle modified with PLA (poly lactic acid)-PEG (polyethylene glycol)-DG (D-glucosamine) as Tumor-targeted MRI Contrast Agent. In this work, we took use of the D-glucose passive targeting on tumor cells, combining it on PLA-PEG through amide reaction, and then wrapped the PLA-PEG-DG up to the Fe 3 O 4 @OA NPs. The stability and anti phagocytosis of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG was tested in vitro; the MRI efficiency and toxicity was also detected in vivo. These functional magnetic nanoparticles demonstrated good biocompatibility and stability both in vitro and in vivo. Cell experiments showed that Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG nanoparticles exist good anti phagocytosis and high targetability. In vivo MRI images showed that the contrast effect of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG nanoparticles prevailed over the commercial non tumor-targeting magnetic nanomaterials MRI agent at a relatively low dose. The DG can validly enhance the tumor-targetting effect of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG nanoparticle. Maybe MRI agents with DG can hold promise as tumor-targetting development in the future.

  20. Composite porous scaffold of PEG/PLA support improved bone matrix deposition in vitro compared to PLA-only scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Birru; Owen, Robert; Bahmaee, Hossein; Wally, Zena; Sreenivasa Rao, Parcha; Reilly, Gwendolen C

    2018-05-01

    Controllable pore size and architecture are essential properties for tissue-engineering scaffolds to support cell ingrowth colonization. To investigate the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) addition on porosity and bone-cell behavior, porous polylactic acid (PLA)-PEG scaffolds were developed with varied weight ratios of PLA-PEG (100/0, 90/10, 75/25) using solvent casting and porogen leaching. Sugar 200-300 µm in size was used as a porogen. To assess scaffold suitability for bone tissue engineering, MLO-A5 murine osteoblast cells were cultured and cell metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and bone-matrix production determined using (alizarin red S staining for calcium and direct red 80 staining for collagen). It was found that metabolic activity was significantly higher over time on scaffolds containing PEG, ALP activity and mineralized matrix production were also significantly higher on scaffolds containing 25% PEG. Porous architecture and cell distribution and penetration into the scaffold were analyzed using SEM and confocal microscopy, revealing that inclusion of PEG increased pore interconnectivity and therefore cell ingrowth in comparison to pure PLA scaffolds. The results of this study confirmed that PLA-PEG porous scaffolds support mineralizing osteoblasts better than pure PLA scaffolds, indicating they have a high potential for use in bone tissue engineering applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1334-1340, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Use of read-across and computer-based predictive analysis for the safety assessment of PEG cocamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skare, Julie A; Blackburn, Karen; Wu, Shengde; Re, Thomas A; Duche, Daniel; Ringeissen, Stephanie; Bjerke, Donald L; Srinivasan, Viny; Eisenmann, Carol

    2015-04-01

    In the European Union animal testing has been eliminated for cosmetic ingredients while the US Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel may request data from animal studies. The use of read-across and predictive toxicology provides a path for filling data gaps without additional animal testing. The PEG cocamines are tertiary amines with an alkyl group derived from coconut fatty acids and two PEG chains of varying length. Toxicology data gaps for the PEG cocamines can be addressed by read-across based on structure-activity relationship using the framework described by Wu et al. (2010) for identifying suitable structural analogs. Data for structural analogs supports the conclusion that the PEG cocamines are non-genotoxic and not expected to exhibit systemic or developmental/reproductive toxicity with use in cosmetics. Due to lack of reliable dermal sensitization data for suitable analogs, this endpoint was addressed using predictive software (TIMES SS) as a first step (Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry). The prediction for PEG cocamines was the same as that for PEGs, which have been concluded to not present a significant concern for dermal sensitization. This evaluation for PEG cocamines demonstrates the utility of read-across and predictive toxicology tools to assess the safety of cosmetic ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of amphiphilic PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer addition on 5-fluorouracil release from biodegradable PCL films for stent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Lei, Lei; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Hou, Jing-Wen; Chen, Wei-Luan; Li, Yang-Gong; Guo, Sheng-Rong

    2011-10-31

    Biodegradable film-based stents emerged as a promising medical platform for drug delivery to resolve stenosis encountered in physiological conduits (e.g. blood vessels, biliary and urethral tracts). Drug release kinetics significantly affects the pharmacological effects of a stent, thus it is desirable for a stent to possess highly adjustable drug release kinetics. In this study, a series of amphiphilic poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymers were used as additives to adjust 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) release from PCL films. The effects of the copolymer addition on drug release behavior, drug permeability, crystalline states, and surface and internal morphologies of the films were investigated. It was found that, the addition of PCL-PEG-PCL could accelerate 5-FU release. The release rate of 5-FU increased with increasing content of PCL-PEG-PCL in the film, but it decreased with the ratio of PCL blocks in the PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer. The diffusion test results showed that 5-FU diffused through the film containing PCL-PEG-PCL faster than it permeated through the pure PCL film, indicating that the addition of PCL-PEG-PCL can improve the permeability of 5-FU in PCL film. The addition of PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer showed high drug-release-regulating ability in the 5-FU-loaded PCL films. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Covalently modified magnetite nanoparticles with PEG: preparation and characterization as nano-adsorbent for removal of lead from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati Behbahani, Nejat; Rostamizadeh, Kobra; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Zamani, Abbasali; Ahmadi, Hamideh

    2014-01-01

    Lead is one of the hazardous materials which is associated with pollution and toxicity problems. This paper describes a novel approach for removal of lead from wastewater. Although naked magnetic nanoparticles have been applied for removal of different pollutants from wastewater, there was no research on employment of covalently PEG modified magnetic nanoparticles for such purpose. A magnetic nano-adsorbent was prepared by chemically modification of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for removal of lead ions. The surface of MNPs was coated covalently with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and PEG. Modified MNPs (MNPs-APTES-PEG) were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and particle size analysis. Compared to the oleic acid coated MNPs, MNPs-APTES-PEG exhibited significant higher uptake capability for Pb(II) ions. The effective parameters on the extent of adsorption (time, temperature, Pb(II) concentration, contact time and pH) were studied and optimized by response surface methodology. Maximum uptake of MNPs-APTES-PEG for Pb(II) was determined to be 81.39 ± 2.5%. The results showed that the kinetic data was best described by Pseudo-second order model as evidenced by the relatively high value of determination coefficient (R(2) = 0.9998). Successful removal of Pb(II) from industrial wastewater was also accomplished by MNPs-APTES-PEG. The results revealed high capability and excellent efficiency of developed nano-adsorbents in removal of lead contaminants from industrial wastewater.

  4. Foreign Body Response to Intracortical Microelectrodes Is Not Altered with Dip-Coating of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heui C. Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG is a frequently used polymer for neural implants due to its biocompatible property. As a follow-up to our recent study that used PEG for stiffening flexible neural probes, we have evaluated the biological implications of using devices dip-coated with PEG for chronic neural implants. Mice (wild-type and CX3CR1-GFP received bilateral implants within the sensorimotor cortex, one hemisphere with a PEG-coated probe and the other with a non-coated probe for 4 weeks. Quantitative analyses were performed using biomarkers for activated microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, blood-brain barrier leakage, and neuronal nuclei to determine the degree of foreign body response (FBR resulting from the implanted microelectrodes. Despite its well-known acute anti-biofouling property, we observed that PEG-coated devices caused no significantly different FBR compared to non-coated controls at 4 weeks. A repetition using CX3CR1-GFP mice cohort showed similar results. Our histological findings suggest that there is no significant impact of acute delivery of PEG on the FBR in the long-term, and that temporary increase in the device footprint due to the coating of PEG also does not have a significant impact. Large variability seen within the same treatment group also implies that avoiding large superficial vasculature during implantation is not sufficient to minimize inter-animal variability.

  5. Fluorescent water-Soluble Probes Based on Ammonium Cation Peg Substituted Perylenepisimides: Synthesis, Photophysical Properties, and Live Cell Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Cai, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Shuchen; Yi, Xuegang; Gao, Baoxiang

    2018-01-01

    To synthesize perylenbisimides (PBI) fluorescent probes that will improve the water-soluble ability and the cytocompatibility, the synthesis and properties of fluorescent water-soluble probes based on dendritic ammonium cation polyethylene glycol (PEG) substituted perylenebisimides(GPDIs) are presented. As we expected, with increased ammonium cation PEG, the aggregation of the PBI in an aqueous solution is completely suppressed by the hydrophilic ammonium cation PEG groups. And the fluorescence quantum yield increases from 25% for GPDI-1 to 62% for GPDI-2. When incubated with Hela cells for 48 h, the viabilities are 71% (for GPDI-1) and 76% (for GPDI-2). Live cell imaging shows that these probes are efficiently internalized by HeLa cells. The study of the photophysical properties indicated increasing the ammonium cation PEG generation can increase the fluorescence quantum yield. Live cell imaging shows that with the ammonium cation PEG chains of perylenebisimides has high biocompatibility. The exceptionally low cytotoxicity is ascribed to the ammonium cation PEG chains, which protect the dyes from nonspecifically interacting with the extracellular proteins. Live cell imaging shows that ammonium cations PEG chains can promote the internalization of these probes.

  6. The Preparation and Characterization of Immobilized TiO2/PEG by Using DSAT as a Support Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Izhan Nawawi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized TiO2 was prepared by adding a small composition of polyethylene glycol (PEG as a binder, and this paper reported for the very first time the formation of C=O from oxidized PEG, which acted as an electron injector in enhancing photoactivity. Water-based TiO2 with PEG formulation was deposited by using a brush technique onto double-sided adhesive tape (DSAT as a support binder to increase the adhesiveness of immobilized TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of immobilized TiO2-PEG was measured by photodegradation of 12 mg·L−1 methylene blue (MB dye. The optimum condition of immobilized TiO2-PEG was observed at TiO2/PEG-2 (TP2 with 10:0.1 for the TiO2/PEG ratio, which resulted in a 1.8-times higher photodegradation rate as compared to the suspension mode of pristine TiO2. The high photodegradation rate was due to the formation of the active C=O bond from oxidized PEG binder in immobilized TiO2-PEG as observed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The presence of C=O has escalated the photoactivity by forming an electron injector to a conduction band of TiO2 as proven by higher photoluminescence intensity obtained for TP2 as compared to pristine TiO2. The TP2 sample has also increased its adhesiveness when DSAT is applied as a support binder where it can be recycled up to eight times and comparable to recent photocatalysis cycle developments.

  7. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lactic acid nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels for restoring the vaginal microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sujata Sundara; Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Singh, Yashveer; Chikindas, Michael L.; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) display reduced vaginal acidity, which make them susceptible to associated infections such as HIV. In the current study, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels were developed for the controlled release of lactic acid in the vagina of BV-infected women. PEG-lactic acid (PEG-LA) nanocarriers were prepared by covalently attaching lactic acid to 8-arm PEG-SH via cleavable thioester bonds. PEG-LA nanocarriers with 4 copies of lactic acid per molecule provided controlled release of lactic acid with a maximum release of 23% and 47% bound lactic acid in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) and acetate buffer (AB, pH 4.3), respectively. The PEG nanocarrier-based hydrogels were formed by cross-linking the PEG-LA nanocarriers with 4-arm PEG-NHS via degradable thioester bonds. The nanocarrier-based hydrogels formed within 20 min under ambient conditions and exhibited an elastic modulus that was 100-fold higher than the viscous modulus. The nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels provided controlled release of lactic acid for several hours; however, a maximum release of only 10%–14% bound lactic acid was observed possibly due to steric hindrance of the polymer chains in the cross-linked hydrogel. In contrast, hydrogels with passively entrapped lactic acid showed burst release with complete release within 30 min. Lactic acid showed antimicrobial activity against the primary BV pathogen Gardnerella vaginalis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.6 mg/ml. In addition, the hydrogels with passively entrapped lactic acid showed retained antimicrobial activity with complete inhibition G. vaginalis growth within 48 h. The results of the current study collectively demonstrate the potential of PEG nanocarrier-based hydrogels for vaginal administration of lactic acid for preventing and treating BV. PMID:25223229

  8. Phase 1 Trial of Subcutaneous rAvPAL-PEG in Subjects with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O.; Burton, Barbara K.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M.; Musson, Donald G.; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. A phenylalanine-restricted diet initiated early in life can ameliorate the toxic effects of phenylalanine. However, the diet is onerous and compliance is extremely difficult. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. This Phase 1, multicenter clinical trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of rAvPAL-PEG (recombinant Anabaena variabilis PAL produced in E. coli conjugated with polyethylene glycol [PEG] to reduce immunogenicity) in reducing phenylalanine levels in subjects with phenylketonuria. Methods Single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·01, 0·03, and 0·1 mg/kg) were administered to 25 adults with phenylketonuria recruited from those attending metabolic clinics in North America whose blood phenylalanine concentrations were ≥600 μmol/L. Results The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness. Reactions were self-limited without sequelae. During the trial, two subjects had adverse reactions to intramuscular (IM) medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug containing polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three subjects developed a generalized skin rash at the highest rAvPAL-PEG dose (0·1 mg/kg). Drug levels peaked ∼5 days after the injection. Treatment was effective in reducing blood phenylalanine in all five subjects receiving the highest dose (0·1 mg/kg, mean percent change of -58 from baseline), with a nadir ∼6 days after injection and inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine concentrations returned to near-baseline levels ∼20 days after the single injection. Conclusions

  9. Troubleshooting PEG-hGH detection supporting pharmacokinetic evaluation in growth hormone deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, Heather A; McVay, Sami; Kratzsch, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    The ability to quantify systemic concentrations of protein therapeutics is complicated by the presence of endogenous analyte, specific binding proteins, and nonspecific matrix components in biological matrices (Lee & Ma, 2007). Further complications can be introduced following pegylation whereby polyethylene glycol (PEG) impedes epitope recognition. Due to substantial interference from high affinity binding proteins and the inability to measure systemic drug concentrations under normal conditions, acid dissociation was implemented to facilitate the pharmacokinetic evaluation of clinical samples containing pegylated human growth hormone (PEG-hGH). A sandwich electrochemiluminescent immunosorbent assay (ECLA) was employed using an anti-PEG capture, anti-hGH detection format, thereby eliminating cross-reactivity with endogenous compound. Samples were acid treated with glycine buffered hydrochloric acid (approximately pH 2.0) to dissociate PEG-hGH from serum resident growth hormone binding protein (GHBP; 3). After neutralization with a HEPES-based neutralizing buffer, samples were diluted in a casein-based assay buffer containing 0.2% I-block, 0.1% Tween-20, 2M NaCl, and 10% normal mouse serum to eliminate nonspecific matrix effects. Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) technology was employed to achieve sensitivity requirements. The drug detection assay was validated in the presence and absence of acid dissociation. Validation parameters included: intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision, selectivity (>60 lots of normal and growth hormone deficient human serum), cross-reactivity/specificity (Genotropin, hemoglobin, lipid, and bilirubin), dilutional linearity and stability (DeSilva et al., 2003; Shah et al., 1992; Smolec et al., 2005 Viswanathan et al., 2007; Food and Drug Administration, 2001). A 10-fold molar excess of GHBP was found to decrease PEG-hGH detection by >90% while acid dissociation was shown to recover >80% of the analyte. PEG-hGH clinical pharmacokinetic

  10. A novel of PEG-conjugated phthalocyanine and evaluation of its photocytotoxicity and antibacterial properties for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Canan; Işleyen, Naciye Durmuş; Öztürk, Yetkin; Yıldız, Burcu Turanlı; Çakar, Z. Petek; Göksel, Meltem; Durmuş, Mahmut; Gürsel, Yeşim Hepuzer; Sesalan, B. Şebnem

    A poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-conjugated silicon(IV) phthalocyanine axially substituted with (PEG1000) chains (SiPc-PEG) was synthesized, and this novel phthalocyanine was characterized by 1H-NMR, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectrophotometric methods. Elemental analysis data were beneficial for the evaluation of the chemical structure of the new compound. The total number of (O-CH2-CH2 units was calculated as 44 and the structure of the new PEG-conjugated silicon phthalocyanine was determined by the use of integral areas in 1H-NMR spectrum and the ratio of SiPc:PEG1000 was found as 1:2. The photophysical and photochemical properties were determined in both DMSO and aqueous solutions. In addition, the photocytotoxicity of the novel PEG-conjugated silicon(IV) phthalocyanine was also examined by testing against human cervical-carcinoma (HeLa) and hepato-carcinoma cells (HuH-7). The IC50 value for the SiPc-PEG compound was determined as 0.28 μM for HeLa cells and 0.4 μM for HuH-7 cells. These results imply that HeLa cells are apparently more responsive to photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment by SiPc-PEG than HuH-7 cells at low concentrations (up to 0.5 μM) of the studied photosensitizer. Additionally, SiPc-PEG showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli at 48 h of incubation, the viabilities of E.coli cultures exposed to 1000 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL SiPc-PEG concentration were reduced by about 90%, and the additional growth inhibitory effect of photoactivation was also observed clearly at these efficient concentrations. To conclude, the novel compound may have a high potential for photodynamic therapy. A new PEG-conjugated silicon(IV) phthalocyanine axially substituted with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 1000) chains was synthesized and characterized. Its photophysical, photochemical properties and its photocytotoxicity were also investigated by applying it on HeLa and HuH-7 tumor cells. The antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterium was

  11. Self-assembling nanocomposites for protein delivery: supramolecular interactions between PEG-cholane and rh-G-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, Stefano; Bersani, Sara; Mastrotto, Francesca; Tonon, Giancarlo; Schrepfer, Rodolfo; Genovese, Stefano; Caliceti, Paolo

    2012-08-20

    PEG(5 kDa)-cholane, PEG(10 kDa)-cholane and PEG(20 kDa)-cholane self-assembling polymers have been synthesised by the end-functionalisation of 5, 10 and 20 kDa linear amino-terminating monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-NH(2)) with 5β-cholanic acid. Spectroscopic studies and isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the CMC of the PEG-cholane derivatives increased from 23.5 ± 1.8 to 60.2 ± 2.4 μM as the PEG molecular weight increased. Similarly, light scattering analysis showed that the micelle size increased from 15.8 ± 4.9 to 23.2 ± 11.1 nm with the PEG molecular weight. Gel permeation studies showed that the polymer bioconjugates associate with recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rh-G-CSF) to form supramolecular nanocomposites according to multi-modal association profiles. The protein loadings obtained with PEG(5 kDa)-cholane, PEG(10 kDa)-cholane and PEG(20 kDa)-cholane were 7.4 ± 1.1, 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.1 ± 0.4% (protein/polymer, w/w %), respectively. Scatchard and Klotz analyses showed that the protein/polymer affinity constant increased and that the number of PEG-cholane molecules associated to rh-G-CSF decreased as the PEG molecular weight increased. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirmed the protein/polymer multi-modal association. Circular dichroism analyses showed that the polymer association alters the secondary structure of the protein. Nevertheless, in vitro studies performed with NFS-60 cells showed that the polymer interaction does not impair the biological activity of the cytokine. In vivo studies performed by intravenous and subcutaneous administrations of rh-G-CSF to rats showed that the association with PEG(5 kDa)-cholane prolongs the body exposure of the protein. After subcutaneous administration, the protein t(max) values obtained with rh-G-CSF and 1:14 and 1:21 rh-G-CSF/PEG(5 kDa)-cholane (w/w ratio) nanocomplexes were 2, 8 and 24h, respectively. The 1:21 (w/w) rh-G-CSF/PEG(5kDa)-cholane formulation

  12. Protein and bacterial fouling characteristics of peptide and antibody decorated surfaces of PEG-poly(acrylic acid) co-polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Victoria E; Koberstein, Jeffrey T; Bryers, James D

    2004-05-01

    The potential for base poly(ethylene glycol) graft poly(acrylic acid) PEG-g-PA copolymers and surface-modified PEG-g-PA materials to inhibit random protein fouling and bacterial adhesion are investigated. PEG-g-PA co-polymers were synthesized that inhibited non-specific protein and cellular adhesion. PEG-g-PA co-polymers were then covalently modified with either cell adhesion peptides (YRGDS, YEILDV) or fragments of antibodies to monocyte/macrophage integrin receptors (Anti-VLA4, Anti-beta1, Anti-beta2, and Anti-CD64) known to enhance macrophage adhesion and, perhaps, modulate their activation. Materials produced in this work were characterized using: hydrophobicity by contact angle; angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to confirm the presence of PEG in the bulk material and the surface; degree of hydration; differential scanning calorimetry; and thermal gravimetric analysis. To evaluate the non-fouling efficacy of the various modified surfaces, three proteins, human serum albumin, human fibronectin (Fraction I) and human immunoglobulin were 125I labeled. Samples of base PEG-g-PA and PEG-g-PA, modified with various peptides, were exposed to solutions containing either 2 or 200 microg/ml of one of the labeled proteins at 37 degrees C for 24 h. PEG-g-PA substrata modified with directly bound peptides exhibited protein adsorption that varied depending upon the surface bounded peptide. PEG-g-PA modified with peptides linked by linear PEG tethers reduced protein adsorption at 24 h by approximately 45% in comparison to PEG-g-PA. Peptides linked by way of StarPEO and StarlikePEO tethers further decreased protein adsorption in comparison to PEG-g-PA. The ability of peptide:PEOtethers to inhibit protein adsorption appeared to be a function of type and surface coverage of the PEO tether and not influenced by the amount or molecular structure the tethered peptide. Peptides directly coupled to the PEG-g-PA increased the amount of protein fouling relative to controls

  13. Near-infrared (1550 nm) in vivo bioimaging based on rare-earth doped ceramic nanophosphors modified with PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Masao; Kanayama, Naoki; Tokuzen, Kimikazu; Soga, Kohei; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2011-09-01

    A novel poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based block copolymer possessing a 4-vinylbenzylphosphonate repeating unit in another segment (PEG-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate)) (PEG-b-PVBP) was designed and successfully synthesized. As a control, an end-functionalized PEG possessing a mono-phosphonate group (PEG-PO3H2) was also synthesized. The surface of near-infrared (NIR) phosphors (i.e., ytterbium (Yb) and erbium (Er) ion-codoped Y2O3 nanoparticles (YNPs)) were modified with PEG-b-PVBP (PEG-YNP(b)s) and PEG-PO3H2 (PEG-YNP(1)s). The adsorption of PEG-b-PVBP and PEG-PO3H2 was estimated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The physicochemical characteristics of the obtained YNP samples were analyzed by ζ-potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The ζ-potentials of YNPs modified by these polymers were close to zero, indicating the effective coverage of the YNP surface by our new PEG derivatives. However, the dispersion stability of the PEGylated YNPs was strongly affected by the structure of the PEG terminus. The average diameter of the PEG-YNP(1)s increased, and aggregates precipitated after less than 1 h in phosphate buffer saline (PBS). In contrast, the size did not change at all in the case of PEG-YNP(b)s and the dispersion in PBS was stable for over 1 week. PEG-YNP(b)s also showed high erosion resistance under acidic conditions. The multiple coordinated PVBP segment of the block copolymer on the YNP surface plays a substantial role in improving such dispersion stability. The excellent dispersion stability and strong NIR luminescence of the obtained PEG-YNP(b)s were also confirmed in fetal bovine serum (FBS) solution over 1 week. Furthermore, in vivo NIR imaging of live mice was performed, and the 1550 nm NIR emission of PEG-YNP(b)s from the organ of live mice was confirmed without dissection.A novel poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based block copolymer possessing a 4-vinylbenzylphosphonate

  14. Investigation of the degree of homogeneity and hydrogen bonding in PEG/PVP blends prepared in supercritical CO2: comparison with ethanol-cast blends and physical mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available (as monitored by FTIR analysis). The remaining material was then ground to a powder in a coffee grinder. The supercritical CO2-processed blends (scCO2- processed) were prepared by first mixing the weighed-off ingredients (20g samples) in the coffee...PEG the weight fraction of PEG in the blend and ∆HPEG the heat of fusion of the pure PEG- 1000. Based on this calculation, wcrPEG is 1.1 for the physical mixtures, 0.1 for the scCO2-processed samples while no crystalline PEG1000 was measured in the ethanol...

  15. nPEG-TiO₂ nanoparticles: a facile route to elaborate nanostructured surfaces for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadavecchia, J; Boujday, S; Landoulsi, J; Pradier, C-M

    2011-07-01

    We report the synthesis of diacid-terminated PEG-functionalized cubic TiO(2) nanocrystals by a simple one-step solvothermal method, and their further use to form nanostructured surfaces for protein immobilization. The relevance and major interest of the so-obtained nanocrystals are the presence of terminal carboxylic acid groups at their surface, as confirmed by infrared analyses, in addition to the surrounding PEG chains, essential to avoid non specific interactions. These functional chemical groups were used to (i) immobilize the synthesized nanocubes on a cysteamine-modified Au surface, and to (ii) attach proteins via a presumable covalent link. AFM images show that the shapes and the narrow size distribution of the nanocubes, observed by TEM, were preserved after their immobilization on the modified Au surface. Moreover, the efficiency and specificity of antigen recognition were demonstrated using spectroscopic analyses. Our successful approach provides a versatile and facile way to elaborate specific and sensitive nanostructured surfaces for biosensors.

  16. Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles Behavior in Vivo Modulated by Surface Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shuaidong; Chen, Shizhu; Gong, Ningqiang; Liu, Juan; Li, Xianlei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2017-01-18

    Ultrasmall nanoparticles provide us with essential alternatives for designing more efficient nanocarriers for drug delivery. However, the fast clearance of ultrasmall nanoparticles limits their application to some extent. One of the most frequently used compound to slow the clearance of nanocarriers and nanodrugs is PEG, which is also approved by FDA. Nonetheless, few reports explored the effect of the PEGylation of ultrasmall nanoparticles on their behavior in vivo. Herein, we investigated the impact of different PEG grafting level of 2 nm core sized gold nanoparticles on their biological behavior in tumor-bearing mice. The results indicate that partial (∼50%) surface PEGylation could prolong the blood circulation and increase the tumor accumulation of ultrasmall nanoparticles to a maximum extent, which guide us to build more profitable small-sized nanocarriers for drug delivery.

  17. Bypassing non-adherence via PEG in a critically ill HIV-1-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, J; Hueber, A J; Rech, J; Harrer, T

    2008-08-01

    This case study describes a 44-year-old, chronically non-adherent, HIV-infected male with relapsing, life threatening toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) and other recurring opportunistic infections. Non-adherence resulted in critical illness, suppressed CD4 lymphocyte count and elevated viral load. In order to bypass the patient's complete psychological aversion to taking medication, and after exhausting various psychological interventions, a percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG) tube was inserted for delivery of indispensable medication. During the 15-month follow-up the patient was adherent, exhibiting a consistently undetectable viral load, high CD4 count and a remission of the opportunistic infections. This is an interesting case study demonstrating life-saving and long-term benefit of PEG in an exceptional setting, which has implications for future research and treatment of non-adherent HIV-infected patients.

  18. Thermally induced gel from cellulose/NaOH/PEG solution: preparation, characterization and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caichao; Lu, Yun; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng; Li, Jian

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we reported a thermally induced gel with strong mechanical properties prepared from cellulose/NaOH/PEG aqueous solution following the procedures of dissolution, heating and freeze-drying. The as-prepared gel showed undeveloped networks composed of cross-linked fiber aggregations tightly coated with plenty of NaOH·H2O and PEG-aggregated fine particles, which led to the significant enhancement of thermal stability and the disappearance of the original cellulose crystalline structures. Furthermore, the elastic modulus, yield stress and toughness of the mechanically strong gel were measured to be up to 3,210, 325 kPa and 389 kJ m-3, respectively, comparable to those of cross-linked polymer gel materials with strong mechanical strength such as the microfibrillated cellulose aerogels and the three-dimensional architectures of graphene hydrogels.

  19. Understanding processing-induced phase transformations in erythromycin-PEG 6000 solid dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Sabiruddin; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Miroshnyk, Inna

    2006-01-01

    Since the quality and performance of a pharmaceutical solid formulation depend on solid state of the drug and excipients, a thorough investigation of potential processing-induced transformations (PITs) of the ingredients is required. In this study, the physical phenomena taking place during...... intermolecular interactions between the drug and polymer in the solid state were further studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. While in the absence of PEG the dehydration was the only transformation observed, hot-melt processing with the polymer caused the drug to undergo multiple phase...... formulation of erythromycin (EM) dihydrate solid dispersions with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 by melting were investigated. PITs were monitored in situ using variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction (VT-XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and hot-stage microscopy (HSM). Possible...

  20. Effect of poly ethylene glycol (PEG as surfactant on cerium doped ZnS nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Cholan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerium-doped nanoparticles capped with different levels of poly ethylene glycol (PEG have been synthesized in aqueous solution by a simple chemical precipitation method. The synthesized particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV–vis absorption and room temperature photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. The morphology of the products was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The functional groups of the synthesized particles were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Photoluminescence studies for the entire investigated samples displayed two emission bands one at UV region and the other at visible region. In addition, XRD and high resolution transmission electron microscope studies showed the formation of cubic ZnS:Ce3+ nanoparticles with an average crystal size of 2.8 nm on 2.5% of PEG capping.

  1. Antifouling activities of β-cyclodextrin stabilized peg based silver nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punitha, N., E-mail: punithasan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600119 (India); Saravanan, P. [Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600119 (India); Mohan, R. [Department of Physics, Surya College of Engineering and Technology, Villupuram (India); Ramesh, P.S. [Department of Physics (DDE), Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Simple, novel and cost effective. • Functionalized Ag nanocomposites exhibit enhanced biological activity. • The SNCs were crystalline nature and shows good stability. - Abstract: Self-polishing polymer composites which release metal biocide in a controlled rate have been widely used in the design of antimicrobial agents and antifouling coatings. The present work focuses on the environmental friendly green synthesis of PEG based SNCs and their application to biocidal activity including marine biofouling. Biocompatible polymer β-CD and adhesive resistance polymer PEG were used to functionalize the SNPs and the as synthesized SNCs exhibit excellent micro fouling activities. The structural and optical properties were confirmed by XRD and UV–visible techniques respectively. The particle surface and cross sectional characteristics were examined by SEM-EDS, HR-TEM, AFM and FTIR. The surface potential was evaluated using ZP analysis and assessment of antibiofouling property was investigated using static immersion method.

  2. Preparation of alkyd resins containing PEG unit and their dispersing effects of inorganic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chill Won; Gong, Myoung Seon [Dept. of Chemistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea); Kim, Chang Bae [Dept. of Chemistry, Dankook University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing alkyd resins were prepared for the dispersing agent and binder by reacting the carboxy-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) with 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane monostearate obtained from 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane and stearic acid. Dispersing properties of titanium dioxide and talc were compared by measuring transmittance of the dispersing solutions, and rate of the sedimentation in 1,1,1-trichloroethane. These alkyd resins, which contained both hydrophilic and lipophilic parts, showed a good dispersion of the polar inorganic particles in the non-polar solvent. The dispersing effect of the PEG-containing alkyd resins showed its maximum when the molecular weights of hydrophilic and lipophilic parts were almost the same. This happened when the alkyd resin was prepared from PEG 1000, which turned out to agree well with HLB value 10.25. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Biocompatible fluorinated polyglycerols for droplet microfluidics as an alternative to PEG-based copolymer surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Olaf; Thiele, Julian; Weinhart, Marie; Mazutis, Linas; Weitz, David A; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Haag, Rainer

    2016-01-07

    In droplet-based microfluidics, non-ionic, high-molecular weight surfactants are required to stabilize droplet interfaces. One of the most common structures that imparts stability as well as biocompatibility to water-in-oil droplets is a triblock copolymer surfactant composed of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) blocks. However, the fast growing applications of microdroplets in biology would benefit from a larger choice of specialized surfactants. PEG as a hydrophilic moiety, however, is a very limited tool in surfactant modification as one can only vary the molecular weight and chain-end functionalization. In contrast, linear polyglycerol offers further side-chain functionalization to create custom-tailored, biocompatible droplet interfaces. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of polyglycerol-based triblock surfactants with tailored side-chain composition, and exemplify their application in cell encapsulation and in vitro gene expression studies in droplet-based microfluidics.

  4. Antifouling activities of β-cyclodextrin stabilized peg based silver nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitha, N.; Saravanan, P.; Mohan, R.; Ramesh, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Self-polishing polymer composites which release metal biocide in a controlled rate have been widely used in the design of antimicrobial agents and antifouling coatings. The present work focuses on the environmental friendly green synthesis of PEG based SNCs and their application to biocidal activity including marine biofouling. Biocompatible polymer β-CD and adhesive resistance polymer PEG were used to functionalize the SNPs and the as synthesized SNCs exhibit excellent micro fouling activities. The structural and optical properties were confirmed by XRD and UV-visible techniques respectively. The particle surface and cross sectional characteristics were examined by SEM-EDS, HR-TEM, AFM and FTIR. The surface potential was evaluated using ZP analysis and assessment of antibiofouling property was investigated using static immersion method.

  5. Self-assembly of phospholipid-PEG coating on nanoparticles through dual solvent exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Sheng; Hou, Sijian; Ren, Binbin; Zheng, Zhilan; Bao, Gang

    2011-01-01

    We coated nanoparticles including iron oxide nanoparticles and quantum dots with phospholipid-PEG using the newly developed dual solvent exchange method and demonstrated that, compared with the conventional film hydration method, the coating efficiency and quality of coated nanoparticles can be significantly improved. A better control of surface coating density and the amount of reactive groups on nanoparticle surface is achieved, allowing conjugation of different moieties with desirable surf...

  6. Phosphonium alkyl PEG sulfate ionic liquids as coating materials for activation of Burkholderia cepacia lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yui; Kadotani, Shiho; Nishihara, Takashi; Hikino, Yoshichika; Fukaya, Yukinobu; Nokami, Toshiki; Itoh, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Lipases are among the most widely used enzymes applicable for various substrates; however, the slow reactions or poor enantioselective reactions are sometimes obtained. To develop ionic liquid type activating agents for lipase, four types of phosphonium cetyl(PEG)10 sulfate ionic liquids have been synthesized and used as coating materials of Burkholderia cepacia lipase (Lipase PS) through the lyophilization process. Tributyl ([2-methoxy]ethoxymethyl)phosphonium cetyl(PEG)10 sulfate ([P444MEM ][C16 (PEG)10 SO4 ]) (PL1) worked best among them, and PL1-coated lipase PS displayed high reactivity in transesterification of broad types of secondary alcohols using vinyl acetate as an acylating reagent with perfect enantioselectivity (E > 200). The substrate preference of PL1-PS differs from that of commercial lipase PS or [bdmim] [C16 (PEG)10 SO4 ]-coated lipase (IL1-PS); PL1-PS displayed excellent enantioselectivity in the reaction of 2-chloro-1-phenylethanol with E > 200, though insufficient E values were recorded for lipase PS (E = 12) and IL1-PS (E = 123) for this alcohol. PL1-PS also showed perfect enantioselectivity (E > 200) for the reaction of 1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethanol, while IL1-PS showed E = 130 for this compound. We further succeeded in demonstrating the recyclable use of PL1-PS five times in tributyl(3-methoxypropyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([P444PM ][Tf2 N]) as a solvent. Since PL1-PS is easily applicable to 10-20 gram-scaled reactions, it is expected that the IL-coated enzyme might be useful for practical preparation of a wide variety of chiral secondary alcohols. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Cationic nanoparticles with quaternary ammonium-functionalized PLGA-PEG-based copolymers for potent gene transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hsung; Fu, Yin-Chih; Chiu, Hui-Chi; Wang, Chau-Zen; Lo, Shao-Ping; Ho, Mei-Ling; Liu, Po-Len; Wang, Chih-Kuang

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop new cationic nanoparticles (cNPs) with amphiphilic cationic copolymers for the delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA). Cationic copolymers were built on the synthesis of quaternary ammonium salt compounds from diethylenetriamine (DETA) to include the positively charged head group and amphiphilic multi-grafts. PLGA- phe-PEG- qDETA (PPD), phe-PEG- qDETA-PLGA (PDP), and PLGA- phe-PEG- qDETA-PLGA (PPDP) cationic copolymers were created by this moiety of DETA quaternary ammonium, heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (COOH-PEG-NH2), phenylalanine ( phe), and poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). These new cNPs were prepared by the water miscible solvent displacement method. They exhibit good pDNA binding ability, as shown in a retardation assay that occurred at a particle size of 217 nm. The zeta potential was approximately +21 mV when the cNP concentration was 25 mg/ml. The new cNPs also have a better buffering capacity than PLGA NPs. However, the pDNA binding ability was demonstrated starting at a weight ratio of approximately 6.25 cNPs/pDNA. Gene transfection results showed that these cNPs had transfection effects similar to those of Lipofectamine 2000 in 293T cells. Furthermore, cNPs can also transfect human adipose-derived stem cells. The results indicate that the newly developed cNP is a promising candidate for a novel gene delivery vehicle.

  8. Cationic nanoparticles with quaternary ammonium-functionalized PLGA–PEG-based copolymers for potent gene transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan-Hsung; Fu, Yin-Chih; Chiu, Hui-Chi; Wang, Chau-Zen; Lo, Shao-Ping; Ho, Mei-Ling; Liu, Po-Len; Wang, Chih-Kuang

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop new cationic nanoparticles (cNPs) with amphiphilic cationic copolymers for the delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA). Cationic copolymers were built on the synthesis of quaternary ammonium salt compounds from diethylenetriamine (DETA) to include the positively charged head group and amphiphilic multi-grafts. PLGA-phe-PEG-qDETA (PPD), phe-PEG-qDETA-PLGA (PDP), and PLGA-phe-PEG-qDETA-PLGA (PPDP) cationic copolymers were created by this moiety of DETA quaternary ammonium, heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (COOH-PEG-NH 2 ), phenylalanine (phe), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). These new cNPs were prepared by the water miscible solvent displacement method. They exhibit good pDNA binding ability, as shown in a retardation assay that occurred at a particle size of ∼217 nm. The zeta potential was approximately +21 mV when the cNP concentration was 25 mg/ml. The new cNPs also have a better buffering capacity than PLGA NPs. However, the pDNA binding ability was demonstrated starting at a weight ratio of approximately 6.25 cNPs/pDNA. Gene transfection results showed that these cNPs had transfection effects similar to those of Lipofectamine 2000 in 293T cells. Furthermore, cNPs can also transfect human adipose-derived stem cells. The results indicate that the newly developed cNP is a promising candidate for a novel gene delivery vehicle

  9. PPS-PEG surface coating to reduce thrombogenicity of small diameter ePTFE vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, L; Duwe, J; Zisch, A H; Khabiri, E; Cikirikcioglu, M; Napoli, A; Goessl, A; Schaffner, T; Hess, O M; Carrel, T; Kalangos, A; Hubbell, J A; Walpoth, B H

    2005-10-01

    Patency failure of small vascular synthetic grafts is still a major problem for coronary and peripheral revascularization. Thus, three new surface coatings of small synthetic grafts were tested in an acute pig model to evaluate their thrombogenicity (extracorporeal arterio-venous shunt) and in a chronic rat model to evaluate the tissue reaction they induced (subcutaneous implantation). In five domestic pigs (25-30 kg) an extracorporeal femoro-femoral arterio-venous shunt model was used. The study protocol included first a non-heparinized perfusion sequence followed by graft perfusion after 10,000 UI iv heparin. Grafts were perfused for 3 and 9 minutes. The following coatings were tested on ePTFE grafts: poly-propylene sulphide (PPS)--poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) (wet and dry applications) as well as carbon. Two sets of control were used, one dry and one wet (vehicle only). After perfusion grafts were examined by scanning electron microscopy for semi-quantitative assessment (score 0-3) of cellular and microthrombi deposition. To assess tissue compatibility, pieces of each material were implanted subcutaneously in 16 Wistar rats. At 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks four animals each were sacrificed for semi-quantitative (score 0-3) histologic evaluation of tissue reaction. In the pig model, cellular deposition and microthrombi formation increased over time. In non- heparinized animals, the coatings did not improve the surface characteristics, since they did not prevent microthrombi formation and cellular deposition. In heparinized animals, thrombogenicity was lowest in coated grafts,especially in PPS -PEG dry (pPPS-PEG dry, but this difference was not statistically significant vs.controls. In the rat model,no significant differences of the tissue reaction could be shown between materials. While all coatings failed to add any benefit for lowering tissue reaction, surface coating with PPS -PEG (dry application) reduced thrombogenicity significantly (in heparinized animals) and thus

  10. Tannin-caprolactam and Tannin-PEG formulations as outdoor wood preservatives: weathering properties

    OpenAIRE

    Tondi , Gianluca; Hu , Jinbo; Rizzo , Filippo; Buh , Janez; Medved , Sergej; Petutschnigg , Alexander; Thevenon , Marie-France

    2017-01-01

    International audience; AbstractKey messageThis article presents the leaching, fire and weathering resistance improvements of samples treated with tannin-based wood preservatives added of caprolactam. PEG-added formulations show limited applicability. The FT-IR and13C-NMR analyses of the caprolactam-added formulations show some evidences of copolymerization.ContextTannin-boron wood preservatives are known for their high resistance against leaching, biological attacks, fire as well as for the ...

  11. PSMA ligand conjugated PCL-PEG polymeric micelles targeted to prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jin

    Full Text Available In this content, a small molecular ligand of prostate specific membrane antigen (SMLP conjugated poly (caprolactone (PCL-b-poly (ethylene glycol (PEG copolymers with different block lengths were synthesized to construct a satisfactory drug delivery system. Four different docetaxel-loaded polymeric micelles (DTX-PMs were prepared by dialysis with particle sizes less than 60 nm as characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Optimization of the prepared micelles was conducted based on short-term stability and drug-loading content. The results showed that optimized systems were able to remain stable over 7 days. Compared with Taxotere, DTX-PMs with the same ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic chain length displayed similar sustained release behaviors. The cytotoxicity of the optimized targeted DTX-PCL12K-PEG5K-SMLP micelles (DTX-PMs2 and non-targeted DTX-PCL12K-mPEG5K micelles (DTX-PMs1 were evaluated by MTT assays using prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA positive prostate adenocarcinoma cells (LNCaP. The results showed that the targeted micelles had a much lower IC50 than their non-targeted counterparts (48 h: 0.87 ± 0.27 vs 13.48 ± 1.03 µg/ml; 72 h: 0.02 ± 0.008 vs 1.35 ± 0.54 µg/ml. In vitro cellular uptake of PMs2 showed 5-fold higher fluorescence intensity than that of PMs1 after 4 h incubation. According to these results, the novel nano-sized drug delivery system based on DTX-PCL-PEG-SMLP offers great promise for the treatment of prostatic cancer.

  12. Screening Effect of PEG on Avidin Binding to Liposome Surface Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Jørgensen, Kent

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the screening effect of poly(ethylene glycol)-phospholipids (PE-PEG) on the interaction of avidin with PEGylated liposomes containing surface-bound biotin ligands. The influence of grafting density and lipopolymer chain length is examined. A simple fluorescence assay....... Furthermore. it is found that none of the lipopolymers completely prevents avidin from reaching the surface-bound biotin ligands....

  13. Terahertz transmission enhancement in finite-size arrays of subwavelength holes modified with dielectric peg layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenhunt, Brady Andrew

    Scope and Method of Study: This thesis investigates terahertz transmission through finite-size arrays of subwavelength holes perforated in a thin aluminum film modified with a periodic layer of dielectric pegs resting on the hole openings. Samples of differing patterns and numbers of holes were fabricated in a 350 nm thick layer of aluminum on top of a 640 µm thick silicon substrate layer. The dielectric peg layer (DPL) consisted of periodically-spaced pegs made out of negative photoresist material. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements of the transmission was taken both before and after fabrication of the DPL on top of the hole array samples. The results were analyzed and compared to simulation of an infinitely periodic hole array modified with a DPL. Findings and Conclusions: A peak in the transmission spectrum was observed at the predicted surface plasmon resonance frequency for the array. The transmission peak was enhanced 5%-20% with addition of the DPL, depending on the arrangement and number of holes in the sample. A weaker peak was observed in some samples at higher frequencies with addition of the DPL, which is attributed to a resonance of the DPL layer itself. Both resonant and nonresonant transmission was enhanced with addition of the DPL. Simulation showed a similar enhancement of the resonant and nonresonant transmission due to DPL. Varying the value of the dielectric constant of the simulated pegs changed the strength of the fundamental surface plasmon resonance as well as the location of the higher frequency peaks. A distinct Fano-like asymmetry was observed in the experimentally measured transmission spectra but not observed in simulation. The results suggest that a heterostructure consisting of a finite-size array of subwavelength holes combined with a DPL can be used to enhance the transmission of light through the holes as well as tune the asymmetry of the main surface plasmon resonance peak.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of SPIO-loaded PEG-b-PS micelles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-27

    Mar 27, 2018 ... This formulation showed stability over a 10-week period, and the standard deviations of the relaxivities were. 3.0 and 8.0% for 1.5 and 3 T MRI, respectively. Thus, SPIO-loaded PEG-b-PS micelles have a potential to be applied as a contrast agent for nanoparticle-based MRI phantom. Keywords. Iron oxide ...

  15. Remarkable influence of microwave heating on Morita-baylis-Hillman reaction in PEG-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morita Baylis Hillman (MBH reaction is used to introduce carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bond in a molecule. The major drawback of this reaction is the relatively low product yield and long reaction time. Though notable changes have been made to improve the reaction rate and yield of MBH adduct by various groups, a reliable synthetic procedure under ambient temperature in presence moisture and air is remain unsolved. Continuing the effort to improve the rate and yield, we report here an eco-friendly and cost-effective method to generate MBH adducts. Non-volatile polyethylene glycol-200 is used as reusable solvents and the reaction was carried out under the influence of microwave energy. Results Microwave irradiation have a remarkable influence on PEG suspended 4-Diazabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (DABCO catalysed MBH reaction between aldehydes and ethyl acrylate. Molecular weight of the PEG is found to have a significant influence on the reaction yield. PEG-200 was the most efficient solvent and in combination with DABCO, the medium can be recycled upto three more runs. This reaction condition is successfully applied to obtain MBH adduct of five different aldehydes in very short time with excellent yield and the required catalyst concentration was very low compared to standard MBH reaction. Since the MBH adduct is an important reactive intermediates for many complex organic syntheses, this approach can be successfully utilised as an alternative to existing reaction conditions. Conclusion A new method was developed to improve the reaction rate and yield of MBH reaction The PEG 200-DABCO combination provides a sustainable, non-volatile, recyclable and environment friendly solvent medium to produce MBH adducts. This medium in combination with microwave energy proved to be very effective to introduce a new carbon-carbon or a carbon-heteroatom bond in a molecule.

  16. Remarkable influence of microwave heating on Morita-baylis-Hillman reaction in PEG-200

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Morita Baylis Hillman (MBH) reaction is used to introduce carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bond in a molecule. The major drawback of this reaction is the relatively low product yield and long reaction time. Though notable changes have been made to improve the reaction rate and yield of MBH adduct by various groups, a reliable synthetic procedure under ambient temperature in presence moisture and air is remain unsolved. Continuing the effort to improve the rate and yield, we report here an eco-friendly and cost-effective method to generate MBH adducts. Non-volatile polyethylene glycol-200 is used as reusable solvents and the reaction was carried out under the influence of microwave energy. Results Microwave irradiation have a remarkable influence on PEG suspended 4-Diazabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (DABCO) catalysed MBH reaction between aldehydes and ethyl acrylate. Molecular weight of the PEG is found to have a significant influence on the reaction yield. PEG-200 was the most efficient solvent and in combination with DABCO, the medium can be recycled upto three more runs. This reaction condition is successfully applied to obtain MBH adduct of five different aldehydes in very short time with excellent yield and the required catalyst concentration was very low compared to standard MBH reaction. Since the MBH adduct is an important reactive intermediates for many complex organic syntheses, this approach can be successfully utilised as an alternative to existing reaction conditions. Conclusion A new method was developed to improve the reaction rate and yield of MBH reaction The PEG 200-DABCO combination provides a sustainable, non-volatile, recyclable and environment friendly solvent medium to produce MBH adducts. This medium in combination with microwave energy proved to be very effective to introduce a new carbon-carbon or a carbon-heteroatom bond in a molecule. PMID:22494595

  17. Bone cement penetration pattern and primary stability testing in keeled and pegged glenoid components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiss, Patric; Pape, Guido; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Jäger, Sebastian; Sowa, Boris; Jakubowitz, Eike; Loew, Markus; Bruckner, Thomas; Rickert, Markus

    2011-07-01

    It has been proposed that bone mineral density has an influence on cement penetration in hip and knee arthroplasty. The hypotheses of this study were that: 1) there is a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and cement penetration in cemented glenoid components; and 2) that implant design has an influence on cement penetration into the glenoid bone. BMD of 10 pairs of fresh frozen scapulas was measured. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scans in 3 different sections were analyzed after implantation of keeled and pegged glenoid components using a 3(rd)-generation cementing technique with a vacuum mixing system. Cement penetration was analyzed and correlated with BMD. Pull-out strength testing was performed to analyze primary stability. The overall peak BMD was 0.6 [g/cm(2)] (range, 0.33-0.98). A strong negative correlation between BMD and mean cement penetration was found for the peg (R(2) = -.83; P penetration was 78.4 mm(2) (range, 60.6-94.2) in the keel and 113.9 mm(2) (range, 78.2-143.4) in the peg group (P < .0001). In all cases, the components were pulled out of the cement mantle, whereas the bone-cement interfaces remained intact. The mean pull-out strength was 1093N (764-1343N) for keeled and 884N (650-1264N) for pegged components (P < .05). A modern cementing technique, leading to a deep bonding between bone and cement, is crucial to prevent loosening of glenoid components. The findings of this study might help us to better understand the results of follow-up studies of cemented glenoid implants. Our results could be helpful for the choice of implants in patients with poor bone quality like osteoporosis or rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MEFENAMIC ACID SOLID DISPERSIONS USING PEG-4000

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik Jamal Shariff; Shaik Saleem; Alaparthi Naga Pavan Kumar; Bachupally Ajay Kumar; Punuru Madhusudhan

    2013-01-01

    Mefenamic acid (MA) solid Dispersions were prepared employing methanol as a common solvent using PEG-4000 as a drug carrier with two different techniques namely, melting method and solvent evaporation in varied ratios. The prepared solid dispersions were evaluated and compared with that of pure drug (mefenamic acid) in respect to the dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency. It is noted that solid dispersions of mefenamic acid showed a remarkable increase in dissolution rate and dissolutio...

  19. EFFICIENCY OF VIRAL CONCENTRATION IN FOOD SAMPLES: COMPARISON BETWEEN PEG AND ULTRAFILTRATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is the most prevalent causative agent of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of this virus in foods other than shellfish is often time-consuming and unsuccessful. The objective of this study is to compare PEG and ultrafiltration techniques for viral concentration in bivalve molluscs. An experiment with Coxsackie B5 and feline Calicivirus strain F is conduct to determine the efficiency of each virus concentration. Ultrafiltration technique is the most indicated.

  20. Effect of PEG-mediated pore forming on Ca-alginate immobilization of nitrilase-producing bacteria Pseudomonas putida XY4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongmei; Ma, Li; Deng, Chao; Xu, Zhenghong; Chen, Jinghua

    2014-08-01

    Effect of PEG-mediated pore forming on Ca-alginate immobilization of nitrilase-producing bacteria Pseudomonas putida XY4 was studied. Through using PEG as porogen, the environmental tolerance as well as the biocatalytic reaction efficiency of immobilized cells was greatly improved, i.e., Ca-alginate-PEG immobilized cells got better temperature and substrate concentration tolerance than Ca-alginate immobilized cells and showed similar efficiency with free cells, suggesting that the intrinsic mass transfer resistance of immobilization obviously decreased. It was also observed that the pore diameter and porosity of immobilization beads were related with the molecular weight of PEG. PEG400 was found to be a relatively suitable porogen for Ca-alginate-PEG immobilized cells catalyzed hydrolysis of glycinonitrile. It was noteworthy that the Ca-alginate-PEG immobilized cells could be reused more than 18 times with little loss of enzyme activity which had shown good operation ability and great application potential.

  1. Mammographic screening: evidence from randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: All randomised breast cancer screening trials have shown a reduction in breast cancer mortality in the 'invited for mammography' screening arm compared with the 'control arm' for women aged 50 years and older at randomisation (overall 25%). However,

  2. The PEG-responding desiccome of the alder microsymbiont Frankia alni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedira, Kais; Harigua-Souiai, Emna; Ben Hamda, Cherif; Fournier, Pascale; Pujic, Petar; Guesmi, Sihem; Guizani, Ikram; Miotello, Guylaine; Armengaud, Jean; Normand, Philippe; Sghaier, Haïtham

    2018-01-15

    Actinorhizal plants are ecologically and economically important. Symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria allows these woody dicotyledonous plants to colonise soils under nitrogen deficiency, water-stress or other extreme conditions. However, proteins involved in xerotolerance of symbiotic microorganisms have yet to be identified. Here we characterise the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-responding desiccome from the most geographically widespread Gram-positive nitrogen-fixing plant symbiont, Frankia alni, by next-generation proteomics, taking advantage of a Q-Exactive HF tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an ultra-high-field Orbitrap analyser. A total of 2,052 proteins were detected and quantified. Under osmotic stress, PEG-grown F. alni cells increased the abundance of envelope-associated proteins like ABC transporters, mechano-sensitive ion channels and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats CRISPR-associated (cas) components. Conjointly, dispensable pathways, like nitrogen fixation, aerobic respiration and homologous recombination, were markedly down-regulated. Molecular modelling and docking simulations suggested that the PEG is acting on Frankia partly by filling the inner part of an up-regulated osmotic-stress large conductance mechanosensitive channel.

  3. Efficient Transformation of Oil Palm Protoplasts by PEG-Mediated Transfection and DNA Microinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Noll, Gundula A.; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Prüfer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering remains a major challenge in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) because particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation are laborious and/or inefficient in this species, often producing chimeric plants and escapes. Protoplasts are beneficial as a starting material for genetic engineering because they are totipotent, and chimeras are avoided by regenerating transgenic plants from single cells. Novel approaches for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts could therefore offer a new and efficient strategy for the development of transgenic oil palm plants. Methodology/Principal Findings We recently achieved the regeneration of healthy and fertile oil palms from protoplasts. Therefore, we focused on the development of a reliable PEG-mediated transformation protocol for oil palm protoplasts by establishing and validating optimal heat shock conditions, concentrations of DNA, PEG and magnesium chloride, and the transfection procedure. We also investigated the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by DNA microinjection and successfully regenerated transgenic microcalli expressing green fluorescent protein as a visible marker to determine the efficiency of transformation. Conclusions/Significance We have established the first successful protocols for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by PEG-mediated transfection and DNA microinjection. These novel protocols allow the rapid and efficient generation of non-chimeric transgenic callus and represent a significant milestone in the use of protoplasts as a starting material for the development of genetically-engineered oil palm plants. PMID:24821306

  4. Multifunctional PEG-carboxylate copolymer coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illés, Erzsébet; Szekeres, Márta; Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Szabó, Ákos; Iván, Béla; Turcu, Rodica; Vékás, Ladislau; Zupkó, István; Jaics, György; Tombácz, Etelka

    2018-04-01

    Biocompatible magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by post-coating the magnetic nanocores with a synthetic polymer designed specifically to shield the particles from non-specific interaction with cells. Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) macromonomers and acrylic acid (AA) small molecular monomers were chemically coupled by quasi-living atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to a comb-like copolymer, P(PEGMA-co-AA) designated here as P(PEGMA-AA). The polymer contains pendant carboxylate moieties near the backbone and PEG side chains. It is able to bind spontaneously to MNPs; stabilize the particles electrostatically via the carboxylate moieties and sterically via the PEG moieties; provide high protein repellency via the structured PEG layer; and anchor bioactive proteins via peptide bond formation with the free carboxylate groups. The presence of the P(PEGMA-AA) coating was verified in XPS experiments. The electrosteric (i.e., combined electrostatic and steric) stabilization is efficient down to pH 4 (at 10 mM ionic strength). Static magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements showed that the P(PEGMA-AA)@MNPs are superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization value of 55 emu/g and that both single core nanoparticles and multicore structures are present in the samples. The multicore components make our product well suited for magnetic hyperthermia applications (SAR values up to 17.44 W/g). In vitro biocompatibility, cell internalization, and magnetic hyperthermia studies demonstrate the excellent theranostic potential of our product.

  5. Development of a behaviour change communication tool for medical students: the 'Tent Pegs' booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Anna; Hart, Jo; Mann, Karen; Peters, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To describe the development and validation of a behaviour change communication tool for medical students. Behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were identified within the literature and used to inform a communication tool to support medical students in discussing health-related behaviour change with patients. BCTs were organized into an accessible format for medical students (the 'Tent Pegs' booklet) and validated using discriminant content validity methods with 11 expert judges. One-sample t-tests showed that judges reliably mapped BCTs onto six of the seven Tent Pegs domains (confidence rating means ranged from 4.0 to 5.1 out of 10, all p≤0.002). Only BCTs within the 'empowering people to change' domain were not significantly different from the value zero (mean confidence rating=1.2, p>0.05); these BCTs were most frequently allocated to the 'addressing thoughts and emotions' domain instead. BCTs within the Tent Pegs booklet are reliably allocated to corresponding behaviour change domains with the exception of those within the 'empowering people to change' domain. The existing evidence-base on BCTs can be used to directly inform development of a communication tool to support medical students facilitate health behaviour change with patients. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of PEG-iron oxide core-shell composite nanoparticles for thermal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wydra, Robert J.; Kruse, Anastasia M. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Bae, Younsoo [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Anderson, Kimberly W. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hilt, J. Zach, E-mail: hilt@engr.uky.edu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In this study, core-shell nanoparticles were developed to achieve thermal therapy that can ablate cancer cells in a remotely controlled manner. The core-shell nanoparticles were prepared using atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to coat iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based polymer shell. The iron oxide core allows for the remote heating of the particles in an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The coating of iron oxide with PEG was verified through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. A thermoablation (55 °C) study was performed on A549 lung carcinoma cells exposed to nanoparticles and over a 10 min AMF exposure. The successful thermoablation of A549 demonstrates the potential use of polymer coated particles for thermal therapy. - Highlights: • Utilized atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to coat iron oxide nanoparticles with PEG • Investigated the surface coating by surface characterization methods • Demonstrated the potential use of nanoparticles for cancer therapy applications.

  7. Effect of MWCNT Filler on Properties and Flux of Chitosan/ PEG based Nanocomposites Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoerunnisa Fitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymer are expected to be environmentally compatible and to have great potential application as membranes material. The chitosan-poly (ethylene glycol/PEG based composite membranes was successfully synthesized via inversed phase method. The effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT as nanofiller on properties and performances of composite membranes were intensively evaluated. The membrane was prepared by mixing of chitosan and PEG solutions at the same composition ratio while MWCNT amount in the mixture was varied. The synthesized membrane was characterized by means of FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, contact angle, and tensile strength measurement. The performance of composite membrane on filtration was evaluated in term of flux (permeability and rejection (rejection tests. The results showed that the optimum volume ratio of composite membrane solution was found at 30:10:7.5 for chitosan/ PEG/ MWCNT, respectively, as indicated by the largest flux. Insertion of MWCNT nanofiller notably enhanced hydrophilicity, porosity, and mechanical properties of composites membranes that are confirmed by contact angle, SEM images and elongation forces value, respectively. The MWCNT nanofiller remarkably increased both of flux and rejection of composite membranes up to 60 Lm2h-1 and 96%, respectively. The remarkable enhancement of composite membrane performance is attributed to the effective interaction of MWCNT with polymeric matrix.

  8. Tailoring Properties of Biocompatible PEG-DMA Hydrogels with UV Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckström, Sania; Benavente, Juana; Berg, Rolf W.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogels are highly water-absorbent hydrophilic polymer networks, which show potential in many biocompatible ap- plications. In previous work, we demonstrated the feasibility of using poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) gels polymerized with a photoinitiator for encapsulation and stab......Hydrogels are highly water-absorbent hydrophilic polymer networks, which show potential in many biocompatible ap- plications. In previous work, we demonstrated the feasibility of using poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) gels polymerized with a photoinitiator for encapsulation....... In this work, we show that the properties of a PEG-DMA hydrogel formed by photoinitiated polymerize- tion can be tailored by varying the photocrosslinking time. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy (RS) showed that the optimal crosslinking time for the gel was 6 - 10 minutes.....